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Sample records for single likelihood function

  1. Obtaining reliable Likelihood Ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    It is standard practice by researchers and the default option in many statistical programs to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed...... of the quasirandom draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood. Again this is not standard in research or statistical programs. The paper therefore recommends using fully antithetic draws replicating the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood...... parameters this practice is very likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper shows that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The paper shows...

  2. Obtaining reliable likelihood ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    2014-01-01

    programs - to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). Problem 1: Inconsistent LR tests due to asymmetric draws: This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed parameters this practice is very......Mixed models: Models allowing for continuous heterogeneity by assuming that value of one or more parameters follow a specified distribution have become increasingly popular. This is known as ‘mixing’ parameters, and it is standard practice by researchers - and the default option in many statistical...... are used, models reducing the dimension of the mixing distribution must replicate the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood. Again this is not standard in research or statistical programs. The paper therefore recommends using fully antithetic draws...

  3. Maintaining symmetry of simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper suggests solutions to two different types of simulation errors related to Quasi-Monte Carlo integration. Likelihood functions which depend on standard deviations of mixed parameters are symmetric in nature. This paper shows that antithetic draws preserve this symmetry and thereby...

  4. On the likelihood function of Gaussian max-stable processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, M. G.

    2011-05-24

    We derive a closed form expression for the likelihood function of a Gaussian max-stable process indexed by ℝd at p≤d+1 sites, d≥1. We demonstrate the gain in efficiency in the maximum composite likelihood estimators of the covariance matrix from p=2 to p=3 sites in ℝ2 by means of a Monte Carlo simulation study. © 2011 Biometrika Trust.

  5. The asymptotic behaviour of the maximum likelihood function of Kriging approximations using the Gaussian correlation function

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the asymptotic behavior of the maximum likelihood function, encountered when constructing Kriging approximations using the Gaussian correlation function. Of specific interest is a maximum likelihood function that decreases...

  6. Likelihood functions for state space models with diffuse initial conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Shephard, N.; de Vos, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    State space models with non-stationary processes and/or fixed regression effects require a state vector with diffuse initial conditions. Different likelihood functions can be adopted for the estimation of parameters in time-series models with diffuse initial conditions. In this article, we consider

  7. Likelihood functions for state space models with diffuse initial conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.K.; Koopmans, S.J.; de Vos, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    State space models with nonstationary processes and fixed regression effects require a state vector with diffuse initial conditions. Different likelihood functions can be adopted for the estimation of parameters in time series models with diffuse initial conditions. In this paper we consider

  8. Gaussian copula as a likelihood function for environmental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, O.; Espadas, G.; Cecinati, F.; Rieckermann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Parameter estimation of environmental models always comes with uncertainty. To formally quantify this parametric uncertainty, a likelihood function needs to be formulated, which is defined as the probability of observations given fixed values of the parameter set. A likelihood function allows us to infer parameter values from observations using Bayes' theorem. The challenge is to formulate a likelihood function that reliably describes the error generating processes which lead to the observed monitoring data, such as rainfall and runoff. If the likelihood function is not representative of the error statistics, the parameter inference will give biased parameter values. Several uncertainty estimation methods that are currently being used employ Gaussian processes as a likelihood function, because of their favourable analytical properties. Box-Cox transformation is suggested to deal with non-symmetric and heteroscedastic errors e.g. for flow data which are typically more uncertain in high flows than in periods with low flows. Problem with transformations is that the results are conditional on hyper-parameters, for which it is difficult to formulate the analyst's belief a priori. In an attempt to address this problem, in this research work we suggest learning the nature of the error distribution from the errors made by the model in the "past" forecasts. We use a Gaussian copula to generate semiparametric error distributions . 1) We show that this copula can be then used as a likelihood function to infer parameters, breaking away from the practice of using multivariate normal distributions. Based on the results from a didactical example of predicting rainfall runoff, 2) we demonstrate that the copula captures the predictive uncertainty of the model. 3) Finally, we find that the properties of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity of errors are captured well by the copula, eliminating the need to use transforms. In summary, our findings suggest that copulas are an

  9. Evaluation of likelihood functions for data analysis on Graphics Processing Units

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, Sverre; Leduc, J; Nowak, A; Pantaleo, F

    2010-01-01

    Data analysis techniques based on likelihood function calculation play a crucial role in many High Energy Physics measurements. Depending on the complexity of the models used in the analyses, with several free parameters, many independent variables, large data samples, and complex functions, the calculation of the likelihood functions can require a long CPU execution time. In the past, the continuous gain in performance for each single CPU core kept pace with the increase on the complexity of the analyses, maintaining reason- able the execution time of the sequential software applications. Nowadays, the performance for single cores is not increasing as in the past, while the complexity of the analyses has grown significantly in the Large Hadron Collider era. In this context a breakthrough is represented by the increase of the number of computational cores per computational node. This allows to speed up the execution of the applications, redesigning them with parallelization paradigms. The likelihood function ...

  10. Improved Likelihood Function in Particle-based IR Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satria, R.; Sorensen, J.; Hammoud, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a log likelihood-ratio function of foreground and background models used in a particle filter to track the eye region in dark-bright pupil image sequences. This model fuses information from both dark and bright pupil images and their difference image into one model. Our...... enhanced tracker overcomes the issues of prior selection of static thresholds during the detection of feature observations in the bright-dark difference images. The auto-initialization process is performed using cascaded classifier trained using adaboost and adapted to IR eye images. Experiments show good...

