WorldWideScience

Sample records for single lumenal space

  1. Multiple versus single lumen umbilical venous catheters for newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabra, N S; Kumar, M; Shah, S S

    2005-07-20

    Multiple lumen umbilical venous catheters (ML-UVCs) instead of single lumen UVCs (SL-UVCs) may decrease the need for additional venous lines. Although it seems self-evident that ML-UVCs would reduce the need of additional venous lines, the rates of associated complications might be different. To compare the effectiveness and the safety of ML-UVCs versus SL-UVCs in terms of need of additional vascular access, rates of complications, morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Randomized and quasi-randomized trials were identified by searching the MEDLINE (1966 - February 2005), EMBASE (1980- February 2005), CINAHL (1982 - February 2005), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2004) and Science Direct (subject area: medicine, journal and abstract database; 1967 to February 2005). Literature search also included a manual search of the abstracts of scientific meetings published in Pediatric Research (1990-2004). Additional citations were sought using references in articles retrieved from searches. Subject experts were contacted to identify the unpublished and ongoing studies. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials comparing safety and efficacy of multiple versus single lumen umbilical venous catheter in neonates (both term and preterm) who were in need of umbilical venous catheter insertion for vascular access in first four weeks of life. Each review author performed data extraction independently and differences were resolved by discussion. The following outcomes were determined: total number of additional peripheral intravenous lines per baby in first week and first four weeks of life, total number of additional percutaneously and surgically placed central venous lines per baby in first four weeks of life, and other safety and efficacy measures. The treatment effect estimators used were RR, RD, and WMD when appropriate along with their 95% CI. If RD was statistically significant, then number

  2. FACTORS AND COMPLICATIONS AFFECTING CATHETER AND TECHNIQUE SURVIVAL WITH PERMANENT SINGLE-LUMEN DIALYSIS CATHETERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEESTER, J; VANHOLDER, R; DEROOSE, J; RINGOIR, S

    1994-01-01

    This long-term study on the outcome of permanent silicone single-lumen dialysis catheters consisted of 43 surgically inserted catheters in 33 patients. All catheters were attached to a pressure-pressure single-cannula dialysis system. Technique and catheter survival were 80 and 59% at 1 year, and 63

  3. Single- and double- lumen silicone breast implant integrity: prospective evaluation of MR and US criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, W A; Caskey, C I; Hamper, U M; Kuhlman, J E; Anderson, N D; Chang, B W; Sheth, S; Zerhouni, E A

    1995-10-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) criteria for breast implant integrity. One hundred twenty-two single-lumen silicone breast implants and 22 bilumen implants were evaluated with surface coil MR imaging and US and surgically removed. MR criteria for implant failure were a collapsed implant shell ("linguine sign"), foci of silicone outside the shell ("noose sign"), and extracapsular gel, US criteria were collapsed shell, low-level echoes within the gel, and "snowstorm" echoes of extracapsular silicone. Among single-lumen implants, MR imaging depicted 39 of 40 ruptures, 14 of 28 with minimal leakage; 49 of 54 intact implants were correctly interpreted. US depicted 26 of 40 ruptured implants, four of 28 with minimal leakage, and 30 of 54 intact implants. Among bilumen implants, MR imaging depicted four of five implants with rupture of both lumina and nine of 10 as intact; US depicted one rupture and helped identify two of 10 as intact. Mammography accurately depicted the status of 29 of 30 bilumen implants with MR imaging correlation. MR imaging depicts implant integrity more accurately than US; neither method reliably depicts minimal leakage with shell collapse. Mammography is useful in screening bilumen implant integrity.

  4. Physics of lumen growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sabyasachi; Gupta, Kapish; Zhang, Yue; Viasnoff, Virgile; Prost, Jacques

    2018-05-22

    We model the dynamics of formation of intercellular secretory lumens. Using conservation laws, we quantitatively study the balance between paracellular leaks and the build-up of osmotic pressure in the lumen. Our model predicts a critical pumping threshold to expand stable lumens. Consistently with experimental observations in bile canaliculi, the model also describes a transition between a monotonous and oscillatory regime during luminogenesis as a function of ion and water transport parameters. We finally discuss the possible importance of regulation of paracellular leaks in intercellular tubulogenesis.

  5. Chapter 16 Lumen Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Roger M. Rowell

    2012-01-01

    When wood is vacuum impregnated with liquid vinyl monomers that do not swell wood, and then in situ polymerized either by chemical catalyst-heat, or gamma radiation, the polymer is located almost solely in the lumens of the wood. Figure 16.1 is a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of unmodified wood showing open cells that are...

  6. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  7. Bronchial lumen is the safer route for an airway exchange catheter in double-lumen tube replacement: preventable complication in airway management for thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiang-Ling; Tai, Ying-Hsuan; Wei, Ling-Fang; Cheng, Hung-Wei; Ho, Chiu-Ming

    2017-10-01

    There is no current consensus on which lumen an airway exchange catheter (AEC) should be passed through in double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT) to exchange for a single-lumen endotracheal tube (SLT) after thoracic surgery. We report an unusual case to provide possible solution on this issue. A 71-year-old man with lung adenocarcinoma had an event of a broken exchange catheter used during a DLT replacement with a SLT, after a video-assisted thoracic surgery. The exchange catheter was impinged at the distal tracheal lumen and snapped during manipulation. All three segments of the catheter were retrieved without further airway compromises. Placement of airway tube exchanger into the tracheal lumen of double-lumen tube is a potential contributing factor of the unusual complication. We suggest an exchange catheter be inserted into the bronchial lumen in optimal depth with the adjunct of video laryngoscope, as the safe method for double-lumen tube exchange.

  8. Synergy of cell-cell repulsion and vacuolation in a computational model of lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Sonja E M; Merks, Roeland M H

    2014-03-06

    A key step in blood vessel development (angiogenesis) is lumen formation: the hollowing of vessels for blood perfusion. Two alternative lumen formation mechanisms are suggested to function in different types of blood vessels. The vacuolation mechanism is suggested for lumen formation in small vessels by coalescence of intracellular vacuoles, a view that was extended to extracellular lumen formation by exocytosis of vacuoles. The cell-cell repulsion mechanism is suggested to initiate extracellular lumen formation in large vessels by active repulsion of adjacent cells, and active cell shape changes extend the lumen. We used an agent-based computer model, based on the cellular Potts model, to compare and study both mechanisms separately and combined. An extensive sensitivity analysis shows that each of the mechanisms on its own can produce lumens in a narrow region of parameter space. However, combining both mechanisms makes lumen formation much more robust to the values of the parameters, suggesting that the mechanisms may work synergistically and operate in parallel, rather than in different vessel types.

  9. Synergy of cell–cell repulsion and vacuolation in a computational model of lumen formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Sonja E. M.; Merks, Roeland M. H.

    2014-01-01

    A key step in blood vessel development (angiogenesis) is lumen formation: the hollowing of vessels for blood perfusion. Two alternative lumen formation mechanisms are suggested to function in different types of blood vessels. The vacuolation mechanism is suggested for lumen formation in small vessels by coalescence of intracellular vacuoles, a view that was extended to extracellular lumen formation by exocytosis of vacuoles. The cell–cell repulsion mechanism is suggested to initiate extracellular lumen formation in large vessels by active repulsion of adjacent cells, and active cell shape changes extend the lumen. We used an agent-based computer model, based on the cellular Potts model, to compare and study both mechanisms separately and combined. An extensive sensitivity analysis shows that each of the mechanisms on its own can produce lumens in a narrow region of parameter space. However, combining both mechanisms makes lumen formation much more robust to the values of the parameters, suggesting that the mechanisms may work synergistically and operate in parallel, rather than in different vessel types. PMID:24430123

  10. Biological Nanopores: Confined Spaces for Electrochemical Single-Molecule Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chan; Long, Yi-Tao

    2018-02-20

    , we develop an integrated current measurement system and an accurate data processing method for nanopore sensing. The unique geometric structure of a biological nanopore offers a distinct advantage as a nanosensor for single-molecule sensing. The construction of the pore entrance is responsible for capturing the target molecule, while the lumen region determines the translocation process of the single molecule. Since the capture of the target molecule is predominantly diffusion-limited, it is expected that the capture ability of the nanopore toward the target analyte could be effectively enhanced by site-directed mutations of key amino acids with desirable groups. Additionally, changing the side chains inside the wall of the biological nanopore could optimize the geometry of the pore and realize an optimal interaction between the single-molecule interface and the analyte. These improvements would allow for high spatial and current resolution of nanopore sensors, which would ensure the possibility of dynamic study of single biomolecules, including their metastable conformations, charge distributions, and interactions. In the future, data analysis with powerful algorithms will make it possible to automatically and statistically extract detailed information while an analyte translocates through the pore. We conclude that these improvements could have tremendous potential applications for nanopore sensing in the near future.

  11. Dual joint space arthrography in temporomandibular joint disorders: Comparison with single inferior joint space arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyung Sik; Chang, Duk Soo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Woo Sun; Sung, Jung Ho; Jun, Young Hwan [Capital Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    The temporomandibular joint(TMJ) is really a complex of two synovial space separated by fibrocartilaginous disc. Single inferior joint space arthrography is commonly performed for evaluation of TMJ disorders, which is known to be superior in demonstrating joint dynamics. But it reveals only the inferior surface of the disc. Therefore, dual space arthrography is superior to demonstrate the soft tissue anatomic feature of the joint such as disc position and shape. Authors performed 83 TMJ arthrograms in TMJ problems. Initially, the inferior joint space was done and then the superior space was sequentially contrasted. The follow results were noted: 1. In all cases, dual space arthrography revealed accurate disc shape and positions. 2. Concordant findings between the two techniques: 68 cases (82%). Discordance between the two techniques: 15 cases (18%) 3. Possible causes of discordance between inferior and dual space arthrography. a) Normal varians of anterior recess: 3 cases b) Posterior disc displacement: 4 cases c) Influence of the patient's head position change :4 cases d) False perforation: 2 cases e) Reduction change: 2 cases 4. In 5 cases with anterior displacement, dual space arthrography gave additional findings such as adhesion within the superior space, which could not be evaluated by single inferior space.

  12. Prediction of L70 lumen maintenance and chromaticity for LEDs using extended Kalman filter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, Lynn

    2013-09-30

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. The measured state variable has been related to the underlying damage using physics-based models. Life

  13. Mitigating radiation damage of single photon detectors for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimova, Elena; Higgins, Brendon L.; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cranmer, Miles [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Choi, Eric [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Magellan Aerospace, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hudson, Danya; Piche, Louis P.; Scott, Alan [Honeywell Aerospace (formerly COM DEV Ltd.), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Makarov, Vadim [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Quantum Information Science Program, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Single-photon detectors in space must retain useful performance characteristics despite being bombarded with sub-atomic particles. Mitigating the effects of this space radiation is vital to enabling new space applications which require high-fidelity single-photon detection. To this end, we conducted proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications. The samples were irradiated with 106 MeV protons at doses approximately equivalent to lifetimes of 0.6, 6, 12 and 24 months in a low-Earth polar orbit. Although most detection properties were preserved, including efficiency, timing jitter and afterpulsing probability, all APD samples demonstrated significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second (cps) required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications. We then successfully demonstrated the mitigation of this DCR degradation through the use of deep cooling, to as low as -86 C. This achieved DCR below the required 200 cps over the 24 months orbit duration. DCR was further reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures of +50 to +100 C. (orig.)

  14. Long-term lumen depreciation behavior and failure modes of multi-die array LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Asiri; Marcus, Daniel; Prugue, Ximena; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2013-09-01

    One of the main advantages of multi-die array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is their high flux density. However, a challenge for using such a product in lighting fixture applications is the heat density and the need for thermal management to keep the junction temperatures of all the dies low for long-term reliable performance. Ten multi-die LED array samples for each product from four different manufacturers were subjected to lumen maintenance testing (as described in IES-LM-80-08), and their resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The products were tested at the maximum case (or pin) temperature reported by the respective manufacturer by appropriately powering the LEDs. In addition, three samples for each product from two different manufacturers were subjected to rapid thermal cycling, and the resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The results showed that the exponential lumen decay model using long-term lumen maintenance data as recommended in IES TM-21 does not fit for all package types. The failure of a string of dies and single die failure in a string were observed in some of the packages.

  15. Radiation Tests of Single Photon Avalanche Diode for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Francesco; Marisaldi, Martino; MacCagnani, Piera; Labanti, Claudio; Fuschino, Fabio; Prest, Michela; Berra, Alessandro; Bolognini, Davide; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; hide

    2013-01-01

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been recently studied as photodetectors for applications in space missions. In this presentation we report the results of radiation hardness test on large area SPAD (actual results refer to SPADs having 500 micron diameter). Dark counts rate as low as few kHz at -10 degC has been obtained for the 500 micron devices, before irradiation. We performed bulk damage and total dose radiation tests with protons and gamma-rays in order to evaluate their radiation hardness properties and their suitability for application in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space mission. With this aim SPAD devices have been irradiated using up to 20 krad total dose with gamma-rays and 5 krad with protons. The test performed show that large area SPADs are very sensitive to proton doses as low as 2×10(exp 8) (1 MeV eq) n/cm2 with a significant increase in dark counts rate (DCR) as well as in the manifestation of the "random telegraph signal" effect. Annealing studies at room temperature (RT) and at 80 degC have been carried out, showing a high decrease of DCR after 24-48 h at RT. Lower protons doses in the range 1-10×10(exp 7) (1 MeV eq) n/cm(exp 2) result in a lower increase of DCR suggesting that the large-area SPADs tested in this study are well suitable for application in low-inclination LEO, particularly useful for gamma-ray astrophysics.

  16. Maximizing Lumen Gain With Directional Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Gregory A; Winscott, John G

    2016-08-01

    To describe the use of a low-pressure balloon inflation (LPBI) technique to delineate intraluminal plaque and guide directional atherectomy in order to maximize lumen gain and achieve procedure success. The technique is illustrated in a 77-year-old man with claudication who underwent superficial femoral artery revascularization using a HawkOne directional atherectomy catheter. A standard angioplasty balloon was inflated to 1 to 2 atm during live fluoroscopy to create a 3-dimensional "lumenogram" of the target lesion. Directional atherectomy was performed only where plaque impinged on the balloon at a specific fluoroscopic orientation. The results of the LPBI technique were corroborated with multimodality diagnostic imaging, including digital subtraction angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and intra-arterial pressure measurements. With the LPBI technique, directional atherectomy can routinely achieve <10% residual stenosis, as illustrated in this case, thereby broadly supporting a no-stent approach to lower extremity endovascular revascularization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Prediction of Lumen Output and Chromaticity Shift in LEDs Using Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filter Based Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, J Lynn

    2014-06-24

    Abstract— Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. Life prediction of L70 life for the LEDs used in SSL luminaires from KF and EKF based models have

  18. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 880.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use... an intravascular administration set. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...

  19. Polarized protein transport and lumen formation during epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasky, Alex J; Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges in biology is to explain how complex tissues and organs arise from the collective action of individual polarized cells. The best-studied model of this process is the cross talk between individual epithelial cells during their polarization to form the multicellular epithelial lumen during tissue morphogenesis. Multiple mechanisms of apical lumen formation have been proposed. Some epithelial lumens form from preexisting polarized epithelial structures. However, de novo lumen formation from nonpolarized cells has recently emerged as an important driver of epithelial tissue morphogenesis, especially during the formation of small epithelial tubule networks. In this review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms and regulation of de novo lumen formation in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Single-Bunch Stability With Direct Space Charge

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the suppressing effect of direct space charge on impedance-driven head-tail instabilities. The present work investigates transverse stability for the HL-LHC scenario based on our macro-particle simulation tool PyHEADTAIL using realistic bunch distributions. The impact of selfconsistent modelling is briefly discussed for non-linear space charge forces. We study how space charge pushes the instability threshold for the transverse mode coupling instability (TMCI) occurring between mode 0 and -1. Next we consider finite chromaticity: in absence of space charge, the impedance model predicts head-tail instabilities. For a selected case below TMCI threshold at Q0 = 5, we demonstrate the stabilising effect of space charge. Finally, we compare simulation results to past LHC measurements.

  1. mode of collapse of square single panel reinforced concrete space

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The behavior of the structural elements of a space-framed structure depends on their support conditions. These .... storey frame system, the combination of strut action and of a ... provided by concrete can be estimated using equation. (4). = +.

  2. Evolution of regular geometrical shapes in fiber lumens

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Kim, Dooli; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    of the internal channels or lumens of polymeric hollow fibers, leading to polygonal geometries with increasing number of sides. The elasticity of the incipient channel skin and instabilities during fiber formation are affected by the internal coagulant fluid

  3. Free-space quantum electrodynamics with a single Rydberg superatom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paris-Mandoki, Asaf; Braun, Christoph; Kumlin, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of a single photon with an individual two-level system is the textbook example of quantum electrodynamics. Achieving strong coupling in this system has so far required confinement of the light field inside resonators or waveguides. Here, we demonstrate strong coherent coupling...

  4. An Asymmetrical Space Vector Method for Single Phase Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Yuanhai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt

    2002-01-01

    Single phase induction motors are the workhorses in low-power applications in the world, and also the variable speed is necessary. Normally it is achieved either by the mechanical method or by controlling the capacitor connected with the auxiliary winding. Any above method has some drawback which...

  5. Single-mode multicore fiber for dense space division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Yusuke; Amma, Yoshimichi; Takenaga, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Single-mode multicore fiber (SM-MCF) is attractive for high-capacity transmission. Our fabricated SM-MCFs achieve high core count and low crosstalk with a cladding diameter of 230 µm. Characteristics of fan-in/fan-out for the SM-MCFs are also investigated....

  6. Mechanisms of lumen formation during sprouting angiogenesis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gebala, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    During development, vascular networks expand following a process known as sprouting angiogenesis. New vascular branches arise from pre-existing vessels through the coordinated migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, and eventually connect to form new vascular loops. The functionality of these new vessel segments is dependent on the opening of a central lumen to allow perfusion. While mechanisms of lumen formation during the establishment of the primary vasculature by vasculogenesis ...

  7. Spermine oxidase promotes bile canalicular lumen formation through acrolein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Takeshi; Takasaka, Tomokazu; Igarashi, Kazuei; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Spermine oxidase (SMOX) catalyzes oxidation of spermine to generate spermidine, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and 3-aminopropanal, which is spontaneously converted to acrolein. SMOX is induced by a variety of stimuli including bacterial infection, polyamine analogues and acetaldehyde exposure. However, the physiological functions of SMOX are not yet fully understood. We investigated the physiological role of SMOX in liver cells using human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. SMOX localized to the bile canalicular lumen, as determined by F-actin staining. Knockdown of SMOX reduced the formation of bile canalicular lumen. We also found that phospho-Akt (phosphorylated protein kinase B) was localized to canalicular lumen. Treatment with Akt inhibitor significantly reduced the formation of bile canalicular lumen. Acrolein scavenger also inhibited the formation of bile canalicular lumen. PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog and an inhibitor of Akt, was alkylated in a SMOX-dependent manner. Our results suggest that SMOX plays a central role in the formation of bile canalicular lumen in liver cells by activating Akt pathway through acrolein production.

  8. Spectral Imaging for Intracranial Stents and Stent Lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chi-Lun; Tseng, Ying-Chi; Chen, David Yen-Ting; Chen, Chi-Jen; Hsu, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Application of computed tomography for monitoring intracranial stents is limited because of stent-related artifacts. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of gemstone spectral imaging on the intracranial stent and stent lumen. In vitro, we scanned Enterprise stent phantom and a stent-cheese complex using the gemstone spectral imaging protocol. Follow-up gemstone spectral images of 15 consecutive patients with placement of Enterprise from January 2013 to September 2014 were also retrospectively reviewed. We used 70-keV, 140-keV, iodine (water), iodine (calcium), and iodine (hydroxyapatite) images to evaluate their effect on the intracranial stent and stent lumen. Two regions of interest were individually placed in stent lumen and adjacent brain tissue. Contrast-to-noise ratio was measured to determine image quality. The maximal diameter of stent markers was also measured to evaluate stent-related artifact. Two radiologists independently graded the visibility of the lumen at the maker location by using a 4-point scale. The mean of grading score, contrast/noise ratio and maximal diameter of stent markers were compared among all modes. All results were analyzed by SPSS version 20. In vitro, iodine (water) images decreased metallic artifact of stent makers to the greatest degree. The most areas of cheese were observed on iodine (water) images. In vivo, iodine (water) images had the smallest average diameter of stent markers (0.33 ± 0.17mm; P stent lumen (160.03 ±37.79; P stent-related artifacts of Enterprise and enhance contrast of in-stent lumen. Spectral imaging may be considered a noninvasive modality for following-up patients with in-stent stenosis.

  9. Evaluation of an improved technique for lumen path definition and lumen segmentation of atherosclerotic vessels in CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velsen, Evert F S; Niessen, Wiro J; de Weert, Thomas T; de Monyé, Cécile; van der Lugt, Aad; Meijering, Erik; Stokking, Rik

    2007-07-01

    Vessel image analysis is crucial when considering therapeutical options for (cardio-) vascular diseases. Our method, VAMPIRE (Vascular Analysis using Multiscale Paths Inferred from Ridges and Edges), involves two parts: a user defines a start- and endpoint upon which a lumen path is automatically defined, and which is used for initialization; the automatic segmentation of the vessel lumen on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) images. Both parts are based on the detection of vessel-like structures by analyzing intensity, edge, and ridge information. A multi-observer evaluation study was performed to compare VAMPIRE with a conventional method on the CTA data of 15 patients with carotid artery stenosis. In addition to the start- and endpoint, the two radiologists required on average 2.5 (SD: 1.9) additional points to define a lumen path when using the conventional method, and 0.1 (SD: 0.3) when using VAMPIRE. The segmentation results were quantitatively evaluated using Similarity Indices, which were slightly lower between VAMPIRE and the two radiologists (respectively 0.90 and 0.88) compared with the Similarity Index between the radiologists (0.92). The evaluation shows that the improved definition of a lumen path requires minimal user interaction, and that using this path as initialization leads to good automatic lumen segmentation results.

  10. Evaluation of an improved technique for lumen path definition and lumen segmentation of atherosclerotic vessels in CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsen, Evert F.S. van; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik; Stokking, Rik; Weert, Thomas T. de; Monye, Cecile de; Lugt, Aad van der

    2007-01-01

    Vessel image analysis is crucial when considering therapeutical options for (cardio-) vascular diseases. Our method, VAMPIRE (Vascular Analysis using Multiscale Paths Inferred from Ridges and Edges), involves two parts: a user defines a start- and endpoint upon which a lumen path is automatically defined, and which is used for initialization; the automatic segmentation of the vessel lumen on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) images. Both parts are based on the detection of vessel-like structures by analyzing intensity, edge, and ridge information. A multi-observer evaluation study was performed to compare VAMPIRE with a conventional method on the CTA data of 15 patients with carotid artery stenosis. In addition to the start- and endpoint, the two radiologists required on average 2.5 (SD: 1.9) additional points to define a lumen path when using the conventional method, and 0.1 (SD: 0.3) when using VAMPIRE. The segmentation results were quantitatively evaluated using Similarity Indices, which were slightly lower between VAMPIRE and the two radiologists (respectively 0.90 and 0.88) compared with the Similarity Index between the radiologists (0.92). The evaluation shows that the improved definition of a lumen path requires minimal user interaction, and that using this path as initialization leads to good automatic lumen segmentation results. (orig.)

  11. Selective fabrication of iron oxide particles in halloysite lumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Pengwu; Du, Yuanyuan [School of Pharmacy, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330013 (China); Ma, Xiaofei, E-mail: maxiaofei@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-02-01

    As the adsorbents or the supports of photocatalysts, halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were expected to have intact external surface for adsorption or catalyst immobilization, when Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles was introduced to prepare magnetic HNTs for easy separation. The negatively charged urease was loaded inside positively charged HNT lumen, and urease catalyzed the hydrolysis of urea and resulted in the alkaline environment in HNT lumen. When Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} diffused in, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT. The obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT is characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hysteresis loops. The obtained magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT can be magnetically collected with intact external surface, which can support photocatalysts or remove the pollutants. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT was prepared. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT was characterized. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT.

  12. Selective fabrication of iron oxide particles in halloysite lumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Pengwu; Du, Yuanyuan; Ma, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    As the adsorbents or the supports of photocatalysts, halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were expected to have intact external surface for adsorption or catalyst immobilization, when Fe 3 O 4 particles was introduced to prepare magnetic HNTs for easy separation. The negatively charged urease was loaded inside positively charged HNT lumen, and urease catalyzed the hydrolysis of urea and resulted in the alkaline environment in HNT lumen. When Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ diffused in, Fe 3 O 4 particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT. The obtained Fe 3 O 4 @HNT is characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hysteresis loops. The obtained magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @HNT can be magnetically collected with intact external surface, which can support photocatalysts or remove the pollutants. - Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 @HNT was prepared. • Fe 3 O 4 @HNT was characterized. • Fe 3 O 4 particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT

  13. Hollow fiber membrane lumen modified by polyzwitterionic grafting

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2016-08-24

    In this study, we demonstrate an effective way to modify the lumen of polyetherimide hollow fibers by grafting zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine) to increase the membrane resistance to fouling. Surface-selective grafting of the protective hydrogel layers has been achieved in a facile two-step process. The first step is the adsorption of a macromolecular redox co-initiator on the lumen-side surface of the membrane, which in the second step, after flushing the lumen of the membrane with a solution comprising monomers and a complementary redox initiator, triggers the in situ cross-linking copolymerization at room temperature. The success of grafting reaction has been verified by the surface elemental analyses using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the surface charge evaluation using zeta potential measurements. The hydrophilicity of the grafted porous substrate is improved as indicated by the change of contact angle value from 44° to 30°, due to the hydration layer on the surface produced by the zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine). Compared to the pristine polyetherimide (PEI) substrate, the poly(sulfobetaine) grafted substrates exhibit high fouling resistance against bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, E. coli attachment and cell growth on the surface. Fouling minimization in the lumen is important for the use of hollow fibers in different processes. For instance, it is needed to preserve power density of pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO). In high-pressure PRO tests, a control membrane based on PEI with an external polyamide selective layer was seriously fouled by BSA, leading to a high water flux drop of 37%. In comparison, the analogous membrane, whose lumen was modified with poly(sulfobetaine), not only had a less water flux decline but also had better flux recovery, up to 87% after cleaning and hydraulic pressure impulsion. Clearly, grafting PRO hollow fiber membranes with zwitterionic polymeric hydrogels as a protective layer potentially sustains PRO

  14. TDRS-1 single event upsets and the effect of the space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.C.; Daughtridge, S.C.; Stone, J.L.; Sauer, H.H.; Darling, P.

    1991-01-01

    The systematic recording of Single Event Upsets on TDRS-1 from 1984 to 1990 allows correlations to be drawn between those upsets and the space environment. In this paper, ground based neutron monitor data are used to illustrate the long-term relationship between galactic cosmic rays and TDRS-1 upsets. The short-term effects of energetic solar particles are illustrated with space environment data from GOES-7

  15. Space growth studies of Ce-doped Bi12SiO20 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.F.; Wang, J.C.; Tang, L.A.; Pan, Z.L.; Chen, N.F.; Chen, W.C.; Huang, Y.Y.; He, W.

    2004-01-01

    Ce-doped Bi 12 SiO 20 (BSO) single crystal was grown on board of the Chinese Spacecraft-Shenzhou No. 3. A cylindrical crystal, 10 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length, was obtained. The morphology of crystals is significantly different for ground- and space-grown portions. The space- and ground-grown crystals have been characterized by Ce concentration distribution, X-ray rocking curve absorption spectrum and micro-Raman spectrum. The results show that the quality of Ce-doped BSO crystal grown in space is more homogeneous and more perfect than that of ground grown one

  16. Empirical formulae for excess noise factor with dead space for single carrier multiplication

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.

    2011-09-01

    In this letter, two empirical equations are presented for the calculation of the excess noise factor of an avalanche photodiode for single carrier multiplication including the dead space effect. The first is an equation for calculating the excess noise factor when the multiplication approaches infinity as a function of parameters that describe the degree of the dead space effect. The second equation can be used to find the minimum value of the excess noise factor for any multiplication when the dead space effect is completely dominant, the so called "deterministic" limit. This agrees with the theoretically known equation for multiplications less than or equal to two. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  17. Empirical formulae for excess noise factor with dead space for single carrier multiplication

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.; Ajia, Idris A.; Marsland, John S.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, two empirical equations are presented for the calculation of the excess noise factor of an avalanche photodiode for single carrier multiplication including the dead space effect. The first is an equation for calculating the excess noise factor when the multiplication approaches infinity as a function of parameters that describe the degree of the dead space effect. The second equation can be used to find the minimum value of the excess noise factor for any multiplication when the dead space effect is completely dominant, the so called "deterministic" limit. This agrees with the theoretically known equation for multiplications less than or equal to two. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  18. Types and Dynamics of Gendered Space: A Case of Emirati Female Learners in a Single-Gender Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeer, Gergana

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with gendered spaces as they emerge from exploring Emirati female learners' spatiality in a single-gender context. By conducting ethnographic research and utilising Lefebvre's triad of perceived, conceived and lived space for the analysis and categorisation of students' spaces, three types of gendered spaces emerged:…

  19. Two Automated Techniques for Carotid Lumen Diameter Measurement: Regional versus Boundary Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tadashi; Kumar, P Krishna; Suri, Harman S; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Gupta, Ajay; Saba, Luca; Rajan, Jeny; Lavra, Francesco; Sharma, Aditya M; Shafique, Shoaib; Nicolaides, Andrew; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-07-01

    The degree of stenosis in the carotid artery can be predicted using automated carotid lumen diameter (LD) measured from B-mode ultrasound images. Systolic velocity-based methods for measurement of LD are subjective. With the advancement of high resolution imaging, image-based methods have started to emerge. However, they require robust image analysis for accurate LD measurement. This paper presents two different algorithms for automated segmentation of the lumen borders in carotid ultrasound images. Both algorithms are modeled as a two stage process. Stage one consists of a global-based model using scale-space framework for the extraction of the region of interest. This stage is common to both algorithms. Stage two is modeled using a local-based strategy that extracts the lumen interfaces. At this stage, the algorithm-1 is modeled as a region-based strategy using a classification framework, whereas the algorithm-2 is modeled as a boundary-based approach that uses the level set framework. Two sets of databases (DB), Japan DB (JDB) (202 patients, 404 images) and Hong Kong DB (HKDB) (50 patients, 300 images) were used in this study. Two trained neuroradiologists performed manual LD tracings. The mean automated LD measured was 6.35 ± 0.95 mm for JDB and 6.20 ± 1.35 mm for HKDB. The precision-of-merit was: 97.4 % and 98.0 % w.r.t to two manual tracings for JDB and 99.7 % and 97.9 % w.r.t to two manual tracings for HKDB. Statistical tests such as ANOVA, Chi-Squared, T-test, and Mann-Whitney test were conducted to show the stability and reliability of the automated techniques.

  20. Digital atom interferometer with single particle control on a discretized space-time geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Andreas; Alberti, Andrea; Alt, Wolfgang; Belmechri, Noomen; Hild, Sebastian; Karski, Michał; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter

    2012-06-19

    Engineering quantum particle systems, such as quantum simulators and quantum cellular automata, relies on full coherent control of quantum paths at the single particle level. Here we present an atom interferometer operating with single trapped atoms, where single particle wave packets are controlled through spin-dependent potentials. The interferometer is constructed from a sequence of discrete operations based on a set of elementary building blocks, which permit composing arbitrary interferometer geometries in a digital manner. We use this modularity to devise a space-time analogue of the well-known spin echo technique, yielding insight into decoherence mechanisms. We also demonstrate mesoscopic delocalization of single atoms with a separation-to-localization ratio exceeding 500; this result suggests their utilization beyond quantum logic applications as nano-resolution quantum probes in precision measurements, being able to measure potential gradients with precision 5 x 10(-4) in units of gravitational acceleration g.

  1. Public relations ve firmě LUMEN INTERNATIONAL a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    DICHTLOVÁ, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Goal of the thesis was to assess current significance and usage of public relations in LUMEN INTERNATIONAL a.s. company and to create plan of another development. The author analysed development and current situation of public relations in LUMEN holding. There are a few suggestions in this thesis how to improve public relations in whole LUMEN holding.

  2. Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon Breast Brachytherapy Catheter: Comparative Dosimetric Findings of a Phase 4 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Douglas W., E-mail: darthur@mcvh-vcu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Vicini, Frank A. [Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States); Todor, Dorin A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Julian, Thomas B. [Allegheny General Hospital, Temple University School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Cuttino, Laurie W.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Final dosimetric findings of a completed, multi-institutional phase 4 registry trial using the Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon (MLB) breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer are presented. Methods and Materials: Three dosimetric plans with identical target coverage were generated for each patient for comparison: multilumen multidwell (MLMD); central-lumen multidwell (CLMD); and central-lumen single-dwell (CLSD) loading of the Contura catheter. For this study, a successful treatment plan achieved ideal dosimetric goals and included the following: ≥95% of the prescribed dose (PD) covering ≥95% of the target volume (TV); maximum skin dose ≤125% of the PD; maximum rib dose ≤145% of the PD; and V150 ≤50 cc and V200 ≤10 cc. Results: Between January 2008 and February 2011, 23 institutions participated. A total of 318 patients were available for dosimetric review. Using the Contura MLB, all dosimetric criteria were met in 78.93% of cases planned with MLMD versus 55.38% with the CLMD versus 37.66% with the CLSD (P≤.0001). Evaluating all patients with the full range of skin to balloon distance represented, median maximum skin dose was reduced by 12% and median maximum rib dose by 13.9% when using MLMD-based dosimetric plans compared to CLSD. The dosimetric benefit of MLMD was further demonstrated in the subgroup of patients where skin thickness was <5 mm, where MLMD use allowed a 38% reduction in median maximum skin dose over CLSD. For patients with rib distance <5 mm, the median maximum rib dose reduction was 27%. Conclusions: Use of the Contura MLB catheter produced statistically significant improvements in dosimetric capabilities between CLSD and CLMD treatments. This device approach demonstrates the ability not only to overcome the barriers of limited skin thickness and close rib proximity, but to consistently achieve a higher standard of dosimetric planning goals.

  3. Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon breast brachytherapy catheter: comparative dosimetric findings of a phase 4 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Douglas W; Vicini, Frank A; Todor, Dorin A; Julian, Thomas B; Cuttino, Laurie W; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D

    2013-06-01

    Final dosimetric findings of a completed, multi-institutional phase 4 registry trial using the Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon (MLB) breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer are presented. Three dosimetric plans with identical target coverage were generated for each patient for comparison: multilumen multidwell (MLMD); central-lumen multidwell (CLMD); and central-lumen single-dwell (CLSD) loading of the Contura catheter. For this study, a successful treatment plan achieved ideal dosimetric goals and included the following: ≥ 95% of the prescribed dose (PD) covering ≥ 95% of the target volume (TV); maximum skin dose ≤ 125% of the PD; maximum rib dose ≤ 145% of the PD; and V150 ≤50 cc and V200 ≤ 10 cc. Between January 2008 and February 2011, 23 institutions participated. A total of 318 patients were available for dosimetric review. Using the Contura MLB, all dosimetric criteria were met in 78.93% of cases planned with MLMD versus 55.38% with the CLMD versus 37.66% with the CLSD (P ≤.0001). Evaluating all patients with the full range of skin to balloon distance represented, median maximum skin dose was reduced by 12% and median maximum rib dose by 13.9% when using MLMD-based dosimetric plans compared to CLSD. The dosimetric benefit of MLMD was further demonstrated in the subgroup of patients where skin thickness was <5 mm, where MLMD use allowed a 38% reduction in median maximum skin dose over CLSD. For patients with rib distance <5 mm, the median maximum rib dose reduction was 27%. Use of the Contura MLB catheter produced statistically significant improvements in dosimetric capabilities between CLSD and CLMD treatments. This device approach demonstrates the ability not only to overcome the barriers of limited skin thickness and close rib proximity, but to consistently achieve a higher standard of dosimetric planning goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. State-Space Equations and the First-Phase Algorithm for Signal Control of Single Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinyuan; PAN Xin; WANG Xiqin

    2007-01-01

    State-space equations were applied to formulate the queuing and delay of traffic at a single intersection in this paper. The signal control of a single intersection was then modeled as a discrete-time optimal control problem, with consideration of the constraints of stream conflicts, saturation flow rate, minimum green time, and maximum green time. The problem cannot be solved directly due to the nonlinear constraints.However, the results of qualitative analysis were used to develop a first-phase signal control algorithm. Simulation results show that the algorithm substantially reduces the total delay compared to fixed-time control.

  5. Design considerations for a Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine blade made of single crystal material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, A.; August, R.; Nagpal, V.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear finite-element structural analyses were performed on the first stage high-pressure fuel turbopump blade of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The analyses examined the structural response and the dynamic characteristics at typical operating conditions. Single crystal material PWA-1480 was considered for the analyses. Structural response and the blade natural frequencies with respect to the crystal orientation were investigated. The analyses were conducted based on typical test stand engine cycle. Influence of combined thermal, aerodynamic, and centrifugal loadings was considered. Results obtained showed that the single crystal secondary orientation effects on the maximum principal stresses are not highly significant.

  6. A COTS-based single board radiation-hardened computer for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, S.; Hillman, R.; Layton, P.; Krawzsenek, D.

    1999-01-01

    There is great community interest in the ability to use COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) technology in radiation environments. Space Electronics, Inc. has developed a high performance COTS-based radiation hardened computer. COTS approaches were selected for both hardware and software. Through parts testing, selection and packaging, all requirements have been met without parts or process development. Reliability, total ionizing dose and single event performance are attractive. The characteristics, performance and radiation resistance of the single board computer will be presented. (authors)

  7. Challenging Gender in Single-Sex Spaces: Lessons from a Feminist

    OpenAIRE

    Buzuvis, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Published: Erin E. Buzuvis, Challenging Gender in Single-Sex Spaces: Lessons from a Feminist, 80 L. & CONTEMP. PROBS. 155 (2017). This Article explores transgender inclusion within adult recreational women’s leagues by using the example of the Mary Vazquez Women’s Softball League (MVWSL), in Northampton, Massachusetts. A MVWSL policy addressing transgender inclusion became necessary due to a noticeable increase in gender-identity diversity. The resultant policy respects the league’s core ...

  8. Banded versus Single-sided bonded space maintainers: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study is conducted to evaluate and compare the clinical performance of conventional band and loop space maintainer and fiber reinforced composite resin (FRCR space maintainers. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 extraction sites in the age group of 6–9 years having premature loss of primary molars or indicated for extraction were selected for the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups as Group I, in which conventional band and loop space maintainer was given, Group II and Group III (FRCR, in which FRCR (everStick CandB and impregnated glass fibers (Interlig space maintainers were given, respectively. Patients were recalled at 3, 6, and 12-month interval for evaluation of all the three types of space maintainer. Results: Overall success rate of Group I was 86.7%, for Group II was 80%, and for Group III was 73.3% at the end of the study. Patient acceptability was significantly higher in Group II and Group III (FRCR as compared to Group I (Conventional band and loop. In Group I, cement loss and fracture of loop, whereas in Group II and Group III, debonding at enamel composite was the most common failure followed by debonding at fiber composite and fiber fracture. FRCR space maintainers were found to be cost-effective as compared to Group I. More linear changes and angular changes were recorded in Group I as compared to Group II and Group III but difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Only single (buccal surface application of FRCR space maintainers showed almost equal clinical efficacy compared to conventional band and loop space maintainer with significantly better patient acceptability, less cost, and time taken.

  9. ARCOCT: Automatic detection of lumen border in intravascular OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimariotis, Grigorios-Aris; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Riga, Maria; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Doulaverakis, Charalambos; Tsamboulatidis, Ioannis; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Giannoglou, George D; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2017-11-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invaluable tool for the detection of pathological features on the arterial wall and the investigation of post-stenting complications. Computational lumen border detection in OCT images is highly advantageous, since it may support rapid morphometric analysis. However, automatic detection is very challenging, since OCT images typically include various artifacts that impact image clarity, including features such as side branches and intraluminal blood presence. This paper presents ARCOCT, a segmentation method for fully-automatic detection of lumen border in OCT images. ARCOCT relies on multiple, consecutive processing steps, accounting for image preparation, contour extraction and refinement. In particular, for contour extraction ARCOCT employs the transformation of OCT images based on physical characteristics such as reflectivity and absorption of the tissue and, for contour refinement, local regression using weighted linear least squares and a 2nd degree polynomial model is employed to achieve artifact and small-branch correction as well as smoothness of the artery mesh. Our major focus was to achieve accurate contour delineation in the various types of OCT images, i.e., even in challenging cases with branches and artifacts. ARCOCT has been assessed in a dataset of 1812 images (308 from stented and 1504 from native segments) obtained from 20 patients. ARCOCT was compared against ground-truth manual segmentation performed by experts on the basis of various geometric features (e.g. area, perimeter, radius, diameter, centroid, etc.) and closed contour matching indicators (the Dice index, the Hausdorff distance and the undirected average distance), using standard statistical analysis methods. The proposed method was proven very efficient and close to the ground-truth, exhibiting non statistically-significant differences for most of the examined metrics. ARCOCT allows accurate and fully-automated lumen border

  10. Evolution of regular geometrical shapes in fiber lumens

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-08-17

    The geometry of polymeric hollow fibers for hemodialysis or desalination is a key factor determining their performance. Deformations are frequently observed, but they are rather random. Here we were able to exactly control the shape evolution of the internal channels or lumens of polymeric hollow fibers, leading to polygonal geometries with increasing number of sides. The elasticity of the incipient channel skin and instabilities during fiber formation are affected by the internal coagulant fluid composition and flow rate; and highly influence the polygonal shape. We propose a holistic explanation by analyzing the thermodynamic, kinetic and rheological aspects involved in the skin formation and their synergy.

  11. [Successful double-lumen endotracheal tube exchange with a soft-tipped extra firm exchange catheter in a patient with severe subcutaneous emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kaori; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ishio, Junichi; Nakano, Shoko; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of successful double-lumen endotracheal tube exchange with a soft-tipped extra firm exchange catheter in a patient with severe subcutaneous emphysema. A 70-year-old man underwent right lower lobectomy for primary lung cancer under general anesthesia. He developed pneumothorax on postoperative day (POD) 14, which led to subcutaneous emphysema. An emergent operation was performed on POD20 to close the pulmonary fistula under general anesthesia with a single-lumen endotracheal tube and bronchial blocker. Subcutaneous emphysema became worse and pharyngeal emphysema was also suspected; re-operation to close the pulmonary or bronchial fistula was planned. We decided to place a double-lumen tube to precisely detect the fistula. Under the guide of a Pentax-AWS Airwayscope, the single-lumen endotracheal tube was exchanged uneventfully to a 35 Fr double-lumen endotracheal tube with a 110 cm soft-tipped extra firm exchange catheter. The fistula was detected by a leak test and the operation was performed uneventfully, leading to improvement of subcutaneous emphysema.

  12. Linear-regression convolutional neural network for fully automated coronary lumen segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yan Ling; Tan, Li Kuo; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Chee, Kok Han; Liew, Yih Miin

    2017-12-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality commonly used in the assessment of coronary artery diseases during percutaneous coronary intervention. Manual segmentation to assess luminal stenosis from OCT pullback scans is challenging and time consuming. We propose a linear-regression convolutional neural network to automatically perform vessel lumen segmentation, parameterized in terms of radial distances from the catheter centroid in polar space. Benchmarked against gold-standard manual segmentation, our proposed algorithm achieves average locational accuracy of the vessel wall of 22 microns, and 0.985 and 0.970 in Dice coefficient and Jaccard similarity index, respectively. The average absolute error of luminal area estimation is 1.38%. The processing rate is 40.6 ms per image, suggesting the potential to be incorporated into a clinical workflow and to provide quantitative assessment of vessel lumen in an intraoperative time frame.

  13. Linear-regression convolutional neural network for fully automated coronary lumen segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yan Ling; Tan, Li Kuo; McLaughlin, Robert A; Chee, Kok Han; Liew, Yih Miin

    2017-12-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality commonly used in the assessment of coronary artery diseases during percutaneous coronary intervention. Manual segmentation to assess luminal stenosis from OCT pullback scans is challenging and time consuming. We propose a linear-regression convolutional neural network to automatically perform vessel lumen segmentation, parameterized in terms of radial distances from the catheter centroid in polar space. Benchmarked against gold-standard manual segmentation, our proposed algorithm achieves average locational accuracy of the vessel wall of 22 microns, and 0.985 and 0.970 in Dice coefficient and Jaccard similarity index, respectively. The average absolute error of luminal area estimation is 1.38%. The processing rate is 40.6 ms per image, suggesting the potential to be incorporated into a clinical workflow and to provide quantitative assessment of vessel lumen in an intraoperative time frame. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  14. Femtosecond single electron bunch generation by rotating longitudinal bunch phase space in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.; Kondoh, T.; Kan, K.; Kozawa, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    2006-01-01

    A femtosecond (fs) electron bunching was observed in a photoinjector with a magnetic compressor by rotating the bunch in longitudinal phase space. The bunch length was obtained by measuring Cherenkov radiation of the electron beam with a femtosecond streak camera technique. A single electron bunch with rms bunch length of 98 fs was observed for a 32 MeV electron beam at a charge of 0.17 nC. The relative energy spread and the normalized transverse emittance of the electron beam were 0.2% and 3.8 mm-mrad, respectively. The effect of space charge on the bunch compression was investigated experimentally for charges from 0.17 to 1.25 nC. The dependences of the relative energy spread and the normalized beam transverse emittance on the bunch charge were measured

  15. Addressing challenges in single species assessments via a simple state-space assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    Single-species and age-structured fish stock assessments still remains the main tool for managing fish stocks. A simple state-space assessment model is presented as an alternative to (semi) deterministic procedures and the full parametric statistical catch at age models. It offers a solution...... to some of the key challenges of these models. Compared to the deterministic procedures it solves a list of problems originating from falsely assuming that age classified catches are known without errors and allows quantification of uncertainties of estimated quantities of interest. Compared to full...

  16. Probing quantum entanglement in the Schwarzschild space-time beyond the single-mode approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Juan; Ding, Zhi-Yong; Ye, Liu

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we deduce the vacuum structure for Dirac fields in the background of Schwarzschild space-time beyond the single-mode approximation and discuss the performance of quantum entanglement between particle and antiparticle modes of a Dirac field with Hawking effect. It is shown that Hawking radiation does not always destroy the physically accessible entanglement, and entanglement amplification may happen in some cases. This striking result is different from that of the single-mode approximation, which holds that the Hawking radiation can only destroy entanglement. Lastly, we analyze the physically accessible entanglement relation outside the event horizon and demonstrate that the monogamy inequality is constantly established regardless of the choice of given parameters.

  17. Further understanding of PbWO4 Scintillator characteristics and their optimisation. LUMEN activity in 1998

    CERN Document Server

    Baccaro, Stefania; Borgia, Bruno; Cecilia, Angelica; Dafinei, Ioan; Diemoz, Marcella; Fabeni, P; Festinesi, Armando; Longo, Egidio; Martini, M; Meinardi, F; Mihoková, E; Montecchi, Marco; Nikl, M; Pazzi, G P; Rosa, J; Sulc, Miroslav

    2000-01-01

    The aim of LUMEN collaboration was the investigation on single crystals of PbWO4 ( PWO): the results performed up to now provide the evidence of the possibility to optimise the optical properties of an intrinsic scintillator such as PWO. The control of essential requirements in the crystal preparation ( raw material purity, growing methods and post-growth annealing) as well as the introduction of selected dopants at suitable concentrations ( particularly trivalent and pentavalent ions) were found to be very successful in lowering the concentration of point defects in the lattice which strongly affect scintillation properties and radiation hardness. The systematic investigation effort to better understand the scintillation characteristics and to improve the quality of PWO crystals is due to their use for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter.

  18. The dual-gate lumen model of renal monoamine transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Hinz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc. Cape Coral, Florida, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, Florida, USA; 3DBS Labs, Duluth, Minnesota, USAAbstract: The three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine in subjects ­simultaneously taking amino acid precursors of serotonin and dopamine has been defined.1,2 No model exists regarding the renal etiology of the three-phase response. This writing outlines a model explaining the origin of the three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine. A “dual-gate lumen transporter model” for the basolateral monoamine transporters of the kidneys is proposed as being the etiology of the three-phase urinary serotonin and dopamine responses.Purpose: The purpose of this writing is to document the internal renal function model that has evolved in research during large-scale assay with phase interpretation of urinary serotonin and dopamine.Patients and methods: In excess of 75,000 urinary monoamine assays from more than 7,500 patients were analyzed. The serotonin and the dopamine phase were determined for specimens submitted in the competitive inhibition state. The phase determination findings were then correlated with peer-reviewed literature.Results: The correlation between the three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine with internal renal processes of the bilateral monoamine transporter and the apical monoamine transporter of the proximal convoluted renal tubule cells is defined.Conclusion: The phase of urinary serotonin and dopamine is dependent on the status of the serotonin gate, dopamine gate, and lumen of the basolateral monoamine transporter while in the competitive inhibition state.Keywords: serotonin, dopamine, basolateral, apical, kidney, proximal

  19. Interference of Single Photons Emitted by Entangled Atoms in Free Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, G.; Higginbottom, D. B.; Slodička, L.; Colombe, Y.; Blatt, R.

