WorldWideScience

Sample records for single major radioactive

  1. Investigation on supervising and monitoring of major radioactive pollution source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yibing; Zhang Zongrang; Men Meng; Zhang Peng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: In order to optimize the supervisory monitoring proposal of the major radioactive enterprises. Methods: The authors have worked out the public doses within the range of 0-1 km as well as 1-2 km through monitoring analysis of the radioactive pollutant enterprises on the samples of its surrounding air, water, soil and organism. Results: Generally the pollutant range of the enterprises runs from 0 to 1.5 km. Conclusion: Unnecessary working hours can be shortened as long as we keep the routine supervisory monitor of pollutant enterprises within the range of 2 km. (authors)

  2. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by ''rare''? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate "1"3"7Cs and gaseous "1"3"1I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted "1"3"7Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"1I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  3. Major unresolved issues preventing a timely resolution to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    GAO surveyed a portion of the literature on radioactive waste management and identified those major issues which could impede the timely and comprehensive removal of obstacles to demonstrating a national radioactive waste disposal program. Presently, U.S. radioactive waste policy goals are unclear in that there is no clear differentiation of management, regulation (licensing), and research, development, and demonstration functions. Decisions on such important issues as regulatory responsibility over radioactive wastes, criteria for radioactive waste form and performance, method of final disposition, and repository site locations must be made, and made soon, in order to assure public health and safety and adequate management of these potentially hazardous materials

  4. Ionization dual-zone static detector having single radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, L. Jr.; Wade, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    This ionization detector or combustion product detector includes a single radioactive source located in an ionization chamber, and the ionization chamber includes portions comprising a reference zone and a signal zone. Electrical circuitry connected to the reference and signal zones provides an output signal directly related to changes in voltages across the signal zone in relation to the amount of particulates of combustion present in the ionization chamber

  5. Innovative concept for a major breakthrough in atmospheric radioactive xenon detection for nuclear explosion monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Petit, G.; Cagniant, A.; Gross, P.; Achim, P.; Douysset, G.; Taffary, T.; Moulin, C.; Morelle, M.

    2013-01-01

    measurements. Major improvements in detection sensitivity have been reached and quantified, especially for metastable radioactive isotopes 131m Xe and 133m Xe with a gain in minimum detectable activity (about 2 x 10 -3 Bq) relative to current CTBT SPALAX TM ark system (air sampling frequency normalized to 8 h) of about 70 and 30 respectively. (author)

  6. Association of Xerostomia and Ultrasonographic Features of the Major Salivary Glands After Radioactive Iodine Ablation for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo Roh, Sang; Wook Kim, Dong; Jin Baek, Hye

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between xerostomia and sonographic features of the major salivary glands after patients undergo radioactive iodine ablation (RIA) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study included 256 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy, RIA, and neck ultrasound examinations. Changes in the ultrasound features of the parotid and submandibular glands after RIA were evaluated retrospectively by a single radiologist, on the basis of direct comparison of sonograms obtained before and after RIA. Clinical data, including the presence of xerostomia, were investigated retrospectively by the same radiologist via a review of the electronic medical records. For 111 of the 256 patients (43.4%), ultrasound examination revealed changes in the major salivary glands after RIA. The presence of xerostomia was undetermined in 85 of the 256 patients. Among the remaining 171 patients, the frequency of xerostomia was 36.8% (63/171). When patients with xerostomia were compared with those without xerostomia, no statistically significant differences in patient sex and age, the dose of RIA received, or the number of RIA sessions were noted (p > 0.05). Considering the changes in the ultrasound features of the major salivary glands after RIA, no statistically significant association was found between xerostomia and the number of involved major salivary glands or the presence of an involved submandibular gland (p > 0.05). In this study, ultrasound was unhelpful for evaluating xerostomia after RIA in patients with PTC.

  7. Management of radioactive waste from a major core damage in a BWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkert, J.; Christensen, H.; Torstenfelt, B.

    1990-01-01

    Large amounts of fission products would be released in case of a major core damage in a nuclear power reactor. In this theoretical study the core damage is caused by a loss of coolant accident followed by a complete loss of all electric power for about 30 minutes resulting in the release of 10% of the core inventory of noble gases. A second case has also been briefly studied, in which the corresponding core damage is supposed to be created merely by the complete loss of electric power during a limited time period. It appears from the study that the radioactive waste generated as a consequence of an accident of the extent can be managed in the reference reactor with only minor modifications required in the waste plant. The detailed results of the study are reactor specific, but many of the findings and recommendations are generally applicable. (author) 28 refs

  8. Major and trace elements regulation in natural granitic waters: Application to deep radioactive waste disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michard, G.; Negrel, G.; Toulhoat, P.; Beaucaire, C.; Ouzounian, G.

    1991-01-01

    In order to forecast the evolution of deep groundwaters in the environment of a radioactive waste disposal, one must be able to understand the behaviour of major and trace elements in natural systems. From granitic geothermal and groundwater systems the authors establish that major elements are controlled by mineral precipitation. Regulation levels depend both on equilibration temperature and mobile anion concentration (mainly C1). From empirical laws, the regulation levels with temperature of some trace elements (alkaline and most divalent) elements can be estimated, although a precise explanation for the regulation mechanism is not yet available. They demonstrate that some transition metals are controlled by sulphide precipitation; that uranium is controlled by uraninite solubility; that trivalent and tetravalent metals are present in association with colloidal particles. Maximum regulation levels can be estimated. Such studies can also be useful to forecast the concentration levels of many elements related to nuclear wastes, mainly fission products, uranium, thorium and by analogy artificial actinide elements, as the behaviour of corresponding natural elements can be evaluated

  9. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelet, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of this book explains the why and how of the radioactivity, with a presentation of the different modes of disintegration. Are tackled the reports between radioactivity and time before explaining how the mass-energy equivalence appears during disintegrations. Two chapters treat natural radioisotopes and artificial ones. This book makes an important part to the use of radioisotopes in medicine (scintigraphy, radiotherapy), in archaeology and earth sciences (dating) before giving an inventory of radioactive products that form in the nuclear power plants. (N.C.)

  10. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  11. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  12. The major regularities of the air radioactive contamination of Belarus territory after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E. F.; Mironov, V. P.; Drugachenok, M. A.; Kudryashov, V.P; Grushevich, L.E; Adamovich, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the first days after the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity of surface air in different regions of Belarus has increased in tens and hundred thousand time. The regular control of air radioactive contamination in the zone of alienation and nearest to it is carried out from the end 1989. The radioactive air monitoring carried out in territories with various contamination density (from 0,2 up to 9,6 MBq/m 2 on Cs-137). The measurements of the Cs-137 contents in ashes of air sampler filters were carried out by gamma - spectrometer ADCAM-300 MCA. The measurement of the Pu-240,239 and Sr-90 contents was carried out by usual radiochemical techniques. The used techniques and equipment allow to define in a sample of the minimal activity: Pu-239,240 - 0,001 Bq, Cs-137 - 0,5 Bq, Sr-90 - 0,1 Bq. The initial contamination of ground happened a near zone within approximately first 2 weeks after accident. Since the end of May, 1986 till present time the air radioactive contamination is formed under action of processes of secondary wind rise and carry of radioactive particles with contaminated territories, which depends from a number factors of both natural and anthropogenous origin. The relations of Pu-238/Pu-239 and Sr-90/Pu-239 in aerosol particles practically coincide with the same relations in fuel blown up reactor. The ratio of Cs-137/Pu-239 activities in aerosols considerably exceeds the resettlement ratio for fuel. Strontium and plutonium are in structure of fuel particles, and cesium aerosol have other origin. The analysis of changes annual radioisotopes concentration in air of towns of Belarus specifies existence of the tendency to slow decrease of contamination of atmosphere by radioisotopes of industrial origins. The basic tendency of formation of air radioactive contamination is determined by the contents of a dust at surface layer of an atmosphere and its specific activity. Annual average dust content of air in a zone resettlement was least and made about 10 mk g

  13. Assessment of natural radioactivity in major building materials of Xiangyang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Tingting; Lu, Xinwei [Shaanxi Normal Univ., Xi' an (China). School of Tourism and Environment

    2014-10-01

    The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in the commonly used building materials collected from Xiangyang were measured using NaI (Tl) gamma spectrometer. The radioactivity values of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in the studied samples ranged from 130.5 to 1006.3, 8.4 to 164.0, and 8.7 to 145.6 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides have been compared with the typical published world values. Radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indexes, external and internal exposure indexes, indoor air absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate have been calculated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with natural radionuclides in the studied materials. The calculated values of all the assessed indices in the analyzed building materials except for fly ash are below the internationally accepted limits indicating that these building materials can be safely used in dwellings construction and do not lead to any significant radiation exposure to occupants. Nevertheless, the annual effective dose rate values of all fly ash samples, external and internal hazard indexes values in most fly ash samples exceed the recommended values. It is, therefore, desirable to regularly monitor the natural radioactivity level of the building materials products made from fly ash.

  14. Assessment of natural radioactivity in major building materials of Xiangyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Tingting; Lu, Xinwei

    2014-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in the commonly used building materials collected from Xiangyang were measured using NaI (Tl) gamma spectrometer. The radioactivity values of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in the studied samples ranged from 130.5 to 1006.3, 8.4 to 164.0, and 8.7 to 145.6 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides have been compared with the typical published world values. Radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indexes, external and internal exposure indexes, indoor air absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate have been calculated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with natural radionuclides in the studied materials. The calculated values of all the assessed indices in the analyzed building materials except for fly ash are below the internationally accepted limits indicating that these building materials can be safely used in dwellings construction and do not lead to any significant radiation exposure to occupants. Nevertheless, the annual effective dose rate values of all fly ash samples, external and internal hazard indexes values in most fly ash samples exceed the recommended values. It is, therefore, desirable to regularly monitor the natural radioactivity level of the building materials products made from fly ash.

  15. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tanks expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. Included with this report is a brief description and approximate compositions of the single-shell tank waste types. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994

  16. A major technological accident: the dispersion of a radioactive cesium - 137 pellet in Goiania, Brazil (1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertzon, C.

    1994-01-01

    This study concerns the accidental dispersion of cesium 137 chloride via an abandoned radiotherapy device in Brazil, in september 1987. Since the accident occurred recently in a confined area and concerned a single radiochemical agent, it was possible to delimit the study parameters in each discipline: post-accident management, physics, medicine, environment, law, psychology, socio-economics and communication. Costs are difficult to evaluate but obviously very important. It is difficult to analyze all consequences. No official has been accused, there were no sentence. The results demonstrate the critical importance of the human factor in technological accidents. (A.L.B.)

  17. A Single IGF1 Allele Is a Major Determinant of Small Size in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Nathan B.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Chase, Kevin; Gray, Melissa M.; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Karlins, Eric; Davis, Sean; Jones, Paul G.; Quignon, Pascale; Johnson, Gary S.; Parker, Heidi G.; Fretwell, Neale; Mosher, Dana S.; Lawler, Dennis F.; Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Nordborg, Magnus; Lark, K. Gordon; Wayne, Robert K.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2009-01-01

    The domestic dog exhibits greater diversity in body size than any other terrestrial vertebrate. We used a strategy that exploits the breed structure of dogs to investigate the genetic basis of size. First, through a genome-wide scan, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 15 influencing size variation within a single breed. Second, we examined genetic variation in the 15-megabase interval surrounding the QTL in small and giant breeds and found marked evidence for a selective sweep spanning a single gene (IGF1), encoding insulin-like growth factor 1. A single IGF1 single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype is common to all small breeds and nearly absent from giant breeds, suggesting that the same causal sequence variant is a major contributor to body size in all small dogs. PMID:17412960

  18. Developing a scarifier to retrieve radioactive waste from Hanford single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Steele, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Radioactive waste is stored in 149 3,785 m 3 (million gal) single-shell tanks on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation in eastern Washington. To minimize leakage as the tanks age, the free liquid has been pumped out, leaving concentrated solidified salt cake and sludge deposits. Now methods to dislodge and remove this waste are being developed so that the waste can be retrieved and processed for permanent storage. This paper presents research and development on ultrahigh-pressure water-jet technology to fracture and dislodge the wastes in these tanks. A water-based prototype scarifier with an integral conveyance system is being developed, and its performance demonstrated in a coupled analytical and experimental investigation. This paper describes experimental objectives and approach and results of the single jet experiments. Previous testing indicates that the method can be readily applied to salt cake waste forms; retrieval and conveyance of sludge and viscous fluid waste forms may present additional challenges

  19. Experience and related research and development in applying corrective measures at the major low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.R.; Mahathy, J.M.; Epler, J.S.; Boing, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1983-07-01

    A review was conducted of experience in responding to problems encountered in shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste and in research and development related to these problems. The operating histories of eleven major disposal facilities were examined. Based on the review, it was apparent that the most effective corrective measures administered were those developed from an understanding of the site conditions which caused the problems. Accordingly, the information in this document has been organized around the major conditions which have caused problems at existing sites. These include: (1) unstable trench cover, (2) permeable trench cover, (3) subsidence, (4) ground water entering trenches, (5) intrusion by deep-rooted plants, (6) intrusion by burrowing animals, and (7) chemical and physical conditions in trench. Because the burial sites are located in regions that differ in climatologic, geologic, hydrologic, and biologic characteristics, there is variation in the severity of problems among the sites and in the nature of information concerning corrective efforts. Conditions associated with water-related problems have received a great deal of attention. For these, corrective measures have ranged from the creation of diversion systems for reducing the contact of surface water with the trench cover to the installation of seals designed to prevent infiltration from reaching the buried waste. On the other hand, corrective measures for conditions of subsidence or of intrusion by burrowing animals have had limited application and are currently under evaluation or are subjects of research and development activities. 50 references, 20 figures, 10 tables

  20. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type Model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristics groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.G.; Anderson, G.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-02-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) Model is a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTS) into groups of tanks expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. The model has identified 24 different waste-type groups encompassing 133 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTS. The remaining 16 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped. according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. A detailed statistical verification study has been conducted that employs analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the core sample analysis data collected since 1989. These data cover eight tanks and five SORWT groups. The verification study showed that these five SORWT groups are highly statistically significant; they represent approximately 10% of the total waste volume and 26% of the total sludge volume in SSTS. Future sampling recommendations based on the SORWT Model results include 32 core samples from 16 tanks and 18 auger samples from six tanks. Combining these data with the existing body of information will form the basis for characterizing 98 SSTs (66%). These 98 SSTs represent 78% of the total waste volume, 61% of the total sludge volume, and 88 % of the salt cake volume

  1. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tank expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994

  2. Single-session treatment of a major complication of dens invaginatus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldari, Mauro; Monaco, Carlo; Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto

    2006-05-01

    Dens invaginatus is a dental malformation that may give rise to several complications. Caries of the invagination can severely weaken the whole tooth, making it susceptible to fracture. Subgingival fractures are major complications threatening tooth survival and usually require periodontal/orthodontic/prosthetic treatment if long-term viability is to be ensured. This article describes a case of single-session restoration of a fractured invaginated tooth by means of endodontic treatment followed by fragment reattachment.

  3. A Single IGF1 Allele Is a Major Determinant of Small Size in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, Nathan B.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Chase, Kevin; Gray, Melissa M.; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Karlins, Eric; Davis, Sean; Jones, Paul G.; Quignon, Pascale; Johnson, Gary S.; Parker, Heidi G.; Fretwell, Neale; Mosher, Dana S.

    2007-01-01

    The domestic dog exhibits greater diversity in body size than any other terrestrial vertebrate. We used a strategy that exploits the breed structure of dogs to investigate the genetic basis of size. First, through a genome-wide scan, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 15 influencing size variation within a single breed. Second, we examined genetic variation in the 15-megabase interval surrounding the QTL in small and giant breeds and found marked evidence for a...

  4. University Students from Single-Sex and Coeducational High Schools: Differences in Majors and Attitudes at a Catholic University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiak, Christie P.; Buchanan, James P.; Hosey, Megan; Smith, Allison

    2007-01-01

    We conducted an archival study at a coeducational Catholic university to test the proposition that single-sex secondary education predicts lasting differences in college majors. Men from single-sex schools were more likely to both declare and graduate in gender-neutral majors than those from coeducational schools. Women from single-sex schools…

  5. Identification of five novel FBN1 mutations by non-radioactive single-strand conformation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.; Qian, C.; Comeau, K.; Francke, U. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS), one of the most common genetic disorders of connective tissue, is characterized by variable manifestations in skeletal, cardiovascular and ocular systems. Mutations in the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15 (FBN1) have been shown to cause MFS. To examine the relationship between FBN1 gene mutations, fibrillin protein function and MFS phenotypes, we screened for alternations in the fibrillin coding sequence in fibroblast derived cDNA from MFS patients. To date, abnormally migrating bands in more than 20 unrelated MFS patients have been identified by using non-radioactive single-strand conformation analysis and silver staining. Five altered bands have been directly sequenced. Two missense mutations and three splice site mutations have been identified. Both missense mutations substitute another amino acid for a cysteine residue (C1402W and C1672R) in EGF-like motifs of the fibrillin polypeptide chain. The two splice site mutations are at nucleotide positions 6994+1 (G{yields}A), and 7205-2 (A{yields}G) and result in in-frame skipping of exon 56 and 58, respectively. Skipping of exon 56 occurs in 50% of mutant transcripts. Use of a cryptic splice site 51 bp upstream of the normal donor site results in half of the mutant transcripts containing part of exon 56. Both products contain in-frame deletions. Another splice site mutation, identified by exon screening from patient genomic DNA using intron primers, is at nucleotide position 2293+2 (T{yields}A), but the predicted exon skipping has not been detected at the RT-PCR level. This may be due to instability of the mutant transcript. Including the mutations reported here, a total of 8 out of 36 published FBN1 gene mutations involve exon skipping. It may be inferred that FBN1 exon skipping plays an important pathogenic role in MFS.

  6. Management of radioactive waste in Belgium: ONDRAF/NIRAS and Belgoprocess as major actors of the waste acceptance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaelen, Gunter van; Verheyen, Annick

    2007-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste in Belgium is undertaken by the national agency for radioactive waste and enriched fissile materials, ONDRAF/NIRAS, and its industrial partner Belgoprocess. ONDRAF/NIRAS has set up a management system designed to guarantee that the general public and the environment are protected against the potential hazards arising from radioactive waste. Belgoprocess is a private company, founded in 1984 and located in Dessel, Belgium. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS and its activities focus on the safe processing and storage of radioactive waste. The management system of ONDRAF/NIRAS includes two aspects: a) an integrated system and b) an acceptance system. The integrated system covers all aspects of management ranging from the origin of waste to its transport, processing, interim storage and long-term management. The safety of radioactive waste management not only depends on the quality of the design and construction of the processing, temporary storage or disposal infrastructure, but also on the quality of the waste accepted by ONDRAF/NIRAS. In order to be manage d safely, both in the short and the long term, the waste transferred to ONDRAF/NIRAS must meet certain specific requirements. To that end, ONDRAF/NIRAS has developed an acceptance system. (authors)

  7. Physical and chemical investigation of water and sediment of the Keban Dam Lake, Turkey. Part 2. Distribution of radioactivity, heavy metals and major elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulahci, F.; Dogru, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thirtynine surface water and 20 deep sediment samples were taken in different locations in Keban Dam Lake (Elazig, Turkey) to identify major sources and assess major elements, heavy metals, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, total alpha- and, total beta-distribution in 2003 and 2004 in four seasons each year. As a preliminary study heavy metal (Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Co), major element (Mg, Ca, Na, K) and radioactivity concentrations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, total-α and total-β in the surface water and deep sediments were determined. (author)

  8. Reassessment and comparison of natural radioactivity levels in relation to granulometric contents of recently excavated major river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasamy, V.; Suresh, G.; Rajkumar, P.; Murugesan, S.; Mullainathan, S.; Meenakshisundaram, V.

    2012-01-01

    River sediment depositions on the bottom of rivers most frequently consist of sand and gravel particles, which make them particularly valuable for the building construction. Knowledge of radioactivity present in building material enables one to assess any possible radiological hazard to mankind by the use of such materials. The natural radionuclide ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) contents have been analyzed for the recently excavated sediment samples of Cauvery, Vellar, Ponnaiyar and Palaru rivers with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard nature. To know the radiological characteristics of the sediment, the different radiological parameters are calculated. Natural radioactivity level is higher in Palaru river and it is lower in Vellar river sediments. In all the rivers, concentration of 238 U is decreased, and concentrations of 232 Th and 40 K are increased towards the river mouth. Granulometric analysis shows that the sand is the main constituent in all the river sediment samples. Content of sand is gradually decreased, and contents of silt and clay are gradually increased towards the river mouth. Cluster analysis was carried out to find the similarity level between the radioactivity and granulometric measurements. The radioactivity level of all the four river sediments mainly depends upon the contents of silt and clay. Averages of the all calculated radiation hazard indices are lower than recommended level in Cauvery, Vellar and Ponnaiyar river sediments. Therefore, the sediment of the above rivers does not pose any significant radiological threat to the population when it is used as a building construction material. (author)

  9. Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in major psychiatric disorders: From basics to clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Amburanjan; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a well-established and reliable method to assess brain function through measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). It can be used to define a patient's pathophysiological status when neurological or psychiatric symptoms cannot be explained by anatomical neuroimaging findings. Though there is ample evidence validating brain SPECT as a technique to track human behavior and correlating psychiatric disorders with dysfunction of specific brain regions, only few psychiatrists have adopted brain SPECT in routine clinical practice. It can be utilized to evaluate the involvement of brain regions in a particular patient, to individualize treatment on basis of SPECT findings, to monitor the treatment response and modify treatment, if necessary. In this article, we have reviewed the available studies in this regard from existing literature and tried to present the evidence for establishing the clinical role of brain SPECT in major psychiatric illnesses

  10. Feelings of worthlessness during a single complicated major depressive episode predict postremission suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J C; Schmitz, M F

    2016-04-01

    To establish which symptoms of major depressive episode (MDE) predict postremission suicide attempts in complicated single-episode cases. Using the nationally representative two-wave National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data set, we identified wave 1 lifetime single-episode MDE cases in which the episode remitted by the beginning of the wave 2 three-year follow-up period (N = 2791). The analytic sample was further limited to 'complicated' cases (N = 1872) known to have elevated suicide attempt rates, defined as having two or more of the following: suicidal ideation, marked role impairment, feeling worthless, psychomotor retardation, and prolonged (>6 months) duration. Logistic regression analyses showed that, after controlling for wave 1 suicide attempt which significantly predicted postremission suicide attempt (OR = 10.0), the additional complicated symptom 'feelings of worthlessness' during the wave 1 index episode significantly and very substantially predicted postremission suicide attempt (OR = 6.96). Neither wave 1 psychomotor retardation nor wave 1 suicidal ideation nor any of the other wave 1 depressive symptoms were significant predictors of wave 2 suicide attempt. Among depressive symptoms during an MDE, feelings of worthlessness is the only significant indicator of elevated risk of suicide attempt after the episode has remitted, beyond previous suicide attempts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshio; Shimizu, Makoto.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of radioactivity in the ocean with marine life are various. Activities in this field, especially the measurements of the radioactivity in sea water and marine life are described. The works first started in Japan concerning nuclear weapon tests. Then the port call to Japan by U.S. nuclear-powered naval ships began. On the other hand, nuclear power generation is advancing with its discharge of warm water. The radioactive pollution of sea water, and hence the contamination of marine life are now major problems. Surveys of the sea areas concerned and study of the radioactivity intake by fishes and others are carried out extensively in Japan. (Mori, K.)

  12. Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posth, Cosimo; Renaud, Gabriel; Mittnik, Alissa; Drucker, Dorothée G; Rougier, Hélène; Cupillard, Christophe; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Furtwängler, Anja; Wißing, Christoph; Francken, Michael; Malina, Maria; Bolus, Michael; Lari, Martina; Gigli, Elena; Capecchi, Giulia; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Beauval, Cédric; Flas, Damien; Germonpré, Mietje; van der Plicht, Johannes; Cottiaux, Richard; Gély, Bernard; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigourescu, Dan; Svoboda, Jiří; Semal, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Bocherens, Hervé; Harvati, Katerina; Conard, Nicholas J; Haak, Wolfgang; Powell, Adam; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    How modern humans dispersed into Eurasia and Australasia, including the number of separate expansions and their timings, is highly debated [1, 2]. Two categories of models are proposed for the dispersal of non-Africans: (1) single dispersal, i.e., a single major diffusion of modern humans across

  13. Dense cranial electroacupuncture stimulation for major depressive disorder--a single-blind, randomized, controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that electroacupuncture possesses therapeutic benefits for depressive disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dense cranial electroacupuncture stimulation (DCEAS could enhance the antidepressant efficacy in the early phase of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: In this single-blind, randomized, controlled study, patients with MDD were randomly assigned to 9-session DCEAS or noninvasive electroacupuncture (n-EA control procedure in combination with fluoxetine (FLX for 3 weeks. Clinical outcomes were measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17, Clinical Global Impression-severity (CGI-S, and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS as well as the response and remission rates. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients were randomly assigned to n-EA (n = 35 and DCEAS (n = 38, of whom 34 in n-EA and 36 in DCEAS group were analyzed. DCEAS-treated patients displayed a significantly greater reduction from baseline in HAMD-17 scores at Day 3 through Day 21 and in SDS scores at Day 3 and Day 21 compared to patients receiving n-EA. DCEAS intervention also produced a higher rate of clinically significant response compared to n-EA procedure (19.4% (7/36 vs. 8.8% (3/34. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: DCEAS is a safe and effective intervention that augments the antidepressant efficacy. It can be considered as an additional therapy in the early phase of SSRI treatment of depressed patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN88008690.

  14. Performance Test Results of a Single-sided Silicon Strip Detector with a Radioactive Source and a Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Y. I.; Kah, D. H.; Son, D. H.; Kang, H. D.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Bae, J. B.; Ryu, S.; Park, H.; Kim, K. R.

    2007-01-01

    Due to high intrinsic precision and high speed properties of a silicon material, the silicon detector has been used in various applications such as medical imaging detector, radiation detector, positioning detectors in space science and experimental particle physics. High technology, modern equipment, and deep expertise are required to design and fabricate good quality of silicon sensors. Only few facilities in the world can develop silicon sensors which meet requirements of sensor performances. That is one of main reasons that the silicon sensor is so expensive and it takes time to purchase the silicon sensor once it is ordered. We designed and fabricated AC-coupled single-sided silicon strip sensors and developed front-end electronics and DAQ system to read out sensor signals. The silicon strip sensors were fabricated on a 5-in. n-type silicon wafer which has an orientation, high resistivity (>5 kΩ · cm) and a thickness of 380 μm. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each channel by using a radioactive source and a 45 MeV proton beam from the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS) in Seoul. We present the measurement results of the SNRs of the silicon strip sensor with a proton beam and radioactive sources

  15. XRF determination of trace and major elements using a single-fused disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.R.; Haukka, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    A new fusion method using lithium metaborate, suitable for the determination of major and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), has proven to be of comparable accuracy to other XRF methods for the ten major rock-forming oxides. The very low dilution allows determination of trace elements with a decrease in sensitivity of about a factor of 2 compared with XRF determination using pressed-powder pellets. A feature of the method is the flexibility of sample preparation allowed: the matrix-correction parameters may be used for a wide range of dilutions (sample/flux ratios), no 'Loss' correction is necessary, and imperfect or inhomogeneous discs may be crushed and pressed pellets made of the glass powder when required. Considerable savings in the time during preparation, analysis and correction of results are possible with current automation because of streamlining procedures

  16. Mixed chimerism following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric thalassemia major patients: a single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ünal İnce

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stable mixed chimerism (MC may result in cure for thalassemia major patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, but rejection can occur. Twenty-eight HSCTs for thalassemia major were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the clinical course of MC with possible risk factors and predictors of outcome, with a median follow-up of 1669 days (811-3576 days. Materials and Methods: Chimerism was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH or multiplex polymerase chain reaction depending on the sex match between the donor and the recipient. Results: Primary rejection, stable MC and full donor chimerism was detected in 3.6%, 17.8% and 78.6% of patients, respectively. Clinically, 4/5 patients with stable MC had thalassemia trait with donor chimerism as low as 14%. One patient was started on pRBC transfusions at 2.5 years postHSCT. Conclusion: Stable MC can result in cure for thalassemia major patients. The clinical picture remains as the best guide for intervention until a more reliable predictor is available.

  17. WHY DO AMERICANS STILL NEED SINGLE-PAYER HEALTH CARE AFTER MAJOR HEALTH REFORM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Many observers have considered the Affordable Care Act (ACA) the most significant health care overhaul since Medicare, in the tradition of Great Society programs. And yet, in opinion polls, Americans across the political spectrum repeatedly express their strong support for Medicare, alongside their disapproval of the ACA. This feature of American public opinion is often seen as a contradiction and often explained as "incoherence," a mere feature of Americans' "muddled mind." In this article I argue that what explains this seeming contradiction is not any peculiarity of Americans' psychology but rather the grip of the corporate class on the political process and on key social institutions (e.g., mass media, judiciary), no less extraordinary today than in the past. I also argue that ordinary Americans, like millions of their counterparts in the world, would eagerly support a single-payer national health program that speaks to their interests rather than to those of the 1 percent. I will describe the ACA, compare it to Medicare, explain the concept of single payer, and conclude that the task is not to persuade presumably recalcitrant Americans to support the ACA but rather to organize a mass movement to struggle for what is right and join the rest of the world in the road toward health justice.

  18. Endocrinopathies in Turkish children with Beta thalassemia major: results from a single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Pamir; Yarali, Nese; Tavil, Betül; Demirel, Fatma; Karacam, Gülşah Bayram; Sac, Rukiye Unsal; Fettah, Ali; Ozkasap, Serdar; Kara, Abdurrahman; Tunc, Bahattin

    2014-10-01

    The endocrinological complications in β-thalassemia major patients do affect the life quality to a large extend. In this study, the endocrinological complications of 47 β-thalassemia patients, who have been followed-up at our hospital's pediatric hematology department, were evaluated. Out of β-thalassemia major cases included to this study, the 55.3% was male and 44.7% was female. The patients' mean levels of ferritin, whose mean age was 10.0 ± 4.5 years (2-20 years), were 2497 ± 1469 ng/mL (472-8558 ng/mL). At least one endocrinological pathology in 27 out of 47 (57.4%) and more than one endocrinological pathology in 14 out of 47 (29.7%) thalassemia patients were observed. The most frequently observed complication in followed-up cases was vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency (78.2%). The other complications in decreasing order were pubertal failure (41.6%), growth retardation (25.5%), decreased bone-mineral density (22.2%), secondary hyperparathyroidism (11.5%), overt hypothyroidism (4.25%), subclinical hypothyroidism (2.12%), and impaired glucose tolerance (2.12%). There was no statistically significant difference between serum mean ferritin level and endocrin complications (P > .05). Four patients (8.5%) had decreased signal intensity in pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but this finding was not associated with ferritin levels (P = .87). MRI parameters were similar between patients with and without gonadal dysfunction. Mean height of the pituitary gland was 4.98 ± 1.1 mm (3-9 mm) and this was similar to those normal values in the literature. Ferritin levels were not correlated with pituitary height (P > .05). Beta thalassemia major, having the potential of leading to multisystemic complications, is a chronic disease that should be treated and followed-up by a multidisciplinary approach. Due to frequently encountered endocrinological complications, beta thalassemic patients should be followed-up regularly by hematology and endocrinology

  19. The Prevalence and Distribution of Spina Bifida in a Single Major Referral Center in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adibah Sahmat

    2017-11-01

    UMMC is as according to international statistics which is in the range of 0.5–10 per 1,000 live births. Majority of the reported cases were males, Malays, full term babies, and of the myelomeningocele phenotype located at the lumbar region.

  20. The Prevalence and Distribution of Spina Bifida in a Single Major Referral Center in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmat, Adibah; Gunasekaran, Renuka; Mohd-Zin, Siti W; Balachandran, Lohis; Thong, Meow-Keong; Engkasan, Julia P; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Omar, Zaliha; Azizi, Abu Bakar; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M

    2017-01-01

    international statistics which is in the range of 0.5-10 per 1,000 live births. Majority of the reported cases were males, Malays, full term babies, and of the myelomeningocele phenotype located at the lumbar region.

  1. Handheld single photon emission computed tomography (handheld SPECT) navigated video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery of computer tomography-guided radioactively marked pulmonary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Joachim; Putora, Paul Martin; Schneider, Tino; Zeisel, Christoph; Brutsche, Martin; Baty, Florent; Markus, Alexander; Kick, Jochen

    2016-09-01

    Radioactive marking can be a valuable extension to minimally invasive surgery. The technique has been clinically applied in procedures involving sentinel lymph nodes, parathyroidectomy as well as interventions in thoracic surgery. Improvements in equipment and techniques allow one to improve the limits. Pulmonary nodules are frequently surgically removed for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons; here video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is the preferred technique. VATS might be impossible with nodules that are small or located deep in the lung. In this study, we examined the clinical application and safety of employing the newly developed handheld single photon emission tomography (handheld SPECT) device in combination with CT-guided radioactive marking of pulmonary nodules. In this pilot study, 10 subjects requiring surgical resection of a pulmonary nodule were included. The technique involved CT-guided marking of the target nodule with a 20-G needle, with subsequent injection of 25-30 MBq (effective: 7-14 MBq) Tc-99m MAA (Macro Albumin Aggregate). Quality control was made with conventional SPECT-CT to confirm the correct localization and exclude possible complications related to the puncture procedure. VATS was subsequently carried out using the handheld SPECT to localize the radioactivity intraoperatively and therefore the target nodule. A 3D virtual image was superimposed on the intraoperative visual image for surgical guidance. In 9 of the 10 subjects, the radioactive application was successfully placed directly in or in the immediate vicinity of the target nodule. The average size of the involved nodules was 9 mm (range 4-15). All successfully marked nodules were subsequently completely excised (R0) using VATS. The procedure was well tolerated. An asymptomatic clinically insignificant pneumothorax occurred in 5 subjects. Two subjects were found to have non-significant discrete haemorrhage in the infiltration canal of the needle. In a single subject, the

  2. Design and implementation of an efficient single layer five input majority voter gate in quantum-dot cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Ali Newaz; Waheed, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental logical element of a quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) circuit is majority voter gate (MV). The efficiency of a QCA circuit is depends on the efficiency of the MV. This paper presents an efficient single layer five-input majority voter gate (MV5). The structure of proposed MV5 is very simple and easy to implement in any logical circuit. This proposed MV5 reduce number of cells and use conventional QCA cells. However, using MV5 a multilayer 1-bit full-adder (FA) is designed. The functional accuracy of the proposed MV5 and FA are confirmed by QCADesigner a well-known QCA layout design and verification tools. Furthermore, the power dissipation of proposed circuits are estimated, which shows that those circuits dissipate extremely small amount of energy and suitable for reversible computing. The simulation outcomes demonstrate the superiority of the proposed circuit.