  11. Calibration of two complex ecosystem models with different likelihood functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, Dóra; Haszpra, László; Pintér, Krisztina; Nagy, Zoltán; Barcza, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    The biosphere is a sensitive carbon reservoir. Terrestrial ecosystems were approximately carbon neutral during the past centuries, but they became net carbon sinks due to climate change induced environmental change and associated CO2 fertilization effect of the atmosphere. Model studies and measurements indicate that the biospheric carbon sink can saturate in the future due to ongoing climate change which can act as a positive feedback. Robustness of carbon cycle models is a key issue when trying to choose the appropriate model for decision support. The input parameters of the process-based models are decisive regarding the model output. At the same time there are several input parameters for which accurate values are hard to obtain directly from experiments or no local measurements are available. Due to the uncertainty associated with the unknown model parameters significant bias can be experienced if the model is used to simulate the carbon and nitrogen cycle components of different ecosystems. In order to improve model performance the unknown model parameters has to be estimated. We developed a multi-objective, two-step calibration method based on Bayesian approach in order to estimate the unknown parameters of PaSim and Biome-BGC models. Biome-BGC and PaSim are a widely used biogeochemical models that simulate the storage and flux of water, carbon, and nitrogen between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, and within the components of the terrestrial ecosystems (in this research the developed version of Biome-BGC is used which is referred as BBGC MuSo). Both models were calibrated regardless the simulated processes and type of model parameters. The calibration procedure is based on the comparison of measured data with simulated results via calculating a likelihood function (degree of goodness-of-fit between simulated and measured data). In our research different likelihood function formulations were used in order to examine the effect of the different model

  12. Maximum likelihood random galaxy catalogues and luminosity function estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shaun

    2011-09-01

    We present a new algorithm to generate a random (unclustered) version of an magnitude limited observational galaxy redshift catalogue. It takes into account both galaxy evolution and the perturbing effects of large-scale structure. The key to the algorithm is a maximum likelihood (ML) method for jointly estimating both the luminosity function (LF) and the overdensity as a function of redshift. The random catalogue algorithm then works by cloning each galaxy in the original catalogue, with the number of clones determined by the ML solution. Each of these cloned galaxies is then assigned a random redshift uniformly distributed over the accessible survey volume, taking account of the survey magnitude limit(s) and, optionally, both luminosity and number density evolution. The resulting random catalogues, which can be employed in traditional estimates of galaxy clustering, make fuller use of the information available in the original catalogue and hence are superior to simply fitting a functional form to the observed redshift distribution. They are particularly well suited to studies of the dependence of galaxy clustering on galaxy properties as each galaxy in the random catalogue has the same list of attributes as measured for the galaxies in the genuine catalogue. The derivation of the joint overdensity and LF estimator reveals the limit in which the ML estimate reduces to the standard 1/Vmax LF estimate, namely when one makes the prior assumption that the are no fluctuations in the radial overdensity. The new ML estimator can be viewed as a generalization of the 1/Vmax estimate in which Vmax is replaced by a density corrected Vdc, max.

  13. Block Empirical Likelihood for Longitudinal Single-Index Varying-Coefficient Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunquan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a single-index varying-coefficient model with application to longitudinal data. In order to accommodate the within-group correlation, we apply the block empirical likelihood procedure to longitudinal single-index varying-coefficient model, and prove a nonparametric version of Wilks’ theorem which can be used to construct the block empirical likelihood confidence region with asymptotically correct coverage probability for the parametric component. In comparison with normal approximations, the proposed method does not require a consistent estimator for the asymptotic covariance matrix, making it easier to conduct inference for the model's parametric component. Simulations demonstrate how the proposed method works.

  14. A Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Vocal-Tract-Related Filter Characteristics for Single Channel Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansereau Richard M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for separating two speech signals from a single recording. The proposed method bridges the gap between underdetermined blind source separation techniques and those techniques that model the human auditory system, that is, computational auditory scene analysis (CASA. For this purpose, we decompose the speech signal into the excitation signal and the vocal-tract-related filter and then estimate the components from the mixed speech using a hybrid model. We first express the probability density function (PDF of the mixed speech's log spectral vectors in terms of the PDFs of the underlying speech signal's vocal-tract-related filters. Then, the mean vectors of PDFs of the vocal-tract-related filters are obtained using a maximum likelihood estimator given the mixed signal. Finally, the estimated vocal-tract-related filters along with the extracted fundamental frequencies are used to reconstruct estimates of the individual speech signals. The proposed technique effectively adds vocal-tract-related filter characteristics as a new cue to CASA models using a new grouping technique based on an underdetermined blind source separation. We compare our model with both an underdetermined blind source separation and a CASA method. The experimental results show that our model outperforms both techniques in terms of SNR improvement and the percentage of crosstalk suppression.

  15. A Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Vocal-Tract-Related Filter Characteristics for Single Channel Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Radfar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for separating two speech signals from a single recording. The proposed method bridges the gap between underdetermined blind source separation techniques and those techniques that model the human auditory system, that is, computational auditory scene analysis (CASA. For this purpose, we decompose the speech signal into the excitation signal and the vocal-tract-related filter and then estimate the components from the mixed speech using a hybrid model. We first express the probability density function (PDF of the mixed speech's log spectral vectors in terms of the PDFs of the underlying speech signal's vocal-tract-related filters. Then, the mean vectors of PDFs of the vocal-tract-related filters are obtained using a maximum likelihood estimator given the mixed signal. Finally, the estimated vocal-tract-related filters along with the extracted fundamental frequencies are used to reconstruct estimates of the individual speech signals. The proposed technique effectively adds vocal-tract-related filter characteristics as a new cue to CASA models using a new grouping technique based on an underdetermined blind source separation. We compare our model with both an underdetermined blind source separation and a CASA method. The experimental results show that our model outperforms both techniques in terms of SNR improvement and the percentage of crosstalk suppression.

  16. Modified Moment, Maximum Likelihood and Percentile Estimators for the Parameters of the Power Function Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Zaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the modifications of maximum likelihood, moments and percentile estimators of the two parameter Power function distribution. Sampling behavior of the estimators is indicated by Monte Carlo simulation. For some combinations of parameter values, some of the modified estimators appear better than the traditional maximum likelihood, moments and percentile estimators with respect to bias, mean square error and total deviation.

  17. Green's function based unparameterised multi-dimensional kernel density and likelihood ratio estimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kövesárki, P; Brock, I C; Quiroz, A E Nuncio

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a probability density estimator based on Green's function identities. A density model is constructed under the sole assumption that the probability density is differentiable. The method is implemented as a binary likelihood estimator for classification purposes, so issues such as mis-modeling and overtraining are also discussed. The identity behind the density estimator can be interpreted as a real-valued, non-scalar kernel method which is able to reconstruct differentiable density functions.