    2018-05-01

    The generation and manipulation of entanglement between isolated particles has precipitated rapid progress in quantum information processing. Entanglement is also known to play an essential role in the optical properties of atomic ensembles, but fundamental effects in the controlled emission and absorption from small, well-defined numbers of entangled emitters in free space have remained unobserved. Here we present the control of the emission rate of a single photon from a pair of distant, entangled atoms into a free-space optical mode. Changing the length of the optical path connecting the atoms modulates the single-photon emission rate in the selected mode with a visibility V =0.27 ±0.03 determined by the degree of entanglement shared between the atoms, corresponding directly to the concurrence Cρ=0.31 ±0.10 of the prepared state. This scheme, together with population measurements, provides a fully optical determination of the amount of entanglement. Furthermore, large sensitivity of the interference phase evolution points to applications of the presented scheme in high-precision gradient sensing.

  20. Characterization of System Level Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  1. ETS transcription factor ELF5 induces lumen formation in a 3D model of mammary morphogenesis and its expression is inhibited by Jak2 inhibitor TG101348.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chean, Jennifer; Chen, Charng-Jui; Shively, John E

    2017-10-01

    The loss of expression of a single gene can revert normal tissue to a malignant phenotype. For example, while normal breast has high lumenal expression of CEACAM1, the majority of breast cancers exhibit the early loss of this gene with the concurrent loss of their lumenal phenotype. MCF7 cells that lack CEACAM1 expression and fail to form lumena in 3D culture, regain the normal phenotype when transfected with CEACAM1. In order to probe the mechanism of this gain of function, we treated these cells with the clinically relevant Jak2 inhibitor TG101348 (TG), expecting that disruption of the prolactin receptor signaling pathway would interfere with the positive effects of transfection of MCF7 cells with CEACAM1. Indeed, lumen formation was inhibited, resulting in the down regulation of a set of genes, likely involved in the complex process of lumen formation. As expected, inhibition of the expression of many of these genes also inhibited lumen formation, confirming their involvement in a single pathway. Among the genes identified by the inhibition assay, ETS transcription factor ELF5 stood out, since it has been identified as a master regulator of mammary morphogenesis, and is associated with prolactin receptor signaling. When ELF5 was transfected into the parental MCF7 cells that lack CEACAM1, lumen formation was restored, indicating that ELF5 can replace CEACAM1 in this model system of lumenogenesis. We conclude that the event(s) that led to the loss of expression of CEACAM1 is epistatic in that multiple genes associated with a critical pathway were affected, but that restoration of the normal phenotype can be achieved with reactivation of certain genes at various nodal points in tissue morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. On the estimation of the current density in space plasmas: Multi- versus single-point techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Silvia; Valentini, Francesco; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Reda, Antonio; Malara, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Thanks to multi-spacecraft mission, it has recently been possible to directly estimate the current density in space plasmas, by using magnetic field time series from four satellites flying in a quasi perfect tetrahedron configuration. The technique developed, commonly called ;curlometer; permits a good estimation of the current density when the magnetic field time series vary linearly in space. This approximation is generally valid for small spacecraft separation. The recent space missions Cluster and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) have provided high resolution measurements with inter-spacecraft separation up to 100 km and 10 km, respectively. The former scale corresponds to the proton gyroradius/ion skin depth in ;typical; solar wind conditions, while the latter to sub-proton scale. However, some works have highlighted an underestimation of the current density via the curlometer technique with respect to the current computed directly from the velocity distribution functions, measured at sub-proton scales resolution with MMS. In this paper we explore the limit of the curlometer technique studying synthetic data sets associated to a cluster of four artificial satellites allowed to fly in a static turbulent field, spanning a wide range of relative separation. This study tries to address the relative importance of measuring plasma moments at very high resolution from a single spacecraft with respect to the multi-spacecraft missions in the current density evaluation.

  3. An equivalent ground thermal test method for single-phase fluid loop space radiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Ning

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal vacuum test is widely used for the ground validation of spacecraft thermal control system. However, the conduction and convection can be simulated in normal ground pressure environment completely. By the employment of pumped fluid loops’ thermal control technology on spacecraft, conduction and convection become the main heat transfer behavior between radiator and inside cabin. As long as the heat transfer behavior between radiator and outer space can be equivalently simulated in normal pressure, the thermal vacuum test can be substituted by the normal ground pressure thermal test. In this paper, an equivalent normal pressure thermal test method for the spacecraft single-phase fluid loop radiator is proposed. The heat radiation between radiator and outer space has been equivalently simulated by combination of a group of refrigerators and thermal electrical cooler (TEC array. By adjusting the heat rejection of each device, the relationship between heat flux and surface temperature of the radiator can be maintained. To verify this method, a validating system has been built up and the experiments have been carried out. The results indicate that the proposed equivalent ground thermal test method can simulate the heat rejection performance of radiator correctly and the temperature error between in-orbit theory value and experiment result of the radiator is less than 0.5 °C, except for the equipment startup period. This provides a potential method for the thermal test of space systems especially for extra-large spacecraft which employs single-phase fluid loop radiator as thermal control approach.

  4. Can single molecule localization microscopy be used to map closely spaced RGD nanodomains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdie Mollazade

    Full Text Available Cells sense and respond to nanoscale variations in the distribution of ligands to adhesion receptors. This makes single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM an attractive tool to map the distribution of ligands on nanopatterned surfaces. We explore the use of SMLM spatial cluster analysis to detect nanodomains of the cell adhesion-stimulating tripeptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD. These domains were formed by the phase separation of block copolymers with controllable spacing on the scale of tens of nanometers. We first determined the topology of the block copolymer with atomic force microscopy (AFM and then imaged the localization of individual RGD peptides with direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM. To compare the data, we analyzed the dSTORM data with DBSCAN (density-based spatial clustering application with noise. The ligand distribution and polymer topology are not necessary identical since peptides may attach to the polymer outside the nanodomains and/or coupling and detection of peptides within the nanodomains is incomplete. We therefore performed simulations to explore the extent to which nanodomains could be mapped with dSTORM. We found that successful detection of nanodomains by dSTORM was influenced by the inter-domain spacing and the localization precision of individual fluorophores, and less by non-specific absorption of ligands to the substratum. For example, under our imaging conditions, DBSCAN identification of nanodomains spaced further than 50 nm apart was largely independent of background localisations, while nanodomains spaced closer than 50 nm required a localization precision of ~11 nm to correctly estimate the modal nearest neighbor distance (NDD between nanodomains. We therefore conclude that SMLM is a promising technique to directly map the distribution and nanoscale organization of ligands and would benefit from an improved localization precision.

  5. Dual-Lumen Chest Port Infection Rates in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Aaron, E-mail: abos1210@gmail.com; Ahmed, Osman [University of Chicago Medical Center (United States); Jilani, Danial [Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine (United States); Giger, Maryellen; Funaki, Brian S.; Zangan, Steven M. [University of Chicago Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate dual-lumen chest port infection rates in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) compared to those with other malignancies (non-HNC).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective study was performed on 1,094 consecutive chest ports placed over a 2-year period. Patients with poor follow-up (n = 53), no oncologic history (n = 13), or single-lumen ports (n = 183) were excluded yielding a study population of 845 patients. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, data regarding ports and infections, and imaging review.ResultsHNC patients experienced more infections (42 vs. 30), an increased infection rate per 1,000 catheter days (0.68 vs. 0.21), and more early infections within 30 days compared to non-HNC patients (10 vs. 6) (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). An existing tracheostomy at the time of port placement was associated with infection in the HNC group (p = 0.02) but was not an independent risk factor for infection in the study population overall (p = 0.06). There was a significant difference in age, male gender, and right-sided ports between the HNC and non-HNC groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p = 0.01), although these were not found to be independent risk factors for infection (p = 0.32, p = 0.76, p = 0.16).ConclusionHNC patients are at increased risk for infection of dual-lumen chest ports placed via a jugular approach compared to patients with other malignancies. Tracheostomy is associated with infection in HNC patients but is not an independent risk factor for infection in the oncologic population as a whole.

  6. Dual-Lumen Chest Port Infection Rates in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Aaron; Ahmed, Osman; Jilani, Danial; Giger, Maryellen; Funaki, Brian S.; Zangan, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate dual-lumen chest port infection rates in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) compared to those with other malignancies (non-HNC).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective study was performed on 1,094 consecutive chest ports placed over a 2-year period. Patients with poor follow-up (n = 53), no oncologic history (n = 13), or single-lumen ports (n = 183) were excluded yielding a study population of 845 patients. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, data regarding ports and infections, and imaging review.ResultsHNC patients experienced more infections (42 vs. 30), an increased infection rate per 1,000 catheter days (0.68 vs. 0.21), and more early infections within 30 days compared to non-HNC patients (10 vs. 6) (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). An existing tracheostomy at the time of port placement was associated with infection in the HNC group (p = 0.02) but was not an independent risk factor for infection in the study population overall (p = 0.06). There was a significant difference in age, male gender, and right-sided ports between the HNC and non-HNC groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p = 0.01), although these were not found to be independent risk factors for infection (p = 0.32, p = 0.76, p = 0.16).ConclusionHNC patients are at increased risk for infection of dual-lumen chest ports placed via a jugular approach compared to patients with other malignancies. Tracheostomy is associated with infection in HNC patients but is not an independent risk factor for infection in the oncologic population as a whole

  7. Rationale and design of the East-West late lumen loss study: Comparison of late lumen loss between Eastern and Western drug-eluting stent study cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert W; Radhakrishnan, Vaishnavi; Lam, Peter S; Allocco, Dominic J; Brar, Sandeep; Fahy, Martin; Fisher, Rebecca; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Généreux, Philippe; Kimura, Takeshi; Liu, Minglei; Lye, Weng Kit; Mintz, Gary S; Nagai, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Yuka; White, Roseann; Allen, John C; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2016-12-01

    The contemporary evaluation of novel drug-eluting stents (DES) includes mechanistic observations that characterize postdeployment stent behavior. Quantification of late lumen loss due to neointimal hyperplasia 8-13 months after stent implantation, via quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), constitutes such an observation and is required by most regulatory authorities. Late lumen loss, as determined by QCA, has been validated as a surrogate for clinical endpoints such as target vessel revascularization. The mechanistic response to DES has not been directly compared across predominantly Asian or Western populations, whereas understanding their comparability across geographic populations could enhance global DES evaluation. The East-West late lumen loss study is designed to demonstrate whether the residual differences in late lumen loss, as assessed by QCA, is different between Eastern and Western DES recipients from studies with protocol angiography at 8-13 months of follow-up. Data from independent core laboratories that have characterized angiographic late lumen loss in DES clinical trials with protocol follow-up angiography will be compiled and dichotomized into Eastern and Western populations. A prospectively developed propensity score model incorporating clinical and anatomic variables affecting late lumen loss will be used to adjust comparisons of QCA measurements. Documentation of whether there are clinically meaningful differences in mechanistic response to DES implantation across genetically unique geographies could facilitate both the quality and efficiency of global device evaluation requiring invasive follow-up for novel stent designs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantum sensing of the phase-space-displacement parameters using a single trapped ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Peter A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2018-03-01

    We introduce a quantum sensing protocol for detecting the parameters characterizing the phase-space displacement by using a single trapped ion as a quantum probe. We show that, thanks to the laser-induced coupling between the ion's internal states and the motion mode, the estimation of the two conjugated parameters describing the displacement can be efficiently performed by a set of measurements of the atomic state populations. Furthermore, we introduce a three-parameter protocol capable of detecting the magnitude, the transverse direction, and the phase of the displacement. We characterize the uncertainty of the two- and three-parameter problems in terms of the Fisher information and show that state projective measurement saturates the fundamental quantum Cramér-Rao bound.

  9. Real-space imaging of non-collinear antiferromagnetic order with a single-spin magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, I.; Akhtar, W.; Garcia, V.; Martínez, L. J.; Chouaieb, S.; Garcia, K.; Carrétéro, C.; Barthélémy, A.; Appel, P.; Maletinsky, P.; Kim, J.-V.; Chauleau, J. Y.; Jaouen, N.; Viret, M.; Bibes, M.; Fusil, S.; Jacques, V.

    2017-09-01

    Although ferromagnets have many applications, their large magnetization and the resulting energy cost for switching magnetic moments bring into question their suitability for reliable low-power spintronic devices. Non-collinear antiferromagnetic systems do not suffer from this problem, and often have extra functionalities: non-collinear spin order may break space-inversion symmetry and thus allow electric-field control of magnetism, or may produce emergent spin-orbit effects that enable efficient spin-charge interconversion. To harness these traits for next-generation spintronics, the nanoscale control and imaging capabilities that are now routine for ferromagnets must be developed for antiferromagnetic systems. Here, using a non-invasive, scanning single-spin magnetometer based on a nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond, we demonstrate real-space visualization of non-collinear antiferromagnetic order in a magnetic thin film at room temperature. We image the spin cycloid of a multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) thin film and extract a period of about 70 nanometres, consistent with values determined by macroscopic diffraction. In addition, we take advantage of the magnetoelectric coupling present in BiFeO3 to manipulate the cycloid propagation direction by an electric field. Besides highlighting the potential of nitrogen-vacancy magnetometry for imaging complex antiferromagnetic orders at the nanoscale, these results demonstrate how BiFeO3 can be used in the design of reconfigurable nanoscale spin textures.

  10. The structure of single-phase turbulent flows through closely spaced rod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, J.D.; Rehme, K.

    1983-02-01

    The axial and azimuthal turbulence intensity in the rod gap region has been shown, for developed single-phase turbulent flow through parallel rod arrays, to strongly increase with decreasing rod spacing. Two array geometries are reported, one constructed from a rectangular cross-section duct containing four rods and spaced at five p/d or w/d ratios. The second test section, constructed from six rods set in a regular square-pitch array, represented the interior flow region of a large array. The mean axial velocity, wall shear stress variation and axial pressure distribution were measured, together with hot-wire anemometer measurements of the Reynolds stresses. No significant non-zero secondary flow components were detected, using techniques capable of resolving secondary flow velocities to 1% of the local axial velocity. For the lowest p/d ratio of 1.036, cross-correlation measurements showed the presence of an energetic periodic azimuthal turbulent velocity component, correlated over a significant part of the flow area. The negligible contribution of secondary flows to the axial momentum balance, and the large azimuthal turbulent velocity component in the rod gap area, suggest a different mechanism than Reynolds stress gradient driven secondary flows for the turbulent transport process in the rod gap. (orig.) [de

  11. Evaluation of Esophageal Motility Utilizing the Functional Lumen Imaging Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A; Kahrilas, Peter J; Lin, Zhiyue; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Listernick, Zoe; Ritter, Katherine; Tye, Michael; Ponds, Fraukje A; Wong, Ian; Pandolfino, John E

    2016-12-01

    Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility and distension-mediated peristalsis can be assessed with the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) during a sedated upper endoscopy. We aimed to describe esophageal motility assessment using FLIP topography in patients presenting with dysphagia. In all, 145 patients (aged 18-85 years, 54% female) with dysphagia that completed upper endoscopy with a 16-cm FLIP assembly and high-resolution manometry (HRM) were included. HRM was analyzed according to the Chicago Classification of esophageal motility disorders; major esophageal motility disorders were considered "abnormal". FLIP studies were analyzed using a customized program to calculate the EGJ-distensibility index (DI) and generate FLIP topography plots to identify esophageal contractility patterns. FLIP topography was considered "abnormal" if EGJ-DI was esophageal motility and 29 normal motility. In all, 17 (50%) had abnormal FLIP topography including 13 (37%) with abnormal EGJ-DI. FLIP topography provides a well-tolerated method for esophageal motility assessment (especially to identify achalasia) at the time of upper endoscopy. FLIP topography findings that are discordant with HRM may indicate otherwise undetected abnormalities of esophageal function, thus FLIP provides an alternative and complementary method to HRM for evaluation of non-obstructive dysphagia.

  12. Adaptable Single Active Loop Thermal Control System (TCS) for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Lee, Seunghyun; Hasan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will examine the development of a thermal control system (TCS) for future space missions utilizing a single active cooling loop. The system architecture enables the TCS to be reconfigured during the various mission phases to respond, not only to varying heat load, but to heat rejection temperature as well. The system will consist of an accumulator, pump, cold plates (evaporators), condenser radiator, and compressor, in addition to control, bypass and throttling valves. For cold environments, the heat will be rejected by radiation, during which the compressor will be bypassed, reducing the system to a simple pumped loop that, depending on heat load, can operate in either a single-phase liquid mode or two-phase mode. For warmer environments, the pump will be bypassed, enabling the TCS to operate as a heat pump. This presentation will focus on recent findings concerning two-phase flow regimes, pressure drop, and heat transfer coefficient trends in the cabin and avionics micro-channel heat exchangers when using the heat pump mode. Also discussed will be practical implications of using micro-channel evaporators for the heat pump.

  13. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram: a sign of acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae

    1986-01-01

    Six cases of nonvisulization of the gallbladder lumen in patients with acute viral hepatitis are presented. Follow-up ultrasonographic examinations done during the convalescent period in 2 patients showed normal gallbladders and this was correlated with improvement in enzyme levels. It is suggested that acute viral hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram.

  14. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram: a sign of acute viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Six cases of nonvisulization of the gallbladder lumen in patients with acute viral hepatitis are presented. Follow-up ultrasonographic examinations done during the convalescent period in 2 patients showed normal gallbladders and this was correlated with improvement in enzyme levels. It is suggested that acute viral hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram.

  15. Space Situational Awareness of Large Numbers of Payloads From a Single Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerman, A.; Byers, J.; Emmert, J.; Nicholas, A.

    2014-09-01

    The nearly simultaneous deployment of a large number of payloads from a single vehicle presents a new challenge for space object catalog maintenance and space situational awareness (SSA). Following two cubesat deployments last November, it took five weeks to catalog the resulting 64 orbits. The upcoming Kicksat mission will present an even greater SSA challenge, with its deployment of 128 chip-sized picosats. Although all of these deployments are in short-lived orbits, future deployments will inevitably occur at higher altitudes, with a longer term threat of collision with active spacecraft. With such deployments, individual scientific payload operators require rapid precise knowledge of their satellites' locations. Following the first November launch, the cataloguing did not initially associate a payload with each orbit, leaving this to the satellite operators. For short duration missions, the time required to identify an experiment's specific orbit may easily be a large fraction of the spacecraft's lifetime. For a Kicksat-type deployment, present tracking cannot collect enough observations to catalog each small object. The current approach is to treat the chip cloud as a single catalog object. However, the cloud dissipates into multiple subclouds and, ultimately, tiny groups of untrackable chips. One response to this challenge may be to mandate installation of a transponder on each spacecraft. Directional transponder transmission detections could be used as angle observations for orbit cataloguing. Of course, such an approach would only be employable with cooperative spacecraft. In other cases, a probabilistic association approach may be useful, with the goal being to establish the probability of an element being at a given point in space. This would permit more reliable assessment of the probability of collision of active spacecraft with any cloud element. This paper surveys the cataloguing challenges presented by large scale deployments of small spacecraft

  16. True-lumen and false-lumen diameter changes in the downstream aorta after frozen elephant trunk implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Tim; Kreibich, Maximilian; Morlock, Julia; Kondov, Stoyan; Scheumann, Johannes; Kari, Fabian A; Rylski, Bartosz; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Czerny, Martin

    2018-02-19

    To evaluate early and mid-term clinical outcomes and to assess the potential of the frozen elephant trunk technique to induce remodelling of downstream aortic segments in acute and chronic thoracic aortic dissections. Over a 4-year period, 65 patients (48 men, aged 61 ± 12 years) underwent total aortic arch replacement using the frozen elephant trunk technique for acute (n = 31) and chronic (n = 34) thoracic aortic dissections at our institution. We assessed diameter changes at 3 levels: the L1 segment at the stent graft level; the L2 segment at the thoraco-abdominal transition level and the L3 segment at the coeliac trunk level. True-lumen (TL) and false-lumen (FL) diameter changes were assessed at each level. Fifty-six percent of patients had already undergone previous aortic or cardiac surgery. In-hospital mortality was 6%. Symptomatic spinal cord injury was not observed in this series. During a mean follow-up of 12 ± 12 months, late death was observed in 6% of patients. Aortic reinterventions in downstream aortic segments were performed in 28% at a mean of 394 ± 385 days. TL expansion and FL shrinkage were measured in all segments and were observed at each level. This effect was the most pronounced at the level of the stent graft in patients with chronic aortic dissection, TL diameter increased from 15 ± 17 mm before surgery to 28 ± 2 mm (P = 0.001) after 2 years, and the FL diameter decreased from 40 ± 11 mm before surgery to 32 ± 17 mm (P = 0.026). The frozen elephant trunk technique is associated with an excellent clinical outcome in a complex cohort of patients, and also effectively induces remodelling in downstream aortic segments in acute and chronic thoracic aortic dissections. The need for secondary interventions in downstream segments, which mainly depends on the extent of the underlying disease process, remains substantial. Further studies are required to assess the long-term outcome of

  17. Preparation of lumen-loaded kenaf pulp with magnetite (Fe3O4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, S.; Ong, B.H.; Ahmad, S.H.; Abdullah, M.; Yamauchi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic pulps were prepared from unbleached kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.) kraft pulps. Fe 3 O 4 or magnetite powder was used to load into the pulp's lumen and pit. Aluminum sulphate [Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ] (alum) and polyethylenimine (PEI), both mainly function as retention aid were used throughout the experiment and found to be beneficial in the preparation of this magnetic pulps. The ash content method was used to determine the amount of magnetite retained in the lumen and pit. The utilization of PEI up to 2% per pulp fibres was found to be the best result on lumen loading. The deposition of magnetite powder in lumen and pit is found decrease as the addition of PEI used is more than 2% per pulp fibres. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) clearly shows the distribution of magnetite deposited in the lumen. Tensile index and folding endurance of the loaded fibre decreased slightly as the percentage of loading pigment increased

  18. Automated quantification of bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening and lumen tapering in chest CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Rovira, Adria; Kuo, Wieying; Petersen, Jens

    thickness and accompanying artery radius), and inter-branch Lumen-Ratio (LR, ratio between a branch's lumen and its parent branch lumen radius, a tapering measurement) were computed. Because CF-related structural abnormalities only affect a portion of branches, the 75th percentile was used as summarising......Purpose: To automatically quantify airway structural properties visualised on CT in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and controls, including: bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening, and lumen tapering. Methods and materials: The 3D surface of the airway lumen, outer wall, and bronchial arteries...... were obtained using a fully automatic, in-house developed, segmentation method. Subsequently, for each detected airway branch, the Airway-Artery Ratio (AAR, ratio between airway outer wall and accompanying artery radius, a bronchiectasis measurement), Wall-Artery Ratio (WAR, ratio between airway wall...

  19. Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors for High-Data-Rate Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High data rate deep space optical communication (DSOC) links for manned and unmanned space exploration have been identified by NASA as a critical future capability,...

  20. Comparative Performance in Single-Port Versus Multiport Minimally Invasive Surgery, and Small Versus Large Operative Working Spaces: A Preclinical Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Hani J; Seneci, Carlo A; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Nandi, Dipankar; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara

    2016-04-01

    Surgical approaches such as transanal endoscopic microsurgery, which utilize small operative working spaces, and are necessarily single-port, are particularly demanding with standard instruments and have not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare simultaneously surgical performance in single-port versus multiport approaches, and small versus large working spaces. Ten novice, 4 intermediate, and 1 expert surgeons were recruited from a university hospital. A preclinical randomized crossover study design was implemented, comparing performance under the following conditions: (1) multiport approach and large working space, (2) multiport approach and intermediate working space, (3) single-port approach and large working space, (4) single-port approach and intermediate working space, and (5) single-port approach and small working space. In each case, participants performed a peg transfer and pattern cutting tasks, and each task repetition was scored. Intermediate and expert surgeons performed significantly better than novices in all conditions (P Performance in single-port surgery was significantly worse than multiport surgery (P performance in the intermediate versus large working space. In single-port surgery, there was a converse trend; performances in the intermediate and small working spaces were significantly better than in the large working space. Single-port approaches were significantly more technically challenging than multiport approaches, possibly reflecting loss of instrument triangulation. Surprisingly, in single-port approaches, in which triangulation was no longer a factor, performance in large working spaces was worse than in intermediate and small working spaces. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Femtosecond laser irradiation of olivine single crystals: Experimental simulation of space weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, A.; Harries, D.; Matthäus, G.; Mutschke, H.; Nolte, S.; Langenhorst, F.

    2018-01-01

    Space weathering is one of the most common surface process occurring on atmosphere-free bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. It is caused mainly by solar wind irradiation and the impact of micrometeoroids. In order to simulate space weathering effects, in particular those produced by hypervelocity impacts, we produced microcraters via ultra-short (∼100 fs) laser irradiation of crystallographically oriented slices of forsterite-rich (Fo94.7) olivine. The main advantages of the application of a femtosecond laser radiation to reproduce the space weathering effects are (1) the high peak irradiance (1015 W cm-2), which generates the propagation of the shock wave at the nanosecond timescale (i.e., timescale of the micrometeoroid impacts); (2) the rapid transfer of energy to the target material, which avoids the interaction of laser light with the developing vapor plume; (3) a small laser beam, which allows the effects of a single impact to be simulated. The results of our spectroscopic and electron microscopic investigation validate this approach: the samples show strong darkening and reddening of the reflectance spectra and structural damages similar to the natural microcraters found on regolith grains of the Moon and asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Detailed investigations of several microcrater cross-sections by transmission electron microscopy allowed the detection of shock-induced defect microstructures. From the top to the bottom of the grain, the shock wave causes evaporation, melting, solid-state recrystallization, misorientation, fracturing, and the propagation of dislocations with Burgers vectors parallel to [001]. The formation of a short-lived vapor plume causes the kinetic fractionation of the gas and the preferential loss of lighter elements, mostly magnesium and oxygen. The high temperatures within the melt layer and the kinetic loss of oxygen promote the thermal reduction of iron and nickel, which leads to the formation of metallic nanoparticles (npFe0). The

  2. Claudin5a is required for proper inflation of Kupffer's vesicle lumen and organ laterality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Gyun Kim

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetric organ development is critical to establish a proper body plan of vertebrates. In zebrafish, the Kupffer's vesicle (KV is a fluid-filled sac which controls asymmetric organ development, and a properly inflated KV lumen by means of fluid influx is a prerequisite for the asymmetric signal transmission. However, little is known about the components that support the paracellular tightness between the KV luminal epithelial cells to sustain hydrostatic pressure during KV lumen expansion. Here, we identified that the claudin5a (cldn5a is highly expressed at the apical surface of KV epithelial cells and tightly seals the KV lumen. Downregulation of cldn5a in zebrafish showed a failure in organ laterality that resulted from malformed KV. In addition, accelerated fluid influx into KV by combined treatment of forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine failed to expand the partially-formed KV lumen in cldn5a morphants. However, malformed KV lumen and defective heart laterality in cldn5a morphants were significantly rescued by exogenous cldn5a mRNA, suggesting that the tightness between the luminal epithelial cells is important for KV lumen formation. Taken together, these findings suggest that cldn5a is required for KV lumen inflation and left-right asymmetric organ development.

  3. Claudin5a is required for proper inflation of Kupffer's vesicle lumen and organ laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Bae, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hye Shin; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2017-01-01

    Left-right asymmetric organ development is critical to establish a proper body plan of vertebrates. In zebrafish, the Kupffer's vesicle (KV) is a fluid-filled sac which controls asymmetric organ development, and a properly inflated KV lumen by means of fluid influx is a prerequisite for the asymmetric signal transmission. However, little is known about the components that support the paracellular tightness between the KV luminal epithelial cells to sustain hydrostatic pressure during KV lumen expansion. Here, we identified that the claudin5a (cldn5a) is highly expressed at the apical surface of KV epithelial cells and tightly seals the KV lumen. Downregulation of cldn5a in zebrafish showed a failure in organ laterality that resulted from malformed KV. In addition, accelerated fluid influx into KV by combined treatment of forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine failed to expand the partially-formed KV lumen in cldn5a morphants. However, malformed KV lumen and defective heart laterality in cldn5a morphants were significantly rescued by exogenous cldn5a mRNA, suggesting that the tightness between the luminal epithelial cells is important for KV lumen formation. Taken together, these findings suggest that cldn5a is required for KV lumen inflation and left-right asymmetric organ development.

  4. High energy, single frequency, tunable laser source operating in burst mode for space based lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Gironi, Gianna; Suetta, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes energetic, spatial, temporal and spectral characterization measurements of the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) of the Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA) used in the ALADIN instrument currently under development for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The EQM is equivalent to the Flight Model, with the exception of some engineering grade components. The Laser Transmitter Assembly, based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate laser pulses at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz during bursts. It is capable to operate in Single Longitudinal Mode and to be tuned over 25 GHz range. An internal "network" of sensors has been implemented inside the laser architecture to allow "in flight" monitoring of transmitter. Energy in excess of 100 mJ, with a spatial beam quality factor (M2) lower than 3, a spectral linewidth less than 50 MHz with a frequency stability better than 4 MHz on short term period have been measured on the EQM. Most of the obtained results are well within the expected values and match the Instrument requirements. They constitute an important achievement, showing the absence of major critical areas in terms of performance and the capability to obtain them in a rugged and compact structure suitable for space applications. The EQM will be submitted in the near future to an Environmental test campaign.

  5. Single-nanotube tracking reveals the nanoscale organization of the extracellular space in the live brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Antoine G.; Varela, Juan A.; Gao, Zhenghong; Danné, Noémie; Dupuis, Julien P.; Lounis, Brahim; Groc, Laurent; Cognet, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    The brain is a dynamic structure with the extracellular space (ECS) taking up almost a quarter of its volume. Signalling molecules, neurotransmitters and nutrients transit via the ECS, which constitutes a key microenvironment for cellular communication and the clearance of toxic metabolites. The spatial organization of the ECS varies during sleep, development and aging and is probably altered in neuropsychiatric and degenerative diseases, as inferred from electron microscopy and macroscopic biophysical investigations. Here we show an approach to directly observe the local ECS structures and rheology in brain tissue using super-resolution imaging. We inject single-walled carbon nanotubes into rat cerebroventricles and follow the near-infrared emission of individual nanotubes as they diffuse inside the ECS for tens of minutes in acute slices. Because of the interplay between the nanotube geometry and the ECS local environment, we can extract information about the dimensions and local viscosity of the ECS. We find a striking diversity of ECS dimensions down to 40 nm, and as well as of local viscosity values. Moreover, by chemically altering the extracellular matrix of the brains of live animals before nanotube injection, we reveal that the rheological properties of the ECS are affected, but these alterations are local and inhomogeneous at the nanoscale.

  6. Single-Mode, High Repetition Rate, Compact Ho:YLF Laser for Space-Borne Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Wong, Teh-Hwa; Chen, Songsheng; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    A single transverse/longitudinal mode, compact Q-switched Ho:YLF laser has been designed and demonstrated for space-borne lidar applications. The pulse energy is between 34-40 mJ for 100-200 Hz operation. The corresponding peak power is >1 MW.

  7. Control strategy for Single-phase Transformerless Three-leg Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on Space Vector Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is known as an effective compensation device to improve PQ for sensitive end-users. This paper investigates the operation and control of a single-phase three-leg UPQC (TL-UPQC), where a novel space vector modulation method is proposed for naturally...

  8. Increase in data capacity utilising dimensions of wavelength, space, time, polarisation and multilevel modulation using a single laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Hu, Hao; Ye, Feihong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the capacity of optical networks while have the objective of lowering the total consumed energy per bit is challenging. By exploiting several dimensions, i.e. wavelength, space, time, polarisation and multilevel modulation simultaneously, a single laser can offer formidable capacity pe...... performance with potentially reduced energy consumption per bit. Up to 43 Tbit/s has been demonstrated....

  9. Axial p-n junction and space charge limited current in single GaN nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihua; Donatini, Fabrice; Daudin, Bruno; Pernot, Julien

    2018-01-01

    The electrical characterizations of individual basic GaN nanostructures, such as axial nanowire (NW) p-n junctions, are becoming indispensable and crucial for the fully controlled realization of GaN NW based devices. In this study, electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements were performed on two single axial GaN p-n junction NWs grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. I-V characteristics revealed that both ohmic and space charge limited current (SCLC) regimes occur in GaN p-n junction NW. Thanks to an improved contact process, both the electric field induced by the p-n junction and the SCLC in the p-part of GaN NW were disclosed and delineated by EBIC signals under different biases. Analyzing the EBIC profiles in the vicinity of the p-n junction under 0 V and reverse bias, we deduced a depletion width in the range of 116-125 nm. Following our previous work, the acceptor N a doping level was estimated to be 2-3 × 1017 at cm-3 assuming a donor level N d of 2-3 × 1018 at cm-3. The hole diffusion length in n-GaN was determined to be 75 nm for NW #1 and 43 nm for NW #2, demonstrating a low surface recombination velocity at the m-plane facet of n-GaN NW. Under forward bias, EBIC imaging visualized the electric field induced by the SCLC close to p-side contact, in agreement with unusual SCLC previously reported in GaN NWs.

  10. Space nuclear reactor concepts for avoidance of a single point failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents three space nuclear reactor concepts for future exploration missions requiring electrical power of 10's to 100's kW, for 7-10 years. These concepts avoid a single point failure in reactor cooling; and they could be used with a host of energy conversion technologies. The first is lithium or sodium heat pipes cooled reactor. The heat pipes operate at a fraction of their prevailing capillary or sonic limit. Thus, when a number of heat pipes fail, those in the adjacent modules remove their heat load, maintaining reactor core adequately cooled. The second is a reactor with a circulating liquid metal coolant. The reactor core is divided into six identical sectors, each with a separate energy conversion loop. The sectors in the reactor core are neurotically coupled, but hydraulically decoupled. Thus, when a sector experiences a loss of coolant, the fission power generated in it will be removed by the circulating coolant in the adjacent sectors. In this case, however, the reactor fission power would have to decrease to avoid exceeding the design temperature limits in the sector with a failed loop. These two reactor concepts are used with energy conversion technologies, such as advanced Thermoelectric (TE), Free Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE), and Alkali Metal Thermal-to- Electric Conversion (AMTEC). Gas cooled reactors are a better choice to use with Closed Brayton Cycle engines, such as the third reactor concept to be presented in the paper. It has a sectored core that is cooled with a binary mixture of He-Xe (40 gm/mole). Each of the three sectors in the reactor has its own CBC and neutronically, but not hydraulically, coupled to the other sectors

  11. Axial p-n junction and space charge limited current in single GaN nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihua; Donatini, Fabrice; Daudin, Bruno; Pernot, Julien

    2018-01-05

    The electrical characterizations of individual basic GaN nanostructures, such as axial nanowire (NW) p-n junctions, are becoming indispensable and crucial for the fully controlled realization of GaN NW based devices. In this study, electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements were performed on two single axial GaN p-n junction NWs grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. I-V characteristics revealed that both ohmic and space charge limited current (SCLC) regimes occur in GaN p-n junction NW. Thanks to an improved contact process, both the electric field induced by the p-n junction and the SCLC in the p-part of GaN NW were disclosed and delineated by EBIC signals under different biases. Analyzing the EBIC profiles in the vicinity of the p-n junction under 0 V and reverse bias, we deduced a depletion width in the range of 116-125 nm. Following our previous work, the acceptor N a doping level was estimated to be 2-3 × 10 17 at cm -3 assuming a donor level N d of 2-3 × 10 18 at cm -3 . The hole diffusion length in n-GaN was determined to be 75 nm for NW #1 and 43 nm for NW #2, demonstrating a low surface recombination velocity at the m-plane facet of n-GaN NW. Under forward bias, EBIC imaging visualized the electric field induced by the SCLC close to p-side contact, in agreement with unusual SCLC previously reported in GaN NWs.

  12. Improved automated lumen contour detection by novel multifrequency processing algorithm with current intravascular ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Teruyoshi; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Sathyanarayana, Shashidhar; Li, Wenguang; Teo, Tat-Jin; Yock, Paul G; Fitzgerald, Peter J; Honda, Yasuhiro

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new fully automated lumen border tracing system based on a novel multifrequency processing algorithm. We developed the multifrequency processing method to enhance arterial lumen detection by exploiting the differential scattering characteristics of blood and arterial tissue. The implementation of the method can be integrated into current intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) hardware. This study was performed in vivo with conventional 40-MHz IVUS catheters (Atlantis SR Pro™, Boston Scientific Corp, Natick, MA) in 43 clinical patients with coronary artery disease. A total of 522 frames were randomly selected, and lumen areas were measured after automatically tracing lumen borders with the new tracing system and a commercially available tracing system (TraceAssist™) referred to as the "conventional tracing system." The data assessed by the two automated systems were compared with the results of manual tracings by experienced IVUS analysts. New automated lumen measurements showed better agreement with manual lumen area tracings compared with those of the conventional tracing system (correlation coefficient: 0.819 vs. 0.509). When compared against manual tracings, the new algorithm also demonstrated improved systematic error (mean difference: 0.13 vs. -1.02 mm(2) ) and random variability (standard deviation of difference: 2.21 vs. 4.02 mm(2) ) compared with the conventional tracing system. This preliminary study showed that the novel fully automated tracing system based on the multifrequency processing algorithm can provide more accurate lumen border detection than current automated tracing systems and thus, offer a more reliable quantitative evaluation of lumen geometry. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Technical Note: Measurement of common carotid artery lumen dynamics using black-blood MR cine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Erpeng; Dong, Li; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Lyu; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Xihai; Wang, Jinnan; Yuan, Chun; Guo, Hua

    2017-03-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the common carotid artery (CCA) lumen dynamics using a black-blood cine (BB-cine) imaging method. Motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (MSDE) prepared spoiled gradient sequence was used for the BB-cine imaging. CCAs of eleven healthy volunteers were studied using this method. Lumen dynamics, including lumen area evolution waveforms and distension values, were measured and evaluated by comparing this method with bright-blood cine (BrB-cine) imaging. Compared with the BrB-cine images, flow artifacts were effectively suppressed in the BB-cine images. BrB-cine images generally show larger lumen areas than BB-cine images. The lumen area waveforms and distension measurements from BB-cine imaging showed smaller variances among different subjects than BrB-cine imaging. The proposed BB-cine imaging technique can suppress the flow artifacts effectively and reduce the partial volume effects from the vessel wall. This might allow more accurate lumen dynamics measurements than traditional BrB-cine imaging, which may further be valuable for investigating biomechanical and functional properties of the cardiovascular system. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. High core count single-mode multicore fiber for dense space division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aikawa, K.; Sasaki, Y.; Amma, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Multicore fibers and few-mode fibers have the potential to realize dense-space-division multiplexing systems. Several dense-space-division multiplexing system transmission experiments over multicore fibers and few-mode fibers have been demonstrated so far. Multicore fibers, including recent resul...

  15. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Strategy for Single-Phase Three-Level CIC T-source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shults, Tatiana E.; Husev, Oleksandr O.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel space vector pulse-width modulation strategy for a single-phase three-level buck-boost inverter based on an impedance-source network. The case study system is based on T-source inverter with continuous input current. To demonstrate the improved performance of the inver......This paper presents a novel space vector pulse-width modulation strategy for a single-phase three-level buck-boost inverter based on an impedance-source network. The case study system is based on T-source inverter with continuous input current. To demonstrate the improved performance...... of the inverter, the strategy was compared the traditional pulse-width modulation. It is shown that the approach proposed has fewer switching states and does not suffer from neutral point misbalance....

  16. Camera Embedded Single Lumen Tube as a Rescue Device for Airway Handling during Lung Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg Holm, Jimmy; Andersen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    .Keywords: Thoracic anesthesia; Airway handling; VivaSight; Vivasight-SL; Lobectomy; Camera-embedded tube; Endotracheal; Lung isolation; Video tube Taking the small stature into account, use of a small conventional 35-Fr right sided DLT was planned for the procedure. As it turned out, this tube could not be passed...

  17. Multimodality Imaging-based Evaluation of Single-Lumen Silicone Breast Implants for Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Stephen J; Sharma, Pooja B; Hayes, Jody C; Ganti, Ramapriya; Mootz, Ann R; Eads, Emily D; Teotia, Sumeet S; Evans, W Phil

    2017-01-01

    Breast implants are frequently encountered on breast imaging studies, and it is essential for any radiologist interpreting these studies to be able to correctly assess implant integrity. Ruptures of silicone gel-filled implants often occur without becoming clinically obvious and are incidentally detected at imaging. Early diagnosis of implant rupture is important because surgical removal of extracapsular silicone in the breast parenchyma and lymphatics is difficult. Conversely, misdiagnosis of rupture may prompt a patient to undergo unnecessary additional surgery to remove the implant. Mammography is the most common breast imaging examination performed and can readily depict extracapsular free silicone, although it is insensitive for detection of intracapsular implant rupture. Ultrasonography (US) can be used to assess the internal structure of the implant and may provide an economical method for initial implant assessment. Common US signs of intracapsular rupture include the "keyhole" or "noose" sign, subcapsular line sign, and "stepladder" sign; extracapsular silicone has a distinctive "snowstorm" or echogenic noise appearance. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most accurate and reliable means for assessment of implant rupture and is highly sensitive for detection of both intracapsular and extracapsular rupture. MR imaging findings of intracapsular rupture include the keyhole or noose sign, subcapsular line sign, and "linguine" sign, and silicone-selective MR imaging sequences are highly sensitive to small amounts of extracapsular silicone. © RSNA, 2017.

  18. Single Shot Measurements of the 4-Dimensional Transverse Phase Space Distribution of Intense Ion Beams at the UNILAC at GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Groening, L

    2003-01-01

    The UNILAC is used as an injector for the synchrotron SIS. It is designed to fill the synchrotron up to its space charge limit. The upper limit for the useful beam emittance of the UNILAC is given by the finite acceptance of the SIS during the injection process. In order to remain within this acceptance the emittance growth during beam acceleration and transportation due to space charge effects must be minimized by applying an appropriate beam focusing. Therefore, the influence of the magnetic focusing strength on the beam emittance growth was investigated experimentally for different beam currents. Measurements of transverse phase space distributions were performed before and after the Alvarez accelerator with a periodic focusing channel, respectively. In order to perform such a wide parameter scan within a reasonable time with respect to machine stability, the pepper pot technique was applied. The pepper pot method allows for single-pulse measurements. For comparison several measurements using the slit-grid...

  19. Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Using a Dual-Lumen Endogastroscope for Patients with Billroth II Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a dual-lumen forward-viewing endoscope for ERCP in patients with prior Billroth II gastrectomy. Methods. The records of 46 patients treated with ERCP by a dual-lumen forward-viewing endoscope after Billroth II gastrectomy from 2007 to 2012 were reviewed. Results. The success rate of selective cannulation was 82.6% (38/46. Of the 38 cases with successful selective cannulation, endoscopic sphincterotomy was achieved in 23 cases by placing the needle knife through the 2nd lumen, while endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation was conducted in the other 15 cases. Of the 8 failed cases of selective cannulation, 6 had failed afferent loop intubation, and 3 of these 6 patients had Braun’s anastomosis. The safety and efficacy of catheter-assisted endoscopic sphincterotomy were increased by placing the needle knife through the 2nd lumen without altering the conventional endoscopic sphincterotomy procedure. Conclusions. A dual-lumen forward-viewing endoscope can be safely and effectively used to perform ERCP in patients with a Billroth II gastrectomy, except for patients with additional Braun’s anastomosis.

  20. Age-Related Changes in Pharyngeal Lumen Size: A Retrospective MRI Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Amin, M R; Branski, R C; Brumm, J D; Hagiwara, M; Roof, S A; Lazarus, C L

    2015-06-01

    Age-related loss of muscle bulk and strength (sarcopenia) is often cited as a potential mechanism underlying age-related changes in swallowing. Our goal was to explore this phenomenon in the pharynx, specifically, by measuring pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area in a sample of young versus older women. MRI scans of the neck were retrospectively reviewed from 60 women equally stratified into three age groups (20s, 60s, 70+). Four de-identified slices were extracted per scan for randomized, blinded analysis: one mid-sagittal and three axial slices were selected at the anterior inferior border of C2 and C3, and at the pit of the vallecula. Pixel-based measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were completed using ImageJ and then converted to metric units. Measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were compared between age groups with one-way ANOVAs using Sidak adjustments for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. A significant main effect for age was observed across all variables whereby pharyngeal wall thickness decreased and pharyngeal lumen area increased with advancing age. Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between 20s versus 70+ for all variables and 20s versus 60s for all variables except those measured at C2. Effect sizes ranged from 0.54 to 1.34. Consistent with existing sacropenia literature, the pharyngeal muscles appear to atrophy with age and consequently, the size of the pharyngeal lumen increases.

  1. General Space-Confined On-Substrate Fabrication of Thickness-Adjustable Hybrid Perovskite Single-Crystalline Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Xuan; Ge, Qian-Qing; Shi, Yang; Liu, Jie; Xue, Ding-Jiang; Ma, Jing-Yuan; Ding, Jie; Yan, Hui-Juan; Hu, Jin-Song; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-12-21

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite single-crystalline thin films (SCTFs) are promising for enhancing photoelectric device performance due to high carrier mobility, long diffusion length, and carrier lifetime. However, bulk perovskite single crystals available today are not suitable for practical device application due to the unfavorable thickness. Herein, we report a facile space-confined solution-processed strategy to on-substrate grow various hybrid perovskite SCTFs in a size of submillimeter with adjustable thicknesses from nano- to micrometers. These SCTFs exhibit photoelectric properties comparable to bulk single crystals with low defect density and good air stability. The clear thickness-dependent colors allow fast visual selection of SCTFs with a suitable thickness for specific device application. The present substrate-independent growth of perovskite SCTFs opens up opportunities for on-chip fabrication of diverse high-performance devices.

  2. System modeling for the advanced thermionic initiative single cell thermionic space nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.H.; Lewis, B.R.; Klein, A.C.; Pawlowski, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Incore thermionic space reactor design concepts which operate in a nominal power output range of 20 to 40 kWe are described. Details of the neutronics, thermionic, shielding, and heat rejection performance are presented. Two different designs, ATI-Driven and ATI-Driverless, are considered. Comparison of the core overall performance of these two configurations are described. The comparison of these two cores includes the overall conversion efficiency, reactor mass, shield mass, and heat rejection mass. An overall system design has been developed to model the advanced incore thermionic energy conversion based nuclear reactor systems for space applications in this power range

  3. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config......Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS...

  4. Enlargement of halloysite clay nanotube lumen by selective etching of aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullayev, Elshad; Joshi, Anupam; Wei, Wenbo; Zhao, Yafei; Lvov, Yuri

    2012-08-28

    Halloysite clay tubes have 50 nm diameter and chemically different inner and outer walls (inner surface of aluminum oxide and outer surface of silica). Due to this different chemistry, the selective etching of alumina from inside the tube was realized, while preserving their external diameter (lumen diameter changed from 15 to 25 nm). This increases 2-3 times the tube lumen capacity for loading and further sustained release of active chemical agents such as metals, corrosion inhibitors, and drugs. In particular, halloysite loading efficiency for the benzotriazole increased 4 times by selective etching of 60% alumina within the tubes' lumens. Specific surface area of the tubes increased over 6 times, from 40 to 250 m(2)/g, upon acid treatment.

  5. Pleural space infections after image-guided percutaneous drainage of infected intraabdominal fluid collections: a retrospective single institution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella, Diego M; Toth, Jennifer W; Reed, Michael F; Gusani, Niraj J; Kimchi, Eric T; Mahraj, Rickeshvar P; Staveley-O'Carroll, Kevin F; Kaifi, Jussuf T

    2015-04-11

    Percutaneous drainage of infected intraabdominal fluid collections is preferred over surgical drainage due to lower morbidity and costs. However, it can be a challenging procedure and catheter insertion carries the potential to contaminate the pleural space from the abdomen. This retrospective analysis demonstrates the clinical and radiographic correlation between percutaneous drainage of infected intraabdominal collections and the development of iatrogenic pleural space infections. A retrospective single institution analysis of 550 consecutive percutaneous drainage procedures for intraabdominal fluid collections was performed over 24 months. Patient charts and imaging were reviewed with regard to pleural space infections that were attributed to percutaneous drain placements. Institutional review board approval was obtained for conduct of the study. 6/550 (1.1%) patients developed iatrogenic pleural space infections after percutaneous drainage of intraabdominal fluid collections. All 6 patients presented with respiratory symptoms and required pleural space drainage (either by needle aspiration or chest tube placement), 2 received intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy and 1 patient had to undergo surgical drainage. Pleural effusion cultures revealed same bacteria in both intraabdominal and pleural fluid in 3 (50%) cases. A video with a dynamic radiographic sequence demonstrating the contamination of the pleural space from percutaneous drainage of an infected intraabdominal collection is included. Iatrogenic pleural space infections after percutaneous drainage of intraabdominal fluid collections occur at a low incidence, but the pleural empyema can be progressive requiring prompt chest tube drainage, intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy or even surgery. Expertise in intraabdominal drain placements, awareness and early recognition of this complication is critical to minimize incidence, morbidity and mortality in these patients.