  3. District file of major risks for the Moselle district: B6 - The nuclear risk; B7 - The risk related to radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    A first document addresses the nuclear risk with some generalities (definition, occurrence, consequences for people and for the environment with an indication of exposure thresholds, presentation of individual safety directives), a discussion of the nuclear risk level in the district (history, contamination threats, preventive actions for the Cattenom nuclear plant, existence of a triple barrier for radioactive product containment, other factors aimed at nuclear safety, urban development control, control of nuclear activities, information, rescue organisation, map of concerned communes). The second document addresses the risk related to radioactive material transport with some generalities (definition, occurrence, consequences for persons and goods, individual safety directive in case of road or railway accident), a more detailed analysis of the risk in the district (situation of the radioactive material transport in the district, risk history, human and environmental stakes, preventive actions, radiation protection safety challenges, safety factors, control of transports, rescue organisation)

  4. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1985-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)

  5. Personality in remitted major depressive disorder with single and recurrent episodes assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Matsuo, Junko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Ishida, Ikki; Nagashima, Anna; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies consistently reported increased harm avoidance (HA) assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, such findings may have been related with depression severity and number of depressive episodes. The aims of the present study were twofold: to examine TCI personality profile in remitted MDD (DSM-IV) patients and to compare TCI personality between MDD patients with single episode (SGL-MDD) and those with recurrent episodes (REC-MDD) in order to elucidate personality profile associated with recurrence. TCI was administered to 86 outpatients with remitted SGL-MDD (12 male and 17 female patients; mean age 43.2 ± 12.1 years) and REC-MDD (26 male and 31 female patients; 40.3 ± 11.6 years), and 529 healthy controls (225 men and 304 women; 43.4 ± 15.5 years), matched for age, sex and education years. Logistic regression analyses were performed in which single/recurrent episodes of depression were the dependent variable and age, sex, age of onset, family history of psychiatric disease and TCI scores were entered as possible predictors. The remitted MDD patients had significantly higher scores on HA (P differences in personality profile between remitted MDD patients and controls, and between remitted REC-MDD and SGL-MDD patients, suggesting that they are trait markers. HA and fatigability might be useful to assess risk for recurrence of depression. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Surface expression, single-channel analysis and membrane topology of recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClafferty Heather

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydial bacteria are obligate intracellular pathogens containing a cysteine-rich porin (Major Outer Membrane Protein, MOMP with important structural and, in many species, immunity-related roles. MOMP forms extensive disulphide bonds with other chlamydial proteins, and is difficult to purify. Leaderless, recombinant MOMPs expressed in E. coli have yet to be refolded from inclusion bodies, and although leadered MOMP can be expressed in E. coli cells, it often misfolds and aggregates. We aimed to improve the surface expression of correctly folded MOMP to investigate the membrane topology of the protein, and provide a system to display native and modified MOMP epitopes. Results C. trachomatis MOMP was expressed on the surface of E. coli cells (including "porin knockout" cells after optimizing leader sequence, temperature and medium composition, and the protein was functionally reconstituted at the single-channel level to confirm it was folded correctly. Recombinant MOMP formed oligomers even in the absence of its 9 cysteine residues, and the unmodified protein also formed inter- and intra-subunit disulphide bonds. Its topology was modeled as a (16-stranded β-barrel, and specific structural predictions were tested by removing each of the four putative surface-exposed loops corresponding to highly immunogenic variable sequence (VS domains, and one or two of the putative transmembrane strands. The deletion of predicted external loops did not prevent folding and incorporation of MOMP into the E. coli outer membrane, in contrast to the removal of predicted transmembrane strands. Conclusions C. trachomatis MOMP was functionally expressed on the surface of E. coli cells under newly optimized conditions. Tests of its predicted membrane topology were consistent with β-barrel oligomers in which major immunogenic regions are displayed on surface-exposed loops. Functional surface expression, coupled with improved understanding of MOMP

  7. A Cross-Reactive Human Single-Chain Antibody for Detection of Major Fish Allergens, Parvalbumins, and Identification of a Major IgE-Binding Epitope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merima Bublin

    Full Text Available Fish allergy is associated with moderate to severe IgE-mediated reactions to the calcium binding parvalbumins present in fish muscle. Allergy to multiple fish species is caused by parvalbumin-specific cross-reactive IgE recognizing conserved epitopes. In this study, we aimed to produce cross-reactive single chain variable fragment (scFv antibodies for the detection of parvalbumins in fish extracts and the identification of IgE epitopes. Parvalbumin-specific phage clones were isolated from the human ETH-2 phage display library by three rounds of biopanning either against cod parvalbumin or by sequential biopanning against cod (Gad m 1, carp (Cyp c 1 and rainbow trout (Onc m 1 parvalbumins. While biopanning against Gad m 1 resulted in the selection of clones specific exclusively for Gad m 1, the second approach resulted in the selection of clones cross-reacting with all three parvalbumins. Two clones, scFv-gco9 recognizing all three parvalbumins, and scFv-goo8 recognizing only Gad m 1 were expressed in the E. coli non-suppressor strain HB2151 and purified from the periplasm. scFv-gco9 showed highly selective binding to parvalbumins in processed fish products such as breaded cod sticks, fried carp and smoked trout in Western blots. In addition, the scFv-gco9-AP produced as alkaline phosphatase fusion protein, allowed a single-step detection of the parvalbumins. In competitive ELISA, scFv-gco9 was able to inhibit binding of IgE from fish allergic patients' sera to all three β-parvalbumins by up to 80%, whereas inhibition by scFv-goo8 was up to 20%. 1H/15N HSQC NMR analysis of the rGad m 1:scFv-gco9 complex showed participation of amino acid residues conserved among these three parvalbumins explaining their cross-reactivity on a molecular level. In this study, we have demonstrated an approach for the selection of cross-reactive parvalbumin-specific antibodies that can be used for allergen detection and for mapping of conserved epitopes.

  8. A Cross-Reactive Human Single-Chain Antibody for Detection of Major Fish Allergens, Parvalbumins, and Identification of a Major IgE-Binding Epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublin, Merima; Kostadinova, Maria; Fuchs, Julian E; Ackerbauer, Daniela; Moraes, Adolfo H; Almeida, Fabio C L; Lengger, Nina; Hafner, Christine; Ebner, Christof; Radauer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R; Valente, Ana Paula; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Fish allergy is associated with moderate to severe IgE-mediated reactions to the calcium binding parvalbumins present in fish muscle. Allergy to multiple fish species is caused by parvalbumin-specific cross-reactive IgE recognizing conserved epitopes. In this study, we aimed to produce cross-reactive single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies for the detection of parvalbumins in fish extracts and the identification of IgE epitopes. Parvalbumin-specific phage clones were isolated from the human ETH-2 phage display library by three rounds of biopanning either against cod parvalbumin or by sequential biopanning against cod (Gad m 1), carp (Cyp c 1) and rainbow trout (Onc m 1) parvalbumins. While biopanning against Gad m 1 resulted in the selection of clones specific exclusively for Gad m 1, the second approach resulted in the selection of clones cross-reacting with all three parvalbumins. Two clones, scFv-gco9 recognizing all three parvalbumins, and scFv-goo8 recognizing only Gad m 1 were expressed in the E. coli non-suppressor strain HB2151 and purified from the periplasm. scFv-gco9 showed highly selective binding to parvalbumins in processed fish products such as breaded cod sticks, fried carp and smoked trout in Western blots. In addition, the scFv-gco9-AP produced as alkaline phosphatase fusion protein, allowed a single-step detection of the parvalbumins. In competitive ELISA, scFv-gco9 was able to inhibit binding of IgE from fish allergic patients' sera to all three β-parvalbumins by up to 80%, whereas inhibition by scFv-goo8 was up to 20%. 1H/15N HSQC NMR analysis of the rGad m 1:scFv-gco9 complex showed participation of amino acid residues conserved among these three parvalbumins explaining their cross-reactivity on a molecular level. In this study, we have demonstrated an approach for the selection of cross-reactive parvalbumin-specific antibodies that can be used for allergen detection and for mapping of conserved epitopes.

  9. Laboratory estimate of the regional shortwave refractive index and single scattering albedo of mineral dust from major sources worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, C.; Formenti, P.; Caponi, L.; Cazaunau, M.; Pangui, E.; Journet, E.; Nowak, S.; Caquineau, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Kandler, K.; Saeed, T.; Piketh, S.; Seibert, D.; Williams, E.; Balkanski, Y.; Doussin, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most abundant aerosol species in the atmosphere and strongly contributes to the global and regional direct radiative effect. Still large uncertainties persist on the magnitude and overall sign of the dust direct effect, where indeed one of the main unknowns is how much mineral dust absorbs light in the shortwave (SW) spectral range. Aerosol absorption is represented both by the imaginary part (k) of the complex refractive index or the single scattering albedo (SSA, i.e. the ratio of the scattering to extinction coefficient). In this study we present a new dataset of SW complex refractive indices and SSA for mineral dust aerosols obtained from in situ measurements in the 4.2 m3 CESAM simulation chamber at LISA (Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques) in Créteil, France. Investigated dust aerosol samples were issued from major desert sources worldwide, including the African Sahara and Sahel, Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Southern Africa, Australia, and the Americas, with differing iron oxides content. Results from the present study provide a regional mapping of the SW absorption by dust and show that the imaginary part of the refractive index largely varies (by up to a factor 6, 0.003-0.02 at 370 nm and 0.001-0.003 at 950 nm) for the different source areas due to the change in the particle iron oxide content. The SSA for dust varies between 0.75-0.90 at 370 nm and 0.95-0.99 at 950 nm, with the largest absorption observed for Sahelian and Australian dust aerosols. Our range of variability for k and SSA is well bracketed by already published literature estimates, but suggests that regional‒dependent values should be used in models. The possible relationship between k and the dust iron oxides content is investigated with the aim of providing a parameterization of the regional‒dependent dust absorption to include in climate models.

  10. Evaluation of autoradiographs and images of biological objects with the electronically operating image analyzer 'Densitron II'. II. Determination of the specific and total radioactivity of single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J; Korn, U; Freyer, K; Ermisch, A [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biowissenschaften; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1976-01-01

    Using the TV image analyzer Densitron, transparencies and areas can be measured by the grey value discrimination method equidensitometry. The time, necessary for one measurement, is approximately 1 min, the standard deviations do not exceed 2%. Microscopical objects such as single cells can be analyzed by this method. Photo-blackings and areas have been measured in autoradiographs of goldfish brain-sections after injection of /sup 3/H-phenylalanine. As a parallel, blacking and area calibration curves were obtained which allowed a conversion of the relative values into absolute ones. Using this conversion method, neurons of different brain regions were in the range from 104 to 1476..mu..m/sup 2/ in area and from 4.17 to 14.43..mu..Ci . cm/sup -3/ in specific radioactivity. The standard deviations of the absolute values were 6 and 4.5%, respectively. On the basis of these and additional values (thickness of section, number of sections per cell), calculations of the total radioactivity of a cell section or the whole cell can be made.

  11. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  12. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  13. Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapelushnik, I.; Sheinfeld, M.; Avida, R.; Kadmon, Y.; Ellenbogen, M.; Tirosh, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System (ARMS) monitors air or ground radioactive contamination. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. The system is based on two major parts, an airborne unit carried by a helicopter and a ground station carried by a truck. The system enables real time measurement and analysis of radioactive plumes as well as post flight processing. The Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator purpose is to create a virtual space where the trained operators experience full radiation field conditions, without real radiation hazard. The ARMS is based on a flying platform and hence the simulator allows a significant reduction of flight time costs

  14. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  15. Introduction of an single nucleodite polymorphism-based "Major Y-chromosome haplogroup typing kit" suitable for predicting the geographical origin of male lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brión, María; Sanchez, Juan J; Balogh, Kinga

    2005-01-01

    . From more than 200 SNPs compiled in the phylogenetic tree published by the Y-Chromosome Consortium, and looking at the population studies previously published, a package of 29 SNPs has been selected for the identification of major population haplogroups. A "Major Y-chromosome haplogroup typing kit" has......The European Consortium "High-throughput analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms for the forensic identification of persons--SNPforID", has performed a selection of candidate Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for making inferences on the geographic origin of an unknown sample...

  16. Using radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The leaflet discusses the following: radioactivity; radioisotopes; uses of ionising radiations; radioactivity from (a) naturally occurring radioactive elements, and (b) artificially produced radioisotopes; uses of radioactivity in medicine, (a) clinical diagnostic, (b) therapeutic (c) sterilization of medical equipment and materials; environmental uses as tracers; industrial applications, e.g. tracers and radiography; ensuring safety. (U.K.)

  17. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  18. A comparison study of single and double layer repositories for high level radioactive wastes within a saturated and discontinuous granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Choi, Jong Won; Bae, Dae Suk

    2004-02-01

    The present study is to analyze and compare a long term thermohydro mechanical interaction behavior of a single layer and a double layer repository for high level radioactive wastes within a saturated and discontinuous granitic rock mass, and then to contribute this understanding to the development of a Korean disposal concept. The model includes a saturated and discontinuous granitic rock mass, PWR spent nuclear fuel in a disposal canister surrounded by compacted bentonite inside a deposition hole, and mixed bentonite backfilled in the rest of the space within a repository cavern. It is assumed that two joint sets exist within the model. Joint set 1 includes joints of 56 .deg. dip angle, spaced at 20 m, and joint set 2 is in the perpendicular direction to joint set 1 and includes joints of .deg. dip angle, spaced at 20 m. The two dimensional distinct element code, UDEC is used for the analysis. To understand the joint behavior adjacent to the repository cavern, Barton-Bandis joint model is used. Effect of the decay heat from PWR spent fuels on the repository model has been analyzed, and a steady state flow algorithm is used for the hydraulic analysis

  19. Radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkina, L.E.; Mazurek, V.; Myascedov, D.N.; Prokhorov, P.; Kachalov, V.A.; Ziv, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radioactive layer in a radioactive source is sealed by the application of a sealing layer on the radioactive layer. The sealing layer can consist of a film of oxide of titanium, tin, zirconium, aluminum, or chromium. Preferably, the sealing layer is pure titanium dioxide. The radioactive layer is embedded in a finish enamel which, in turn, is on a priming enamel which surrounds a substrate

  20. Design and development of food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Bohra, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Radioactivity has been part and parcel of living being since the existence of the earth. It is available everywhere in our environment and being responsible for evolution of life on earth at some extent. However, the radioactivity in excess of the natural radioactive can have harmful effects on living being. The radiation exposure can be of external or internal origin or of both. The main route of internal radiation exposure is through the contaminated food chains. The concentration of natural radioactivity in food varies in range of 40-600 Bq/kg. 40 K being the single major radionuclide of food with typical radioactivity; 50 Bq/kg in milk, 420 Bq/kg in milk powder, 165 Bq/kg in potatoes, and 125 Bq/kg in beef is also the main contributor of natural radiation doses to human being. Measurement of radioactivity in food items and drinks is thus very important in controlling the internal exposure to human being especially in case of nuclear disaster. Though, the methods and techniques for food radioactivity measurement already existing, the need of portable instrument is warranted to measure the radioactivity in food items in raw form. Measurement of radioactivity may help in quick and mass screening of food items in case of nuclear emergencies. Any enhanced level of radioactivity in food items especially in case of nuclear emergency need to be evaluated for controlling its spread and restriction of consumption by the public. This way, it may help in managing internal radioactivity contamination to human being

  1. Radioactivity metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of the radioactivity metrology are reviewed. Radioactivity primary references; absolute methods of radioactivity measurements used in the Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants; relative measurement methods; traceability through international comparisons and interlaboratory tests; production and distribution of secondary standards [fr

  2. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  3. Radioactivity and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, R N [Fertilizer Association of India, New Delhi

    1977-12-01

    Power generation from radioisotopes is one of the major applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and is in practice in over twenty countries including India. Other well-known applications of radioactive substances are in medicine, industry, scientific and industrial research programs, and nuclear weapons. The only serious disadvantage with the radioisotopes and their waste products is the constant release of radiation energy which contaminates the environment and endangers the life. An attempt has been made to identify the major sources of radioactivity in the environment and assess its potential impact on the environment. Recent developments in safety measures for prevention of contamination and control of radioactivity and in radioactive wastes management are also discussed.

  4. Major Complications of Pneumatic Dilation and Heller Myotomy for Achalasia: Single Center Experience and Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kristle L; Pandolfino, John E; Howden, Colin W; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Pneumatic dilation (PD) and laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) can be definitive therapies for achalasia; recent data suggest comparable efficacy. However, risk must also be considered. We reviewed the major complication rate of PD and LHM in a high volume center and reviewed the corresponding literature. Methods We reviewed 12 years of our institution’s achalasia treatment experience. During this interval a consistent technique of PD was used utilizing Rigiflex dilators. Medical records were reviewed for post-procedure complications. We administered a telephone survey and examined medical records to assess efficacy of treatment. We also performed a systematic review of the literature for comparable clinical data and examined 80 reports encompassing 12,494 LHM and PD procedures. Results At our center, 463 achalasia patients underwent 567 PD or LHM procedures. 78% of the PDs used a 30 mm Rigiflex dilator. 157/184 (85%) patients underwent 1 or 2 PD without any subsequent treatment. There were seven clinically significant perforations; one from PD and 6 from LHM. There were no resultant deaths from these perforations; two deaths occurred within 30 days of LHM from unrelated causes. Complications and deaths post-PD were significantly fewer than those post-LHM (p=.02). Conclusions Esophageal perforation from PD at our high-volume center was less common than often reported and lower than that associated with LHM. We conclude that, in the hands of experienced operators using conservative technique, PD has fewer major complications and deaths than LHM. PMID:23032978

  5. Radioactive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  6. Microsatellite and mitochondrial data provide evidence for a single major introduction for the Neartic leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daciana Papura

    Full Text Available Scaphoideus titanus, a leafhopper native to North America and invasive in Europe, is the vector of the Flavescence dorée phytoplasma, the causal agent of the most important form of grapevine yellows in European vineyards. We studied 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a 623 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene in native S. titanus from north-eastern America and introduced European populations, to elucidate the colonization scenario. Consistent with their recent history, invasive European populations were less genetically diverse than American populations for both types of markers, suggesting a recent bottleneck. Significant isolation by distance was detected between American populations but not between European populations. None of the European mitochondrial haplotypes was found in the American vineyards, from which they are assumed to have originated. The precise source of the invasive S. titanus populations therefore remains unclear. Nevertheless, the high heterozygosity of North-East American populations (which contained 92% of the observed alleles suggests that this region is part of the native range of S. titanus. Clustering population genetics analyses with microsatellite and mitochondrial data suggested that European populations originated from a single introduction event. Most of the introduced populations clustered with populations from Long Island, the Atlantic Coast winegrowing region in which Vitis aestivalis occurs.

  7. Single Breath-Hold Physiotherapy Technique; Effective tool for T2* magnetic resonance imaging in young patients with thalassaemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha T. Mevada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging using T2* (MRI T2* is a highly sensitive and non-invasive technique for the detection of tissue iron load. Although the single breath-hold multi-echo T2* technique has been available at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH, Muscat, Oman, since 2006, it could not be performed on younger patients due to their inability to hold their breath after expiration. This study was carried out between May 2007 and May 2015 and assessed 50 SQUH thalassaemic patients aged 7‒17 years old. Seven of these patients underwent baseline and one-year follow-up MRI T2* scans before receiving physiotherapy training. Subsequently, all patients were trained by a physiotherapist to hold their breath for approximately 15‒20 seconds at the end of expiration before undergoing baseline and one-year follow-up MRI T2* scans. Failure rates for the pre- and post-training groups were 6.0% and 42.8%, respectively. These results indicate that the training of thalassaemic patients in breathhold techniques is beneficial and increases rates of compliance for MRI T2* scans.

  8. Major single nucleotide polymorphisms in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a comparative analysis between Thai and other Asian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantaren P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patchima Chantaren1, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk1, Mathurose Ponglikitmongkol2, Montip Tiensuwan3, Somying Promso41Department of Ophthalmology, Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 4Virology and Molecular Microbiology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To investigate the association in a Thai population between the major age-related macular degeneration (AMD susceptibility loci, Y402H and I62V in the complement factor H (CFH and A69S in the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2 genes, and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV.Methods: A case-control study included 97 PCV cases and 102 age- and gender-matched controls without any retinopathy. The genotypic profiles of the three polymorphisms were obtained using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The allelic and genotypic association between the polymorphisms and PCV were compared with those from the compiled data of other Asian populations reported previously.Results: Strong associations between the Y402H, I62V, and A69S polymorphisms and PCV were observed in the present study (P = 0.002, 0.003, and 0.0008 respectively and in the compiled data (P < 0.0001 for all three polymorphisms. The risk allele frequencies of the polymorphisms in PCVs and in controls from the present study (15.0% and 5.4% for Y402H, 71.7% and 57.4% for I62V, and 54.1% and 37.3% for A69S respectively were also comparable with the frequencies from the compiled data (10.3% and 6.4% for Y402H, 75.2% and 58.3% for I62V, and 56.8% and 36.8% for A69S respectively. The genotype distribution for each polymorphism was also comparable in both datasets.Conclusion: The findings of this study support a significant genetic association between the major AMD susceptibility genes and PCV across Asian

  9. The Impact of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in SIGMAR1 on Depressive Symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Laura; Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S; Pae, Chi-Un; Serretti, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    Ample evidence suggested a role of sigma-1 receptor in affective disorders since the interaction of numerous antidepressants with sigma receptors was discovered. A recent study on Japanese subjects found a genetic variant within the encoding gene SIGMAR1 (rs1800866A>C) associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). We aimed to evaluate the same polymorphism in both MDD and bipolar disorder (BD) as well as its relationship to response to treatment with antidepressants and mood stabilizers. A total of 238 MDD patients treated for an acute episode of depression, 132 BD patients in treatment with mood stabilizers for a manic or mixed episode, and 324 controls were genotyped for rs1800866. At discharge, response to treatments was evaluated in MDD and BD patients by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the Young Mania Rating Score (YMRS), respectively. In our Korean sample, allele frequencies were different from those reported in other Asian and non-Asian populations. The CC genotype was associated with BD and, as a trend, with MDD. No significant effect was observed on response to antidepressants in MDD or mood stabilizers in BD, although the CC genotype was more frequent among BD patients experiencing a mixed episode. The present findings are the first to propose the putative role of genetic variants within SIGMAR1 and sigma-1 receptor in BD. Sigma-1 receptor can modulate a number of central neurotransmitter systems as well as some other signaling pathways (e.g., neurotrophin and growth factor signaling) which are seemingly involved in BD and other mood disorders.

  10. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in major and candidate genes for production traits in Nero Siciliano pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zumbo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nero Siciliano (NS; Sicilian Black is a local pig breed reared on the island of Sicily mainly under extensive management.The breed is well adapted to marginal conditions and is appreciated for its reproductive performance, disease resistanceand production of tasty meat. For a genetic characterization of this breed we analyzed the allele frequencies of singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in eight major or candidate genes (ryanodine receptor 1, RYR1; Na+, K+ ATPase subunitα 2, ATP1A2; myosin heavy chain 2B, MYH4; sarcolipin, SLN; cathepsin B, CTSB; cystatin B, CSTB; estrogen receptor,ESR; melanocortin receptor 1, MC1R for performance and phenotypic traits. The animals that were sampled andanalyzed represent about 6-8% of the total NS pig population. PCR-RFLP or PCR-SSCP techniques were used to type theDNA markers in the selected loci. Exact test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was computed for each locus, Fis statisticsand heterozygosity were calculated for each locus and over all loci. Allele frequencies obtained in NS breed were comparedto the frequencies already available in literature for the Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Belgian Landrace, Piétrain,Hampshire and Meishan breeds. For the ESR locus, as no information on the distribution of the two alleles were available,we typed a sample of unrelated pigs from the considered breeds.Even if only eight loci were studied in NS breed, important elements were obtained from the data. The 1843T (n alleleat the RYR1 locus is present in NS breed, thus the molecular test to identify the carriers of this allele should be adoptedto avoid its spreading in the population. Moreover, other studies are needed to clarify the allelic structure of the MC1Rgene, which affects coat color, in order to evaluate if this gene could be used in genetic tests for the traceability of themeat products of this breed. Finally, the present work represents an attempt to evaluate data on mutations within majorand candidate genes

  11. Advance in radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J. A.; Farrera V, R.

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to determine if the application of the Na hypochlorite has some utility in the radioactive decontamination, in comparison with the water, detergent and alcohol. Several methods were compared for decontaminate the iodine 131 and technetium 99, the work table and the skin it was carried out an initial count with the Geiger Muller. Later on, in a single occasion, the areas were washed with abundant water, alcohol, clothes detergent and sodium hypochlorite (used commercially as domestic bleacher) without diluting. Observing that the percentage in the decrease of the counted radioactivity by the Geiger Muller, decreased in the following way: It was demonstrated that the Na hypochlorite presents the highest index of radioactive decontamination with 100% of effectiveness. The Na hypochlorite is an excellent substance that can be used with effectiveness and efficiency like decontamination element in the accident cases of radioactive contamination in the clinical laboratories of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  12. Radioactive Waste Management Program Activities in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of radioactive waste management in Croatia comprises three major areas: management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW), spent fuel management and decommissioning. All the work regarding radioactive waste management program is coordinated by Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) and Croatian Power Utility (HEP) in cooperation with other relevant institutions. Since the majority of work has been done in developing low and intermediate level radioactive waste management program, the paper will focus on this part of radioactive waste management, mainly on issues of site selection and characterization, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance. A short description of national radioactive waste management infrastructure will also be presented. (author)

  13. New radioactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.; Sandulescu, A.

    1996-01-01

    Some atomic nuclei reorganize their structure by ejection of big protons and neutrons aggregates. The observation of these new radioactivities specifies the theories of the nuclear dynamics. (authors)

  14. Radioactivity Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.; Browne, E.

    1985-01-01

    The Radioactivity Handbook will be published in 1985. This handbook is intended primarily for applied users of nuclear data. It will contain recommended radiation data for all radioactive isotopes. Pages from the Radioactivity Handbook for A = 221 are shown as examples. These have been produced from the LBL Isotopes Project extended ENDSF data-base. The skeleton schemes have been manually updated from the Table of Isotopes and the tabular data are prepared using UNIX with a phototypesetter. Some of the features of the Radioactivity Handbook are discussed here

  15. Should continuous rather than single-injection interscalene block be routinely offered for major shoulder surgery? A meta-analysis of the analgesic and side-effects profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobeichik, L; Brull, R; Bowry, R; Laffey, J G; Abdallah, F W

    2018-04-01

    Major shoulder surgery is associated with moderate-to-severe pain, but consensus on the optimal analgesic approach is lacking. Continuous catheter-based interscalene block (CISB) prolongs the analgesic benefits of its single-injection counterpart (SISB), but concerns over CISB complications and difficulties in interpreting comparative evidence examining major and minor shoulder procedures simultaneously, despite their differences in postoperative pain, have limited CISB popularity. This meta-analysis evaluates the CISB analgesic role and complications compared with SISB for major shoulder surgery. We retrieved randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of CISB to SISB on analgesic outcomes and side-effects after major shoulder surgery. Postoperative opioid consumption at 24 h was designated as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included 24-48 h opioid consumption, postoperative rest and dynamic pain scores up to 72 h, time-to-first analgesic, recovery room and hospital stay durations, patient satisfaction, postoperative nausea and vomiting, respiratory function, and block-related complications. Data from 15 RCTs were pooled using random-effects modelling. Compared with SISB, CISB reduced 24- and 48-h oral morphine consumption by a weighted mean difference [95% confidence interval] of 50.9 mg [-81.6, -20.2], (P=0.001) and 44.7 mg [-80.9, -8.7], (Pshoulder surgery, without increasing side-effects, compared with SISB. The importance of CISB-related changes in respiratory indices is questionable. Copyright © 2017 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.; Bimbot, R.

    1997-01-01

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  17. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  18. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The widely published claims that the public health effects resulting from routine emissions are between 0.01 and 0.1 serious health effects per gigawattyear, and hence are at least a thousand times smaller than those resulting from air pollution by the burning of coal, cannot be true, for two reasons. The authors of these claims have ignored at least two of the more important isotopes, radon-222 and carbon-14, which are presently released to the environment, and thus contribute greatly to the health impact of nuclear energy. The health effects calculated in the earlier work cover only those which occur during the year in which the energy is generated. This means, figuratively speaking, that the authors have confused an annual installment payment with the full cost. This is unacceptable. The contribution to the health impact of nuclear energy arising from the single isotopic species radon-222 emanating from the mill tailings is estimated to 400 lung cancer deaths/GW(e)y, larger even than the most pessimistic estimates of the health impact of energy from coal through atmospheric pollution. We have no assurance that other long-lived isotopes do not contribute comparable amounts to the health impact of nuclear energy. The discussion of the health impact of radon-222 raises the fundamental moral question--how far into the future our responsibility extends. If such a long-termresponsibility is rejected, then we must at least try to predict the environmental buildup of radioactive pollutants, in order to avoid unacceptable and irreversible levels of radiation dose rate. The potential health consequences from long-lived radioisotopes seem to have been largely ignored so far, and should be explored in detail

  19. Simulated Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  20. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  1. Assessment of changes in regional cerebral blood flow in patients with major depression using the 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission tomography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, K.; Kapucu, Oe.; Erbas, B.; Varoglu, E.; Guelec, C.; Bekdik, C.F.; Hacettepe Univ., Ankara

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was investigated in 14 patients with major depression diagnosed according to the DSM-III-R criteria (six patients with single and eight patients with recurrent episodes) and in ten healthy volunteers. The mean ages of the patients and the controls were 33.5±2.7 and 31.6±2.6 years, respectively. The severity of the depression was assessed using the 17-item Hamiltonian Depression Scale (mean: 23.2±1.5). None of the patients was under medication. After administration of 500 MBq technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime, a single photon emission tomography study was performed and then transaxial, sagittal and coronal slices were obtained. For the semiquantitative analysis of the data, the ratios of the mean counts/pixel to the whole slice were calculated for 24 regions on three consecutive transaxial slices in the orbitomeatal plane. Additionally, left/right and frontal/occipital ratios were calculated. Both sides of the temporal region had a significantly decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) when compared to the controls. The left/right ratio of the prefrontal region was also significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. The Hamilton score had a negative correlation with blood flow in the anterofrontal and left prefrontal regions. According to our results, regional CBF seems to be decreased in the left prefrontal and in both temporal regions in major depression. The severity of depression is correlated with the reduction in CBF in the regions of the anterofrontal and left prefrontal cortex. (orig.)

  2. Early relapse after single auto-SCT for multiple myeloma is a major predictor of survival in the era of novel agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Zepeda, V H; Reece, D E; Trudel, S; Chen, C; Tiedemann, R; Kukreti, V

    2015-02-01

    The role of auto-SCT in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) in the era of novel agents continues to evolve. It is now clear that the depth of response and clinical outcomes have significantly improved as a result of the combination of these strategies. However, not all patients with MM who undergo auto-SCT are able to sustain a meaningful response and 20% of patients relapse shortly after auto-SCT. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of early relapse (ER) after auto-SCT on OS for MM patients undergoing single auto-SCT who had received novel agent-based induction regimens. All consecutive patients with MM undergoing single auto-SCT from January 2002 to September 2012 who had novel induction therapy were evaluated. A total of 184 patients were identified. The median OS and PFS for the group of transplanted patients were 93 and 25.4 months, respectively. Median time to relapse was 17.2 months with 40% having relapsed at the time of analysis. ER (SCT) was seen in 27 (36%) out of 75 patients who had relapsed, and median OS was significantly shorter than in those with non-ER. Multivariate analysis showed ER as the major independent prognostic factor for OS. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that not only attainment of a good response, but sustainability of it, appears to be a major prognostic variable in MM in the era of novel therapy. Patients with ER post auto-SCT should biologically be characterized in prospective studies to better understand the mechanisms of resistance associated with this particular entity.

  3. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  4. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, many individual values for radioactivity in the air, in foodstuffs and in the soil were measured and published. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steiner, Wiesbaden, the author of this paper, evaluated the host of data - mostly official pollution data -, drew conclusions regarding the radioactivity actually released at Chernobyl, and used the data to test the calculation model adotped by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./RB) [de

  5. The French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaunet, P.

    2010-01-01

    After Chernobyl accident in 1986, the government began to implement mechanisms to ensure the quality of measurements of environmental radioactivity and to assure the transparency of information on environmental radioactivity monitoring results. Within this context, the French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (RNM), is created in 2002 under the Public Health Code. This network is developed under the auspices of ASN in collaboration with IRSN and in partnership with government departments, major nuclear licensees, health agencies and environmental protection associations. In order to centralize information on environmental radioactivity and to provide access to measurement results, a single database that includes an the results of measurements of radioactivity in the environment on the national territory is build and a new web-site www.mesure-radioactivite.fr is launched. It provides quick and easy access to this database. The quality of measurements is performed by a laboratory system through an ASN decision. Novel initiative in Europe, the French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity web-site gives the user keys to understand the measurement results on the radiological state of the environment. The site will be improved over the time taking into account the feedback of the users. (author)

  6. Three-Year Major Clinical Outcomes of Angiography-Guided Single Stenting Technique in Non-Complex Left Main Coronary Artery Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Her, Ae-Young; Rha, Seung-Woon; Choi, Byoung Geol; Shim, Minsuk; Choi, Se Yeon; Byun, Jae Kyeong; Li, Hu; Kim, Woohyeun; Kang, Jun Hyuk; Choi, Jah Yeon; Park, Eun Jin; Park, Sung Hun; Lee, Sunki; Na, Jin Oh; Choi, Cheol Ung; Lim, Hong Euy; Kim, Eung Ju; Park, Chang Gyu; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo

    2017-10-12

    There is limited long-term comparative clinical outcome data concerning angiography- versus intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in non-complex left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease treated with the single stenting technique in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era.The aim of this study was to investigate whether angiography-guided stenting is comparable to IVUS-guided stenting during 3-year clinical follow-up periods in patients with non-complex LM disease treated with the single stenting technique.A total of 196 patients treated with either angiography-guided (n = 74) or IVUS-guided (n = 122) PCI were included. The primary outcome was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as total death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and non-target vessel revascularization (Non-TVR). To adjust for any potential confounders, propensity score (PS) adjusted analysis was performed.During 3-year follow-up, the PS adjusted Cox-proportional hazard ratio (HR) was not significantly different between the two groups for total death, cardiac death, and MI. Also, TLR and the combined rates of TVR and non-TVR were not significantly different. Finally, MACE was not significantly different between the two groups (HR: 0.63, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.33-1.17; P = 0.149).Angiography-guided PCI for non-complex LMCA diseases treated with the single stenting technique showed comparable results compared with IVUS-guided PCI in reducing clinical events during 3-year clinical follow-up in the DES era. Although IVUS guided PCI is the ideal strategy, angiography-guided PCI can be an option for LMCA PCI in some selected cases.