  18. Empirical likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Art B

    2001-01-01

    Empirical likelihood provides inferences whose validity does not depend on specifying a parametric model for the data. Because it uses a likelihood, the method has certain inherent advantages over resampling methods: it uses the data to determine the shape of the confidence regions, and it makes it easy to combined data from multiple sources. It also facilitates incorporating side information, and it simplifies accounting for censored, truncated, or biased sampling.One of the first books published on the subject, Empirical Likelihood offers an in-depth treatment of this method for constructing confidence regions and testing hypotheses. The author applies empirical likelihood to a range of problems, from those as simple as setting a confidence region for a univariate mean under IID sampling, to problems defined through smooth functions of means, regression models, generalized linear models, estimating equations, or kernel smooths, and to sampling with non-identically distributed data. Abundant figures offer vi...

  19. Measurement of s-channel single top-quark production with the ATLAS detector using total event likelihoods

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00333614

    2016-09-21

    A measurement of s-channel single top-quark production in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $8\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ is presented. The dataset has been recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20.3$\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{−1}$. Collision events are selected so that a subset of the data is obtained where the signal fraction is relatively high. Selected events contain one isolated electron or muon, missing transverse momentum and 2 jets, both of which are induced by b-quarks. All of these objects have large transverse momenta. The resulting set of events is still dominated by background processes, most notably top-quark pair production and the production of W-bosons in association with jets. In order to further separate the signal from the backgrounds, several approximate event likelihoods are computed. They are based on different hypotheses regarding the scattering process at hand. Together they result in a function of the measured momenta which allows ...

  20. Off-Grid DOA Estimation Based on Analysis of the Convexity of Maximum Likelihood Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Liang; WEI, Ping; LIAO, Hong Shu

    Spatial compressive sensing (SCS) has recently been applied to direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation owing to advantages over conventional ones. However the performance of compressive sensing (CS)-based estimation methods decreases when true DOAs are not exactly on the discretized sampling grid. We solve the off-grid DOA estimation problem using the deterministic maximum likelihood (DML) estimation method. In this work, we analyze the convexity of the DML function in the vicinity of the global solution. Especially under the condition of large array, we search for an approximately convex range around the ture DOAs to guarantee the DML function convex. Based on the convexity of the DML function, we propose a computationally efficient algorithm framework for off-grid DOA estimation. Numerical experiments show that the rough convex range accords well with the exact convex range of the DML function with large array and demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed methods in terms of accuracy, robustness and speed.

  1. Empirical likelihood based detection procedure for change point in mean residual life functions under random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ju; Ning, Wei; Gupta, Arjun K

    2016-05-01

    The mean residual life (MRL) function is one of the basic parameters of interest in survival analysis that describes the expected remaining time of an individual after a certain age. The study of changes in the MRL function is practical and interesting because it may help us to identify some factors such as age and gender that may influence the remaining lifetimes of patients after receiving a certain surgery. In this paper, we propose a detection procedure based on the empirical likelihood for the changes in MRL functions with right censored data. Two real examples are also given: Veterans' administration lung cancer study and Stanford heart transplant to illustrate the detecting procedure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. FPGA Acceleration of the phylogenetic likelihood function for Bayesian MCMC inference methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakos Jason D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Likelihood (ML-based phylogenetic inference has become a popular method for estimating the evolutionary relationships among species based on genomic sequence data. This method is used in applications such as RAxML, GARLI, MrBayes, PAML, and PAUP. The Phylogenetic Likelihood Function (PLF is an important kernel computation for this method. The PLF consists of a loop with no conditional behavior or dependencies between iterations. As such it contains a high potential for exploiting parallelism using micro-architectural techniques. In this paper, we describe a technique for mapping the PLF and supporting logic onto a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA-based co-processor. By leveraging the FPGA's on-chip DSP modules and the high-bandwidth local memory attached to the FPGA, the resultant co-processor can accelerate ML-based methods and outperform state-of-the-art multi-core processors. Results We use the MrBayes 3 tool as a framework for designing our co-processor. For large datasets, we estimate that our accelerated MrBayes, if run on a current-generation FPGA, achieves a 10× speedup relative to software running on a state-of-the-art server-class microprocessor. The FPGA-based implementation achieves its performance by deeply pipelining the likelihood computations, performing multiple floating-point operations in parallel, and through a natural log approximation that is chosen specifically to leverage a deeply pipelined custom architecture. Conclusions Heterogeneous computing, which combines general-purpose processors with special-purpose co-processors such as FPGAs and GPUs, is a promising approach for high-performance phylogeny inference as shown by the growing body of literature in this field. FPGAs in particular are well-suited for this task because of their low power consumption as compared to many-core processors and Graphics Processor Units (GPUs 1.

  3. FPGA Acceleration of the phylogenetic likelihood function for Bayesian MCMC inference methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierke, Stephanie; Bakos, Jason D

    2010-04-12

    Likelihood (ML)-based phylogenetic inference has become a popular method for estimating the evolutionary relationships among species based on genomic sequence data. This method is used in applications such as RAxML, GARLI, MrBayes, PAML, and PAUP. The Phylogenetic Likelihood Function (PLF) is an important kernel computation for this method. The PLF consists of a loop with no conditional behavior or dependencies between iterations. As such it contains a high potential for exploiting parallelism using micro-architectural techniques. In this paper, we describe a technique for mapping the PLF and supporting logic onto a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based co-processor. By leveraging the FPGA's on-chip DSP modules and the high-bandwidth local memory attached to the FPGA, the resultant co-processor can accelerate ML-based methods and outperform state-of-the-art multi-core processors. We use the MrBayes 3 tool as a framework for designing our co-processor. For large datasets, we estimate that our accelerated MrBayes, if run on a current-generation FPGA, achieves a 10x speedup relative to software running on a state-of-the-art server-class microprocessor. The FPGA-based implementation achieves its performance by deeply pipelining the likelihood computations, performing multiple floating-point operations in parallel, and through a natural log approximation that is chosen specifically to leverage a deeply pipelined custom architecture. Heterogeneous computing, which combines general-purpose processors with special-purpose co-processors such as FPGAs and GPUs, is a promising approach for high-performance phylogeny inference as shown by the growing body of literature in this field. FPGAs in particular are well-suited for this task because of their low power consumption as compared to many-core processors and Graphics Processor Units (GPUs).