  6. Quantum scattering theory of a single-photon Fock state in three-dimensional spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Yu, Zongfu

    2016-09-15

    A quantum scattering theory is developed for Fock states scattered by two-level systems in three-dimensional free space. It is built upon the one-dimensional scattering theory developed in waveguide quantum electrodynamics. The theory fully quantizes the incident light as Fock states and uses a non-perturbative method to calculate the scattering matrix.

  7. Single event effects and performance predictions for space applications of RISC processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.; Denton, S.M.; Shaeffer, D.L.; Shih, D.; Wilburn, J.W.; Coakley, P.G.; Casteneda, C.; Koga, R.; Clark, D.A.; Ullmann, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Proton and ion Single Event Phenomena (SEP) tests were performed on 32-b processors including R3000A's from all commercial manufacturers along with the Performance PR3400 family, Integrated Device Technology Inc. 79R3081, LSI Logic Corporation LR33000HC, and Intel i80960MX parts. The microprocessors had acceptable upset rates for operation in a low earth orbit or a lunar mission such as CLEMENTINE with a wide range in proton total dose failure. Even though R3000A devices are 60% smaller in physical area than R3000 devices, there was a 340% increase in device Single Event Upset (SEU) cross section. Software tests of varying complexity demonstrate that registers and other functional blocks using register architecture dominate the cross section. The current approach of giving a single upset cross section can lead to erroneous upset rates depending on the application software

  8. Evaluation of an improved technique for automated center lumen line definition in cardiovascular image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratama van Andel, Hugo A.F.; Meijering, Erik; Vrooman, Henri A.; Stokking, Rik; Lugt, Aad van der; Monye, Cecile de

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a new method for automated definition of a center lumen line in vessels in cardiovascular image data. This method, called VAMPIRE, is based on improved detection of vessel-like structures. A multiobserver evaluation study was conducted involving 40 tracings in clinical CTA data of carotid arteries to compare VAMPIRE with an established technique. This comparison showed that VAMPIRE yields considerably more successful tracings and improved handling of stenosis, calcifications, multiple vessels, and nearby bone structures. We conclude that VAMPIRE is highly suitable for automated definition of center lumen lines in vessels in cardiovascular image data. (orig.)

  9. Single Step to Orbit; a First Step in a Cooperative Space Exploration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusignan, Bruce; Sivalingam, Shivan

    1999-01-01

    At the end of the Cold War, disarmament planners included a recommendation to ease reduction of the U.S. and Russian aerospace industries by creating cooperative scientific pursuits. The idea was not new, having earlier been suggested by Eisenhower and Khrushchev to reduce the pressure of the "Military Industrial Complex" by undertaking joint space exploration. The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) proposed at the end of the Cold War by President Bush and Premier Gorbachev was another attempt to ease the disarmament process by giving the bloated war industries something better to do. The engineering talent and the space rockets could be used for peaceful pursuits, notably for going back to the Moon and then on to Mars with human exploration and settlement. At the beginning of this process in 1992 staff of the Stanford Center for International Cooperation in Space attended the International Space University in Canada, met with Russian participants and invited a Russian team to work with us on a joint Stanford-Russian Mars Exploration Study. A CIA student and Airforce and Navy students just happened to join the Stanford course the next year and all students were aware that the leader of the four Russian engineers was well versed in Russian security. But, as long as they did their homework, they were welcome to participate with other students in defining the Mars mission and the three engineers they sent were excellent. At the end of this study we were invited to give a briefing to Dr. Edward Teller at Stanford's Hoover Institution of War and Peace. We were also encouraged to hold a press conference on Capitol Hill to introduce the study to the world. At a pre-conference briefing at the Space Council, we were asked to please remind the press that President Bush had asked for a cooperative exploration proposal not a U.S. alone initiative. The Stanford-Russian study used Russia's Energia launchers, priced at $300 Million each. The mission totaled out to $71.5 Billion

  10. An improved single sensor parity space algorithm for sequential probability ratio test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1995-12-01

    In our paper we propose a modification of the single sensor parity algorithm in order to make the statistical properties of the generated residual determinable in advance. The algorithm is tested via computer simulated ramp failure at the temperature readings of the pressurizer. (author).

  11. A New and Different Space in the Primary School: Single-Gendered Classes in Coeducational Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Robin C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper derives from a two-year ethnographic study conducted in single-gendered classes in two Tasmanian government coeducational schools in socio-economically disadvantaged areas. These schools specifically adopted proactive strategies to address the educational disengagement of boys whose social behaviour affected their own education and that…

  12. Variable dose rate single-arc IMAT delivered with a constant dose rate and variable angular spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Grace; Earl, Matthew A; Yu, Cedric X

    2009-01-01

    Single-arc intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) has gained worldwide interest in both research and clinical implementation due to its superior plan quality and delivery efficiency. Single-arc IMAT techniques such as the Varian RapidArc(TM) deliver conformal dose distributions to the target in one single gantry rotation, resulting in a delivery time in the order of 2 min. The segments in these techniques are evenly distributed within an arc and are allowed to have different monitor unit (MU) weightings. Therefore, a variable dose-rate (VDR) is required for delivery. Because the VDR requirement complicates the control hardware and software of the linear accelerators (linacs) and prevents most existing linacs from delivering IMAT, we propose an alternative planning approach for IMAT using constant dose-rate (CDR) delivery with variable angular spacing. We prove the equivalence by converting VDR-optimized RapidArc plans to CDR plans, where the evenly spaced beams in the VDR plan are redistributed to uneven spacing such that the segments with larger MU weighting occupy a greater angular interval. To minimize perturbation in the optimized dose distribution, the angular deviation of the segments was restricted to ≤± 5 deg. This restriction requires the treatment arc to be broken into multiple sectors such that the local MU fluctuation within each sector is reduced, thereby lowering the angular deviation of the segments during redistribution. The converted CDR plans were delivered with a single gantry sweep as in the VDR plans but each sector was delivered with a different value of CDR. For four patient cases, including two head-and-neck, one brain and one prostate, all CDR plans developed with the variable spacing scheme produced similar dose distributions to the original VDR plans. For plans with complex angular MU distributions, the number of sectors increased up to four in the CDR plans in order to maintain the original plan quality. Since each sector was

  13. Enhanced power generation in annular single-chamber microbial fuel cell via optimization of electrode spacing using chocolate industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Parisa; Najafpour Darzi, Ghasem

    2016-05-01

    Development and practical application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is restricted because of the limitations such as low power output. To overcome low power limitation, the optimization of specific parameters including electrode materials and surface area, electrode spacing, and MFC's cell shape was investigated. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation has been reported in the literature to implement an annular single-chamber microbial fuel cell (ASCMFC) using chocolate industry wastewater. ASCMFC was fabricated via optimization of the stated parameters. The aspects of ASCMFC were comprehensively examined. In this study, the optimization of electrode spacing and its impact on performance of the ASCMFC were conducted. Reduction of electrode spacing by 46.15% (1.3-0.7 cm) resulted in a decrease in internal resistance from 100 to 50 Ω, which enhanced the power density and current output to 22.898 W/m(3) and 6.42 mA, respectively. An optimum electrode spacing of 0.7 cm was determined. Through this paper, the effects of these parameters and the performance of ASCMFC are also evaluated. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Optical design and studies of a tiled single grating pulse compressor for enhanced parametric space and compensation of tiling errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiya, D.; Patidar, R. K.; Sharma, J.; Joshi, A. S.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2017-04-01

    A new optical design of tiled single grating pulse compressor has been proposed, set-up and studied. The parametric space, i.e. the laser beam diameters that can be accommodated in the pulse compressor for the given range of compression lengths, has been calculated and shown to have up to two fold enhancement in comparison to our earlier proposed optical designs. The new optical design of the tiled single grating pulse compressor has an additional advantage of self compensation of various tiling errors like longitudinal and lateral piston, tip and groove density mismatch, compared to the earlier designs. Experiments have been carried out for temporal compression of 650 ps positively chirped laser pulses, at central wavelength 1054 nm, down to 235 fs in the tiled grating pulse compressor set up with the proposed design. Further, far field studies have been performed to show the desired compensation of the tiling errors takes place in the new compressor.

  15. Thrombosis caused by polyurethane double-lumen subclavian superior vena cava catheter and hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Maria Rørbæk; Frifelt, J J; Smith-Sivertsen, C

    1988-01-01

    During an 18-month period, 82 consecutive patients (37 women and 45 men), with a mean age of 50 yr (range 15 to 74), underwent hemodialysis with 91 polyurethane double-lumen subclavian superior vena cava catheters inserted via the right subclavian vein. Upon catheter removal, venograms were...

  16. Fate of the dissecting lumen by CT study following surgical repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Ando, Taizo; Kawazoe, Kohei; Tomino, Tetsuo; Fujita, Takeshi; Naito, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Toshio

    1983-03-01

    A postoperative follow-up study on the fate of dissecting lumen by means of computer tomography has been evaluated. The materials were 21 patients who underwent surgery for dissection of the aorta, including 8 patients in type 1 of DeBakey classification, 3 in type 11, 8 in type 111 and 2 patients of localized dissection in descending and abdominal aorta. The susceptibility for thrombus formation in dissecting lumen appeared to be related to the background etiology of dissection where poor tendency for thrombus formation was observed in a group of patients with Marfan syndrome and its' incomplete form. On the other hand in the group of patients who had a history of hypertension and atherosclerosis probable, a strong tendency of thrombus formation and eventual occlusion of lumen was obtained. On the basis of above findings, it will be said that the surgical intervention for type 1 of DeBakey classification in Marfan patient is merely creating type 111 dissection, closed observation in the future change of dissecting lumen is of utmost importance especially in those groups of patients.

  17. Fate of the dissecting lumen by CT study following surgical repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Ando, Taizo; Kawazoe, Kohei; Tomino, Tetsuo; Fujita, Takeshi; Naito, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Toshio.

    1983-01-01

    A postoperative follow-up study on the fate of dissecting lumen by mean of computer tomography has been evaluated. The materials were 21 patients who underwent surgery for dissection of the aorta, including 8 patients in type 1 of DeBakey classification, 3 in type 11, 8 in type 111 and 2 patients of localized dissection in descending and abdominal aorta. The susceptibility for thrombus formation in dissecting lumen appeared to be relating to the background etiology of dissection where poor tendency for thrombus formation was observed in group of patients with Marfan syndrome and its' incomplete form. On the other hand in those group of patients who had a history of hypertension and atherosclerosis probable, a strong tendency of thrombus formation and eventual occlusion of lumen was obtained. On the basis of above findings, it will be said that the surgical intervention for type 1 of DeBakey classification in Marfan patient is merely creating type 111 dissection, closed observation in the future change of dissecting lumen is utmost important especially in those group of patients. (author)

  18. Lumen Formation Is an Intrinsic Property of Isolated Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Taniguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that dissociated human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs are intrinsically programmed to form lumens. PSCs form two-cell cysts with a shared apical domain within 20 hr of plating; these cysts collapse to form monolayers after 5 days. Expression of pluripotency markers is maintained throughout this time. In two-cell cysts, an apical domain, marked by EZRIN and atypical PKCζ, is surrounded by apically targeted organelles (early endosomes and Golgi. Molecularly, actin polymerization, regulated by ARP2/3 and mammalian diaphanous-related formin 1 (MDIA, promotes lumen formation, whereas actin contraction, mediated by MYOSIN-II, inhibits this process. Finally, we show that lumenal shape can be manipulated in bioengineered micro-wells. Since lumen formation is an indispensable step in early mammalian development, this system can provide a powerful model for investigation of this process in a controlled environment. Overall, our data establish that lumenogenesis is a fundamental cell biological property of human PSCs.

  19. Analysis of proteome dynamics inside the silk gland lumen of Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaoming; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Xiaolu; Guo, Pengchao; Wang, Dandan; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    The silk gland is the only organ where silk proteins are synthesized and secreted in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Silk proteins are stored in the lumen of the silk gland for around eight days during the fifth instar. Determining their dynamic changes is helpful for clarifying the secretion mechanism of silk proteins. Here, we identified the proteome in the silk gland lumen using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and demonstrated its changes during two key stages. From day 5 of the fifth instar to day 1 of wandering, the abundances of fibroins, sericins, seroins, and proteins of unknown functions increased significantly in different compartments of the silk gland lumen. As a result, these accumulated proteins constituted the major cocoon components. In contrast, the abundances of enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins decreased in the silk gland lumen, suggesting that they were not the structural constituents of silk. Twenty-five enzymes may be involved in the regulation of hormone metabolism for proper silk gland function. In addition, the metabolism of other non-proteinous components such as chitin and pigment were also discussed in this study. PMID:27102218

  20. An artificial neural network method for lumen and media-adventitia border detection in IVUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengran; Hu, Zhenghui; Lin, Qiang; Hau, William Kongto; Gao, Zhifan; Zhang, Heye

    2017-04-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has been well recognized as one powerful imaging technique to evaluate the stenosis inside the coronary arteries. The detection of lumen border and media-adventitia (MA) border in IVUS images is the key procedure to determine the plaque burden inside the coronary arteries, but this detection could be burdensome to the doctor because of large volume of the IVUS images. In this paper, we use the artificial neural network (ANN) method as the feature learning algorithm for the detection of the lumen and MA borders in IVUS images. Two types of imaging information including spatial, neighboring features were used as the input data to the ANN method, and then the different vascular layers were distinguished accordingly through two sparse auto-encoders and one softmax classifier. Another ANN was used to optimize the result of the first network. In the end, the active contour model was applied to smooth the lumen and MA borders detected by the ANN method. The performance of our approach was compared with the manual drawing method performed by two IVUS experts on 461 IVUS images from four subjects. Results showed that our approach had a high correlation and good agreement with the manual drawing results. The detection error of the ANN method close to the error between two groups of manual drawing result. All these results indicated that our proposed approach could efficiently and accurately handle the detection of lumen and MA borders in the IVUS images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pancreatic Necrosectomy Through a Novel Double-flange Lumen-apposing Covered Metal Stent (Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Sanchez-Yague

    2014-12-01

    A double flange lumen apposing FC-SEMS used as a port for necrosectomy significantly improves management of walled-off pancreatic necrosis. Placement of this stents should be considered when multiple necrosectomy sessions are anticipated. Procedure time can be significantly decreased using a catheter that combines a cautery tip and stent delivery system.

  2. Observation of quasiperiodic dynamics in a one-dimensional quantum walk of single photons in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Qin, Hao; Tang, Bao; Sanders, Barry C.

    2014-05-01

    We realize the quasi-periodic dynamics of a quantum walker over 2.5 quasi-periods by realizing the walker as a single photon passing through a quantum-walk optical-interferometer network. We introduce fully controllable polarization-independent phase shifters in each optical path to realize arbitrary site-dependent phase shifts, and employ large clear-aperture beam displacers, while maintaining high-visibility interference, to enable 10 quantum-walk steps to be reached. By varying the half-wave-plate setting, we control the quantum-coin bias thereby observing a transition from quasi-periodic dynamics to ballistic diffusion.

  3. A proof that Witten's open string theory gives a single cover of moduli space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiebach, B.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1991-01-01

    We show that Witten's open string diagrams are surfaces with metrics of minimal area under the condition that all nontrivial open Jordan curves be longer or equal to π. The minimal area property is used together with a mini-max problem to establish a new existence and uniqueness theorem for quadratic differentials in open Riemann surfaces with or without punctures on the boundaries. This theorem implies that the Feynman rules of open string theory give a single cover of the moduli of open Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  4. Ezetimibe Promotes Brush Border Membrane-to-Lumen Cholesterol Efflux in the Small Intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanari Nakano

    Full Text Available Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1, an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE assay, which directly detects circulation-to-intestinal lumen 3H-cholesterol transit in a cannulated jejunal segment, and found an increase of TICE by 45%. To examine whether such increase in efflux occurs at the intestinal brush border membrane(BBM-level, we performed luminal perfusion assays, similar to TICE but the jejunal wall was labelled with orally-given 3H-cholesterol, and determined elevated BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux by 3.5-fold with ezetimibe. Such increased efflux probably promotes circulation-to-lumen cholesterol transit eventually; thus increases TICE. Next, we wondered how inhibition of NPC1L1, an influx transporter, resulted in increased efflux. When we traced orally-given 3H-cholesterol in mice, we found that lumen-to-BBM 3H-cholesterol transit was rapid and less sensitive to ezetimibe treatment. Comparison of the efflux and fractional cholesterol absorption revealed an inverse correlation, indicating the efflux as an opposite-regulatory factor for cholesterol absorption efficiency and counteracting to the naturally-occurring rapid cholesterol influx to the BBM. These suggest that the ezetimibe-stimulated increased efflux is crucial in reducing cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe-induced increase in cholesterol efflux was approximately 2.5-fold greater in mice having endogenous ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 heterodimer, the major sterol efflux transporter of enterocytes, than the knockout counterparts, suggesting that the heterodimer confers additional rapid BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux in response to NPC1L1 inhibition. The observed framework for intestinal cholesterol fluxes may provide ways to

  5. Single, Complete, Probability Spaces Consistent With EPR-Bohm-Bell Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, David; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2009-03-01

    We show that paradoxical consequences of violations of Bell's inequality are induced by the use of an unsuitable probabilistic description for the EPR-Bohm-Bell experiment. The conventional description (due to Bell) is based on a combination of statistical data collected for different settings of polarization beam splitters (PBSs). In fact, such data consists of some conditional probabilities which only partially define a probability space. Ignoring this conditioning leads to apparent contradictions in the classical probabilistic model (due to Kolmogorov). We show how to make a completely consistent probabilistic model by taking into account the probabilities of selecting the settings of the PBSs. Our model matches both the experimental data and is consistent with classical probability theory.

  6. Analyzing Test-As-You-Fly Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  7. Compendium of Single Event Effects Test Results for Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon D.; Bailey, Charles R.; Nguyen, Kyson V.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Wheeler, Scott; Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore; Patel, Chirag; Beach, Elden R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of Single Event Effects (SEE) testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions for electrical components considered for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and for deep space applications.

  8. Characterization of System on a Chip (SoC) Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses Using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  9. Volumetric analysis demonstrates that true and false lumen remodeling persists for 12 months after thoracic endovascular aortic repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Young Suh, PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old man underwent an elephant trunk procedure followed by thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR. Computed tomography angiography-based models were built to quantify volume of the whole aorta and true and false lumens preoperatively, before TEVAR, after TEVAR, and at follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. With TEVAR, descending aortic true lumen volume increased by 54%, then increased additionally by 60% during 12 months. The descending aortic false lumen volume regressed continuously for 12 months following TEVAR, with the most rapid rate from 6 to 12 months at 16 cm3/month. TEVAR immediately increased true lumen volume and continued to remodel the true and false lumens throughout the following 12 months.

  10. Application of dimensional regularization to single chain polymer static properties: Conformational space renormalization of polymers. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oono, Y.; Ohta, T.; Freed, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    A dimensional regularization approach to the renormalization group treatment of polymer excluded volume is formulated in chain conformation space where monomers are specified by their spatial positions and their positions along the chain and the polymers may be taken to be monodisperse. The method utilizes basic scale invariance considerations. First, it is recognized that long wavelength macroscopic descriptions must be well defined in the limit that the minimum atomic or molecular scale L is set to zero. Secondly, the microscopic theory is independent of the conveniently chosen macroscopic scale of length k. The freedom of choice of k is exploited along with the assumed renormalizability of the theory to provide the renormalization group equations which directly imply the universal scaling laws for macroscopic properties. The renormalizability of the model implies the existence of the general relations between the basic macroparameters, such as chain length, excluded volume, etc., and their microscopic counterparts in the microscopic model for the system. These macro--micro relations are defined through the condition that macroscopic quantities be well defined for polymer chains for any spatial dimensionality. The method is illustrated by calculating the end vector distribution function for all values of end vectors R. The evaluation of this distribution function currently requires the use of expansions in e = 4-d. In this case our distribution reduces to known limits for R→0 or infinity. Subsequent papers will present calculations of the polymer coherent scattering function, the monomer spatial distribution function, and concentration dependent properties

  11. A Benchmark of Lidar-Based Single Tree Detection Methods Using Heterogeneous Forest Data from the Alpine Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Eysn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, eight airborne laser scanning (ALS-based single tree detection methods are benchmarked and investigated. The methods were applied to a unique dataset originating from different regions of the Alpine Space covering different study areas, forest types, and structures. This is the first benchmark ever performed for different forests within the Alps. The evaluation of the detection results was carried out in a reproducible way by automatically matching them to precise in situ forest inventory data using a restricted nearest neighbor detection approach. Quantitative statistical parameters such as percentages of correctly matched trees and omission and commission errors are presented. The proposed automated matching procedure presented herein shows an overall accuracy of 97%. Method based analysis, investigations per forest type, and an overall benchmark performance are presented. The best matching rate was obtained for single-layered coniferous forests. Dominated trees were challenging for all methods. The overall performance shows a matching rate of 47%, which is comparable to results of other benchmarks performed in the past. The study provides new insight regarding the potential and limits of tree detection with ALS and underlines some key aspects regarding the choice of method when performing single tree detection for the various forest types encountered in alpine regions.

  12. Lumen modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; W. Dale Ellis

    2005-01-01

    Wood is used to produce many products (structural and nonstructural) for applications in which its natural properties are adequate. With the decrease of wood availability and the increase of less durable, younger and faster-growing trees, it is possible to modify wood in various ways to improve the properties, depending on the ultimate application. Wood- polymer...

  13. Lumen and calcium characteristics within calcified coronary lesions. Comparison of computed tomography coronary angiography versus intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Dariusz; Kruk, Mariusz; Pręgowski, Jerzy; Kaczmarska, Edyta; Kryczka, Karolina; Pracoń, Radosław; Skwarek, Mirosław; Dzielińska, Zofia; Petryka, Joanna; Spiewak, Mateusz; Lubiszewska, Barbara; Norwa-Otto, Bożena; Opolski, Maksymilian; Witkowski, Adam; Demkow, Marcin; Rużyłło, Witold; Kępka, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) is a diagnostic method used for exclusion of coronary artery disease. However, lower accuracy of CTCA in assessment of calcified lesions is a significant factor impeding applicability of CTCA for assessment of coronary atherosclerosis. To provide insight into lumen and calcium characteristics assessed with CTCA, we compared these parameters to the reference of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Two hundred and fifty-two calcified lesions within 97 arteries of 60 patients (19 women, age 63 ±10 years) underwent assessment with both 2 × 64 slice CT (Somatom Definition, Siemens) and IVUS (s5, Volcano Corp.). Coronary lumen and calcium dimensions within calcified lesions were assessed with CTCA and compared to the reference measurements made with IVUS. On average CTCA underestimated mean lumen diameter (2.8 ±0.7 mm vs. 2.9 ±0.8 mm for IVUS), lumen area (6.4 ±3.4 mm(2) vs. 7.0 ±3.7 mm(2) for IVUS, p < 0.001) and total calcium arc (52 ±35° vs. 83 ±54°). However, analysis of tertiles of the examined parameters revealed that the mean lumen diameter, lumen area and calcium arc did not significantly differ between CTCA and IVUS within the smallest lumens (1(st) tertile of mean lumen diameter at 2.1 mm, and 1(st) tertile of lumen area at 3.7 mm(2)) and lowest calcium arc (mean of 40°). Although, on average, CTCA underestimates lumen diameter and area as well as calcium arc within calcified lesions, the differences are not significant within the smallest vessels and calcium arcs. The low diagnostic accuracy of CTCA within calcified lesions may be attributed to high variance and not to systematic error of measurements.

  14. Seeking Emancipation from Gender Regulation: Reflections on Home space for a Black Woman Academic/ Single Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa William-­White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the work of Judith Butler on gender regulation, Black Feminist Thought (BFT, and autobiographic storytelling, this piece illustrates how essentialist notions of gender, and discourses related to gender create conflict in shaping identity construction for a Black woman academic and single mother (BWA/SM in the United States. This piece reveals complex gendered and racialized tropes related to notions of motherhood and womanhood, particularly within the author’s own family. Included here is how the author attempts to transcend these complexities in her quest for self­definition and self­actualization, unbridled by gender norms. Yet, race, gender and parental status are significant intersecting categories in identity construction, andinherent in the constructions are hegemonic discourses with which the author continues to grapple. Consequently, the struggle to transcend these forces is further complicated by the limited representation of Black women in the US academy, and by the types of academic work where they find themselves typically situated.

  15. Performance and Characterization of a Modular Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detector System for Space-to-Earth Optical Communications Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalek, Brian E.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Nappier, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Space-to-ground photon-counting optical communication links supporting high data rates over large distances require enhanced ground receiver sensitivity in order to reduce the mass and power burden on the spacecraft transmitter. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have been demonstrated to offer superior performance in detection efficiency, timing resolution, and count rates over semiconductor photodetectors, and are a suitable technology for high photon efficiency links. Recently photon detectors based on superconducting nanowires have become commercially available, and we have assessed the characteristics and performance of one such commercial system as a candidate for potential utilization in ground receiver designs. The SNSPD system features independent channels which can be added modularly, and we analyze the scalability of the system to support different data rates, as well as consider coupling concepts and issues as the number of channels increases.

  16. Harmonic Instability Analysis of Single-Phase Grid Connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of renewable energy sources at the distribution grid is becoming a major issue for utility companies, since the grid connected converters are operating at different operating points due to the probabilistic characteristics of renewable energy. Besides, typically, the harmonics...... proposes a new model of a single phase grid connected renewable energy source using the Harmonic State Space modeling approach, which is able to identify such problems and the model can be extended to be applied in the multiple connected converter analysis. The modeling results show the different harmonic...... and impedance from other renewable energy sources are not taken carefully into account in the installation and design. However, this may bring an unknown harmonic instability into the multiple power sourced system and also make the analysis difficult due to the complexity of the grid network. This paper...

  17. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  18. Selective modification of halloysite lumen with octadecylphosphonic acid: new inorganic tubular micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yah, Weng On; Takahara, Atsushi; Lvov, Yuri M

    2012-01-25

    Selective fatty acid hydrophobization of the inner surface of tubule halloysite clay is demonstrated. Aqueous phosphonic acid was found to bind to alumina sites at the tube lumen and did not bind the tube's outer siloxane surface. The bonding was characterized with solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((29)Si, (13)C, (31)P NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. NMR and FTIR spectroscopy of selectively modified tubes proved binding of octadecylphosphonic acid within the halloysite lumen through bidentate and tridentate P-O-Al linkage. Selective modification of the halloysite clay lumen creates an inorganic micelle-like architecture with a hydrophobic aliphatic chain core and a hydrophilic silicate shell. An enhanced capacity for adsorption of the modified halloysite toward hydrophobic derivatives of ferrocene was shown. This demonstrates that the different inner and outer surface chemistry of clay nanotubes can be used for selective modification, enabling different applications from water purification to drug immobilization and controlled release. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Microbes vs. chemistry in the origin of the anaerobic gut lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Elliot S; Bittinger, Kyle; Esipova, Tatiana V; Hou, Likai; Chau, Lillian; Jiang, Jack; Mesaros, Clementina; Lund, Peder J; Liang, Xue; FitzGerald, Garret A; Goulian, Mark; Lee, Daeyeon; Garcia, Benjamin A; Blair, Ian A; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Wu, Gary D

    2018-04-17

    The succession from aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria to obligate anaerobes in the infant gut along with the differences between the compositions of the mucosally adherent vs. luminal microbiota suggests that the gut microbes consume oxygen, which diffuses into the lumen from the intestinal tissue, maintaining the lumen in a deeply anaerobic state. Remarkably, measurements of luminal oxygen levels show nearly identical pO 2 (partial pressure of oxygen) profiles in conventional and germ-free mice, pointing to the existence of oxygen consumption mechanisms other than microbial respiration. In vitro experiments confirmed that the luminal contents of germ-free mice are able to chemically consume oxygen (e.g., via lipid oxidation reactions), although at rates significantly lower than those observed in the case of conventionally housed mice. For conventional mice, we also show that the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota adherent to the gut mucosa and in the lumen throughout the length of the gut correlates with oxygen levels. At the same time, an increase in the biomass of the gut microbiota provides an explanation for the reduction of luminal oxygen in the distal vs. proximal gut. These results demonstrate how oxygen from the mammalian host is used by the gut microbiota, while both the microbes and the oxidative chemical reactions regulate luminal oxygen levels, shaping the composition of the microbial community throughout different regions of the gut.

  20. Performance demonstration of a single-frequency optically-pumped cesium beam frequency standard for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, S.; Haldimann, M.; Ruffieux, R.; Thomann, P.; Berthoud, P.

    2017-11-01

    Observatoire de Neuchâtel (ON) is developing a compact optically-pumped cesium beam frequency standard in the frame of an ESA-ARTES 5 project. The simplest optical scheme, which is based on a single optical frequency for both preparation and detection processes of atoms, has been chosen to fulfill reliability constraints of space applications. With our laboratory demonstrator operated at 852 nm (D2 line), we have measured a frequency stability of σy=2.74x10-12 τ -1/2, which is compliant with the Galileo requirement. The atomic resonator is fully compliant to be operated with a single diode laser at 894 nm (D1 line). Sensitivity measurements of the clock signal to the microwave power and to the optical pumping power are also presented. Present performance limitations are discussed and further improvements are proposed in order to reach our ultimate frequency stability goal of σy=1x10-12 τ -1/2. The clock driving software is also briefly described.

  1. Estimation of the spatial distribution of traps using space-charge-limited current measurements in an organic single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2012-09-06

    We used a mobility edge transport model and solved the drift-diffusion equation to characterize the space-charge-limited current of a rubrene single-crystal hole-only diode. The current-voltage characteristics suggest that current is injection-limited at high voltage when holes are injected from the bottom contact (reverse bias). In contrast, the low-voltage regime shows that the current is higher when holes are injected from the bottom contact as compared to hole injection from the top contact (forward bias), which does not exhibit injection-limited current in the measured voltage range. This behavior is attributed to an asymmetric distribution of trap states in the semiconductor, specifically, a distribution of traps located near the top contact. Accounting for a localized trap distribution near the contact allows us to reproduce the temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics in forward and reverse bias simultaneously, i.e., with a single set of model parameters. We estimated that the local trap distribution contains 1.19×1011 cm -2 states and decays as exp(-x/32.3nm) away from the semiconductor-contact interface. The local trap distribution near one contact mainly affects injection from the same contact, hence breaking the symmetry in the charge transport. The model also provides information of the band mobility, energy barrier at the contacts, and bulk trap distribution with their corresponding confidence intervals. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  2. Diffusion MRI for rectal cancer staging: ADC measurements before and after ultrasonographic gel lumen distension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmucci, S., E-mail: spalmucci@sirm.org; Piccoli, M.; Piana, S.; Foti, P.V.; Siverino, R.O.A.; Mauro, L.A.; Milone, P.; Ettorre, G.C.

    2017-01-15

    Objectives: To compare Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements in rectal neoplastic lesions before and after lumen distension obtained with sonography transmission gel. Methods: From January 2014 to July 2016, 25 patients (average age 63.7, range 41–85, 18 males) were studied for pre-treatment rectal cancer staging using a 1.5 T MRI. Diffusion MRI was obtained using echo-planar imaging with b = 800 value; all patients were studied acquiring diffusion sequences with and without rectal lumen distension obtained using sonography transmission gel. In both diffusion sequences, two blinded readers calculated border ADC values and small ADC values, drawing regions of interest respectively along tumour borders and far from tumour borders. Mean ADC values among readers − for each type of ADC measurement − were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. Correlation was assessed using Pearson analysis. Results: Border ADC mean value for diffusion MR sequences without endorectal contrast was 1.122 mm{sup 2}/sec, with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02–1.22; using gel lumen distension, higher border ADC mean value of 1.269 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 1.16–1.38) was obtained. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test revealed statistical difference (p < 0.01); a strong Pearson correlation was reported, with r value of 0.69. Small-ADC mean value was 1.038 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 0.91–1.16) for diffusion sequences acquired without endorectal distension and 1.127 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 0.98–1.27) for diffusion sequences obtained after endorectal gel lumen distension. Wilcoxon analysis did not show statistical difference (p = 0.13). A very strong positive correlation was observed, with r value of 0.81. Conclusions: ADC measurements are slightly higher using endorectal sonographic transmission gel; ROI should be traced far from tumour borders, to minimize gel filled-pixel along the interface between lumen and lesion. Further studies are needed to

  3. Diffusion MRI for rectal cancer staging: ADC measurements before and after ultrasonographic gel lumen distension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmucci, S.; Piccoli, M.; Piana, S.; Foti, P.V.; Siverino, R.O.A.; Mauro, L.A.; Milone, P.; Ettorre, G.C.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements in rectal neoplastic lesions before and after lumen distension obtained with sonography transmission gel. Methods: From January 2014 to July 2016, 25 patients (average age 63.7, range 41–85, 18 males) were studied for pre-treatment rectal cancer staging using a 1.5 T MRI. Diffusion MRI was obtained using echo-planar imaging with b = 800 value; all patients were studied acquiring diffusion sequences with and without rectal lumen distension obtained using sonography transmission gel. In both diffusion sequences, two blinded readers calculated border ADC values and small ADC values, drawing regions of interest respectively along tumour borders and far from tumour borders. Mean ADC values among readers − for each type of ADC measurement − were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. Correlation was assessed using Pearson analysis. Results: Border ADC mean value for diffusion MR sequences without endorectal contrast was 1.122 mm 2 /sec, with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02–1.22; using gel lumen distension, higher border ADC mean value of 1.269 mm 2 /s (95% CI = 1.16–1.38) was obtained. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test revealed statistical difference (p < 0.01); a strong Pearson correlation was reported, with r value of 0.69. Small-ADC mean value was 1.038 mm 2 /s (95% CI = 0.91–1.16) for diffusion sequences acquired without endorectal distension and 1.127 mm 2 /s (95% CI = 0.98–1.27) for diffusion sequences obtained after endorectal gel lumen distension. Wilcoxon analysis did not show statistical difference (p = 0.13). A very strong positive correlation was observed, with r value of 0.81. Conclusions: ADC measurements are slightly higher using endorectal sonographic transmission gel; ROI should be traced far from tumour borders, to minimize gel filled-pixel along the interface between lumen and lesion. Further studies are needed to investigate better

  4. Bone-marrow densitometry: Assessment of marrow space of human vertebrae by single energy high resolution-quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Jaime A.; Damm, Timo; Bastgen, Jan; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C.; Thomsen, Felix; Campbell, Graeme M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate noninvasive assessment of vertebral bone marrow fat fraction is important for diagnostic assessment of a variety of disorders and therapies known to affect marrow composition. Moreover, it provides a means to correct fat-induced bias of single energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The authors developed new segmentation and calibration methods to obtain quantitative surrogate measures of marrow-fat density in the axial skeleton. Methods: The authors developed and tested two high resolution-QCT (HR-QCT) based methods which permit segmentation of bone voids in between trabeculae hypothesizing that they are representative of bone marrow space. The methods permit calculation of marrow content in units of mineral equivalent marrow density (MeMD). The first method is based on global thresholding and peeling (GTP) to define a volume of interest away from the transition between trabecular bone and marrow. The second method, morphological filtering (MF), uses spherical elements of different radii (0.1–1.2 mm) and automatically places them in between trabeculae to identify regions with large trabecular interspace, the bone-void space. To determine their performance, data were compared ex vivo to high-resolution peripheral CT (HR-pQCT) images as the gold-standard. The performance of the methods was tested on a set of excised human vertebrae with intact bone marrow tissue representative of an elderly population with low BMD. Results: 86% (GTP) and 87% (MF) of the voxels identified as true marrow space on HR-pQCT images were correctly identified on HR-QCT images and thus these volumes of interest can be considered to be representative of true marrow space. Within this volume, MeMD was estimated with residual errors of 4.8 mg/cm 3 corresponding to accuracy errors in fat fraction on the order of 5% both for GTP and MF methods. Conclusions: The GTP and MF methods on HR-QCT images permit noninvasive

  5. Bone-marrow densitometry: Assessment of marrow space of human vertebrae by single energy high resolution-quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, Jaime A.; Damm, Timo; Bastgen, Jan; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C., E-mail: glueer@rad.uni-kiel.de [Sektion Biomedizinische Bildgebung, Klinik für Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24118 (Germany); Thomsen, Felix [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca 8000 (Argentina); Campbell, Graeme M. [Sektion Biomedizinische Bildgebung, Klinik für Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24118, Germany and Institut für Biomechanik, Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg (TUHH), Hamburg 21073 (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Accurate noninvasive assessment of vertebral bone marrow fat fraction is important for diagnostic assessment of a variety of disorders and therapies known to affect marrow composition. Moreover, it provides a means to correct fat-induced bias of single energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The authors developed new segmentation and calibration methods to obtain quantitative surrogate measures of marrow-fat density in the axial skeleton. Methods: The authors developed and tested two high resolution-QCT (HR-QCT) based methods which permit segmentation of bone voids in between trabeculae hypothesizing that they are representative of bone marrow space. The methods permit calculation of marrow content in units of mineral equivalent marrow density (MeMD). The first method is based on global thresholding and peeling (GTP) to define a volume of interest away from the transition between trabecular bone and marrow. The second method, morphological filtering (MF), uses spherical elements of different radii (0.1–1.2 mm) and automatically places them in between trabeculae to identify regions with large trabecular interspace, the bone-void space. To determine their performance, data were compared ex vivo to high-resolution peripheral CT (HR-pQCT) images as the gold-standard. The performance of the methods was tested on a set of excised human vertebrae with intact bone marrow tissue representative of an elderly population with low BMD. Results: 86% (GTP) and 87% (MF) of the voxels identified as true marrow space on HR-pQCT images were correctly identified on HR-QCT images and thus these volumes of interest can be considered to be representative of true marrow space. Within this volume, MeMD was estimated with residual errors of 4.8 mg/cm{sup 3} corresponding to accuracy errors in fat fraction on the order of 5% both for GTP and MF methods. Conclusions: The GTP and MF methods on HR-QCT images permit noninvasive

  6. Analyzing System on A Chip Single Event Upset Responses using Single Event Upset Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We are investigating the application of classical reliability performance metrics combined with standard single event upset (SEU) analysis data. We expect to relate SEU behavior to system performance requirements. Our proposed methodology will provide better prediction of SEU responses in harsh radiation environments with confidence metrics. single event upset (SEU), single event effect (SEE), field programmable gate array devises (FPGAs)

  7. Prototype readout system for a multi Mpixels UV single-photon imaging detector capable of space flight operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljak, A.; Cumming, H. S.; Varner, G.; Vallerga, J.; Raffanti, R.; Virta, V.

    2018-02-01

    Our collaboration works on the development of a large aperture, high resolution, UV single-photon imaging detector, funded through NASA's Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program. The detector uses a microchannel plate for charge multiplication, and orthogonal cross strip (XS) anodes for charge readout. Our target is to make an advancement in the technology readiness level (TRL), which enables real scale prototypes to be tested for future NASA missions. The baseline detector has an aperture of 50×50 mm and requires 160 low-noise charge-sensitive channels, in order to extrapolate the incoming photon position with a spatial resolution of about 20 μm FWHM. Technologies involving space flight require highly integrated electronic systems operating at very low power. We have designed two ASICs which enable the construction of such readout system. First, a charge sensitive amplifier (CSAv3) ASIC provides an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of around 600 e-, and a baseline gain of 10 mV/fC. The second, a Giga Sample per Second (GSPS) ASIC, called HalfGRAPH, is a 12-bit analog to digital converter. Its architecture is based on waveform sampling capacitor arrays and has about 8 μs of analog storage memory per channel. Both chips encapsulate 16 measurement channels. Using these chips, a small scale prototype readout system has been constructed on a FPGA Mezzanine Board (FMC), equipped with 32 measurement channels for system evaluation. We describe the construction of HalfGRAPH ASIC, detector's readout system concept and obtained results from the prototype system. As part of the space flight qualification, these chips were irradiated with a Cobalt gamma-ray source, to verify functional operation under ionizing radiation exposure.

  8. Improving the thermal integrity of new single-family detached residential buildings: Documentation for a regional database of capital costs and space conditioning load savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Wodley, C.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the costs and space-conditioning load savings from improving new single-family building shells. It relies on survey data from the National Association of Home-builders (NAHB) to assess current insulation practices for these new buildings, and NAHB cost data (aggregated to the Federal region level) to estimate the costs of improving new single-family buildings beyond current practice. Space-conditioning load savings are estimated using a database of loads for prototype buildings developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, adjusted to reflect population-weighted average weather in each of the ten federal regions and for the nation as a whole

  9. Distinct patterns of inflammation in the airway lumen and bronchial mucosa of children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regamey, Nicolas; Tsartsali, Lemonia; Hilliard, Tom N; Fuchs, Oliver; Tan, Hui-Leng; Zhu, Jie; Qiu, Yu-Sheng; Alton, Eric W F W; Jeffery, Peter K; Bush, Andrew; Davies, Jane C

    2012-02-01

    Studies in cystic fibrosis (CF) generally focus on inflammation present in the airway lumen. Little is known about inflammation occurring in the airway wall, the site ultimately destroyed in end-stage disease. To test the hypothesis that inflammatory patterns in the lumen do not reflect those in the airway wall of children with CF. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and endobronchial biopsies were obtained from 46 children with CF and 16 disease-free controls. BAL cell differential was assessed using May-Gruenwald-stained cytospins. Area profile counts of bronchial tissue immunopositive inflammatory cells were determined. BAL fluid from children with CF had a predominance of neutrophils compared with controls (median 810×10(3)/ml vs 1×10(3)/ml, p<0.0001). In contrast, subepithelial bronchial tissue from children with CF was characterised by a predominance of lymphocytes (median 961 vs 717 cells/mm(2), p=0.014), of which 82% were (CD3) T lymphocytes. In chest exacerbations, BAL fluid from children with CF had more inflammatory cells of all types compared with those with stable disease whereas, in biopsies, only the numbers of lymphocytes and macrophages, but not of neutrophils, were higher. A positive culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was associated with higher numbers of T lymphocytes in subepithelial bronchial tissue (median 1174 vs 714 cells/mm(2), p=0.029), but no changes were seen in BAL fluid. Cell counts in BAL fluid and biopsies were positively correlated with age but were unrelated to each other. The inflammatory response in the CF airway is compartmentalised. In contrast to the neutrophil-dominated inflammation present in the airway lumen, the bronchial mucosa is characterised by the recruitment and accumulation of lymphocytes.

  10. Assessment of lumen degradation and remaining useful life of LEDs using particle filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Zhang, Hao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2013-07-16

    With the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology, light emitting diodes system is becoming a popular light source in daily life and industry area. It has shown that Led from same factory and work under same working condition, may have significantly different behavior. Therefore, it is very important to learn the fail mechanisms, especially in the case of safety critical and harsh environment application. This paper focus on a prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the measurement of forward voltage and forward current of bare LED under harsh environment. In this paper, experiment has been done with ten samples. Ten pristine bare LEDs have been tested at 85°C while simultaneously being subjected to 85% humid environment. Pulse width modulation (PWM) control method has been employed to drive the bare LED in order to reduce the heat effect caused by forward current and high frequency (300HZ) data acquisition has been used to measure the peak forward voltage and forward current. Test to failure (lumen drops to 70 percent) data has been measured to study the effects of high temperature and humid environment loadings on the bare LED. Also, solid state cooling method with peltier cooler has been used to control the temperature of LED in the integrating sphere when take the measurement of lumen flux. The shift of forward voltage forward current curve and lumen degradation has been recorded to help build the fail model and predicted the remaining useful life. In this method, particle filter has been employed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the bare LED and give us a whole picture how Led system fails. Result shows that predication of remaining useful life of Led, made by the particle filter model works under reasonable limit, and hence this method can be employed to predict the failure of Led caused by thermal and humid stress under harsh environment.

  11. Fluoroscopic guidance for placing a double lumen endotracheal tube in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenda, Emile; Baste, Jean Marc; Hajjej, Ridha; Rezig, Najiba; Moriceau, Jerome; Diallo, Yaya; Sghaeir, Slim; Danielou, Eric; Peillon, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the right placement of the double lumen endotracheal tube with fluoroscopic guidance, which is used in first intention prior to the fiberscope in our institution. This was a prospective observational study. The study was conducted in vascular and thoracic operating rooms. We enrolled 205 patients scheduled for thoracic surgery, with ASA physical statuses of I (n = 37), II (n = 84), III (n = 80), and IV (n = 4). Thoracic procedures were biopsy (n = 20), wedge (n = 34), culminectomy (n = 6), lobectomy (n = 82), pneumonectomy (n = 4), sympathectomy (n = 9), symphysis (n = 47), and thymectomy (n = 3). The intubation with a double lumen tube was performed with the help of a laryngoscope. Tracheal and bronchial balloons were inflated and auscultation was performed after right and left exclusions. One shot was performed to locate the position of the bronchial tube and the hook. Fluoroscopic guidance was used to relocate the tube in case of a wrong position. When the fluoroscopic guidance failed to position the tube, a fiberscope was used. Perioperative collapse of the lung was assessed by the surgeon during the surgery. Correct fluoroscopic image was obtained after the first attempt in 58.5% of patients therefore a misplaced position was encountered in 41.5%. The fluoroscopic guidance allowed an exact repositioning in 99.5% of cases, and the mean duration of the procedure was 8 minutes. A fiberscope was required to move the hook for one patient. We did not notice a moving of the double lumen endotracheal tube during the surgery. The surgeon satisfaction was 100%. The fluoroscopy evidenced the right position of the double lumen tube and allowed a right repositioning in 99.5% of patients with a very simple implementation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The microbiota mediates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen after non-typhoidal Salmonella diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Endt

    Full Text Available Many enteropathogenic bacteria target the mammalian gut. The mechanisms protecting the host from infection are poorly understood. We have studied the protective functions of secretory antibodies (sIgA and the microbiota, using a mouse model for S. typhimurium diarrhea. This pathogen is a common cause of diarrhea in humans world-wide. S. typhimurium (S. tm(att, sseD causes a self-limiting gut infection in streptomycin-treated mice. After 40 days, all animals had overcome the disease, developed a sIgA response, and most had cleared the pathogen from the gut lumen. sIgA limited pathogen access to the mucosal surface and protected from gut inflammation in challenge infections. This protection was O-antigen specific, as demonstrated with pathogens lacking the S. typhimurium O-antigen (wbaP, S. enteritidis and sIgA-deficient mice (TCRβ(-/-δ(-/-, J(H (-/-, IgA(-/-, pIgR(-/-. Surprisingly, sIgA-deficiency did not affect the kinetics of pathogen clearance from the gut lumen. Instead, this was mediated by the microbiota. This was confirmed using 'L-mice' which harbor a low complexity gut flora, lack colonization resistance and develop a normal sIgA response, but fail to clear S. tm(att from the gut lumen. In these mice, pathogen clearance was achieved by transferring a normal complex microbiota. Thus, besides colonization resistance ( = pathogen blockage by an intact microbiota, the microbiota mediates a second, novel protective function, i.e. pathogen clearance. Here, the normal microbiota re-grows from a state of depletion and disturbed composition and gradually clears even very high pathogen loads from the gut lumen, a site inaccessible to most "classical" immune effector mechanisms. In conclusion, sIgA and microbiota serve complementary protective functions. The microbiota confers colonization resistance and mediates pathogen clearance in primary infections, while sIgA protects from disease if the host re-encounters the same pathogen. This has

  13. Separate visualization of endolymphatic space, perilymphatic space and bone by a single pulse sequence; 3D-inversion recovery imaging utilizing real reconstruction after intratympanic Gd-DTPA administration at 3 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Satake, Hiroko; Kawamura, Minako; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-four hours after intratympanic administration of gadolinium contrast material (Gd), the Gd was distributed mainly in the perilymphatic space. Three-dimensional FLAIR can differentiate endolymphatic space from perilymphatic space, but not from surrounding bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether 3D inversion-recovery turbo spin echo (3D-IR TSE) with real reconstruction could separate the signals of perilymphatic space (positive value), endolymphatic space (negative value) and bone (near zero) by setting the inversion time between the null point of Gd-containing perilymph fluid and that of the endolymph fluid without Gd. Thirteen patients with clinically suspected endolymphatic hydrops underwent intratympanic Gd injection and were scanned at 3 T. A 3D FLAIR and 3D-IR TSE with real reconstruction were obtained. In all patients, low signal of endolymphatic space in the labyrinth on 3D FLAIR was observed in the anatomically appropriate position, and it showed negative signal on 3D-IR TSE. The low signal area of surrounding bone on 3D FLAIR showed near zero signal on 3D-IR TSE. Gd-containing perilymphatic space showed high signal on 3D-IR TSE. In conclusion, by optimizing the inversion time, endolymphatic space, perilymphatic space and surrounding bone can be separately visualized on a single image using a 3D-IR TSE with real reconstruction. (orig.)