  7. Association of a specific major histocompatibility complex class IIβ single nucleotide polymorphism with resistance to lactococcosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, S; Prearo, M; Bertuzzi, S A; Scanzio, T; Peletto, S; Favaro, L; Modesto, P; Maniaci, M G; Ru, G; Desiato, R; Acutis, P L

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci encode glycoproteins that bind to foreign peptides and initiate immune responses through their interaction with T cells. MHC class II molecules are heterodimers consisting of α and β chains encoded by extremely variable genes; variation in exon 2 is responsible for the majority of observed polymorphisms, mostly concentrated in the codons specifying the peptide-binding region. Lactococcus garvieae is the causative agent of lactococcosis, a warm-water bacterial infection pathogenic for cultured freshwater and marine fish. It causes considerable economic losses, limiting the profitability and development of fish industries in general and the intensive production of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in particular. The disease is currently controlled with vaccines and antibiotics; however, vaccines have short-term efficacy, and increasing concerns regarding antibiotic residues have called for alternative strategies. To explore the involvement of the MHC class II β-1 domain as a candidate gene for resistance to lactococcosis, we exposed 400 rainbow trout to naturally contaminated water. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and one haplotype were associated with resistance (P trout resistant to lactococcosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Single i.v. ketamine augmentation of newly initiated escitalopram for major depression: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled 4-week study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y-D; Xiang, Y-T; Fang, J-X; Zu, S; Sha, S; Shi, H; Ungvari, G S; Correll, C U; Chiu, H F K; Xue, Y; Tian, T-F; Wu, A-S; Ma, X; Wang, G

    2016-02-01

    While oral antidepressants reach efficacy after weeks, single-dose intravenous (i.v.) ketamine has rapid, yet time-limited antidepressant effects. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram in major depressive disorder (MDD). Thirty outpatients with severe MDD (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score ⩾ 24) were randomized to 4 weeks double-blind treatment with escitalopram 10 mg/day+single-dose i.v. ketamine (0.5 mg/kg over 40 min) or escitalopram 10 mg/day + placebo (0.9% i.v. saline). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Report (QIDS-SR). Suicidal ideation was evaluated with the QIDS-SR item 12. Adverse psychopathological effects were measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)-positive symptoms, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS). Patients were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 4, 24 and 72 h and 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Time to response (⩾ 50% MADRS score reduction) was the primary outcome. By 4 weeks, more escitalopram + ketamine-treated than escitalopram + placebo-treated patients responded (92.3% v. 57.1%, p = 0.04) and remitted (76.9% v. 14.3%, p = 0.001), with significantly shorter time to response [hazard ratio (HR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.22, p escitalopram + placebo, escitalopram + ketamine was associated with significantly lower MADRS scores from 2 h to 2 weeks [(peak = 3 days-2 weeks; effect size (ES) = 1.08-1.18)], QIDS-SR scores from 2 h to 2 weeks (maximum ES = 1.27), and QIDS-SR suicidality from 2 to 72 h (maximum ES = 2.24). Only YMRS scores increased significantly with ketamine augmentation (1 and 2 h), without significant BPRS or CADSS elevation. Single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram was safe and effective in severe MDD, holding promise for speeding up

  9. Image findings of a false positive radioactive iodine-131 uptake mimicking metastasis in pulmonary aspergillosis identified on single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaleshwaran Koramadai Karuppusamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High doses of iodine-131 are commonly used in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after total or subtotal thyroidectomy, in order to ablate the remaining cancer or normal thyroid tissue. Multiple different false-positive scans can occur in the absence of residual thyroid tissue or metastases. The authors present a case of abnormal uptake of radioactive iodine in the aspergilloma, potentially masquerading as pulmonary metastases.

  10. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  11. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Managing radioactive wastes used to be a peripheral activity for the French atomic energy commission (Cea). Over the past 40 years, it has become a full-fledged phase in the fuel cycle of producing electricity from the atom. In 2005, the national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) presented to the government a comprehensive overview of the results drawn from 15 years of research. This landmark report has received recognition beyond France's borders. By broadening this agency's powers, an act of 28 June 2006 acknowledges the progress made and the quality of the results. It also sets an objective for the coming years: work out solutions for managing all forms of radioactive wastes. The possibility of recovering wastes packages from the disposal site must be assured as it was asked by the government in 1998. The next step will be the official demand for the creation of a geological disposal site in 2016

  12. Identification of haplotype tag single nucleotide polymorphisms within the nuclear factor-κB family genes and their clinical relevance in patients with major trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Zhang, An Qiang; Gu, Wei; Gao, Jun Wei; Du, Ding Yuan; Zhang, Lian Yang; Zeng, Ling; Du, Juan; Wang, Hai Yan; Jiang, Jian Xin

    2015-03-20

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family plays an important role in the development of sepsis in critically ill patients. Although several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the NF-κB family genes, only a few SNPs have been studied. A total of 753 patients with major blunt trauma were included in this study. Tag SNPs (tSNPs) were selected from the NF-κB family genes (NFKB1, NFKB2, RELA, RELB and REL) through construction of haplotype blocks. The SNPs selected from genes within the canonical NF-κB pathway (including NFKB1, RELA and REL), which played a critical role in innate immune responses were genotyped using pyrosequencing method and analyzed in relation to the risk of development of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) syndrome. Moreover, the rs842647 polymorphism was analyzed in relation to tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production by peripheral blood leukocytes in response to bacterial lipoprotein stimulation. Eight SNPs (rs28362491, rs3774932, rs4648068, rs7119750, rs4803789, rs12609547, rs1560725 and rs842647) were selected from the NF-κB family genes. All of them were shown to be high-frequency SNPs in this study cohort. Four SNPs (rs28362491, rs4648068, rs7119750 and rs842647) within the canonical NF-κB pathway were genotyped, and rs842647 was associated with sepsis morbidity rate and MOD scores. An association was also observed between the rs842647 A allele and lower TNF-α production. rs842647 polymorphism might be used as relevant risk estimate for the development of sepsis and MOD syndrome in patients with major trauma.

  13. Radioactive sources in brachytherapy:

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Janez

    2003-01-01

    Background. In modern brachytherapy, a greast step forward was made in the 1960s in France with the introduction of new radioactive isotopes and new techniques. These innovations spread rapidly across Europe, though no single dosimetry standard had been set by then. In the new millennium, the advances in brachytherapy are further stimulated by the introduction of 3-D imaging techniques and the latest after loading irradiation equipment that use point sources. The international organiyation IC...

  14. Radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, R.F.; Lazerson, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A problem with ore sorting arrangements is that radiation is difficult to measure accurately while particles are moving at speed past the detector. This is particulary so when dealing with ores such as gold ores which have weak emissions. A method of measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material includes the steps of shielding the radiation detector(s) so that the angle of acceptance of the receptor surface is restricted, and further shielding the shielded portion of the detector with a second material which is less radiation emissive than the material of the first shield. This second shield is between the first shield and the detector

  15. Effects of natural radioactivity on food radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennyu, Atsuhito

    2012-01-01

    Since the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Company, groups and individuals including local governments, food manufacturers, distribution circles, retail circles, and citizens are eager to measure the radioactivity of food, in order to confirm the safety of food from the concerns about radioactive contamination. The measurement of radioactivity of food is done by quantitatively determining gamma rays due to radioactive cesium that was incorporated into the biosphere cycle after having been released into the environment. As for the radioactivity measurement of food using gamma-ray spectrometry with a potassium iodide scintillation detector, which is very commonly used, this paper describes the handling method of obtained data, the principle of erroneous detection of radioactive cesium and iodine interrupted by natural radionuclides, and countermeasures for it. Major natural radioactivity sources are uranium series and thorium series. This paper explains gamma rays, which are characteristic in the decay process of uranium series and often affect the measurement of radioactive cesium in food and water. (O.A.)

  16. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.

    1986-01-01

    This is an overview of radioactivity monitoring work done in the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in the wake of the Chernobyl accident. It consists of air, rainwater, food and personnel monitoring. Additional services to the public are: information and development of a database and a computer code for predicting future radionuclide concentration in air, soil, water and food. (G.Q.)

  18. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  19. Single Strand Annealing Plays a Major Role in RecA-Independent Recombination between Repeated Sequences in the Radioresistant Deinococcus radiodurans Bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solenne Ithurbide

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is one of the most radioresistant organisms known. It is able to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Our work aims to highlight the genes involved in recombination between 438 bp direct repeats separated by intervening sequences of various lengths ranging from 1,479 bp to 10,500 bp to restore a functional tetA gene in the presence or absence of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. The frequency of spontaneous deletion events between the chromosomal direct repeats were the same in recA+ and in ΔrecA, ΔrecF, and ΔrecO bacteria, whereas recombination between chromosomal and plasmid DNA was shown to be strictly dependent on the RecA and RecF proteins. The presence of mutations in one of the repeated sequence reduced, in a MutS-dependent manner, the frequency of the deletion events. The distance between the repeats did not influence the frequencies of deletion events in recA+ as well in ΔrecA bacteria. The absence of the UvrD protein stimulated the recombination between the direct repeats whereas the absence of the DdrB protein, previously shown to be involved in DNA double strand break repair through a single strand annealing (SSA pathway, strongly reduces the frequency of RecA- (and RecO- independent deletions events. The absence of the DdrB protein also increased the lethal sectoring of cells devoid of RecA or RecO protein. γ-irradiation of recA+ cells increased about 10-fold the frequencies of the deletion events, but at a lesser extend in cells devoid of the DdrB protein. Altogether, our results suggest a major role of single strand annealing in DNA repeat deletion events in bacteria devoid of the RecA protein, and also in recA+ bacteria exposed to ionizing radiation.

  20. Characterization of the Major Purine and Pyrimidine Adducts Formed after Incubations of 1-Chloro-3-buten-2-one with Single-/Double-Stranded DNA and Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling-Yan; Zheng, Jin; Kong, Cong; An, Jing; Yu, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2017-02-20

    We have previously shown that 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO), a potential reactive metabolite of 1,3-butadiene (BD), exhibits potent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity that have been attributed in part to its reactivity toward DNA. In an effort to identify the DNA adducts of CBO, we characterized the CBO reactions with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG), 2'-deoxycytidine (dC), and 2'-deoxyadenosine (dA) under in vitro physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37 °C). In the present study, we investigated the CBO reaction with 2'-deoxythymidine (dT) and compared the rate constants of the reactions of CBO with dA, dC, dG, and dT at both individual- and mixed-nucleosides levels. We also investigated the reactions of CBO with single- and double-stranded DNA using HPLC with UV detection after adducts were released by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA. Consistent with the results from the nucleoside reactions and the rate constant experiments, 1,N 6 -(1-hydroxy-1-chloromethylpropan-1,3-diyl)adenine (A-2D) was identified as the major DNA adduct detected after acid hydrolysis, followed by N7-(4-chloro-3-oxobutyl)guanine (CG-2H) and a small amount of 1,N 6 -(1-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)adenine (A-1D). After enzymatic hydrolysis, 1,N 6 -(1-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-dexoyadenosine (dA-1), 3,N 4 -(1-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-deoxycytidine (dC-1/2), and 1,N 2 -(3-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-dexoyguanosine (CG-1) were detected, with dA-1 being the major product, followed by dC-1/2. When a nontoxic concentration of CBO (1 μM) was incubated with HepG2 cells, no adducts could be detected by LC-MS. However, pretreatment of cells with l-buthionine sulfoximine to deplete GSH levels allowed A-2D to be consistently detected in cellular DNA. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the role of the DNA adducts in CBO genotoxicity and mutagenicity. It also suggests that A-2D could be developed as a biomarker of CBO formation

  1. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  2. A technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography study in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutus, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey); Kibar, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cukurova University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey); Sofuoglu, S.; Basturk, M.; Goenuel, A.S. [Department of Psychiatry, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey)

    1998-06-01

    We have not encountered any brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) study performed in adolescent depressed patients in the literature. Therefore, we used technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) brain SPET in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) to examine the possible changes in cerebral perfusion and the possible association between perfusion indices and clinical variables. Fourteen adolescent out-patients (nine females, five males; mean{+-}SD age: 13.11{+-}1.43 years; range: 11-15 years) fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for MDD and 11 age-matched healthy control subjects (six females, five males; mean{+-}SD age: 13.80{+-}1.60 years; range: 12-15 years) were included in the study. {sup 99}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET was performed twice in the patient group and once in the control group. The first SPET investigation was performed under non-medicated conditions and the second was performed after depressive symptoms had subsided. A relative perfusion index (PI) was calculated as the ratio of regional cortical activity to the whole brain activity. We found significant differences between the PI values of the untreated depressed patients and those of the controls, indicating relatively reduced perfusion in the left anterofrontal and left temporal cortical areas. No significant differences in regional PI values were found between the remitted depressed patients and the controls. Our study suggests that adolescent patients with MDD may have regional cerebral blood flow deficits in frontal regions and a greater anterofrontal right-left perfusion asymmetry compared with normal subjects. The fact that these abnormalities in perfusion indices have a trend toward normal values with symptomatic improvement suggests that they may be state-dependent markers for adolescent MDD. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 37 refs.

  3. A technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography study in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutus, A.; Kibar, M.; Sofuoglu, S.; Basturk, M.; Goenuel, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    We have not encountered any brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) study performed in adolescent depressed patients in the literature. Therefore, we used technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) brain SPET in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) to examine the possible changes in cerebral perfusion and the possible association between perfusion indices and clinical variables. Fourteen adolescent out-patients (nine females, five males; mean±SD age: 13.11±1.43 years; range: 11-15 years) fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for MDD and 11 age-matched healthy control subjects (six females, five males; mean±SD age: 13.80±1.60 years; range: 12-15 years) were included in the study. 99 Tc-HMPAO brain SPET was performed twice in the patient group and once in the control group. The first SPET investigation was performed under non-medicated conditions and the second was performed after depressive symptoms had subsided. A relative perfusion index (PI) was calculated as the ratio of regional cortical activity to the whole brain activity. We found significant differences between the PI values of the untreated depressed patients and those of the controls, indicating relatively reduced perfusion in the left anterofrontal and left temporal cortical areas. No significant differences in regional PI values were found between the remitted depressed patients and the controls. Our study suggests that adolescent patients with MDD may have regional cerebral blood flow deficits in frontal regions and a greater anterofrontal right-left perfusion asymmetry compared with normal subjects. The fact that these abnormalities in perfusion indices have a trend toward normal values with symptomatic improvement suggests that they may be state-dependent markers for adolescent MDD. (orig.)

  4. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food-on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods. 14 refs, 4 tabs

  5. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods

  6. Radioactivity in foodstuffs 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The average intake of radioactivity via foodstuffs remained relatively constant at about 10000 Bq per annum during the entire period elapsing since the Chernobyl accident. However, the dose received by especially exposed population groups has been considerably higher. In particular, the intake of radioactivity through the consumption of reindeer meat and freshwater fish has been high among certain groups (hunters and angler, and Sami reindeer herdsmen in southern and mid-Norway). Studies show that their dietary radionuclide exposure was highest during the second year post Cernobyl. The existing intervention levels were also applied in 1989. These are, with the exception of the limit of 6000 Bq/kg for reindeer meat, game meat and freshwater fish, identical with the maximum levels laid down by the EC. The present report reviews the data concerning radioactivity levels in dairy products, meat and fish recorded during 1989. Overall, it may be concluded that levels were considerable lower than the previous year. An important reason for this was the almost complete absence, in outlying pastures, of various types of fungi eaten by grazing livestock, such fungi being a major source of radioactivity. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Radioactivity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J.; Kuczera, B.

    2001-05-01

    The terms radioactivity and nuclear energy, which have become words causing irritation in the political sphere, actually represent nothing but a large potential for innovative exploitation of natural resources. The contributions to this publication of the Karlsruhe Research Center examine more closely three major aspects of radioactivity and nuclear energy. The first paper highlights steps in the history of the discovery of radioactivity in the natural environment and presents the state of the art in health physics and research into the effects of exposure of the population to natural or artificial radionuclides. Following contributions focus on: Radiochemical methods applied in the medical sciences (diagnostic methods and devices, therapy). Nuclear energy and electricity generation, and the related safety policies, are an important subject. In this context, the approaches and pathways taken in the field of nuclear science and technology are reported and discussed from the angle of nuclear safety science, and current trends are shown in the elaboration of advanced safety standards relating to nuclear power plant operation and ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. Finally, beneficial aspects of nuclear energy in the context of a sustainable energy policy are emphasized. In particular, the credentials of nuclear energy in the process of building an energy economy based on a balanced energy mix which combines economic and ecologic advantages are shown. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  9. Radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhout, F

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author).

  10. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  11. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  12. Radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.C.; Hyslop, C.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to show how to assess the detriment resulting from the release of radioactive materials to the environment. The minimum information required for the assessments is given for seven radionuclides of interest from the point of view of environmental contamination. The seven radionuclides are tritium, krypton-85, strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-137, radium-226 and plutonium-239. Information is given on the radiation doses and the radiation effects on man due to these radioisotopes. (AN)

  13. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  14. Croatian radioactive waste management program: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Croatia has a responsibility to develop a radioactive waste management program partly due to co-ownership of Krsko nuclear power plant (Slovenia) and partly because of its own medical and industrial radioactive waste. The total amount of generated radioactive waste in Croatia is stored in temporary storages located at two national research institutes, while radioactive waste from Krsko remains in temporary storage on site. National power utility Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) and Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) coordinate the work regarding decommissioning, spent fuel management and low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) management in Croatia. Since the majority of work has been done in developing the LILRW management program, the paper focuses on this part of radioactive waste management. Issues of site selection, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance are being discussed. A short description of the national radioactive waste management infrastructure has also been presented. (author)

  15. Historically aggressive types of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer often have radioactive avid distant metastases: a study of 314 patients with distant metastases at a single institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tala, H.P.; Rondeau, G.; Fagin, J.A.; Tuttle, R.M. [Endocrinology Division, Department of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Ghossein, R.A. [Pathology Department, Nuclear Medecine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Grewal, R.K.; Larson, S.M. [Radiology Department, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) remains one of the primary treatment options for metastatic, follicular cell derived thyroid cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that metastatic lesions arising from one of the aggressive thyroid cancer histologies [tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (TCV-PTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC)] would demonstrate sufficient RAI avidity for visualization on RAI scanning and therefore could potentially benefit from RAI therapy. The study shows that in patients selected for RAI scanning or therapy at our center, RAI avid lesions can be identified in more than two thirds of the patients with distant metastases arising in the setting of C-PTC, WD-FTC, FV-PTC, TCV-PTC, or PDTC primary tumors. While RAI avidity on a post-therapy scan does not always correlate with clinically significant tumor killing activity, it is likely that some of these patients with RAI avid metastatic disease did obtain a clinical benefit

  16. Radioactivity in marine food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, W.C.

    1973-01-01

    A few years ago the writer of a popular article on radioactivity in the oceans suggested that future historians will record that man began to reap the benefits of nuclear energy and the oceans almost simultaneously. Indeed, nuclear power may prove to be a major factor in the exploration, study, and rational use of the oceanic areas covering more than two-thirds of the earth. Most uses of nuclear energy result in the production of some unwanted radioactive wastes. Naturally, high-level wastes are very carefully controlled and stored; and low-level radioactive wastes and by-products are only permitted to enter the environment under the strictest precautions. Research on the fates of radioisotopes entering the marine environment is the province of marine radio-ecologists. This article will touch on some studies of radioecologists concerning the transfer of radioactive materials between water, plants, animals, and sediments in the oceans. (author)

  17. Radioactivity telemetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouras, Florent; Legrand, Bernard; Montigaud, Jean-Marie; Grandin, Marc

    1969-05-01

    The authors present an assembly which aims at radio-transmitting from mobile stations information on radioactivity. It comprises 20 mobile stations which can be located within the Cadarache Centre or outside of it within a 10 km radius, and a central station which centralises information. The report proposes a general presentation of these stations, their characteristics and principles of operation. It describes operation sequences, central station functions (call programmer, address and memory management, recording, peripherals) and its energy supply, and mobile station functions. The last part presents the installation, its start-up and exploitation, its threshold devices and its safety device

  18. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  19. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr

  20. Major complications of high-energy microwave ablation for percutaneous CT-guided treatment of lung malignancies: single-centre experience after 4 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splatt, Alexander M.; Steinke, Karin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the rate of major complications related to percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided microwave ablation (MWA) of primary and secondary lung malignancies performed at our institution over a 4-year period. From May 2010 to September 2014, 70 MWAs were performed on 51 patients. All major intra- and post-procedural complications (as defined by the classification proposed by the Society of Interventional Radiology) were retrospectively analysed. The results were correlated with a systematic review of the available literature on MWA in the lung. Major complications were encountered in 14 out of 70 ablations (20%). Twenty-one separate major complications were encountered (some ablations lead to more than one major complication). One death occurred within 30 days of ablation, though the relationship to the procedure remains uncertain. Other major complications included: nine pneumothoraces requiring drain insertion (12.9%), four cases of large effusion requiring drainage (5.7%), two cases of significant pulmonary haemorrhage altering clinical management (2.9%), two infections (2.9%), one case of mechanical failure (1.4%), one chest wall burn (1.4%) and one case of pleural seeding (1.4%). Major complications were much more likely to occur if the nodule was located within 7 mm from the pleura. MWA of pulmonary tumours carries moderate risk; nevertheless, the usually manageable complications should not deter from undertaking a potentially curative therapy for poor surgical candidates.

  1. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  2. The radioactivity of the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.I.; Rose, K.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    The radioactivity in the world's surface sea water averages 13.6 Bq/kg of water. Over 88% of this activity arises from a single natural radionuclide, 40 K, and 7% of the remainder results from nuclear weapon test fallout. Variations in the radioactivity occur due to changes in salinity, weapon test fallout and discharges of artificial radionuclides, and are examined here on the basis of published measurements. The most radioactive sea identified by these measurements is the Dead Sea, which averages 178 Bq/kg due to its high salinity. Other enclosed, highly saline waters can be expected to have similar levels. The radioactivity in open seas varies within a much narrower range, generally within 20% of the world average. The highest averages are found in the Persian Gulf (22 Bq/kg), the Red Sea (15 Bq/kg) and the Eastern Mediterranean (14.6 Bq/kg). The Irish Sea averaged 13.7 Bq/kg in 1987, with the effect of the Sellafield discharges being partly offset by lower than average salinity. Although higher levels occurred in the Irish Sea during the 1970s when the Sellafield discharges were higher, the average level has always been much less than that in the Dead Sea, so that the Irish Sea has never been the most radioactive sea in the world. Exceptionally low levels of radioactivity (4 Bq/kg) occur in the Baltic Sea due to dilution by fresh water. (author)

  3. Treatment of Radioactive Gaseous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive waste, with widely varying characteristics, is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research laboratories and medical facilities. The waste needs to be treated and conditioned as necessary to provide waste forms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Although radioactive gaseous radioactive waste does not constitute the main waste flow stream at nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste processing facilities, it represents a major source for potential direct environmental impact. Effective control and management of gaseous waste in both normal and accidental conditions is therefore one of the main issues of nuclear fuel cycle and waste processing facility design and operation. One of the duties of an operator is to take measures to avoid or to optimize the generation and management of radioactive waste to minimize the overall environmental impact. This includes ensuring that gaseous and liquid radioactive releases to the environment are within authorized limits, and that doses to the public and the effects on the environment are reduced to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Responsibilities of the regulatory body include the removal of radioactive materials within authorized practices from any further regulatory control — known as clearance — and the control of discharges — releases of gaseous radioactive material that originate from regulated nuclear facilities during normal operation to the environment within authorized limits. These issues, and others, are addressed in IAEA Safety Standards Series Nos RS-G-1.7, WS-G-2.3 and NS-G-3.2. Special systems should be designed and constructed to ensure proper isolation of areas within nuclear facilities that contain gaseous radioactive substances. Such systems consist of two basic subsystems. The first subsystem is for the supply of clean air to the facility, and the second subsystem is for the collection, cleanup and

  4. Distribution of radioactive "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs in river water and bottom sand for major rivers at Minami-Soma City in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    A nuclear power plant accident, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused severe radioactive contamination in Fukushima. We initiated an environmental radioactive survey in Minami-Soma City the following October. The city is located approximately 10-40 km north of the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The study reported here involves an environmental radioactive survey conducted along three rivers and their tributary streams.Water and bottom sands were collected from four to six sampling locations along each river. Water samples (1 L) were dried on thin Teflon sheets, and gamma-ray measurements were performed with a well-type Ge detector. Sand samples were homogenized after drying, and approximately 50 g were measured for gamma-rays with a low-background coaxial-type Ge detector. The Cs concentrations ("1"3"7Cs+"1"3"4Cs) were determined to be 10,000-20,000 Bq/kg in the bottom sand collected from the upper reaches of the rivers, whereas the concentrations measured from samples collected near coastal down reaches were measured at about 200 Bq/kg. The Cs concentrations measured in river water were about 0.8 Bq/L in the upper reaches of the rivers and 0.3 Bq/L in the lower reaches, indicating that the Cs concentration in water is quite low. It is necessary to study the behavior of the contaminants in the upper reaches of the river system, and determine if they will move to the down stream area hereafter. (author)

  5. Distribution of radioactive "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs in river water and bottom sand for major rivers at Minami-Soma City in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant accident, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused severe radioactive contamination in Fukushima. We initiated an environmental radioactive survey in Minami-Soma City the following October. The city is located approximately 10-40 km north of the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The study reported here involves an environmental radioactive survey conducted along three rivers and their tributary streams. Water and bottom sands were collected from four to six sampling locations along each river. Water samples (1 L) were dried on thin Teflon sheets, and gamma-ray measurements were performed with a well-type Ge detector. Sand samples were homogenized after drying, and approximately 50 g were measured for gamma-rays with a low-background coaxial-type Ge detector. The Cs concentrations ("1"3"7Cs+"1"3"4Cs) were determined to be 10,000-20,000 Bq/kg in the bottom sand collected from the upper reaches of the rivers, whereas the concentrations measured from samples collected near coastal down reaches were measured at about 200 Bq/kg. The Cs concentrations measured in river water were about 0.8 Bq/L in the upper reaches of the rivers and 0.3 Bq/L in the lower reaches, indicating that the Cs concentration in water is quite low. It is necessary to study the behavior of the contaminants in the upper reaches of the river system, and determine if they will move to the down stream area hereafter. (author)

  6. Radioactive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, L.

    1987-01-01

    Different techniques for the characterization of radioactive colloids, used in nuclear medicine, have been evaluated and compared. Several radioactive colloids have been characterized in vitro and in vivo and tested experimentally. Colloid biokinetics following interstitial or intravenous injection were evaluated with a scintillation camera technique. Lymphoscintigraphy with a Tc-99-labelled antimony sulphur colloid was performed in 32 patients with malignant melanoma in order to evaluate the technique. Based on the biokinetic results, absorbed doses in tissues and organs were calculated. The function of the reticuloendothelial system has been evaluated in rats after inoculation with tumour cells. Microfiltration and photon correlation spectroscopy were found to be suitable in determining activity-size and particle size distributions, respectively. Maximal lymph node uptake following subcutaneous injection was found to correspond to a colloid particle size between 10 and 50 nm. Lymphoscintigraphy was found to be useful in the study of lymphatic drainage from the primary tumour site in patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk. Quantitative analysis of ilio-inguinal lymph node uptake in patients with malignant melanoma on the lower extremities was, however, found to be of no value for the detection of metastatic disease in lymph nodes. High absorbed doses may be received in lymph nodes (up to 1 mGy/MBq) and at the injection site (about 10 mGy/MBq). In an experimental study it was found that the relative colloid uptake in bone marrow and spleen depended on the total number of intravenously injected particles. This may considerably affect the absorbed dose in these organs. (author)

  7. Immobilization of hazardous and radioactive waste into glass structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1997-01-01

    As a result of more than three decades of international research, glass has emerged as the material of choice for immobilization of a wide range of potentially hazardous radioactive and non-radioactive materials. The ability of glass structures to incorporate and then immobilize many different elements into durable, high integrity, waste glass products is a direct function of the unique random network structure of the glassy state. Every major country involved with long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has either selected or is considering glass as the matrix of choice for immobilizing and ultimately, disposing of the potentially hazardous, high-level radioactive material. There are many reasons why glass is preferred. Among the most important considerations are the ability of glass structures to accommodate and immobilize the many different types of radionuclides present in HLW, and to produce a product that not only has excellent technical properties, but also possesses good processing features. Good processability allows the glass to be fabricated with relative ease even under difficult remote-handling conditions necessary for vitrification of highly radioactive material. The single most important property of the waste glass produced is its ability to retain hazardous species within the glass structure and this is reflected by its excellent chemical durability and corrosion resistance to a wide range of environmental conditions. In addition to immobilization of HLW glass matrices are also being considered for isolation of many other types of hazardous materials, both radioactive as well as nonradioactive. This includes vitrification of various actinides resulting from clean-up operations and the legacy of the cold war, as well as possible immobilization of weapons grade plutonium resulting from disarmament activities. Other types of wastes being considered for immobilization into glasses include transuranic wastes, mixed wastes, contaminated

  8. Combination of thermal and electric properties' measurement techniques in a single setup suitable for radioactive materials in controlled environments and based on the 3ω approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K.; Gofryk, K.

    2018-04-01

    We have designed and developed a new experimental setup, based on the 3ω method, to measure thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of a variety of samples in a broad temperature range (2-550 K) and under magnetic fields up to 9 T. The validity of this method is tested by measuring various types of metallic (copper, platinum, and constantan) and insulating (SiO2) materials, which have a wide range of thermal conductivity values (1-400 W m-1 K-1). We have successfully employed this technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of two actinide single crystals: uranium dioxide and uranium nitride. This new experimental approach for studying nuclear materials will help us to advance reactor fuel development and understanding. We have also shown that this experimental setup can be adapted to the Physical Property Measurement System (Quantum Design) environment and/or other cryocooler systems.

  9. Radioactive waste disposal: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentsen, B.A.

    1974-01-01

    The world's industrial nations are embarking on a major build-up of nuclear electric power generating capacity. Enormous quantities of radioactive waste will be produced in fuel reprocessing operations which must be safeguarded from entering the biosphere for thousands of years. It is an unprecedented problem which has no universally agreed upon solution. (U.S.)

  10. Radioactivity in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    While the revised ''Definition and Recommendations'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) restricts the dumping of the radioactive wastes that exceed specified concentration/mass limits, the acceptance of the concept of applying the release rate limits as developed by the IAEA provides a rational basis for further considering the emplacement of radioactive wastes in seabed as an attractive and acceptable alternative to terrestrial geological repositories. The technical basis for the present radiological assessment is on release rate limits and not on dumping rates. However, to meet the present requirements of the London Convention, it is necessary to express to Definition in terms of the concentration in a single site and the assumed upper limit on mass dumping rate at a single site of 100,000 tons/year with the added proviso of release rate limits for the finite ocean volume of 10 17 m 3 . This results in the concentration limits of a) 1 Ci/ton for α-emitters but limited to 10 -1 Ci/ton 226 Ra and supported 210 Po; b) 10 2 Ci/ton for β/γ-emitters with half-lives of at least 0.5 yr (excluding 3 H) and the mixtures of β/γ-emitters of unknown half-lives; and c) 10 6 Ci/ton for 3 H and the β/γ-emitters with half-lives less than 0.5 yr. (Yamashita, S.)

  11. An Exploratory Investigation of the Relationship between Turnover Intentions, Work Exhaustion and Disengagement among IT Professionals in a Single Institution of Higher Education in a Major Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Valerie F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that turnover is a major issue in IT environments (Armstrong & Riemenschneider, 2011; Carayon, Schoepke, Hoonakker, Haims, & Brunette, 2006; Moore, 2000a; Rigas, 2009). In fact, the research literature in IT and the popular press suggest that IT professionals are particularly vulnerable to burnout (Armstrong &…

  12. Quality assessment of Chrysanthemum indicum Flower by simultaneous quantification of six major ingredients using a single reference standard combined with HPLC fingerprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum indicum Flower is usually consumed as functional food. This paper described an improved total quality assessment method for Chrysanthemum indicum Flower by simultaneous quantitation using a single standard to determine multi-components method combined with high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis. Six main components of Chrysanthemum indicum Flower including two flavonoids and four phenolic acids were simultaneously quantified using linarin as the internal reference standard. The method was fully validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness and stability. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of thirty three batches of Chrysanthemum indicum Flower samples. Under the same chromatographic conditions, fingerprint analysis in combination with Similarity analysis and principal component analysis was performed to identify the samples from different regions. In general, an effective assessment using a single standard to determinate multi-components method combined with fingerprint analysis make the reliable qualitation and quantitation analysis of Chrysanthemum indicum Flower available.

  13. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  14. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping and other activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRANDO, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists 18 SSTs covered by this NOC. This NOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping

  15. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  16. Environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Outline summary of a report prepared under contract to the DOE: Research Priorities and UK Estuaries: An Overview identifying Research Requirements. Topics considered include the study of radionuclides released into the NE Irish Sea from BNFL, Sellafields, differences in the isotopic composition of stable lead in various sediments, the concentration and distribution of 'hot particles' derived from BNFL in the Irish Sea and adjacent areas, together with attempts to separate hot particles from sediments, and the composition and properties of marine surfaces in relation to uptake and loss of radionuclides, particularly in relation to the common mussel, Mytilus edulis. The problem of the presence of transuranic radionuclides in the bottom sediments of the NE Irish Sea is considered. Profiles of radioactivity are being developed at the shelf-break in order to determine the transfer of radionuclides from the sea surface to the deep sea and to coastal waters; organisms examined include phytoplankton, zooplankton and crustacea (shrimps). Organisms such as Acantharia have been examined to determine transfer of elements and radionuclides to skeletal structures eg Sr, Ba and Si. (U.K.)

  17. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  18. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  19. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping and other activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping and other activities. The reference to 'other activities' throughout this NOC means those activities described in Appendix A. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings feature because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTS as schedules for salt well pumping or other activities dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping or during performance of other activities. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTS is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Other activities also have the potential to release trapped gases by interrupting gas pockets within the waste. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms Safety Basis (OESH 1997) which requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) safety analysis indicates that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for released flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTS to reduce the 'time at risk' while salt well pumping or performing other activities. Thirty tanks remain to be salt well pumped

  20. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  1. Chitinase mRNA levels by quantitative PCR using the single standard DNA: acidic mammalian chitinase is a major transcript in the mouse stomach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Ohno

    Full Text Available Chitinases hydrolyze the β-1-4 glycosidic bonds of chitin, a major structural component of fungi, crustaceans and insects. Although mammals do not produce chitin or its synthase, they express two active chitinases, chitotriosidase (Chit1 and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase. These mammalian chitinases have attracted considerable attention due to their increased expression in individuals with a number of pathological conditions, including Gaucher disease, Alzheimer's disease and asthma. However, the contribution of these enzymes to the pathophysiology of these diseases remains to be determined. The quantification of the Chit1 and AMCase mRNA levels and the comparison of those levels with the levels of well-known reference genes can generate useful and biomedically relevant information. In the beginning, we established a quantitative real-time PCR system that uses standard DNA produced by ligating the cDNA fragments of the target genes. This system enabled us to quantify and compare the expression levels of the chitinases and the reference genes on the same scale. We found that AMCase mRNA is synthesized at extraordinarily high levels in the mouse stomach. The level of this mRNA in the mouse stomach was 7- to 10-fold higher than the levels of the housekeeping genes and was comparable to that the level of the mRNA for pepsinogen C (progastricsin, a major component of the gastric mucosa. Thus, AMCase mRNA is a major transcript in mouse stomach, suggesting that AMCase functions as a digestive enzyme that breaks down polymeric chitin and as part of the host defense against chitin-containing pathogens in the gastric contents. Our methodology is applicable to the quantification of mRNAs for multiple genes across multiple specimens using the same scale.