  4. Gaussian likelihood inference on data from trans-Gaussian random fields with Matérn covariance function

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Yuan

    2017-07-13

    Gaussian likelihood inference has been studied and used extensively in both statistical theory and applications due to its simplicity. However, in practice, the assumption of Gaussianity is rarely met in the analysis of spatial data. In this paper, we study the effect of non-Gaussianity on Gaussian likelihood inference for the parameters of the Matérn covariance model. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate spatial data from a Tukey g-and-h random field, a flexible trans-Gaussian random field, with the Matérn covariance function, where g controls skewness and h controls tail heaviness. We use maximum likelihood based on the multivariate Gaussian distribution to estimate the parameters of the Matérn covariance function. We illustrate the effects of non-Gaussianity of the data on the estimated covariance function by means of functional boxplots. Thanks to our tailored simulation design, a comparison of the maximum likelihood estimator under both the increasing and fixed domain asymptotics for spatial data is performed. We find that the maximum likelihood estimator based on Gaussian likelihood is overall satisfying and preferable than the non-distribution-based weighted least squares estimator for data from the Tukey g-and-h random field. We also present the result for Gaussian kriging based on Matérn covariance estimates with data from the Tukey g-and-h random field and observe an overall satisfactory performance.

  5. Hypnosis and pain perception: An Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; De Rossi, Pietro; Angeletti, Gloria; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Several studies reported that hypnosis can modulate pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. We conducted an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on functional neuroimaging studies of pain perception under hypnosis to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring during hypnotic suggestions aiming at pain reduction, including hypnotic analgesic, pleasant, or depersonalization suggestions (HASs). We searched the PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo databases; we included papers published in peer-reviewed journals dealing with functional neuroimaging and hypnosis-modulated pain perception. The ALE meta-analysis encompassed data from 75 healthy volunteers reported in 8 functional neuroimaging studies. HASs during experimentally-induced pain compared to control conditions correlated with significant activations of the right anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's Area [BA] 32), left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6), and right insula, and deactivation of right midline nuclei of the thalamus. HASs during experimental pain impact both cortical and subcortical brain activity. The anterior cingulate, left superior frontal, and right insular cortices activation increases could induce a thalamic deactivation (top-down inhibition), which may correlate with reductions in pain intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analyzing multivariate survival data using composite likelihood and flexible parametric modeling of the hazard functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Parner, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we model multivariate time-to-event data by composite likelihood of pairwise frailty likelihoods and marginal hazards using natural cubic splines. Both right- and interval-censored data are considered. The suggested approach is applied on two types of family studies using the gamma......- and stable frailty distribution: The first study is on adoption data where the association between survival in families of adopted children and their adoptive and biological parents is studied. The second study is a cross-sectional study of the occurrence of back and neck pain in twins, illustrating...

  7. Simultaneous determination of exponential background and Gaussian peak functions in gamma ray scintillation spectrometers by maximum likelihood technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisler, P.; Youl, S.; Lwin, T.; Nelson, G.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous fitting of peaks and background functions from gamma-ray spectrometry using multichannel pulse height analysis is considered. The specific case of Gaussian peak and exponential background is treated in detail with respect to simultaneous estimation of both functions by using a technique which incorporates maximum likelihood method as well as a graphical method. Theoretical expressions for the standard errors of the estimates are also obtained. The technique is demonstrated for two experimental data sets. (orig.)

  8. Computing Likelihood Functions for High-Energy Physics Experiments when Distributions are Defined by Simulators with Nuisance Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, Radford, M

    2008-01-01

    When searching for new phenomena in high-energy physics, statistical analysis is complicated by the presence of nuisance parameters, representing uncertainty in the physics of interactions or in detector properties. Another complication, even with no nuisance parameters, is that the probability distributions of the models are speci ed only by simulation programs, with no way of evaluating their probability density functions. I advocate expressing the result of an experiment by means of the likelihood function, rather than by frequentist con dence intervals or p-values. A likelihood function for this problem is dif- cult to obtain, however, for both of the reasons given above. I discuss ways of circumventing these problems by reducing dimensionality using a classi er and employing simulations with multiple values for the nuisance parameters.

  9. Approximate Likelihood

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...

  10. Single Image Super-resolution Using Gaussian Process Regression with Dictionary-based Sampling and Student-t Likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijun; Gao, Xinbo; Zhang, Kaibing; Li, Jie

    2017-05-03

    Gaussian process regression (GPR) is an effective statistical learning method for modeling non-linear mapping from an observed space to an expected latent space. When applying it to example learning-based super-resolution (SR), two outstanding issues remain. One is its high computational complexity restricts SR application when a large dataset is available for learning task. The other is that the commonly used Gaussian likelihood in GPR is incompatible with the true observation model for SR reconstruction. To alleviate the above two issues, we propose a GPR-based SR method by using dictionary-based sampling and student-t likelihood, called DSGPR. Considering that dictionary atoms effectively span the original training sample space, we adopt a dictionary-based sampling strategy by combining all the neighborhood samples of each atom into a compact representative training subset so as to reduce the computational complexity. Based on statistical tests, we statistically validate that Studentt likelihood is more suitable to build the observation model for SR problem. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms other competitors and produces more pleasing details in texture regions.

  11. Altered sensorimotor activation patterns in idiopathic dystonia-an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Herz, Damian M; Haagensen, Brian Numelin

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements or postures. Functional neuroimaging studies have yielded abnormal task-related sensorimotor activation in dystonia, but the results appear to be rather variable across studies....... Further, study size was usually small including different types of dystonia. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies in patients with primary dystonia to test for convergence of dystonia-related alterations in task-related activity...... postcentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus and dorsal midbrain. Apart from the midbrain cluster, all between-group differences in task-related activity were retrieved in a sub-analysis including only the 14 studies on patients with focal dystonia. For focal dystonia, an additional cluster of increased...