  14. A Low-Order Harmonic Elimination Scheme for Induction Motor Drives Using a Multilevel Octadecagonal Space Vector Structure With a Single DC Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boby, Mathews; Rahul, Arun; Gopakumar, K.

    2018-01-01

    Conventional voltage-source inverters used for induction motor drives generate a hexagonal space vector structure. In the overmodulation range, the hexagonal space vector structure generates low-order harmonics in the phase voltage resulting in low-order torque ripple in the motor. Inverter...... topologies with an octadecagonal (18 sided) space vector structure eliminate fifth-, seventh-, eleventh-, and thirteenth-order harmonics from the phase voltage, and hence, the dominant sixth- and twelfth-order torque ripple generation is eliminated. Octadecagonal space vector structures proposed in the past...... require multiple dc sources, which makes four-quadrant operation of the drive system difficult and costly. In this paper, the formation of a multilevel nine-concentric octadecagonal space vector structure using a single dc source is proposed. Detailed experimental results, using open-loop V/f control...

  15. Akap350 Recruits Eb1 to The Spindle Poles, Ensuring Proper Spindle Orientation and Lumen Formation in 3d Epithelial Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Evangelina; Tonucci, Facundo M; Hidalgo, Florencia; Ferretti, Anabela; Ibarra, Solange; Pariani, Alejandro; Vena, Rodrigo; Favre, Cristián; Girardini, Javier; Kierbel, Arlinet; Larocca, M Cecilia

    2017-11-02

    The organization of epithelial cells to form hollow organs with a single lumen requires the accurate three-dimensional arrangement of cell divisions. Mitotic spindle orientation is defined by signaling pathways that provide molecular links between specific spots at the cell cortex and astral microtubules, which have not been fully elucidated. AKAP350 is a centrosomal/Golgi scaffold protein, implicated in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. Using 3D epithelial cell cultures, we found that cells with decreased AKAP350 expression (AKAP350KD) formed polarized cysts with abnormal lumen morphology. Analysis of mitotic cells in AKAP350KD cysts indicated defective spindle alignment. We established that AKAP350 interacts with EB1, a microtubule associated protein that regulates spindle orientation, at the spindle poles. Decrease of AKAP350 expression lead to a significant reduction of EB1 levels at spindle poles and astral microtubules. Conversely, overexpression of EB1 rescued the defective spindle orientation induced by deficient AKAP350 expression. The specific delocalization of the AKAP350/EB1complex from the centrosome decreased EB1 levels at astral microtubules and lead to the formation of 3D-organotypic structures which resembled AKAP350KD cysts. We conclude that AKAP350 recruits EB1 to the spindle poles, ensuring EB1 presence at astral microtubules and proper spindle orientation during epithelial morphogenesis.

  16. Projected interaction picture of field operators and memory superoperators. A master equation for the single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, H.

    1983-11-01

    The projection operator method of Zwanzig and Feshbach is used to construct the time-dependent field operators in the interaction picture. The formula developed to describe the time dependence involves time-ordered cosine and sine projected evolution (memory) superoperators, from which a master equation for the interaction-picture single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space is derived. (author)

  17. SAS-6 assembly templated by the lumen of cartwheel-less centrioles precedes centriole duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Chii Shyang; Kim, Minhee; Yang, T Tony; Liao, Jung-Chi; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2014-07-28

    Centrioles are 9-fold symmetric structures duplicating once per cell cycle. Duplication involves self-oligomerization of the centriolar protein SAS-6, but how the 9-fold symmetry is invariantly established remains unclear. Here, we found that SAS-6 assembly can be shaped by preexisting (or mother) centrioles. During S phase, SAS-6 molecules are first recruited to the proximal lumen of the mother centriole, adopting a cartwheel-like organization through interactions with the luminal wall, rather than via their self-oligomerization activity. The removal or release of luminal SAS-6 requires Plk4 and the cartwheel protein STIL. Abolishing either the recruitment or the removal of luminal SAS-6 hinders SAS-6 (or centriole) assembly at the outside wall of mother centrioles. After duplication, the lumen of engaged mother centrioles becomes inaccessible to SAS-6, correlating with a block for reduplication. These results lead to a proposed model that centrioles may duplicate via a template-based process to preserve their geometry and copy number. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Utility of dark-lumen MR colonography for the assessment of extra-colonic organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goyen, Mathias; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Ladd, Susanne C.; Gerken, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of dark-lumen MR colonography (MRC) for the assessment of extra-colonic organs. Three hundred seventy-five subjects with suspected colonic disease underwent a complete MRC examination. MRC data were evaluated by two radiologists in a blinded fashion. In addition to the large bowel, the extra-intestinal organs from the lung bases to the pelvis were assessed for the presence of pathologies. All findings were divided into known or unknown findings and therapeutically relevant or irrelevant findings. If deemed necessary, other diagnostic imaging tests to further assess those findings were performed. In total, 510 extra-colonic findings were found in 260 (69%) of the 375 subjects. Known extra-colonic findings were found in 140 subjects (54%) and unknown findings in 120 subjects (46%). Thirty-one (12%) of the 260 subjects had therapeutically relevant findings (45 findings); 229 patients (88%) had irrelevant findings (465 findings). Dark-lumen MRC is a useful tool not only for the assessment of the entire colon, but also for the evaluation of extra-colonic organs. Thus, intra- and extra-colonic pathologies can be diagnosed within the same examination. (orig.)

  19. Proteomics of the chloroplast: systematic identification and targeting analysis of lumenal and peripheral thylakoid proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltier, J B; Friso, G; Kalume, D E

    2000-01-01

    The soluble and peripheral proteins in the thylakoids of pea were systematically analyzed by using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and N-terminal Edman sequencing, followed by database searching. After correcting to eliminate possible isoforms and post-translational modificati......The soluble and peripheral proteins in the thylakoids of pea were systematically analyzed by using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and N-terminal Edman sequencing, followed by database searching. After correcting to eliminate possible isoforms and post......-translational modifications, we estimated that there are at least 200 to 230 different lumenal and peripheral proteins. Sixty-one proteins were identified; for 33 of these proteins, a clear function or functional domain could be identified, whereas for 10 proteins, no function could be assigned. For 18 proteins, no expressed...... sequence tag or full-length gene could be identified in the databases, despite experimental determination of a significant amount of amino acid sequence. Nine previously unidentified proteins with lumenal transit peptides are presented along with their full-length genes; seven of these proteins possess...

  20. CT arterial portography and CT arteriography with a triple-lumen balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, T.; Oi, H.; Hori, M.; Kim, T.; Takahashi, S.; Matsushita, M.; Narumi, Y.; Nakamura, H.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the triple-lumen balloon catheter in the serial performance of CT arterial portography (CT-AP) and CT arteriography (CT-A). Material and Methods: A combined CT-AP and CT-A examination of 58 patients was carried out in which a cobra-type triple-lumen balloon catheter was used. CT-AP was performed by injecting contrast medium either into the splenic artery through a side-hole in the catheter proximal to the balloon inflated in the common hepatic artery, or into the superior mesentric artery through an end-hole in the catheter. Then CT-A was serially performed by delivering contrast medium either to the common hepatic artery or the proper hepatic artery from the end-hole, or to the accessory right hepatic artery through a side-hole proximal to the inflated balloon. Results: Sufficient CT-APs were obtained in 53 of the 58 patients (91%), CT-A in 42 (72%), and both in 42 (72%). Incomplete CT-AP was due to technical failure or anatomical anomaly, as was incomplete CT-A. No complications were seen. (orig.)

  1. Comparison between MDCT and Grayscale IVUS in a Quantitative Analysis of Coronary Lumen in Segments with or without Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcão, João L. A. A.; Falcão, Breno A. A. [Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gurudevan, Swaminatha V. [Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, California, USA (United States); Campos, Carlos M.; Silva, Expedito R.; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Shiozaki, Afonso A.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Lemos, Pedro A. [Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MDCT in comparison with IVUS has been poorly described and is mainly restricted to reports analyzing segments with documented atherosclerotic plaques. We compared 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for the evaluation of coronary lumen dimensions in the context of a comprehensive analysis, including segments with absent or mild disease. The 64-slice MDCT was performed within 72 h before the IVUS imaging, which was obtained for at least one coronary, regardless of the presence of luminal stenosis at angiography. A total of 21 patients were included, with 70 imaged vessels (total length 114.6 ± 38.3 mm per patient). A coronary plaque was diagnosed in segments with plaque burden > 40%. At patient, vessel, and segment levels, average lumen area, minimal lumen area, and minimal lumen diameter were highly correlated between IVUS and 64-slice MDCT (p < 0.01). However, 64-slice MDCT tended to underestimate the lumen size with a relatively wide dispersion of the differences. The comparison between 64-slice MDCT and IVUS lumen measurements was not substantially affected by the presence or absence of an underlying plaque. In addition, 64-slice MDCT showed good global accuracy for the detection of IVUS parameters associated with flow-limiting lesions. In a comprehensive, multi-territory, and whole-artery analysis, the assessment of coronary lumen by 64-slice MDCT compared with coronary IVUS showed a good overall diagnostic ability, regardless of the presence or absence of underlying atherosclerotic plaques.

  2. Adaptive optics correction into single mode fiber for a low Earth orbiting space to ground optical communication link using the OPALS downlink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Malcolm W; Morris, Jeffery F; Kovalik, Joseph M; Andrews, Kenneth S; Abrahamson, Matthew J; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-12-28

    An adaptive optics (AO) testbed was integrated to the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) ground station telescope at the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) as part of the free space laser communications experiment with the flight system on board the International Space Station (ISS). Atmospheric turbulence induced aberrations on the optical downlink were adaptively corrected during an overflight of the ISS so that the transmitted laser signal could be efficiently coupled into a single mode fiber continuously. A stable output Strehl ratio of around 0.6 was demonstrated along with the recovery of a 50 Mbps encoded high definition (HD) video transmission from the ISS at the output of the single mode fiber. This proof of concept demonstration validates multi-Gbps optical downlinks from fast slewing low-Earth orbiting (LEO) spacecraft to ground assets in a manner that potentially allows seamless space to ground connectivity for future high data-rates network.

  3. Preparation of lumen-loaded kenaf pulp with magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, S.; Ong, B.H.; Ahmad, S.H.; Abdullah, M.; Yamauchi, T

    2005-02-15

    Magnetic pulps were prepared from unbleached kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.) kraft pulps. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or magnetite powder was used to load into the pulp's lumen and pit. Aluminum sulphate [Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}] (alum) and polyethylenimine (PEI), both mainly function as retention aid were used throughout the experiment and found to be beneficial in the preparation of this magnetic pulps. The ash content method was used to determine the amount of magnetite retained in the lumen and pit. The utilization of PEI up to 2% per pulp fibres was found to be the best result on lumen loading. The deposition of magnetite powder in lumen and pit is found decrease as the addition of PEI used is more than 2% per pulp fibres. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) clearly shows the distribution of magnetite deposited in the lumen. Tensile index and folding endurance of the loaded fibre decreased slightly as the percentage of loading pigment increased.

  4. High lumenal chloride in the lysosome is critical for lysosome function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Leung, KaHo; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2017-07-25

    Lysosomes are organelles responsible for the breakdown and recycling of cellular machinery. Dysfunctional lysosomes give rise to lysosomal storage disorders as well as common neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we use a DNA-based, fluorescent chloride reporter to measure lysosomal chloride in Caenorhabditis elegans as well as murine and human cell culture models of lysosomal diseases. We find that the lysosome is highly enriched in chloride, and that chloride reduction correlates directly with a loss in the degradative function of the lysosome. In nematodes and mammalian cell culture models of diverse lysosomal disorders, where previously only lysosomal pH dysregulation has been described, massive reduction of lumenal chloride is observed that is ~10 3 fold greater than the accompanying pH change. Reducing chloride within the lysosome impacts Ca 2+ release from the lysosome and impedes the activity of specific lysosomal enzymes indicating a broader role for chloride in lysosomal function.

  5. Quantitative coronary CT angiography: absolute lumen sizing rather than %stenosis predicts hemodynamically relevant stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plank, Fabian [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine III - Cardiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Burghard, Philipp; Mayr, Agnes; Klauser, Andrea; Feuchtner, Gudrun [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Friedrich, Guy; Dichtl, Wolfgang [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine III - Cardiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Wolf, Florian [Vienna Medical University, Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-11-15

    To identify the most accurate quantitative coronary stenosis parameter by CTA for prediction of functional significant coronary stenosis resulting in coronary revascularization. 160 consecutive patients were prospectively examined with CTA. Proximal coronary stenosis was quantified by minimal lumen area (MLA) and minimal lumen diameter (MLD), %area and %diameter stenosis. Lesion length (LL) was measured. The reference standard was invasive coronary angiography (ICA) (>70 % stenosis, FFR <0.8). 210 coronary segments were included (59 % positive). MLA of ≤1.8 mm{sup 2} was identified as the optimal cut-off (c = 0.97, p < 0.001; 95 % CI 0.94-0.99) (sensitivity 90.9 %, specificity 89.3 %) for prediction of functional-relevant stenosis (for MLA >2.1 mm{sup 2} sensitivity was 100 %). The optimal cut-off for MLD was 1.2 mm (c = 0.92; p < 0.001; 95 % CI 0.88-95) (sensitivity 90.9, specificity 85.2) while %area and %diameter stenosis were less accurate (c = 0.89; 95 % CI 0.84-93, c = 0.87; 95 % CI 0.82-92, respectively, with thresholds at 73 % and 61 % stenosis). Accuracy for LL was c = 0.74 (95 % CI 0.67-81), and for LL/MLA and LL/MLD ratio c = 0.90 and c = 0.84. MLA ≤1.8 mm{sup 2} and MLD ≤1.2 mm are the most accurate cut-offs for prediction of haemodynamically significant stenosis by ICA, with a higher accuracy than relative % stenosis. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of the intestinal lumen microbiota in an animal model of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchao Zhu

    Full Text Available Recent reports have suggested that multiple factors such as host genetics, environment and diet can promote the progression of healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinoma. Accumulating evidence has additionally associated intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. In order to examine and analyze the composition of gut microbiota in the absence of confounding influences, we have established an animal model of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH-induced colon cancer. Using this model, we have performed pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes in this study to determine the diversity and breadth of the intestinal microbial species. Our findings indicate that the microbial composition of the intestinal lumen differs significantly between control and tumor groups. The abundance of Firmicutes was elevated whereas the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Spirochetes was reduced in the lumen of CRC rats. Fusobacteria was not detected in any of the healthy rats and there was no significant difference in observed Proteobacteria species when comparing the bacterial communities between our two groups. Interestingly, the abundance of Proteobacteria was higher in CRC rats. At the genus level, Bacteroides exhibited a relatively higher abundance in CRC rats compared to controls (14.92% vs. 9.22%, p<0.001. Meanwhile, Prevotella (55.22% vs. 26.19%, Lactobacillus (3.71% vs. 2.32% and Treponema (3.04% vs. 2.43%, were found to be significantly more abundant in healthy rats than CRC rats (p<0.001, respectively. We also demonstrate a significant reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Roseburia and Eubacterium in the gut microbiota of CRC rats. Furthermore, a significant increase in Desulfovibrio, Erysipelotrichaceae and Fusobacterium was also observed in the tumor group. A decrease in probiotic species such as Ruminococcus and Lactobacillus was likewise observed in the tumor group. Collectively, we can conclude that a significant

  7. A nonimaging catheter for measurement of coronary artery lumen area: a first in man pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermiller, James; Choy, Jenny S; Svendsen, Mark; Bigelow, Brian; Fouts, Andrew M; Hall, Jack; Parr, Kirk; Ball, Michael; Sinha, Anjan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this human pilot study was to determine the safety and the level of agreement between a novel nonimaging 2.7 Fr. catheter-based system (LumenRECON, LR) that uses electrical conductance for measurement of lumen cross-sectional area (CSA) with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized the level of agreement between LR and IVUS to be 13%. Accurate and reproducible vessel sizing is essential for optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 12 patients were studied to evaluate the safety, accuracy, and reproducibility of the system in comparison with IVUS and QCA. The CSA of coronary arteries was determined by IVUS, QCA, and LR in the distal, proximal, and center of a lesion during standard PCI. A Bland-Altman plot of the LR versus IVUS and QCA show a nonsignificant mean difference between the two measurements of 0.04 and 0.07 mm in diameter, respectively. The root mean square error of LR versus IVUS and QCA was 14.3 and 25.8% of the mean IVUS or QCA diameter, respectively. The mean of the difference between two LR duplicate measurements was nearly zero (0.03 mm) and the repeatability coefficient was within 8.7% of the mean of the two measurements. There were no procedural complications nor were any device-related MACE reported within 30 days of the procedure. This proof of concept pilot study establishes the safety and accuracy of the conductance technology for a pivotal trial of coronary sizing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Elephant trunk in a small-calibre true lumen for chronic aortic dissection: cause of haemolytic anaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Haruna; Kitamura, Tadashi; Horai, Tetsuya; Shibata, Ko; Miyaji, Kagami

    2014-12-01

    The elephant trunk technique for aortic dissection is useful for reducing false lumen pressure; however, a folded vascular prosthesis inside the aorta can cause haemolysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an elephant trunk in a small-calibre lumen can cause haemolysis. Inpatient and outpatient records were retrospectively reviewed. Two cases of haemolytic anaemia after aortic surgery using the elephant trunk technique were identified from 2011 to 2013. A 64-year-old man, who underwent graft replacement of the ascending aorta for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, presented with enlargement of the chronic dissection of the descending aorta and moderate aortic regurgitation. A two-stage surgery was scheduled. Total arch replacement with an elephant trunk in the true lumen and concomitant aortic valve replacement were performed. Postoperatively, he developed severe haemolytic anaemia because of the folded elephant trunk. The anaemia improved after the second surgery, including graft replacement of the descending aorta. Similarly, a 61-year-old man, who underwent total arch replacement for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, presented with enlargement of the chronic dissection of the descending aorta. Graft replacement of the descending aorta with an elephant trunk inserted into the true lumen was performed. The patient postoperatively developed haemolytic anaemia because of the folded elephant trunk, which improved after additional stent grafting into the elephant trunk. A folded elephant trunk in a small-calibre lumen can cause haemolysis. Therefore, inserting an elephant trunk in a small-calibre true lumen during surgery for chronic aortic dissection should be avoided. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequence polymorphism in an insect RNA virus field population: A snapshot from a single point in space and time reveals stochastic differences among and within individual hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenger, Drake C., E-mail: drake.stenger@ars.usda.gov [USDA, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648-9757 (United States); Krugner, Rodrigo [USDA, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648-9757 (United States); Nouri, Shahideh; Ferriol, Inmaculada; Falk, Bryce W. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Sisterson, Mark S. [USDA, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648-9757 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Population structure of Homalodisca coagulata Virus-1 (HoCV-1) among and within field-collected insects sampled from a single point in space and time was examined. Polymorphism in complete consensus sequences among single-insect isolates was dominated by synonymous substitutions. The mutant spectrum of the C2 helicase region within each single-insect isolate was unique and dominated by nonsynonymous singletons. Bootstrapping was used to correct the within-isolate nonsynonymous:synonymous arithmetic ratio (N:S) for RT-PCR error, yielding an N:S value ~one log-unit greater than that of consensus sequences. Probability of all possible single-base substitutions for the C2 region predicted N:S values within 95% confidence limits of the corrected within-isolate N:S when the only constraint imposed was viral polymerase error bias for transitions over transversions. These results indicate that bottlenecks coupled with strong negative/purifying selection drive consensus sequences toward neutral sequence space, and that most polymorphism within single-insect isolates is composed of newly-minted mutations sampled prior to selection. -- Highlights: •Sampling protocol minimized differential selection/history among isolates. •Polymorphism among consensus sequences dominated by negative/purifying selection. •Within-isolate N:S ratio corrected for RT-PCR error by bootstrapping. •Within-isolate mutant spectrum dominated by new mutations yet to undergo selection.

  10. A novel lumen-apposing metal stent for endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Daisy; Will, Uwe; Sanchez-Yague, Andres

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: A novel large-diameter, lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent with bilateral flanges was recently developed for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transmural drainage of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effi......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: A novel large-diameter, lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent with bilateral flanges was recently developed for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transmural drainage of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  11. Emitter spacing effects on field emission properties of laser-treated single-walled carbon nanotube buckypapers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yiwen; Miao, Hsin-Yuan; Zhang Mei; Liang, Richard; Zhang, Chuck; Wang, Ben [High-Performance Materials Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Lin, Ryan Jiyao, E-mail: kenymiao@thu.edu.tw, E-mail: mzhang@eng.fsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters on buckypaper were activated by laser treatment and their field emission properties were investigated. The pristine buckypapers and CNT emitters' height, diameter, and spacing were characterized through optical analysis. The emitter spacing directly impacted the emission results when the laser power and treatment times were fixed. The increasing emitter density increased the enhanced field emission current and luminance. However, a continuous and excessive increase of emitter density with spacing reduction generated the screening effect. As a result, the extended screening effect from the smaller spacing eventually crippled the field emission effectiveness. Luminance intensity and uniformity of field emission suggest that the highly effective buckypaper will have a density of 2500 emission spots cm{sup -2}, which presents an effective field enhancement factor of 3721 and a moderated screening effect of 0.005. Proper laser treatment is an effective post-treatment process for optimizing field emission, luminance, and durability performance for buckypaper cold cathodes.

  12. Single Molecule 3D Orientation in Time and Space: A 6D Dynamic Study on Fluorescently Labeled Lipid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börner, Richard; Ehrlich, Nicky; Hohlbein, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between single molecules profoundly depend on their mutual three-dimensional orientation. Recently, we demonstrated a technique that allows for orientation determination of single dipole emitters using a polarization-resolved distribution of fluorescence into several detection channels...... interesting in non-isotropic environments such as lipid membranes, which are of great importance in biology. We used giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) labeled with fluorescent dyes down to a single molecule concentration as a model system for both, assessing the robustness of the orientation determination...

  13. PdNP Decoration of Halloysite Lumen via Selective Grafting of Ionic Liquid onto the Aluminol Surfaces and Catalytic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedzo, Gustave K; Ngnie, Gaëlle; Detellier, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of selectively deposited palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) inside tubular halloysite lumens is reported. This specific localization was directed by the selective modification of the aluminol surfaces of the clay mineral through stable Al-O-C bonds. An ionic liquid (1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium) was grafted onto halloysite following the guest displacement method (generally used for kaolinite) using halloysite-DMSO preintercalate. The characterization of this clay nanohybrid material (XRD, NMR, TGA) showed characteristics reminiscent of similar materials synthesized from kaolinite. The grafting on halloysite lumens was also effective without using the DMSO preintercalate. The presence of these new functionalities in halloysite directs the synthesis of uniform PdNPs with size ranging between 3 and 6 nm located exclusively in the lumens. This results from the selective adsorption of PdNPs precursors in functionalized lumens through an anion exchange mechanism followed by in situ reduction. In contrast, the unmodified clay mineral displayed nanoparticles both inside and outside the tubes. These catalysts showed significant catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The most efficient catalysts were recycled up to three times without reducing significantly the catalytic activities.

  14. Mechanism of lumen gain with a novel rotational aspiration atherectomy system for peripheral arterial disease: examination by intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ali H M; Ako, Junya; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Honda, Yasuhiro; Zeller, Thomas; Leon, Martin B; Fitzgerald, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of luminal gain with a novel atheroablation system (Pathway PV) for the treatment of peripheral artery disease using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). The atherectomy system is a rotational atherectomy device, which employs expandable rotating blades with ports that allow flushing and aspiration of the plaque material or thrombus. In this first-in-man clinical study, IVUS analysis was available in 6 patients with lower limb ischemia treated with this device. The treatment results were assessed using IVUS at pre and post atherectomy. Lumen beyond burr size (LBB) was defined as lumen gain divided by the estimated burr area determined by the burr-size. IVUS analysis was available in six patients (superficial femoral artery n=3, popliteal artery n=2, posterior tibial artery n=1). Atheroablation achieved a significant increase in lumen area (LA) (preintervention 3.9+/-0.4, postatheroablation 8.0+/-1.7 mm(2), Patherectomy device achieved significant luminal gain by debulking in the absence of vessel stretching. The LA was greater than burr-sized lumen expectancy at cross-sections along the treated segments, suggesting a complimentary role of aspiration in luminal gain in atherosclerotic peripheral artery lesions.

  15. MRT of carotid stents: influence of stent properties and sequence parameters on visualization of the carotid artery lumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straube, T.; Wolf, S.; Alfke, K.; Jansen, O.; Flesser, A.; Deli, M.; Nabavi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR artifacts of carotid artery stents and to optimize stent properties and sequence parameters. Material and Methods: Four carotid artery stents - Wallstent (mediloy), Precise (nitinol), ACCULINK (nitinol) and a stent prototype (nitinol) - were investigated in a flow model of the cervical vessels. The model was made of silicon tubing and a flow pump that produces realistic flow curves of the carotid artery. To investigate the effects of magnetic susceptibility and radiofrequency induced shielding artifacts, turbo spin echo and gradient echo sequences as well as CE-MRAs were measured. To improve the visualization of the stent lumen in a CE-MRA, flip angle as well as geometry and covering of the stent prototype were altered. Results: Susceptibility artifacts in stents of the carotid artery only influence the lumen visualization at the proximal and distal end of the braided mediloy stent. A change of stent coverings has no significant influence on radiofrequency artifacts, whereas a reduction in linking elements between stent segments and a change in diameter of stent struts improves visualization of the stent lumen. By increasing the flip angle in a CE-MRA, visualization of the stent lumen is possible in both mediloy and nitinol stents. Conclusion: The choice of stent material and changes in stent geometry as well as the optimization of the flip angle of the CE-MRA may reduce susceptibility and radiofrequency artifacts, rendering feasible the CE-MRA of a stented carotid artery. (orig.)

  16. Low Iodine in the Follicular Lumen Caused by Cytoplasm Mis-localization of Sodium Iodide Symporter may Induce Nodular Goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huibin; Shi, Yaxiong; Liang, Bo; Cai, Huiyao; Cai, Qingyan

    2017-10-01

    Iodine is a key ingredient in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and also a major factor in the regulation of thyroid function. A local reduction of iodine content in follicular lumen leads to overexpression of local thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHr), which in turn excessively stimulates the regional thyroid tissue, and result in the formation of nodular goiter. In this study, we investigated the relationship between iodine content and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression by using the clinical specimens from patients with nodular goiter and explored the pathogenesis triggered by iodine deficiency in nodular goiter. In total, 28 patients were clinically histopathologically confirmed to have nodular goiter and the corresponding adjacent normal thyroid specimens were harvested simultaneously. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed to assay NIS expression and localization in thyrocytes of both nodular goiter and adjacent normal thyroid tissues. NIS expression mediated by iodine in follicular lumen was confirmed by follicular model in vitro. Meanwhile, radioscan with iodine-131were conducted on both nodular goiter and adjacent normal thyroid. Our data showed that NIS expression in nodular goiter was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues, which was associated with low iodine in the follicular lumen. Abnormal localization of NIS and lower amount of radioactive iodine-131 were also found in nodular goiter. Our data implied that low iodine in the follicular lumen caused by cytoplasm mis-localization of NIS may induce nodular goiter.

  17. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  18. Influence of a Double-Lumen Extension Tube on Drug Delivery: Examples of Isosorbide Dinitrate and Diazepam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Maiguy-Foinard

    Full Text Available Plastic materials such as polyurethane (PUR, polyethylene (PE, polypropylene (PP and polyvinyl chloride (PVC are widely used in double-lumen extension tubing. The purposes of our study were to 1 compare in vitro drug delivery through the double extension tubes available on the market 2 assess the plastic properties of PUR in infusion devices and their impact on drug delivery.The study compared eight double-lumen extension tubes in PUR, co-extruded (PE/PVC plastic and plasticised PVC from different manufacturers. Isosorbide dinitrate and diazepam were used as model compounds to evaluate their sorption on the internal surface of the infusion device. Control experiments were performed using norepinephrine known not to absorb to plastics. Drug concentrations delivered at the egress of extension tubes were determined over time by an analytical spectrophotometric UV-Vis method. The main characteristics of plastics were also determined.Significant differences in the sorption phenomenon were observed among the eight double-lumen extension tubes and between pairs of extension tubes. Mean concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate delivered at the egress of double-lumen extension tubes after a 150-minute infusion (mean values ± standard deviation in percentage of the initial concentrations in the prepared syringes ranged between 80.53 ± 1.66 (one of the PUR tubes and 92.84 ± 2.73 (PE/PVC tube. The same parameters measured during diazepam infusion ranged between 48.58 ± 2.88 (one of the PUR tubes and 85.06 ± 3.94 (PE/PVC tube. The double-lumen extension tubes in PUR were either thermosetting (resin or thermoplastic according to reference.Clinicians must be aware of potential drug interactions with extension tube materials and so must consider their nature as well as the sterilisation method used before selecting an infusion device.

  19. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  20. Dark-lumen magnetic resonance colonography in patients with suspected sigmoid diverticulitis: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Lauenstein, Thomas; Goehde, Susanne; Kuehle, Christiane; Herborn, Christoph U.; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Langhorst, Jost; Zoepf, Thomas; Gerken, Guido; Goyen, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    To assess dark-lumen magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) for the evaluation of patients with suspected sigmoid diverticulitis. Forty patients with suspected sigmoid diverticulitis underwent MRC within 72 h prior to conventional colonoscopy (CC). A three-dimensional T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination sequence was acquired after an aqueous enema and intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents. All MRC data were evaluated by two radiologists. Based on wall thickness and focal uptake of contrast material and pericolic reaction including mesenteric infiltration on T1-weighted sequence the sigmoid colon was assessed for the presence of diverticulitis. MRC classified 17 of the 40 patients as normal with regard to sigmoid diverticulitis. However, CC confirmed the presence of light inflammatory signs in four patients which were missed in MRC. MRC correctly identified wall thickness and contrast uptake of the sigmoid colon in the other 23 patients. In three of these patients false-positive findings were observed, and MRC classified the inflammation of the sigmoid colon as diverticulitis whereas CC and histopathology confirmed invasive carcinoma. MRC detected additionally relevant pathologies of the entire colon and could be performed in cases where CC was incomplete. MRC may be considered a promising alternative to CC for the detection of sigmoid diverticulitis. (orig.)

  1. "Detachment of the carinal hook following endobronchial intubation with a double lumen tube"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Ana C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carinal hooks increases difficulty at endotracheal intubation. Amputation of the carinal hook during passage and malpositioning of the tube to the hook are some of the potential problems related with left-sided Carlens double lumen tube (DLT. This article reports an amputation of the hook during a difficult selective intubation and aimed at calling the attention to complications associated with DLTs and the importance of fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Case presentation A 68 year-old woman was scheduled for right-sided thoracotomy in whom blind DLT insertion was performed. Narrowed trachea causes difficulty in rotating the DLT 90° counter-clockwise. After carinal hook was noticed upon visual inspection of the DLT, fiberoptic bronchoscopy was used to remove the missing part (with the use of forceps from the right mainstem bronchus. Conclusion Insertion of DLTs with carinal hook is associated with technical problems and potentially life-threatening hazards have discouraged their use. Fiberoptic evaluation and repositioning solves most of the problems. Although amputation of the carinal hook has not been previously reported, clinicians should be alert. This case report emphasizes the utility of the fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the operating theatre for placement, positioning and inspection of the carinal hook DLT.

  2. Lumen apposing metal stents for pancreatic fluid collections: Recognition and management of complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Michael L; Asombang, Akwi W; Berzin, Tyler M

    2017-09-16

    For patients recovering from acute pancreatitis, the development of a pancreatic fluid collection (PFC) predicts a more complex course of recovery, and introduces difficult management decisions with regard to when, whether, and how the collection should be drained. Most PFCs resolve spontaneously and drainage is indicated only in pseudocysts and walled-off pancreatic necrosis when the collections are causing symptoms and/or local complications such as biliary obstruction. Historical approaches to PFC drainage have included surgical (open or laparoscopic cystgastrostomy or pancreatic debridement), and the placement of percutaneous drains. Endoscopic drainage techniques have emerged in the last several years as the preferred approach for most patients, when local expertise is available. Lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) have recently been developed as a tool to facilitate potentially safer and easier endoscopic drainage of pancreatic fluid collections, and less commonly, for other indications, such as gallbladder drainage. Physicians considering LAMS placement must be aware of the complications most commonly associated with LAMS including bleeding, migration, buried stent, stent occlusion, and perforation. Because of the patient complexity associated with severe pancreatitis, management of pancreatic fluid collections can be a complex and multidisciplinary endeavor. Successful and safe use of LAMS for patients with pancreatic fluid collections requires that the endoscopist have a full understanding of the potential complications of LAMS techniques, including how to recognize and manage expected complications.

  3. Rap1 integrates tissue polarity, lumen formation, and tumorigenicpotential in human breast epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Masahiko; Nelson, Celeste M.; Myers, Connie A.; Bissell,Mina J.

    2006-09-29

    Maintenance of apico-basal polarity in normal breast epithelial acini requires a balance between cell proliferation, cell death, and proper cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix signaling. Aberrations in any of these processes can disrupt tissue architecture and initiate tumor formation. Here we show that the small GTPase Rap1 is a crucial element in organizing acinar structure and inducing lumen formation. Rap1 activity in malignant HMT-3522 T4-2 cells is appreciably higher than in S1 cells, their non-malignant counterparts. Expression of dominant-negative Rap1 resulted in phenotypic reversion of T4-2 cells, led to formation of acinar structures with correct apico-basal polarity, and dramatically reduced tumor incidence despite the persistence of genomic abnormalities. The resulting acini contained prominent central lumina not observed when other reverting agents were used. Conversely, expression of dominant-active Rap1 in T4-2 cells inhibited phenotypic reversion and led to increased invasiveness and tumorigenicity. Thus, Rap1 acts as a central regulator of breast architecture, with normal levels of activation instructing apical polarity during acinar morphogenesis, and increased activation inducing tumor formation and progression to malignancy.

  4. Epithelial organization and cyst lumen expansion require efficient Sec13–Sec31-driven secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Anna K.; Schmidt, Katy; Hodgson, Lorna; Stephens, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis is directed by interactions with the underlying extracellular matrix. Secretion of collagen and other matrix components requires efficient coat complex II (COPII) vesicle formation at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that suppression of the outer layer COPII component, Sec13, in zebrafish embryos results in a disorganized gut epithelium. In human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2), Sec13 depletion causes defective epithelial polarity and organization on permeable supports. Defects are seen in the ability of cells to adhere to the substrate, form a monolayer and form intercellular junctions. When embedded in a three-dimensional matrix, Sec13-depleted Caco-2 cells form cysts but, unlike controls, are defective in lumen expansion. Incorporation of primary fibroblasts within the three-dimensional culture substantially restores normal morphogenesis. We conclude that efficient COPII-dependent secretion, notably assembly of Sec13–Sec31, is required to drive epithelial morphogenesis in both two- and three-dimensional cultures in vitro, as well as in vivo. Our results provide insight into the role of COPII in epithelial morphogenesis and have implications for the interpretation of epithelial polarity and organization assays in cell culture. PMID:22331354

  5. Epithelial organization and cyst lumen expansion require efficient Sec13-Sec31-driven secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Anna K; Schmidt, Katy; Hodgson, Lorna; Stephens, David J

    2012-02-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis is directed by interactions with the underlying extracellular matrix. Secretion of collagen and other matrix components requires efficient coat complex II (COPII) vesicle formation at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that suppression of the outer layer COPII component, Sec13, in zebrafish embryos results in a disorganized gut epithelium. In human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2), Sec13 depletion causes defective epithelial polarity and organization on permeable supports. Defects are seen in the ability of cells to adhere to the substrate, form a monolayer and form intercellular junctions. When embedded in a three-dimensional matrix, Sec13-depleted Caco-2 cells form cysts but, unlike controls, are defective in lumen expansion. Incorporation of primary fibroblasts within the three-dimensional culture substantially restores normal morphogenesis. We conclude that efficient COPII-dependent secretion, notably assembly of Sec13-Sec31, is required to drive epithelial morphogenesis in both two- and three-dimensional cultures in vitro, as well as in vivo. Our results provide insight into the role of COPII in epithelial morphogenesis and have implications for the interpretation of epithelial polarity and organization assays in cell culture.

  6. Point-of-care ultrasound versus auscultation in determining the position of double-lumen tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Cai; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Quan; Wei, Li; Zhang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    This study was designed to assess the accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound in determining the position of double-lumen tubes (DLTs).A total of 103 patients who required DLT intubation were enrolled into the study. After DLTs were tracheal intubated in the supine position, an auscultation researcher and ultrasound researcher were sequentially invited in the operating room to conduct their evaluation of the DLT. After the end of their evaluation, fiberscope researchers (FRs) were invited in the operating room to evaluate the position of DLT using a fiberscope. After the patients were changed to the lateral position, the same evaluation process was repeated. These 3 researchers were blind to each other when they made their conclusions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were obtained by statistical analysis.When left DLTs (LDLTs) were used, the accuracy of ultrasound (84.2% [72.1%, 92.5%]) was higher than the accuracy of auscultation (59.7% [45.8%, 72.4%]) (P auscultation (67.4% [52.0%, 80.5%]) (P auscultation (54.4% [40.7%, 67.6%]) (P auscultation (47.8% [32.9%, 63.1%]) (P auscultation in determining the position of DLTs.

  7. Delivery of CSF-1R to the lumen of macropinosomes promotes its destruction in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jieqiong; Low-Nam, Shalini T.; Kerkvliet, Jason G.; Hoppe, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Activation of the macrophage colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) by CSF-1 stimulates pronounced macropinocytosis and drives proliferation of macrophages. Although the role of macropinocytosis in CSF-1R signaling remains unknown, we show here that, despite internalizing large quantities of plasma membrane, macropinosomes contribute little to the internalization of the CSF-1–CSF-1R complex. Rather, internalization of the CSF-1R in small endocytic vesicles that are sensitive to clathrin disruption, outcompetes macropinosomes for CSF-1R endocytosis. Following internalization, small vesicles carrying the CSF-1R underwent homotypic fusion and then trafficked to newly formed macropinosomes bearing Rab5. As these macropinosomes matured, acquiring Rab7, the CSF-1R was transported into their lumen and degraded. Inhibition of macropinocytosis delayed receptor degradation despite no disruption to CSF-1R endocytosis. These data indicate that CSF-1-stimulated macropinosomes are sites of multivesicular body formation and accelerate CSF-1R degradation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that macropinocytosis and cell growth have a matching dose dependence on CSF-1, suggesting that macropinosomes might be a central mechanism coupling CSF-1R signaling and macrophage growth. PMID:25335894

  8. Evaluation of esophageal motility utilizing the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Lin, Zhiyue; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Listernick, Zoe; Ritter, Katherine; Tye, Michael; Ponds, Fraukje A.; Wong, Ian; Pandolfino, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility and distension-mediated peristalsis can be assessed with the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) during a sedated upper endoscopy. We aimed to describe esophageal motility assessment using FLIP topography in patients presenting with dysphagia. Methods 145 patients (ages 18 – 85, 54% female) with dysphagia that completed upper endoscopy with a 16-cm FLIP assembly and high-resolution manometry (HRM) were included. HRM was analyzed according to the Chicago Classification of esophageal motility disorders; major esophageal motility disorders were considered ‘abnormal’. FLIP studies were analyzed using a customized program to calculate the EGJ-distensibility index (DI) and generate FLIP topography plots to identify esophageal contractility patterns. FLIP topography was considered ‘abnormal’ if EGJ-DI was esophageal motility and 29 normal motility. 17 (50%) had abnormal FLIP topography including 13 (37%) with abnormal EGJ-DI. Conclusions FLIP topography provides a well-tolerated method for esophageal motility assessment (especially to identify achalasia) at the time of upper endoscopy. FLIP topography findings that are discordant with HRM may indicate otherwise undetected abnormalities of esophageal function, thus FLIP provides an alternative and complementary method to HRM for evaluation of non-obstructive dysphagia. PMID:27725650

  9. Improving lumen maintenance by nanopore array dispersed quantum dots for on-chip light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Yang, Fan; Wan, Renzhuo; Fang, Dong

    2017-12-01

    The temperature stability of quantum dots (QDs), which is crucial for integrating into high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in the on-chip configuration, needs to be further improved. In this letter, we report warm white LEDs, where CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were incorporated into a porous anodic alumina (PAA) matrix with a chain structure by the self-assembly method. Experiments demonstrate that the QD concentration range in toluene solvent from 1% mg/μl to 1.2% mg/μl in combination with the PAA matrix shows the best luminous property. To verify the reliability of the as-prepared device, a comparison experiment was conducted. It indicates excellent lumen maintenance of the light source and less chromaticity coordinate shift under accelerated life testing conditions. Experiments also prove that optical depreciation was only up to 4.6% of its initial value after the 1500 h aging test at the junction temperature of 76 °C.

  10. Numerical Investigation of Characteristic of Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Natural Fiber Bundle with Numbered Lumens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Yu Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber bundle like hemp fiber bundle usually includes many small lumens embedded in solid region; thus, it can present lower thermal conduction than that of conventional fibers. In the paper, characteristic of anisotropic transverse thermal conductivity of unidirectional natural hemp fiber bundle was numerically studied to determine the dependence of overall thermal property of the fiber bundle on that of the solid region phase. In order to efficiently predict its thermal property, the fiber bundle was embedded into an imaginary matrix to form a unit composite cell consisting of the matrix and the fiber bundle. Equally, another unit composite cell including an equivalent solid fiber was established to present the homogenization of the fiber bundle. Next, finite element thermal analysis implemented by ABAQUS was conducted in the two established composite cells by applying proper thermal boundary conditions along the boundary of unit cell, and influences of the solid region phase and the equivalent solid fiber on the composites were investigated, respectively. Subsequently, an optional relationship of thermal conductivities of the natural fiber bundle and the solid region was obtained by curve fitting technique. Finally, numerical results from the obtained fitted curves were compared with the analytic Hasselman-Johnson’s results and others to verify the present numerical model.

  11. High lumenal chloride in the lysosome is critical for lysosome function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Leung, KaHo; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2017-01-01

    Lysosomes are organelles responsible for the breakdown and recycling of cellular machinery. Dysfunctional lysosomes give rise to lysosomal storage disorders as well as common neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we use a DNA-based, fluorescent chloride reporter to measure lysosomal chloride in Caenorhabditis elegans as well as murine and human cell culture models of lysosomal diseases. We find that the lysosome is highly enriched in chloride, and that chloride reduction correlates directly with a loss in the degradative function of the lysosome. In nematodes and mammalian cell culture models of diverse lysosomal disorders, where previously only lysosomal pH dysregulation has been described, massive reduction of lumenal chloride is observed that is ~103 fold greater than the accompanying pH change. Reducing chloride within the lysosome impacts Ca2+ release from the lysosome and impedes the activity of specific lysosomal enzymes indicating a broader role for chloride in lysosomal function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28862.001 PMID:28742019

  12. Advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications in NLIP/SITP/CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zha, Rui; Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yibo; Gao, Zhiqian; Bao, Dingli; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yongjiang; Zhao, Bangjian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review of recent advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) for space applications developed at the National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NLIP/SITP/CAS). A variety of single-stage SPTCs operating at 25-150 K have been developed, including several mid-sized ones operating at 80-110 K. Significant progress has been achieved in coolers operating at 30-40 K which use common stainless steel meshes as regenerator matrices. Another important advance is the micro SPTCs with an overall mass of 300-800 g operating at high frequencies varying from 100 Hz to 400 Hz. The main purpose of developing two-stage SPTCs is to simultaneously acquire cooling capacities at both stages, obviating the need for auxiliary precooling in various applications. The three-stage SPTCs are developed mainly for applications at around 10 K, which are also used for precooling the J-T coolers to achieve further lower temperatures. The four-stage SPTCs are developed to directly achieve the liquid helium temperature for cooling space low-Tc superconducting devices and for the deep space exploration as well. Several typical development programs are described and an overview of the cooler performances is presented.

  13. Seeking Emancipation from Gender Regulation: Reflections on Home Space for a Black Woman Academic/Single Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    William-­White, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Using the work of Judith Butler on gender regulation, Black Feminist Thought (BFT), and autobiographic storytelling, this piece illustrates how essentialist notions of gender, and discourses related to gender create conflict in shaping identity construction for a Black woman academic and single mother (BWA/SM) in the United States. This piece…

  14. THE POLISH SEJM ELECTIONS OF 2015: SPACE VARIABILITY OF THE RESULTS BASED ON SINGLE-MEMBER CONSTITUENCIES SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar SKOMSKI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main assumption of this paper is to analyse the Sejm elections of 2015 results. The authors conducted a simulation study regarding the single-member constituencies in the election to the Polish Parliament, basing the research on the election results facilitated by National Electoral Commission as well as the specific data provided by Central Statistical Office. The division of Poland into 460 single-member constituencies was mapped by the authors (those maps do not include the district divisions in the cities, as the agglomerations’ division is problematic. Obtained results indicate to the marginalization of the Polish political scene – plural voting would preclude the election victories of the secondary political parties and civil rights movements.

  15. Ultrafast Single-Shot Optical Oscilloscope based on Time-to-Space Conversion due to Temporal and Spatial Walk-Off Effects in Nonlinear Mixing Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshifumi; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Seiji; Sakabe, Shuji

    2005-09-01

    A simple method for single-shot sub-picosecond optical pulse diagnostics has been demonstrated by imaging the time evolution of the optical mixing onto the beam cross section of the sum-frequency wave when the interrogating pulse passes over the tested pulse in the mixing crystal as a result of the combined effect of group-velocity difference and walk-off beam propagation. A high linearity of the time-to-space projection is deduced from the process solely dependent upon the spatial uniformity of the refractive indices. A snap profile of the accidental coincidence between asynchronous pulses from separate mode-locked lasers has been detected, which demonstrates the single-shot ability.