  2. Low Rates of Major Complications for Radiofrequency Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Maintained Over 14 Years: A Single Centre Experience of 2750 Consecutive Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboinik, Aleksandr; Sparks, Paul B; Morton, Joseph B; Lee, Geoffrey; Joseph, Stephen A; Hawson, Joshua J; Kistler, Peter M; Kalman, Jonathan M

    2018-02-03

    Despite technological advances, studies continue to report high complication rates for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. We sought to review complication rates for AF ablation at a high-volume centre over a 14-year period and identify predictors of complications. We reviewed prospectively collected data from 2750 consecutive AF ablation procedures at our institution using radiofrequency energy (RF) between January 2004 and May 2017. All cases were performed under general anaesthetic with transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE), 3D-mapping and an irrigated ablation catheter. Double transseptal puncture was performed under TEE guidance. All patients underwent wide antral circumferential isolation of the pulmonary veins (30W anteriorly, 25W posteriorly) with substrate modification at operator discretion. Of 2255 initial and 495 redo procedures, ablation strategies were: pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) only 2097 (76.3%), PVI+lines 368 (13.4%), PVI+posterior wall 191 (6.9%), PVI+cavotricuspid isthmus 277 (10.1%). There were 23 major (0.84%) and 20 minor (0.73%) complications. Cardiac tamponade (five cases - 0.18%) and phrenic nerve palsy (one case - 0.04%) rates were very low. Major vascular complications necessitating surgery or blood transfusion occurred in five patients (0.18%). There were no cases of death, permanent disability, atrio-oesophageal fistulae or symptomatic pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis, although there were five TEE probe-related complications (0.18%). Female gender (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.07-4.26) but not age >70 (OR 1.01) was the only multivariate predictor of complications. Atrial fibrillation ablation performed at a high-volume centre using RF can be achieved with a low major complication rate in a representative AF population over a sustained period of time. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. A single point in protein trafficking by Plasmodium falciparum determines the expression of major antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes targeted by human antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jo-Anne; Howell, Katherine B; Langer, Christine; Maier, Alexander G; Hasang, Wina; Rogerson, Stephen J; Petter, Michaela; Chesson, Joanne; Stanisic, Danielle I; Duffy, Michael F; Cooke, Brian M; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Bull, Peter C; Marsh, Kevin; Fowkes, Freya J I; Beeson, James G

    2016-11-01

    Antibodies to blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum play a pivotal role in human immunity to malaria. During parasite development, multiple proteins are trafficked from the intracellular parasite to the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs). However, the relative importance of different proteins as targets of acquired antibodies, and key pathways involved in trafficking major antigens remain to be clearly defined. We quantified antibodies to surface antigens among children, adults, and pregnant women from different malaria-exposed regions. We quantified the importance of antigens as antibody targets using genetically engineered P. falciparum with modified surface antigen expression. Genetic deletion of the trafficking protein skeleton-binding protein-1 (SBP1), which is involved in trafficking the surface antigen PfEMP1, led to a dramatic reduction in antibody recognition of IEs and the ability of human antibodies to promote opsonic phagocytosis of IEs, a key mechanism of parasite clearance. The great majority of antibody epitopes on the IE surface were SBP1-dependent. This was demonstrated using parasite isolates with different genetic or phenotypic backgrounds, and among antibodies from children, adults, and pregnant women in different populations. Comparisons of antibody reactivity to parasite isolates with SBP1 deletion or inhibited PfEMP1 expression suggest that PfEMP1 is the dominant target of acquired human antibodies, and that other P. falciparum IE surface proteins are minor targets. These results establish SBP1 as part of a critical pathway for the trafficking of major surface antigens targeted by human immunity, and have key implications for vaccine development, and quantifying immunity in populations.

  4. Assessment of the financial implications for laparoscopic liver surgery: a single-centre UK cost analysis for minor and major hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hilal, Mohammed; Di Fabio, Francesco; Syed, Shareef; Wiltshire, Robert; Dimovska, Eleonora; Turner, David; Primrose, John N; Pearce, Neil W

    2013-07-01

    Laparoscopic hepatectomy is progressively gaining popularity. However, it is still unclear whether the laparoscopic approach offers cost advantages compared with the open approach, especially when major hepatectomies are required. Data providing useful insights into the costs of the laparoscopic approach for clinicians and hospitals are needed. The aim of this study is to assess the financial implications of the laparoscopic approach for two standardized minor and major hepatectomies: left lateral sectionectomy and right hepatectomy. A cost comparison analysis of patients undergoing laparoscopic right hepatectomy (LRH) and laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (LLLS) versus the open counterparts was performed. Data considered for the comparison analysis were operative costs (theatre cost, consumables and surgeon/anaesthetic labour cost), postoperative costs (hospital stay, complication management and readmissions) and overall costs. A total of 149 patients were included: 38 patients underwent LRH and 46 open right hepatectomy (ORH); 46 patients underwent LLLS and 19 open left lateral sectionectomy (OLLS). For LRH the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £10,181, £4,037 and £14,218; for ORH the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £6,483 (p costs were £5,460, £2,599 and £8,059; for OLLS the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £5,841 (p = 0.874), £5,796 (p cost advantage of the laparoscopic approach for left lateral sectionectomy and the cost neutrality for right hepatectomy.

  5. Radioactive contamination of recycled metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenau, J.O.; Cool, D.A.; Yusko, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive sources commingled with metal scrap have become a major problem for the metals recycling industry worldwide. Worldwide there have been 38 confirmed reports of radioactive sources accidentally smelted with recycled metal. In some instances, contaminated metal products were subsequently distributed. The metal mills, their products and byproducts from the metal making process such as slags, crosses and dusts from furnaces can become contaminated. In the U.S., imported ferrous metal products such as reinforcement bars, pipe flanges, table legs and fencing components have been found contaminated with taco. U.S. steel mills have unintentionally smelted radioactive sources on 16 occasions. The resulting cost for decontamination waste disposal and temporary closure of the steel mill is typically USD 10,000,000 and has been as much as USD 23,000,000. Other metal recycling industries that have been affected by this problem include aluminum, copper, zinc, gold, lead and vanadium. (author)

  6. Supercompaction of radioactive waste at NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, K.; Sirola, P.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste management is both scientifically and technically complex and also deeply emotional issue. In the last twenty years the first two aspects have been mostly resolved up to the point of safe implementation. In the Republic of Slovenia, certain fundamentalist approaches in politics and the use of radioactive waste problem as a political tool, brought the final radioactive repository siting effort to a stop. Although small amounts of radioactive waste are produced in research institutes, hospitals and industry, major source of radioactive waste in Slovenia is the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko. When Krsko NPP was originally built, plans were made to construct a permanent radioactive waste disposal facility. This facility was supposed to be available to receive waste from the plant long before the on site storage facility was full. However, the permanent disposal facility is not yet available, and it became necessary to retain the wastes produced at the plant in the on-site storage facility for an extended period of time. Temporary radioactive storage capacity at the plant site has limited capacity and having no other options available NPP Krsko is undertaking major efforts to reduce waste volume generated to allow normal operation. This article describes the Radioactive Waste Compaction Campaign performed from November, 1994 through November, 1995 at Krsko NPP, to enhance the efficiency and safety of storage of radioactive waste. The campaign involved the retrieval, segmented gamma-spectrum measurement, dose rate measurement, compaction, re-packaging, and systematic storage of radioactive wastes which had been stored in the NPP radioactive waste storage building since plant commissioning. (author)

  7. Scrub Typhus - A Major Cause of Pediatric Intensive Care Admission and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Prabahs Prasun; Roy, Joydeb; Saha, Agnisekhar

    2018-02-01

    Scrub typhus has been globally recognized as an emerging infectious disease contributing significantly to pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) and a potential cause of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). We studied the incidence of scrub typhus as a cause of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and MODS in our hospital and its clinical and laboratory characteristics to measure the incidence of MODS caused by scrub typhus. This study was done in a pediatric teaching hospital in Kolkata, India. Records of patients admitted with PUO from March 2012 to December 2015 were reviewed. Rathi-Goodman-Aghai scoring system was used to identify potential ST patients and confirmed by serological testing. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and treatment response were noted of those needing PICU admissions. Ninety-seven cases of scrub typhus have been identified during that period. PICU admission was needed in 30 of them (31%) which contributed 8.43% of total PICU admissions. Among these 30 patients, 16 (53%) developed MODS which contributed 18.29% of total MODS admitted in PICU. Septic shock was the most common manifestation in as many as 18 (60%) patients followed by encephalopathy in 13 (43%). Patients were treated with either doxycycline alone or in combination with azithromycin. Mean time to complete defervescence was 32 h after first dose of doxycycline. The outcome was excellent without a single mortality. Scrub typhus is an important cause of MODS in this part of the world, especially in fevers associated with features as identified and not responding to conventional antibiotics.

  8. A single nucleotide polymorphism in cBIM is associated with a slower achievement of major molecular response in chronic myeloid leukaemia treated with imatinib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Augis

    Full Text Available BIM is essential for the response to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML patients. Recently, a deletion polymorphism in intron 2 of the BIM gene was demonstrated to confer an intrinsic TKI resistance in Asian patients. The present study aimed at identifying mutations in the BIM sequence that could lead to imatinib resistance independently of BCR-ABL mutations.BIM coding sequence analysis was performed in 72 imatinib-treated CML patients from a French population of our centre and in 29 healthy controls (reference population as a case-control study. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT qPCR was performed to assess Bim expression in our reference population.No mutation with amino-acid change was found in the BIM coding sequence. However, we observed a silent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP c465C>T (rs724710. A strong statistical link was found between the presence of the T allele and the high Sokal risk group (p = 0.0065. T allele frequency was higher in non responsive patients than in the reference population (p = 0.0049. Similarly, this T allele was associated with the mutation frequency on the tyrosine kinase domain of BCR-ABL (pT SNP of BIM could be useful for predicting the outcome of imatinib-treated CML patients.

  9. Applying meta-pathway analyses through metagenomics to identify the functional properties of the major bacterial communities of a single spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; Weckx, Stefan; De Vuyst, Luc

    2015-09-01

    A high-resolution functional metagenomic analysis of a representative single sample of a Brazilian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process was carried out to gain insight into its bacterial community functioning. By reconstruction of microbial meta-pathways based on metagenomic data, the current knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of bacterial members involved in the cocoa bean fermentation ecosystem was extended. Functional meta-pathway analysis revealed the distribution of the metabolic pathways between the bacterial members involved. The metabolic capabilities of the lactic acid bacteria present were most associated with the heterolactic fermentation and citrate assimilation pathways. The role of Enterobacteriaceae in the conversion of substrates was shown through the use of the mixed-acid fermentation and methylglyoxal detoxification pathways. Furthermore, several other potential functional roles for Enterobacteriaceae were indicated, such as pectinolysis and citrate assimilation. Concerning acetic acid bacteria, metabolic pathways were partially reconstructed, in particular those related to responses toward stress, explaining their metabolic activities during cocoa bean fermentation processes. Further, the in-depth metagenomic analysis unveiled functionalities involved in bacterial competitiveness, such as the occurrence of CRISPRs and potential bacteriocin production. Finally, comparative analysis of the metagenomic data with bacterial genomes of cocoa bean fermentation isolates revealed the applicability of the selected strains as functional starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radioactive waste computerized management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communaux, M.; Lantes, B.

    1993-01-01

    Since December 31, 1990, the management of the nuclear wastes for all the power stations has been computerized, using the DRA module of the Power Generation and Transmission Group's data processing master plan. So now EDF has a software package which centralizes all the data, enabling it to declare the characteristics of the nuclear wastes which are to be stored on the sites operated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Among other uses, this application makes it possible for EDF, by real time data exchange with ANDRA, to constitute an inventory of validated, shippable packs. It also constitutes a data base for all the wastes produced on the various sites. This application was developed to meet the following requirements: give the producers of radioactive waste a means to fully manage all the characteristics and materials that are necessary to condition their waste correctly; guarantee the traceability and safety of data and automatically assure the transmission of this data in real time between the producers and the ANDRA; give the Central Services of EDF an operation and statistical tool permitting an experienced feed-back based on the complete national production (single, centralized data base); and integrate the application within the products of the processing master plan in order to assure its maintenance and evolution

  11. Implementation of a split-bolus single-pass CT protocol at a UK major trauma centre to reduce excess radiation dose in trauma pan-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, V.; Sastry, A.; Woo, T.D.; Jones, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To quantify the dose reduction and ensure that the use of a split-bolus protocol provided sufficient vascular enhancement. Materials and methods: Between 1 January 2014 and 31 May 2014, both split bolus and traditional two-phase scans were performed on a single CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition AS+, Siemens Healthcare) using a two-pump injector (Medrad Stellant). Both protocols used Siemens' proprietary tube current and tube voltage modulation techniques (CARE dose and CARE kV). The protocols were compared retrospectively to assess the dose–length product (DLP), aortic radiodensity at the level of the coeliac axis and radiodensity of the portal vein. Results: There were 151 trauma CT examinations during this period. Seventy-eight used the split-bolus protocol. Seventy-one had traditional two-phase imaging. One patient was excluded as they were under the age of 18 years. The radiodensity measurements for the portal vein were significantly higher (p<0.001) in the split-bolus protocol. The mean aortic enhancement in both protocols exceeded 250 HU, although the traditional two-phase protocol gave greater arterial enhancement (p<0.001) than the split-bolus protocol. The split-bolus protocol had a significantly lower (p<0.001) DLP with 43.5% reduction in the mean DLP compared to the traditional protocol. Conclusion: Split-bolus CT imaging offers significant dose reduction for this relatively young population while retaining both arterial and venous enhancement. -- Highlights: •We implemented a split bolus pan-CT protocol for trauma CT. •We compared the radiation dose and vascular enhancement of the split bolus protocol to a traditional two phase protocol. •The split bolus protocol had a 43.5% reduction in mean DLP

  12. Preoperative Radiotherapy and Wide Resection for Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Achieving a Low Rate of Major Wound Complications with the Use of Flaps. Results of a Single Surgical Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lester Wai Mon; Imanishi, Jungo; Grinsell, Damien Glen; Choong, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Surgery in combination with radiotherapy (RT) has become the standard of care for most soft tissue sarcomas. The choice between pre- and postoperative RT is controversial. Preoperative RT is associated with a 32-35% rate of major wound complications (MWC) and 16-25% rate of reoperation. The role of vascularized soft tissue "flaps" in reducing complications is unclear. We report the outcomes of patients treated with preoperative RT, resection, and flap reconstruction. 122 treatment episodes involving 117 patients were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were treated with 50.4 Gy of external beam radiation. Surgery was performed at 4-8 weeks after completion of RT by the same combination of orthopedic oncology and plastic reconstructive surgeon. Defects were reconstructed with 64 free and 59 pedicled/local flaps. 30 (25%) patients experienced a MWC and 17 (14%) required further surgery. 20% of complications were exclusively related to the donor site. There was complete or partial loss of three flaps. There was no difference in the rate of MWC or reoperation for complications with respect to age, sex, tumor site, previous unplanned excision, tumor grade, depth, and type of flap. Tumor size ≥8 cm was associated with a higher rate of reoperation (11/44 vs 6/78; P  = 0.008) but the rate of MWC was not significant (16/44 vs 14/78; P  = 0.066). The use of soft tissue flaps is associated with a low rate of MWC and reoperation. Our results suggest that a high rate of flap usage may be required to observe a reduction in complication rates.

  13. JAK2 V617F, MPL, and CALR mutations in essential thrombocythaemia and major thrombotic complications: a single-institute retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pósfai, Éva; Marton, Imelda; Király, Péter Attila; Kotosz, Balázs; Kiss-László, Zsuzsanna; Széll, Márta; Borbényi, Zita

    2015-07-01

    Thrombo-haemorrhagic events are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in essential thrombocythemia. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of thrombotic events and the impact of the JAK2V617F, MPL (W515L, W515K, W515R, W515A and S505N) and CALR (type-1, type-2) mutations on 101 essential thrombocythaemia patients (72 females and 29 males with a mean age of 61 years) diagnosed in a Southern Hungarian regional academic centre. The incidence of major thrombosis was 13.86 %. Sixty percent of the patients carried the JAK2V617F mutation. The MPL mutations were analysed by sequencing and the W515L was the only one we could identify with an incidence of 3.96 %. Type-2 CALR mutation could be identified in 3 cases among the patients who had JAK2/MPL-unmutated ET. Statistical analyses revealed that the JAK2V617F mutation was associated with significantly increased levels of platelet (p = 0.042), haemoglobin (p = 0.000), red blood cell (p = 0.000) and haematocrit (p = 0.000) and hepatomegaly (p = 0.045) at diagnosis compared to JAK2V617F negative counterparts, however there was no significant association between the JAK2V617F mutation status (relative risk: 1.297, 95 % CI 0.395-4.258; p = 0.668) and subsequent thrombotic complications. The impact of JAK2V617F, MPL W515L and CALR mutations on the clinical findings at the diagnosis of ET was obvious, but their statistically significant role in the prediction of thrombotic events could not be proven in this study. Our results indirectly support the concept that, besides the quantitative and qualitative changes in the platelets, the mechanisms leading to thrombosis are more complex and multifactorial.

  14. Preoperative Radiotherapy and Wide Resection for Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Achieving a Low Rate of Major Wound Complications with the Use of Flaps. Results of a Single Surgical Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester Wai Mon Chan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSurgery in combination with radiotherapy (RT has become the standard of care for most soft tissue sarcomas. The choice between pre- and postoperative RT is controversial. Preoperative RT is associated with a 32–35% rate of major wound complications (MWC and 16–25% rate of reoperation. The role of vascularized soft tissue “flaps” in reducing complications is unclear. We report the outcomes of patients treated with preoperative RT, resection, and flap reconstruction.Patients and methods122 treatment episodes involving 117 patients were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were treated with 50.4 Gy of external beam radiation. Surgery was performed at 4–8 weeks after completion of RT by the same combination of orthopedic oncology and plastic reconstructive surgeon. Defects were reconstructed with 64 free and 59 pedicled/local flaps.Results30 (25% patients experienced a MWC and 17 (14% required further surgery. 20% of complications were exclusively related to the donor site. There was complete or partial loss of three flaps. There was no difference in the rate of MWC or reoperation for complications with respect to age, sex, tumor site, previous unplanned excision, tumor grade, depth, and type of flap. Tumor size ≥8 cm was associated with a higher rate of reoperation (11/44 vs 6/78; P = 0.008 but the rate of MWC was not significant (16/44 vs 14/78; P = 0.066.ConclusionThe use of soft tissue flaps is associated with a low rate of MWC and reoperation. Our results suggest that a high rate of flap usage may be required to observe a reduction in complication rates.

  15. Analysis of radioactive strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In environmental radiation survey, radioactive strontium has been analyzed in compliance with the manual ''Analyzing methods for radioactive strontium'' published in 1960 by the Science and Technology Agency, Japan, and revised in 1963. However, in a past decade, progress and development in analyzing methods and measuring equipments have been significant, therefore the manual was revised in 1974. Major revisions are as follows. (1) Analysis of 90 Sr with long half life was changed to the main theme and that of 89 Sr with short half life became a subordinate one. (2) Measuring criteria and sampling volume were revised. (3) Sample collection method was unified. (4) Analyzing method for soil was improved to NaOH-HCl method which has good recovery rate. (5) 90 Y separation method of simple operation was added for sea water analysis besides EDTA and fuming nitric acid methods. (6) Flame spectrometry for quantitative analysis of stable strontium was revised to atomic absorption spectrometry. The contents of the manual comprises 11 chapters describing introduction, measuring criteria for 90 Sr ( 89 Sr), rain and dust, land water, sea water, soil, sea bottom and river bottom sediments (changed from human urine and human bones), crops, milk (the previous one chapter was divided into two), marine organisms, and everyday foods, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    In response to the Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, a White Paper was published in 1977, announcing a number of steps to deal with the problems presented by wastes from the nuclear industry and setting out the position of the then government. The present White paper is in four sections. i. A brief description of the nature of radioactive wastes, and the general objectives of waste management. ii. What has been achieved, the role of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee, the expansion of research, and the conclusions from the review of existing controls. iii. The present position for each major category of waste, including relevant current action and research, transport and decommissioning. iv. The next steps. Research and development must continue; shallow land burial and the carefully controlled disposal of certain wastes to the sea will continue to play a role; and, for some wastes, new disposal facilities are needed at an early date. For others, the appropriate course of action at the moment is properly controlled storage. New developments are also required in organisation. Throughout, the public must be kept fully informed about what is being done, and there must be proper scope for public discussion. (U.K.)

  17. Natural atmospheric radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1986-01-01

    After having summed up the different old or new units, used in radioactivity and radioprotection, the origins of atmospheric radioactivity are reported. Next the authors deal with the air content in radon, thoron and their radioactive descendants, insisting on the variations of the radon air content and on the radioactive balance between radon and its descendants. Then a few notions concerning the natural radioactive aerosol are developed: electric charge state, granulometric distribution. The possible effects of natural atmospheric radioactivity on man are studied with a distinction between inner irradiation and outer irradiation, an average assessment is shown. Finally the important problem of radon in inhabitations is approached [fr

  18. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  19. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  20. Psychological benefits 2 and 4 weeks after a single treatment with near infrared light to the forehead: a pilot study of 10 patients with major depression and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teicher Martin H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported beneficial effects from the application of near-infrared (NIR light photobiomodulation (PBM to the body, and one group has reported beneficial effects applying it to the brain in stroke patients. We have reported that the measurement of a patient's left and right hemispheric emotional valence (HEV may clarify data and guide lateralized treatments. We sought to test whether a NIR treatment could 1. improve the psychological status of patients, 2. show a relationship between immediate psychological improvements when HEV was taken into account, and 3. show an increase in frontal pole regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, and 4. be applied without side effects. Methods We gave 10 patients, (5 M/5 F with major depression, including 9 with anxiety, 7 with a past history of substance abuse (6 with an opiate abuse and 1 with an alcohol abuse history, and 3 with post traumatic stress disorder, a baseline standard diagnostic interview, a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, a Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A, and a Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS. We then gave four 4-minute treatments in a random order: NIR to left forehead at F3, to right forehead at F4, and placebo treatments (light off at the same sites. Immediately following each treatment we repeated the PANAS, and at 2-weeks and at 4-weeks post treatment we repeated all 3 rating scales. During all treatments we recorded total hemoglobin (cHb, as a measure of rCBF with a commercial NIR spectroscopy device over the left and the right frontal poles of the brain. Results At 2-weeks post treatment 6 of 10 patients had a remission (a score ≤ 10 on the HAM-D and 7 of 10 achieved this on the HAM-A. Patients experienced highly significant reductions in both HAM-D and HAM-A scores following treatment, with the greatest reductions occurring at 2 weeks. Mean rCBF across hemispheres increased from 0.011 units in the off condition to 0.043 units in

  1. Nucleon transfer reactions with radioactive beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, K.

    2018-03-01

    Transfer reactions are a valuable tool to study the single-particle structure of nuclei. At radioactive beam facilities transfer reactions have to be performed in inverse kinematics. This creates a number of experimental challenges, but it also has some advantages over normal kinematics measurements. An overview of the experimental and theoretical methods for transfer reactions, especially with radioactive beams, is presented. Recent experimental results and highlights on shell evolution in exotic nuclei are discussed.

  2. Radioactivity and geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.

    1992-01-01

    The paper recalls a few steps of the introduction of radioactivity in geophysics and astrophysics: contribution of radioelements to energy balance of the Earth, age of the Earth based on radioactive disintegration and the discovery of cosmic radiations

  3. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  4. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  5. Radioactivity of bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, M.A.; Winkler, R.; Ascherl, R.; Lenz, E.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between [de

  6. Immersed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring

  7. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  8. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  9. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.

    1998-09-01

    The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed

  10. Focus on radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M

    1989-01-01

    Written for children, this book looks at the nature of radioactive materials, how they were discovered, what they are used for and how they affect the environment around us. The emphasis is on the benefits of radioactive materials, particularly in nuclear power stations, in medical diagnostics and radiotherapy, in industry and in agriculture. Nuclear fission and fusion are explained, how radioactive materials are handled and naturally occurring radioactivity are included. (UK).

  11. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  12. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  13. Aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)

  14. The natural radioactivity of the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertsov, L A

    1967-07-01

    Of the approximately 1200 isotopes presently known more than 900 are radioactive. The nuclei of these isotopes are unstable and decay spontaneously emitting ionizing gamma-, alpha- or beta-radiation. The overwhelming majority of known radioactive isotopes have been obtained artificially; only a few are natural. Numerous investigations have shown that many of the natural radioactive isotopes can be grouped into three radioactive families. Each such family is characterized by the existence of one long-lived isotope - the family parent, one gaseous isotope of radon, intermediate radioactive decay products and final stable isotopes of atomic weights 206, 207 and 208. No such generic relationship has been established among the remaining natural radioactive isotopes. The purpose of the book, in contrast to some recent review works, is to present, in addition to a summary of reference data characterizing the radioactivity levels of various components of the biosphere, a description of those phenomena and regularities which will apparently make it possible to understand more completely the basic dynamics of the natural radioactivity of the biosphere and, consequently, contribute to a more correct interpretation of radiation-hygiene in each specific case.

  15. The natural radioactivity of the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsov, L.A.

    1967-01-01

    Of the approximately 1200 isotopes presently known more than 900 are radioactive. The nuclei of these isotopes are unstable and decay spontaneously emitting ionizing gamma-, alpha- or beta-radiation. The overwhelming majority of known radioactive isotopes have been obtained artificially; only a few are natural. Numerous investigations have shown that many of the natural radioactive isotopes can be grouped into three radioactive families. Each such family is characterized by the existence of one long-lived isotope - the family parent, one gaseous isotope of radon, intermediate radioactive decay products and final stable isotopes of atomic weights 206, 207 and 208. No such generic relationship has been established among the remaining natural radioactive isotopes. The purpose of the book, in contrast to some recent review works, is to present, in addition to a summary of reference data characterizing the radioactivity levels of various components of the biosphere, a description of those phenomena and regularities which will apparently make it possible to understand more completely the basic dynamics of the natural radioactivity of the biosphere and, consequently, contribute to a more correct interpretation of radiation-hygiene in each specific case

  16. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the sources and health effects of radioactive wastes. It reveals the techniques to concentrate and immobilize radioactivity and examines the merits of various disposal ideas. The book, which is designed for the lay reader, explains the basic science of atoms,nuclear particles,radioactivity, radiation and health effects

  17. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  18. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Illustrated by drawings, this publication briefly describes radioactive exposure modalities (external or internal irradiation), the ways they are measured and assessed (doses, units), the different natural radioactivity origins, the different radioactivity origins related to human activity, the share of each origin in population exposures

  19. Radioactive air emissions 1992 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes, by radionuclide or product and by emitting facility, the Laboratory's 1992 radioactive air emissions. In 1992, the total activity of radionuclides emitted into the air from Laboratory stacks was approximately 73,500 Ci. This was an increase over the activity of the total 1991 radioactive air emissions, which was approximately 62,400 Ci. Total 1992 Laboratory emissions of each radionuclide or product are summarized by tables and graphs in the first section of this report. Compared to 1991 radioactive air emissions, total tritium activity was decreased, total plutonium activity was decreased, total uranium activity was decreased, total mixed fission product activity was increased, total 41 Ar activity was decreased, total gaseous/mixed activation product (except 41 Ar) activity was increased, total particulate/vapor activation product activity was increased, and total 32 P activity was decreased. Radioactive emissions from specific facilities are detailed in this report. Each section provides 1992 data on a single radionuclide or product and is further divided by emitting facility. For each facility from which a particular radionuclide or product was emitted, a bar chart displays the air emissions of each radionuclide or product from each facility over the 12 reporting periods of 1992, a line chart shows the trend in total emissions of that radionuclide or product from that facility for the past three years, the greatest activity during the 1990--1992 period is discussed, and unexpected or unusual results are noted

  20. Chemistry and radioactivity: a century after Marie Curie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2011-01-01

    Coupling chemistry and radioactivity has led to radiochemistry, the part of chemistry dealing with the behaviour of radioactive materials. Many activities are of concern, as well in basic research as in the fields of health and energy. They call researches going from the study of the extremely diluted radioactive material (environment) until that of the most man-made radioactive material ever produced (spent nuclear fuel from reactors). When radiochemistry is not the mirror of the traditional chemistry, it uses in radioactive surroundings its own methods based on the measurement of the emitted rays. Radiochemistry will have in the next decades a major input to prepare the nuclear energy of the future. (author)

  1. Disposal or radioactive wastes, tendencies and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.; Barcenas R, M.

    2013-10-01

    The administration of radioactive wastes is an important part of the uses of the nuclear energy, even not carrying out some application due to the natural radioisotopes. The result will be that to more radioactive wastes production major will be the expense in its administration. In this work the main activities in an item of selected countries are described and it concludes with the necessities that should be carried out in this field in Mexico. (Author)

  2. Treating radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of radioactive effluent it is known to produce a floc being a suspension of precipitates carrying radioactive species in a mother liquor containing dissolved non-radioactive salts. It is also known and accepted practice to encapsulate the floc in a solid matrix by treatment with bitumen, cement and the like. In the present invention the floc is washed with water prior to encapsulation in the solid matrix whereby to displace the mother liquor containing the dissolved non-radioactive salts. This serves to reduce the final amount of solidified radioactive waste with consequent advantages in the storage and disposal thereof. (author)

  3. Radioactive or natural tracer techniques for leak determining of dam abutment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiansheng; Du Guoping; Zheng Zheng; Sun Jing

    1995-01-01

    Infiltration and localization of preferential infiltration zones at the dam abutment are measured using radioactive tracer tests of flow in boreholes, meanwhile interconnection between boreholes and the observing water points is analysed. The theory and practice of radioactive tracer synthetic detective method are described to give methods and calculation formulae used under the condition of stable flow in single well to measure permeability coefficient and hydrostatic heads. Major single hole techniques including measurement for seepage line, velocity, rate of seepage flow and relationship of recharge of groundwater in aquifers are introduced briefly. The possibilities offered by natural tracers are analysed, including electric-conduct, ph-value and temperature of water as well as stable isotopes (D, 18 O) and tritium. Furthermore, the sensibilities of this theory and methods were confirmed by detecting seepage flow field of Xinanjiang Dam

  4. The radioactive waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareeduddin, S.; Hirling, J.

    1983-01-01

    The international conference on radioactive waste management was held in Seattle, Washington, from 16 to 20 May 1983. The response was gratifying, reflecting world-wide interest: it was attended by 528 participants from 29 Member States of the IAEA and eight international organizations. The conference programme was structured to permit reviews and presentation of up-to-date information on five major topics: - waste management policy and its implementation: national and international approaches; legal, economic, environmental, and social aspects (four sessions with 27 papers from 16 countries and four international organizations); - handling, treatment, and conditioning of wastes from nuclear facilities, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants, including the handling and treatment of gaseous wastes and wastes of specific types (five sessions with 35 papers); - storage and underground disposal of radioactive wastes: general, national concepts, underground laboratories, and designs of repositories for high-level, and low- and intermediate-level waste disposal (five sessions with 35 papers); - environmental and safety assessment of waste management systems: goals methodologies, assessments for geological repositories, low- and intermediate-level wastes, and mill tailings (four sessions with 26 papers); - radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear operations: status and perspectives, environmental transport processes, and control of radioactive waste disposal into the environment (three sessions with 23 papers)

  5. Reducing the risk from radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, C.

    2006-01-01

    Each year the IAEA receives reports of serious injuries or deaths due to misuse or accidents involving sealed radioactive sources. Sealed radioactive sources are used widely in medicine, industry, and agriculture - by doctors to treat cancer, by radiographers to check welds in pipelines, or by specialists to irradiate food to prevent it from spoiling, for example. If these sources are lost or improperly discarded, a serious accident may result. In addition, the security of sealed sources has become a growing concern, particularly the potential that such a source could be used as a radioactive dispersal device or 'dirty bomb'. Preventing the loss or theft of sealed radioactive sources reduces both the risk of accidents and the risk that such sources could become an instrument of misuse. In most countries, radioactive materials and activities that produce radiation are regulated. Those working with sealed radioactive sources are required not just to have proper credentials, but also the needed training and support to deal with unexpected circumstances that may arise when a source is used. Despite these measures, accidents involving sealed sources continue to be reported to the IAEA. Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents since the 1980s and publishing the findings so that others can learn from them. This information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can reduce accidents by preventing a lost source from making it's way into scrap metal. The IAEA has also developed an international catalogue of sealed radioactive sources, and provides assistance to countries to safely contain sources no longer in use. To raise awareness, a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit was issued that focuses on the long-term issues in safely and securely managing radioactive sealed sources. The target audiences are government agencies, radioactive sealed source

  6. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  7. Multiple sample, radioactive particle counting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, R.R.V.; Kelso, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus is described for determining the respective radioactive particle sample count being emitted from radioactive particle containing samples. It includes means for modulating the information on the radioactive particles being emitted from the samples, coded detecting means for sequentially detecting different respective coded combinations of the radioactive particles emitted from more than one but less than all of the samples, and processing the modulated information to derive the sample count for each sample. It includes a single light emitting crystal next to a number of samples, an encoder belt sequentially movable between the crystal and the samples. The encoder belt has a coded array of apertures to provide corresponding modulated light pulses from the crystal, and a photomultiplier tube to convert the modulated light pulses to decodable electrical signals for deriving the respective sample count

  8. Radioactive waste management: Spanish experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste generation began in Spain during the 1950's, in association with the first applications of radioactive isotopes in industry, medicine and research. Spain's first nuclear power plant began its operations in 1968. At present, there are in operation some one thousand installations possessing the administrative authorization required to use radioactive isotopes (small producers), nine nuclear groups and a tenth is now entering the dismantling phase. There are also activities and installations pertaining to the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (mining, milling and the manufacturing of fuel elements). Until 1985, the research center Junta de Energia Nuclear (now CIEMAT) rendered radioactive waste removal, and subsequent conditioning and temporary storage services to the small producers. Since the beginning of their operations the nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities have had the capacity to condition and temporarily store their own radioactive wastes. ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S. A.) began its operations in the second half of 1985. It is a state-owned company created by the Government in accordance with a previous parliamentary resolution and commissioned to establish a system for management of such wastes throughout Spain, being in charge also of the dismantling of nuclear power plants and other major installations at the end of their operating lifetimes. Possibly the most outstanding characteristic of ENRESA's evolution over these last seven years has been the need to bring about a compromise between solving the most immediate and pressing day-to-day problems of operation (the first wastes were removed at the beginning of 1986) and establishing the basic organization, resources, technology and installations required for ENRESA to operate efficiently in the long term. (author)

  9. Radioactivities (dose rates) of rocks in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu; Minato, Susumu

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive distribution (radiation doses) of major rocks in Japan was monitored to clarify the factors influencing terrestrial gamma-ray absorbed dose rates. The rock samples were reduced to powder and analyzed by well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and pulse height analyzer. Terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates were estimated in terms of gamma radiation dose rate 1 m above the ground. The radioactivity concentration was highest in acidic rock which contains much SiO 2 among igneous rock, followed by neutral rock, basic rock, and ultrabasic rock. The radioactive concentration was 30-40% lower in acidic and clastic rocks than those of the world average concentration. Higher radioactive concentration was observed in soils than the parent rocks of sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock. The gamma radiation dose rate was in proportion to the radioactive concentration of the rocks. To clarify the radioactive effect in the change course of rocks into soils, comparative measurement of outcrop and soil radioactive concentrations is important. (S.Y.)