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during emotion recognition in social anxiety disorder: an activation likelihood meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coenraad J Hattingh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Social anxiety disorder (SAD is characterised by abnormal fear and anxiety in social situations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a brain imaging technique that can be used to illustrate neural activation to emotionally salient stimuli. However, no attempt has yet been made to statistically collate fMRI studies of brain activation, using the activation likelihood-estimate technique, in response to emotion recognition tasks in individuals with social anxiety disorder. Methods:A systematic search of fMRI studies of neural responses to socially emotive cues in SAD and GSP was undertaken. Activation likelihood-estimate (ALE meta-analysis, a voxel based meta-analytic technique, was used to estimate the most significant activations during emotional recognition. Results: 7 studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, constituting a total of 91 subjects with SAD or GSP, and 93 healthy controls. The most significant areas of activation during emotional recognition versus neutral stimuli in individuals with social anxiety disorder compared to controls were: bilateral amygdala, left medial temporal lobe encompassing the entorhinal cortex, left medial aspect of the inferior temporal lobe encompassing perirhinal cortex and parahippocampus, right anterior cingulate, right globus pallidus, and distal tip of right postcentral gyrus.Conclusion:The results are consistent with neuroanatomic models of the role of the amygdala in fear conditioning, and the importance of the limbic circuitry in mediating anxiety symptoms.

  13. The phylogenetic likelihood library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, T; Izquierdo-Carrasco, F; Darriba, D; Aberer, A J; Nguyen, L-T; Minh, B Q; Von Haeseler, A; Stamatakis, A

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the Phylogenetic Likelihood Library (PLL), a highly optimized application programming interface for developing likelihood-based phylogenetic inference and postanalysis software. The PLL implements appropriate data structures and functions that allow users to quickly implement common, error-prone, and labor-intensive tasks, such as likelihood calculations, model parameter as well as branch length optimization, and tree space exploration. The highly optimized and parallelized implementation of the phylogenetic likelihood function and a thorough documentation provide a framework for rapid development of scalable parallel phylogenetic software. By example of two likelihood-based phylogenetic codes we show that the PLL improves the sequential performance of current software by a factor of 2-10 while requiring only 1 month of programming time for integration. We show that, when numerical scaling for preventing floating point underflow is enabled, the double precision likelihood calculations in the PLL are up to 1.9 times faster than those in BEAGLE. On an empirical DNA dataset with 2000 taxa the AVX version of PLL is 4 times faster than BEAGLE (scaling enabled and required). The PLL is available at http://www.libpll.org under the GNU General Public License (GPL). © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  14. Bayesian penalized-likelihood reconstruction algorithm suppresses edge artifacts in PET reconstruction based on point-spread-function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shotaro; Wagatsuma, Kei; Miwa, Kenta; Ishii, Kenji; Inoue, Kazumasa; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    The Bayesian penalized-likelihood reconstruction algorithm (BPL), Q.Clear, uses relative difference penalty as a regularization function to control image noise and the degree of edge-preservation in PET images. The present study aimed to determine the effects of suppression on edge artifacts due to point-spread-function (PSF) correction using a Q.Clear. Spheres of a cylindrical phantom contained a background of 5.3 kBq/mL of [ 18 F]FDG and sphere-to-background ratios (SBR) of 16, 8, 4 and 2. The background also contained water and spheres containing 21.2 kBq/mL of [ 18 F]FDG as non-background. All data were acquired using a Discovery PET/CT 710 and were reconstructed using three-dimensional ordered-subset expectation maximization with time-of-flight (TOF) and PSF correction (3D-OSEM), and Q.Clear with TOF (BPL). We investigated β-values of 200-800 using BPL. The PET images were analyzed using visual assessment and profile curves, edge variability and contrast recovery coefficients were measured. The 38- and 27-mm spheres were surrounded by higher radioactivity concentration when reconstructed with 3D-OSEM as opposed to BPL, which suppressed edge artifacts. Images of 10-mm spheres had sharper overshoot at high SBR and non-background when reconstructed with BPL. Although contrast recovery coefficients of 10-mm spheres in BPL decreased as a function of increasing β, higher penalty parameter decreased the overshoot. BPL is a feasible method for the suppression of edge artifacts of PSF correction, although this depends on SBR and sphere size. Overshoot associated with BPL caused overestimation in small spheres at high SBR. Higher penalty parameter in BPL can suppress overshoot more effectively. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation for variable importance measure: Illustration for functional outcome prediction in mild traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirracchio, Romain; Yue, John K; Manley, Geoffrey T; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan E

    2018-01-01

    Standard statistical practice used for determining the relative importance of competing causes of disease typically relies on ad hoc methods, often byproducts of machine learning procedures (stepwise regression, random forest, etc.). Causal inference framework and data-adaptive methods may help to tailor parameters to match the clinical question and free one from arbitrary modeling assumptions. Our focus is on implementations of such semiparametric methods for a variable importance measure (VIM). We propose a fully automated procedure for VIM based on collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (cTMLE), a method that optimizes the estimate of an association in the presence of potentially numerous competing causes. We applied the approach to data collected from traumatic brain injury patients, specifically a prospective, observational study including three US Level-1 trauma centers. The primary outcome was a disability score (Glasgow Outcome Scale - Extended (GOSE)) collected three months post-injury. We identified clinically important predictors among a set of risk factors using a variable importance analysis based on targeted maximum likelihood estimators (TMLE) and on cTMLE. Via a parametric bootstrap, we demonstrate that the latter procedure has the potential for robust automated estimation of variable importance measures based upon machine-learning algorithms. The cTMLE estimator was associated with substantially less positivity bias as compared to TMLE and larger coverage of the 95% CI. This study confirms the power of an automated cTMLE procedure that can target model selection via machine learning to estimate VIMs in complicated, high-dimensional data.