  16. SU-F-T-20: Novel Catheter Lumen Recognition Algorithm for Rapid Digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dise, J; McDonald, D; Ashenafi, M; Peng, J; Mart, C; Koch, N; Vanek, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Manual catheter recognition remains a time-consuming aspect of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR) treatment planning. In this work, a novel catheter lumen recognition algorithm was created for accurate and rapid digitization. Methods: MatLab v8.5 was used to create the catheter recognition algorithm. Initially, the algorithm searches the patient CT dataset using an intensity based k-means filter designed to locate catheters. Once the catheters have been located, seed points are manually selected to initialize digitization of each catheter. From each seed point, the algorithm searches locally in order to automatically digitize the remaining catheter. This digitization is accomplished by finding pixels with similar image curvature and divergence parameters compared to the seed pixel. Newly digitized pixels are treated as new seed positions, and hessian image analysis is used to direct the algorithm toward neighboring catheter pixels, and to make the algorithm insensitive to adjacent catheters that are unresolvable on CT, air pockets, and high Z artifacts. The algorithm was tested using 11 HDR treatment plans, including the Syed template, tandem and ovoid applicator, and multi-catheter lung brachytherapy. Digitization error was calculated by comparing manually determined catheter positions to those determined by the algorithm. Results: he digitization error was 0.23 mm ± 0.14 mm axially and 0.62 mm ± 0.13 mm longitudinally at the tip. The time of digitization, following initial seed placement was less than 1 second per catheter. The maximum total time required to digitize all tested applicators was 4 minutes (Syed template with 15 needles). Conclusion: This algorithm successfully digitizes HDR catheters for a variety of applicators with or without CT markers. The minimal axial error demonstrates the accuracy of the algorithm, and its insensitivity to image artifacts and challenging catheter positioning. Future work to automatically place initial seed

  17. The Functional Lumen Imaging Probe Detects Esophageal Contractility not Observed with Manometry in Patients with Achalasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A.; Lin, Zhiyue; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Sternbach, Joel; Donnan, Erica N.; Friesen, Laurel; Listernick, Zoe; Mogni, Benjamin; Pandolfino, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) could improve characterization of achalasia subtypes by detecting non-occlusive esophageal contractions not observed with standard manometry. We aimed to evaluate for esophageal contractions during volumetric distention in patients with achalasia using FLIP topography. Methods Fifty one treatment-naïve patients with achalasia, defined and sub-classified by high-resolution esophageal pressure topography, and 10 asymptomatic individuals (controls) were evaluated with the FLIP during endoscopy. During stepwise distension, simultaneous intra-bag pressures and 16 channels of cross-sectional areas were measured; data were exported to software that generated FLIP topography plots. Esophageal contractility was identified by noting periods of reduced luminal diameter. Esophageal contractions were further characterized by propagation direction, repetitiveness, and based on whether they were occluding or non-occluding. Results Esophageal contractility was detected in all 10 controls: 8/10 had repetitive, antegrade, contractions and 9/10 had occluding contractions. Contractility was detected in 27% (4/15) of patients with type I achalasia and 65% (18/26, including 9 with occluding contractions) of patients with type II achalasia. Contractility was detected in all 10 patients with type III achalasia; 8 of these patients had a pattern of contractility not observed in controls (repetitive, retrograde contractions). Conclusions Esophageal contractility not observed with manometry can be detected in patients with achalasia using FLIP topography. The presence and patterns of contractility detected with FLIP topography may represent variations in pathophysiology, such as mechanisms of pan-esophageal pressurization in patients with type II achalasia. These findings could have implications for additional sub-classification to supplement prediction of the achalasia disease course. PMID:26278501

  18. Computed Tomographic Window Setting for Bronchial Measurement to Guide Double-Lumen Tube Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Hwa; Bae, Jinyoung; Paik, Hyesun; Koo, Chang-Hoon; Bahk, Jae-Hyon

    2018-04-01

    The bronchial diameter measured on computed tomography (CT) can be used to guide double-lumen tube (DLT) sizes objectively. The bronchus is known to be measured most accurately in the so-called bronchial CT window. The authors investigated whether using the bronchial window results in the selection of more appropriately sized DLTs than using the other windows. CT image analysis and prospective randomized study. Tertiary hospital. Adults receiving left-sided DLTs. The authors simulated selection of DLT sizes based on the left bronchial diameters measured in the lung (width 1,500 Hounsfield unit [HU] and level -700 HU), bronchial (1,000 HU and -450 HU), and mediastinal (400 HU and 25 HU) CT windows. Furthermore, patients were randomly assigned to undergo imaging with either the bronchial or mediastinal window to guide DLT sizes. Using the underwater seal technique, the authors assessed whether the DLT was appropriately sized, undersized, or oversized for the patient. On 130 CT images, the bronchial diameter (9.9 ± 1.2 mm v 10.5 ± 1.3 mm v 11.7 ± 1.3 mm) and the selected DLT size were different in the lung, bronchial, and mediastinal windows, respectively (p study, oversized tubes were chosen less frequently in the bronchial window than in the mediastinal window (6/110 v 23/111; risk ratio 0.38; 95% CI 0.19-0.79; p = 0.003). No tubes were undersized after measurements in these two windows. The bronchial measurement in the bronchial window guided more appropriately sized DLTs compared with the lung or mediastinal windows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Photoaffinity labeling of the lumenal K+ site of the gastric (H+ + K+)-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, D.J.; Fallowfield, C.; Lawrie, K.M.; Saunders, D.; Richardson, S.; Ife, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A photoaffinity label for the lumenal K+ site of the gastric (H+ + K+)-ATPase has been identified. Seven azido derivatives based upon the reversible K+ site inhibitor SCH 28080 were studied, one of which, m-ATIP (8-(3-azidophenylmethoxy)-1,2,3-trimethylimidazo[1,2-a] pyridinium iodide), was subsequently synthesized in radiolabeled form. In the absence of UV irradiation, m-ATIP inhibited K+ -stimulated ATPase activity in lyophilized gastric vesicles competitively with respect to K+, with a Ki value of 2.4 microM at pH 7.0. Irradiation of lyophilized gastric vesicles at pH 7.0 with [ 14 C]m-ATIP in the presence of 0.2 mM ATP resulted in a time-dependent inactivation of ATPase activity that was associated with an incorporation of radioactivity into a 100-kDa polypeptide representing the catalytic subunit of the (H+ + K+)-ATPase. Both inactivation and incorporation were blocked in the presence of 10 mM KCl but not with 10 mM NaCl, consistent with interaction at the K+ site. The level of incorporation required to produce complete inhibition of ATPase activity was 1.9 +/- 0.2 times the number of catalytic phosphorylation sites in the same preparation. Tryptic digestion of gastric vesicle membranes, labeled with [ 14 C]m-ATIP, failed to release the radioactivity from the membranes suggesting that the site of interaction was close to or within the membrane-spanning sections of this ion pump

  20. Double-lumen tubes and auto-PEEP during one-lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, J; Ott, M; Karzai, W; Grimm, A; Wirth, S; Schumann, S; Loop, T

    2016-01-01

    Double-lumen tubes (DLT) are routinely used to enable one-lung-ventilation (OLV) during thoracic anaesthesia. The flow-dependent resistance of the DLT's bronchial limb may be high as a result of its narrow inner diameter and length, and thus potentially contribute to an unintended increase in positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP). We therefore studied the impact of adult sized DLTs on the dynamic auto-PEEP during OLV. In this prospective clinical study, dynamic auto-PEEP was determined in 72 patients undergoing thoracic surgery, with right- and left-sided DLTs of various sizes. During OLV, air trapping was provoked by increasing inspiration to expiration ratio from 1:2 to 2:1 (five steps). Based on measured flow rate, airway pressure (Paw) and bronchial pressure (Pbronch), the pressure gradient across the DLT (ΔPDLT) and the total auto-PEEP in the respiratory system (i.e. the lungs, the DLT and the ventilator circuit) were determined. Subsequently the DLT's share in total auto-PEEP was calculated. ΔPDLT was 2.3 (0.7) cm H2O over the entire breathing cycle. At the shortest expiratory time the mean total auto-PEEP was 2.9 (1.5) cm H2O (range 0-5.9 cm H2O). The DLT caused 27 to 31% of the total auto-PEEP. Size and side of the DLT's bronchial limb did not impact auto-PEEP significantly. Although the DLT contributes to the overall auto-PEEP, its contribution is small and independent of size and side of the DLT's bronchial limb. The choice of DLT does not influence the risk of auto-PEEP during OLV to a clinically relevant extent. DRKS00005648. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Gastric washing by distilled water can reduce free gastric cancer cells exfoliated into the stomach lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Atsuko; Abe, Nobutsugu; Yoshimoto, Eri; Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Hirohisa; Nagao, Gen; Masaki, Tadahiko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Ohkura, Yasuo; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2018-04-25

    Intragastric free cancer cells in patients with gastric cancer have rarely been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection rate of intragastric free cancer cells in gastric washes using two types of solutions during endoscopic examination. We further clarified risk factors affecting the presence of exfoliated free cancer cells. A total of 175 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled. Lactated Ringer's solution (N = 89) or distilled water (DW; N = 86) via endoscopic working channel was sprayed onto the tumor surface, and the resultant fluid was collected for cytological examination. We compared the cancer-cell positivity rate between the two (Ringer and DW) groups. We also tested the correlation between cancer-cell positivity and clinicopathological factors in the Ringer group to identify risk factors for the presence of exfoliated cancer cells. The cancer-cell positivity rate was significantly higher in the Ringer group than that in the DW group (58 vs 6%). Cytomorphology in the Ringer group was well maintained, but not in the DW group. The larger tumor size (≥ 20 mm) and positive lymphatic involvement were significant risk factors of exfoliated free cancer cells. Cancer cells can be highly exfoliated from the tumor surface into the gastric lumen by endoscopic irrigation in large gastric cancer with lymphatic involvement. Gastric washing by DW can lead to cytoclasis of free cancer cells; therefore, it may minimize the possibility of cancer-cell seeding in procedures carrying potential risks of tumor-cell seeding upon transluminal communication, such as endoscopic full-thickness resection and laparoscopy-endoscopy cooperative surgery.

  2. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in intestinal immune defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Barbara J; Palm, J E Daniel; Housley, Michael P; Smith, Jennifer R; Andersen, Yolanda S; Martin, Martin G; Hendrickson, Barbara A; Johansen, Finn-Eirik; Svärd, Staffan G; Gillin, Frances D; Eckmann, Lars

    2006-11-01

    The polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) is conserved in mammals and has an avian homologue, suggesting evolutionarily important functions in vertebrates. It transports multimeric IgA and IgM across polarized epithelia and is highly expressed in the intestine, yet little direct evidence exists for its importance in defense against common enteric pathogens. In this study, we demonstrate that pIgR can play a critical role in intestinal defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia, a leading cause of diarrheal disease. The receptor was essential for the eradication of Giardia when high luminal IgA levels were required. Clearance of Giardia muris, in which IgA plays a dominant role, was severely compromised in pIgR-deficient mice despite significant fecal IgA output at 10% of normal levels. In contrast, eradication of the human strain Giardia lamblia GS/M, for which adaptive immunity is less IgA dependent in mice, was unaffected by pIgR deficiency, indicating that pIgR had no physiologic role when lower luminal IgA levels were sufficient for parasite elimination. Immune IgA was greatly increased in the serum of pIgR-deficient mice, conferred passive protection against Giardia, and recognized several conserved giardial Ags, including ornithine carbamoyltransferase, arginine deiminase, alpha-enolase, and alpha- and beta-giardins, that are also detected in human giardiasis. Corroborative observations were made in mice lacking the J chain, which is required for pIgR-dependent transepithelial IgA transport. These results, together with prior data on pIgR-mediated immune neutralization of luminal cholera toxin, suggest that pIgR is essential in intestinal defense against pathogenic microbes with high-level and persistent luminal presence.

  3. SU-F-T-20: Novel Catheter Lumen Recognition Algorithm for Rapid Digitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dise, J; McDonald, D; Ashenafi, M; Peng, J; Mart, C; Koch, N; Vanek, K [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Manual catheter recognition remains a time-consuming aspect of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR) treatment planning. In this work, a novel catheter lumen recognition algorithm was created for accurate and rapid digitization. Methods: MatLab v8.5 was used to create the catheter recognition algorithm. Initially, the algorithm searches the patient CT dataset using an intensity based k-means filter designed to locate catheters. Once the catheters have been located, seed points are manually selected to initialize digitization of each catheter. From each seed point, the algorithm searches locally in order to automatically digitize the remaining catheter. This digitization is accomplished by finding pixels with similar image curvature and divergence parameters compared to the seed pixel. Newly digitized pixels are treated as new seed positions, and hessian image analysis is used to direct the algorithm toward neighboring catheter pixels, and to make the algorithm insensitive to adjacent catheters that are unresolvable on CT, air pockets, and high Z artifacts. The algorithm was tested using 11 HDR treatment plans, including the Syed template, tandem and ovoid applicator, and multi-catheter lung brachytherapy. Digitization error was calculated by comparing manually determined catheter positions to those determined by the algorithm. Results: he digitization error was 0.23 mm ± 0.14 mm axially and 0.62 mm ± 0.13 mm longitudinally at the tip. The time of digitization, following initial seed placement was less than 1 second per catheter. The maximum total time required to digitize all tested applicators was 4 minutes (Syed template with 15 needles). Conclusion: This algorithm successfully digitizes HDR catheters for a variety of applicators with or without CT markers. The minimal axial error demonstrates the accuracy of the algorithm, and its insensitivity to image artifacts and challenging catheter positioning. Future work to automatically place initial seed

  4. Spatially multiplexed orbital-angular-momentum-encoded single photon and classical channels in a free-space optical communication link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Liu, Cong; Pang, Kai; Zhao, Jiapeng; Cao, Yinwen; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Liao, Peicheng; Zhao, Zhe; Tur, Moshe; Boyd, Robert W; Willner, Alan E

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate spatial multiplexing of an orbital angular momentum (OAM)-encoded quantum channel and a classical Gaussian beam with a different wavelength and orthogonal polarization. Data rates as large as 100 MHz are achieved by encoding on two different OAM states by employing a combination of independently modulated laser diodes and helical phase holograms. The influence of OAM mode spacing, encoding bandwidth, and interference from the co-propagating Gaussian beam on registered photon count rates and quantum bit error rates is investigated. Our results show that the deleterious effects of intermodal crosstalk effects on system performance become less important for OAM mode spacing Δ≥2 (corresponding to a crosstalk value of less than -18.5  dB). The use of OAM domain can additionally offer at least 10.4 dB isolation besides that provided by wavelength and polarization, leading to a further suppression of interference from the classical channel.

  5. Percutaneous Selective Embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter for Pancreas Graft Thrombosis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izaki, Kenta; Yamaguchi, Masato; Matsumoto, Ippei; Shinzeki, Makoto; Ku, Yonson; Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji

    2011-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus underwent simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation. The pancreaticoduodenal graft was implanted in the right iliac fossa. The donor’s portal vein was anastomosed to the recipient’s inferior vena cava (IVC). Seven days after the surgery, a thrombus was detected in the graft veins. Percutaneous thrombolysis was immediately performed; however, venous congestion was still present. We therefore attempted selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter. Thrombi were directed from the graft veins toward the IVC and captured in the IVC filter with complete elimination of the thrombus without any major complications. We present our technique for the successful treatment of pancreas graft thrombosis within a short time period by percutaneous selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter.

  6. Activity of LUMEN (1996-97) Understanding of PbWO4 Scintillator Characteristics and their Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Baccaro, Stefania; Borgia, Bruno; Cecilia, Angelica; Croci, S; Dafinei, Ioan; Diemoz, Marcella; Fabeni, P; Festinesi, Armando; Jarolímek, O; Longo, Egidio; Martini, M; Mihoková, E; Montecchi, Marco; Nikl, M; Nitsch, K; Organtini, Giovanni; Pazzi, G P; Spinolo, G; Vedda, A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the LUMEN co-operation, supported by INFN, is to obtain ful experimental characterisation and deep expertise of heavy scintillator for high energy physics. The advantage of this collaboration was mainly in the complementary character of the experimental techniques available in the partner laboratories and in the availability of highly experienced scientists indifferent fields. Furthermore close feedback to technological laboratories preparing on request PWO samples appeared extremely helpful. The present paper reports on the most important results obtained during the LUMEN activity in 1996-97. The aim of the report is to provide also enough useful information for the PWO application and novel ideas to stimulate further interest for new detectors as well as application in different fields.

  7. Lumen and calcium characteristics within calcified coronary lesions. Comparison of computed tomography coronary angiography versus intravascular ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, Dariusz; Kruk, Mariusz; Pręgowski, Jerzy; Kaczmarska, Edyta; Kryczka, Karolina; Pracoń, Radosław; Skwarek, Mirosław; Dzielińska, Zofia; Petryka, Joanna; Śpiewak, Mateusz; Lubiszewska, Barbara; Norwa-Otto, Bożena; Opolski, Maksymilian; Witkowski, Adam; Demkow, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) is a diagnostic method used for exclusion of coronary artery disease. However, lower accuracy of CTCA in assessment of calcified lesions is a significant factor impeding applicability of CTCA for assessment of coronary atherosclerosis. Aim To provide insight into lumen and calcium characteristics assessed with CTCA, we compared these parameters to the reference of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Material and methods Two hundred and...

  8. Microbial Challenge Testing of Single Liquid Cathode Feed Water Electrolysis Cells for the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Robert J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Diderich, Greg S.; Steele, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) operational performance may be adversely impacted by microbiological growth and biofilm formation over the electrolysis cell membranes. Biofilms could hinder the transport of water from the bulk fluid stream to the membranes and increase the cell concentration overpotential resulting in higher cell voltages and a shorter cell life. A microbial challenge test was performed on duplicate single liquid-cathode feed water electrolysis cells to evaluate operational performance with increasing levels of a mixture of five bacteria isolated from ISS and Space Shuttle potable water systems. Baseline performance of the single water electrolysis cells was determined for approximately one month with deionized water. Monthly performance was also determined following each inoculation of the feed tank with 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 cells/ml of the mixed suspension of test bacteria. Water samples from the feed tank and recirculating water loops for each cell were periodically analyzed for enumeration and speciation of bacteria and total organic carbon. While initially a concern, this test program has demonstrated that the performance of the electrolysis cell is not adversely impacted by feed water containing the five species of bacteria tested at a concentration measured as high as 1,000,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml. This paper presents the methodologies used in the conduct of this test program along with the performance test results at each level of bacteria concentration.

  9. Simulation and optimization study on a solar space heating system combined with a low temperature ASHP for single family rural residential houses in Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Tian, Zhiyong; Fan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    A pilot project of the solar water heating system combined with a low temperature air source heat pump (ASHP) unit was established in 2014 in a detached residential house in the rural region of Beijing, in order to investigate the system application prospect for single family houses via system...... optimization design and economic analysis. The established system was comprised of the glass heat-pipe based evacuated tube solar collectors with a gross area of 18.8 m2 and an ASHP with a stated heating power of 8 kW for the space heating of a single family rural house of 81.4 m2. The dynamic thermal...... with good building insulation were undertaken to figure out the system economical efficiency in the rural regions of Beijing. The results show that the payback periods of the solar space heating system combined with the ASHP with the collector areas 15.04-22.56 m2 are 17.3-22.4 years for the established...

  10. Standardized evaluation framework for evaluating coronary artery stenosis detection, stenosis quantification and lumen segmentation algorithms in computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirişli, H A; Schaap, M; Metz, C T; Dharampal, A S; Meijboom, W B; Papadopoulou, S L; Dedic, A; Nieman, K; de Graaf, M A; Meijs, M F L; Cramer, M J; Broersen, A; Cetin, S; Eslami, A; Flórez-Valencia, L; Lor, K L; Matuszewski, B; Melki, I; Mohr, B; Oksüz, I; Shahzad, R; Wang, C; Kitslaar, P H; Unal, G; Katouzian, A; Örkisz, M; Chen, C M; Precioso, F; Najman, L; Masood, S; Ünay, D; van Vliet, L; Moreno, R; Goldenberg, R; Vuçini, E; Krestin, G P; Niessen, W J; van Walsum, T

    2013-12-01

    Though conventional coronary angiography (CCA) has been the standard of reference for diagnosing coronary artery disease in the past decades, computed tomography angiography (CTA) has rapidly emerged, and is nowadays widely used in clinical practice. Here, we introduce a standardized evaluation framework to reliably evaluate and compare the performance of the algorithms devised to detect and quantify the coronary artery stenoses, and to segment the coronary artery lumen in CTA data. The objective of this evaluation framework is to demonstrate the feasibility of dedicated algorithms to: (1) (semi-)automatically detect and quantify stenosis on CTA, in comparison with quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and CTA consensus reading, and (2) (semi-)automatically segment the coronary lumen on CTA, in comparison with expert's manual annotation. A database consisting of 48 multicenter multivendor cardiac CTA datasets with corresponding reference standards are described and made available. The algorithms from 11 research groups were quantitatively evaluated and compared. The results show that (1) some of the current stenosis detection/quantification algorithms may be used for triage or as a second-reader in clinical practice, and that (2) automatic lumen segmentation is possible with a precision similar to that obtained by experts. The framework is open for new submissions through the website, at http://coronary.bigr.nl/stenoses/. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stanford type A aortic dissection with closed false lumen: Analysis of prognostic factors at initial CT or MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Yohjiro; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Ogawa, Yohji; Sueyoshi, Eijun; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Takagi, Masatake [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Narimatsu, Motoharu

    1997-08-01

    Nineteen patients with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection with closed false lumen were reviewed. In the follow-up examinations, ulcerlike projection (ULP) in the ascending aorta (AA) or aortic arch (AR) was identified in 8 of 19 patients. In 5 of these 8 patients, acute cardiac tamponade occurred and 3 of them died. In the other 11 patients, there was no mortality, and only one patient underwent elective surgery. The appearance of ULP in the AA/AR is considered an indication for urgent surgery because it is regarded as a precursor of lethal complications such as cardiac tamponade. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of the appearance of ULP in the AA/AR with early imagings (CT or MRI) before the appearance of ULP. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with ULP in the AA/AR (8 patients) and others (11 patients). Initial CT or MRI findings of the thoracic aorta were retrospectively statistically analyzed in each group. Three predictive factors were statistically significant for the appearance of ULP in the AA/AR (diameter of the AA{>=}5 cm, thickness of the false lumen of the AA{>=}1 cm, thickness of the false lumen of the AA{>=} that of the descending aorta). Close attention should be paid, if any of these 3 factors is observed at initial CT or MRI. (author)

  12. Stanford type A aortic dissection with closed false lumen: Analysis of prognostic factors at initial CT or MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yohjiro; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Ogawa, Yohji; Sueyoshi, Eijun; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Takagi, Masatake; Narimatsu, Motoharu.

    1997-01-01

    Nineteen patients with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection with closed false lumen were reviewed. In the follow-up examinations, ulcerlike projection (ULP) in the ascending aorta (AA) or aortic arch (AR) was identified in 8 of 19 patients. In 5 of these 8 patients, acute cardiac tamponade occurred and 3 of them died. In the other 11 patients, there was no mortality, and only one patient underwent elective surgery. The appearance of ULP in the AA/AR is considered an indication for urgent surgery because it is regarded as a precursor of lethal complications such as cardiac tamponade. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of the appearance of ULP in the AA/AR with early imagings (CT or MRI) before the appearance of ULP. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with ULP in the AA/AR (8 patients) and others (11 patients). Initial CT or MRI findings of the thoracic aorta were retrospectively statistically analyzed in each group. Three predictive factors were statistically significant for the appearance of ULP in the AA/AR (diameter of the AA≥5 cm, thickness of the false lumen of the AA≥1 cm, thickness of the false lumen of the AA≥ that of the descending aorta). Close attention should be paid, if any of these 3 factors is observed at initial CT or MRI. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the conformity of assistential practice in the maintenance of the temporary double-lumen dialysis catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosetti, Késia Alves Gomes; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate the conformity of the assistential practice in the maintenance of the temporary double-lumen catheter for hemodialysis, by means of the use of the process indicator, in the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo. a quantitative, exploratory-descriptive and observational study. The sample was made up of 155 observations of persons with temporary double-lumen catheters, in the period March-November 2011, using the Indicator of the Maintenance of the Temporary Double Lumen Catheter for Hemodialysis. the rate of general conformity of the assistential practice corresponded to 65.8%. Of the practice's 13 components, 9 (69.2%) attained 100% conformity. The hygienization of hands by the professionals and the use of a mask by the patients during the disconnection from the hemodialysis had the worst rates (83.9%). although the actions evaluated are implemented in the unit, it is necessary to propose and apply educational strategies with the health team, as well as to institute periodical assessments, so as to raise the conformity rates, ensuring the quality of the hemodialysis services.

  14. Regional blood flow analysis and its relationship with arterial branch lengths and lumen volume in the coronary arterial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Wong, Jerry T

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of visually assessing coronary artery disease are well known. These limitations are particularly important in intermediate coronary lesions (30-70% diameter stenosis) where it is difficult to determine whether a particular lesion is the cause of ischaemia. Therefore, a functional measure of stenosis severity is needed. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the expected maximum coronary blood flow in an arterial tree is predictable from its sum of arterial branch lengths or lumen volume. Using a computer model of a porcine coronary artery tree, an analysis of blood flow distribution was conducted through a network of millions of vessels that included the entire coronary artery tree down to the first capillary branch. The flow simulation results show that there is a linear relationship between coronary blood flow and the sum of its arterial branch lengths. This relationship holds over the entire arterial tree. The flow simulation results also indicate that there is a 3/4 er relation between coronary blood flow (Q) and the sum of its arterial lumen volume (V). Moreover, there is a linear relationship between normalized Q and normalized V raised to a power of 3/4 over the entire arterial tree. These results indicate that measured arterial branch lengths or lumen volumes can be used to predict the expected maximum blood flow in an arterial tree. This theoretical maximum blood flow, in conjunction with an angiographically measured blood flow, can potentially be used to calculate fractional flow reserve based entirely on angiographic data

  15. In vitro stent lumen visualisation of various common and newly developed femoral artery stents using MR angiography at 1.5 and 3 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syha, R; Ketelsen, D; Kaempf, M; Mangold, S; Sixt, S; Zeller, T; Springer, F; Schick, F; Claussen, C D; Brechtel, K

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate stent lumen assessment of various commonly used and newly developed stents for the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using MR angiography (MRA) at 1.5 and 3 T. Eleven nitinol stents and one cobalt-chromium stent were compared regarding stent lumen visualisation using a common three-dimensional MRA sequence. Maximum visible stent lumen width and contrast ratio were analysed in three representative slices for each stent type. A scoring system for lumen visualisation was applied. Nitinol stents showed significantly better performance than the cobalt chromium stent (P stent lumen ranged between 43.4 and 95.5 %, contrast ratio between 7.2 and 110.6 %. Regarding both field strengths, seven of the nitinol stents were classified as "suitable". Three nitinol stents were "limited", and one nitinol stent and the cobalt chromium stent were "not suitable". Intraluminal loss of signal and artefacts of most of the SFA stents do not markedly limit assessment of stent lumen by MRA at 1.5 and 3 T. MRA can thus be considered a valid technique for detection of relevant in-stent restenosis. Applied field strength does not strongly influence stent lumen assessment in general, but proper choice of field strength might be helpful.

  16. Space and phase resolved ion energy and angular distributions in single- and dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States); Moore, Nathaniel; Pribyl, Patrick; Gekelman, Walter [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The control of ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) is critically important for anisotropic etching or deposition in microelectronic fabrication processes. With single frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs), the narrowing in angle and spread in energy of ions as they cross the sheath are definable functions of frequency, sheath width, and mean free path. With increases in wafer size, single frequency CCPs are finding difficulty in meeting the requirement of simultaneously controlling plasma densities, ion fluxes, and ion energies. Dual-frequency CCPs are being investigated to provide this flexible control. The high frequency (HF) is intended to control the plasma density and ion fluxes, while the ion energies are intended to be controlled by the low frequency (LF). However, recent research has shown that the LF can also influence the magnitude of ion fluxes and that IEADs are determined by both frequencies. Hence, separate control of fluxes and IEADs is complex. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computational investigation of Ar/O{sub 2} plasma properties in an industrial reactor are discussed. The IEADs are tracked as a function of height above the substrate and phase within the rf cycles from the bulk plasma to the presheath and through the sheath with the goal of providing insights to this complexity. Comparison is made to laser-induced fluorescence experiments. The authors found that the ratios of HF/LF voltage and driving frequency are critical parameters in determining the shape of the IEADs, both during the transit of the ion through the sheath and when ions are incident onto the substrate. To the degree that contributions from the HF can modify plasma density, sheath potential, and sheath thickness, this may provide additional control for the IEADs.

  17. Scribble is required for normal epithelial cell–cell contacts and lumen morphogenesis in the mammalian lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Laura L.; Schnatwinkel, Carsten; Hazelwood, Lee; Chessum, Lauren; Paudyal, Anju; Hilton, Helen; Romero, M. Rosario; Wilde, Jonathan; Bogani, Debora; Sanderson, Jeremy; Formstone, Caroline; Murdoch, Jennifer N.; Niswander, Lee A.; Greenfield, Andy; Dean, Charlotte H.

    2013-01-01

    During lung development, proper epithelial cell arrangements are critical for the formation of an arborized network of tubes. Each tube requires a lumen, the diameter of which must be tightly regulated to enable optimal lung function. Lung branching and lumen morphogenesis require close epithelial cell–cell contacts that are maintained as a result of adherens junctions, tight junctions and by intact apical–basal (A/B) polarity. However, the molecular mechanisms that maintain epithelial cohesion and lumen diameter in the mammalian lung are unknown. Here we show that Scribble, a protein implicated in planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling, is necessary for normal lung morphogenesis. Lungs of the Scrib mouse mutant Circletail (Crc) are abnormally shaped with fewer airways, and these airways often lack a visible, ‘open’ lumen. Mechanistically we show that Scrib genetically interacts with the core PCP gene Vangl2 in the developing lung and that the distribution of PCP pathway proteins and Rho mediated cytoskeletal modification is perturbed in ScribCrc/Crc lungs. However A/B polarity, which is disrupted in Drosophila Scrib mutants, is largely unaffected. Notably, we find that Scrib mediates functions not attributed to other PCP proteins in the lung. Specifically, Scrib localises to both adherens and tight junctions of lung epithelia and knockdown of Scrib in lung explants and organotypic cultures leads to reduced cohesion of lung epithelial cells. Live imaging of Scrib knockdown lungs shows that Scrib does not affect bud bifurcation, as previously shown for the PCP protein Celsr1, but is required to maintain epithelial cohesion. To understand the mechanism leading to reduced cell–cell association, we show that Scrib associates with β-catenin in embryonic lung and the sub-cellular distribution of adherens and tight junction proteins is perturbed in mutant lung epithelia. Our data reveal that Scrib is required for normal lung epithelial organisation and lumen

  18. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway: Single-Point Access to Long-Term Radiation Belt Measurements and Space Weather Nowcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Science Gateway gives single-point access to over 4.5 years of comprehensive wave and particle measurements from the Van Allen Probes NASA twin-spacecraft mission. The Gateway provides a set of visualization and data analysis tools including: HTML5-based interactive visualization of high-level data products from all instrument teams in the form of: line plots, orbital content plots, dynamical energy spectra, L-shell context plots (including two-spacecraft plotting), FFT spectra of wave data, solar wind and geomagnetic indices data, etc.; download custom multi-instrument CDF data files of selected data products; publication quality plots of digital data; combined orbit predicts for mission planning and coordination including: Van Allen Probes, MMS, THEMIS, Arase (ERG), Cluster, GOES, Geotail, FIREBIRD; magnetic footpoint calculator for coordination with LEO and ground-based assets; real-time computation and processing of empirical magnetic field models - computation of magnetic ephemeris, computation of adiabatic invariants. Van Allen Probes is the first spacecraft mission to provide a nowcast of the radiation environment in the heart of the radiation belts, where the radiation levels are the highest and most dangerous for spacecraft operations. For this purpose, all instruments continuously broadcast a subset of their science data in real time. Van Allen Probes partners with four foreign institutions who operate ground stations that receive the broadcast: Korea (KASI), the Czech republic (CAS), Argentina (CONAE), and Brazil (INPE). The SpWx broadcast is then collected at APL and delivered to the community via the Science Gateway.

  19. Fundamental processes in the expansion, energization, and coupling of single- and multi-Ion plasmas in space: Laboratory simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Bateman, T. T.

    1996-01-01

    We have conducted a laboratory investigation into the physics of plasma expansions and their associated energization processes. We studied single- and multi-ion plasma processes in self-expansions, and included light and heavy ions and heavy/light mixtures to encompass the phenomenological regimes of the solar and polar winds and the AMPTE and CRRES chemical release programs. The laboratory experiments provided spatially-distributed time-dependent measurements of total plasma density, temperature, and density fluctuation power spectra with the data confirming the long-theorized electron energization process in an expanding cloud - a result that was impossible to determine in spaceborne experiments (as e.g., in the CRRES program). These results provided the missing link in previous laboratory and spaceborne programs. confirming important elements in our understanding of such solar-terrestrial processes as manifested in expanding plasmas in the solar wind (e.g., CMES) and in ionospheric outflow in plasmaspheric fluctuate refilling after a storm. The energization signatures were seen in an entire series of runs that varied the ion species (Ar', Xe', Kr' and Ne'), and correlative studies included spectral analyses of electrostatic waves collocated with the energized electron distributions. In all cases wave energies were most intense during the times in which the suprathermal populations were present, with wave intensity increasing with the intensity of the suprathermal electron population. This is consistent with theoretical expectations wherein the energization process is directly attributable to wave particle interactions. No resonance conditions were observed, in an overall framework in which the general wave characteristics were broadband with power decreasing with increasing frequency.

  20. Quantum tunneling in real space: Tautomerization of single porphycene molecules on the (111) surface of Cu, Ag, and Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Takashi; Ladenthin, Janina N.; Litman, Yair; Rossi, Mariana; Grill, Leonhard; Gawinkowski, Sylwester; Waluk, Jacek; Persson, Mats

    2018-03-01

    Tautomerization in single porphycene molecules is investigated on Cu(111), Ag(111), and Au(111) surfaces by a combination of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is revealed that the trans configuration is the thermodynamically stable form of porphycene on Cu(111) and Ag(111), whereas the cis configuration occurs as a meta-stable form. The trans → cis or cis → trans conversion on Cu(111) can be induced in an unidirectional fashion by injecting tunneling electrons from the STM tip or heating the surface, respectively. We find that the cis ↔ cis tautomerization on Cu(111) occurs spontaneously via tunneling, verified by the negligible temperature dependence of the tautomerization rate below ˜23 K. Van der Waals corrected DFT calculations are used to characterize the adsorption structures of porphycene and to map the potential energy surface of the tautomerization on Cu(111). The calculated barriers are too high to be thermally overcome at cryogenic temperatures used in the experiment and zero-point energy corrections do not change this picture, leaving tunneling as the most likely mechanism. On Ag(111), the reversible trans ↔ cis conversion occurs spontaneously at 5 K and the cis ↔ cis tautomerization rate is much higher than on Cu(111), indicating a significantly smaller tautomerization barrier on Ag(111) due to the weaker interaction between porphycene and the surface compared to Cu(111). Additionally, the STM experiments and DFT calculations reveal that tautomerization on Cu(111) and Ag(111) occurs with migration of porphycene along the surface; thus, the translational motion couples with the tautomerization coordinate. On the other hand, the trans and cis configurations are not discernible in the STM image and no tautomerization is observed for porphycene on Au(111). The weak interaction of porphycene with Au(111) is closest to the gas-phase limit and therefore the absence

  1. A global single-sensor analysis of 2002-2011 tropospheric nitrogen dioxide trends observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P.; van der A, R. J.

    2012-08-01

    A global nine-year archive of monthly tropospheric NO2 data acquired by the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) instrument was analyzed with respect to trends between August 2002 and August 2011. In the past, similar studies relied on combining data from multiple sensors; however, the length of the SCIAMACHY data set now for the first time allows utilization of a consistent time series from just a single sensor for mapping NO2 trends at comparatively high horizontal resolution (0.25°). This study provides an updated analysis of global patterns in NO2 trends and finds that previously reported decreases in tropospheric NO2 over Europe and the United States as well as strong increases over China and several megacities in Asia have continued in recent years. Positive trends of up to 4.05 (±0.41) × 1015 molecules cm-2 yr-1 and up to 19.7 (±1.9) % yr-1 were found over China, with the regional mean trend being 7.3 (±3.1) % yr-1. The megacity with the most rapid relative increase was found to be Dhaka in Bangladesh. Subsequently focusing on Europe, the study further analyzes trends by country and finds significantly decreasing trends for seven countries ranging from -3.0 (±1.6) % yr-1 to -4.5 (±2.3) % yr-1. A comparison of the satellite data with station data indicates that the trends derived from both sources show substantial differences on the station scale, i.e., when comparing a station trend directly with the equivalent satellite-derived trend at the same location, but provide quite similar large-scale spatial patterns. Finally, the SCIAMACHY-derived NO2 trends are compared with equivalent trends in NO2concentration computed using the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) model. The results show that the spatial patterns in trends computed from both data sources mostly agree in Central and Western Europe, whereas substantial differences

  2. dSPACE real time implementation of fuzzy PID position controller for vertical rotating single link arm robot using four-quadrant BLDC drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan Ramasamy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Automation has been growing in recent years for the manufacturing industries to increase productivity. Multiple robotic arms are used to handle materials for lifting in flexible directions. The vertical rotation of a 360 degree single arm is considered in this research on a position servo drive with brushless DC motor. The load torque of an arm varies depending upon the angular displacement due to gravity, so it requires four-quadrant operation of the drive with a robust feedback controller. This paper deals with the design and performance comparison of a conventional PID feedback controller with a fuzzy-based PID controller and suggests the most suitable controller. The design was implemented in real time through the dSPACE DS1104 controller environment to verify the dynamic behaviors of the arm.

  3. Single Event Upset Analysis: On-orbit performance of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Digital Signal Processor Memory aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqiang; Choutko, Vitaly; Xiao, Liyi

    2018-03-01

    Based on the collection of error data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Digital Signal Processors (DSP), on-orbit Single Event Upsets (SEUs) of the DSP program memory are analyzed. The daily error distribution and time intervals between errors are calculated to evaluate the reliability of the system. The particle density distribution of International Space Station (ISS) orbit is presented and the effects from the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the geomagnetic poles are analyzed. The impact of solar events on the DSP program memory is carried out combining data analysis and Monte Carlo simulation (MC). From the analysis and simulation results, it is concluded that the area corresponding to the SAA is the main source of errors on the ISS orbit. Solar events can also cause errors on DSP program memory, but the effect depends on the on-orbit particle density.

  4. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  5. A novel single-phase phase space-based voltage mode controller for distributed static compensator to improve voltage profile of distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, Abdollah; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Farhoodnea, Masoud; Zayandehroodi, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new phase space based voltage mode controller for D-STATCOM was proposed. • The proposed compensator was tested to mitigate voltage disturbances in distribution systems. • Voltage fluctuation, voltage sag and voltage swell are considered to evaluate the performance of the proposed compensator. - Abstract: Distribution static synchronous compensator (D-STATCOM) has been developed and attained a great interest to compensate the power quality disturbances of distribution systems. In this paper, a novel single-phase control scheme for D-STATCOM is proposed to improve voltage profile at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The proposed voltage mode (VM) controller is based on the phase space algorithm, which is able to rapidly detect and mitigate any voltage deviations from reference voltage including voltage sags and voltage swells. To investigate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed compensator, a system is modeled using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results approve the capability of the proposed VM controller to provide a regulated and disturbance-free voltage for the connected loads at the PCC

  6. Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen of chronic aortic dissections using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakurada, Hideki; Ono, Katsuhiro; Urano, Miharu; Hijikata, Yasuyoshi; Saito, Isao; Masuda, Yoshiaki

    2000-01-01

    In 21 patients with chronic aortic dissections and proven patent false lumens, the flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumens was evaluated using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (VENC-MRI) and the relationship between the flow characteristics and aortic enlargement was retrospectively examined. Flow patterns in the false lumen were divided into 3 groups: pattern A with primarily antegrade flow (n=6), pattern R with primarily retrograde flow (n=3), and pattern B with bidirectional flow (n=12). In group A, the rate of flow volume in the false lumen compared to the total flow volume in true and false lumens (%TFV) and the average rate of enlargement of the maximum diameter of the dissected aorta per year (ΔD) were significantly greater than in groups R and B (%TFV: 74.1±0.07 vs 15.2±0.03 vs 11.8±0.04, p<0.01; ΔD: 3.62±0.82 vs 0 vs 0.58±0.15 mm/year, p<0.05, respectively). There was a significant correlation between %TFV and ΔD (r=0.79, p<0.0001). Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen using VENC-MRI may be useful for predicting enlargement of the dissected aorta. (author)

  7. Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen of chronic aortic dissections using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakurada, Hideki; Ono, Katsuhiro; Urano, Miharu; Hijikata, Yasuyoshi; Saito, Isao; Masuda, Yoshiaki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    In 21 patients with chronic aortic dissections and proven patent false lumens, the flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumens was evaluated using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (VENC-MRI) and the relationship between the flow characteristics and aortic enlargement was retrospectively examined. Flow patterns in the false lumen were divided into 3 groups: pattern A with primarily antegrade flow (n=6), pattern R with primarily retrograde flow (n=3), and pattern B with bidirectional flow (n=12). In group A, the rate of flow volume in the false lumen compared to the total flow volume in true and false lumens (%TFV) and the average rate of enlargement of the maximum diameter of the dissected aorta per year ({delta}D) were significantly greater than in groups R and B (%TFV: 74.1{+-}0.07 vs 15.2{+-}0.03 vs 11.8{+-}0.04, p<0.01; {delta}D: 3.62{+-}0.82 vs 0 vs 0.58{+-}0.15 mm/year, p<0.05, respectively). There was a significant correlation between %TFV and {delta}D (r=0.79, p<0.0001). Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen using VENC-MRI may be useful for predicting enlargement of the dissected aorta. (author)

  8. A statistically harmonized alignment-classification in image space enables accurate and robust alignment of noisy images in single particle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Masaaki; Sato, Chikara

    2007-06-01

    In determining the three-dimensional (3D) structure of macromolecular assemblies in single particle analysis, a large representative dataset of two-dimensional (2D) average images from huge number of raw images is a key for high resolution. Because alignments prior to averaging are computationally intensive, currently available multireference alignment (MRA) software does not survey every possible alignment. This leads to misaligned images, creating blurred averages and reducing the quality of the final 3D reconstruction. We present a new method, in which multireference alignment is harmonized with classification (multireference multiple alignment: MRMA). This method enables a statistical comparison of multiple alignment peaks, reflecting the similarities between each raw image and a set of reference images. Among the selected alignment candidates for each raw image, misaligned images are statistically excluded, based on the principle that aligned raw images of similar projections have a dense distribution around the correctly aligned coordinates in image space. This newly developed method was examined for accuracy and speed using model image sets with various signal-to-noise ratios, and with electron microscope images of the Transient Receptor Potential C3 and the sodium channel. In every data set, the newly developed method outperformed conventional methods in robustness against noise and in speed, creating 2D average images of higher quality. This statistically harmonized alignment-classification combination should greatly improve the quality of single particle analysis.

  9. The Effects of Distention and Obstruction on the Accumulation of Fluid in the Lumen of Small Bowel of Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nand K.; Appert, Hubert E.; Howard, John M.

    1974-01-01

    Fluid accumulation in either the obstructed upper or lower intestinal segments of the dog was found in most animals to be negligible. Distention pressures of 25 cm of water tended to reduce fluid accumulation within the intestinal lumen. These studies suggest that if the dog is comparable to man, the intraluminal accumulation of fluid in the obstructed small bowel of man might be due to alterations in blood supply to the intestine, rather than to obstruction per se, or the accumulated fluid originates proximal to the jejunum. PMID:4419581

  10. 3D time-lapse analysis of Rab11/FIP5 complex: spatiotemporal dynamics during apical lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent imaging of fixed cells grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures is one of the most widely used techniques for observing protein localization and distribution within cells. Although this technique can also be applied to polarized epithelial cells that form three-dimensional (3D) cysts when grown in a Matrigel matrix suspension, there are still significant limitations in imaging cells fixed at a particular point in time. Here, we describe the use of 3D time-lapse imaging of live cells to observe the dynamics of apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) formation and lumen expansion in polarized epithelial cells.

  11. Avoided crossings, conical intersections, and low-lying excited states with a single reference method: the restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, David

    2012-08-28

    The restricted active space spin-flip CI (RASCI-SF) performance is tested in the electronic structure computation of the ground and the lowest electronically excited states in the presence of near-degeneracies. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by analyzing the avoided crossing between the ionic and neutral singlet states of LiF along the molecular dissociation. The two potential energy surfaces (PESs) are explored by means of the energies of computed adiabatic and approximated diabatic states, dipole moments, and natural orbital electronic occupancies of both states. The RASCI-SF methodology is also used to study the ground and first excited singlet surface crossing involved in the double bond isomerization of ethylene, as a model case. The two-dimensional PESs of the ground (S(0)) and excited (S(1)) states are calculated for the complete configuration space of torsion and pyramidalization molecular distortions. The parameters that define the state energetics in the vicinity of the S(0)/S(1) conical intersection region are compared to complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) results. These examples show that it is possible to describe strongly correlated electronic states using a single reference methodology without the need to expand the wavefunction to high levels of collective excitations. Finally, RASCI is also examined in the electronic structure characterization of the ground and 2(1)A(g)(-), 1(1)B(u)(+), 1(1)B(u)(-), and 1(3)B(u)(-) states of all-trans polyenes with two to seven double bonds and beyond. Transition energies are compared to configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), CASSCF, and its second-order perturbation correction calculations, and to experimental data. The capability of RASCI-SF to describe the nature and properties of each electronic state is discussed in detail. This example is also used to expose the properties of different truncations of the RASCI wavefunction and to

  12. High-fidelity simulation of lung isolation with double-lumen endotracheal tubes and bronchial blockers in anesthesiology resident training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failor, Erin; Bowdle, Andrew; Jelacic, Srdjan; Togashi, Kei

    2014-08-01

    Demonstrate the feasibility of using the AirSim Bronchi airway simulator to teach residents how to manage lung isolation with double-lumen endotracheal tubes and bronchial blockers and evaluate their performance with a detailed checklist. Prospective observational study. University anesthesiology residency training program. Anesthesiology residents taking a cardiothoracic anesthesiology rotation. Residents were instructed in 7 tasks using the AirSim Bronchi: The use of the fiberoptic bronchoscope, methods for placing left and right double-lumen endotracheal tubes and 3 bronchial blockers (Univent, Arndt, and Cohen), and application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the unventilated lung. Two to 3 weeks later, checklists and a detailed scoring system were used to assess performance. Residents rated the curriculum and their own confidence in performing the tasks using a 5-point Likert scale. Thirteen residents completed the curriculum. Their median Likert scale ratings of the curriculum based on a questionnaire with 6 items ranged from 4 to 5 of 5. Resident confidence scores for each lung isolation technique improved after the simulation training, with the median gain ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 Likert levels depending on the task. The largest improvement occurred with the bronchial blockers (psimulator in a novel simulation curriculum to teach lung-isolation techniques to anesthesiology residents and evaluated performance using a detailed checklist scoring system. This curriculum is a promising educational tool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidental extracolonic findings on bright lumen MR colonography in a population at increased risk for colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Erlangga; Florie, Jasper; Nio, Chung Yung; Jensch, Sebastian; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Baak, Lubbertus; Stoker, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Incidental extracolonic findings affect patient treatment and cost. Therefore, to consider magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) as a tool for colorectal cancer and polyps screening, more knowledge is needed on extracolonic findings. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence and the spectrum of extracolonic findings in patients with an increased risk colorectal cancer that underwent bright lumen MRC. Materials and methods: MRC examinations were performed in 210 patients. A gadolinium solution was administered rectally for distension of the colon. Extracolonic findings were scored by two radiologists and classified by using C-RADS Reporting System. All findings (with advice regarding work-up) were reported to the patient's physician and followed up for 4.5 years on average. Results: Extracolonic findings were found in 125 (59.5%) patients. Ten (4.8%) had 'potentially important' findings (C-RADS category E4). Twenty-five patients (11.9%) had 'likely unimportant' findings (E3), 90 (42.8%) had 'clinically unimportant' findings (E2) and 85 (40.5%) had a normal exam (E1). In 14 (6.7%) patients additional work-up was performed for their incidentally discovered lesions. In three of them surgery was performed. After work-up, only in two (1.0%) patients a malignancy was found. Conclusion: The number of new relevant extracolonic findings is small and the required additional work-up is limited. This should be considered for implementation of 'bright lumen' MRC as a screening tool.

  14. Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA encoding a lumenal calcium binding glycoprotein from sarcoplasmic reticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leberer, E.; Charuk, J.H.M.; MacLennan, D.H.; Green, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Antibody screening was used to isolate a cDNA encoding the 160-kDa glycoprotein of rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. The cDNA is identical to that encoding the 53-kDa glycoprotein except that it contains an in-frame insertion of 1,308 nucleotides near its 5' end, apparently resulting from alternative splicing. The protein encoded by the cDNA would contain a 19-residue NH 2 -terminal signal sequence and a 453-residue COOH-terminal sequence identical to the 53-kDa glycoprotein. It would also contain a 436-amino acid insert between these sequences. This insert would be highly acidic, suggesting that it might bind Ca 2+ . The purified 160-kDa glycoprotein and the glycoprotein expressed in COS-1 cells transfected with cDNA encoding the 160-kDa glycoprotein were shown to bind 45 C 2+ in a gel overlay assay. The protein was shown to be located in the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and to be associated through Ca 2+ with the membrane. The authors propose that this lumenal Ca 2+ binding glycoprotein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum be designated sarcalumenin

  15. Effects of cryopreservation on excretory function, cellular adhesion molecules and vessel lumen formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guoping; Lai, Binbin; Hong, Huaxing; Lin, Peng; Chen, Weifu; Zhu, Zhong; Chen, Haixiao

    2017-07-01

    Cryopreservation is widely used in regenerative medicine for tissue preservation. In the present study, the effects of cryopreservation on excretory function, cellular adhesion molecules and vessel lumen formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated. After 0, 4, 8, 12 or 24 weeks of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, the HUVECs were thawed. The excretory functions markers (endothelin‑1, prostaglandin E1, von Willebrand factor and nitric oxide) of HUVECs were measured by ELISA assay. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1) in HUVECs was analyzed using flow cytometry. An angiogenesis assay was used to determine the angiogeneic capabilities of the thawed HUVECs. The results demonstrated that cryopreserved/thawed and recultivated HUVECs were unsuitable for tissue‑engineered microvascular construction. Specifically, the excretory function of the cells was significantly decreased in the post‑cryopreserved HUVECs at 24 weeks. In addition, the level of ICAM‑1 in HUVECs was significantly upregulated from the fourth week of cryopreservation. Furthermore, the tube‑like structure‑forming potential was weakened with increasing cryopreservation duration, and the numbers of lumen and the length of the pipeline were decreased in the thawed HUVECs, in a time‑dependent manner. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed that prolonged cryopreservation may lead to HUVEC dysfunction and did not create stable cell lines for tissue‑engineered microvascular construction.