  10. Information support for major public events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the IAEA illicit trafficking database is used to provide information on and assesment of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials to national authorities in charge of nuclear security of major public events. The information communicated to state parties cooperating with IAEA is on incidences confirmed to the agency on illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and also incidences reported in open sources which have not been confirmed.

  11. Radioactivity and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references

  12. Investigation of radioactive contamination at non-radioactive drains of the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Hiroaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Ebisawa, Toru; Kawano, Shinji; Kobayashi, Keiji.

    1982-05-01

    In April, 1981, it was disclosed that a drainage area at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station was so much contaminated with radioactivites. Although Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) officially provided an explanation of a process that resulted in the contamination, many problems remain unsolved on account of insufficient and limited investigations. The authors collected mud samples from contaminated manholes and examined radioactivities in them through the measurement of #betta#- and #betta#-spectra. Chemical separation of the samples was carried out in order to obtain precise concentration of radioactive cesium. Results are as follows: i) the concentration of radioactivities does not show monotonous decrease along the stream line but an anomalous peak at downstream manholes, ii) at the manhole specified No. 6 located rather downstream, 137 Cs concentration is significantly high and the composition of radioactive nuclides is quite different from that in the other manholes, and iii) additional radioactive contamination was observed in other manholes of non-radioactive drains which would not be influenced by the accident explained by MITI. Our present work has provided much more data than by MITI and made it clear that the overall data cnnot be consistent with the simple MITI explanation; a single radioactive release accident caused the disclosed contamination. It is concluded that non-radioactive water drains at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station had been under continual contamination. (author)

  13. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  14. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  15. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  16. Learning more about radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This digest brochure explains what radioactivity is, where it comes from, how it is measured, what are its effects on the body and the way to protect it against these effects, the uses of radioactivity (In the medical field, In industry, In the food industry, and In the cultural world). It ends with some examples of irradiation levels, of natural radioactivity and with the distribution in France of various sources of exposure. (J.S.)

  17. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  18. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  19. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  20. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, M.; Dowdall, A.; Hanley, O.; Hayden, E.; Kelleher, K.; Long, S.; Smith, V.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2008-10-01

    detect the presence of the gas krypton-85. This gas is released into the environment primarity as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. During 2007, levels of radionuclides in airborne radioactivity were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at fifteen stations. No abnormal levels were observed. A major upgrade of the aerosol sampling equipment began in 2007 when three on-line low volume systems and seven upgraded off-line low volume systems were installed and commissioned. Two additional on-line sites will be added in 2008. In accordance with the RPII's drinking water monitoring protocol, a number of major water supplies from Cork, Dublin, Galway and Limerick were tested and found to be within the requirements for radioactivity set out in the relevant national standards. In addition, groundwater supplies were tested in nine countries as a pilot for a national survey of ground water scheduled for 2008 to 2010. The RPII sampled and measured levels of radioactivity in mixed diet, milk and various other foodstuffs including milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb and poultry. These measurements show that the levels of artificual radioactivity in the Irish diet continue to be low. One hundred and ninety samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were analysed for a range of radionuclides. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed were in the north-east. The main pathway contributing to the exposure of the Irish public to artificial radioactivity from the marine environment is the consumption of seafood. Caesium-137 continues to be the dominant radionuclide, accounting for approximately 84% of the total dose. The dose to the Irish population from consumption of seafood landed at north-east ports has declined significantly over the last two decades corresponding to the reduction in discharges from Sellafield. The annual doses incurred by the Irish public

  1. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  2. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.) [de

  3. Environmental radioactivity 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Environmental Radioactivity in New Zealand and Rarotonga : annual report 1996 was published in May this year. The 1996 environmental radioactivity monitoring programme included, as usual, measurements in New Zealand and the Cook Islands of atmospheric, deposited and dairy product radioactivity. The environment in the New Zealand and Cook Island regions has now virtually returned to the situation in the 'pre-nuclear' era. The contination of monitoring, although at a reduced level of intensity, is basically to ensure that any change from the present state, due to any source of radioactivity does not go undetected or unquestioned. (author)

  4. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  5. Failure in the detection of the sentinel lymph node with a combined technique of radioactive tracer and blue dye in a patient with cancer of the vulva and a single positive lymph node

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fons, G.; ter Rahe, B.; Sloof, G.; de Hullu, J.; van der Velden, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background. In early stage vulvar cancer, the sentinel lymph node procedure with a radioactive tracer appears to be a promising new diagnostic tool to predict lymph node status. No detection failures have been published so far in vulvar cancer. We recently experienced failure in the detection of the

  6. Failure in the detection of the sentinel lymph node with a combined technique of radioactive tracer and blue dye in a patient with cancer of the vulva and a single positive lymph node

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fons, G; ter Rahe, B; Sloof, G; de Hullu, J; van der Velden, J

    Background. In early stage vulvar cancer, the sentinel lymph node procedure with a radioactive tracer appears to be a promising new diagnostic tool to predict lymph node status. No detection failures have been published so far in vulvar cancer. We recently experienced failure in the detection of the

  7. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1983-01-01

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  8. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    The problem of disposal can be tackled in two ways: the waste can be diluted and dispersed so that the radiation to which any single individual would be subjected would be negligible, or it can be concentrated and permanently isolated from man and his immediate environment. A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive waste into the ground were described at the Monaco conference. They range from letting liquid effluent run into pits or wells at appropriately chosen sites to the permanent storage of high activity material at great depth in geologically suitable strata. Another method discussed consists in the incorporation of high level fission products in glass which is either buried or stored in vaults. Waste disposal into rivers, harbours, outer continental shelves and the open sea as well as air disposal are also discussed. Many of the experts at the Monaco conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some experts, felt that certain of these methods might not be harmless. This applied to the possible hazards of disposal in the sea. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that much additional research was needed to devise more effective and economical methods of disposal and to gain a better knowledge of the effects of various types of disposal operations, particularly in view of the increasing amounts of waste material that will be produced as the nuclear energy industry expands

  9. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government's system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government's program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

  10. Radioactive waste repositories in hard rock aquifers--hydrodynamic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.; Braester, C.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model for mass and heat flow and a computer program have been developed to demonstrate the effect of heat released from a hypothetical radioactive waste repository on the groundwater flow regime. The model, based on the continuum approach, conceptualizes the fracture pattern and the solid blocks as two overlapping continua and consists of a set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The general form of the model is three-dimensional and can treat the fluid and rock either as two separate media with a quasi-steady exchange of heat between them or as a single equivalent medium with instantaneous thermal equilibrium. Numerical solutions have been obtained by the Galerkin finite element method. Examples have been presented for topographically different locations of the repository: below a horizontal ground surface, below a hill crest, below a hillside, and close to major fractures. The effects of constant permeability and porosity or downward decreasing with depth as well as the effect of anisotropic permeability have been investigated. Solutions include the velocity field, path lines, and traveling times of water particles passing the repository and the temperature distribution. The examples have been worked out for a two-dimensional flow domain, assuming that instantaneous thermal equilibrium takes place. This assumption was found to be justified by the relatively low flow velocities that occurred in the examples. Except for the location close to a major draining fracture, heat released from the radioactive waste repository may have a significant influence on the flow regime around the repository

  11. Safe and secure: transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, D.

    2015-01-01

    Western Waste Management Facility is Central Transportation Facility for Low and Intermediate waste materials. Transportation support for Stations: Reactor inspection tools and heavy water between stations and reactor components and single bundles of irradiated fuel to AECL-Chalk River for examination. Safety Track Record: 3.2 million kilometres safely travelled and no transportation accident - resulting in a radioactive release.

  12. Experience with radioactivity releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.V.; Johnson, A.G.; Ringle, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    On December 11, 1970, the reactor top continuous air monitor (CAM) showed an increase in particulate air activity of an unusual nature. A check of the CAM filter with a multi-channel analyzer indicated that the majority of the activity was due to Cs-138 , Cs-139 , Rb-89 , and Rb-90 , which indicated a probable fuel element leak. The CAM filter was changed and rechecked several times, but the rubidium and cesium radionuclides were consistently identified. The procedure was followed by removing three fuel elements at a time. Since the CAM was the only instrument picking up radioactivity, it was used as the primary radiation monitor. During the search for the leaky fuel element, it was found that the element in position E-18 (triangle cut-out) was leaning against the top of the element in E-17. Particulate air activity originating from the rotating rack loading port on the reactor top was reported by OSU during the previous TRIGA Owner's Seminar. Short term relief can be obtained by inserting a standard CAM filter paper over the rotating rack loading tube opening, but this has not proved satisfactory for runs of one hour or longer. A simple filter system for the rotating rack was built, and is operated as part of the argon ventilation system. This appears to have solved the problem

  13. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  14. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  15. Radioactivity in cigaratte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Tanker, E.; Aksu, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Cigaratte is known to be hazardous to health due to nicotine and tar it contains.This is indicated on cigaratte packets by health warnings.However there is less known hazard of smoking due to intake of radioactive compounds by inhalation. This study dwells upon the radioactive hazard of smoking

  16. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  17. Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokosa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface

  18. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  19. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  20. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  1. Sealed radioactive sources toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.

    2005-09-01

    The IAEA has developed a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit to provide information to key groups about the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. The key groups addressed are officials in government agencies, medical users, industrial users and the scrap metal industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety

  2. K. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is a controversial and emotive subject. This report discusses radioactivity hazards which arise from each stage of the fuel cycle and then relates these hazards to the New Zealand situation. There are three appendices, two of which are detailed considerations of a paper by Dr. B.L.Cohen

  3. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  4. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  5. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  6. International Catalogue of Sealed Radioactive Sources and Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The international catalogue of sealed radioactive sources and devices have two major objectives. The first objective is to provide vital information for a wide range of individuals and organizations on industrially manufactured radioactive sources and devices. The second objective is to facilitate identification of design specifications based on limited information from orphan sources and devices to allow safe handling of these items.

  7. Radioactivity and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.H.; Horrill, A.D.; Livens, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    The official assumption is that if levels of radioactivity are safe for humans, they are safe for wildlife too. NCC sponsored a research project by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology to find out what was known in this field. It appears that the assumption is justified to a certain extent in that mammals are identified as the organisms most vulnerable to the damaging effects of radioactivity. Other general principles are put forward: where there are radioactive discharges to the marine environment, coastal muds and saltmarshes can be particularly contaminated; upland habitats, with low nutrient status and subject to high rainfall, are likely to accumulate radioactivity from atmospheric discharges (e.g. Chernobyl, the wildlife effects of which are reported here). The document concludes that no deleterious effects of radioactivity on wild plants and animals have been detected in the UK, but acknowledges that there are still many gaps in our knowledge of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the natural environment. (UK)

  8. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  9. EPA's Radioactive Source Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsick, D.

    2004-01-01

    The US EPA is the lead Federal agency for emergency responses to unknown radiological materials, not licensed, owned or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement state (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 1996). The purpose of EPA's clean materials programme is to keep unwanted and unregulated radioactive material out of the public domain. This is achieved by finding and securing lost sources, maintaining control of existing sources and preventing future losses. The focus is on both, domestic and international fronts. The domestic program concentrates on securing lost sources, preventing future losses, alternative technologies like tagging of radioactive sources in commerce, pilot radioactive source roundup, training programs, scrap metal and metal processing facilities, the demolition industry, product stewardship and alternatives to radioactive devices (fewer radioactive source devices means fewer orphan sources). The international program consists of securing lost sources, preventing future losses, radiation monitoring of scrap metal at ports and the international scrap metal monitoring protocol

  10. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)

  11. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  12. Radioactive waste and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive waste just happens to be the major issue in the public eye now--it could be replaced by another issue later. A survey is quoted to prove that wastes are not really one of the burning national issues of the day. The people opposing the nuclear program cannot be said to represent the public. The taste of the press for the melodramatic is pointed out. The issue needs to be presented with the proper perspective, in the context of the benefits and risks of nuclear power

  13. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  14. On-line radioactivity detector for HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last ten years the technique of high performance liquid chromotography (HPLC) has become extensively employed for the separation and quantitation of various biological, organic, and inorganic substances. The use of HPLC for the separation of various metabolic compounds has become routine. The major problem of analyzing the metabolism process is that the quantitation is accomplished by the use of radioactive substrates. Until recently the only method to quantitate these radioactive compounds eluting from the HPLC was by collecting fractions at preset times, removing aliquots and quantitating in a liquid scintillation counter. Once the radioactivity present in each fraction was determined, the results were plotted on a graph and the area of each of the radioactive peaks was determined. This entire process required from 3-20 hours. The introduction of the flow through radioactivity detector enable the investigator to directly quantitate the radioactive peaks as they elute from the HPLC in real time and at about one-tenth the original cost of the previous methods. The detection limits of this technique are dependent on the residence time of the sample in the flow cell and the type of flow cell used for the analysis. Using a 2.5 ml liquid flow cell, (mixing with liquid scintillation solution), base line resolution can be obtained for peaks 1.5 minutes apart, and a sensitivity of 70 dpm for tritium and 30 dpm for carbon-14 can be achieved

  15. Radioactivity made understandable. A common language presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traebert, E.

    2007-01-01

    The word ''radioactivity'' has something scary about it; it makes us think of something intangable, creeping dangers, the mysterious ticking of Geiger counters, reactor disasters, dirty bombs, nuclear contamination and destruction. True: Whole landscapes were made uninhabitable by accidents involving radioactive material such as Windscale, Sellafield and Chernobyl and others that were kept largely secret from the public. While to some they brought premature death, for the great majority of the world population their effects have so far been insignificant. By contrast, how little known is the fact that natural radioactivity has been around since human beginnings and that the cells of the human body have always been equipped to repair damage from radioactive radiation or other causes provided such damage does not occur too frequently. Elmar Traebert presents the physics underlying radioactivity without resorting to formulas and explains in an easily understandable manner the different types of radiation, their measurement and sources (in medicine, power plants, and weapons technology) and how they should be handled. He describes nuclear power plants and the safety problems they involve, sunburn, radiation therapy, uranium ammunition and uranium mining. Whoever knows about these things can more early cope with his own fears and maybe allay some of them. He can also see through statements made by different interest groups with regard to radioactive material and duly form his own opinion

  16. Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of 14C-APX001 after Single-Dose Administration to Rats and Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, Robert; Shaw, Karen J; Hodges, Michael R; Coleman, Samantha; Fitzsimmons, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background APX001 is a small-molecule therapeutic agent in clinical development for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFI). Methods The absorption, distribution and excretion profiles of [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity were determined in rats (albino and pigmented) and monkeys. Rats (some implanted with bile duct cannulae) were administered a single 100 mg/kg oral dose or a 30 mg/kg intravenous (IV) dose. Monkeys were administered a single 6 mg/kg IV dose. Samples of blood, urine, feces and bile, as well as carcasses, were collected through 168 hours after dosing. Samples were analyzed for total radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting, and carcasses were analyzed by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. Results [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity was rapidly and extensively absorbed and extensively distributed to most tissues for both routes of administration in both species. In rats, tissues with the highest radioactivity Cmax values included bile, abdominal fat, reproductive fat, subcutaneous fat, and liver, but radioactivity was also detected in tissues associated with IFI, including lung, brain and eye. In monkeys, the highest Cmax values were in bile, urine, uveal tract, bone marrow, abdominal fat, liver, and kidney cortex. Liver and kidney were the tissues with highest radioactivity, but as in the rat, radioactivity was also detected in lung, brain and eye tissues. In pigmented rats, radiocarbon was densely distributed into pigmented tissue and more slowly cleared than from other tissues. Mean recovery of radioactivity in rats was approximately 95–100%. In bile duct-intact rats, >90% of radioactivity was recovered in feces. In cannulated rats, biliary excretion of radioactivity was the major route of elimination and accounted for 88.8% of the dose, whereas urinary and fecal excretion of radioactivity was minor and accounted for 2.56% and 5.42% of the dose, respectively. In monkeys, the overall recovery of radioactivity

  17. Radioactive waste management: A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This publication briefly summarizes the activities of the IAEA and its Member States in the area of radioactive waste management. The information is presented in two major sections. One section presents a brief overview of the Agency's programme, and the other section provides a status report on the activities in many of the Agency's Member States

  18. A legal approach to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derche, B.; Rocamora, P.; Salelles, A.

    1983-01-01

    The authors of this paper review the major legal problems raised by radioactive waste management. They stress the complexity of such problems by posing three main queries: surveillance or no surveillance; liability or no liability and finally internationalisation or national jurisdiction. This analysis seeks to provide food for thought on each point rather than a solution to the questions reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  19. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J M [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights

    1982-03-01

    The aims and options for the management and disposal of highly radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel from the generation of nuclear power are outlined. The status of developments in reprocessing, waste solidification and geologic burial in major countries is reviewed. Some generic assessments of the potential radiological impacts from geologic repositories are discussed, and a perspective is suggested on risks from radiation.

  20. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomek, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru

  1. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  2. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes is perhaps the most controversial and least understood aspect of the use of nuclear materials in generating electrical power, the investigation of biochemical processes through tracer kinetics, and the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In the siting of nuclear power facilities, the disposal of radioactive wastes is invariably posed as the ultimate unanswerable question. In the fall of 1979, biochemical and physiologic research employing radioactive tracers was threatened with a slowdown resulting from temporary closure of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Radioactive pharmaceuticals used extensively for diagnosis and treatment of human disease have increased dramatically in price, partly as a result of the escalating cost of disposing of radioactive wastes created during production of the labeled pharmaceuticals. These problems have resulted in identification of the disposal of LLW as the most pressing issue in the entire scheme of management of hazardous wastes. How this issue as well as the separate issue of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) are being addressed at both national and state levels is the subject of this chapter

  3. Strategic areas in radioactive waste management. The viewpoint and work orientations of the Nea radioactive waste management committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) is a forum of senior operators, regulators, policy makers, and senior representatives of R and D institutions in the field of radioactive waste management. The Committee assists Member countries by providing objective guidance on the solution of radioactive waste problems, and promotes Safety in the short- and long-term management of radioactive waste. This report identifies some of the major challenges currently faced by national waste management programmes, and describes the strategic areas in which the RWMC should focus its efforts in future years. (author)

  4. Atmospheric natural radioactivity outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Following a short account of natural atmospheric radioactivity, radon concentrations are given as well as their variations with time obtained by means of a original apparatus developped in Brest. The radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters is then considered, many experiments demonstrating that equilibrium is seldom reached even for 218 Po (RaA). Finally, some characteristics of natural radioactive aerosols are studied: charge, particle size distribution (demonstrating they are fine aerosols since only 30 per cent are made of particles with radii exceeding 0,1 μm) [fr

  5. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  6. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  7. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  8. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1978-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)

  9. Radioactive waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, J.-C.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of confining the radioactive wastes produced from the nuclear industry, after the ore concentration stage, is envisaged. These residues being not released into the environment are to be stored. The management policy consists in classifying them in view of adapting to each type of treatment, the suitable conditioning and storage. This classification is made with taking account of the following data: radioactivity (weak, medium or high) nature and lifetime of this radioactivity (transuranians) physical nature and volume. The principles retained are those of volume reduction and shaping into insoluble solids (vitrification) [fr

  10. Radioactivity of fish II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Hiwatashi, Y; Tamari, T; Yoshitake, N; Tajima, D

    1955-01-01

    Various tissues of fish captured east of Formosa after the Bikini H-Bomb experiment had radioactivities (detected on May 27, 1954) in counts/min/ash from 5 g. fresh tissues: blood 2414, eyeball 49, heart muscle 111, white muscle 11, red muscle (chiai) 123, bone 46, skin 28, pancreas 131, liver 522, stomach muscle 106, stomach contents 52, spermatozoa 47, and spleen 504. High radioactivities in blood and blood synthesizing organs (liver and spleen) were emphasized. The radioactivity in the blood had a half-life of 34 to 35 days and the maximum energy of ..beta..-ray of approximate 0.4 m.e.v.

  11. Radioactive facilities classification criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso C, H.A.; Riesle W, J.

    1992-01-01

    Appropriate classification of radioactive facilities into groups of comparable risk constitutes one of the problems faced by most Regulatory Bodies. Regarding the radiological risk, the main facts to be considered are the radioactive inventory and the processes to which these radionuclides are subjected. Normally, operations are ruled by strict safety procedures. Thus, the total activity of the radionuclides existing in a given facility is the varying feature that defines its risk. In order to rely on a quantitative criterion and, considering that the Annual Limits of Intake are widely accepted references, an index based on these limits, to support decisions related to radioactive facilities, is proposed. (author)

  12. Design of automatic control and measurement software for radioactive aerosol continuity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yong; Li Aiwu

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive aerosol continuity measurement is very important for the development of nuclear industry, and it is the major method to measure and find out the leakage of radioactive material. Radioactive aerosol continuity monitor is the advanced method for the radioactive aerosol continuity measurement. With the development of nuclear industry and nuclear power station, it is necessary to design and automatic continuity measurement device. Because of this reason, the authors developed the first unit of radioactive aerosol continuity monitor and adopted the ministry appraisal. The design idea and method of automatic control and measurement for radioactive aerosol continuity monitor are discussed

  13. Natural radioactivity (40K) measurement in common food grains using indigenous technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Sahani, R.M.; Damor, S.L.; D'Souza, P.M.

    2018-01-01

    Ingestion of contaminated food is one of the major causes of internal doses received in various human organs. As there being no material free from radioactivity on this globe; knowledge of natural radioactivity concentration in common food items is very important for judging the origin of contamination due to nuclear emergency or other man-made activities. An indigenous technology for radioactivity measurement in food/bulk items has been developed and tested using live radioactive sources. This has also been explored for natural radioactivity measurement in common food grains consumed by Indian population. This paper reports the measured natural radioactivity ( 40 K) in common Indian food grains using the developed technology

  14. Adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with major cerebral artery steno-occlusive diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hideo; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Taro; Kuroda, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Yoshida, Kenji; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were prospectively investigated in 100 patients with major cerebral artery, atherosclerotic, and steno-occlusive diseases. All patients underwent two SPECT studies (with and without acetazolamide challenge) at an interval of 2 or 3 days, received a questionnaire immediately after each SPECT study, and returned the answered questionnaire within 7 days after the study. None of the 100 patients studied experienced any symptoms during the SPECT study without acetazolamide challenge. Sixty-three patients (63%) developed symptoms during the SPECT study with acetazolamide challenge, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, tinnitus, numbness of the extremities, motor weakness of the extremities, and general malaise 1-3 hours (mean 1.6 hours) after administration of acetazolamide, and these symptoms lasted for 0.5-72 hours (mean 7.9 hours). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that younger age (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.896-0.980, p=0.0047) and female sex (95% CI 1.178-16.129, p=0.0274) were significantly associated with development of symptoms with acetazolamide challenge. The incidences of the development of symptoms with acetazolamide challenge were 91% (21/23) and 41% (12/29) in subgroups of women <70 years and men ≥70 years, respectively. Patients should be informed of such adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration prior to the acetazolamide challenge test for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity. (author)

  15. Adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with major cerebral artery steno-occlusive diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Hideo; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Taro; Kuroda, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Yoshida, Kenji; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical Univ., School of Medicine, Morioka, Iwate (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were prospectively investigated in 100 patients with major cerebral artery, atherosclerotic, and steno-occlusive diseases. All patients underwent two SPECT studies (with and without acetazolamide challenge) at an interval of 2 or 3 days, received a questionnaire immediately after each SPECT study, and returned the answered questionnaire within 7 days after the study. None of the 100 patients studied experienced any symptoms during the SPECT study without acetazolamide challenge. Sixty-three patients (63%) developed symptoms during the SPECT study with acetazolamide challenge, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, tinnitus, numbness of the extremities, motor weakness of the extremities, and general malaise 1-3 hours (mean 1.6 hours) after administration of acetazolamide, and these symptoms lasted for 0.5-72 hours (mean 7.9 hours). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that younger age (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.896-0.980, p=0.0047) and female sex (95% CI 1.178-16.129, p=0.0274) were significantly associated with development of symptoms with acetazolamide challenge. The incidences of the development of symptoms with acetazolamide challenge were 91% (21/23) and 41% (12/29) in subgroups of women <70 years and men {>=}70 years, respectively. Patients should be informed of such adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration prior to the acetazolamide challenge test for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity. (author)

  16. Radioactivity in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornaro, Laura

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this practical work is to familiarize the student with radioactivity measures in environmental samples. For that were chosen samples a salt of natural potassium, a salt of uranium or torio and a sample of drinkable water

  17. Radioactivity content of books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    The natural and fallout radioactivity was measured in a large number of books produced in various countries after 1955. Results of these measurements showed that the books contained radioactivity due to fallout 137 Cs and 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K radioisotopes of primordial origin. Books printed in the U.S.A. had low radioactivity of 40K and 226 Ra origin compared to books printed in the European subcontinent. Books printed during high fallout rate (1962-64) or thereafter did not exhibit any significantly higher 137 Cs levels. The maximum radiation dose to the eyes calculated for the radioactivity content of the books was 0.8 μR/hr and the minimum was 0.07 μR/hr; most of the books were in the range 0.3-0.5 μR/hr. (U.K.)

  18. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  19. Radioactive contamination of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytil, I.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model is discussed describing radioactivity transport between the source and the organism. The model is to be applied in assessing the effect of a nuclear installation on the organism. Fortran and Pascal appear to be the most appropriate computer languages. With respect to internal memory requirements, the program file is estimated to consist of a control program and a number of subprograms. Upon setting the radioactivity transport and the output requirements the control program should recall the necessary subprograms. The program file should allow the complete data file and the solutions of all possible radioactivity transport variants to be inputted. It is envisaged that several subprograms will be available for one type of radioactivity transport, this depending on different accuracy of the transport description. Thus, the requirements for input data will also differ. (Z.M.)

  20. Radioactive labelling of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thygesen, Th.

    Experiments are described with the internal contamination of insects with phosphorus 32 introduced previously in plants of the brassica type using three different techniques. The intake of radioactivity from the plants to the insects is shown. (L.O.)

  1. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  2. Miniature radioactive light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffarella, T.E.; Radda, G.J.; Dooley, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A miniature radioactive light source for illuminating digital watches is described consisting of a glass tube with improved laser sealing and strength containing tritium gas and a transducer responsive to the gas. (U.K.)

  3. Radioactive pollution, ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants into surface waters as well as the atmosphere is discussed. Man-rem data are compared and expected quantities for disposal by power plants in the Netherlands are tabulated

  4. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  5. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  6. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  7. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  8. Internal radioactive contamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobajas, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    In a radiological emergency, the internal radioactive contamination becomes a therapeutic urgency and must be established as fast as possible. Just when a radioactive contamination accident occurs, it is difficult to know exactly the amount of radioactive materials absorbed and to estimate the dose received.. The decision to be taken after the incorporation of the radioactive material depends on the method and on the Radiological Protection Department collaboration. Any treatment achieving a reduction of the doses received or expected will be useful. The International Radiological Protection Commission doesn't recommend the use of the dose limit, to decide about the intervention necessity. However the LIA can be used as the reference point to establish the necessity and reach of the treatment. The object of the present work, is to introduce the general principles to carry out the internal people decontamination, under the last international recommendations. (Author) 4 refs

  9. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  10. Radioactivity of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashawati, A.; Al-Dalal, Z.; Al-Akel, B.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2002-04-01

    This report shows the results of studies related to radioactivity in tobacco and its pathways to human being. Tobacco contains high concentrations of natural radioactive materials especially polonium 210 and lead 210, which may reach a value of 27 mBq/g. The amount of polonium 210 in tobacco is related to the concentration of radon (the main source of polonium 210 in the agricultural areas) in addition to the over use of phosphate fertilizers for tobacco plantation. Radioactive materials present in tobacco enter the human body through smoking where 210 Po concentrates in the Alveolar lung; this may cause health risks including lung cancer. In addition, radiation doses due to smoking have been reported and some results of the studies carried out for radioactivity in tobacco at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  11. Radioactive pollution in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemtland, R.

    1985-01-01

    Routine measurements of radioactivity in rainfall are carried out at the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Norway. The report discusses why the method of ion exchange was selected and gives details on how the measurements are performed

  12. Radioactive gas solidification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji; Yabu, Tomohiko; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Handling of a solidification container from the completion for the solidifying processing to the storage of radioactive gases by a remote control equipment such as a manipulator requires a great cost and is difficult to realize. In a radioactive gas solidification device for injection and solidification in accumulated layers of sputtered metals by glow discharge, radiation shieldings are disposed surrounding the entire container, and cooling water is supplied to a cooling vessel formed between the container and the shielding materials. The shielding materials are divided into upper and lower shielding materials, so that solidification container can be taken out from the shielding materials. As a result, the solidification container after the solidification of radioactive gases can be handled with ease. Further, after-heat can be removed effectively from the ion injection electrode upon solidifying treatment upon storage, to attain a radioactive gas solidifying processing apparatus which is safe, economical and highly reliable. (N.H.)

  13. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  14. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abdul Malik Syed Zain

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the basic subjects covered in the radioactive waste management. The subjects are policy and legislation, pre-treatment, classification, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, siting and disposal, and quality assurance

  15. Radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terpakova, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the gamma-spectrometric determination of natural radioactivity in the different building materials and wares applied in Slovakia was performed. The specific activities for potassium-40, thorium, radium as well as the equivalent specific activities are presented

  16. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1998-04-01

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  17. Categorizing operational radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to improve communications among waste management professionals and Member States relative to the properties and status of radioactive waste. This is accomplished by providing a standardized approach to operational waste categorization using accepted industry practices and experience. It is a secondary objective to draw a distinction between operational waste categorization and waste disposal classification. The approach set forth herein is applicable to waste generation by mature (major, advanced) nuclear programmes, small-to-medium sized nuclear programmes, and programmes with waste from other nuclear applications. It can be used for planning, developing or revising categorization methodologies. For existing categorization programmes, the approach set forth in this publication may be used as a validation and evaluation tool for assessing communication effectiveness among affected organizations or nations. This publication is intended for use by waste management professionals responsible for creating, implementing or communicating effective categorization, processing and disposal strategies. For the users of this publication, it is important to remember that waste categorization is a communication tool. As such, the operational waste categories are not suitable for regulatory purposes nor for use in health and safety evaluations. Following Section 1 (Introduction) Section 2 of this publication defines categorization and its relationship to existing waste classification and management standards, regulations and practices. It also describes the benefits of a comprehensive categorization programme and fundamental record considerations. Section 3 provides an overview of the categorization process, including primary categories and sub-categories. Sections 4 and 5 outline the specific methodology for categorizing unconditioned and conditioned wastes. Finally, Section 6 provides a brief summary of critical considerations that

  18. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.)

  19. Radioactive waste management: a utility view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste continues to be a matter of public concern and discussion. There is broad agreement among members of the technical community that the various types of waste radioactive species can be managed without jeopardizing public health and safety. Despite this consensus, one of the major reasons cited by opponents of commercial nuclear power for their opposition is the lack of a fully deployed waste management program. Such a program has been suggested but implementation is not yet complete. It is essential that a program be undertaken so as to dispel the impression that past inaction on waste disposal represents an inability to deal safely with wastes

  20. Microwave processing of radioactive materials-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Berry, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers that reviews the major past and present applications of microwave energy for processing radioactive materials, with particular emphasis on processing radioactive wastes. Microwave heating occurs through the internal friction produced inside a dielectric material when its molecules vibrate in response to an oscillating microwave field. For this presentation, we shall focus on the two FCC-approved microwave frequencies for industrial, scientific, and medical use, 915 and 2450 MHz. Also, because of space limitations, we shall postpone addressing plasma processing of hazardous wastes using microwave energy until a later date. 13 refs., 4 figs

  1. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  2. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book highlights the main issues of public concern related to radioactive waste management and puts them into perspective. It provides an overview of radioactive waste management covering, among other themes, policies, implementation and public communication based on national experiences. Its purpose is to assists in increasing the understanding of radioactive waste management issues by public and national authorities, organizations involved in radioactive waste management and the nuclear industry; it may also serve as a source book for those who communicate with the public. Even in the unlikely event that nuclear power does not further develop around the world, the necessity for dealing with nuclear waste from past usages, from uranium mining and milling, decontamination and decommissioning of existing nuclear facilities and from the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research would still exist. In many countries, radioactive waste management planning involves making effective institutional arrangements in which responsibilities and liabilities are well established for the technical operation and long term surveillance of disposal systems. Financing mechanisms are part of the arrangements. Continuous quality assurance and quality control, at all levels of radioactive waste management, are essential to ensure the required integrity of the system. As with any other human activity, improvements in technology and economics may be possible and secondary problems avoided. Improvements and confirmation of the efficiency of processes and reduction of uncertainties can only be achieved by continued active research, development and demonstration, which are the goals of many national programmes. International co-operation, also in the form of reviews, can contribute to increasing confidence in the ongoing work. The problem of radioactive wastes is not a unique one; it may be compared with other problems of toxic wastes resulting from many other

  3. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Niello, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The book summarizes general concepts on radiation, nuclear structure, radioactivity and the interaction of the nuclear radiation with matter. It describes also the basic principles of radio dosimetry. Natural and artificial sources of radiation are reviewed as well as the effects of radiation in man. Medical and industrial applications of ionizing radiation and the pollution produced by the discharge of radioactive materials are outlined. A short review is made of the safety rules and the regulations concerning the protection of the environment [es

  4. Foodstuffs (radioactive contamination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Donald; Taylor, Teddy; Campbell-Savours, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings are given of the debate in the UK House of Commons on the maximum permitted radioactivity levels for foodstuffs, feeding stuffs and drinking water in the case of abnormal levels of radioactivity or of a nuclear accident. The motion takes note of European Community Document no. 7183/87 and urges the Community to assure a common standard of health protection by adopting a rational set of scientifically based intervention levels for foodstuffs. (UK)

  5. Radiation and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This book is written based on 25 years authors experience especially in scientifc research of radiation and environmental radioactivity field at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia). Interestingly, from the authors experience in managing the services and consultancies for radiological environmental monitoring, it is also helpful in preparing the ideas for this book. Although this book focuses on Malaysian radiation information environmental radioactivity, but the data collected by the international bodies are also included in this book.

  6. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1988-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1987 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  7. Radioactivity in fine papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.W.; Singh, B.