  16. Phylogeny of the cycads based on multiple single-copy nuclear genes: congruence of concatenated parsimony, likelihood and species tree inference methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Meerow, Alan W; Calonje, Michael; Griffith, M Patrick; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Nakamura, Kyoko; Stevenson, Dennis W; Lewis, Carl E; Namoff, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    Despite a recent new classification, a stable phylogeny for the cycads has been elusive, particularly regarding resolution of Bowenia, Stangeria and Dioon. In this study, five single-copy nuclear genes (SCNGs) are applied to the phylogeny of the order Cycadales. The specific aim is to evaluate several gene tree-species tree reconciliation approaches for developing an accurate phylogeny of the order, to contrast them with concatenated parsimony analysis and to resolve the erstwhile problematic phylogenetic position of these three genera. DNA sequences of five SCNGs were obtained for 20 cycad species representing all ten genera of Cycadales. These were analysed with parsimony, maximum likelihood (ML) and three Bayesian methods of gene tree-species tree reconciliation, using Cycas as the outgroup. A calibrated date estimation was developed with Bayesian methods, and biogeographic analysis was also conducted. Concatenated parsimony, ML and three species tree inference methods resolve exactly the same tree topology with high support at most nodes. Dioon and Bowenia are the first and second branches of Cycadales after Cycas, respectively, followed by an encephalartoid clade (Macrozamia-Lepidozamia-Encephalartos), which is sister to a zamioid clade, of which Ceratozamia is the first branch, and in which Stangeria is sister to Microcycas and Zamia. A single, well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis of the generic relationships of the Cycadales is presented. However, massive extinction events inferred from the fossil record that eliminated broader ancestral distributions within Zamiaceae compromise accurate optimization of ancestral biogeographical areas for that hypothesis. While major lineages of Cycadales are ancient, crown ages of all modern genera are no older than 12 million years, supporting a recent hypothesis of mostly Miocene radiations. This phylogeny can contribute to an accurate infrafamilial classification of Zamiaceae.

  17. Timelike single-logarithm-resummed splitting functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow

    2011-08-01

    We calculate the single logarithmic contributions to the quark singlet and gluon matrix of timelike splitting functions at all orders in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme. We fix two of the degrees of freedom of this matrix from the analogous results in the massive-gluon regularization scheme by using the relation between that scheme and the MS scheme. We determine this scheme transformation from the double logarithmic contributions to the timelike splitting functions and the coefficient functions of inclusive particle production in e + e - annihilation now available in both schemes. The remaining two degrees of freedom are fixed by reasonable physical assumptions. The results agree with the fixed-order results at next-to-next-to-leading order in the literature. (orig.)

  18. Extended likelihood inference in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F. Jr.; Beckman, R.J.; Waller, R.A.

    1978-10-01

    Extended likelihood methods of inference are developed in which subjective information in the form of a prior distribution is combined with sampling results by means of an extended likelihood function. The extended likelihood function is standardized for use in obtaining extended likelihood intervals. Extended likelihood intervals are derived for the mean of a normal distribution with known variance, the failure-rate of an exponential distribution, and the parameter of a binomial distribution. Extended second-order likelihood methods are developed and used to solve several prediction problems associated with the exponential and binomial distributions. In particular, such quantities as the next failure-time, the number of failures in a given time period, and the time required to observe a given number of failures are predicted for the exponential model with a gamma prior distribution on the failure-rate. In addition, six types of life testing experiments are considered. For the binomial model with a beta prior distribution on the probability of nonsurvival, methods are obtained for predicting the number of nonsurvivors in a given sample size and for predicting the required sample size for observing a specified number of nonsurvivors. Examples illustrate each of the methods developed. Finally, comparisons are made with Bayesian intervals in those cases where these are known to exist

  19. Usefulness and limitations of dK random graph models to predict interactions and functional homogeneity in biological networks under a pseudo-likelihood parameter estimation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Yihui

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of biological functions can be modeled by biological networks, such as protein interaction networks, metabolic networks, and gene coexpression networks. Studying the statistical properties of these networks in turn allows us to infer biological function. Complex statistical network models can potentially more accurately describe the networks, but it is not clear whether such complex models are better suited to find biologically meaningful subnetworks. Results Recent studies have shown that the degree distribution of the nodes is not an adequate statistic in many molecular networks. We sought to extend this statistic with 2nd and 3rd order degree correlations and developed a pseudo-likelihood approach to estimate the parameters. The approach was used to analyze the MIPS and BIOGRID yeast protein interaction networks, and two yeast coexpression networks. We showed that 2nd order degree correlation information gave better predictions of gene interactions in both protein interaction and gene coexpression networks. However, in the biologically important task of predicting functionally homogeneous modules, degree correlation information performs marginally better in the case of the MIPS and BIOGRID protein interaction networks, but worse in the case of gene coexpression networks. Conclusion Our use of dK models showed that incorporation of degree correlations could increase predictive power in some contexts, albeit sometimes marginally, but, in all contexts, the use of third-order degree correlations decreased accuracy. However, it is possible that other parameter estimation methods, such as maximum likelihood, will show the usefulness of incorporating 2nd and 3rd degree correlations in predicting functionally homogeneous modules.

  20. Logic of likelihood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, M.J.W.

    1992-07-01

    The notion of {open_quotes}probability{close_quotes} is generalized to that of {open_quotes}likelihood,{close_quotes} and a natural logical structure is shown to exist for any physical theory which predicts likelihoods. Two physically based axioms are given for this logical structure to form an orthomodular poset, with an order-determining set of states. The results strengthen the basis of the quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum theory. 25 refs.

  1. Composite likelihood method for inferring local pedigrees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ko, Amy; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    such as polygamous families, multi-generational families, and pedigrees in which many of the member individuals are missing. Computational speed is greatly enhanced by the use of a composite likelihood function which approximates the full likelihood. We validate our method on simulated data and show that it can...

  2. Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.

    2015-11-01

    We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.

  3. Variance Function Partially Linear Single-Index Models1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Heng; Liang, Hua; Carroll, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    We consider heteroscedastic regression models where the mean function is a partially linear single index model and the variance function depends upon a generalized partially linear single index model. We do not insist that the variance function depend only upon the mean function, as happens in the classical generalized partially linear single index model. We develop efficient and practical estimation methods for the variance function and for the mean function. Asymptotic theory for the parametric and nonparametric parts of the model is developed. Simulations illustrate the results. An empirical example involving ozone levels is used to further illustrate the results, and is shown to be a case where the variance function does not depend upon the mean function.

  4. Maximum likelihood scaling (MALS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Verouden, Maikel P. H.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Smilde, Age K.