  16. A self-organizing state-space-model approach for parameter estimation in hodgkin-huxley-type models of single neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios V Vavoulis

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to the problem of parameter estimation in biophysical models of neurons and neural networks usually adopt a global search algorithm (for example, an evolutionary algorithm, often in combination with a local search method (such as gradient descent in order to minimize the value of a cost function, which measures the discrepancy between various features of the available experimental data and model output. In this study, we approach the problem of parameter estimation in conductance-based models of single neurons from a different perspective. By adopting a hidden-dynamical-systems formalism, we expressed parameter estimation as an inference problem in these systems, which can then be tackled using a range of well-established statistical inference methods. The particular method we used was Kitagawa's self-organizing state-space model, which was applied on a number of Hodgkin-Huxley-type models using simulated or actual electrophysiological data. We showed that the algorithm can be used to estimate a large number of parameters, including maximal conductances, reversal potentials, kinetics of ionic currents, measurement and intrinsic noise, based on low-dimensional experimental data and sufficiently informative priors in the form of pre-defined constraints imposed on model parameters. The algorithm remained operational even when very noisy experimental data were used. Importantly, by combining the self-organizing state-space model with an adaptive sampling algorithm akin to the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy, we achieved a significant reduction in the variance of parameter estimates. The algorithm did not require the explicit formulation of a cost function and it was straightforward to apply on compartmental models and multiple data sets. Overall, the proposed methodology is particularly suitable for resolving high-dimensional inference problems based on noisy electrophysiological data and, therefore, a

  17. A Novel Device for True Lumen Re-Entry After Subintimal Recanalization of Superficial Femoral Arteries: First-in-Man Experience and Technical Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, Flavio; Faglia, Ezio; Losa, Sergio; Tavano, Davide; Latib, Azeem; Mantero, Manuela; Lanza, Gaetano; Clerici, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Subintimal angioplasty (SAP) is frequently performed for the treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI) and has been recognized as an effective technique for these patients. Nevertheless, this approach is limited by the lack of controlled re-entry into the true lumen of the target vessel. We describe a novel device for true lumen re-entry after subintimal recanalization of superficial femoral arteries (SFA). We report our experience with six patients treated between April 2009 and January 2010 with a novel system designed to facilitate true lumen re-entry. The device was advanced by ipsilateral antegrade approach through a 6-French sheath. Successful reaccess into the true lumen was obtained in five of six patients without complications. The patient in whom the reaccess to the true lumen was not possible underwent successful bypass surgery. At 30 days follow-up, the SFA was patent in all patients according to echo-Doppler examination. Our preliminary experience indicates that this novel re-entry device increases the success rate of percutaneous revascularization of chronically occluded SFA.

  18. Anion-exchange and anthracene-encapsulation within copper(II) and manganese(II)-triazole metal-organic confined space in a single crystal-to-single crystal transformation fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Yan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Li-Jun; Yuan, Bin; Xu, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Cong-Ying; Wang, Dan; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Ying; Ding, Bin; Zhao, Xiao-Jun; Yue, Min Min

    2014-06-16

    A new multidentate ligand 1-(9-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)anthracen-10-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole (tatrz) was designed and synthesized. Using tatrz as a building block, three novel coordination frameworks, namely, {[Cu(tatrz)2(NO3)2]·(CH3OH)·4H2O}n (1), {[Cu(tatrz)2(H2O)2](BF4)2}n (2), and [Mn(tatrz)2(SCN)2(CH3OH)]·2H2O (3) can be isolated. Anion-exchange experiment indicates that NO3(-) anions in the two-dimensional (2D) copper framework of 1 can be completely exchanged by ClO4(-) in an irreversible single crystal-to-single crystal (SC-SC) transformation fashion, as evidenced by the anion-exchange products of {[Cu(tatrz)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2·4CH3OH} (1a). Further, if 1a was employed as a precursor in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), an isomorphic solvate of {[Cu(tatrz)2(DMF)2](ClO4)2·2H2O}n (1b) can be generated during the reversible dynamic transformation process. When 1 was immersed in CH3OH, a distinct 2D layer {[Cu(tatrz)2(NO3)2]·4.4CH3OH·0.6H2O}n (1c) was isolated. Interestingly, the solvent-exchange conversion is also invertible between 1 and 1c, which exhibits spongelike dynamic behavior with retention of crystalline integrity. If the 2-fold interpenetrating three-dimensional (3D) framework 2 is selected, it can be transformed into another 2-fold interpenetrating 3D framework {[Cu(tatrz)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2·5.56H2O}n (2a) in a reversible SC-SC transformation fashion. However, when the light yellow crystals of mononuclear complex 3 were exposed to trichloromethane containing aromatic organic anthracene (atan), through our careful observation, the crystals of 3 were dissolved and reassembled into dark brown crystals of 2D crystalline coordination framework {[Mn(tatrz)2(SCN)2]·(atan)}n (3a). X-ray diffraction revealed that in 3a, atan acting as an organic template was encapsulated in the confined space of the 2D grid. Luminescent measurements illustrate that 3a is the first report of multidimensional polymers based on triazole derivatives as luminescent probes of Mg(2+).

  19. Concentration polarization effects on the macromolecular transport in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field: A numerical study using a lumen-wall model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadpourfard, M., E-mail: Mohammadpour@azaruniv.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz 53751-71379 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aminfar, H., E-mail: hh_aminfar@tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, K., E-mail: khajeh.k.2005@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the concentration polarization phenomena in a two dimensional tube under steady state conditions containing ferrofluid (blood and 4 vol% Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. Lumen-wall model has been used for solving the mass transport equation. Hemodynamics parameters such as flow rate, viscosity, wall shear stress (WSS) and the macromolecules surface concentration which accumulate on the blood vessel wall, influenced the formation and progression of atherosclerosis disease. Effective parameters on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) surface concentration (LSC) such as: the wall filtration velocity, inlet Reynolds number and WSS under applied non-uniform magnetic field have been examined. Numerical solution of governing equations of the flow field have been obtained by using the single-phase model and the control volume technique. Magnetic field is generated by an electric current going through a thin and straight wire oriented perpendicular to the tube. Results show WSS in the vicinity of magnetic field source increased and LSC decreased along the wall. - Highlights: • In this paper the concentration polarization phenomena of blood flow is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. • In presence of non-uniform magnetic field LSC will decrease along the wall due to the increasing the velocity gradients near the magnetic source. • When non-uniform magnetic field intensity increases, LSC along the wall becomes lower. • Non-uniform magnetic field can affects the flow more in low Reynolds numbers.

  20. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara; Ferri, Mario; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra; Ziparo, Vincenzo; David, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting

  1. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ferri, Mario [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Pilozzi, Emanuela [Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ziparo, Vincenzo [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); David, Vincenzo [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting.

  2. Clinical application of hysterosalpingography with a double-lumen catheter of a contrast media combination consisting iohexol and saline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Jiayuan; Jiang Yong; Cao Xinhua; Zhu Ying; Lv Liang; Zhao Xinxiang; Wei Dingying; Shao Jingxuan; Hua Jian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of hysteosalpingographic diagnosis in infertile women. Methods: After a catheter with a double-lumen saccule was inserted into the uterine cavity, saline or air of 2.5-3.5 ml was injected to fill the saccule. The filled saccule was inserted at the isthmus of uterus for blocking the internal orifice. The contrast medium was injected through the catheter into the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes to undertake hysterosalpingography and fallopian tube reopening. In case of fallopian tube obstruction, the injection pressure could be increased to obtain recanalization. All operations and selective imagings were carried out under TV supervision. Results: 2698 cases including 806 primary infertile women and 1868 secondary infertile women were examined by this method. Technical success rate was 99.5% with 2198 cases (81.9%) having normal uterus, 249 (9.3%) congenital abnormal uterus and 238 (8.9%) uterus diseases. The number of obstructed fallopian tube was 3028 with 117 serious hydropsy (3.8%). Ninety-eight cases had been examined with lipiodol hysterosalpingography in other hospitals with 35 cases still having lipiodol accumulated within the uterine cavities and fallopian tubes. No serious complications or death occurred except slight pain. Conclusions: Double-lumen cather with a contrast media combination of iohexol and saline for hysterosal pinography is safe, easy and effective, outcoming with excellent quality images. More information can be gained with this method than traditional lipiodol hyterosalpinography, and furthermore could have compression during radiogrophy and avoid the long term stasis of lipiodol. (authors)

  3. Computed tomography airway lumen volumetry in patients with acromegaly: Association with growth hormone levels and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; Carvalho, Alysson Roncally Silva; Guimarães, Alan Ranieri Medeiros; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Mogami, Roberto; de Melo, Pedro Lopes; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2017-10-01

    The segmentation and skeletonisation of images via computed tomography (CT) airway lumen volumetry provide a new perspective regarding the incorporation of this technique in medical practice. Our aim was to quantify morphological changes in the large airways of patients with acromegaly through CT and, secondarily, to correlate these findings with hormone levels and pulmonary function testing (PFT) parameters. This was a cross-sectional study in which 28 non-smoker patients with acromegaly and 15 control subjects underwent CT analysis of airway lumen volumetry with subsequent image segmentation and skeletonisation. Moreover, all participants were subjected to PFT. Compared with the controls, patients with acromegaly presented higher diameters in the trachea, right main bronchus and left main bronchus. The patients with acromegaly also showed a higher tracheal sinuosity index (the deviation of a line from the shortest path, calculated by dividing total length by shortest possible path) than the controls [1.06 (1.02-1.09) vs. 1.03 (1.02-1.04), P = 0.04], and tracheal stenosis was observed in 25% of these individuals. The tracheal area was correlated with the levels of growth hormone (r s  = 0.45, P = 0.02) and insulin-like growth factor type I (r s  = 0.38, P = 0.04). The ratio between the forced expiratory flow and forced inspiratory flow at 50% of the forced vital capacity was correlated with the tracheal area (r s  = 0.36, P = 0.02) and Δ tracheal diameters (r s  = 0.58, P volumetry, hormone levels and functional parameters of large airway obstruction. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  4. Segmentation of the lumen and media-adventitia boundaries of the common carotid artery from 3D ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, E.; Awad, J.; Ward, A. D.; Samarabandu, J.; Krasinski, A.; Parraga, G.; Fenster, A.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) vessel wall volume (VWV) measurements provide high measurement sensitivity and reproducibility for the monitoring and assessment of carotid atherosclerosis. In this paper, we describe a semiautomated approach based on the level set method to delineate the media-adventitia and lumen boundaries of the common carotid artery from 3D US images to support the computation of VWV. Due to the presence of plaque and US image artifacts, the carotid arteries are challenging to segment using image information alone. Our segmentation framework combines several image cues with domain knowledge and limited user interaction. Our method was evaluated with respect to manually outlined boundaries on 430 2D US images extracted from 3D US images of 30 patients who have carotid stenosis of 60% or more. The VWV given by our method differed from that given by manual segmentation by 6.7% +/- 5.0%. For the media-adventitia and lumen segmentations, respectively, our method yielded Dice coefficients of 95.2% +/- 1.6%, 94.3% +/- 2.6%, mean absolute distances of 0.3 +/- 0.1 mm, 0.2 +/- 0.1 mm, maximum absolute distances of 0.8 +/- 0.4 mm, 0.6 +/- 0.3 mm, and volume differences of 4.2% +/- 3.1%, 3.4% +/- 2.6%. The realization of a semi-automated segmentation method will accelerate the translation of 3D carotid US to clinical care for the rapid, non-invasive, and economical monitoring of atherosclerotic disease progression and regression during therapy.

  5. Single Source 5-dimensional (Space-, Wavelength-, Time-, Polarization-, Quadrature-) 43 Tbit/s Data Transmission of 6 SDM × 6 WDM × 1.2 Tbit/s Nyquist-OTDM-PDM-QPSK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ye, Feihong; Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate 43-Tbit/s transmission over 67.4-km seven-core fiber using a single source. Each of the 6 outer cores carries 6 Nyquist-WDM channels using 320-Gbaud Nyquist- OTDM-PDM-QPSK 330-GHz spaced, and the center core carries 10-GHz clock pulses....

  6. A novel Hsp70 of the yeast ER lumen is required for the efficient translocation of a number of protein precursors.

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, R A; Egerton, M; Stirling, C J

    1996-01-01

    The yeast genome sequencing project predicts an open reading frame (YKL073) that would encode a novel member of the Hsp70 family of molecular chaperones. We report that this 881 codon reading frame represents a functional gene expressing a 113-119 kDa glycoprotein localized within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We therefore propose to designate this gene LHS1 (Lumenal Hsp Seventy). Our studies indicate that LHS1 is regulated by the unfolded protein response pathway, as evidenced...

  7. CALiPER Report 20.4: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    This CALiPER report focuses on lumen maintenance, chromaticity maintenance, and catastrophic failure in 32 of the Series 20 LED PAR38 lamps and 8 benchmark lamps, which were monitored for nearly 14,000 hours at ambient temperatures between 44°C and 45°C.

  8. Is quantitative coronary angiography reliable in assessing the late lumen loss of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable polylactide scaffold in comparison with the cobalt-chromium metallic stent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotomi, Yohei; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Asano, Taku; Katagiri, Yuki; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Jonker, Hans; Dijkstra, Jouke; de Winter, Robbert J.; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J.; Stone, Gregg W.; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Kozuma, Ken; Tanabe, Kengo; Serruys, Patrick W.; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Immediately after stent/scaffold implantation, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) in comparison to optical coherence tomography (OCT) more severely underestimates the lumen diameter (LD) in Absorb than in XIENCE. This OCT-QCA discrepancy has not been evaluated at long-term follow-up. The

  9. Intracoronary stent implantation: new approach using a monorail system and new large-lumen 7F catheters from the brachial route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, D B; Robert, G P; Fajadet, J C; Cassagneau, B G; Marco, J

    1992-04-01

    In this brief report we describe a case of successful multivessel PTCA with intracoronary stent implantation using a new large-lumen 7F catheter from the left brachial approach. The application of this technique should be considered for intravascular stent implantation when anticoagulation ideally should not be interrupted or in anatomical situations limiting femoral vascular access.

  10. Comparison of coronary arterial lumen dimensions on angiography and plaque characteristics on optical coherence tomography images and their changes induced by statin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Nana; Xie, Zulong; Wang, Wei; Dai, Jiannan; Sun, Meng; Pu, Zhongyue; Tian, Jinwei; Yu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiography (CAG) is widely used to assess lumen dimensions, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to evaluate the characteristics of atherosclerotic plaque. This study was aimed to compare coronary lumen dimensions using CAG and plaque characteristics using OCT and their changes during statin therapy. We identified 97 lipid-rich plaques from 69 statin-naïve patients, who received statin therapy in the following 12 months. CAG and OCT examinations were conducted at baseline and 12-month follow-up period. Lesion length, as measured by CAG, was closely correlated with lipid length by OCT (baseline: r = 0.754, p < 0.001; follow-up: r = 0.639, p < 0.001). However, no significant correlations were found between the other findings on OCT and data on CAG. With 12-month statin therapy, microstructures of lipid-rich plaques were significantly improved, but CAG-derived lumen dimensions were not improved. Moreover, we found no significant relationship between changes in OCT measurements and changes in CAG data over time. Lipid length on OCT and lesion length on CAG were closely correlated. However, plaque microstructural characteristics on OCT showed no significantly statistically correlations with lumen dimensions on CAG, neither did their evolutionary changes induced by statin over time. Clinical trial registry: ClinicalTrial.gov. Registered number: NCT01023607. Registered 1 December 2009

  11. Protection of thylakoids against combined light and drought by a lumenal substance in the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Katya; Sárvári, Éva; Keresztes, Áron

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Haberlea rhodopensis is a perennial, herbaceous, saxicolous, poikilohydric flowering plant that is able to survive desiccation to air-dried state under irradiance below 30 µmol m−2 s−1. However, desiccation at irradiance of 350 µmol m−2 s−1 induced irreversible changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, and mature leaves did not recover after rehydration. The aim here was to establish the causes and mechanisms of irreversible damage of the photosynthetic apparatus due to dehydration at high irradiance, and to elucidate the mechanisms determining recovery. Methods Changes in chloroplast structure, CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, fluorescence imaging and the polypeptide patterns during desiccation of Haberlea under medium (100 µmol m−2 s−1; ML) irradiance were compared with those under low (30 µmol m−2 s−1; LL) irradiance. Key Results Well-watered plants (control) at 100 µmol m−2 s−1 were not damaged. Plants desiccated at LL or ML had similar rates of water loss. Dehydration at ML decreased the quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry, and particularly the CO2 assimilation rate, more rapidly than at LL. Dehydration induced accumulation of stress proteins in leaves under both LL and ML. Photosynthetic activity and polypeptide composition were completely restored in LL plants after 1 week of rehydration, but changes persisted under ML conditions. Electron microscopy of structural changes in the chloroplast showed that the thylakoid lumen is filled with an electron-dense substance (dense luminal substance, DLS), while the thylakoid membranes are lightly stained. Upon dehydration and rehydration the DLS thinned and disappeared, the time course largely depending on the illumination: whereas DLS persisted during desiccation and started to disappear during late recovery under LL, it disappeared from the onset of dehydration and later was completely lost under ML. Conclusions Accumulation of DLS

  12. The lumenal loop M672-P707 of the Menkes protein (ATP7A) transfers copper to peptidylglycine monooxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otoikhian, Adenike [Oregon Health & Sciences University; Barry, Amanda N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayfield, Mary [Oregon Health & Science University; Nilges, Mark [Illinois EPR Center; Huang, Yiping [Johns Hopkins University; Lutsenko, Svetlana [Johns Hopkins University; Blackburn, Ninian [Oregon Health & Science University

    2012-05-14

    Copper transfer to cuproproteins located in vesicular compartments of the secretory pathway depends on activity of the copper translocating ATPase (ATP7A or ATP7B) but the mechanism of transfer is largely unexplored. Copper-ATPase ATP7A is unique in having a sequence rich in histidine and methionine residues located on the lumenal side of the membrane. The corresponding fragment binds Cu(I) when expressed as a chimera with a scaffold protein, and mutations or deletions of His and/or Met residues in its sequence inhibit dephosphorylation of the ATPase, a catalytic step associated with copper release. Here we present evidence for a potential role of this lumenal region of ATP7A in copper transfer to cuproenzymes. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms were investigated since the form in which copper is transferred to acceptor proteins is currently unknown. Analysis of Cu(II) using EPR demonstrated that at Cu:P ratios below 1:1, 15N-substituted protein had Cu(II) bound by 4 His residues, but this coordination changed as the Cu(II) to protein ratio increased towards 2:1. XAS confirmed this coordination via analysis of the intensity of outer-shell scattering from imidazole residues. The Cu(II) complexes could be reduced to their Cu(I) counterparts by ascorbate, but here again, as shown by EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, the coordination was dependent on copper loading. At low copper Cu(I) was bound by a mixed ligand set of His + Met while at higher ratios His coordination predominated. The copper-loaded loop was able to transfer either Cu(II) or Cu(I) to peptidylglycine monooxygenase in the presence of chelating resin, generating catalytically active enzyme in a process that appeared to involve direct interaction between the two partners. The variation of coordination with copper loading suggests copper-dependent conformational change which in turn could act as a signal for regulating copper release by the ATPase pump.

  13. A chloroplast thylakoid lumen protein is required for proper photosynthetic acclimation of plants under fluctuating light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2017-09-19

    Despite our increasingly sophisticated understanding of mechanisms ensuring efficient photosynthesis under laboratory-controlled light conditions, less is known about the regulation of photosynthesis under fluctuating light. This is important because-in nature-photosynthetic organisms experience rapid and extreme changes in sunlight, potentially causing deleterious effects on photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. Here we report that the chloroplast thylakoid lumenal protein MAINTENANCE OF PHOTOSYSTEM II UNDER HIGH LIGHT 2 (MPH2; encoded by At4g02530 ) is required for growth acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants under controlled photoinhibitory light and fluctuating light environments. Evidence is presented that mph2 mutant light stress susceptibility results from a defect in photosystem II (PSII) repair, and our results are consistent with the hypothesis that MPH2 is involved in disassembling monomeric complexes during regeneration of dimeric functional PSII supercomplexes. Moreover, mph2 -and previously characterized PSII repair-defective mutants-exhibited reduced growth under fluctuating light conditions, while PSII photoprotection-impaired mutants did not. These findings suggest that repair is not only required for PSII maintenance under static high-irradiance light conditions but is also a regulatory mechanism facilitating photosynthetic adaptation under fluctuating light environments. This work has implications for improvement of agricultural plant productivity through engineering PSII repair.

  14. Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Gelatin–Alginate Hydrogels to Stomach Lumen for Treatment of Gastroparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binata Joddar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroparesis (GP is associated with depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs and enteric neurons, which leads to pyloric dysfunction followed by severe nausea, vomiting and delayed gastric emptying. Regenerating these fundamental structures with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy would be helpful to restore gastric function in GP. MSCs have been successfully used in animal models of other gastrointestinal (GI diseases, including colitis. However, no study has been performed with these cells on GP animals. In this study, we explored whether mouse MSCs can be delivered from a hydrogel scaffold to the luminal surfaces of mice stomach explants. Mouse MSCs were seeded atop alginate–gelatin, coated with poly-l-lysine. These cell–gel constructs were placed atop stomach explants facing the luminal side. MSCs grew uniformly all across the gel surface within 48 h. When placed atop the lumen of the stomach, MSCs migrated from the gels to the tissues, as confirmed by positive staining with vimentin and N-cadherin. Thus, the feasibility of transplanting a cell–gel construct to deliver stem cells in the stomach wall was successfully shown in a mice stomach explant model, thereby making a significant advance towards envisioning the transplantation of an entire tissue-engineered ‘gastric patch’ or ‘microgels’ with cells and growth factors.

  15. Blood in the gastric lumen increases splanchnic blood flow and portal pressure in portal-hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Groszmann, R J

    1996-10-01

    In portal-hypertensive humans, portal blood flow and pressure increase after a meal. These hemodynamic changes may increase variceal rupture risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether blood in the stomach lumen increases splanchnic flow and portal pressure (PP) in portal-hypertensive rats. superior mesenteric artery flow and PP were measured in conscious, unrestrained, fasted partial portal vein-ligated rats with chronically implanted Doppler flow probes or portal vein catheters before and after gavage with heparinized, warmed blood from donor rats, air, standard meal, or empty tube. Percentage of changes in flow and pressure from baseline were significantly greater after gavage with blood (an increase of 22.6% +/- 3.5% and an increase of 16.4% +/- 3.1%, respectively) than empty tube (an increase of 3.4% +/- 0.6% and a decrease of 5.4% +/- 3.5%, respectively) (P empty tube (P calories probably contributes to these hemodynamic changes. In patients with variceal hemorrhage, blood in the stomach may increase the risk of persistent variceal bleeding or rebleeding.

  16. Coronary magnetic resonance imaging: visualization of the vessel lumen and the vessel wall and molecular imaging of arteriothrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuentrup, Elmar; Botnar, Rene M.

    2006-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has dramatically emerged over the last decade. Technical improvements have enabled reliable visualization of the proximal and midportion of the coronary artery tree for exclusion of significant coronary artery disease. However, current technical developments focus also on direct visualization of the diseased coronary vessel wall and imaging of coronary plaque because plaques without stenoses are typically more vulnerable with higher risk of plaque rupture. Plaque rupture with subsequent thrombosis and vessel occlusion is the main cause of myocardial infarction. Very recently, the first success of molecular imaging in the coronary arteries has been demonstrated using a fibrin-specific contrast agent for selective visualization of coronary thrombosis. This demonstrates in general the high potential of molecular MR imaging in the field of coronary artery disease. In this review, we will address recent technical advances in coronary MR imaging, including visualization of the lumen and the vessel wall and molecular imaging of coronary arteriothrombosis. First results of these new approaches will be discussed. (orig.)

  17. Centrosome Amplification Increases Single-Cell Branching in Post-mitotic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricolo, Delia; Deligiannaki, Myrto; Casanova, Jordi; Araújo, Sofia J

    2016-10-24

    Centrosome amplification is a hallmark of cancer, although we are still far from understanding how this process affects tumorigenesis [1, 2]. Besides the contribution of supernumerary centrosomes to mitotic defects, their biological effects in the post-mitotic cell are not well known. Here, we exploit the effects of centrosome amplification in post-mitotic cells during single-cell branching. We show that Drosophila tracheal cells with extra centrosomes branch more than wild-type cells. We found that mutations in Rca1 and CycA affect subcellular branching, causing tracheal tip cells to form more than one subcellular lumen. We show that Rca1 and CycA post-mitotic cells have supernumerary centrosomes and that other mutant conditions that increase centrosome number also show excess of subcellular lumen branching. Furthermore, we show that de novo lumen formation is impaired in mutant embryos with fewer centrioles. The data presented here define a requirement for the centrosome as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) for the initiation of subcellular lumen formation. We propose that centrosomes are necessary to drive subcellular lumen formation. In addition, centrosome amplification increases single-cell branching, a process parallel to capillary sprouting in blood vessels [3]. These results shed new light on how centrosomes can contribute to pathology independently of mitotic defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  19. Compendium of Single Event Effects (SEE) Test Results for COTS and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon; Bailey, Chuck; Nguyen, Kyson; O'Neill, Patrick; Gaza, Razvan; Patel, Chirag; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of SEE testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions. This paper summarizes test results for components considered for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space applications.

  20. Effects of future space vehicle operations on a single day in the National Airspace System : a fast-time computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This document describes the objectives, methods, analyses, and results of a study used to quantify the effects of future space operations : on the National Airspace System (NAS), and to demonstrate the possible benefits of one proposed strategy to mi...

  1. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carvalho

    Full Text Available The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

  2. The Functional Lumen Imaging Probe Detects Esophageal Contractility Not Observed With Manometry in Patients With Achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A; Lin, Zhiyue; Kahrilas, Peter J; Sternbach, Joel; Donnan, Erica N; Friesen, Laurel; Listernick, Zoe; Mogni, Benjamin; Pandolfino, John E

    2015-12-01

    The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) could improve the characterization of achalasia subtypes by detecting nonocclusive esophageal contractions not observed with standard manometry. We aimed to evaluate esophageal contractions during volumetric distention in patients with achalasia using FLIP topography. Fifty-one treatment-naive patients with achalasia, defined and subclassified by high-resolution esophageal pressure topography, and 10 asymptomatic individuals (controls) were evaluated with the FLIP during endoscopy. During stepwise distension, simultaneous intrabag pressures and 16 channels of cross-sectional areas were measured; data were exported to software that generated FLIP topography plots. Esophageal contractility was identified by noting periods of reduced luminal diameter. Esophageal contractions were characterized further by propagation direction, repetitiveness, and based on whether they were occluding or nonoccluding. Esophageal contractility was detected in all 10 controls: 8 of 10 had repetitive antegrade contractions and 9 of 10 had occluding contractions. Contractility was detected in 27% (4 of 15) of patients with type I achalasia and in 65% (18 of 26, including 9 with occluding contractions) of patients with type II achalasia. Contractility was detected in all 10 patients with type III achalasia; 8 of these patients had a pattern of contractility that was not observed in controls (repetitive retrograde contractions). Esophageal contractility not observed with manometry can be detected in patients with achalasia using FLIP topography. The presence and patterns of contractility detected with FLIP topography may represent variations in pathophysiology, such as mechanisms of panesophageal pressurization in patients with type II achalasia. These findings could have implications for additional subclassification to supplement prediction of the achalasia disease course. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Verso una filosofia della luce e dell’ascolto? Il secondo capitolo dell’enciclica sul Lumen fidei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Giustiniani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind. This phrase, attributed to Albert Einstein, with the implicit metaphor of light, through blindness, would have wanted to emphasize that faith and science are not irreconcilables. This paper means, at the urging of Pope Francis (but also of Pope Benedict XVI, as we shall see, that is possible to reflect on the relationships between religion and science, faith and reason, theology and philosophy, ethics, religion and art, Hellenism and Christianity, biblical message and achievements of the recent reason… in the light of the second chapter of the encyclical Lumen fidei. In this chapter, summarizing some aspects of the life of St. Augustine, the encyclical speaks of the decisive moment in his journey of faith, identifying listening to the voice of God (philosophy of listening  but never he refuse the light and vision (philosophy of light. From this result, can be proposed again a reflection in predominantly philosophical and religious perspective, with much attention to acoustic and visual perception of the divine, by which the ancient pairs of terms between faith and reason, theology - philosophy, faith - science ... /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  4. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana; Nabais, Cristina; Vieira, Joana; Rossi, Sergio; Campelo, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT) to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD) or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT) in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

  5. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCullough, Jeffrey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tucker, Joseph C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a

  6. Joint segmentation of lumen and outer wall from femoral artery MR images: Towards 3D imaging measurements of peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, Eranga; Yuan, Jing; Qiu, Wu; Rajchl, Martin; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) measurements of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) plaque burden extracted from fast black-blood magnetic resonance (MR) images have shown to be more predictive of clinical outcomes than PAD stenosis measurements. To this end, accurate segmentation of the femoral artery lumen and outer wall is required for generating volumetric measurements of PAD plaque burden. Here, we propose a semi-automated algorithm to jointly segment the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces from 3D black-blood MR images, which are reoriented and reconstructed along the medial axis of the femoral artery to obtain improved spatial coherence between slices of the long, thin femoral artery and to reduce computation time. The developed segmentation algorithm enforces two priors in a global optimization manner: the spatial consistency between the adjacent 2D slices and the anatomical region order between the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces. The formulated combinatorial optimization problem for segmentation is solved globally and exactly by means of convex relaxation using a coupled continuous max-flow (CCMF) model, which is a dual formulation to the convex relaxed optimization problem. In addition, the CCMF model directly derives an efficient duality-based algorithm based on the modern multiplier augmented optimization scheme, which has been implemented on a GPU for fast computation. The computed segmentations from the developed algorithm were compared to manual delineations from experts using 20 black-blood MR images. The developed algorithm yielded both high accuracy (Dice similarity coefficients ≥ 87% for both the lumen and outer wall surfaces) and high reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.95 for generating vessel wall area), while outperforming the state-of-the-art method in terms of computational time by a factor of ≈ 20. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combination of intravenous dexmedetomidine with topicalization of airway for placement of double lumen tube in a spontaneously breathing patient of giant lung bullae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Karne

    2016-10-01

    Here we present a patient with giant lung bulla in left lower lobe with severely reduced pulmonary reserves and significant air-trapping posted for VAT assisted bullectomy. Anaesthesia challenges including pathological changes, its effects during induction of anaesthesia, and issues related to placement of double lumen tube in a spontaneously breathing patient are discussed with possible advantages of dexmedetomidine in this special group of patients.

  8. De-Orbiting of Space Debris by Means of a Towering Cable and a Single Thruster Spaceship: Whiplash and Tail Wagging Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Pacheco, Gabriel Felippe; Carpentier, Benjamin; Petit, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    This papers exposes two difficulties that are likely to take place during the towing of a space debris. These effects, which could trouble de-orbitation strategies, are visible on simple simulations based on a model of coupled rigid-bodies dynamics. We name them tail wagging and whiplash effects, respectively.

  9. The effect and influence of lumen holmium laser lithotripsy on serum oxidative stress proteins and inflammatory factors of ureteral calculi patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and influence of lumen holmium laser lithotripsy on treating serum oxidative stress proteins and inflammatory factors of patients with ureteral calculi. Methods: A total of 120 cases of patients with ureteral calculi treated in our hospital from May 2010 to Nov 2014 were enrolled in this research for an analysis study. The effect and influence on serum oxidative stress proteins and inflammatory factors of lumen holmium laser lithotripsy on ureteral calculi patients were assayed. Then 120 cases of healthy subjects in our hospital at the same period were taken as control. Results: Among the 120 cases of ureteral calculi patients, 113 cases of patients showed successful operation, with a success rate of 94.2%. The average calculi-discharged time was (28.4 ± 11.2 d and the average operation time was (58.9 ± 10.7 min, while the postoperative hospital stay is (3.8 ± 1.2 d. The results also showed that the levels of NOX1. NOX3, NOX4 and NOX5, and levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α of patients with ureteral calculi were significantly higher, compared with the control group, and these parameters were normalized greatly after operation with that the levels of them were significantly different from those before operation. Conclusion: Lumen holmium laser lithotripsy exerts a significant effect on ureteral calculi patients and the oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory factor were normalized greatly.

  10. Influence of space size of abutment screw access channel on the amount of extruded excess cement and marginal accuracy of cement-retained single implant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amri, Mohammad D; Al-Johany, Sulieman S; Al-Qarni, Mohammed N; Al-Bakri, Ahmed S; Al-Maflehi, Nassr S; Abualsaud, Haythem S

    2018-02-01

    The detrimental effect of extruded excess cement on peri-implant tissue has been well documented. Although several techniques have been proposed to reduce this effect by decreasing the amount of extruded cement, how the space size of the abutment screw access channel (SAC) affects the amount of extruded cement and marginal accuracy is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the size of the unfilled space of the abutment SAC on the amount of extruded excess cement and the marginal accuracy of zirconia copings. Twelve implant replicas and corresponding standard abutments were attached and embedded in acrylic resin blocks. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) zirconia copings with a uniform 30-μm cement space were fabricated by 1 dental technician using the standard method. The copings were temporarily cemented 3 times at different sizes of the left space of the SAC as follows: the nonspaced group (NS), in which the entire SAC was completely filled, the 1-mm-spaced group (1MMS), and the 2-mm-spaced group (2MMS). Abutments and crowns were ultrasonically cleaned, steam cleaned, and air-dried. The excess cement was collected and weighed. To measure the marginal accuracy, 20 measurements were made every 18 degrees along the coping margin at ×300 magnification and compared with the pre-cementation readings. One-way ANOVA was calculated to determine whether the amount of extruded excess cement differed among the 3 groups, and the Tukey test was applied for multiple comparisons (α=.05). The mean weights (mg) of extruded excess cement were NS (33.53 ±1.5), 1MMS (22.97 ±5.4), and 2MMS (15.17 ±5.9). Multiple comparisons showed significant differences in the amount of extruded excess cement among the 3 test groups (Pcemented group (29.5 ±8.2) was significantly different (Pcement by 55% in comparison with the nonspaced abutments. However, no effect was found on the marginal accuracy of zirconia copings

  11. The N-Terminus of Human Lactoferrin Displays Anti-biofilm Activity on Candida parapsilosis in Lumen Catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Roberta; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Morici, Paola; Bottai, Daria; Tavanti, Arianna; Lupetti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a major cause of hospital-acquired infection, often related to parenteral nutrition administered via catheters and hand colonization of health care workers, and its peculiar biofilm formation ability on plastic surfaces. The mortality rate of 30% points to the pressing need for new antifungal drugs. The present study aimed at analyzing the inhibitory activity of the N-terminal lactoferrin-derived peptide, further referred to as hLF 1-11, against biofilms produced by clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis characterized for their biofilm forming ability and fluconazole susceptibility. hLF 1-11 anti-biofilm activity was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm biomass, metabolic activity, and observation of sessile cell morphology on polystyrene microtiter plates and using an in vitro model of catheter-associated C. parapsilosis biofilm production. Moreover, fluctuation in transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production upon peptide exposure were evaluated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. The results revealed that hLF 1-11 exhibits an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all the C. parapsilosis isolates tested, in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. In addition, hLF 1-11 induced a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction of preformed-biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity at high peptide concentrations only. Interestingly, when assessed in a catheter lumen, hLF 1-11 was able to induce a 2-log reduction of sessile cell viability at both the peptide concentrations used in RPMI diluted in NaPB. A more pronounced anti-biofilm effect was observed (3.5-log reduction) when a 10% glucose solution was used as experimental condition on both early and preformed C. parapsilosis biofilm. Quantitative real time RT-PCR experiments confirmed that hLF 1-11 down-regulates key biofilm related genes. The overall findings suggest hLF 1-11 as a

  12. A new evaluation of the upper esophageal sphincter using the functional lumen imaging probe: a preliminary report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Regan, J

    2012-03-06

    Objective and reliable evaluation of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening during swallowing based on videofluoroscopy and pharyngeal manometry challenges dysphagia clinicians. The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) is a portable tool based on impedance planimetry originally designed to measure esophogastric junction compliance. It is hypothesized that FLIP can evaluate UES distensibility, and can provide UES diameter and pressure measurements at rest, during swallowing, and during voluntary maneuvers. Eleven healthy adult subjects consented to FLIP evaluation. The probe was inserted transorally, and the balloon was positioned across the UES. Two 20-mL ramp distensions were completed. Changes in UES diameter and intraballoon pressure were measured during dry and 5-mL liquid swallows, and during voluntary swallow postures and maneuvers employed in clinical practice. The protocol was completed by 10 of 11 healthy subjects. Mean intraballoon pressure increased throughout 5-mL (5.8 mmHg; -4.5-18.6 mmHg), 10-mL (8.7 mmHg; 2.3-28.5 mmHg), 15-mL (17.3 mmHg; 9.5-34.8 mmHg), and 20-mL (31.2 mmHg; 16-46.3 mmHg) balloon volumes. Mean resting UES diameter (4.9 mm) increased during dry swallows (9.2 mm) and 5-mL liquid swallows (7.7 mm). Mean UES diameter increased during 5-mL liquid swallows with head turn to right (8.1 mm) and left (8.3 mm), chin tuck (8.4 mm), effortful swallow (8.5 mm), Mendelsohn maneuver (8.1 mm), and supraglottic swallow (7.8 mm). FLIP was safely inserted and distended in the UES, and provided useful quantitative data regarding UES distensibility and UES diameter changes during swallowing maneuvers. Further research is being conducted to explore the role of FLIP in UES evaluation.

  13. Comparative assessment of alignment efficiency and space closure of active and passive self-ligating vs conventional appliances in adolescents: a single-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songra, Goldie; Clover, Matthew; Atack, Nikki E; Ewings, Paul; Sherriff, Martyn; Sandy, Jonathan R; Ireland, Anthony J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to initial alignment and extraction space closure using conventional brackets and active and passive self-ligating brackets. One hundred adolescent patients 11 to 18 years of age undergoing maxillary and mandibular fixed appliance therapy after the extraction of 4 premolars were randomized with stratification of 2 age ranges (11-14 and 15-18 years) and 3 maxillomandibular plane angles (high, medium, and low) with an allocation ratio of 1:2:2. Restrictions were applied using a block size of 10. Allocation was to 1 of 3 treatment groups: conventional brackets, active self-ligating, or passive self-ligating brackets. All subjects were treated with the same archwire sequence and space-closing mechanics in a district general hospital setting. The trial was a 3-arm parallel design. Labial-segment alignment and space closure were measured on study models taken every 12 weeks throughout treatment. All measurements were made by 1 operator who was blinded to bracket type. The patients and other operators were not blinded to bracket type during treatment. Ninety-eight patients were followed to completion of treatment (conventional, n = 20; active self-ligating brackets, n = 37; passive self-ligating brackets, n = 41). The data were analyzed using linear mixed models and demonstrated a significant effect of bracket type on the time to initial alignment (P = 0.001), which was shorter with the conventional brackets than either of the self-ligating brackets. Sidak's adjustment showed no significant difference in effect size (the difference in average response in millimeters) between the active and passive self-ligating brackets (the results are presented as effect size, 95% confidence intervals, probabilities, and intraclass correlation coefficients) (-0.42 [-1.32, 0.48], 0.600, 0.15), but the conventional bracket was significantly different from both of these (-1.98 [-3.19, -0.76], 0.001, 0.15; and -1.56 [-2.79, -0.32], 0.001, 0

  14. Space heating with ultra-low-temperature district heating - A case study of four single-family houses from the 1980s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    . These benefits can be maximized if district heating temperatures are lowered as much as possible. In this paper we report on a project where 18 Danish single-family houses from the 1980s were supplied by ultra-low-temperature district heating with a supply temperature as low as 45 °C for the main part...... the four houses were modelled in the building simulation tool IDA ICE. The simulation models included the actual radiator sizes and the models were used to simulate the expected thermal comfort in the houses and resulting district heating return temperatures. Secondly measurements of the actual district...... heating return temperatures in the houses were analysed for different times of the year. The study found that existing Danish single-family houses from the 1980s can be heated with supply temperatures as low as 45 °C for the main part of the year. Both simulation models and test measurements showed...

  15. Optical reading of field-effect transistors by phase-space absorption quenching in a single InGaAs quantum well conducting channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemla, D. S.; Bar-Joseph, I.; Klingshirn, C.; Miller, D. A. B.; Kuo, J. M.

    1987-03-01

    Absorption switching in a semiconductor quantum well by electrically varying the charge density in the quantum well conducting channel of a selectively doped heterostructure transistor is reported for the first time. The phase-space absorption quenching (PAQ) is observed at room temperature in an InGaAs/InAlAs grown on InP FET, and it shows large absorption coefficient changes with relatively broad spectral bandwidth. This PAQ is large enough to be used for direct optical determination of the logic state of the FET.

  16. SU-F-T-35: Optimization of Bladder and Rectal Doses Using a Multi-Lumen Intracavitary Applicator for Gynecological Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laoui, S; Dietrich, S; Sehgal, V; Al-Ghazi, M [University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation dose delivery for endometrial cancer using HDR techniques is limited by dose to bladder and rectum. A dosimetric study was performed using Varian Capri vaginal brachytherapy applicator to determine the optimal channel configuration which minimizes dose to bladder and rectum, while providing good target coverage. Methods: A total of 17 patients, 63 plans clinically delivered, and 252 simulated plans using Varian BrachyVision planning system were generated to investigate optimal channel configuration which results in minimum dose to bladder and rectum while providing adequate target coverage. The Capri applicator consists of 13 lumens arranged in two concentric rings, one central lumen and six lumens per ring. Manual dose shaping is invariably required to lower the dose to critical organs. Three-dimensional plans were simulated for 4 channel arrangements, all 13 channels, channel 12 o’clock (close to bladder) and 6 o’clock (close to rectum) deactivated, central channel deactivated, and central channel in addition to 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock deactivated. A relationship between V100, the volume that receives the prescribed dose, and the amount of curie-seconds required to deliver it, was established. Results: Using all 13 channels results in maximum dose to bladder and rectum. Deactivating central channel in addition to 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock resulted in minimizing bladder and rectum doses but compromised target coverage. The relationship between V100, the volume that receives the prescribed dose, and the curie seconds was found to be linear. Conclusion: Deactivating channels 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock was shown to be the optimal configuration leading to minimum dose to bladder and rectum without compromising target coverage. The linear relationship between V100 and the curie- seconds can be used as a verification parameter.

  17. Monte Carlo simulations used to calculate the energy deposited in the coronary artery lumen as a function of iodine concentration and photon energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocine, Nora; Meignan, Michel; Masset, Hélène

    2018-04-01

    To better understand the risks of cumulative medical X-ray investigations and the possible causal role of contrast agent on the coronary artery wall, the correlation between iodinated contrast media and the increase of energy deposited in the coronary artery lumen as a function of iodine concentration and photon energy is investigated. The calculations of energy deposition have been performed using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation codes, namely PENetration and Energy LOss of Positrons and Electrons (PENELOPE) and Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). Exposure of a cylinder phantom, artery and a metal stent (AISI 316L) to several X-ray photon beams were simulated. For the energies used in cardiac imaging the energy deposited in the coronary artery lumen increases with the quantity of iodine. Monte Carlo calculations indicate a strong dependence of the energy enhancement factor (EEF) on photon energy and iodine concentration. The maximum value of EEF is equal to 25; this factor is showed for 83 keV and for 400 mg Iodine/mL. No significant impact of the stent is observed on the absorbed dose in the artery for incident X-ray beams with mean energies of 44, 48, 52 and 55 keV. A strong correlation was shown between the increase in the concentration of iodine and the energy deposited in the coronary artery lumen for the energies used in cardiac imaging and over the energy range between 44 and 55 keV. The data provided by this study could be useful for creating new medical imaging protocols to obtain better diagnostic information with a lower level of radiation exposure.

  18. The 1.7 Å resolution structure of At2g44920, a pentapeptide-repeat protein in the thylakoid lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Shuisong; McGookey, Michael E.; Tinch, Stuart L.; Jones, Alisha N.; Jayaraman, Seetharaman; Tong, Liang; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The crystal structure of At2g44920, a pentapeptide repeat protein (PRP) from Arabidopsis thaliana, has been determined at 1.7 Å resolution. The structure represents the first PRP protein whose subcellular localization has been experimentally confirmed to be the thylakoid lumen of a plant species. At2g44920 belongs to a diverse family (Pfam PF00805) of pentapeptide-repeat proteins (PRPs) that are present in all known organisms except yeast. PRPs contain at least eight tandem-repeating sequences of five amino acids with an approximate consensus sequence (STAV)(D/N)(L/F)(S/T/R)(X). Recent crystal structures show that PRPs adopt a highly regular four-sided right-handed β-helical structure consisting mainly of type II and type IV β-turns, sometimes referred to as a repeated five-residue (or Rfr) fold. Among sequenced genomes, PRP genes are most abundant in cyanobacteria, leading to speculation that PRPs play an important role in the unique lifestyle of photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Despite the recent structural characterization of several cyanobacterial PRPs, most of their functions remain unknown. Plants, whose chloroplasts are of cyanobacterial origin, have only four PRP genes in their genomes. At2g44920 is one of three PRPs located in the thylakoid lumen. Here, the crystal structure of a double methionine mutant of residues 81–224 of At2g44920, the naturally processed fragment of one of its full-length isoforms, is reported at 1.7 Å resolution. The structure of At2g44920 consists of the characteristic Rfr fold with five uninterrupted coils made up of 25 pentapeptide repeats and α-helical elements capping both termini. A disulfide bridge links the two α-helices with a conserved loop between the helical elements at its C-terminus. This structure represents the first structure of a PRP protein whose subcellular location has been experimentally confirmed to be the thylakoid lumen in a plant species

  19. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Sara M; Manthey, Carolin F; Le, Christine; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Gima, Lauren; Abrahim, Andrew; Cao, Anthony T; Hanson, Elaine M; Kolls, Jay K; Raz, Eyal; Cong, Yingzi; Eckmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen and epithelial surface of the small intestine, but does not invade the mucosa. Acute infection causes only minimal mucosal inflammation. Effective immune defenses exist, yet their identity and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as an important cytokine involved in inflammation and antimicrobial defense against bacterial pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-17A has a crucial function in host defense against Giardia infection. Using murine infection models with G. muris and G. lamblia, we observed marked and selective induction of intestinal IL-17A with peak expression after 2 weeks. Th17 cells in the lamina propria and innate immune cells in the epithelial compartment of the small intestine were responsible for the IL-17A response. Experiments in gene-targeted mice revealed that the cytokine, and its cognate receptor IL-17RA, were required for eradication of the parasite. The actions of the cytokine were mediated by hematopoietic cells, and were required for the transport of IgA into the intestinal lumen, since IL-17A deficiency led to marked reduction of fecal IgA levels, as well as for increased intestinal expression of several other potential effectors, including β-defensin 1 and resistin-like molecule β. In contrast, intestinal hypermotility, another major antigiardial defense mechanism, was not impacted by IL-17A loss. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for intestinal defense against the important lumen-dwelling intestinal parasite Giardia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tunable and stable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser with 1.3 nm mode spacing output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C H; Shih, F Y; Wang, C H; Chow, C W; Chi, S

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, we propose and investigate a stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with self-injected Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) scheme. By using an FP-LD incorporated with a tunable bandpass filter (TBF) within the gain cavity, the fiber laser can lase at two single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) wavelengths simultaneously due to the self-injected operation. The proposed dual-wavelength laser has a good performance of the output power and optical side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). The laser also shows a wide tuning range from 1523.08 to 1562.26 nm. Besides, the output stabilities of the fiber laser are also discussed

  1. Space heating with ultra-low-temperature district heating - a case study of four single-family houses from the 1980s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    . These benefits can be maximized if district heating temperatures are lowered as much as possible. In this paper we report on a project where 18 Danish single-family houses from the 1980s were supplied by ultra-low temperature district heating with a supply temperature as low as 45 degrees C for the main part...... of the year. The houses were heated by the existing hydraulic radiator systems, while domestic hot water was prepared by use of district heating and electric boosting. This paper evaluated the heating system temperatures that were necessary in order to maintain thermal comfort in four of the houses. First...... the four houses were modelled in the building simulation tool IDA ICE. The simulation models included the actual radiator sizes and the models were used to simulate the expected thermal comfort in the houses and resulting district heating return temperatures. Secondly measurements of the actual district...

  2. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  3. Study of the Mn-binding sites in photosystem II using antibodies raised against lumenal regions of the D1 and D2 reaction center proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmasso, Enrique Agustin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The experiments discussed in this thesis focus on identifying the protein segments or specific amino acids which provide ligands to the Mn cluster of photosystem II (PS II). This Mn cluster plays a central role in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PS II. The Mn cluster is thought to be bound by lumenal regions of the PS II reaction center proteins known as D1 and D2. First, several peptides were synthesized which correspond to specific lumenal segments of the D1 and D2 proteins. Next, polyclonal antibodies were successfully elicited using three of these peptides. The peptides recognized by these antibodies correspond to protein segments of the spinach reaction center proteins: Ile-321 to Ala-344 of D1 (D1-a), Asp-319 to Arg-334 of D1 (D1-b), and Val-300 to Asn-319 of D2 (D2-a). These antibodies were then used in assays which were developed to structurally or functionally probe the potential Mn-binding regions of the D1 and D2 proteins.