    1993-01-01

    The radioactivity of fine papers has been studied through γ-ray spectroscopy with an intrinsic Ge detector. Samples of paper from European and North American sources were found to contain very different amounts of 226 Ra and 232 Th. The processes which introduce radionuclides into paper are discussed. The radioactivity from fine papers makes only a small contribution to an individual's annual radiation dose; nevertheless it is easily detectable and perhaps, avoidable. (Author)

  8. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  9. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  10. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1990-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1989 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  11. Radioactive Substances Act 1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    This Act regulates the keeping and use of radioactive material and makes provision for the disposal and storage of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. It provides for a licensing system for such activities and for exemptions therefrom, in particular as concerns the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The Act repeals Section 4(5) of the Atomic Energy Authority Act, 1954 which made temporary provision for discharge of waste on or from premises occupied by the Authority. (NEA) [fr

  12. Radioactive aerosols. [In Russian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanson, G L

    1956-01-01

    Tabulations are given presenting various published data on safe atmospheric concentrations of various radioactive and non-radioactive aerosols. Methods of determination of active aerosol concentrations and dispersion as well as the technical applications of labeled aerosols are discussed. The effect of atomic explosions are analyzed considering the nominal atomic bomb based on /sup 235/U and /sup 232/Pu equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT.

  13. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  14. Sellafield (release of radioactivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J; Goodlad, A; Morris, M

    1986-02-06

    A government statement is reported, about the release of plutonium nitrate at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels plc on 5 February 1986. Matters raised included: details of accident; personnel monitoring; whether radioactive material was released from the site; need for public acceptance of BNFL activities; whether plant should be closed; need to reduce level of radioactive effluent; number of incidents at the plant.

  15. Radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  16. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  17. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnity, P.; Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Fegan, M.; Hanley, O.; Kelleher, K.; McKittrick, L.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2010-12-01

    weapons in the 1950s and 1960s and releases from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl. Milk, because it is an important foodstuff for infants and children and is known to concentrate long lived radionuclides such as caesium-137 and strontium-90, is an important indicator of levels of artificial radioactivity in the terrestrial food chain. The estimated dose due to strontium-90 activity in milk was estimated to be 0.97 ?Sv for 2009. This was for the most exposed group, assessed to be infants, children under the age of one year. It is very small compared to the background radiation. Radioactivity measurements on other foodstuffs confirm the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish food-chain remain very low and that Irish foodstuffs are free from harmful levels of radioactivity. The RPII monitors radioactivity in drinking water supplies in rotation so that major supplies from each county are sampled at least once every four years. During 2009 supplies from Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Leitrim, Longford, Limerick and Laois were tested. Drinking water samples are assessed for compliance with the radioactivity standards set out in the Drinking Water Directive. All drinking water samples tested during 2009 were found to be in compliance with the radioactivity standards set out in the Drinking Water Directive. The RPII programme also monitors airborne radioactivity through its network of on- and off-line samplers. External gamma dose rates are also monitored. No exceptional activity was detected in outdoor air during 2009. The levels were consistent with those recorded in previous years. For 2009 the average annual dose from inhalation of caesium-137 was estimated at 9.0 x 10?? ?Sv. The data presented in this report confirm that while the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish environment are detectable they are low and are continuing to decrease. They do not pose a significant risk to the human health of the Irish population. Activity concentrations of

  18. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, M.; Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Hanley, O.; Hayden, E.; Kelleher, K.; Long, S.; McKittrick, L.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2010-01-01

    weapons in the 1950s and 1960s and releases from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl. Milk, because it is an important foodstuff for infants and children and is known to concentrate long lived radionuclides such as caesium-137 and strontium-90, is an important indicator of levels of artificial radioactivity in the terrestrial food chain. The estimated dose due to strontium-90 activity in milk was estimated to be 0.55 ?Sv for 2008. This was for the most exposed group, assessed to be infants, children under the age of one year. It is very small compared to the background radiation. Radioactivity measurements on other foodstuffs confirm the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish food-chain remain very low and that Irish foodstuffs are free from harmful levels of radioactivity. The RPII monitors radioactivity in drinking water supplies in rotation so that major supplies from each county are sampled at least once every four years. During 2008 supplies from Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal and Dublin were tested. Drinking water samples are assessed for compliance with the radioactivity standards set out in the Drinking Water Directive. All drinking water samples tested during 2008 were found to be in compliance with the radioactivity standards set out in the Drinking Water Directive. The RPII programme also monitors airborne radioactivity through its network of on- and off-line samplers. External gamma dose rates are also monitored. No exceptional activity was detected in outdoor air during 2008. The levels were consistent with those recorded in previous years. For 2008 the average annual dose from inhalation of caesium-137 was estimated at 8.0 x 10?? ?Sv. The data presented in this report confirm that while the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish environment are detectable they are low and are continuing to decrease. They do not pose a significant risk to the human health of the Irish population. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in airborne

  19. Radioactive Waste in Oil Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Graham, G.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material commonly known as NORM composes the majority of the dose received by a person each year at approximately 80% of the total amount. However, there is a noticeably higher concentration of radioisotopes present in technologically enhanced NORM, often called TENORM, which results directly from human industrial activities. NORM is formed in the process of mineral mining including phosphate production, where the end goal is to concentrate high quantities of metals or elements (e.g. phosphorous). However, NORM has also become a widely recognized problem in the oil and gas industry. It is approximately one hundred and fifty years since oil was discovered in the continental United States and the mention of radioactivity in mineral oils and natural gases occurred in 1904, just eight years after the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Bequerel in 1896. In just over three decades the problems from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) wastes arising from the oil and gas industry have been much more scrutinized. In the 1980’s 226Ra began to be noticed when scrap metal dealers would detect unacceptably high levels of radiation from oil-field piping1. In 1991 Raloff2 published an article on the new hot wastes in NORM and in 1992 Wilson et. al3 described the health physics aspects of radioactive petroleum piping scale. NORM will develop in high concentrations in by-product oil and gas waste streams4-7. The NORM will chemically separate from other piped material in the process of the extraction of oil, resulting in high concentrations of 226Ra, 228 Ra and 210Pb and other radioisotopes in a densely caked layer on the inner surfaces of the piping1 . The activity of the 226Ra from NORM ranges from 185 to several tens of thousands Bq/kg of sample. By comparison, the NORM concentrations of radium in rock and soil is, at a natural level, 18.5 - 185 Bq/kg1. Disposal of NORM becomes more problematic as higher concentrations of

  20. Strategy on radioactive waste management in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskas, P.; Adomaitis, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    In Lithuania about 70-80% of all electricity is generated at a single power station, Ignalian NPP which has two non-upgradable RBMK-1500 type reactors. The unit 1 will be closed by 2005. The decision on unit 2 should be made in Lithuanian Parliament very soon taking into consideration substantial long-term financial assistance from the EU, G7 and other states as well as international institutions. The Government approved the Strategy on Radioactive Waste Management in 2002. Objectives of this strategy are to develop the radioactive waste management infrastructure based on modern technologies and provide for the set of practical actions that shall bring management of radioactive waste in Lithuania in compliance with radioactive waste management principles of IAEA and with good practices in force in EU Member States. Ignalina NPP is undertaking a program of decommissioning support projects, financed by grants from the International Ignalina Decommissioning Support Fund, administered by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. This program comprises also the implementation of investment projects in a number of pre-decommissioning facilities including the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. (orig.)

  1. Mobility of radioactive colloidal particles in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Long, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Radiocolloids are a major factor in the rapid migration of radioactive waste in groundwater. For at least two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sites, researchers have shown that groundwater colloidal particles were responsible for the rapid transport of radioactive waste material in groundwater. On an international scale, a review of reported field observations, laboratory column studies, and carefully collected field samples provides compelling evidence that colloidal particles enhance both radioactive and toxic waste migration. The objective of this project is to understand and predict colloid-contaminant migration through fundamental mathematical models, water sampling, and laboratory experiments and use this information to develop an effective and scientifically based colloid immobilization strategy. The article focuses on solving the suspected radiocolloid transport problems at LANL's Mortandad Canyon site. (author) 6 figs., 5 tabs., 18 refs

  2. Radioactive waste management policy for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Simionov, V.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear power is part of energy future as a clean and environmental friendly source of energy. For the case of nuclear power, two specific aspects come more often in front of public attention: how much does it cost and what happens with radioactive waste. The competitiveness of nuclear power vs other sources of energy is already proved in many developed and developing countries. As concerns the radioactive wastes treatment and disposal, industrial technologies are available. Even final solutions for disposal of high level radioactive waste, including spent fuel, are now fully developed and ready for large scale implementation. Policies and waste management strategies are established by all countries having nuclear programs. Once, the first nuclear power reactor was commissioned in Romania, and based on the national legal provisions, our company prepared the first issue of a general strategy for radioactive waste management. The general objective of the strategy is to dispose the waste according to adequate safety standards protecting the man and the environment, without undue burden on future generations. Two target objectives were established for long term: an interim spent fuel dry storage facility and a low and intermediate level waste repository. A solution for spent fuel disposal will be implemented in the next decade, based on international experience. Principles for radioactive waste management, recommended by IAEA are closely followed in the activities of our company. The continuity of responsibilities is considered to be very important. The radioactive waste management cost will be supported by the company. A tax on unit price of electricity will be applied. The implementation of radioactive waste management strategy includes as a major component the public information. A special attention will be paid by the company to an information program addressed to different categories of public in order to have a better acceptance of our nuclear power projects

  3. Radioactive situation in Kyrgyzstan: problems and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major problems of the environment contamination in Kyrgyzstan is the development of radioactive and toxic pollution caused by nuclear tests, technogene accidents which took place in neighboring countries, and breach of safe storage and destruction of uranium and hazardous waste tailings. Long-term nuclear tests in various areas of the world and the accident at the NPP have caused the origin of stratospheric deposit of artificial radionuclides, the fallout of which have led to radioactive pollution of the biosphere. Maximum fallout have been observed in the latitudinal zone of 40-60 degrees and in the mountainous regions. As a result of many years of research the main sources of radioactive contamination have been established. It is shown that stratospheric or tropospheric and local fallout have permanently exposed the territory of Kyrgyzstan to the pollution by radionuclides. A brief description of radioactive contamination of the environment in Kyrgyzstan from remote external sources and atmospheric mechanisms of its transfer delineated on the basis of long-term observation of geophysical and atmospheric parameters and regular radiation monitoring have been presented. The investigated mechanisms can be used to interpret the sharp increase of the radioactive background and to estimate the risk to the environment and human health. Some methodological questions about the influence of geophysical conditions on the territorial distribution of contamination have bee considered. The tropospheric mechanism of contamination transfer for different seasons of year has been suggested. The uranium tailings located in mountain regions near densely populated areas and and groundwater basins are the internal sources of radioactive contamination in Kyrgyzstan. Waste products of uranium production present a real treat for the environment and public health. The problem of environment security in connection with destruction of uranium tailings has been discussed. Till now

  4. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center, Maebashi (Japan); Sato, Makito [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Tatebayashi Kosei Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Sano, Hirokazu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Isesaki Municipal Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Isesaki (Japan); Ueda, Tetsuya [Fujioka General Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Fujioka (Japan); Sasaki, Toyoshi [Takasaki General Medical Center, Division of Cardiology, Takasaki (Japan); Nakahara, Takehiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 min/ml per 1.73 m{sup 2}] undergoing stress {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT for suspected or possible ischemic heart disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD. (orig.)

  5. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Sato, Makito; Sano, Hirokazu; Ueda, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Toyoshi; Nakahara, Takehiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 min/ml per 1.73 m 2 ] undergoing stress 99m Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT for suspected or possible ischemic heart disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD. (orig.)

  6. Transport of radioactive materials by post

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    The objective of the Seminar was to encourage safe and efficient carriage of radioactive material by post. Adequate, up-to-date regulations for international and domestic shipment of radioactive material by all modes of transport, including by mail, have been published by the IAEA. UPU, ICAO, IATA and other international organizations as well as a majority of the countries of the world have adopted most sections of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Although there is an apparent need for shipping radioactive material by mail, some countries allow only domestic shipments and the postal regulations applied in these countries often differs from the international regulations. Only about 25 countries are known to allow international (as well as domestic) shipments. From the discussions and comments at the Seminar, it appears that the option of shipment by post would be advantageous to enhance both the safety and economy of transporting, as well as to increase availability of, radioactive materials. The Agency's Regulations for transport by post as adopted by the UPU and ICAO are considered to provide a high level of safety and ensure a negligible element of risk. A more uniform application of these regulations within UPU Member States should be encouraged. The competent authority for implementation of the other parts of the Agency's Regulations in each of the Member States should be invited to advise the Postal Administrators and assist in applying the requirements to national as well as international postal shipments

  7. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BELGOWASTE was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: Purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste; centralization assumes the making of adequate arrangements for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of resiudal material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste; deep clay formations are at present preferred; disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol [fr

  8. Radioactivity in food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241 Am, 7 Be, 60 Co, 55 Fe, 3 H, 131 I, 54 Mn, 95 Nb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 228 Th, 232 Th, and 95 Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g -1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins

  9. The ''invisible'' radioactive scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Ramsoey, T.

    1999-04-01

    Production and up-concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in the petroleum industry has attracted steadily increasing attention during the last 15 years. Most production engineers today associate this radioactivity with precipitates (scales) and sludges in production tubing, pumps, valves, separators, settling tanks etc., wherever water is being transported or treated. 226 Ra and 228 Ra are the most well known radioactive constituents in scale. Surprisingly little known is the radioactive contamination by 210 Pb and progeny 210 Bi and 210 Po. These are found in combination with 226 Ra in ordinary scale, often in layer of non-radioactive metallic lead in water transportation systems, but also in pure gas and condensate handling systems ''unsupported'' by 226 Ra, but due to transportation and decay of the noble gas 222 Rn in NG/LNG. This latter contamination may be rather thin, in some cases virtually invisible. When, in addition, the radiation energies are low enough for not being detectable on the equipment outer surface, its existence has for most people in the industry been a secret. The report discusses transportation and deposition mechanisms, detection methods and provides some examples of measured results from the North Sea on equipment sent for maintenance. It is concluded that a regular measurement program for this type of contamination should be mandatory under all dismantling processes of transportation and fluid handling equipment for fluids and gases offshore and onshore

  10. Management on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents fΩm Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  11. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  12. Radioactive wastes. Management prospects. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2003-01-01

    These appendixes complete the article BN3661 entitled 'Radioactive wastes. Management prospects'. They develop the principles of the different separation processes under study and make a status of the conditioning matrices that are envisaged: 1 - principles of advanced separation (separation of U, Np, Pu, Tc and I; separation of Am and Cm in two extraction steps (Diamex and Sanex processes); separation of Am and Cm in a single extraction step (Paladin process); separation of Am and Cm (Sesame process); separation of Cs (Calixarene process); 2 - principles of separation in pyro-chemistry: separation under inert atmosphere (non-oxidizing); separation in oxidizing conditions; 3 - conditioning matrices under study for separate elements: objectives and methodology, matrices for iodine, for cesium and for actinides. (J.S.)

  13. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The norm which establishes the requirements of radiation protection and safety related to the transport of radioactive materials, aiming to keep a suitable control level of eventual exposure of personnels, materials and environment of ionizing radiation, including: specifications on radioactive materials for transport, selection of package type; specification of requirements of the design and assays of acceptance of packages; disposal related to the transport; and liability and administrative requirements, are presented. This norm is applied to: truckage, water carriage and air service; design, fabrication, assays and mantenaince of packages; preparation, despatching, handling, loading storage in transition and reception in the ultimate storage of packages; and transport of void packages which have been contained radioactive materials. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  15. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a process for treating radioactive waste whereby a mud of radioactive waste and cementing material is formed in a mixer. This mud is then transferred from the mixer to a storage and transport container where it is allowed to harden. To improve transport efficiency an alkali silicate or an alkaline-earth metal silicate is added to the mud. For one hundred parts by weight of radioactive waste in the mud, twenty to one hundred parts by weight of cementing material are added and five to fifty parts by weight of silicate, the amount of waste in the mud exceeding the combined amount of cementing and silicate material [fr

  16. Doses from radioactive methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, A.W.; Kendall, G.M.; Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    A possible radiation hazard arises from exposure to methane labelled with either a 3 H or a 14 C nuclide. This radioactive methane could be released from a variety of sources, e.g. land burial sites containing radioactive waste. Standard assumptions adopted for vapours would not apply to an inert alkane like methane. This paper discusses mechanisms by which radioactive methane would irradiate tissues and provides estimates of doses. Data on skin thickness and metabolism of methane are discussed with reference to these mechanisms. It is found that doses are dominated by dose from the small fraction of methane which is inhaled and metabolised. This component of dose has been calculated under rather conservative assumptions. (author)

  17. Radioactivity - superstition and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinsch, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Fairy-tales, myths, superstition - how was it fair, when we could still be afraid for witches and goblins. Where demons floated and nicks danced, the dry science has spreaded and disenchanted the life. If there would not be things like radioactivity, against which can be struggled in the collective well being. Then it is bad, clear, or good, it heals sicks, also clear. But what is now correct? In his usual humorous way the author, Dr. Hermann Hinsch, explains by means of numerous examples the phenomenon ''radioactivity'' and its effects on life. Provocantly but illustratively he illuminates, which position radioactive radiation has in our life and how and where we have already met it wantedly or unwantedly. Perhaps we must then something less shudder, but something more realism at such theme is surely not harmful.

  18. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  19. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  20. Radioactive waste processing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Minoru.

    1993-01-01

    Storing space for radioactive wastes (storage tunnels) are formed underground of the sea bottom along coast. A plurality of boreholes through which sea water flows are pored vertically in a direction intersecting underground streams of brine in the ground between the tunnels and seaside. Sea water introduction pipes are joined to the upper side walls of the boreholes. The sea water introduction pipes have introduction ports protruded under the sea level of the coastal sea area region. Since sea water flows from the introduction ports to the boreholes passing through the sea water introduction pipes, sea water is always filled in the boreholes. Therefore, brine is sufficiently supplied toward the land by sea water from the boreholes, the underground stream of brine is negligibly small. This can prevent radioactive contamination due to flow of the underground water when radioactive wastes are buried in the underground near coast. (I.N.)

  1. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  2. Reloadable radioactive generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombetti, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    A generator system that can be reloaded with an elutable radioactive material, such as 99 molybdenum, a multiple number of times is described. The system basically comprises a column filled with alumina, a loading vial containing a predetermined amount of the elutable radioactive material, and a rinsing vial containing a sterile solution. The two vials are connected by a conduit so that when communication is achieved between the column and loading vial and an evacuated vial is placed in communication with the bottom of the column, the predetermined amount of the radioactive material in the loading vial will be transferred to the column. The procedure can be repeated as the elutable material in the column is dissipated

  3. Radioactive waste removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To cleanup primary coolants for LMFBR type reactors by magnetically generating a high speed rotational flow in the flow of liquid metal, and adsorbing radioactive corrosion products and fission products onto capturing material of a complicated shape. Constitution: Three-phase AC coils for generating a rotational magnetic field are provided to the outside of a container through which liquid sodium is passed to thereby generate a high speed rotational stream in the liquid sodium flowing into the container. A radioactive substance capturing material made of a metal plate such as of nickel and stainless steel in the corrugated shape with shape edges is secured within a flow channel. Magnetic field at a great slope is generated in the flow channel by the capturing material to adsorb radioactive corrosion products and fission products present in the liquid sodium onto the capturing material and removing therefrom. This enables to capture the ferri-magnetic impurities by adsorption. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Radioactive liquid containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Hironobu.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling jackets are coiled around the outer circumference of a container vessel, and the outer circumference thereof is covered with a surrounding plate. A liquid of good conductivity (for example, water) is filled between the cooling jackets and the surrounding plate. A radioactive liquid is supplied to the container vessel passing through a supply pipe and discharged passing through a discharge pipe. Cooling water at high pressure is passed through the cooling water jackets in order to remove the heat generated from the radioactive liquid. Since cooling water at high pressure is thus passed through the coiled pipes, the wall thickness of the container vessel and the cooling water jackets can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost. Further, even if the radioactive liquid is leaked, there is no worry of contaminating cooling water, to prevent contamination. (I.N.)

  5. Radioactivity leakage monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takuichiro; Noguchi, Noboru.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device for detecting the leakage ratio of a primary coolant by utilizing the variation in the radioactivity concentration in a reactor container when the coolant is leaked. Constitution: A measurement signal is produced from a radioactivity measuring instrument, and is continuously input to a malfunction discriminator. The discriminator inputs a measurement signal to a concentration variation discriminator when the malfunction is recognized and simultaneously inputs a measurement starting time from the inputting time to a concentration measuring instrument. On the other hand, reactor water radioactivity concentration data obtained by sampling the primary coolant is input to a concentration variation computing device. A comparator obtains the ratio of the measurement signal from the measuring instrument and the computed data signal from the computing device at the same time and hence the leakage rate, indicates the average leakage rate by averaging the leakage rate signals and also indicates the total leakage amount. (Yoshihara, H.)

  6. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous sources of ionizing radiation can lead to human exposure: natural sources, nuclear explosions, nuclear power generation, use of radiation in medical, industrial and research purposes, and radiation emitting consumer products. Before assessing the radiation dose to a population one requires a precise knowledge of the activity of a number of radionuclides. The basis for the assessment of the dose to a population from a release of radioactivity to the environment, the estimation of the potential clinical heath effects due to the dose received and, ultimately, the implementation of countermeasures to protect the population, is the measurement of radioactive contamination in the environment after the release. It is the purpose of this book to present the facts about the presence of radionuclides in the environment, natural and man made. There is no aspect of radioactivity, which has marked the passing century, not mentioned or discussed in this book. refs

  7. Trapping radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, H.-J.; Blaum, K.

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning

  8. The management of radioactive materials spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Ebenhack, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The management and handling of a radioactive materials spill must be swift and effective to reduce or mitigate any adverse impacts on public health and safety. Spills within nuclear facilities generally pose less of a public health impact than spills in areas of public access. The essential elements of spill management include prior planning by agencies which may be required to respond to a spill. Any plan for the management of radioactive materials spills must be flexible enough to be applied in a variety of situations. The major elements of a radioactive materials spill plan, however, apply in every case. It is essential that communications be clear and effective, that the management of a spill be directed by a responsible party whose authority is recognized by everyone involved and that the actions, according to the principles discussed above, be taken to assure the safety of any injured personnel, containment and stabilization and clean up the spill and to verify through radiological surveys and sample analyses that the clean up is complete. Any spill of radioactive materials, minor or major, should be assessed so that similar spills or accidents can be prevented

  9. Handling of radioactive sources in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the following aspects: sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, radiation detectors, personnel and area monitoring, surface pollution, radioactive wastes control and radioactive sources transferring. (The author)

  10. Developments in radioactive scrap monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellian, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Over the past ten years there have been major developments in radiation monitoring systems used for detecting shielded radioactive sources in scrap metal. The extent of the problem and industry's awareness of the problem have both grown significantly during that time. The multimillion dollar expenses associated with decontamination after a source passes into the melt and the potential health hazard to employees and the public have added further impetus to the development of monitoring systems. Early attempts at scrap monitoring could detect some radiation, but testing with real life situations showed them to be virtually incapable of detecting shielded sources of radioactivity in incoming vehicles. More sophisticated detector technology and the development of advanced software made useful by more powerful microprocessors led to successive generations of monitoring systems with order-of-magnitude improvement in detection capability. The next generation includes larger detectors and more complex algorithms offering further improvement in truck and rail car monitoring. Complete solutions require monitoring at additional locations within the site, such as the charge bucket and conveyor lines, and at the scrap processor's site

  11. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  12. Application of artificial radioactive tracers for groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, M.S.; Aly, A.I.M.; Swailem, F.M.; Nada, A.A.; Awad, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, the groundwater velocity was estimated by applying radioactive tracer techniques: the single well and the multiple well methods. In the first single well method, radioactive iodine-131 was injected in the well and the radioactivity was monitored with time. The groundwater flow was estimated as a function of the concentration dilution factor of the tracer taking into consideration the permeability of the filter screen and the aquifer. The second method (the multiple well technique) is based on direct measuring of the period of time the tracer needs to disperse from the injection well to one of receptor well arranged in a circle around the injection. The latter method was found to be more accurate and reliable and has also the advantage of determining the groundwater velocity and direction of flow as well. The limitations of the single well technique are discussed and a detailed comparison between single and multi-well techniques is given

  13. Radioactive gas-containing polymeric capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Lewis, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A disposable ventilation study system for dispensing a single patient dosage of gaseous radioisotopes to patients for pulmonary function studies is disclosed. A gas impermeable capsule encloses the gaseous radioisotope and is stored within a radioactivity shielding body of valve means which shears the capsule to dispense the radioisotope to the patient. A breathing bag receives the patient's exhalation of the radioisotope and permits rebreathing of the radioisotope by the patient. 18 claims, 7 drawing figures

  14. Radioactivity and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Leon, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactivity is one of the most studied natural phenomena. Most of irradiation suffered by the human being is produced by natural sources. The second source in order of importance is nuclear medicine. The average level of radiation received by the man is 2.4 mSv/year and this value can be modified naturally in 20-30%. The author provides a review on radioactivity sources like natural (cosmic rays, extraterrestrial radiation, internal earth radiation, radon) and artificial (Nuclear explosions, professional exposure, nuclear medicine, nuclear power plants and accidents)

  15. Transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    The increasing use of radioactive substances, not only in reactor operations but also in medicine, industry and other fields, is making the movement of these materials progressively wider, more frequent and larger in volume. Although regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials have been in existence for many years, it has now become necessary to modify or supplement the existing provisions on an international basis. It is essential that the regulations should be applied uniformly by all countries. It is also desirable that the basic regulations should be uniform for all modes of transport so as to simplify the procedures to be complied with by shippers and carriers

  16. Radioactive wastes in Oklo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Pena, P.; Lopez, A.

    2006-01-01

    The acceptance of the Nuclear Energy as electric power supply implies to give answer to the population on the two main challenges to conquer in the public opinion: the nuclear accidents and the radioactive wastes. Several of the questions that are made on the radioactive wastes, its are the mobility migration of them, the geologic stability of the place where its are deposited and the possible migration toward the aquifer mantels. Since the half lives of the radioactive waste of a Nuclear Reactor are of several hundred of thousands of years, the technical explanations to the previous questions little convince to the public in general. In this work summary the results of the radioactive waste generated in a natural reactor, denominated Oklo effect that took place in Gabon, Africa, it makes several thousands of millions of years, a lot before the man appeared in the Earth. The identification of at least 17 reactors in Oklo it was carried out thanks to the difference in the concentrations of Uranium 235 and 238 prospective, and to the analysis of the non-mobility of the radioactive waste in the site. It was able by this way to determine that the reactors with sizes of hardly some decimeter and powers of around 100 kilowatts were operating in intermittent and spontaneous form for space of 150,000 years, with operation cycles of around 30 minutes. Recent studies have contributed information valuable on the natural confinement of the radioactive waste of the Oklo reactors in matrixes of minerals of aluminum phosphate that caught and immobilized them for thousands of millions of years. This extracted information from the nature contributes guides and it allows 'to verify' the validity of the current proposals on the immobilization of radioactive wastes of a nuclear reactor. This work presents in clear and accessible form to the public in general on the secure 'design', operation, 'decommissioning' and 'storage' of the radioactive waste of the reactors that the nature put

  17. Radioactive material generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaplinski, T.V.; Bolter, B.J.; Heyer, R.E.; Bruno, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive material generator includes radioactive material in a column, which column is connected to inlet and outlet conduits, the generator being embedded in a lead casing. The inlet and outlet conduits extend through the casing and are topped by pierceable closure caps. A fitting, containing means to connect an eluent supply and an eluate container, is adapted to pierce the closure caps. The lead casing and the fitting are compatibly contoured such that they will fit only if properly aligned with respect to each other

  18. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuramoto, Naohiko.

    1992-01-01

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  19. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Makoto; Kamiya, Kunio; Yusa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To form radioactive wastes into a pellet-like solid body having high strength. Structure: Liquid waste containing a radioactive material is heated into a powdery body. Granular solid matter such as sand greater in diameter than grain size of the powdery body are mixed into the powdery body, and thereafter the mixture is formed by a granulator into a pellet-like solid body. The thus formed material is introduced into a drum can, into which a thermoplastic material such as asphalt is poured into the can and cooled so that the asphalt is impregnated inside the pellet to obtain a solid having high strength. (Furukawa, Y.)

  20. Amersham's high radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulkin, S

    1984-11-01

    An account is given of the history, organisation and work of Amersham International, to produce radioactive and other products for use in medical diagnosis and therapy, in research in the life sciences, and in industrial processes and control systems. The account covers the developments from the war-time work of Thorium Ltd., on naturally occurring radioactive materials, through the post-war expansion into the field of artificial radioisotopes, as the Radiochemical Centre (part of the UK Atomic Energy Authority), to the recent reorganisation and privatization. The width of the range of activities and products available is emphasised, with examples.

  1. Radioactive waste processing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  2. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  3. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, F.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of an Expert Group appointed in 1976 to consider the 1959 White Paper 'The Control of Radioactive Wastes' in the light of the changes that have taken place since it was written and with the extended remit of examining 'waste management' rather than the original 'waste disposal'. The Group undertook to; review the categories and quantities present and future of radioactive wastes, recommend the principles for the proper management of these wastes, advise whether any changes in practice or statutory controls are necessary and make recommendations. (UK)

  4. Your radioactive garden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    The booklet on radiation risks from nuclear waste is based on lectures given by the author at Westminster School (United Kingdom) and elsewhere during 1986. A description is given of naturally-occurring radioactivity, and the health risks due to this radiation. The types of radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry are described, including low-level wastes, short-lived and long-lived intermediate-level wastes, and high level wastes. These wastes are discussed with respect to their potential health risks and their disposal underground. (U.K.)

  5. Amersham's high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caulkin, S.

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the history, organisation and work of Amersham International, to produce radioactive and other products for use in medical diagnosis and therapy, in research in the life sciences, and in industrial processes and control systems. The account covers the developments from the war-time work of Thorium Ltd., on naturally occurring radioactive materials, through the post-war expansion into the field of artificial radioisotopes, as the Radiochemical Centre (part of the UK Atomic Energy Authority), to the recent reorganisation and privatization. The width of the range of activities and products available is emphasised, with examples. (U.K.)

  6. Progress in radioactive graphite waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Radioactive graphite constitutes a major waste stream which arises during the decommissioning of certain types of nuclear installations. Worldwide, a total of around 250 000 tonnes of radioactive graphite, comprising graphite moderators and reflectors, will require management solutions in the coming years. 14 C is the radionuclide of greatest concern in nuclear graphite; it arises principally through the interaction of reactor neutrons with nitrogen, which is present in graphite as an impurity or in the reactor coolant or cover gas. 3 H is created by the reactions of neutrons with 6 Li impurities in graphite as well as in fission of the fuel. 36 Cl is generated in the neutron activation of chlorine impurities in graphite. Problems in the radioactive waste management of graphite arise mainly because of the large volumes requiring disposal, the long half-lives of the main radionuclides involved and the specific properties of graphite - such as stored Wigner energy, graphite dust explosibility and the potential for radioactive gases to be released. Various options for the management of radioactive graphite have been studied but a generally accepted approach for its conditioning and disposal does not yet exist. Different solutions may be appropriate in different cases. In most of the countries with radioactive graphite to manage, little progress has been made to date in respect of the disposal of this material. Only in France has there been specific thinking about a dedicated graphite waste-disposal facility (within ANDRA): other major producers of graphite waste (UK and the countries of the former Soviet Union) are either thinking in terms of repository disposal or have no developed plans. A conference entitled 'Solutions for Graphite Waste: a Contribution to the Accelerated Decommissioning of Graphite Moderated Nuclear Reactors' was held at the University of Manchester 21-23 March 2007 in order to stimulate progress in radioactive graphite waste management

  7. Technical report from Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    As the only one Japanese organization specialized in radioactive waste, RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center) has been conducting the two major roles; R and D and the fund administration for radioactive waste management. The focus of its studies includes land disposal of LLW (Low-level radioactive wastes) and it has gradually extended to research on management and disposal techniques for high-level (HLW) and TRU wastes and studies on securing and managing the funds required for disposal of these wastes. The present document is the yearly progress report of 2006 and the main activities and research results are included on spent fuel disposal techniques including radon diffusion and emanation problem, performance studies on underground facilities for radioactive waste disposal and its management, technical assessment for geological environment, remote control techniques, artificial barrier systems proposed and its monitoring systems, and TRU disposals. (S. Ohno)

  8. Summary of industrial impacts from recycled radioactive scrap metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmel, J.-C.; Harrop, J.; MacKinney, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    During operation, decontamination, and dismantlement, nuclear facilities are generating significant quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM). Future decommissioning will generate even more RSM. The petroleum industry also generates RSM in the form of equipment contaminated with naturally occurring radioactivity. Finally, the accidental melting of radioactive sources in steel mills has generated smaller amounts of contaminated metals. Steel mills, smelters, and foundries could recycle these materials, which might then appear in finished products or as feedstocks used by other industries. If introduced in this manner, residual radioactivity can adversely affect the performance of certain products. Such products include computers and other devices that rely on integrated circuits. The most important effect of residual radioactivity on integrated circuits is a phenomenon known as 'single event upsets or soft errors.' Radioactivity can also adversely affect the performance of products such as photographic film and components designed to measure the presence of radioactivity. Radioactivity that raises background count-rates to higher levels could affect the performance of radiation monitoring systems and analytical equipment. Higher background count-rates would lead to reduced sensitivity and lower resolution in spectroscopic systems. The computer, photographic, and radiation measurement industries have taken steps to minimize the impact of residual radioactivity on their products. These steps include monitoring manufacturing processes, specifying material acceptance standards, and screening suppliers. As RSM is recycled, these steps may become more important and more costly. This paper characterizes potentially impacted industries and vulnerability and effects due to the presence of residual radioactivity. Finally, the paper describes practices used to limit the impact of residual radioactivity. (J.P.N.)