    2006-01-01

    A filtering procedure is introduced for multivariate data that does not suffer from noise amplification by scaling. A maximum likelihood principal component analysis (MLPCA) step is used as a filter that partly removes noise. This filtering can be used prior to any subsequent scaling and

  5. Variation in transfusion rates within a single institution: exploring the effect of differing practice patterns on the likelihood of blood product transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Claudia; MacLeod, Jeffrey B; Yip, Alexandra M; Ouzounian, Maral; Brown, Craig D; Forgie, Rand; Pelletier, Marc P; Hassan, Ansar

    2015-01-01

    Rates of perioperative transfusion vary widely among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Few studies have examined factors beyond the clinical characteristics of the patients that may be responsible for such variation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differing practice patterns had an impact on variation in perioperative transfusion at a single center. Patients who underwent cardiac surgery at a single center between 2004 and 2011 were considered. Comparisons were made between patients who had received a perioperative transfusion and those who had not from the clinical factors at baseline, intraoperative variables, and differing practice patterns, as defined by the surgeon, anesthesiologist, perfusionist, and the year in which the procedure was performed. The risk-adjusted effect of these factors on perioperative transfusion rates was determined using multivariable regression modeling techniques. The study population comprised 4823 patients, of whom 1929 (40.0%) received a perioperative transfusion. Significant variation in perioperative transfusion rates was noted between surgeons (from 32.4% to 51.5%, P patterns contribute to significant variation in rates of perioperative transfusion within a single center. Strategies aimed at reducing overall transfusion rates must take into account such variability in practice patterns and account for nonclinical factors as well as known clinical predictors of blood transfusions. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maximum Likelihood Fusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-09

    Symposium of Robotics Re- search. Sienna, Italy: Springer, 2003. [12] D. Hall and J. Llinas, “An introduction to multisensor data fusion ,” Proceed- ings of...a data fusion approach for combining Gaussian metric models of an environment constructed by multiple agents that operate outside of a global... data fusion , hypothesis testing,maximum likelihood estimation, mobile robot navigation REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT

  7. Likelihood Inflating Sampling Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Entezari, Reihaneh; Craiu, Radu V.; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling from a posterior distribution corresponding to a massive data set can be computationally prohibitive since producing one sample requires a number of operations that is linear in the data size. In this paper, we introduce a new communication-free parallel method, the Likelihood Inflating Sampling Algorithm (LISA), that significantly reduces computational costs by randomly splitting the dataset into smaller subsets and running MCMC methods independently ...

  8. Estimation for stochastic volatility model: Quasi-likelihood and asymptotic quasi-likelihood approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Alzghool

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For estimation of the stochastic volatility model (SVM, this paper suggests the quasi-likelihood (QL and asymptotic quasi-likelihood (AQL methods. The QL approach is quite simple and does not require full knowledge of the likelihood functions of the SVM. The AQL technique is based on the QL method and is used when the covariance matrix Σ is unknown. The AQL approach replaces the true variance–covariance matrix Σ by nonparametric kernel estimator of Σ in QL.

  9. Capillary electrophoresis of covalently functionalized single-chirality carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pingli; Meany, Brendan; Wang, Chunyan; Piao, Yanmei; Kwon, Hyejin; Deng, Shunliu; Wang, YuHuang

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate the separation of chirality-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by degree of surface functionalization using high-performance CE. Controlled amounts of negatively charged and positively charged functional groups were attached to the sidewall of chirality-enriched SWCNTs through covalent functionalization using 4-carboxybenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate or 4-diazo-N,N-diethylaniline tetrafluoroborate, respectively. Surfactant- and pH-dependent studies confirmed that under conditions that minimized ionic screening effects, separation of these functionalized SWCNTs was strongly dependent on the surface charge density introduced through covalent surface chemistry. For both heterogeneous mixtures and single-chirality-enriched samples, covalently functionalized SWCNTs showed substantially increased peak width in electropherogram spectra compared to nonfunctionalized SWCNTs, which can be attributed to a distribution of surface charges along the functionalized nanotubes. Successful separation of functionalized single-chirality SWCNTs by functional density was confirmed with UV-Vis-NIR absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies of fraction collected samples. These results suggest a high degree of structural heterogeneity in covalently functionalized SWCNTs, even for chirality-enriched samples, and show the feasibility of applying CE for high-performance separation of nanomaterials based on differences in surface functional density. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Data assimilation and uncertainty analysis of environmental assessment problems--an application of Stochastic Transfer Function and Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowicz, Renata; Young, Peter C.

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic Transfer Function (STF) and Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) techniques are outlined and applied to an environmental problem concerned with marine dose assessment. The goal of both methods in this application is the estimation and prediction of the environmental variables, together with their associated probability distributions. In particular, they are used to estimate the amount of radionuclides transferred to marine biota from a given source: the British Nuclear Fuel Ltd (BNFL) repository plant in Sellafield, UK. The complexity of the processes involved, together with the large dispersion and scarcity of observations regarding radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, require efficient data assimilation techniques. In this regard, the basic STF methods search for identifiable, linear model structures that capture the maximum amount of information contained in the data with a minimal parameterisation. They can be extended for on-line use, based on recursively updated Bayesian estimation and, although applicable to only constant or time-variable parameter (non-stationary) linear systems in the form used in this paper, they have the potential for application to non-linear systems using recently developed State Dependent Parameter (SDP) non-linear STF models. The GLUE based-methods, on the other hand, formulate the problem of estimation using a more general Bayesian approach, usually without prior statistical identification of the model structure. As a result, they are applicable to almost any linear or non-linear stochastic model, although they are much less efficient both computationally and in their use of the information contained in the observations. As expected in this particular environmental application, it is shown that the STF methods give much narrower confidence limits for the estimates due to their more efficient use of the information contained in the data. Exploiting Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) analysis

  11. Functionalization of Single Layer MoS$_2$ Honeycomb Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ataca, C.; Ciraci, S.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the first-principles plane wave calculations, we studied the functionalization of the two-dimensional single layer MoS$_2$ structure via adatom adsorption and vacancy defect creation. Minimum energy adsorption sites are determined for sixteen different adatoms, each gives rise to diverse properties. Bare, single layer MoS$_2$, which is normally a nonmagnetic, direct band gap semiconductor, attains a net magnetic moment upon adsorption of specific transition metal atoms, as well as si...