  4. High-resolution computed tomography evaluation of the bronchial lumen to vertebral body diameter and pulmonary artery to vertebral body diameter ratios in anesthetized ventilated normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cole, Robert C; Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D Michael; Garbarino, Rachel; Barney, Sharron

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (BA) ratio has been utilized to investigate pulmonary pathology on high-resolution CT images. Diseases affecting both the bronchi and pulmonary arteries render the BA ratio less useful. The purpose of the study was to establish bronchial lumen diameter to vertebral body diameter (BV) and pulmonary artery diameter to vertebral body diameter (AV) ratios in normal cats. Methods Using high-resolution CT images, 16 sets of measurements (sixth thoracic vertebral body [mid-body], each lobar bronchi and companion pulmonary artery diameter) were acquired from young adult female cats and 41 sets from pubertal female cats. Results Young adult and pubertal cat BV ratios were not statistically different from each other in any lung lobe. Significant differences between individual lung lobe BV ratios were noted on combined age group analysis. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different between young adult and pubertal cats. All other lung lobe AV ratios were not significantly different. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different from all other lung lobes but not from each other in both the young adult and pubertal cats. Conclusions and relevance BV ratio reference intervals determined for individual lung lobes could be applied to both young adult and pubertal cats. Separate AV ratios for individual lung lobes would be required for young adult and pubertal cats. These ratios should allow more accurate evaluation of cats with concurrent bronchial and pulmonary arterial disease.

  5. Single room occupancy (SRO) hotels as mental health risk environments among impoverished women: the intersection of policy, drug use, trauma, and urban space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kelly R; Lopez, Andrea M; Comfort, Megan; Shumway, Martha; Cohen, Jennifer; Riley, Elise D

    2014-05-01

    Due to the significantly high levels of comorbid substance use and mental health diagnosis among urban poor populations, examining the intersection of drug policy and place requires a consideration of the role of housing in drug user mental health. In San Francisco, geographic boundedness and progressive health and housing polices have coalesced to make single room occupancy hotels (SROs) a key urban built environment used to house poor populations with co-occurring drug use and mental health issues. Unstably housed women who use illicit drugs have high rates of lifetime and current trauma, which manifests in disproportionately high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression when compared to stably housed women. We report data from a qualitative interview study (n=30) and four years of ethnography conducted with housing policy makers and unstably housed women who use drugs and live in SROs. Women in the study lived in a range of SRO built environments, from publicly funded, newly built SROs to privately owned, dilapidated buildings, which presented a rich opportunity for ethnographic comparison. Applying Rhodes et al.'s framework of socio-structural vulnerability, we explore how SROs can operate as "mental health risk environments" in which macro-structural factors (housing policies shaping the built environment) interact with meso-level factors (social relations within SROs) and micro-level, behavioral coping strategies to impact women's mental health. The degree to which SRO built environments were "trauma-sensitive" at the macro level significantly influenced women's mental health at meso- and micro-levels. Women who were living in SROs which exacerbated fear and anxiety attempted, with limited success, to deploy strategies on the meso- and micro-level to manage their mental health symptoms. Study findings underscore the importance of housing polices which consider substance use in the context of current and cumulative trauma

  6. Increasing spin-flips and decreasing cost: Perturbative corrections for external singles to the complete active space spin flip model for low-lying excited states and strong correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, Nicholas J.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2014-01-01

    An approximation to the spin-flip extended configuration interaction singles method is developed using a second-order perturbation theory approach. In addition to providing significant efficiency advantages, the new framework is general for an arbitrary number of spin-flips, with the current implementation being applicable for up to around 4 spin-flips. Two new methods are introduced: one which is developed using non-degenerate perturbation theory, spin-flip complete active-space (SF-CAS(S)), and a second quasidegenerate perturbation theory method, SF-CAS(S) 1 . These two approaches take the SF-CAS wavefunction as the reference, and then perturbatively includes the effect of single excitations. For the quasidegenerate perturbation theory method, SF-CAS(S) 1 , the subscripted “1” in the acronym indicates that a truncated denominator expansion is used to obtain an energy-independent down-folded Hamiltonian. We also show how this can alternatively be formulated in terms of an extended Lagrangian, by introducing an orthonormality constraint on the first-order wavefunction. Several numerical examples are provided, which demonstrate the ability of SF-CAS(S) and SF-CAS(S) 1 to describe bond dissociations, singlet-triplet gaps of organic molecules, and exchange coupling parameters for binuclear transition metal complexes

  7. Dosimetric considerations and early clinical experience of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multi-lumen applicators in the setting of breast augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari, Mani; Pino, Ramiro; Scarboro, Sarah B.; Bass, Barbara L.; Miltenburg, Darlene M.; Butler, E. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an accepted treatment option in breast-conserving therapy for early stage breast cancer. However, data regarding outcomes of patients treated with multi-lumen catheter systems who have existing breast implants is limited. The purpose of this study was to report treatment parameters, outcomes, and possible dosimetric correlation with cosmetic outcome for this population of patients at our institution. Material and methods We report the treatment and outcome of seven consecutive patients with existing breast implants and early stage breast cancer who were treated between 2009 and 2013 using APBI following lumpectomy. All patients were treated twice per day for five days to a total dose of 34 Gy using a high-dose-rate 192Ir source. Cosmetic outcomes were evaluated using the Harvard breast cosmesis scale, and late toxicities were reported using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) late radiation morbidity schema. Results After a mean follow-up of 32 months, all patients have remained cancer free. Six out of seven patients had an excellent or good cosmetic outcome. There were no grade 3 or 4 late toxicities. The average total breast implant volume was 279.3 cc, received an average mean dose of 12.1 Gy, and a maximum dose of 234.1 Gy. The average percentage of breast implant volume receiving 50%, 75%, 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed dose was 15.6%, 7.03%, 4.6%, 1.58%, and 0.46%, respectively. Absolute volume of breast implants receiving more than 50% of prescribed dose correlated with worse cosmetic outcomes. Conclusions Accelerated partial breast irradiation using a multi-lumen applicator in patients with existing breast implants can safely be performed with promising early clinical results. The presence of the implant did not compromise the ability to achieve dosimetric criteria; however, dose to the implant and the irradiated implant volume may be related with worse cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26816499

  8. The impact of reduced gastric acid secretion on dissolution of salts of weak bases in the fasted upper gastrointestinal lumen: Data in biorelevant media and in human aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litou, Chara; Vertzoni, Maria; Xu, Wei; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Reppas, Christos

    2017-06-01

    To propose media for simulating the intragastric environment under reduced gastric acid secretion in the fasted state at three levels of simulation of the gastric environment and evaluate their usefulness in evaluating the intragastric dissolution of salts of weak bases. To evaluate the importance of bicarbonate buffer in biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing when using Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in the fasted upper small intestine, regardless of gastric acid secretions. Media for simulating the hypochlorhydric and achlorhydric conditions in stomach were proposed using phosphates, maleates and bicarbonates buffers. The impact of bicarbonates in Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in upper small intestine was evaluated so that pH and bulk buffer capacity were maintained. Dissolution data were collected using two model compounds, pioglitazone hydrochloride and semifumarate cocrystal of Compound B, and the mini-paddle dissolution apparatus in biorelevant media and in human aspirates. Simulated gastric fluids proposed in this study were in line with pH, buffer capacity, pepsin content, total bile salt/lecithin content and osmolality of the fasted stomach under partial and under complete inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Fluids simulating the conditions under partial inhibition of acid secretion were useful in simulating concentrations of both model compounds in gastric aspirates. Bicarbonates in Level III biorelevant gastric media and in Level II biorelevant media simulating the composition in the upper intestinal lumen did not improve simulation of concentrations in human aspirates. Level III biorelevant media for simulating the intragastric environment under hypochlorhydric conditions were proposed and their usefulness in the evaluation of concentrations of two model salts of weak bases in gastric aspirates was shown. Level II biorelevant media for simulating the environment in upper intestinal lumen led to

  9. Investigating steam penetration using thermometric methods in dental handpieces with narrow internal lumens during sterilizing processes with non-vacuum or vacuum processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S; Smith, A; Lappin, D; McDonagh, G; Kirk, B

    2017-12-01

    Dental handpieces are required to be sterilized between patient use. Vacuum steam sterilization processes with fractionated pre/post-vacuum phases or unique cycles for specified medical devices are required for hollow instruments with internal lumens to assure successful air removal. Entrapped air will compromise achievement of required sterilization conditions. Many countries and professional organizations still advocate non-vacuum sterilization processes for these devices. To investigate non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type-N steam sterilization of dental handpieces, using thermometric methods to measure time to achieve sterilization temperature at different handpiece locations. Measurements at different positions within air turbines were undertaken with thermocouples and data loggers. Two examples of widely used UK benchtop steam sterilizers were tested: a non-vacuum benchtop sterilizer (Little Sister 3; Eschmann, Lancing, UK) and a vacuum benchtop sterilizer (Lisa; W&H, Bürmoos, Austria). Each sterilizer cycle was completed with three handpieces and each cycle in triplicate. A total of 140 measurements inside dental handpiece lumens were recorded. The non-vacuum process failed (time range: 0-150 s) to reliably achieve sterilization temperatures within the time limit specified by the international standard (15 s equilibration time). The measurement point at the base of the handpiece failed in all test runs (N = 9) to meet the standard. No failures were detected with the vacuum steam sterilization type B process with fractionated pre-vacuum and post-vacuum phases. Non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type-N steam sterilization processes are unreliable in achieving sterilization conditions inside dental handpieces, and the base of the handpiece is the site most likely to fail. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of esophago-gastric junction cross-sectional area and distensibility by an endolumenal functional lumen imaging probe for the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E; Sweis, R; Anggiansah, A; Wong, T; Telakis, E; Knowles, K; Wright, J; Fox, M

    2013-11-01

    Measurement of esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) cross-sectional area (CSA) and distensibility by an Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe (EndoFLIP®) may distinguish between gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients and healthy volunteers (HV). We aimed to assess the agreement of EndoFLIP® measurements with clinical and physiologic diagnosis of GERD. Twenty-one HV and 18 patients with typical GERD symptoms were studied. After gastroscopy, EGJ CSA, and distensibility were measured by EndoFLIP®. Forty-eight hour esophageal pH monitoring was then performed by a wireless system. The ability of EndoFLIP® to discriminate GERD patient and HVs was assessed. Planned secondary analysis then assessed whether EGJ CSA and distensibility were increased in individuals with pathologic acid exposure. Healthy volunteers were younger and had lower body mass index (BMI; both p < 0.001). Pathologic acid exposure was present in 3/21 (14%) HVs and 9/18 (50%) patients (p = 0.126). At 30 mL EndoFLIP® bag volume, EGJ CSA was higher (p = 0.058) and EGJ distensibility was lower (p = 0.020) in HVs than patients. Secondary analysis showed that EGJ measurements were similar in participants with and without pathologic acid exposure (CSA 98 mm² vs 107 mm²; p = 0.789, distensibility; p = 0.704). An inverse association between BMI and CSA (R² = 0.2758, p = 0.001) and distensibility (R² = 0.2005, p = 0.005) was present. Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe is not useful for GERD diagnosis because EGJ CSA and distensibility do not distinguish between HVs and GERD patients defined by clinical presentation or pH measurement. This unexpected result may be due to an important, confounding interaction of obesity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. High definition TV projection via single crystal faceplate technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindl, H. J.; St. John, Thomas

    1993-03-01

    Single crystal phosphor faceplates are epitaxial phosphors grown on crystalline substrates with the advantages of high light output, resolution, and extended operational life. Single crystal phosphor faceplate industrial technology in the United States is capable of providing a faceplate appropriate to the projection industry of up to four (4) inches in diameter. Projection systems incorporating cathode ray tubes utilizing single crystal phosphor faceplates will produce 1500 lumens of white light with 1000 lines of resolution, non-interlaced. This 1500 lumen projection system will meet all of the currently specified luminance and resolution requirements of Visual Display systems for flight simulators. Significant logistic advantages accrue from the introduction of single crystal phosphor faceplate CRT's. Specifically, the full performance life of a CRT is expected to increase by a factor of five (5); ie, from 2000 to 10,000 hours of operation. There will be attendant reductions in maintenance time, spare CRT requirements, system down time, etc. The increased brightness of the projection system will allow use of lower gain, lower cost simulator screen material. Further, picture performance characteristics will be more balanced across the full simulator.

  12. Space Van system update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Len

    1992-07-01

    The Space Van is a proposed commercial launch vehicle that is designed to carry 1150 kg to a space-station orbit for a price of $1,900,000 per flight in 1992 dollars. This price includes return on preoperational investment. Recurring costs are expected to be about $840,000 per flight. The Space Van is a fully reusable, assisted-single-stage-to orbit system. The most innovative new feature of the Space Van system is the assist-stage concept. The assist stage uses only airbreathing engines for vertical takeoff and vertical landing in the horizontal attitude and for launching the rocket-powered orbiter stage at mach 0.8 and an altitude of about 12 km. The primary version of the orbiter is designed for cargo-only without a crew. However, a passenger version of the Space Van should be able to carry a crew of two plus six passengers to a space-station orbit. Since the Space Van is nearly single-stage, performance to polar orbit drops off significantly. The cargo version should be capable of carrying 350 kg to a 400-km polar orbit. In the passenger version, the Space Van should be able to carry two crew members - or one crew member plus a passenger.

  13. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  14. EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections using a novel lumen-apposing metal stent on an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system : a large retrospective study (with video)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinninella, Emanuele; Kunda, Rastislav; Dollhopf, Markus; Sanchez-Yague, Andres; Will, Uwe; Tarantino, Ilaria; Gornals Soler, Joan; Ullrich, Sebastian; Meining, Alexander; Esteban, Josè Miguel; Enz, Thomas; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Vleggaar, FP; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent incorporated in an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system for EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) recently has become available. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and clinical effectiveness of

  15. Accelerated whole brain intracranial vessel wall imaging using black blood fast spin echo with compressed sensing (CS-SPACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengcheng; Tian, Bing; Chen, Luguang; Eisenmenger, Laura; Raithel, Esther; Forman, Christoph; Ahn, Sinyeob; Laub, Gerhard; Liu, Qi; Lu, Jianping; Liu, Jing; Hess, Christopher; Saloner, David

    2018-06-01

    Develop and optimize an accelerated, high-resolution (0.5 mm isotropic) 3D black blood MRI technique to reduce scan time for whole-brain intracranial vessel wall imaging. A 3D accelerated T 1 -weighted fast-spin-echo prototype sequence using compressed sensing (CS-SPACE) was developed at 3T. Both the acquisition [echo train length (ETL), under-sampling factor] and reconstruction parameters (regularization parameter, number of iterations) were first optimized in 5 healthy volunteers. Ten patients with a variety of intracranial vascular disease presentations (aneurysm, atherosclerosis, dissection, vasculitis) were imaged with SPACE and optimized CS-SPACE, pre and post Gd contrast. Lumen/wall area, wall-to-lumen contrast ratio (CR), enhancement ratio (ER), sharpness, and qualitative scores (1-4) by two radiologists were recorded. The optimized CS-SPACE protocol has ETL 60, 20% k-space under-sampling, 0.002 regularization factor with 20 iterations. In patient studies, CS-SPACE and conventional SPACE had comparable image scores both pre- (3.35 ± 0.85 vs. 3.54 ± 0.65, p = 0.13) and post-contrast (3.72 ± 0.58 vs. 3.53 ± 0.57, p = 0.15), but the CS-SPACE acquisition was 37% faster (6:48 vs. 10:50). CS-SPACE agreed with SPACE for lumen/wall area, ER measurements and sharpness, but marginally reduced the CR. In the evaluation of intracranial vascular disease, CS-SPACE provides a substantial reduction in scan time compared to conventional T 1 -weighted SPACE while maintaining good image quality.

  16. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  17. Relationship of the duke jeopardy score combined with minimal lumen diameter as assessed by computed tomography angiography to the hemodynamic relevance of coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengmeng; Zhao, Yonghong; Li, Wenbin; Lu, Zhigang; Wei, Meng; Zhou, Wenxiao; Zhang, Jiayin

    2018-03-02

    To study the diagnostic performance of the ratio between the Duke jeopardy score (DJS) and the minimal lumen diameter (MLD) (DJS/MLD CT ratio) as assessed by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for differentiating functionally significant from non-significant coronary artery stenoses, with reference to invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR). Patients who underwent both coronary CTA and FFR measurement during invasive coronary angiography (ICA) within 2 weeks were retrospectively included in the study. Invasive FFR measurement was performed in patients with intermediate to severe coronary stenoseis. DJS/MLD CT ratio and anatomical parameters were recorded. Lesions with FFR ≤0.80 were considered to be functionally significant. One hundred and sixty-one patients with 175 lesions were included into the analysis. Diameter stenosis in CT, area stenosis, plaque burden, lesion length (LL), ICA-based stenosis degree, DJS, LL/MLD 4 ratio, DJS/MLA ratio as well as DJS/MLD ratio were all significantly different between hemodynamically significant and non-significant lesions (pvalue for DJS/MLD CT ratio to be 1.96 (area under curve = 0.863, 95 % confidence interval = 0.803-0.910), yielding a high diagnostic accuracy (86.9%, 152/175). In coronary artery stenoses detected by coronary CTA, the DJS/MLD ratio is able to predict hemodynamic relevance. Copyright © 2018 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy and safety of novel multi-lumen catheter for chronic total occlusions: from preclinical study to first-in-man experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsutake, Yoshiaki; Ebner, Adrian; Yeung, Alan C; Taber, Mark D; Davidson, Charles J; Ikeno, Fumiaki

    2015-02-15

    To report our initial animal and human experience with a new multi-lumen catheter called MultiCross™ (Roxwood Medical, Inc.) in a porcine coronary model and patients with a chronic total occlusion (CTO). Preclinical safety study was done in the coronary vasculature of a porcine model. In a clinical setting, patients with a CTO of a coronary artery (n = 5) were enrolled. After an initial unsuccessful attempt using a conventional guidewire, operators could use the MultiCross system. The primary efficacy endpoint was successful recanalization (technical success) and the primary safety endpoint was serious adverse events through 30 days post-procedure. The MultiCross catheter was used for all patients after failure of the initial attempt with a guidewire. Successful recanalization was achieved in all CTOs attempted (100%). No patients reported any adverse events at 30 days post-procedure. In this first-in-man experience, the MultiCross catheter has the potential to enhance crossing of CTOs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Tips of the dual-lumen microcatheter-facilitated reverse wire technique in percutaneous coronary interventions for markedly angulated bifurcated lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Kikai, Masakazu; Hori, Yusuke; Yoshioka, Kenichi; Kubota, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Urata, Ryota; Sugimoto, Takeshi; Keira, Natsuya; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2018-04-01

    In practical settings of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we sometimes encounter difficulty in introducing a guidewire (GW) to the markedly angulated side branch (SB), and the reverse wire technique is considered as a last resort to overcome such a situation. We analyzed 12 cases that underwent PCI with dual-lumen microcatheter-facilitated reverse wire technique between January 2013 and July 2016. We retrospectively investigated the lesion's characteristics and the details of the PCI procedures, and discussed tips about the use of this technique. The SB that exhibits both a smaller take-off angle and a larger carina angle is considered to be the most suitable candidate for this technique. The first step of this technique involves the delivery of the reverse wire system to the target bifurcation. However, most cases exhibit significant stenosis proximal to the bifurcation, which often hampers the delivery of the reverse wire system. Because the sharply curved reverse wire system is easier to pass the stenosis as compared to the roundly curved system, we recommend a sharp curve should be adopted for this technique. On the other hand, it is sure that device delivery is much easier on the GW with a round curve as compared to that with a sharp curve. Therefore, it is important to modify the details of this procedure on a case-by-case basis according to the lesion's characteristics.

  20. Effect of the size of the apical enlargement with rotary instruments, single-cone filling, post space preparation with drills, fiber post removal, and root canal filling removal on apical crack initiation and propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Uysal, Banu; Ok, Evren; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of apical crack initiation and propagation in root dentin after several endodontic procedures. Sixty intact mandibular premolars were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 1 mm from the apex, and the apical surface was polished. Thirty teeth were left unprepared and served as a control, and the remaining 30 teeth were instrumented with ProTaper Universal instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) up to size F5. The root canals were filled with the single-cone technique. Gutta-percha was removed with drills of the Rebilda post system (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). Glass fiber-reinforced composite fiber posts were cemented using a dual-cure resin cement. The fiber posts were removed with a drill of the post system. Retreatment was completed after the removal of the gutta-percha. Crack initiation and propagation in the apical surfaces of the samples were examined with a stereomicroscope after each procedure. The absence/presence of cracks was recorded. Logistic regression was performed to analyze statistically the incidence of crack initiation and propagation with each procedure. The initiation of the first crack and crack propagation was associated with F2 and F4 instruments, respectively. The logistic regression analysis revealed that instrumentation and F2 instrument significantly affected apical crack initiation (P .05). Rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation had a significant effect on apical crack initiation, and post space preparation with drills had a significant impact on crack propagation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  2. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  3. Cortical Spreading Depression Closes Paravascular Space and Impairs Glymphatic Flow: Implications for Migraine Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schain, Aaron J; Melo-Carrillo, Agustin; Strassman, Andrew M; Burstein, Rami

    2017-03-15

    Functioning of the glymphatic system, a network of paravascular tunnels through which cortical interstitial solutes are cleared from the brain, has recently been linked to sleep and traumatic brain injury, both of which can affect the progression of migraine. This led us to investigate the connection between migraine and the glymphatic system. Taking advantage of a novel in vivo method we developed using two-photon microscopy to visualize the paravascular space (PVS) in naive uninjected mice, we show that a single wave of cortical spreading depression (CSD), an animal model of migraine aura, induces a rapid and nearly complete closure of the PVS around surface as well as penetrating cortical arteries and veins lasting several minutes, and gradually recovering over 30 min. A temporal mismatch between the constriction or dilation of the blood vessel lumen and the closure of the PVS suggests that this closure is not likely to result from changes in vessel diameter. We also show that CSD impairs glymphatic flow, as indicated by the reduced rate at which intraparenchymally injected dye was cleared from the cortex to the PVS. This is the first observation of a PVS closure in connection with an abnormal cortical event that underlies a neurological disorder. More specifically, the findings demonstrate a link between the glymphatic system and migraine, and suggest a novel mechanism for regulation of glymphatic flow. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Impairment of brain solute clearance through the recently described glymphatic system has been linked with traumatic brain injury, prolonged wakefulness, and aging. This paper shows that cortical spreading depression, the neural correlate of migraine aura, closes the paravascular space and impairs glymphatic flow. This closure holds the potential to define a novel mechanism for regulation of glymphatic flow. It also implicates the glymphatic system in the altered cortical and endothelial functioning of the migraine brain. Copyright © 2017

  4. Impact of endobronchial coiling on segmental bronchial lumen in treated and untreated lung lobes: Correlation with changes in lung volume, clinical and pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, C; Thaiss, W M; Hetzel, J; Ditt, H; Grosse, U; Nikolaou, K; Horger, M

    2016-07-01

    To assess the impact of endobronchial coiling on the segment bronchus cross-sectional area and volumes in patients with lung emphysema using quantitative chest-CT measurements. Thirty patients (female = 15; median age = 65.36 years) received chest-CT before and after endobronchial coiling for lung volume reduction (LVR) between January 2010 and December 2014. Thin-slice (0.6 mm) non-enhanced image data sets were acquired both at end-inspiration and end-expiration using helical technique and 120 kV/100-150 mAs. Clinical response was defined as an increase in the walking distance (Six-minute walk test; 6MWT) after LVR-therapy. Additionally, pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements were used for clinical correlation. In the treated segmental bronchia, the cross-sectional lumen area showed significant reduction (p  0.05). In the ipsilateral lobes, the lumina showed no significant changes. In the contralateral lung, we found tendency towards increased cross-sectional area in inspiration (p = 0.06). Volumes of the treated segments correlated with the treated segmental bronchial lumina in expiration (r = 0.80, p volume of the treated lobe in responders only. Endobronchial coiling causes significant decrease in the cross-sectional area of treated segment bronchi in inspiration and a slight increase in expiration accompanied by a volume reduction. • Endobronchial coiling has indirect impact on cross-sectional area of treated segment bronchi • Volume changes of treated lobes correlate with changes in bronchial cross-sectional area • Coil-induced effects reflect their stabilizing and stiffening impact on lung parenchyma • Endobronchial coiling reduces bronchial collapsing compensating the loss of elasticity.

  5. Disconnection technique with a bronchial blocker for improving lung deflation: a comparison with a double-lumen tube and bronchial blocker without disconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Young; Kim, Dae Hee; Choi, Ho; Kim, Kun; Chae, Yun Jeong; Park, Sung Yong

    2014-08-01

    One-lung ventilation (OLV) is accomplished with a double-lumen tube (DLT) or a bronchial blocker (BB). The authors compared the effectiveness of lung collapse using DLT, BB, and BB with the disconnection technique. Prospective, randomized, blind trial. A university hospital. Fifty-two patients undergoing elective pneumothorax surgery. Patients were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: The DLT group (group 1), the BB group (group 2), and the BB with the disconnection technique group (group 3). The authors modified the disconnection technique in group 3 as follows: (1) turned off the ventilator and opened the adjustable pressure-limiting valve, allowing both lungs to collapse and (2) after loss of the CO2 trace on the capnograph, inflated the blocker cuff and turned on the ventilator, allowing only dependent-lung ventilation. Five and ten minutes after OLV, the degree of lung collapse was assessed by the surgeon, who was blinded to the isolation technique. The quality of lung collapse at 5 and 10 minutes was significantly better in groups 1 and 3 than in group 2. No significant differences were observed for the degree of lung collapse at any time point between groups 1 and 3. The average time for loss of the CO2 trace on the capnograph was 32.3±7.0 seconds in group 3. A BB with spontaneous collapse took longer to deflate and did not provide equivalent surgical exposure to the DLT. The disconnection technique could be helpful to accelerate lung collapse with a BB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. LumenRECON Guidewire: Pilot Study of a Novel, Nonimaging Technology for Accurate Vessel Sizing and Delivery of Therapy in Femoropopliteal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pradeep K; Carr, Jeffrey G; Bigelow, Brian; Bhatt, Deepak L; Berwick, Zachary C; Adams, George

    2018-01-01

    Proper vessel sizing during endovascular interventions is crucial to avoid adverse procedural and clinical outcomes. LumenRECON (LR) is a novel, nonimaging, 0.035-inch wire-based technology that uses the physics-based principle of Ohm's law to provide a simple, real-time luminal size while also providing a platform for therapy delivery. This study evaluated the accuracy, reliability, and safety of the LR system in patients presenting for a femoropopliteal artery intervention. This multicenter, prospective pilot study of 24 patients presenting for peripheral intervention compared LR measurements of femoropopliteal artery size to angiographic visual estimation, duplex ultrasound, quantitative angiography, and intravascular ultrasound. The primary effectiveness and safety end point was comparison against core laboratory adjudicated intravascular ultrasound values and major adverse events, respectively. Additional preclinical studies were also performed in vitro and in vivo in swine to determine the accuracy of the LR guidewire system. No intra- or postprocedure device-related adverse events occurred. A balloon or stent was successfully delivered in 12 patients (50%) over the LR wire. Differences in repeatability between successive LR measurements was 2.5±0.40% ( R 2 =0.96) with no significant bias. Differences in measurements of LR to other modalities were 0.5±1.7%, 5.0±1.8%, -1.5±2.0%, and 6.8±3.4% for intravascular ultrasound core laboratory, quantitative angiography, angiographic, and duplex ultrasound, respectively. This study demonstrates that through a physics-based principle, LR provides a real-time, safe, reproducible, and accurate vessel size of the femoropopliteal artery during intervention and can additionally serve as a conduit for therapy delivery over its wire-based platform. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Detection and Specific Enumeration of Multi-Strain Probiotics in the Lumen Contents and Mucus Layers of the Rat Intestine After Oral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Ji; Orlovich, David A; Tagg, John R; Fawcett, J Paul

    2009-12-01

    Although the detection of viable probiotic bacteria following their ingestion and passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been well documented, their mucosal attachment in vivo is more difficult to assess. In this study, we investigated the survival and mucosal attachment of multi-strain probiotics transiting the rat GIT. Rats were administered a commercial mixture of the intestinal probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus LA742, Lactobacillus rhamnosus L2H and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 every 12 h for 3 days. Intestinal contents, mucus and faeces were tested 6 h, 3 days and 7 days after the last dose by strain-specific enumeration on selective media and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. At 6 h, viable cells and DNA corresponding to all four probiotics were detected in the faeces and in both the lumen contents and mucus layers of the ileum and colon. Viable probiotic cells of B. lactis and L. rhamnosus were detected for 7 days and L. acidophilus for 3 days after the last dose. B. lactis and L. rhamnosus persisted in the ileal mucus and colon contents, whereas the retention of L. acidophilus appeared to be relatively higher in colonic mucus. No viable cells of S. salivarius K12 were detected in any of the samples at either day 3 or 7. The study demonstrates that probiotic strains of intestinal origin but not of oral origin exhibit temporary colonisation of the rat GIT and that these strains may have differing relative affinities for colonic and ileal mucosa.

  8. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  9. Space Law and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchetti, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few years, China has made remarkable achievements in the space sector and become one of the most relevant players in the outer space domain. Highlights of this process have been the deployment in orbit of the first Chinese space station, Tiangong-1, on September 29, 2011; and the landing of the Yutu rover on the lunar surface on December 14, 2013. While technological developments have occurred at such a rapid pace, the same cannot be said of the regulatory framework governing Chinese space activities, which still lays at its infant stage. Indeed, unlike other major space-faring countries, China lacks comprehensive and uniform national space legislation; as of now, China has enacted two low-level administrative regulations addressing the issues of launching and registration of space objects. With the growth of the Chinese space program, such a lack of a structured national space law is beginning to show its limits and to create concerns about its negative impact on business opportunities and the ability of China to fully comply with international obligations. One should keep in mind that the international space treaties (China is part to four international space law treaties) are not self-executing, thus requiring States to adopt domestic measures to ensure their effective implementation. Importantly, Chinese authorities appear to be aware of these issues; as stated by the secretary-general of the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) in 2014, national space law has been listed in the national legislation plan and the CNSA is directly engaged in such a process. However, questions remain as to how this drafting process will be conducted and what legal form and content the law will have. For example, China could either decide to proceed with a gradual approach, consisting in the adoption of laws addressing selected issues to be eventually assembled into one single law; or to directly move to the adoption of one comprehensive law. In any case, if

  10. Graphene for Expandable Space Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Graphene's tightly bonded impermeable single atomic layer of carbon offers unrivalled potential for lightweight flexible gas barrier applications. Graphene has been...

  11. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  12. Late lumen loss and intima hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting and zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic patients: the diabetes and drug-eluting stent (DiabeDES III) angiography and intravascular ultrasound trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Mæng, Michael; Thayssen, Per

    2011-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation due to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). The aim of this study was to use quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to evaluate the effects...... of the sirolimus-eluting Cypher® stent (SES) and the zotarolimus-eluting Endeavor® stent (ZES) on angiographic late lumen loss and intima hyperplasia in diabetic patients....

  13. [Successful One-lung Ventilation with a Right-sided Double-lumen Tube in a Patient with a Right Upper Tracheal Bronchus, who Underwent Left Pneumonectomy for Left Hilar Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Izumi; Kohchiyama, Tsukasa; Hayashida, Masakazu; Satoh, Daizoh; Suzuki, Kenji; Inada, Eiichi

    2016-06-01

    A 60-year-old male patient with left hilar lung cancer was scheduled to undergo left pneumonectomy or left sleeve lower lobectomy. Preoperative computer tomographic and bronchoscopic examinations revealed that the bronchus (B1) to the right apical segment (S1) was a tracheal bronchus (TB) originating from the trachea approximately 10 mm above the carina. Because the left main bronchus was to be dissected, a right-sided double-lumen tube (DLT) was selected to completely protect the right lung from spillage of secretions or cancer cells from the left lung. The right-sided DLT was placed so as to fit its lateral opening of the bronchial lumen to normal upper branches (B2, B3), while sacrificing ventilation of S1 with an abnormal branch (B1). However, one-lung ventilation (OLV) of the right lung could not be achieved, since a gas leakage from the opened tracheal lumen occurred, most probably due to intra-lobar micro-airway communications between S1 and S2/S3. The DLT was withdrawn until the blue bronchial cuff occluded the orifice of the TB (B1). Although the upper half of the blue bronchial cuff appeared above the tracheal carina, OLV through the two bronchial lumen openings could be achieved due to a specific, slanted doughnut shape of the blue bronchial cuff and the location of the abnormal branch (B1) approximate to the carina. Left pneumonectomy using successful OLV was completed safely without hypoxemia or hypercapnea. Our experience indicates that management of OLV for patients with a thoracheal bronchus needs special considerations of the exact location of the TB and intra-lobar micro-airway communications, in addition to types of scheduled surgical procedures.

  14. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  15. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  16. Bronchial blocker versus left double-lumen endotracheal tube in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: a randomized-controlled trial examining time and quality of lung deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, Jean S; Somma, Jacques; Del Castillo, José Luis Carrasco; Lemieux, Jérôme; Conti, Massimo; Ugalde, Paula A; Gagné, Nathalie; Lacasse, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Double-lumen endotracheal tubes (DL-ETT) and bronchial blockers (BB) have both been used for lung isolation in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Though not well studied, it is widely thought that a DL-ETT provides faster and better quality lung collapse. The aim of this study was to compare a BB technique vs a left-sided DL-ETT strategy with regard to the time and quality of lung collapse during one-lung ventilation (OLV) for elective VATS. Forty patients requiring OLV for VATS were randomized to receive a BB (n = 20) or a left-sided DL-ETT (n = 20). The primary endpoint was the time from pleural opening (performed by the surgeon) until complete lung collapse. The time was evaluated offline by reviewing video recorded during the VATS. The quality of lung deflation was also graded offline using a visual scale (1 = no lung collapse; 2 = partial lung collapse; and 3 = total lung collapse) and was recorded at several time points after pleural incision. The surgeon also graded the time to complete lung collapse and quality of lung deflation during the procedure. The surgeon's guess as to which device was used for lung isolation was also recorded. Of the 40 patients enrolled in the study, 20 patients in the DL-ETT group and 18 in the BB group were analyzed. There mean (standard deviation) time to complete lung collapse of the operative lung was significantly faster using the BB compared with using the DL-ETT [7.5 (3.8) min vs 36.6 (29.1) min, respectively; mean difference, 29.1 min; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 7.2; P < 0.001]. Overall, a higher proportion of patients in the BB group than in the DL-ETT group achieved a quality of lung collapse score of 3 at five minutes (57% vs 6%, respectively; P < 0.004), ten minutes (73% vs 14%, respectively; P = 0.005), and 20 min (100% vs 25%, respectively; P = 0.002) after opening the pleura. The surgeon incorrectly guessed the type of device used in 78% of the BB group and 50% of the DL-ETT group (P = 0.10). The time and

  17. Bronchial Blocker Versus Left Double-Lumen Endotracheal Tube for One-Lung Ventilation in Right Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Dai, Wei; Zong, Zhijun; Xiao, Yimin; Wu, Di; Liu, Xuesheng; Chun Wong, Gordon Tin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quality of lung deflation of a left-sided double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT) with a bronchial blocker (BB) for one-lung ventilation in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). A prospective, randomized, clinical study. A university-affiliated teaching hospital. Forty-five adult patients undergoing esophageal tumor surgery using VATS with right lung deflation. Patients were assigned by a computer-generated randomization sequence to either the left-sided DLT or BB group. The correct positioning of the airway device was confirmed using fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The variables assessed included: (1) time required to correctly place the devices and to achieve lung collapse; (2) the number of times the device malpositioned; (3) the quality of lung deflation as rated by the surgeon; (4) blood pressure and heart rate at baseline (T 1 ), immediately before (T 2 ) and after (T 3 ) and 1 minute (T 4 ) after intubation; (5) the number of patients with hypoxemia (SpO 2 one-lung ventilation (OLV) period; and (6) postoperative hoarseness of voice, sore throat, or pulmonary infection. Of the 45 patients approached for the study, 21 patients in the DLT group and 19 patients in the BB group were analyzed. The time required to place the device in the correct position was similar between the 2 groups. The time to achieve right lung collapse in the BB group was significantly longer (mean difference: 3.232, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.993-4.471; p = 0.003). The quality of lung collapse, OLV duration, number of patients with device malposition, and hypoxemia in both groups were similar. There were more patients suffering hoarseness (odds ratio [OR]: 4.85, 95% CI: 1.08-21.76; p = 0.034) or sore throat (OR: 4.29, 95% CI: 1.14-16.18; p = 0.030) in the DLT group, while no patients developed postoperative lung infection in either group. Compared to T 1 , systolic blood pressure (sBP), diastolic BP (dBP), and heart rate (HR) at T 2 in both groups

  18. Assessment of the rate of premolar extraction space closure in the maxillary arch with the AcceleDent Aura appliance vs no appliance in adolescents: A single-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Peter; Fisher, Elizabeth; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-arm parallel trial was to assess the effect of the AcceleDent Aura appliance (OrthoAccel Technologies, Houston, Tex) on the rate of maxillary premolar extraction space closure in adolescent patients. Forty Class II adolescents treated with full fixed appliances and maxillary premolar extractions participated in this randomized clinical trial. They were recruited in a private practice and treated by 1 clinician. Randomization was accomplished in blocks of 10 patients assigned to either a no-appliance group or the AcceleDent Aura appliance group with the allocations concealed in opaque, sealed envelopes. Both the operator and the outcome assessor were blinded; however, it was not feasible to blind the patients. Models were taken of the maxillary arch at the start of space closure and just before complete space closure. The space was measured parallel to the occlusal plane from the cusp tips of the teeth mesial and distal to the extraction spaces. There was no clinically (0.05 mm per month; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.24, 0.34) or statistically significant difference in the rate of space closure (P = 0.74). In both the univariable and multivariable analyses, the mean rate of tooth movement was slower by 0.13 mm per month (95% CI, -.26, .005) on the left side compared with the right side, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). The AcceleDent Aura appliance had no effect on the rate of maxillary premolar extraction space closure. Only a few participants were considered to be good compliers with the appliance. However, the rate of space closure in the good compliers was similar to the overall group and did not appear to influence the result. This trial was not registered. The protocol was not published before trial commencement. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  20. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  1. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  2. Space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  3. Economic analysis of crystal growth in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, D. R.; Chung, A. M.; Yan, C. S.; Mccreight, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Many advanced electronic technologies and devices for the 1980's are based on sophisticated compound single crystals, i.e. ceramic oxides and compound semiconductors. Space processing of these electronic crystals with maximum perfection, purity, and size is suggested. No ecomonic or technical justification was found for the growth of silicon single crystals for solid state electronic devices in space.

  4. Simplicial models for trace spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    Directed Algebraic Topology studies topological spaces in which certain directed paths (d-paths) - in general irreversible - are singled out. The main interest concerns the spaces of directed paths between given end points - and how those vary under variation of the end points. The original...... motivation stems from certain models for concurrent computation. So far, spaces of d-paths and their topological invariants have only been determined in cases that were elementary to overlook. In this paper, we develop a systematic approach describing spaces of directed paths - up to homotopy equivalence...

  5. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  6. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  7. Space dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical methods for Space Dynamics of fission reactors, are presented. It is shown how a few sample problems in space dynamics can be solved, within the one and two group diffusion model, by purely analytical tools, essentially based on Laplace transform and complex Green function techniques. A quite suggestive generalization of this approach, applicable to the fluid core reactors, whose fuel is undergoing a violent mixing, is reported and briefly discussed. (author)

  8. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  9. Space Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  10. Singled out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Frank

    2004-03-01

    The increasing use of single use medical devices is being driven by a growing awareness of iatrogenic (from the Greek; caused by the doctor) and nosocomial infections. Public health perceptions relating to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, specifically variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B are high on the political agenda and a matter of concern to healthcare professionals.

  11. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  12. Fructose suppresses uric acid excretion to the intestinal lumen as a result of the induction of oxidative stress by NADPH oxidase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Chihiro; Ogura, Jiro; Sasaki, Shunichi; Okamoto, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kuwayama, Kaori; Narumi, Katsuya; Iseki, Ken

    2017-03-01

    A high intake of fructose increases the risk for hyperuricemia. It has been reported that long-term fructose consumption suppressed renal uric acid excretion and increased serum uric acid level. However, the effect of single administration of fructose on excretion of uric acid has not been clarified. We used male Wistar rats, which were orally administered fructose (5g/kg). Those rats were used in each experiment at 12h after administration. Single administration of fructose suppressed the function of ileal uric acid excretion and had no effect on the function of renal uric acid excretion. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) predominantly contributes to intestinal excretion of uric acid as an active homodimer. Single administration of fructose decreased BCRP homodimer level in the ileum. Moreover, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox), recovered the suppression of the function of ileal uric acid excretion and the Bcrp homodimer level in the ileum of rats that received single administration of fructose. Single administration of fructose decreases in BCRP homodimer level, resulting in the suppression the function of ileal uric acid excretion. The suppression of the function of ileal uric acid excretion by single administration of fructose is caused by the activation of Nox. The results of our study provide a new insight into the mechanism of fructose-induced hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Laplacian eigenmodes for spherical spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, M; Caillerie, S

    2005-01-01

    The possibility that our space is multi-rather than singly-connected has gained renewed interest after the discovery of the low power for the first multipoles of the CMB by WMAP. To test the possibility that our space is a multi-connected spherical space, it is necessary to know the eigenmodes of such spaces. Except for lens and prism space, and to some extent for dodecahedral space, this remains an open problem. Here we derive the eigenmodes of all spherical spaces. For dodecahedral space, the demonstration is much shorter, and the calculation method much simpler than before. We also apply our method to tetrahedric, octahedric and icosahedric spaces. This completes the knowledge of eigenmodes for spherical spaces, and opens the door to new observational tests of the cosmic topology. The vector space V k of the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian on the 3-sphere S 3 , corresponding to the same eigenvalue λ k = -k(k + 2), has dimension (k + 1) 2 . We show that the Wigner functions provide a basis for such a space. Using the properties of the latter, we express the behaviour of a general function of V k under an arbitrary rotation G of SO(4). This offers the possibility of selecting those functions of V k which remain invariant under G. Specifying G to be a generator of the holonomy group of a spherical space X, we give the expression of the vector space V x k of the eigenfunctions of X. We provide a method to calculate the eigenmodes up to an arbitrary order. As an illustration, we give the first modes for the spherical spaces mentioned

  14. Space Guiding Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primikiri, Athina

    2016-04-01

    Taking into consideration the fact that general education provides the passport for a successful career the charting of Space consists of a constructive instrument available to every single teacher. Activities touching directly upon Space comprise a source of inspiration that encourages pupils to get acquainted with natural sciences and technology while consolidating their cross-curriculum knowledge. The applications and endeavors arising out of Space play a vital role for the further development and growth of our societies. Moreover, the prosperity of people is inextricably bound up with the implementation of Space policies adapted to different sectors such as the Environment, the phenomenon of climate change, matters affecting public or private safety, humanitarian aid and other technological issues. Therefore, the thorough analysis of Space endows us with insights about new products and innovative forms of industrial collaboration. As a teacher, I have consciously chosen to utilize the topic of Space in class as an instructive tool during the last 4 years. The lure of Space combined with the fascination provided by Space flights contributes to the enrichment of children's knowledge in the field of STEM. Space consists of the perfect cross-curriculum tool for the teaching of distinct subjects such as History, Geography, Science, Environment, Literature, Music, Religion and Physical Education. Following the Curriculum for pupils aged 9-10 I opted to teach the topic of Space under the title 'Space Guiding Us' as well as its subunits: • International Space Station • Cassini/Huygens, Mission to Titan • Rosetta & Philae • European Union and Space • Mission X: Train like an Astronaut The main purpose of choosing the module of 'Space' is to stimulate the scientific and critical thought of the pupils, to foster the co-operative spirit among them and to make them aware of how the application of Science affects their everyday lives. Aims • To incite pupils

  15. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  16. Tsirelson's space

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph provides a structure theory for the increasingly important Banach space discovered by B.S. Tsirelson. The basic construction should be accessible to graduate students of functional analysis with a knowledge of the theory of Schauder bases, while topics of a more advanced nature are presented for the specialist. Bounded linear operators are studied through the use of finite-dimensional decompositions, and complemented subspaces are studied at length. A myriad of variant constructions are presented and explored, while open questions are broached in almost every chapter. Two appendices are attached: one dealing with a computer program which computes norms of finitely-supported vectors, while the other surveys recent work on weak Hilbert spaces (where a Tsirelson-type space provides an example).

  17. Space doubt

    OpenAIRE

    Rega, Joseph Mark

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês e Literatura Correspondente. The recent surge in cyberspace science fiction follows previous trends within the genre, i.e. those connected with future city-space and outer space, and is an inevitable result of economic forces. There has always been a close relationship between capitalism and spatial expansion, compelled by technological innovations that ha...

  18. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  19. Phase Space Exchange in Thick Wedge Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The problem of phase space exchange in wedge absorbers with ionization cooling is discussed. The wedge absorber exchanges transverse and longitudinal phase space by introducing a position-dependent energy loss. In this paper we note that the wedges used with ionization cooling are relatively thick, so that single wedges cause relatively large changes in beam phase space. Calculation methods adapted to such “thick wedge” cases are presented, and beam phase-space transformations through such wedges are discussed.

  20. Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China plans to launch an unmanned space module,Tiangong 1,in 2011,said Qi Faren,the chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft,at the sidelines of the annual plenary session of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC),the country's top political advisory body,on March 3.

  1. Training Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  2. Space Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  3. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  4. Space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelmayer, A.

    2000-01-01

    Space research in Austria began since 1969 and has its roots in Graz. An overview of the projects performed by Austrian organizations such as local network interconnection via satellites systems, MIGMAS (Microanalysis station), ALP-SAT (Autonomous Libration Point-Satellite), MIDAS (Micro-imaging dust analysis system), among others are described. (nevyjel)

  5. Space Conquest

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers. This is the last chapter in the big programme by the PH Department to make better use of space at CERN.

  6. Cost Modeling for Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly (OTA). These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. Standard statistical methods are used to derive CERs for OTA cost versus aperture diameter and mass. The results are compared with previously published models.

  7. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  8. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  9. Space charge effects: tune shifts and resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1986-08-01

    The effects of space charge and beam-beam interactions on single particle motion in the transverse degree of freedom are considered. The space charge force and the resulting incoherent tune shift are described, and examples are given from the AGS and CERN's PSB. Equations of motion are given for resonances in the presence of the space charge force, and particle behavior is examined under resonance and space charge conditions. Resonance phase space structure is described with and without space charge. Uniform and bunched beams are compared. Beam-beam forces and resonances and beam-beam detuning are described. 18 refs., 15 figs

  10. Complete opacification of the esophageal lumen using helical (slip-ring) CT scanner with cellulose-barium paste, and its application to the evaluation of the effect of radiation therapy for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Nishioka, Akihito; Inomata, Taisuke; Yoshida, Shoji; Toki, Taiichi; Ogoshi, Shohei

    1996-01-01

    The esophageal lumen of patients with esophageal cancer or paraesophageal disorders is frequently impossible to visualize on CT image and, consequently, difficulties in the differentiation of esophageal tumor mass and adjacent organs are often encountered. Therefore, we have developed a safe, high viscous, oral contrast medium which contains carboxy-methyl cellulose sodium (a conventionally used laxative with mild effect and inexpensive) and low-density 2% barium. Helical CT scan using this medium plus intravenous injection of iodine contrast enhancement agent was performed in 24 patients with esophageal cancer or paraesophageal diseases. Complete opacification of the esophageal lumen was obtained for almost all images of the upper, middle and lower thoracic esophagus. This method is easy to use and has not caused any serious side effect so far. We have developed a new oral contrast agent for esophageal helical CT to estimate the volume of tumor on CT images before and after treatment. The therapeutic effect of radiotherapy in 10 patients with esophageal cancer was evaluated using this method. In seven of the 10 patients, the rate of decrease of the esophageal tumor mass during radiotherapy was much lower with our new method than with conventionally used method. Combination of these two methods is essential for the evaluation of the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. (author)

  11. Inventaire préliminaire de la faune lombricienne dans la Réserve et Domaine de Chasse de Bombo-Lumene, plateaux Batéké (République Démocratique du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milau, F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary Inventory of the Earthworm Fauna in the "Réserve et Domaine de chasse" of Bombo-Lumene Batéké Plateau (Democratic Republic of the Congo. The soil macrofauna is frequently cited for its important role in the physicochemical parameters of cultivated land. Moreover, the tillage frequency and the cropping intensity are key factors to be considered in the management of cropping systems. An inventory related to the changes in land use on the earthworm fauna was carried out. The diversity and the abundance of the harvested species were determined in savannah and in forest ecosystems. The study was conducted in the "Réserve et Domaine de chasse" of Bombo-Lumene located on Batéké Plateau in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Six types of environments have been prospected: semi-deciduous dense forests, gallery forests, second-growth forests, grasslands, woodland savannas, and crop land. Collected earthworm species are presented according to their habitat, their feeding habit, the kind of prostomium, and their geographical distribution.