  9. Set of devices for producing radioactive 60Co-sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, P.; Tobisch, F.

    1982-01-01

    A set of devices for producing radioactive 60 Co-sources was developed. A single source has a radioactivity of 445x10 10 GBq. It consists of a double envelope of stainless steel filled with a mixture of small pieces of cobalt and stainless steel wire. The diameter of a source is 11 mm; the length 80 mm. Cobalt wires of different radioactivity with a length of about 110 mm and 0,8 mm diameter are the raw material. The set is located in a hot cell. Construction, functions and operation of the set are described in detail. (author)

  10. Environment and safety: major goals for MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maninger, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) is a conceptual design study for a commercial fusion power reactor. One of the major goals of MARS is to develop design guidance so that fusion reactors can meet reasonable expectations for environmental health and safety. One of the first steps in the assessment of health and safety requirements was to examine what the guidelines might be for health and safety in disposal of radioactive wastes from fusion reactors. Then, using these quidelines as criteria, the impact of materials selection upon generation of radioactive wastes through neutron activation of structural materials was investigated. A conclusion of this work is that fusion power systems may need substantial engineering effort in new materials development and selection to meet the probable publicly acceptable levels of radioactivity for waste disposal in the future

  11. Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations

  12. Underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, D.N.

    1977-01-01

    An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits

  13. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  14. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.S.; Saling, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The purposes of the book are: To create a general awareness of technologies and programs of radioactive waste management. To summarize the current status of such technologies, and to prepare practicing scientists, engineers, administrative personnel, and students for the future demand for a working team in such waste management

  15. Radioactive action code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    A new coding system, 'Hazrad', for buildings and transportation containers for alerting emergency services personnel to the presence of radioactive materials has been developed in the United Kingdom. The hazards of materials in the buildings or transport container, together with the recommended emergency action, are represented by a number of codes which are marked on the building or container and interpreted from a chart carried as a pocket-size guide. Buildings would be marked with the familiar yellow 'radioactive' trefoil, the written information 'Radioactive materials' and a list of isotopes. Under this the 'Hazrad' code would be written - three symbols to denote the relative radioactive risk (low, medium or high), the biological risk (also low, medium or high) and the third showing the type of radiation emitted, alpha, beta or gamma. The response cards indicate appropriate measures to take, eg for a high biological risk, Bio3, the wearing of a gas-tight protection suit is advised. The code and its uses are explained. (U.K.)

  16. Radioactivity and you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    What does it mean when radiation levels are said to have risen? How do we measure radioactivity? Where do we get our exposure to radiation from? This programme, examines the risks we incur through radiation exposure, explains the basic science of radiation measurement, looks at the contributions of natural and man made sources. (author)

  17. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  18. Monitoring of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houriet, J.Ph.

    1982-08-01

    The estimation of risks presented by final disposal of radioactive wastes depends, among other things, on what is known of their radioisotope content. The first aim of this report is to present the current state of possibilities for measuring (monitoring) radionuclides in wastes. The definition of a global monitoring system in the framework of radioactive waste disposal has to be realized, based on the information presented here, in accordance with the results of work to come and on the inventory of wastes to be stored. Designed for direct measurement of unpackaged wastes and for control of wastes ready to be stored, the system would ultimately make it possible to obtain all adaquate information about their radioisotope content with regard to the required disposal safety. The second aim of this report is to outline the definition of such a global system of monitoring. Designed as a workbase and reference source for future work by the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste on the topic of radioactive waste monitoring, this report describes the current situation in this field. It also makes it possible to draw some preliminary conclusions and to make several recommendations. Centered on the possibilities of current and developing techniques, it makes evident that a global monitoring system should be developed. However, it shows that the monitoring of packaged wastes will be difficult, and should be avoided as far as possible, except for control measurements

  19. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials is dependent of transport regulations. In practice integrated doses for personnel during transport are very low but are more important during loading or unloading a facility (reactor, plant, laboratory, ...). Risks occur also if packagings are used outside specifications. Recommendations to avoid these risks are given [fr

  20. Environmental radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Jakubick, V.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.

    1978-01-01

    This part of the bibliography series, which has changed its name with issue no. 24 (formerly: 'Contamination and decontamination of foods') lists 208 pieces of literature, mainly of the last two years. The literature is classified according to the following main fields. General aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foods. (MG) [de

  1. Fallout Radioactivity and Epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Odum; George Ann Briscoe; C. B. Briscoe

    1970-01-01

    After relatively high levels of fallout retention were dicovered in the epiphytic mossy forest of the Luquillo Mountains durin 1962, a survey of the distribution of radioactivity in the rain forest system was made with beta counting of 1500 samples supplemented with gamma spectra. High levels, up to 4138 counts per minute per gram, were found mainly in or on green...

  2. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  3. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  4. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  5. Radioactive substance removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Jun; Tayama, Ryuichi; Teruyama, Hidehiko; Hikichi, Takayoshi.

    1992-01-01

    If inert gases are jetted from a jetting device to liquid metals in a capturing vessel, the inert gases are impinged on the inner wall surface of the capturing vessel, to reduce the thickness of a boundary layer as a diffusion region of radioactive materials formed between the inner wall surface of the capturing vessel and the liquid metals. Further, a portion of the boundary layer is peeled off to increase the adsorption amount of radioactive materials by the capturing vessel. When the inert gases are jetted on the inner or outer circumference of the capturing vessel to rotate the capturing vessel, the flow of the liquid metals is formed along with the rotation, and the thickness of the boundary layer is reduced or the boundary layer is peeled off to increase the absorption amount of the radioactive materials. If gas bubbles are formed in the liquid metals by the inert gases, the liquid metals are stirred by the gas bubbles to reduce the thickness of the boundary layer or peel it off, thereby enabling to increase the adsorption amount of the radioactive materials. Since it is not necessary to pass through the rotational member to the wall surface of the vessel, safety and reliability can be improved. (N.H.)

  6. Sampling airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive contaminants have historically been considered apart from chemical contaminants because it is their radiological properties that determine their biological and environmental impact. Additionally they have been regulated by special government agencies concerned with radiological protection. Radioactive contaminants are also distinguished by the specialized and very sensitive methods available for the detection of radioactivity. Measurements of a few thousand atoms per liter are not uncommon. Radiation detectors in common use are gas filled chambers, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, and the more recently developed thermoluminescent and etched track detectors. Solid-state nuclear track detectors consist of a large group of inorganic and organic dielectrics which register tracks when traversed by heavy charged particles. They do not respond to light, beta particles or gamma ray photons and thus provide a very low background system for the detection of extremely low levels of radioactivity. In addition, no power source or electronic equipment is required. Cellulose nitrate detectors are currently in use for long term integrated sampling of environmental radon. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TID's) are crystalline materials, in which electrons which have been displaced by an interaction with ionizing radiation become trapped at an elevated energy level and emit visible light when released from that energy level. As which etched-track detectors no power or electronic equipment is needed for the TID's at a measurement site, but they respond to alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Thermoluminescent dosimeters are useful for long term environmental monitoring, and have also been newly incorporated into integrating radon detection systems

  7. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  8. Radioactive Substances Act 1948

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1948-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and radiation producing devices in the United Kingdom. It provides for the control of import, export, sale, supply etc. of such substances and devices and lays down the safety regulations to be complied with when dealing with them. (NEA) [fr

  9. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  10. Storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, F.K.

    1974-01-01

    Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)

  11. The radioactive paradise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussler, H.

    1980-01-01

    Most of us will still remember with horror: In March 1954, a US H-bomb exploded directly over Bikini atoll. What has become of this island that used to be so romantic. And what has become of Eniwetok and all the small Robinson islands which are radioactive today. Can people live there again. A scientific investigation now destroys all illusions. (orig.) [de

  12. Environmental radioactivity in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Predmerszky, T.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive examination of radioactive contamination in air, soil, surface waters and food products, and of natural radioactiviy in air, soil, and building materials has been carried out. The investigated factors were as follows: a) air samples: yearly and monthly beta- and gamma activities of fallout, precipitation and aerosols in the period 1955-1976 in Budapest and some other towns; b) soil samples: 90 Sr concentration of soils of different quality and cultivation originating from sixteen regions of Hungary measured in the period 1974-1976; c) surface waters: annual mean beta activity of five rivers and of the Lake Balaton in the period 1965-1976, 3 H, 137 Cs and 90 Sr activity of the Danube in the year 1976; d) food products: radioactive contamination of spinach, lettuce and oxalis, originating from three different regions in the period 1959-1976 and mean radioactivity of fodder, corn, tobacco, milk, fish and animal bones in a period of 5-10 years; e) natural radioactivity: radon- and toron concentration of air, activity of 226 Ra fallout of the soil in the vicinity of power plants, 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K activity of different building materials, radiation doses inside buildings constructed by different technics. (L.E.)

  13. Radii of radioactive nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittig, W.; Plagnol, E.; Schutz, Y.

    1989-11-01

    A new simple direct method for the measurement of the total reaction cross section (σ R ) for several light radioactive nuclei (A≤40) is developed. From that, the reduced strong absorption radii (r o 2 ) are obtained. A comparison is made with data obtained by other techniques. A strong isospin dependence of the nuclear radii is observed. (L.C.) [pt

  14. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  15. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactivity is a natural phenomenon. Out of 1700 known isotopes of 104 chemical elements, only about 16 per cent are stable. Seventy-three radioactive isotopes of 39 elements occur naturally in the terrestrial environment. The significance of environmental radioactivity lies in the contribution to the annual exposure of the general population to ionising radiation. This exposure results largely from natural sources of radioactivity and radiation together with applications of radiation in medicine. Minor contributions are from nuclear weapons tests, nuclear power production and the nuclear fuel cycle, and consumer products including luminous clocks and watches, television receivers and smoke detectors. The natural background radiation level varies substantially with altitude and geographic location. Although no satisfactory evidence is available that natural variations in background radiation levels are detrimental to humans, upper limits of risk have been estimated for possible somatic and genetic effects from these levels of radiation. Contributory sources of and variability in the radiation background are reviewed and the relation between effective dose equivalent and associated detriment outlined. The risk from exposure to an average level of background radiation is compared with risks from other human activities

  16. Radioactivity in foodstuffs 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The average radioactivity dose level to which the Norwegian population was exposed through the ingestion of food in 1988 was between 0.10 and 0.15 mSv. This was about the same as in 1987. The radioactivity dose to which individuals with certain special dietary habits (large proportions of freshwater fish and reindeer meat in the diet) were exposed, was, however, up to three times higher in 1988 than in 1987. This was due firstly to the fact that reindeer meat which had been produced prior to the Chernobyl accident was no longer available, and secondly, to dietary advice not being followed as closely as before. The cost-benefit ratio of the measures introduced to reduce radioactivity levels in food, i.e. resources employed compared with the actual reduction in radioactivity levels achieved, has proved to be reasonably satisfactory, both in 1987 and 1988. Action levels and dietary advice remained unchanged in 1988. The present report summarizes results of analyses performed in 1988, and describes the measures introduced concerning various categorites of foods. Measures introduced were, as in 1987, primarily focused on the production of sheep meat (mutton/lamb) and on reindeer farming. 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Lower fungi and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamek, M.

    1989-01-01

    Sorption activities for radioactive elements were observed in molds Penicillinum muszynsky, Aspergillus versicolor and Alternaria tenius. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were isolated in laboratory and cultivated on a modified substrate containing uranyl nitrate and uranyl acetate. They were found to be capable of absorbing in the biomass some members of the uranium decay series. (E.J.). 4 tabs., 11 refs

  18. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-12-01

    The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged

  19. The transport of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)

  20. Improvements of radioactive waste management at WWER nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This report is part of a systematic IAEA effort to improve waste management practices at WWER plants and to make them consistent with the current requirements and standards for safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The report reviews the wet and dry solid waste management practices at the various types of WWER nuclear power plants (NPP) and describes approaches and recent achievements in waste minimization. Waste minimization practices in use at western PWRs are reviewed and compared, and their applicability at WWER plants is evaluated. Radioactive waste volume reduction issues and waste management practices are reflected in many IAEA publications. However, aspects of waste minimization specific to individual WWER nuclear power plant designs and WWER waste management policies are not addressed extensively in those publications. This report covers the important aspects applicable to the improvement of waste management at WWER NPP, including both plant-level and country-level considerations. It is recognized that most WWER plants are already implementing many of these concepts and recommendations with varying degrees of success; others will benefit from the included considerations. The major issues addressed are: - Review of current waste management policies and practices related to WWERs and western PWRs, including the influence of the original design concepts and significant modifications, liquid waste discharge limits and dry solid waste clearance levels applied in individual countries, national policies and laws, and other relevant aspects affecting the nature and quantities of waste arisings; - Identification of strategies and methods for improving the radioactive waste management generated in normal operation and maintenance at WWERs. This report is a composite (combination) of the two separate initiatives mentioned above. The first draft report was prepared at the meeting 26-30 May 1997 by five consultants. The draft was improved during an

  1. Sealed radioactive source management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources have been used in a wide range of application in medicine, agriculture, geology, industry and other fields. Since its utilization many sources have become out of use and became waste but no proper management. This has lead to many accidents causing deaths and serious radiation injuries worldwide. Spent sources application is expanding but their management has seen little improvements. Sealed radioactive sources have become a security risk calling for prompt action. Source management helps to maintain sources in a good physical status and provide means of source tracking and control. It also provides a well documented process of the sources making any future management options safe, secure and cost effective. Last but not least good source management substantially reduces the risk of accidents and eliminates the risk of malicious use. The International Atomic Energy Agency assists Member States to build the infrastructure to properly manage sealed radioactive sources. The assistance includes training of national experts to handle, condition and properly store the sources. For Member States that do not have proper facilities, we provide the technical assistance to design a proper facility to properly manage the radioactive sources and provide for their proper storage. For Member States that need to condition their sources properly but don't have the required infrastructure we provide direct assistance to physically help them with source recovery and provide an international expert team to properly condition their sources and render them safe and secure. We offer software (Radioactive Waste Management Registry) to properly keep a complete record on the sources and provide for efficient tracking. This also helps with proper planning and decision making for long term management

  2. The radioactive earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, J.A.; Saunders, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium are the main elements contributing to natural terrestrial radioactivity. The isotopes 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and 40 K decay with half-lives so long that significant amounts remain in the earth, providing a continuing source of heat. The slow decay of these isotopes also provides the basis for radiometric age dating and isotopic modelling of the evolution of the earth and its crust. There is a complex interplay between their heat production and the processes involved in crust formation. Phenomena such as volcanism, earthquakes, and large-scale hydrothermal activity associated with ore deposition reflect the dissipation of heat energy from the earth, much of which is derived from natural radioactivity. The higher levels of radioactive elements during the early history of the earth resulted in higher heat flow. All three of the radioactive elements are strongly partitioned into the continental crust, but within the crust their distribution is determined by their different chemical properties. The behaviour of U, which has two commonly occurring oxidation states, is more complex than that of Th and K. Uranium deposits are diverse, and are mostly associated with granites, acid volcanics, or detrital sedimentary rocks. The most important U deposits economically are unconformity-type ores of Proterozoic age, in which U is enriched by up to 5 x 10 6 with respect to bulk earth values. In some cases natural radioactivity can be of environmental concern. The most significant risk is posed by accumulations of radon, the gaseous daughter product of U. (author)

  3. Radioactive waste management in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Reyes L, J.; Jimenez D, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the radioactive waste management in Mexico, particularly the activities that the National Institute of Nuclear Research (NINR) is undertaking in this field. Classification and annual generation of radioactive waste, together with practices and facilities relating to the management of radioactive waste are addressed. The respective national legal framework and policy are outlined. (author)

  4. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  5. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Hamilton, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The application concerns the manufacture of radioactive forms of vitamin B-12 in which the cobalt atom present in the vitamin B-12 molecule is replaced with a radioactive isotope of cobalt, usually cobalt-57 or cobalt-58. Such radioactive forms of B-12 are used extensively in the diagnosis of B-12 deficiency states

  6. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.; McElroy, J.L.; Mendel, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form involves calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix

  8. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Natural radioactivity and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The radioactivity have been existing everywhere in the nature for the night of times. The most radioactive places such Guarapari in Brazil or Ramsar in Iran or springs of Bad Gastein in Austria do not reveal more cancers linked to radioactivity than everywhere else. Only the important radiation doses over 100 MSv received in one time are dangerous for health. (N.C.)

  10. Counting statistics in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1975-01-01

    The application of statistical methods to radioactivity measurement problems is analyzed in several chapters devoted successively to: the statistical nature of radioactivity counts; the application to radioactive counting of two theoretical probability distributions, Poisson's distribution law and the Laplace-Gauss law; true counting laws; corrections related to the nature of the apparatus; statistical techniques in gamma spectrometry [fr

  11. Developing methods for detecting radioactive scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellian, J.G.; Johnston, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the last 10 years, there have been major developments in radiation detection systems used for catching shielded radioactive sources in scrap metal. The original testing required to determine the extent of the problem and the preliminary designs of the first instruments will be discussed. Present systems available today will be described listing their advantages and disadvantages. In conclusion, the newest developments and state of the art equipment will also be included describing the limits and most appropriate locations for the systems

  12. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  13. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  14. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities were built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Areas to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  15. Security of radioactive materials for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, A.

    2006-01-01

    Both sealed and unsealed radioactive sources are used in hospitals throughout the world for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. High activity single sealed sources are used in teletherapy units, although these are becoming less common as they are replaced by linear accelerators, and in blood irradiator units, which are in widespread use. Lower activity sealed sources are used in brachytherapy. High activity unsealed sources are used typically for the treatment of thyroid cancer and neuroblastoma in inpatients while diagnostic doses of unsealed radioactive materials have much lower activities. In the case of a central radiopharmacy producing patient doses of radiopharmaceutical for several Nuclear Medicine departments, however, quite large amounts of radioactive materials may be held. Hospitals are, by their nature, less secure than other licensed nuclear sites and the ever-changing patient /visitor (and staff) population is a further complicating factor. Hitherto, security of radioactive materials in hospitals has tended to be considered from the perspective only of radiation safety but this approach is no longer sufficient

  16. State statutes and regulations on radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.

    1981-11-01

    The transport of radioactive material is controlled by numerous legislative and regulatory actions at the federal, state, and local levels. This document is a compilation of the state level laws and regulations. The collected material is abstracted and indexed by states. Each state section contains three divisions: (1) abstracts of major statutes, (2) legislative rules, and (3) photocopies of relevant paragraphs from the law or regulation. This document was prepared for use by individuals who are involved in the radioactive material transportation process. This document will not be updated. The legislative rules section contains the name of the state agency primarily responsible for monitoring the transport of radioactive materials

  17. Potential effects on health of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Parmentier, N.

    1983-07-01

    Radioactive waste is considered to represent a potential health risk for future generation by a section of the public. The main point is that waste management must follow very strict guidelines. The radioactive waste treatment, packaging and disposal are rewieved and discussed from a safety point of view. Health physics aspects are then analysed. The major difficulties for the prediction of exposure are mainly due to the very long time periods involved. Models are studied and carried out for the prediction of radiological consequences for the transport of radioactivity through the different modules

  18. Use of microphytoalgae for purification of radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Al.; Palamaru, Ileana; Humelnicu, Doina; Popa, K.; Rudic, V.; Cepoi, Liliana; Gulea, A.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with a study on the purification of some radioactive waters, simulating radioactive waste waters, by some microbial collectors. For a given ion the retaining degree varies as 134 Cs - > 60 Co 2- > 51 Cr 3- > 55-59 Fe 3- , but for same algae types, this parameter decreases as follows: Scenedesmus quadricauda > Cylindrospermum major > Nostoc microscopicum. Furthermore, using the radioactive 60 Co 2- ions, the biochemical mechanism of retaining for such cations by different separated components of living cells was established. More retention is observed in proteins, pigments and polysaccharides, but the glycides are not able to keep such cations. (authors)

  19. Infrared thermography applied to monitoring of radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelmer, P.; Camarano, D.M.; Calado, F.; Phillip, B.; Viana, C.; Andrade, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of thermography in the inspection of drums containing radioactive waste is being stimulated by the absence of physical contact. In Brazil the majority of radioactive wastes are compacted solids packed in metal drums stored temporarily for decades and requires special attention. These drums have only one qualitative indication of the radionuclides present. However, its structural condition is not followed systematically. The aim of this work is presents a methodology by applying thermography for monitoring the structural condition of drums containing radioactive waste in order to detect degraded regions of the drums. (author)

  20. The role of chemistry in the history of radioactivity (1897-1939)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical research on radioactivity started in 1898. That year, Pierre and Marie Curie discovered in pitchblende polonium and radium. Rutherford and Soddy showed that radioactivity is an atomic phenomenon accompanied by transmutation of elements and established the basic laws of radioactive changes. The existence of isotopes was postulated after the discovery of many radioactive substances. Major discoveries in nuclear science, i.e. the atomic nucleus, the neutron and artificial radioactivity, were made with radiation sources elaborated bu chemists. Finally, in 1939, radiochemists on the search for transuranium elements, discovered nuclear fission. (authors)

  1. California's response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980: policy and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The public and private corporations and institutions in California that use radioactive materials and generate low-level radioactive waste have played a major role in shaping and guiding California's response to the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. Working together as the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (CAL RAD FORUM), these organizations carry out legislative and public education programs with the objective of establishing, in California, a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and maintaining access to existing disposal facilities in other states until the California facility is licensed and operating

  2. Policies and strategies for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A policy for spent fuel and radioactive waste management should include a set of goals or requirements to ensure the safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste in the country. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. The spent fuel and radioactive waste management strategy sets out the means for achieving the goals and requirements set out in the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant waste owner or nuclear facility operator, or by government (institutional waste). Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategy components. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of radioactive waste, countries are advised to formulate appropriate policies and strategies. A typical policy should include the following elements: defined safety and security objectives, arrangements for providing resources for spent fuel and radioactive waste management, identification of the main approaches for the management of the national spent fuel and radioactive waste categories, policy on export/import of radioactive waste, and provisions for public information and participation. In addition, the policy should define national roles and responsibilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management. In order to formulate a meaningful policy, it is necessary to have sufficient information on the national situation, for example, on the existing national legal framework, institutional structures, relevant international obligations, other relevant national policies and strategies, indicative waste and spent fuel inventories, the availability of resources, the situation in other countries and the preferences of the major interested parties. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set out in the policy statement. For its formulation, detailed information is needed on the current situation in the country

  3. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-11-01

    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  4. A radioactive controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    During 2002, the National Congress of Argentina began discussing the 'Agreement between the Republic of Argentina and Australia on cooperation in the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy'. This document has revived the debate regarding development of a national nuclear industry. The debate was spurred by a commercial contract signed in 2000 by INVAP, an Argentinean company who sold a nuclear reactor to the ANSTO, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization. More than sixty non-governmental organizations are opposed to the ratification of the agreement, because they interpret that the text leaves the door wide open for the transport and deposit of Australian nuclear waste to Argentina, to be processed in national territory. Article 41 of the Argentinean National Constitution, explicitly prohibits the generation of any income from 'radioactive residues'. Those who support the agreement say that it does not promote the deposit of nuclear waste in Argentina, and argue that environmentalists are hampering efforts of this advanced technological industry to flourish in Argentina. The point of conflict in the agreement lies in article 12, which states that Argentina will continue the process of reactor-driven irradiated fuel outside Argentina. Once the treatment is completed, the fuel conditioned and the resulting waste must return to the country of origin for their storage. The possibility of spent fuel being sent to Argentina lies in the hypothetical case that the French company Cogema, which currently holds treatment responsibility, stops treatment sometime within the next fifteen years, when the fuel must be treated. The non-ratification of the agreement on Argentina part will not imply any sort of impediment in the realization of the reactor, it will only put on hold the possibility that the Australians spent fuels will complete treatment in Argentina. The constitutionality of the agreement lies in the question of waste, but this too is not a simple question. The

  5. Perspectives concerning radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a general overview of the principles of radioactive waste management as established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Subsequently, research and development related to radioactive waste management at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK·CEN is discussed. Different topical areas are treated including radioactive waste characterisation, decontamination and the long-term management of radioactive waste. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and the construction and the exploitation of the underground research laboratory HADES are cited as examples of the pioneering role that SCK·CEN has played in radioactive waste management.

  6. Becquerel and natural origin radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the Becquerel as radioactivity measurement unit, this document briefly explains the origin of natural radioactivity (Earth formation and cosmic rays), gives and comments the evolution of radioactivity of some radionuclides (U 238 and descendants, Th 232 and descendants, K 40 ) between 4.5 billions yeas ago and nowadays. It also gives assessments of natural radioactivity due to radon in the atmosphere and in the soil, of natural radioactivity in building materials, coals, ashes, seawater and food. Some remarkable figures are then given

  7. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  8. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  9. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  10. Hanford Central Waste Complex: Radioactive mixed waste storage facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Site is owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland. The Hanford Site manages and produces dangerous waste and mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components). The dangerous waste is regulated in accordance with the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. The radioactive component of mixed waste is interpreted by the US Department of Energy to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous component of mixed waste is interpreted to be regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Washington Administrative Code 173--303. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland and serves as co-operator of the Hanford Central Waste Complex. The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford facility. The Hanford Central Waste Complex units include the Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility, the unit addressed by this permit application, and the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility is covered in a separate permit application submittal

  11. Monitoring of radioactivity in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The necessity of radioactivity monitoring in the marine environment was imposed by the increasing development of nuclear power and its world-wide use in many different segments of economic and social life. Both natural and artificial radioactivity play an important role in marine ecology and human health. In this respect three major facts continue to prevail in Romania. The fallout, the presence of the Danube river and the expectations for future energy production. Spatial and temporal monitoring of marine radioactivity along the Romanian Black Sea shore has been systematically performed in the Romanian Marine Research Institute in close co-operation with the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology since 1981. Marine emerged and submerged sediments, coastal and offshore sea water, macroalgae, in vertebrates and fish off the Danube mouths and/or along the coast are monitored for natural and artificial radioactivity by means of beta gross measurements and gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of radionuclides as K-40, Cs-134, Cs-137 in abiotic and biotic samples, environmental distributions coefficients and concentrations factors (CF), as well as experimentally-derived CFs in marine biota as radioecological bioindicators are assessed and stored for a national data base. (author) 3 tabs., 18 refs

  12. Assessment of Malaysia Institutional radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Hakimi Sakuma; Nik Marzukee; Ibrahim Martibi

    1996-01-01

    A complete inventory of radioactive wastes from different source bas been set up in Malaysia. Wastes from external agencies were sent to the National Radioactive Waste Management Center at MINT for final disposal. MINT has been collecting information on the accumulated wastes received since 1982. Assessment of radioactive waste management in Malaysia has been conducted based on the inventory record. The information in the inventory include description of users, type volume, characteristics of the wastes; and the current and accumulated activities of the radioisotopes in the wastes forms while storing. The records indicate that there is a significant increase in the volume of wastes from medical and industrial applications. The category of users varies; there are about 270 industrial users, about 60 in medical fields and 13 in research institutes and universities. Major users generating sealed source wastes for the industrial sector are services, manufacturing and consumer companies; including government department and universities. It is estimated that by the year 2005, approximately a total accumulated processed waste package volume for disposal will be between 210-215 m sup 3. This estimate includes low level and intermediate level wastes. From this study, future waste management activities in Malaysia can be planned with proper policy decision, treatment conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. This will enable radioactive wastes to be kept under control and their potential impact on man and the environment to be minimal

  13. Radioactive monitoring of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A. S.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring of marine environment was required by the development of nuclear power and the worldwide use of ionizing radiations in many different activities. Both natural and artificial radioactivity play an important role in marine ecology and human health. In respect of this, three major facts prevail, namely: the fallout, the proximity of Danube River and the future nuclear power production. Spatial and temporal monitoring of marine radioactivity along the Romanian Black Sea shore has been systematically performed in Romanian Marine Research Institute in close cooperation with Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology since 1981. Marine emerged and submerged sediments, coastal and offshore sea water, macroalgae, invertebrates and fish of Danube mouths and/or along the coast are monitored for natural and artificial radioactivity by means of gross beta measurements and gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of radionuclides such as: K-40, Cs-134 and Cs-137 in abiotic and biotic samples, environmental distribution coefficients and concentration factors (CFs) as well as experimentally derived CFs in marine biota as radioecological bioindicators are assessed and stored in a national data base. (author)

  14. Dynamics of radioactive waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Virtopeanu, Cornelia; Ivan, Alexandrina

    2008-01-01

    In Romania there are in operation three facilities licensed for collection, treatment and storage of radioactive waste resulted from industry, research, medicine, and agriculture, named institutional radioactive waste. The repository, which is of near surface type, is designed for disposing institutional radioactive waste. The institutional radioactive wastes generated are allowed to be disposed into repository according to the waste acceptance criteria, defined for the disposal facility. The radioactive wastes which are not allowed for disposal are stored on the site of each facility which is special authorised for this. The paper describes the dynamics of generation of institutional waste in Romania, both for radioactive waste which are allowed to be disposed into repository and for radioactive waste which are not allowed to be disposed of. (authors)

  15. Decontaminating method for radioactive contaminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    After decontamination of radioactive contaminates with d-limonene, a radioactive material separating agent not compatible with liquid wastes caused by decontamination is added to the liquid wastes. Then after stirring, they are stood still to be separated into two phases, and the radioactive materials in the liquid waste phase caused by decontamination are transferred to the phase of the radioactive material separating agent. With such procedures, they can satisfactorily be separated into two phases of d-limonene and the radioactive material separating agent. Further, d-limonene remaining after the separation can be used again as a decontaminating agent for radioactive contaminates. Therefore, the amount of d-limonene to be used can be reduced, to lower the cost for cleaning, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes formed. (T.M.)

  16. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BelgoWaste was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste, centralization assuming that adequate arrangements are made for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of residual material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste (deep clay formations are at present preferred); and disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic Ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol. (author)

  17. Ventilation of radioactive enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caminade, F.; Laurent, H.

    1957-01-01

    Mechanical, physical and chemical manipulations on radioactive products must be carried out in properly ventilated enclosed places. The air extracted can only be discharged into the atmosphere after a correct filtration. The power of the ventilation systems is a function of the dimensions and purpose of the enclosure? The choice of types of filter is determined by the physical state and chemical nature of the radioactive materials to be manipulated. This study deals with the individual equipment of small installations: glove boxes, manipulation boxes with outside control and, if necessary, production chambers (maximum useful volume: 5 m 3 ). The performances of three types of 'ventilators', and the modifications provided by the addition of filters, are measured and compared. (author) [fr

  18. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L P; Slade, J A; Vijayan, S; Wong, C F

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Radioactive waste solidification material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Yukio; Wakuta, Kuniharu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a radioactive waste solidification material containing vermiculite cement used for a vacuum packing type waste processing device, which contains no residue of calcium hydroxide in cement solidification products. No residue of calcium hydroxide means, for example, that peak of Ca(OH) 2 is not recognized in an X ray diffraction device. With such procedures, since calcium sulfoaluminate clinker and Portland cement themselves exhibit water hardening property, and slugs exhibit hydration activity from the early stage, the cement exhibits quick-hardening property, has great extension of long term strength, further, has no shrinking property, less dry- shrinkage, excellent durability, less causing damages such as cracks and peeling as processing products of radioactive wastes, enabling to attain highly safe solidification product. (T.M.)

  20. Radioactive wastes eliminating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutsuka, Norimasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate impurities and radioactive wastes by passing liquid sodium in a cold trap and an adsorption device. Constitution: Heated sodium is partially extracted from the core of a nuclear reactor by way of a pump, flown into and cooled in heat exchangers and then introduced into a cold trap for removal of impurities. The liquid sodium eliminated with impurities is introduced into an adsorption separator and purified by the elimination of radioactive wastes. The purified sodium is returned to the nuclear reactor. A heater is provided between the cold trap and the adsorption separator, so that the temperature of the liquid sodium introduced into the adsorption separator is not lower than the minimum temperature in the cold trap to thereby prevent deposition of impurities in the adsorption separator. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Slade, J.A.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Radioactivity and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, J.N.; Baalman, R.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This book details the knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing radiation from the discovery of radium to about 1980. Research findings and conclusions are presented largely as the investigators saw and reported them except where the work under discussion was markedly iconoclastic and obviously wrong according to the author's comments. Findings from over 100 personal interviews and literature searches including unpublished or little-known materials are summarized. The material in the book is divided into six sections. The first section deals with naturally occurring radioactive elements. The next section covers material on man-made radioisotopes. Inhalation toxicology (radioactive dusts and particles and respirable gases) is the subject of Section 3. Section 4 deals with environmental matters - radioecology, fallout from nuclear weapons tests, transport of radionuclides, testing and standard settings, and Section 5 consists of information on laboratory and field instrumentation. The development of the therapy for exposure and of nuclear medicine is traced in the final section

  3. Decontamination of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despotovic, R.; Music, S.; Subotic, B.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of radioactive isotopes under controlled conditions is determined by a number of physical and chemical properties considered radiocontaminating and by the characteristics of the contaminated object. Determination of quantitative and qualitative factors for equilibrium in a contamination-decontamination system provides the basis for rational and successful decontamination. The decontamination of various ''solid/liquid'' systems is interesting from the scientific and technological point of view. These systems are of great importance in radiation protection (decontamination of various surfaces, liquids, drinking water, fixation or collection of radiocontaminants). Different types of decontamination systems are discussed. The dependence of rate and efficiency of the preparation conditions and on the ageing of the scavenger is described. The influence of coagulating electrolyte on radioactive isotope fixation efficiency was also determined. The fixation of fission radionuclide on oxide scavengers has been studied. The connection between fundamental investigations and practical decontamination of the ''solid/liquid'' systems is discussed. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Pahissa, Marta H. de

    2000-01-01

    Throughout this century, the application of nuclear energy has produced many benefits, in industry, in research, in medicine, and in the generation of electricity. These activities generate wastes in the same way as do other human activities. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is to protect human health and environment now and in the future without imposing undue burden on future generations, through sound, safe and efficient radioactive waste management. This paper briefly describes the different steps of the management of short lived low and intermediate level wastes, and presents and overview of the state of art in countries involved in nuclear energy, describing their organizations, methodologies used in the processing of these wastes and the final disposal concepts. It also presents the Argentine strategy, its technical and legal aspects. Worldwide experience during the past 50 years has shown that short lived low and intermediate level wastes can be successfully isolated from human and environment in near surface disposal facilities. (author)

  5. Radioactive gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki; Okazaki, Akira; Kumagaya, Koji.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of a gas processing system which has hitherto been much complicated by the recyclic use of molecular sieve regeneration gas, by enabling to release the regeneration gas to outside in a once-through manner. Constitution: The system comprises a cooler for receiving and cooling gases to be processed containing radioactive rare gases, moisture-removing pipelines each connected in parallel to the exit of the cooler and having switching valves and a moisture removing column disposed between the valves and a charcoal absorber in communication with the moisture removing pipelines. Pipelines for flowing regeneration heating gases are separately connected to the moisture removing columns, and molecular sieve is charged in the moisture removing column by the amount depending on the types of the radioactive rare gases. (Aizawa, K.)

  6. Radioactive substance solidifying device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, Kotaro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To easily solidify radioactive substances adhering to the surfaces of solid wastes without scattering in the circumference by paints, and further to reduce surface contamination concentrations. Constitution: Solid wastes are placed on a hanging plate, and dipped in paints within a paint dipping treatment tank installed at the lower part of a treatment tank by means of a monorail hoist, and the surfaces of said solid wastes are coated with paints, thereby to solidify the radioactivity on the surfaces of the solid wastes. After dipping, the solid wastes are suspended up to a paint spraying tank to dry the paints. After drying, non-contaminated paints are atomized to apply through an atomizing tube onto the solid wastes. After drying the atomized paints, the solid wastes are carried outside the treatment tank by means of the monorail hoist. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I 1 /I 2 ) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author) [fr

  8. Radioactive nuclide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radioactive nuclide adsorption device by applying a nickel plating on a nickel plate to render the surface active. Constitution: A capturing device for radioactive nuclide such as manganese 54, cobalt 60, 58 and the like is disposed to the inside of a pipeway provided on the upper portion of fuel assemblies through which liquid sodium as the coolant for LMFBR type reactor is passed. The device comprises a cylindrical adsorption body and spacers. The adsorption body is made of nickel and applied with a nickel plating on the surface thereof. The surface of the adsorption body is unevened to result in disturbance in the coolant and thereby improve the adsorptive efficiency. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid wastes are supplied to a ceramic filter to conduct filtration. In this case, a device for adding a powdery inorganic ion exchanger is disposed to the upstream of the ceramic filter. When the powdery inorganic ion exchanger is charged to the addition device, it is precoated to the surface of the ceramic filter, to conduct separation of suspended matters and separation of ionic nuclides simultaneously. Liquid wastes returned to a collecting tank are condensed while being circulated between the ceramic filter and the tank and then contained in a condensation liquid waste tank. With such a constitution, both of radioactive nuclides accompanied by suspended matters in the radioactive liquid wastes and ionic nuclides can be captured efficiently. (T.M.)

  10. Handbook of radioactivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The updated and much expanded Third Edition of the "Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis" is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The Third Edition contains seven new chapters providing a reference text much broader in scope than the previous Second Edition, and all of the other chapters have been updated and expanded many with new authors. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement, the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-ar...

  11. Forest decline through radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, G.; Kollert, R.

    1985-01-01

    Is more serious damage of forest observed in the vicinity of nuclear reactors. How are those decline patterns to be explained. Does the combined effect of radioactivity and different air pollutants (such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxidants etc.) have an influence in the decline of the forest. In what way do synergisms, i.e. mutually enhanced effects, participate. How does natural and artificial radioactivity affect the chemistry of air in the polluted atmosphere. What does this mean for the extension of nuclear energy, especially for the reprocessing plant planned. Damage in the forests near nuclear and industrial plants was mapped and the resulting hypotheses on possible emittors were statistically verified. Quantitative calculations as to the connection between nuclear energy and forest decline were carried through: they demand action. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Monitoring of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The results are described of monitoring radioactivity of atmospheric fallout, surface waters, soils, plant feeds, cereals, and other agricultural produce. The results were obtained over a long time period. Radioactivity was also measured of milk, milk products, vegetables and fruits, meat and hen eggs, flour and bakery products with a view to radionuclide migration in the food chain. The daily intake of 90 Sr and 137 Cs from food was determined from the values obtained and the consumption of the individual types of food. Strontium-90 distribution was studied in the bones and the teeth of the population in Slovakia. With the commissioning of nuclear power plants, emissions and liquid wastes were monitored and their environmental impact assessed. (E.S.)

  13. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoulfanidis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste is a very important part of the nuclear industry. The future of the nuclear power industry depends to a large extent on the successful solution of the perceived or real problems associated with the disposal of both low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). All the activities surrounding the management of radioactive waste are reviewed. The federal government and the individual states are working toward the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the Low-Level Waste Policy Act. The two congressional acts are reviewed and progress made as of early 1990 is presented. Spent-fuel storage and transportation are discussed in detail as are the concepts of repositories for HLW. The status of state compacts for LLW is also discussed. Finally, activities related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are also described

  14. Hyperthyroidism and radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corstens, F.H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The study details the results of treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism using a combination of fractionated low doses radioactive iodine and anthithyroid drug therapy. The patients studied were treated according to this regimen after August 1968 and all reached euthyroidism before March 1979. None of the patients had been treated with radioactive iodine prior to the start of the protocol. A subgroup of the patients had received an unsuccessfull course with antithyroid drug therapy and, or, surgical therapy before the start of the protocol. Patients who had never been treated for hyperthyroidism were given antithyroid drug therapy for at least 6 months in an attempt to reach euthryroidism without the use of 131 I therapy. Therefore, all patients had experienced a course of unsuccessfull therapy prior to the start of the treatment protocol using combined fractionated low doses of 131 I and antithyroid drug therapy. (Auth.)

  15. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    A system of combining a calciner for concentrated radioactive liquid waste and an incinerator for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste is being developed. Both the calciner and the incinerator are operated by fluidized bed method. The system features the following points: (1) Inflammable miscellaneous solids and concentrated liquid can be treated in combination to reduce the volume. (2) Used ion-exchange resin can be incinerated. (3) The system is applicable even if any final waste disposal method is adopted; calcinated and incinerated solids obtained as intermediate products are easy to handle and store. (4) The system is readily compatible with other waste treatment systems to form optimal total system. The following matters are described: the principle of fluidized-bed furnaces, the objects of treatment, system constitution, the features of the calciner and incinerator, and the current status of development. (J.P.N.)

  16. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  17. Transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the transport of radioactive materials. The associated hazards and potential hazards are at first described and shows the necessity to define specific safety regulations. The basic principles of radiological protection and of the IAEA regulations are given. The different types of authorized packages and of package labelling are explained. The revision, updating and the monitoring of the regulations effectiveness is the subject of the last part of this conference. (O.M.)

  18. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  19. The radioactive grasshopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-06-15

    Full text: Grasshoppers are 'tagged' with radiation in order to trace their movements for purposes of agricultural research. They are fed on young wheat containing iridium-192; the radioactivity taken up by the grasshoppers can then be observed by a portable scintillation counter. Laboratory tests have shown the biological period of the iridium to be of the order of seven days, and that about one microcurie per insect is needed to enable them to be traced during two months. (author)

  20. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  1. The radioactive grasshopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: Grasshoppers are 'tagged' with radiation in order to trace their movements for purposes of agricultural research. They are fed on young wheat containing iridium-192; the radioactivity taken up by the grasshoppers can then be observed by a portable scintillation counter. Laboratory tests have shown the biological period of the iridium to be of the order of seven days, and that about one microcurie per insect is needed to enable them to be traced during two months. (author)

  2. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-11-15

    A discussion on the disposal of radioactive wastes was held in Vienna on 20 September 1960. The three scientists who participated in the discussion were Mr. Harry Brynielsson (Sweden), Head of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company; Mr. H. J. Dunster (United Kingdom), Health Physics Adviser to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; and Mr. Leslie Silverman (United States), Professor of Harvard University, and Chairman of the US AEC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, as well as consultant on air cleaning

  3. Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1979-10-01

    All movements of radioactive materials in Canada are governed by a comprehensive body of regqlations, both national and international. These regulations are designed to maximize shielding to the public and transport workers, allow for heat dissipation, and to prevent criticality accidents, by prescribing specific packaging arrangements, administrative controls, labelling and storage measures. This report describes in some detail specific requirements and summarizes some incidents that occurred between 1974 and 1978

  4. Radioactive gas inhalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMon, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    An ''inhalator'', or more particularly an apparatus for permitting a patient to inhale a radioactive gas in order to provide a diagnostic test of the patient's lung area, is described. The disclosed apparatus provides a simple, trouble-free mechanism for achieving this result; and, furthermore, provides an improved testing method. Moreover, the disclosed apparatus has the capability of gradually introducing the test condition in a manner that makes it easy for the patient to become acclimated to it. (U.S.)

  5. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmude, J.

    1976-01-01

    Speech on the 18th March 1976 in the Bundestag by the parliamentary Secretary of State, Dr. Juergen Schmude, to substantiate the Federal government's draft to a Fourth Act amending the Atomic Energy Act. The draft deals mainly with the final storage of radioactive wastes and interrelated questions concerning waste treatment and waste collection, and with several ordinance empowerments in order to improve licensing and supervisory procedures. (orig./LN) [de

  6. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  7. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontavice, E. du

    1976-01-01

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth) [fr

  8. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening

  9. Radioactive mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-01-01

    This publication was designed as a guide for uranium and thorium prospectors in Australia. Physical properties, such as color, streak, luster, hardness, fracture, and specific gravity of the uranium and thorium-bearing minerals are summarized and the various methods suitable for detecting radioactivity in minerals are described. Two colored plates show samples of pitchblende (uraninite), autunite, carnotite, monazite, and others of the most important minerals sources of uranium and thorium.

  10. CERN: Producing radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerating radioactive beams has long been of interest at CERN's ISOLDE on-line isotope separator - the possibility was discussed at a CERN Workshop on intermediate energy physics as early as 1977. Meanwhile, as was highlighted in the 1991 report of the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, widespread scientific interest in these beams has developed and a range of projects are proposed, under construction or operational throughout the world

  11. Radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1988-01-01

    For the Federal Government the safe disposal of waste from nuclear power plants constitutes the precondition for their further operation. The events in the year 1987 about the conditioning and transport of low activity waste and medium activity waste made it clear that it was necessary to intensify state control and to examine the structures in the field of waste disposal. A concept for the control of radioactive waste with negligible heat development (LAW) from nuclear installations is presented. (DG) [de

  12. Radioactive tracers in Sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, H.T.

    1973-01-01

    First is given a broad description of the uses of radioactive tracers in Sedimentology. The general method is established, including determinations of probability and standard deviation. Following are determined: the response law of the detector, the minimum mass for statistical detection, and the minimum mass for dynamic detection. The granularity is an important variable in these calculations. Final conclusions are given, and results are compared with existing theories

  13. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  14. Radioactive waste management glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Terminology used in documents published by the IAEA is frequently defined in glossaries in the separate documents so that understanding is enhanced, particularly for terms having unique meanings in the field of radioactive waste management. This has been found to be a good practice but frequently a burdensome one, too. In addition, terms in various documents occasionally were used differently. Thus, a common glossary of terms for radioactive waste management documents is believed to have merit. This glossary has been developed for use in IAEA documentation on radioactive waste management topics. The individual items have been compiled by selecting terms and definitions from thirty sources, listed on the next page, and numerous people. An effort has been made to use the definitions in internationally-accepted glossaries (e.g. ICRP, ICRU, ISO), with minimum modification; similarly, definitions in recently published IAEA documents have been respected. Nevertheless, when modifications were believed appropriate, they have been made. The glossary, stored on magnetic tape, is intended to be used as a standard for terminology for IAEA use; it is hoped that some benefits of common international terminology may result from its use in IAEA documentation

  15. Radioactivity monitoring in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrescu, M.; Milu, C.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring in Romania is based on National Regulations for Radiation Protection enforced in 1976, on other environment protection laws enforced in the last years and on the recommendations of IAEA. Accordingly two systems of radioactive monitoring are to date operational in this field: the first one is the self-control of the radioactive emissions in the environment generated by the own nuclear activities (of nuclear units like the Cernavoda NPP, the Institute of Atomic Physics at Magurele-Bucharest, the Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti, the R Plant at Feldioara, Uranium mining units, etc.), while the other is based on two national agencies (the National Network of Environment Radiation Monitoring of the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environment Protection and the Network of Radiation Hygiene Laboratories of the Health Ministry). The authors review and discuss the radiation protection legislation, the structure and the organizational operations of the national monitoring systems and the co-operation of the national monitoring systems with international authorities or programmes. 3 Figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  16. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  17. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In this report different aspects of the radioactivity in the environment of the Slovak Republic for the period of 2004 - 2006 years are reported. This report is published only on the Enviroportal.sk. The following aspects of the radioactivity in the environment are reviewed there: Electricity production in nuclear power plants and their consumption; Natural sources of ionisation radiation; Man-made sources of ionisation radiation; Safety of exploitation of the nuclear power plants on the territory of the Slovak Republic; International Nuclear Event Scale; Basic information about influence of radiation on health of population and about evaluation methods; Influence of physical risk factors (including of ionisation radiation) in the working environment on formation of occupation diseases; Collective doses of occupation in NPPs; Health state of population in the locality of the NPP Mochovce; Food contamination by ionisation radiation; Radiation monitoring network; Legislative directives about population health protection against ionisation radiation action; Decommissioning of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (EBO V-1); Conception of the back fuel cycle and treatment of spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes; Project of territorial-economic development of the Trnava region after decommissioning of the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP

  18. Radioactive substance separation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable separation of fission products, radioactive corrosion products and the likes in primary coolants with no requirement for the replacement of separation system during plant service life, by providing protruded magnetic pole plates in a liquid metal flow channel to thereby form slopes magnetic fields. Constitution: A plurality of magnetic pole plates are disposed vertically in a comb-like arrangement so as not to contact with each other along the direction of flow in a rectangular primary coolant pipeway at the exit of the reactor core in an LMFBR type reactor. Large magnetic poles are provided to the upper and lower sides of the pipeway and coils are wound on the side opposed to the pipeway. When electrical current is supplied to the coils, the magnetic pole is magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely to form large gradient in the magnetic fields between the upper and lower magnetic plates, whereby ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic fission products and radioactive corrosion products in the coolants are intensely adsorbed and not detached by the flow of the coolants. Accordingly, the fission products and the radioactive corrosion products can surely be removed with no requirement for the exchange of separation system during plant service life. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Released radioactivity reducing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeaki.

    1992-01-01

    Upon occurrence of a reactor accident, penetration portions of a reactor container, as a main leakage source from a reactor container, are surrounded by a plurality of gas-tight chambers, the outside of which is surrounded by highly gas-tightly buildings. Branched pipelines of an emergency gas processing system are introduced to each of the gas-tight chambers and they are joined and in communication with an emergency gas processing device. With such a constitution, radioactive materials are prevented from leaking directly from the buildings. Further, pipeline openings of the emergency gas processing facility are disposed in the plurality highly gas-tight penetration chambers. If the radioactive materials are leaked from the reactor to elevate the pressure in the penetration chambers, the radioactive materials are introduced to a filter device in the emergency gas processing facility by way of the branched pipelines, filtered and then released to the atmosphere. Accordingly, the reliability and safety of the system can be improved. (T.M.)

  20. Analysis of radioactive cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a manual published by Science and Technology Agency, Japan, which prescribes on the analysis method for radioactive cobalt which is a typical indexing nuclide among the radioactive nuclides released from nuclear facilities. Since the released cobalt is mainly discharged to coastal region together with waste water, this manual is written for samples of sea water, sea bottom sediments and marine organisms. Radioactive cobalt includes the nuclides of 57 co, 58 Co, 60 Co, etc., the manual deals with them as a whole as 60 Co of long half life. Though 60 Co analysis has become feasible comparatively simply due to scintillation or semi-conductor spectrometry, trace 60 Co analysis is performed quantitatively by co-precipitation or collection into alumina and scintillation spectrometry. However, specific collecting operation and γ-γ coincidence measurement have been required so far. This manual employs 60 Co collection by means of ion-exchange method and measurement with low background GM counting system, to analyze quantitatively and rapidly low level 60 Co. It is primarily established as the standard analyzing method for the survey by local autonomous bodies. It is divided into 4 chapters including introduction sea water, marine organisms, and sea bottom sediments. List of required reagents is added in appendix. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Radioactive wastes handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Inaguma, Masahiko; Ozaki, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Kaname.

    1997-01-01

    There are disposed an area where a conveyor is disposed for separating miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes such as metals, on area for operators which is disposed in the direction vertical to the transferring direction of the conveyor, an area for receiving the radioactive wastes and placing them on the conveyor and an area for collecting the radioactive wastes transferred by the conveyor. Since an operator can conduct handling while wearing a working cloth attached to a partition wall as he wears his ordinary cloth, the operation condition can be improved and the efficiency for the separating work can be improved. When the area for settling conveyors and the area for the operators is depressurized, cruds on the surface of the wastes are not released to the outside and the working clothes can be prevented from being involved. Since the wastes are transferred by the conveyor, the operator's moving range is reduced, poisonous materials are fallen and moved through a sliding way to an area for collecting materials to be separated. Accordingly, the materials to be removed can be accumulated easily. (N.H.)

  2. Security of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.

    2003-01-01

    Measures to achieve radioactive waste security are discussed. Categorization of waste in order to implement adequate and consistent security measures based on potential consequences is made. The measures include appropriate treatment/storage/disposal of waste to minimize the potential and consequences of malicious acts; management of waste only within an authorised, regulated, legal framework; management of the security of personnel and information; measures to minimize the acquisition of radioactive waste by those with malicious intent. The specific measures are: deter unauthorized access to the waste; detect any such attempt or any loss or theft of waste; delay unauthorized access; provide timely response to counter any attempt to gain unauthorised access; measures to minimize acts of sabotage; efforts to recover any lost or stolen waste; mitigation and emergency plans in case of release of radioactivity. An approach to develop guidance, starting with the categorisation of sources and identification of dangerous sources, is presented. Dosimetric criteria for internal and external irradiation are set. Different exposure scenarios are considered. Waste categories and security categories based on the IAEA INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 are presented

  3. Analysis of radioactive ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This manual explains the procedures of analysis of radioactive ruthenium in the drain water from atomic energy plants. The most important radioactive ruthenium is 106 Ru, and the method of measurement described in this manual is to measure the beta ray of the daughter nuclide 106 Rh. The samples to be measured are collected from seawater, marine living things, and sediment of sea bottom near atomic energy plants. In case of sea water, the ruthenium is separated by the co-precipitation with magnesium hydroxide and distillation or the extraction with carbon tetrachloride, reduction and precipitation. The beta ray of the obtained sample is measured by a gas-flow type low background β counting system. Alkali dissolution-distillation or nitric acid extraction-distillation, reduction and precipitation are applied for marine living things. The sediment of sea bottom is treated with nitric acid or strong phosphoric acid, and distilled then the ruthenium is reduced and precipitated, and the beta-counting of the precipitation is made. The method to fix radioactive ruthenium on polyethylene films after the co-precipitation is also described for reference. The detectable levels by the present methods are 0.05 pCi/l for sea water, 0.1 pCi/g for marine living things, and 20 pCi/kg for the sediment of sea bottom. (Kato, T.)

  4. Guidance on the import and export of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, published in January 2004 with the symbol IAEA/CODEOC/2004, provides guidance on how States can safely and securely manage radioactive sources that may pose a significant risk. The concept of such an international undertaking on the safety and security of radioactive sources was highlighted in the major findings of the International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and Security of Radioactive Materials held in Dijon, France, in September 1998. Following that conference, the IAEA Board of Governors requested the Director General to initiate exploratory discussions relating to an international undertaking in the areas of the safety and security of radiation sources. This request was reflected in an Action Plan on the Safety of Radiation Sources and Security of Radioactive Materials, with the Secretariat organizing a series of open-ended meetings of technical and legal experts nominated by Member States to further explore the concept of such an undertaking. Noting comments made in the Board of Governors, the experts agreed that any international undertaking should, for the present, be in the form of a 'code of conduct'. The text of a Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources was accordingly developed. Steps to strengthen the provisions of the Code were subsequently initiated following the International Conference of National Regulatory Authorities with Competence in the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Material held in Buenos Aires in December 2000. Moreover, growing international concern about the security of radioactive sources after the events of 11 September 2001 led to a number of issues being considered further by technical and legal experts. Furthermore, the International Conference on Security of Radioactive Sources held in Vienna in March 2003 made recommendations regarding additional actions that might be needed. In June

  5. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible

  6. Hyperparathyroidism after radioactive iodine therapy for Graves disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselstyn, C.B. Jr.; Schumacher, O.P.; Eversman, J.; Sheeler, L.; Levy, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The association of external ionizing radiation to the head and neck and the subsequent development of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands has been documented in recent years. This also has been demonstrated experimentally in animals. Despite the numbers of patients with Graves disease who have been treated with radioactive iodine, there are no reports in the literature of parathyroid surgery for hyperparathyroidism secondary to earlier treatment with radioactive iodine for Graves disease. This report describes the operative and pathologic findings in four patients with hyperparathyroidism. These patients had previously been treated with radioactive iodine for Graves disease. The pathologic findings at surgery included in three cases a single enlarged hyperplastic gland consistent with a parathyroid adenoma. One patient had hyperplasia of all four glands. The two largest glands and halves of the two remaining glands were removed. In a long-term follow-up of children and adolescents treated with radioactive iodine for Graves disease, Levy and Schumacher found calcium elevations in 10 of 159 patients. The increased incidence of hyperparathyroidism following radioactive iodine treatment for Graves disease in children and adolescents would seem several times higher than normal. Whether adults who have radioactive iodine treatment for Graves disease have a similar increase incidence is not known. Meanwhile it would seem reasonable to suggest that patients whose hyperthyroidism is treated with radioactive iodine should have their serum calcium levels determined at 5-year intervals

  7. Modern systems for environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpean, A.; Borodeanu, C.

    1995-01-01

    The system for environmental radioactivity measurements with automatic data transmission represents a better solution for nuclear safety assurance. The 'intelligent probe' will be of real use for surveying the environmental radioactivity. The probes work independently. They measure the dose rate and store the data in their internal memory. Many such probes can be spread all over a large area. They are able to measure dose rate from the background level up to high catastrophic levels. A central computer 'asks' periodically the probes to send their stored data. This computer stores the data from many probes over a long time. It can show in 'windows' manner the dose rate from any probe (either in a numerical or graphical way), the position on a map of every probe and the corresponding results of the measurements. In can alert, if an alarm threshold is crossed or it can print on a printer the data for any single probe. (author)

  8. Synthesis and characterization of scandium oxide microspheres for their application in radioactive particle tracking experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Sunil; Biswal, Jayashree; Pant, H.J.; Pillai, K.T.; Bamankar, Y.R.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique, proposed by Lin et al., is a noble technique for understanding mixing mechanisms of fluids and; evaluation and improvement of design of multiphase flow systems. In RPT technique the motion of a single radioactive particle is tracked in a flow system using an array of strategically mounted NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors around the system. The gamma emitting radioactive tracer particle being tracked is designed to be hydrodynamically similar to that of the phase being traced

  9. Advance in radioactive decontamination; Avances en descontaminacion radiactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J. A. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Diagnostico por Laboratorio y Gabinete, Av. Cupules No. 232, Col. Garcia Gineres, 97070 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Farrera V, R., E-mail: basteris@prodigy.net.m [Hospital de Especialidades de la UMAE, Centro Medico Nacional Ignacio Garcia Tellez, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Calle 34 x 41, Exterrenos el Fenix s/n, Col. Industrial, 91750 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    The objective of the present work was to determine if the application of the Na hypochlorite has some utility in the radioactive decontamination, in comparison with the water, detergent and alcohol. Several methods were compared for decontaminate the iodine 131 and technetium 99, the work table and the skin it was carried out an initial count with the Geiger Muller. Later on, in a single occasion, the areas were washed with abundant water, alcohol, clothes detergent and sodium hypochlorite (used commercially as domestic bleacher) without diluting. Observing that the percentage in the decrease of the counted radioactivity by the Geiger Muller, decreased in the following way: It was demonstrated that the Na hypochlorite presents the highest index of radioactive decontamination with 100% of effectiveness. The Na hypochlorite is an excellent substance that can be used with effectiveness and efficiency like decontamination element in the accident cases of radioactive contamination in the clinical laboratories of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  10. Risk assessment and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Problems of radioactive waste management, both real and apparent, have provided a serious constraint in the development of nuclear power. Several studies have been conducted in an attempt to evaluate the actual (quantifiable) risks of radioactive waste management and place them in a reasonable perspective. These studies are reviewed and discussed. Generally, the studies indicate the risks to be of a level of seriousness which might normally be considered acceptable in current society. However, it is apparent that this acceptability has not been attained and public apprehension prevails. To understand the reasons for this apprehension requires an assessment of those factors of ''perceived'' risks which play a major role in determining public attitudes toward radioactive waste management programs and nuclear power, in general. Such factors might include the spector of legacies of harm to future generations, genetic effects, nuclear garbage dumps, proliferation of plutonium inventories, nuclear terrorism, etc. A major problem in development of acceptable waste management policies and programs requires not only the recognition of the importance of perceived risk factors but development of a methodology for their incorporation in planning and conduct of such activities. Some approaches to the development of this methodology are discussed

  11. U.S. port commerce in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Much attention has focused on the movement of radioactive materials over land transport systems. On the other hand, maritime flow and associated throughput studies of such substances have been neglected. Although several peaks and troughs are evident between 1972 and 1981, radioactive tonnage moving through U.S. port facilities steadily increasing. In the ten-year period assessed, total radioactive materials handled at U.S. ports expanded by over 19,000 tons, which amounts to almost a 173 percent growth rate. The purpose of this exploratory research is threefold. First, it identifies all U.S. ports which were involved in loading or discharging radioactive materials. The major goal of the identification process is to broaden public awareness of these types of movement. Second, it classifies U.S. seaports based on the magnitude of radioactive tonnage handled. The function of the classification is to impose some order on the varied data, while at the same time categorizing large, medium, and small facilities. Finally, it seeks to verify whether or not a long term trend exists. The objective of the verification process is to ascertain if the distribution of radioactive materials handled at individual ports has remained constant. Port safety and contingency planning are clearly within the purview of coastal zone management. The results of this preliminary research should form a foundation for future studies which compare and evaluate local, state, and federal regulatory policy pertaining to port operations involving radioactive materials, including waste

  12. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  13. Effects of radioactivity in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    The Agency's regulatory work has proved even more important than was originally expected. It is clear that these activities must be continued for several years, as there are several fields not yet covered, and several which must be followed through by incorporation into international conventions or other administrative frameworks. Research in this field is to be conducted under a trilateral agreement between the International atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Principality of Monaco and the Institute of Oceanography in Monaco. The program will have three major objectives. Firstly, it will be aimed at acquiring knowledge about the movement of water and marine organisms and the deposition of organic and inorganic matter. Secondly, there will be a special study of the distribution in marine organisms of radioactive materials already existing or that may be introduced into various locations. And thirdly, there will be a study of the effects of radioactive materials at various concentration levels on the marine ecology.

  14. Commercial low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1987. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and to assess the resulting population exposures. The report is prepared as a summary of work in progress and as a means of publishing the results of ongoing programs. Special studies reported on included the evaluation of the contamination by cesium-137 of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities; the development of methods for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples; and monitoring of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. Environmental monitoring programs conducted included external radiation exposure, tritium in water vapour, gross beta radioactivity, and monitoring of air, drinking water, precipitation and milk. A list of reports and presentations is also included.

  16. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcpheeters, C.C.; Wolson, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1

  17. Disposal method of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  19. Disposal facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)

  20. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, W.

    1992-01-01

    The book presents a systematic survey of the legal provisions governing the transport of radioactive materials, placing emphasis on the nuclear licensing provisions of sections 4, 4b of the Atomic Energy, Act (AtG) and sections 8-10 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), also considering the provisions of the traffic law governing the carriage of hazardous goods. The author's goal is to establish a systematic basis by comparative analysis of the licensing regulations under atomic energy law, for the purpose of formulating a proposed amendment to the law, for the sake of clarity. The author furthermore looks for and develops criteria that can be of help in distinguishing the regulations governing the carriage of hazardous goods from the nuclear regulatory provisions. He also examines whether such a differentiation is detectable, particularly in those amendments to the StrlSchV which came after the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials under the AtG meet with the problem of different classification systems being applied, to radioactive materials in the supervisory regulations on the one hand, and to nuclear materials in Annex 1 to the AtG on the other hand. A classification of natural, non-nuclear grade uranium e.g. by the financial security provisions is difficult as a result of these differences in the laws. The author shows that the transport regulations of the StrlSchV represent an isolated supervisory instrument that has no connecting factor to the sections 28 ff StrlSchV, as radiation protection is provided for by the regulations of the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The author suggests an amendment of existing law incorporating the legal intent of sections 8-10 StrlSchV and of sections 4, 4b AtG into two sections, and abolishing the supervisory provisions of the StrlSchV altogether. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Study of proton radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  2. Chapter 7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The inspection and assessment activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on minimization of activity and the quantity of produced radioactive waste (RAW), and on increasing safety of waste management. The general scheme of rad-waste management in the Slovak Republic is presented. The radioactive wastes produced during the operation of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 and NPP Mochovce in 1999 are listed.Liquid RAW was treated and conditioned into a solid form at the nuclear facility Technology for treatment and conditioning of RAW. In 1999 combustible solid waste was treated at the nuclear facility Incinerator of VUJE Trnava. Produced liquid and solid RAW are stored at designed equipment at individual nuclear installations (in case of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce in compliance with the Regulation No. 67/1987 Coll. law).The status of free capacity of these storages as of 31.121999 is presented. Storage solidified product built the SE-VYZ was fully filled at the end of 1999. In 1999 there was a significant improvement in the process of radioactive waste management by: (A) issuing approval for commissioning the National Repository for RAW, (B) issuing approval for commissioning the Treatment and Conditioning Center for RAW, (C) having the application for approval to transport conditioned RAW to the National repository Mochovce in the final stage of evaluation. At the beginning of 2000 it is realistic to expect that RAW conditioned in the Conditioning center of RAW will start to be disposed at the National repository of RAW in Mochovce

  3. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  4. The control of water radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Graubey, A.

    1962-01-01

    This report presents the different apparatuses and devices used to control and adjust routine releases, to detect accidental pollutions, and to identify the origins of an increased radioactivity. The objective is to perform permanent and continuous sampling and measurement. Samplers and measurement devices (Geiger probes, resin-based integrators, dry aerosol radioactivity recorders and dry sample radioactivity recorders) are presented. Water control stations are presented: these stations are either fixed, or mobile or floating

  5. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    1995-01-01

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of ∼11,600 km 2 and a population of ∼600,000

  6. Radioactive wastes - inventories and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Hollmann, A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of the origins, types, conditioning, inventories, and expected abundance of radioactive wastes in the future in the Federal Republic of Germany. The Federal Government's radioactive waste disposal scheme provides that radioactive wastes be buried in deep geological formations which are expected to ensure a maintenance-free, unlimited and safe disposal without intentional excavation of the wastes at a later date. (orig./BBR) [de

  7. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantrana, D.

    1986-01-01

    The general structure of a regulatory scheme for the management of hospital radioactive wastes is presented. The responsabilities of an institution in the radioactive waste management, and storage conditions are defined. The radioactive wastes are classified in physical terms, and the criteria for evaluating the activity of solid wastes are described. The container characteristics and, the types of treatments given to the wastes are specified. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. National inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)

  9. Radioactivity measurements principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Spernol, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors have addressed the basic need for internationally consistent standards and methods demanded by the new and increasing use of radioactive materials, radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the basic and practical problems that may be encountered in measuring radioactivity. The text provides information and recommendations in the areas of radiation protection, focusing on quality control and the precautions necessary for the preparation and handling of radioactive substances. New information is also presented on the applications of both traditiona

  10. Current status of radioactive waste management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanuma, Tsuyoshi

    1985-01-01

    In Japan the nuclear power generation capacity now exceeds the level of 20,000 MW, 24.3 % of the total power generation. It constitutes the major position of energy source, a substitute for a petroleum. In the nuclear power, chemical engineering contributes significantly to treatment and disposal of the radioactive wastes. In the interim report by an ad hoc committee in the Atomic Energy Commission, for the future, rational grouping of the wastes and the direction of land disposal are stated. Contents are the following: basic ideas for the radioactive wastes, radioactive wastes countermeasures in Japan (wastes classification, low and high level and transuranic wastes), radioactive wastes in the nuclear fuel cycle (reactor and fuel reprocessing and reactor dismantling wastes). (Mori, K.)

  11. Development of plastic scintillator based food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parihar, A.; Sahani, R.M.; Mahala, V.K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactivity is naturally present in soil, water and food stuffs. Food can be contaminated after discharge of radioactivity into the environment from industries that concentrate natural radionuclide and from civil or military nuclear operations. The contamination can be in three ways; by direct deposition, through the food chain and induced radioactivity due to exposure of high neutron flux. The health effects on human depend on the type of radionuclide and the length of time people are exposed to it. The studies of fission product behaviour in the food chain have revealed radionuclide Strontium-90, Caesium 137 and Iodine-131 are of major concern. Plastic scintillator is already developed indigenously at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur. Efforts has been made to develop a portable field instrument using plastic scintillator for assessment of beta ( 90 Sr) and gamma ( 137 Cs and 131 I) radioactivity in food

  12. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  13. Absolute radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity of a thin specimen can be determined directly, i.e. without reference to a standard and without knowing decay data, except for half-life, by means of counting at a given solid angle and by 4 πβ-γ coincidence measurement. In accordance with section 7 of the law on units, it is the task of PTB not only to represent the units and its derivation, but also to work out methods of adjusting national prototypes and normals to international prototypes and etalons in accordance with the international metre convention. (DG) [de

  14. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Chino, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a waste processing device for solidifying, pellets formed by condensing radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant, by using a solidification agent, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide or sodium nitrate is mixed upon solidification. In particular, since sodium sulfate in a resin regenerating liquid wastes absorbs water in the cement upon cement solidification, and increases the volume by expansion, there is a worry of breaking the cement solidification products. This reaction can be prevented by the addition of sodium chloride and the like. Accordingly, integrity of the solidification products can be maintained for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  15. Radioactive waste processing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaru; Suzuki, Osamu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a vessel of a reduced weight and with no external leaching of radioactive materials. Constitution: The vessel main body is constituted, for example, with light weight concretes or foamed concretes, particularly, foamed concretes containing fine closed bubbles in the inside. Then, layers having dense texture made of synthetic resin such as polystylene, vinylchloride resin, etc. or metal plate such as stainless plate are integrally disposed to the inner surface of the vessel main body. The cover member also has the same structure. (Sekiya, K.)

  16. Safety against radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The ALWIT anticontamination suit is briefly described, consisting of lasting antistatic ''NDMEX III''. It was specially developed for the fire brigade who are exposed to a particular kind of contamination while carrying out radiation measurements during fire fighting, rescue and clearing up work. The ALWIT suit reliably prevents radioactive contamination of the surface of the body while wearing a breathing apparatus, independent of the ambient air. Tightly fitting cuffs on the neck, arms and legs together with zippers placed behind prevent contamination even with extreme movement. (P.F.K.)

  17. Heavy fragment radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silisteanu, I.

    1991-06-01

    The effect of collective mode excitation in heavy fragment radioactivity (HFR) is explored and discussed in the light of current experimental data. It is found that the coupling and resonance effects in fragment interaction and also the proper angular momentum effects may lead to an important enhancing of the emission process. New useful procedures are proposed for the study of nuclear decay properties. The relations between different decay processes are investigated in detail. We are also trying to understand and explain in a unified way the reaction mechanisms in decay phenomena. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Environmental radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Jakubick, V.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.

    1978-01-01

    The present volume is a continuation of the earlier bibliographie series 'Contamination and decontamination of foods'. The reduced importance of nuclear weapons tests and decontamination problems in foodstuffs and the increasing amount of literature on environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities and on radioecology made a change of title and a new classification of contents necessary. The main subjects are now: General aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foodstuffs. The present volume contains 208 citations on these subjects, mainly from the last two years. (orig.) [de

  19. Are mushrooms radioactive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Z.; Benada, J.; Singert, M.; Horyna, J.

    1988-01-01

    Tabulated is the content of 137 Cs in dry matter of higher mushrooms collected in the years 1986 to 1987. The radioactive level of mushrooms collected in Czechoslovakia such as Boletus badius and B. chrysenteron reached 20 to 50 kBq/kg of dry matter. The individual dose at mean consumption of these mushrooms was estimated at 0.2 to 0.3 mSv/year which amounted to 20 to 30% of the dose from the natural background. (J.B.). 1 tab

  20. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)