  12. Space Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  13. Spacing Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how architectural design, and the spatial and material changes this involves, contributes to the continuous shaping of identities in an organization. Based upon a case study of organizational and architectural change in a municipal administration at a time of major public...... sector reforms, we examine how design interventions were used to (re)form work and professional relationships. The paper examines how engagements with spatial arrangements and material artifacts affected people’s sense of both occupational and organizational identity. Taking a relational approach...... to sociomateriality, the paper contributes to the further theorizing of space in organization studies by proposing the concept of spacing identity to capture the fluidity of identity performance....

  14. Communication spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  15. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  16. Space Handbook,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    thle early life * of" the system. Figure 4-2 shows the variation in power output for polonium - 210 (Po- 210 ) with a 138-day half-life, curium-242 (Cm...miles above the earth’s surface. Above this altitude they must take everything they need with them. The environment will supply them with neither food ...can move large payloads through space. The radioisotope heat cycle engines use high-energy particle sources such as plutonium and polonium . The walls

  17. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  18. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    , called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness...

  19. Modified Single Stapler Technique in Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbaba, D.; Ersoy, P.E.; Gundogdu, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    Technical difficulties during colorectal surgery increase the complication rates. We introduce a modified single stapler technique for patients in whom technical problems are encountered while performing double stapler technique. Before pelvic dissection, descending colon is divided at minimum 10 cm proximal to the tumoral segment. Tumor specific mesorectal excision is performed and two purse string sutures are placed at the distal margin with an interval of 1 - 2 cm. After introducing a circular stapler via the anus, the distal purse string suture is tied around the central shaft of the stapler and the proximal purse string suture around the colonic lumen. After the resection is completed between the two sutures, the anvil shaft is connected to the central shaft and the stapler is closed and fired. None of the patients had an anastomotic leak. This technique may be a safe alternative particularly in patients with narrow pelvis and distal tumors. (author)

  20. SpaceExplorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard

    2007-01-01

    Web pages are designed to be displayed on a single screen, but as more and more screens are being introduced in our surroundings a burning question becomes how to design, interact, and display web pages on multiple devices and displays. In this paper I present the SpaceExplorer prototype, which...... is able to display standard HTML web pages on multiple displays with only a minor modification to the language. Based on the prototype a number of different examples are presented and discussed and some preliminary findings are presented....

  1. Space Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Steph; Saraiva, Jose; Doran, Rosa

    2017-04-01

    NUCLIO is a Portuguese non-profit organization with a strong record of investing in science education and outreach. We have developed and implemented many activities mostly directed to a young audience, in a bid to awaken and reinforce the interest that young people devote to Astronomy and all things spatial. In this framework, we have created a week-long program called Space Detectives, supported by the Municipality of Cascais, based on a story-line that provided a number of challenges and opportunities for learning matters as diverse as the electro-magnetic spectrum, means of communication, space travel, the martian environment, coding and robotics. We report on the first session that took place in December 2016. We had as participants several kids aged 9 to 12, with a mixed background in terms of interest in the sciences. Their response varied from enthusiastic to somewhat less interested, depending on the nature of the subject and the way it was presented - a reaction not necessarily related to its complexity. This week was taken as something of a trial run, in preparation for the European Commission- funded project "Stories of Tomorrow", to be implemented in schools. The individual activities and the way they were related to the story-line, as well as the smooth transition from one to the next, were subject to an analysis that will allow for improvements in the next installments of this program. We believe this is an excellent approach to the goals of using Space and Astronomy as an anchor for generating and keeping interest in the scientific areas, and of finding new and richer ways of learning.

  2. What Exactly is Space Logistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    series, movies, and video games. Such phrases as “the final frontier” (from the opening lines of Star Trek ) or “the ulti- mate high ground” (from...years as NASA , DoD, and commercial space launch customers brought individual requirements to the table; there was no single, focused development

  3. Space polypropulsion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kellett, BJ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available understandably, fallen by the wayside. NASAs putative atom bomb propelled mission, coincidently also baptized ORION, was also curtailed. And last of all, the use of lasers for propulsion remains firmly “stuck in the doldrums.” This mode of access to space...) Except for LOX, very polluting. V. high ζ Launch costs: $20,000/kg. Gas guns. 1 1-4 km/s Most of the system mass stays on the ground. Recoil problems. Large NASA gas gun project abandoned. (too many “g’s”) E-M guns: rail/coil. 1.5 1-10 km...

  4. Space Technospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn

  5. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  6. Space Pharmacology

    CERN Document Server

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2012-01-01

    Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  7. Urban Spaces and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Grazia De Paoli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of vulnerability understood in the traditional sense as a “single manufactured good” is insufficient when it comes to describing the real conditions of an urban system’s vulnerability within which an indefinite variable of factors interact with one another thereby determining the damage caused by an earthquake. These interacting factors constitute so-called “urban vulnerability” which town planners use in order to contribute to the field in the form of analysis definition and interventions in the mitigation of seismic risk on an urban scale. The research paper “Relational Spaces as Safe Places” positions itself firmly in the vein of town planning research which focuses on the mitigation of seismic risk, and which intends to blaze a new methodological trail that aims to identify safety traits in urban spaces. The research paper’s starting point is the assumption that empty urban spaces, given the indications provided by the principal organs for Civic Protection, have come to be seen as the spaces designed to accommodate the public in cases of emergency. This can generate new thought regarding town planning by reviewing early post-earthquake urban designs where the rules were laid out for earthquake-proof cities: a “chessboard” plan with wide streets, both straight and perpendicular, empty spaces like squares and markets positioned along the longitudinal streets, and buildings with regular layouts all at right-angles. These simple guidelines, which are often disregarded and distorted in modern towns, are extraordinarily relevant and oriented towards new definitions of the urban traits of quality and security.

  8. Observational Model for Precision Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turyshev, Slava G; Milman, Mark H

    2000-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based 10-m baseline Michelson optical interferometer operating in the visible waveband that is designed to achieve astrometric accuracy in the single digits of the microarcsecond domain...

  9. Space Qualified, Radiation Hardened, Dense Monolithic Flash Memory, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to build a radiation hardened by design (RHBD) flash memory, using a modified version of our RH-eDRAM Memory Controller to solve all the single...

  10. Sensorimotor and social aspects of peripersonal space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkerman, H. Chris; Farnè, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    About three decades ago, multisensory coding of the space surrounding the body was first described (Rizzolatti et al., 1981). Neurophysiological primate studies showed that information from different sensory modalities converge at single cell level within a set of interconnected multisensory

  11. Investigation of single event latchup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yuxiong; Yang Shengsheng; Cao Zhou; Ba Dedong; An Heng; Chen Luojing; Guo Gang

    2012-01-01

    Radiation effects on avionics microelectronics are important reliability issues for many space applications. In particular, single-event latchup (SEL) phenomenon is a major threat to CMOS integrated circuits in space systems. To effectively circumvent the failure, it is important to know the behavior of such devices during latchup. In this paper, the mechanisms for SEL in CMOS devices are investigated. Several microelectronic devices used in avionics are tested using heavy ion beams, pulsed laser and 252 Cf source. Based on the SEL test results, SEL-hardening and monitoring methods for preventing SEL from the systems design level are proposed. (authors)

  12. Potential In Vivo UVC Disinfection of Catheter Lumens: Estimation of the Doses Received by the Blood Flow Outside the Catheter Tip Hole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Helfmann, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    hole for administration of drugs, bloods or nutrients into the bloodstream. Even if the UVC light is strongly attenuated during its propagation through the catheter tube a fraction of the UVC launched into the catheter will escape through the exit hole and irradiate the blood. We demonstrate......We have demonstrated that it is possible to launch UVC LED light into bacterial contaminated polymer tubes/catheters and disinfect the intraluminal space of these tubes. This can be achieved by UVC treatment of the catheters on a regular basis. Catheters are in the distal end equipped with an exit...... by calculations that very small effective doses are exposed to the blood (ca 10(-4) J m(-2) ). This dosage level is very low compared with UVC doses reported from other therapeutic applications. The very short residence time of the blood constituents in the irradiated volume in front of the exit hole is the main...

  13. Single access laparoscopic nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay D Raman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic nephrectomy has assumed a central role in the management of benign and malignant kidney diseases. While laparoscopy is less morbid than open surgery, it still requires several incisions each at least 1-2 cm in length. Each incision carries morbidity risks of bleeding, hernia and/or internal organ damage, and incrementally decreases cosmesis. An alternative to conventional laparoscopy is single access or keyhole surgery, which utilizes magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS technology or articulating laparoscopic instruments. These technical innovations obviate the need to externally space trocars for triangulation, thus allowing for the creation of a small, solitary portal of entry into the abdomen. Laboratory and early clinical series demonstrate feasibility as well as safe and successful completion of keyhole nephrectomy. Future work is necessary to improve existing instrumentation, increase clinical experience, assess benefits of this surgical approach, and explore other potential applications for this technique.

  14. Trace spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Goubault, Eric; Haucourt, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    in the interleaving semantics of a concurrent program, but rather some equivalence classes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new algorithm to compute such equivalence classes, and a representative per class, which is based on ideas originating in algebraic topology. We introduce a geometric semantics...... of concurrent languages, where programs are interpreted as directed topological spaces, and study its properties in order to devise an algorithm for computing dihomotopy classes of execution paths. In particular, our algorithm is able to compute a control-flow graph for concurrent programs, possibly containing...... loops, which is “as reduced as possible” in the sense that it generates traces modulo equivalence. A preliminary implementation was achieved, showing promising results towards efficient methods to analyze concurrent programs, with very promising results compared to partial-order reduction techniques....

  15. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  16. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  17. Compactly supported frames for decomposition spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    2012-01-01

    In this article we study a construction of compactly supported frame expansions for decomposition spaces of Triebel-Lizorkin type and for the associated modulation spaces. This is done by showing that finite linear combinations of shifts and dilates of a single function with sufficient decay in b...

  18. Radiation effects on microelectronics in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srour, J.R.; McGarrity, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The basic mechanisms of space radiation effects on microelectronics are reviewed in this paper. Topics discussed include the effects of displacement damage and ionizing radiation on devices and circuits, single event phenomena, dose enhancement, radiation effects on optoelectronic devices and passive components, hardening approaches, and simulation of the space radiation environment. A summary is presented of damage mechanisms that can cause temporary or permanent failure of devices and circuits operating in space

  19. Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  20. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  1. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  2. Realizing spaces as path-component spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Banakh, Taras; Brazas, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    The path component space of a topological space $X$ is the quotient space $\\pi_0(X)$ whose points are the path components of $X$. We show that every Tychonoff space $X$ is the path-component space of a Tychonoff space $Y$ of weight $w(Y)=w(X)$ such that the natural quotient map $Y\\to \\pi_0(Y)=X$ is a perfect map. Hence, many topological properties of $X$ transfer to $Y$. We apply this result to construct a compact space $X\\subset \\mathbb{R}^3$ for which the fundamental group $\\pi_1(X,x_0)$ is...

  3. Curved twistor spaces and H-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    The curved twistor space construction of Penrose for anti-self-dual solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations is described. Curved twistor spaces are defined and it is shown with the aid of an example how to obtain them by deforming the complex structure of regions of flat twistor space. The connection of this procedure with Newman's H-space construction via asymptotic twistor space is outlined. (Auth.)

  4. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  5. On RC-spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Following Frink's characterization of completely regular spaces, we say that a regular T_1-space is an RC-space whenever the family of all regular open sets constitutes a regular normal base. Normal spaces are RC-spaces and there exist completely regular spaces which are not RC-spaces. So the question arises, which of the known examples of completely regular and not normal spaces are RC-spaces. We show that the Niemytzki plane and the Sorgenfrey plane are RC-spaces.

  6. Investigations of lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathungage Don, Tharanga; Richard Clarke Collaboration; John Cater Collaboration; Vinod Suresh Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The lymphatic system is a highly complex biological system that facilitates the drainage of excess fluid in body tissues. In addition, it is an integral part of the immunological control system. Understanding the mechanisms of fluid absorption from the interstitial space and flow through the initial lymphatics is important to treat several pathological conditions. The main focus of this study is to computationally model the lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space. The model has been developed to consider a 3D lymphatic network and uses biological data to inform the creation of realistic geometries for the lymphatic capillary networks. We approximate the interstitial space as a porous region and the lymphatic vessel walls as permeable surfaces. The dynamics of the flow is approximated by Darcy's law in the interstitium and the Navier-Stokes equations in the lymphatic capillary lumen. The proposed model examines lymph drainage as a function of pressure gradient. In addition, we have examined the effects of interstitial and lymphatic wall permeabilities on the lymph drainage and the solute transportation in the model. The computational results are in accordance with the available experimental measurements.

  7. City project and public space

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

  8. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  9. Quantum phase space points for Wigner functions in finite-dimensional spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Aina, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    We introduce quantum states associated with single phase space points in the Wigner formalism for finite-dimensional spaces. We consider both continuous and discrete Wigner functions. This analysis provides a procedure for a direct practical observation of the Wigner functions for states and transformations without inversion formulas.

  10. Quantum phase space points for Wigner functions in finite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    We introduce quantum states associated with single phase space points in the Wigner formalism for finite-dimensional spaces. We consider both continuous and discrete Wigner functions. This analysis provides a procedure for a direct practical observation of the Wigner functions for states and transformations without inversion formulas

  11. Spaces on sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triebel, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with spaces B s pq and F s pq of positive smoothness s>0, based on L p -spaces with 0< p≤∞ and reproducing formulae for smooth functions. These spaces are compared with other B-spaces and F-spaces obtained by different means

  12. A comparison of outcomes between a lumen-apposing metal stent with electrocautery-enhanced delivery system and a bi-flanged metal stent for drainage of walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkali, Noor L H; Nayar, Manu K; Leeds, John S; Charnley, Richard M; Huggett, Matthew T; Oppong, Kofi W

    2017-12-01

     Bi-flanged metal stents (BFMS) have shown promise in the drainage of walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON), but their placement requires multiple steps and the use of other devices. More recently, a novel device consisting of a combined lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) and electrocautery-enhanced delivery system has been introduced. The aim of this study was to compare the placement and outcomes of the two devices.  This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic ultrasound-guided placement of BFMS or LAMS for drainage of symptomatic WON. Data from procedures between October 2012 and December 2016 were taken from a prospectively maintained database. We compared technical and clinical success, procedure time, costs, and composite end point of significant events (adverse events, stent migration, additional percutaneous drainage) between BFMS and LAMS.  72 consecutive patients underwent placement of BFMS (40 patients, 44 stents) or LAMS (32 patients, 33 stents). Technical success was 91 % for BFMS and 97 % for LAMS. Clinical success was 65 % vs. 78 %, respectively. Median in-room procedure time was significantly shorter in the LAMS group (45 minutes [range 30 - 80]) than in the BFMS group (62.5 minutes [range 35 - 135]; P  comparable adverse events, success, and costs.

  13. Positive pressure ventilation in a patient with a right upper lobar bronchocutaneous fistula: right upper bronchus occlusion using the cuff of a left-sided double lumen endobronchial tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Chieko; Toyama, Hiroaki; Takei, Yusuke; Ejima, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Masanori

    2017-08-01

    In patients with a bronchocutaneous fistula, positive pressure ventilation leads to air leakage and potential hypoxemia. A male patient with a right upper bronchocutaneous fistula was scheduled for esophageal reconstruction. His preoperative chest computed tomography image revealed aeration in the right middle and lower lobe, a large bulla in the left upper lobe, and pleural effusion and pneumonia in the left lower lobe. Therefore, left one-lung ventilation was considered to result in hypoxemia. Before anesthesia induction, the bronchocutaneous fistula was covered with gauze and film to prevent air leakage. After anesthesia induction, mask ventilation was performed with a peak positive pressure of 10 cmH 2 O. A left-sided double lumen endobronchial tube (DLT) was then inserted into the right main bronchus for occluding only the right superior bronchus, and two-lung ventilation was performed to minimize airway pressure and maintain oxygenation, which did not cause air leakage through the fistula. During anesthesia, no ventilation-related difficulty was faced. The method of inserting a left-sided DLT into the right main bronchus and occluding the right upper bronchus selectively by bronchial cuff is considered to be an option for mechanical ventilation in patients with a right upper bronchial fistula, as demonstrated in the present case.

  14. mode of collapse of square single panel reinforced concrete space

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The models were loaded directly till collapse. The estimated and actual collapse loads of the five models were compared. The estimated collapse load for the slab was 35 kN/m2. Also, the numerical estimate of the collapse load for the beam was 10.2kN/m (with an equivalent slab load of 40.8kN/m2), while the shear capacity ...

  15. The Second Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  16. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  17. Quasi-uniform Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  18. Quasi-uniform Space

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  19. Space Weather in Operation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Space Weather in Operations” effort will provide on-demand and near-real time space weather event information to the Data Access Toolkit (DAT), which is the...

  20. On birecurrent spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    A birecurrent space is defined with its classification and studied with involvement of Einstein, conformally flat, conformally symmetric and conformally recurrent spaces. A necessary and sufficient condition that a birecurrent space be recurrent is found. (author). 6 refs

  1. Common Fixed Points of Mappings and Set-Valued Mappings in Symmetric Spaces with Application to Probabilistic Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    M. Aamri; A. Bassou; S. Bennani; D. El Moutawakil

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to give some common fixed point theorems of mappings and set-valued mappings of a symmetric space with some applications to probabilistic spaces. In order to get these results, we define the concept of E-weak compatibility between set-valued and single-valued mappings of a symmetric space.

  2. Conformal Einstein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)

  3. Compliant Space Mechanisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OBJECTIVES The proposed research will combine the areas of compliant mechanisms and space technology. Compliant mechanisms perform their function through the elastic...

  4. Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valish, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

  5. Single event upset test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russen, L.C.

    1984-11-01

    It has been shown that the heavy ions in cosmic rays can give rise to single event upsets in VLSI random access memory devices (RAMs). Details are given of the programs written to test 1K, 4K, 16K and 64K memories during their irradiation with heavy charged ions, in order to simulate the effects of cosmic rays in space. The test equipment, which is used to load the memory device to be tested with a known bit pattern, and subsequently interrogate it for upsets, or ''flips'', is fully described. (author)

  6. documents Nostra aetate and Lumen gentium7

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    non-Christian cultures became known to the West through their moral and spiritual .... That is the reason why academic terms such as 'problem' were avoided ..... 2007, Inter-religious dialogue: Urgent challenge and theological Land-Mine, ...

  7. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  8. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  9. Organic chemistry in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  10. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  11. Space Guidelines for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Coordinating Committee for Higher Education, Madison.

    The following guidelines are recommended: stack space--for each 10 volumes, one square foot of space; reading room--25 square feet per station x 20% of the total undergraduate population; carrel space--25% of the graduate enrollment x 45 square feet; office and auxilliary space--135 square feet x full time equivalent staff. (NI)

  12. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  13. Successful 1:1 proportion ventilation with a unique device for independent lung ventilation using a double-lumen tube without complications in the supine and lateral decubitus positions. A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kowalczyk

    Full Text Available Adequate blood oxygenation and ventilation/perfusion matching should be main goal of anaesthetic and intensive care management. At present, one of the methods of improving gas exchange restricted by ventilation/perfusion mismatching is independent ventilation with two ventilators. Recently, however, a unique device has been developed, enabling ventilation of independent lungs in 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 5:1 proportions. The main goal of the study was to evaluate the device's utility, precision and impact on pulmonary mechanics. Secondly- to measure the gas distribution in supine and lateral decubitus position.69 patients who underwent elective thoracic surgery were eligible for the study. During general anaesthesia, after double lumen tube intubation, the aforementioned control system was placed between the anaesthetic machine and the patient. In the supine and lateral decubitus (left/right positions, measurements of conventional and independent (1:1 proportion ventilation were performed separately for each lung, including the following: tidal volume, peak pressure and dynamic compliance.Our results show that conventional ventilation using Robertshaw tube in the supine position directs 47% of the tidal volume to the left lung and 53% to the right lung. Furthermore, in the left lateral position, 44% is directed to the dependent lung and 56% to the non-dependent lung. In the right lateral position, 49% is directed to the dependent lung and 51% to the non-dependent lung. The control system positively affected non-dependent and dependent lung ventilation by delivering equal tidal volumes into both lungs with no adverse effects, regardless of patient's position.We report that gas distribution is uneven during conventional ventilation using Robertshaw tube in the supine and lateral decubitus positions. However, this recently released control system enables precise and safe independent ventilation in the supine and the left and right lateral decubitus

  14. EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections using a novel lumen-apposing metal stent on an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system: a large retrospective study (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinninella, Emanuele; Kunda, Rastislav; Dollhopf, Markus; Sanchez-Yague, Andres; Will, Uwe; Tarantino, Ilaria; Gornals Soler, Joan; Ullrich, Sebastian; Meining, Alexander; Esteban, Josè Miguel; Enz, Thomas; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Vleggaar, Frank; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    A lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent incorporated in an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system for EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) recently has become available. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and clinical effectiveness of this newly developed device in this clinical setting. This was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients with PFCs who underwent EUS-guided drainage using the study device in 13 European centers. Ninety-three patients with PFCs (80% with complex collections) underwent drainage using the study device. Penetration of the PFC was accomplished directly with the study device in 74.2% of patients, and successful stent placement was accomplished in all but 1 patient, mostly without fluoroscopic assistance. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) was carried out in 31 of 52 cases (59.6%) of walled-off necrosis and in 2 of 4 cases (50%) of acute peripancreatic fluid collection. Complete resolution of the PFC was obtained in 86 cases (92.5%), with no recurrence during follow-up. Treatment failure occurred in 6 patients because of persistent infection requiring surgery (n = 3), perforation and massive bleeding caused by the nasocystic drainage catheter (NCDC) (n = 2), and the need for a larger opening to extract large necrotic tissue pieces (n = 1). Major adverse events occurred in 5 patients (perforation and massive bleeding caused by the NCDC in 2 patients, 1 pneumoperitoneum and 1 stent dislodgement during DEN, and 1 postdrainage infection) and were mostly not related to the drainage procedure. EUS-guided drainage with the electrocautery-enhanced delivery system is a safe, easy to perform, and a highly effective minimally invasive treatment modality for PFCs. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Theory of function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Triebel, Hans

    1983-01-01

    The book deals with the two scales Bsp,q and Fsp,q of spaces of distributions, where -8spaces, such as Hölder spaces, Zygmund classes, Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces, Bessel-potential spaces, Hardy spaces and spaces of BMO-type. It is the main aim of this book to give a unified treatment of the corresponding spaces on the Euclidean n-space Rn in the framework of Fourier analysis, which is based on the technique of maximal functions, Fourier multipliers and interpolation assertions. These topics are treated in Chapter 2, which is the heart

  16. National Space Agencies vs. Commercial Space: Towards Improved Space Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J.

    2013-09-01

    Traditional space policies as developed at the national level includes many elements but they are most typically driven by economic and political objectives. Legislatively administered programs apportion limited public funds to achieve "gains" that can involve employment, stimulus to the economy, national defense or other advancements. Yet political advantage is seldom far from the picture.Within the context of traditional space policies, safety issues cannot truly be described as "afterthoughts", but they are usually, at best, a secondary or even tertiary consideration. "Space safety" is often simply assumed to be "in there" somewhere. The current key question is can "safety and risk minimization", within new commercial space programs actually be elevated in importance and effectively be "designed in" at the outset. This has long been the case with commercial aviation and there is at least reasonable hope that this could also be the case for the commercial space industry in coming years. The cooperative role that the insurance industry has now played for centuries in the shipping industry and for decades in aviation can perhaps now play a constructive role in risk minimization in the commercial space domain as well. This paper begins by examining two historical case studies in the context of traditional national space policy development to see how major space policy decisions involving "manned space programs" have given undue primacy to "political considerations" over "safety" and other factors. The specific case histories examined here include first the decision to undertake the Space Shuttle Program (i.e. 1970-1972) and the second is the International Space Station. In both cases the key and overarching decisions were driven by political, schedule and cost considerations, and safety seems absence as a prime consideration. In publicly funded space programs—whether in the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, China, India or elsewhere—it seems realistic to

  17. Space Sciences Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    To advance our understanding of the space environment (from the Sun to the Earth and beyond) and to advance our ability to operate systems in space that protect life and society. Space Science is distinct from other field, such as astrophysics or cosmology, in that Space Science utilizes in-situ measurements from high altitude rockets, balloons and spacecraft or ground-based measurements of objects and conditions in space.

  18. The Austrian Space Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  19. Single-event effect ground test issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-based single event effect (SEE) testing of microcircuits permits characterization of device susceptibility to various radiation induced disturbances, including: (1) single event upset (SEU) and single event latchup (SEL) in digital microcircuits; (2) single event gate rupture (SEGR), and single event burnout (SEB) in power transistors; and (3) bit errors in photonic devices. These characterizations can then be used to generate predictions of device performance in the space radiation environment. This paper provides a general overview of ground-based SEE testing and examines in critical depth several underlying conceptual constructs relevant to the conduct of such tests and to the proper interpretation of results. These more traditional issues are contrasted with emerging concerns related to the testing of modern, advanced microcircuits

  20. Combining polysaccharide biosynthesis and transport in a single enzyme: dual-function cell wall glycan synthases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kent Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polysaccharides are synthesized by a wide variety of species, from unicellular bacteria and Archaea to the largest multicellular plants and animals in the biosphere. In every case, the biosynthesis of these polymers requires transport across a membrane, from the cytosol to either the lumen of secretory pathway organelles or directly into the extracellular space. Although some polysaccharide biosynthetic substrates are moved across the membrane to sites of polysaccharide synthesis by separate transporter proteins before being incorporated into polymers by glycosyltransferase proteins, many polysaccharide biosynthetic enzymes appear to have both transporter and transferase activities. In these cases, the biosynthetic enzymes utilize substrate on one side of the membrane and deposit the polymer product on the other side. This review discusses structural characteristics of plant cell wall glycan synthases that couple synthesis with transport, drawing on what is known about such dual-function enzymes in other species.

  1. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  2. Axiomatics of uniform space-time models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levichev, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical statement of space-time axiomatics of the special theory of relativity is given; it postulates that the space-time M is the binding single boundary Hausedorf local-compact four-dimensional topological space with the given order. The theorem is proved: if the invariant order in the four-dimensional group M is given by the semi-group P, which contingency K contains inner points , then M is commutative. The analogous theorem is correct for the group of two and three dimensionalities

  3. Hybrid fixed point in CAT(0 spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an ultrapower approach to prove fixed point theorems for $H^{+}$-nonexpansive multi-valued mappings in the setting of CAT(0 spaces and prove several hybrid fixed point results in CAT(0 spaces for families of single-valued nonexpansive or quasinonexpansive mappings and multi-valued upper semicontinuous, almost lower semicontinuous or $H^{+}$-nonexpansive mappings which are weakly commuting. We also establish a result about structure of the set of fixed points of $H^{+}$-quasinonexpansive mapping on a CAT(0 space.

  4. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Prince, F. Andrew; Smart, Christian; Stephens, Kyle; Henrichs, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes, this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.

  5. Ethernet for Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will

  6. Esrange Space Center, a Gate to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widell, Ola

    Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) is operating the Esrange Space Center in northern Sweden. Space operations have been performed for more than 40 years. We have a unique combination of maintaining balloon and rocket launch operations, and building payloads, providing space vehicles and service systems. Sub-orbital rocket flights with land recovery and short to long duration balloon flights up to weeks are offered. The geographical location, land recovery area and the long term experience makes Swedish Space Corporation and Esrange to an ideal gate for space activities. Stratospheric balloons are primarily used in supporting atmospheric research, validation of satellites and testing of space systems. Balloon operations have been carried out at Esrange since 1974. A large number of balloon flights are yearly launched in cooperation with CNES, France. Since 2005 NASA/CSBF and Esrange provide long duration balloon flights to North America. Flight durations up to 5 days with giant balloons (1.2 Million cubic metres) carrying heavy payload (up to 2500kg) with astronomical instruments has been performed. Balloons are also used as a crane for lifting space vehicles or parachute systems to be dropped and tested from high altitude. Many scientific groups both in US, Europe and Japan have indicated a great need of long duration balloon flights. Esrange will perform a technical polar circum balloon flight during the summer 2008 testing balloon systems and flight technique. We are also working on a permission giving us the opportunity on a circular stratospheric balloon flight around the North Pole.

  7. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-07-01

    SpaceTech is a postgraduate program geared primarily for mid-career space professionals seeking to gain or improve their expertise in space systems engineering and in business engineering. SpaceTech provides a lifelong impact on its participants by broadening their capabilities, encouraging systematic "end-to-end" thinking and preparing them for any technical or business-related engineering challenges they may encounter. This flexible 1-year program offers high competency gain and increased business skills. It is held in attractive locations in a flexible, multi-cultural environment. SpaceTech is a highly effective master's program certified by the esteemed Technical University of Delft (TUD), Netherlands. SpaceTech provides expert instructors who place no barriers between themselves and participants. The program combines innovative and flexible new approaches with time-tested methods to give participants the skills required for future missions and new business, while allowing participants to meet their work commitments at the same time as they study for their master's degree. The SpaceTech program is conducted in separate sessions, generally each of 2-week duration, separated by periods of some 6-8 weeks, during which time participants may return to their normal jobs. It also includes introductory online course material that the participants can study at their leisure. The first session is held at the TUD, with subsequent sessions held at strategic space agency locations. By participating at two or more of these sessions, attendees can earn certificates of satisfactory completion from TU Delft. By participating in all of the sessions, as well as taking part in the companion Central Case Project (CCP), participants earn an accredited and highly respected master's degree in Space Systems Engineering from the TUD. Seven distinct SpaceTech modules are provided during these sessions: Space Mission Analysis and Design, Systems Engineering, Business Engineering

  8. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-01-01

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space

  9. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-05-17

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

  10. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  11. LENA Conversion Foils Using Single-Layer Graphene, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our key innovation will be the use of single-layer graphene as LENA conversion foils, with appropriate microgrids and nanogrids to support the foils. Phase I...

  12. 1.26 Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of an innovative compact, high power, and extremely reliable 1.26 micron Ho-doped single frequency fiber laser. The proposed...

  13. 1.26 Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of an innovative compact, high power, and extremely reliable 1.26 micron Ho-doped single frequency fiber laser. The proposed...

  14. Single Molecule Scanning of DNA Radiation Oxidative Damage, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal will develop an assay to map genomic DNA, at the single molecule level and in a nanodevice, for oxidative DNA damage arising from radiation exposure;...

  15. Non Invasive Instrumentation For Single Event Effects (NIISEE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — On this Phase 1 project, Adventium will identify and address key hurdles to achieve Radiation Hardening by Software (RHS) for Single Event Effects (SEEs) for modern...

  16. Modeling and Development of Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines a research project as the central component of a Ph.D. program focused on the device physics of superconducting nanowire single photon...

  17. Phase-space quantum control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    The von Neumann-representation introduced in this thesis describes each laser pulse in a one-to-one manner as a sum of bandwidth-limited, Gaussian laser pulses centered around different points in phase space. These pulses can be regarded as elementary building blocks from which every single laser pulse can be constructed. The von Neumann-representation combines different useful properties for applications in quantum control. First, it is a one-to-one map between the degrees of freedom of the pulse shaper and the phase-space representation of the corresponding shaped laser pulse. In other words: Every possible choice of pulse shaper parameters corresponds to exactly one von Neumann-representation and vice versa. Moreover, since temporal and spectral structures become immediately sizable, the von Neumann-representation, as well as the Husimi- or the Wigner-representations, allows for an intuitive interpretation of the represented laser pulse. (orig.)

  18. The regeneration of living space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Cao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Technicism and technocracy, and that is to say, the methodologies that originate and develop from strictly technical issues, risk overshadow the great wealth of knowledge acquired in “urban studies” between the 60s and 80s. If we refer to the Italian condition: the architecture must manage urban phenomena with the same role as before, yet with a single, substantial innovation: rejecting, as much as possible, to design and build on open space and instead increase revitalization projects that build through renewal strategies of recovery, transformation or recycling. We ought to go back to when an architecture project was considered a path of knowledge and not just of invention, giving preference to space instead of image, content instead of form and wisdom over creative impulse.

  19. Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  20. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  1. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  2. A Foothold in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    With the successful launch of Tiangong-I (Heavenly Palace -I)unmanned module on September 29,China took a significant step forward in realizing its ambitions in space.China's manned space program consists of three steps.The first step,to send an astronaut into space,was achieved in 2003.The second step,to realize multi-person space flight for extended periods of time,has been fulfilled twice.During China's third manned space flight in 2008,Chinese astronauts walked in space.

  3. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  4. Free topological vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.

    2016-01-01

    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  5. Space Shuttle critical function audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Ivan J.; Dipol, John; Su, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A large fault-tolerance model of the main propulsion system of the US space shuttle has been developed. This model is being used to identify single components and pairs of components that will cause loss of shuttle critical functions. In addition, this model is the basis for risk quantification of the shuttle. The process used to develop and analyze the model is digraph matrix analysis (DMA). The DMA modeling and analysis process is accessed via a graphics-based computer user interface. This interface provides coupled display of the integrated system schematics, the digraph models, the component database, and the results of the fault tolerance and risk analyses.

  6. Isometries on Banach spaces function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental to the study of any mathematical structure is an understanding of its symmetries. In the class of Banach spaces, this leads naturally to a study of isometries-the linear transformations that preserve distances. In his foundational treatise, Banach showed that every linear isometry on the space of continuous functions on a compact metric space must transform a continuous function x into a continuous function y satisfying y(t) = h(t)x(p(t)), where p is a homeomorphism and |h| is identically one.Isometries on Banach Spaces: Function Spaces is the first of two planned volumes that survey investigations of Banach-space isometries. This volume emphasizes the characterization of isometries and focuses on establishing the type of explicit, canonical form given above in a variety of settings. After an introductory discussion of isometries in general, four chapters are devoted to describing the isometries on classical function spaces. The final chapter explores isometries on Banach algebras.This treatment p...

  7. Cleaning Effectiveness of a Reciprocating Single-file and a Conventional Rotary Instrumentation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fredson Marcio Acris; Gonçalves, Leonardo Cantanhede de Oliveira; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Alves, Vanessa; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; De Martin, Alexandre Sigrist

    2016-01-01

    To compare cleaning effectiveness by histological analysis of a reciprocating single-file system with ProTaper rotary instruments during the preparation of curved root canals in extracted teeth. A total of 40 root canals with curvatures ranging between 20 - 40 degrees were divided into two groups of 20 canals. Canals were prepared to the following apical sizes: Reciproc size 25 (n=20); ProTaper: F2 (n=20). The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for the test (Mann-Whitney U test, P .05) between the two groups. The application of reciprocating motion during instrumentation did not result in increased debris when compared with continuous rotation motion, even in the apical part of curved canals. Both instruments resulted in debris in the canal lumen, irrespective of the movement kinematics applied.

  8. Single atom oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiorkowski, P.; Walther, H.

    1990-01-01

    Modern methods of laser spectroscopy allow the study of single atoms or ions in an unperturbed environment. This has opened up interesting new experiments, among them the detailed study of radiation-atom coupling. In this paper, the following two experiments dealing with this problem are reviewed: the single-atom maser and the study of the resonance fluorescence of a single stored ion. The simplest and most fundamental system for studying radiation-matter coupling is a single two-level atom interacting with a single mode of an electromagnetic field in a cavity. This problem received a great deal of attention shortly after the maser was invented

  9. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Components Using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic fluid transfer components using single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed to enable low thermal mass, minimal heat leak, low power consumption...

  10. Advanced Electroactive Single Crystal and Polymer Actuator Concepts for Passive Optics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes large stroke and high precision piezoelectric single crystal and electroactive polymer actuator concepts?HYBrid Actuation System (HYBAS)...

  11. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Components Using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic fluid transfer components using single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed to enable low thermal mass, minimal heat leak, low power consumption...

  12. Distributed Graph-Based State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Kant, Gijs; Rensink, Arend; De Lara, J.; Varro, D.

    LTSMIN provides a framework in which state space generation can be distributed easily over many cores on a single compute node, as well as over multiple compute nodes. The tool works on the basis of a vector representation of the states; the individual cores are assigned the task of computing all

  13. Organizational Metamorphosis in Space Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Phillip K.

    1978-01-01

    The communicative, and therefore organizational and managerial, aspects of the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) metamorphosis from Saturn V to Skylab are analyzed. MSFC's consistent successes are attributed to the organization's commitment to communication systems, its technical integrity, and its single-minded purpose. (JMF)

  14. Centrioles in Symmetric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Quast, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We describe all centrioles in irreducible simply connected pointed symmetric spaces of compact type in terms of the root system of the ambient space, and we study some geometric properties of centrioles.

  15. Causal symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Olafsson, Gestur; Helgason, Sigurdur

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce researchers and graduate students to the concepts of causal symmetric spaces. To date, results of recent studies considered standard by specialists have not been widely published. This book seeks to bring this information to students and researchers in geometry and analysis on causal symmetric spaces.Includes the newest results in harmonic analysis including Spherical functions on ordered symmetric space and the holmorphic discrete series and Hardy spaces on compactly casual symmetric spacesDeals with the infinitesimal situation, coverings of symmetric spaces, classification of causal symmetric pairs and invariant cone fieldsPresents basic geometric properties of semi-simple symmetric spacesIncludes appendices on Lie algebras and Lie groups, Bounded symmetric domains (Cayley transforms), Antiholomorphic Involutions on Bounded Domains and Para-Hermitian Symmetric Spaces

  16. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  17. Probabilistic metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, B

    2005-01-01

    Topics include special classes of probabilistic metric spaces, topologies, and several related structures, such as probabilistic normed and inner-product spaces. 1983 edition, updated with 3 new appendixes. Includes 17 illustrations.

  18. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  19. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  20. Occupational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  1. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-01-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis

  2. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-08-31

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  3. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  4. Flexible Composites for Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload mass reduction and packaging efficiency in launch vehicles are essential for deep space exploration.  Inflatable softgoods have been identified as attractive...

  5. Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project A: Integration and Review: A review of current knowledge from space radiation physics was accepted for publication in Reviews of Modern Physics (Durante and...

  6. Space Power Facility (SPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Power Facility (SPF) houses the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, measuring 100 ft. in diameter by 122 ft. high. In this chamber, large...

  7. Space, time, matter

    CERN Document Server

    Weyl, Hermann

    1922-01-01

    Excellent introduction probes deeply into Euclidean space, Riemann's space, Einstein's general relativity, gravitational waves and energy, and laws of conservation. "A classic of physics." - British Journal for Philosophy and Science.

  8. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  9. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  10. On-line single server dial-a-ride problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuerstein, E.; Stougie, L.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper results on the dial-a-ride problem with a single server are presented. Requests for rides consist of two points in a metric space, a source and a destination. A ride has to be made by the server from the source to the destination. The server travels at unit speed in the metric space

  11. The OCT-ORION Study: A Randomized Optical Coherence Tomography Study Comparing Resolute Integrity to Biomatrix Drug-Eluting Stent on the Degree of Early Stent Healing and Late Lumen Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen W L; Tam, Frankie C C; Lam, Simon C C; Kong, Shun-Ling; Shea, Catherine P; Chan, Kelvin K W; Wong, Michael K L; Chan, Michael P H; Wong, Anthony Y T; Yung, Arthur S Y; Lam, Yui-Ming; Zhang, Lei-Wei; Wu, Karl K Y; Mintz, Gary S; Maehara, Akiko

    2018-04-01

    Durable polymers used in drug-eluting stents are considered a potential cause of hypersensitivity inflammatory response adversely affecting stent healing. Using a sequential follow-up with optical coherence tomography, we compared the differences in healing profiles of 2 drug-eluting stents with a biodegradable or durable polymer. Sixty patients with multivessel disease were prospectively enrolled to receive both study stents, which were randomly assigned to 2 individual vessels, a Resolute Integrity zotarolimus-eluting stent with a durable BioLinx polymer and a BioMatrix NeoFlex Biolimus A9-eluting stent with a biodegradable polylactic acid polymer. Optical coherence tomography was performed at baseline, then in 5 randomly assigned monthly groups at 2 to 6 months, and at 9 months in all patients. The primary end point was the difference in optical coherence tomography strut coverage at 9 months. Key secondary end points included angiographic late lumen loss and composite major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and definite or probable stent thrombosis) at 9 months. Resolute Integrity zotarolimus-eluting stent showed significantly better strut coverage than BioMatrix NeoFlex Biolimus A9-eluting stent at 2 to 6 months ( P <0.001) and less variance of percent coverage at 9 months, 99.7% (interquartile range, 99.1-100) versus 99.6% (interquartile range, 96.8-99.9; difference, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.00-1.05; P <0.001). No significant difference was observed in major adverse cardiac events or angiographic end points. Despite having a durable polymer, Resolute Integrity zotarolimus-eluting stent exhibited better strut coverage than BioMatrix NeoFlex Biolimus A9-eluting stent having a biodegradable polymer; both showed similar antiproliferative efficacy. This novel, longitudinal, sequential optical coherence tomography protocol using each patient as own control could achieve conclusive results in small

  12. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  13. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  14. On Space Warfare: A Space Power Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lupton, David

    1998-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, the speech was promptly dubbed "Star Wars" because the space environment seems to be the most likely place to deploy a ballistic missile defense system, and several administration...

  15. Space tourism risks: A space insurance perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Denis

    2010-06-01

    Space transportation is inherently risky to humans, whether they are trained astronauts or paying tourists, given that spaceflight is still in its relative infancy. However, this is easy to forget when subjected to the hype often associated with space tourism and the ventures seeking to enter that market. The development of commercial spaceflight constitutes a challenge as much as a great opportunity to the insurance industry as new risks emerge and standards, policies and procedures to minimise/mitigate and cover them still to be engineered. Therefore the creation of a viable and affordable insurance regime for future space tourists is a critical step in the development of a real space tourism market to address burning risk management issues that may otherwise ultimately hamper this nascent industry before it has a chance to prove itself.

  16. Function spaces, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Pick, Luboš; John, Oldrich; Fucík, Svatopluk

    2012-01-01

    This is the first part of the second revised and extended edition of a well established monograph. It is an introduction to function spaces defined in terms of differentiability and integrability classes. It provides a catalogue of various spaces and benefits as a handbook for those who use function spaces to study other topics such as partial differential equations. Volum

  17. A Foothold in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the successful launch of Tiangong-1 (Heavenly Palace-1) unmanned module on September 29,China took a significant step forward in realizing its ambitions in space.China’s manned space program consists of three steps.The first step,to send an astronaut into space,was achieved in 2003.The

  18. Venturing Further Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China launches a prototype space module as a precursor to a manned space station China’s first unmanned space module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-1,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China’s Gansu Province on September 29. "The successful launch of the 8.5-ton

  19. Beyond spaces of counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Mads; Nissen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The article articulates experiments with spatial constructions in two Danish social work agencies, basing on (a) a sketchy genealogical reconstruction of conceptualisations and uses of space in social work and counselling, (b) a search for theoretical resources to articulate new spaces, and (c...... spaces are forms of spatialisations which might be taken as prototypical in attempts to develop social work and counselling...

  20. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  1. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  2. Pappus in optical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Kappers, Astrid M L; Todd, James T.

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generally been assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction, we do not assume any metric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two

  3. Pappus in optical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.J.; Doorn, A.J. van; Kappers, A.M.L.; Todd, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generallybeen assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction,we do not assume anymetric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two

  4. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  5. Learning Space Service Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same…

  6. Cost-estimating relationships for space programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Cost-estimating relationships (CERs) are defined and discussed as they relate to the estimation of theoretical costs for space programs. The paper primarily addresses CERs based on analogous relationships between physical and performance parameters to estimate future costs. Analytical estimation principles are reviewed examining the sources of errors in cost models, and the use of CERs is shown to be affected by organizational culture. Two paradigms for cost estimation are set forth: (1) the Rand paradigm for single-culture single-system methods; and (2) the Price paradigms that incorporate a set of cultural variables. For space programs that are potentially subject to even small cultural changes, the Price paradigms are argued to be more effective. The derivation and use of accurate CERs is important for developing effective cost models to analyze the potential of a given space program.

  7. Accelerometer for Space Applications Based on Light-Pulse Atom Interferometry, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build a compact, high-precision single-axis accelerometer based on atom interferometry that is applicable to operation in space environments. Based on...

  8. Detection of gastritis by single- and double-contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeni, R.F.; Goldberg, H.I.; Ominsky, S.; Cello, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty-eight patients with various types of gastritis, 23 patients with normal stomachs, and four patients with other gastric diseases were examined in a prospective study to assess the sensitivity and specificity of single-contrast (SC) and double-contrast (DC) upper gastrointestinal examinations in the evaluation of gastritis. All patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy followed first by DC and then by SC radiography. The respective sensitivities of SC and DC radiography were 58% and 72% for all examinations and 59% and 77% for adequate examinations only. The respective specificities were 59% and 55% based on all examinations. Useful radiographic features included polypoid defects and erosions detected by both methods, abnormal folds and flattened margins detected by the SC technique, and narrowed lumen and crenulated margins detected by the DC technique. In 93% of all cases, the correct diagnosis was based on two or more of these radiographic features. According to this study, the radiographic sensitivity in the detection of gastritis is reliable only in cases of moderate-to-severe disease and only when based on findings of the DC examination. Neither SC nor DC radiography should be used as the primary screening method for patients with suspected gastritis, and the radiographic diagnosis should be restricted to the terms ''erosive'' or ''nonerosive gastritis.''

  9. Thermo-Acoustic Convertor for Space Power, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase Sunpower looked at Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engines (TASHEs). These ranged from a TASHE which was sized for the heat from a single General Purpose Heat...

  10. Recent Progress in Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morioka, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Recent development of transmission technologies based on space-division multiplexing is described with future perspectives including a recent achievement of one Pb/s transmission in a single strand of fiber....

  11. Minimal computational-space implementation of multiround quantum protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Chiribella, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    A single-party strategy in a multiround quantum protocol can be implemented by sequential networks of quantum operations connected by internal memories. Here, we provide an efficient realization in terms of computational-space resources.

  12. Electric field imaging of single atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Naoya; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Findlay, Scott D.; Kohno, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), single atoms can be imaged by detecting electrons scattered through high angles using post-specimen, annular-type detectors. Recently, it has been shown that the atomic-scale electric field of both the positive atomic nuclei and the surrounding negative electrons within crystalline materials can be probed by atomic-resolution differential phase contrast STEM. Here we demonstrate the real-space imaging of the (projected) atomic electric field distribution inside single Au atoms, using sub-Å spatial resolution STEM combined with a high-speed segmented detector. We directly visualize that the electric field distribution (blurred by the sub-Å size electron probe) drastically changes within the single Au atom in a shape that relates to the spatial variation of total charge density within the atom. Atomic-resolution electric field mapping with single-atom sensitivity enables us to examine their detailed internal and boundary structures. PMID:28555629

  13. Ultrafast geometric control of a single qubit using chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, Patrick E; Malinovskaya, Svetlana A; Malinovsky, Vladimir S

    2012-01-01

    We propose a control strategy to perform arbitrary unitary operations on a single qubit based solely on the geometrical phase that the qubit state acquires after cyclic evolution in the parameter space. The scheme uses ultrafast linearly chirped pulses and provides the possibility of reducing the duration of a single-qubit operation to a few picoseconds.

  14. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical miles...

  15. Venturing Further Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    China's first unmanNed space module Tiangong-Ⅰ,or Heavenly Palace-Ⅰ,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China's Gansu Province on September 29."The successful launch of the 8.5-ton prototype space laboratory has opened the gates for China's deep space exploration program," said Qi Faren,former chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft.“It is a decisive leap forward for the Chinese space industry and will bring about the rapid development of space science and related techologies."

  16. At Home in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Pumin

    2011-01-01

    CHINA'S first unmanned space module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-1,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China's Gansu Province on September 29."The successfullaunch of the 8.5-ton prototype space laboratory has opened the gates for China's deep space exploration program," said Qi Faren,former chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft."It is a decisive leap forward for the Chinese space industry and will bring about the rapid development of space science and related technologies."

  17. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  18. Space vehicle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  19. κ-Rindler space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we construct, and investigate some thermal properties of, the noncommutative counterpart of Rindler space, which we call κ-Rindler space. This space is obtained by changing variables in the defining commutators of κ-Minkowski space. We then rederive the commutator structure of κ-Rindler space with the help of an appropriate star product, obtained from the κ-Minkowski one. Using this star product, following the idea of Padmanabhan, we find the leading order, 1/κ correction to the Hawking thermal spectrum.

  20. Art and Architectural Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    art and architectural space museums and other exhibition spaces or how artists learn to love architects Over the last two decades, innumerable new museums, art galleries and other exhibition spaces have been built and opened all over the globe. The most extreme growth happened in China, where...... purpose of ´uniqueness´ often fail to be a ´home´, a large scale ´picture frame´ or a productive space for communicating art and even do not fulfil basic technical aspects in terms of a consistent indoor climate, optimized lighting or safety. The lecture will focus on inspiring examples of spaces for art...