  12. Earthquake likelihood model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; Wiemer, S.; Jackson, D.D.; Rhoades, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project aims to produce and evaluate alternate models of earthquake potential (probability per unit volume, magnitude, and time) for California. Based on differing assumptions, these models are produced to test the validity of their assumptions and to explore which models should be incorporated in seismic hazard and risk evaluation. Tests based on physical and geological criteria are useful but we focus on statistical methods using future earthquake catalog data only. We envision two evaluations: a test of consistency with observed data and a comparison of all pairs of models for relative consistency. Both tests are based on the likelihood method, and both are fully prospective (i.e., the models are not adjusted to fit the test data). To be tested, each model must assign a probability to any possible event within a specified region of space, time, and magnitude. For our tests the models must use a common format: earthquake rates in specified “bins” with location, magnitude, time, and focal mechanism limits.Seismology cannot yet deterministically predict individual earthquakes; however, it should seek the best possible models for forecasting earthquake occurrence. This paper describes the statistical rules of an experiment to examine and test earthquake forecasts. The primary purposes of the tests described below are to evaluate physical models for earthquakes, assure that source models used in seismic hazard and risk studies are consistent with earthquake data, and provide quantitative measures by which models can be assigned weights in a consensus model or be judged as suitable for particular regions.In this paper we develop a statistical method for testing earthquake likelihood models. A companion paper (Schorlemmer and Gerstenberger 2007, this issue) discusses the actual implementation of these tests in the framework of the RELM initiative.Statistical testing of hypotheses is a common task and a

  13. Novel approaches in function-driven single-cell genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, Devin F R; Woyke, Tanja

    2017-07-01

    Deeper sequencing and improved bioinformatics in conjunction with single-cell and metagenomic approaches continue to illuminate undercharacterized environmental microbial communities. This has propelled the 'who is there, and what might they be doing' paradigm to the uncultivated and has already radically changed the topology of the tree of life and provided key insights into the microbial contribution to biogeochemistry. While characterization of 'who' based on marker genes can describe a large fraction of the community, answering 'what are they doing' remains the elusive pinnacle for microbiology. Function-driven single-cell genomics provides a solution by using a function-based screen to subsample complex microbial communities in a targeted manner for the isolation and genome sequencing of single cells. This enables single-cell sequencing to be focused on cells with specific phenotypic or metabolic characteristics of interest. Recovered genomes are conclusively implicated for both encoding and exhibiting the feature of interest, improving downstream annotation and revealing activity levels within that environment. This emerging approach has already improved our understanding of microbial community functioning and facilitated the experimental analysis of uncharacterized gene product space. Here we provide a comprehensive review of strategies that have been applied for function-driven single-cell genomics and the future directions we envision. © FEMS 2017.

  14. Challenging Stereotypes: Sexual Functioning of Single Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In…

  15. Kernel Function Tuning for Single-Layer Neural Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vidnerová, Petra; Neruda, Roman

    -, accepted 28.11. 2017 (2018) ISSN 2278-0149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18108S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : single-layer neural networks * kernel methods * kernel function * optimisation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ijmerr.com/

  16. Coupled cluster approach to the single-particle Green's function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooijen, M.; Snijders, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Diagrammatic and coupled cluster techniques are used to develop an approach to the single-particle Green's function G which concentrates on G directly rather than first approximating the irreducible self-energy and then solving Dyson's equation. As a consequence the ionization and attachment parts of the Green's function satisfy completely decoupled sets of equations. The proposed coupled cluster Green's function method (CCGF) is intimately connected to both coupled cluster linear response theory (CCLRT) and the normal coupled cluster method (NCCM). These relations are discussed in detail

  17. Optical Properties of Single- and Double-Functionalized Small Diamondoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarap, Chandra Shekar; Adhikari, Bibek; Meng, Sheng; Uhlig, Frank; Fyta, Maria

    2018-03-30

    The rational control of the electronic and optical properties of small functionalized diamond-like molecules, the diamondoids, is the focus of this work. Specifically, we investigate the single- and double- functionalization of the lower diamondoids, adamantane, diamantane, and triamantane with -NH 2 and -SH groups and extend the study to N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) functionalization. On the basis of electronic structure calculations, we predict a significant change in the optical properties of these functionalized diamondoids. Our computations reveal that -NH 2 functionalized diamondoids show UV photoluminescence similar to ideal diamondoids while -SH substituted diamondoids hinder the UV photoluminescence due to the labile nature of the S-H bond in the first excited state. This study also unveils that the UV photoluminescence nature of -NH 2 diamondoids is quenched upon additional functionalization with the -SH group. The double-functionalized derivative can, thus, serve as a sensitive probe for biomolecule binding and sensing environmental changes. The preserved intrinsic properties of the NHC and the ideal diamondoid in NHC-functionalized-diamondoids suggests its utilization in diamondoid-based self-assembled monolayers (SAM), whose UV-photoluminescent signal would be determined entirely by the functionalized diamondoids. Our study aims to pave the path for tuning the properties of diamondoids through a selective choice of the type and number of functional groups. This will aid the realization of optoelectronic devices involving, for example, large-area SAM layers or diamondoid-functionalized electrodes.

  18. Generalized Functional Linear Models With Semiparametric Single-Index Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yehua

    2010-06-01

    We introduce a new class of functional generalized linear models, where the response is a scalar and some of the covariates are functional. We assume that the response depends on multiple covariates, a finite number of latent features in the functional predictor, and interaction between the two. To achieve parsimony, the interaction between the multiple covariates and the functional predictor is modeled semiparametrically with a single-index structure. We propose a two step estimation procedure based on local estimating equations, and investigate two situations: (a) when the basis functions are pre-determined, e.g., Fourier or wavelet basis functions and the functional features of interest are known; and (b) when the basis functions are data driven, such as with functional principal components. Asymptotic properties are developed. Notably, we show that when the functional features are data driven, the parameter estimates have an increased asymptotic variance, due to the estimation error of the basis functions. Our methods are illustrated with a simulation study and applied to an empirical data set, where a previously unknown interaction is detected. Technical proofs of our theoretical results are provided in the online supplemental materials.

  19. Stimulus-response functions of single avian olfactory bulb neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, Dorothy E F; Demmers, Theodorus G M; Wathes, Christopher M; Jones, R Bryan; Gentle, Michael J

    2002-10-25

    This study investigated olfactory processing in a functional context by examining the responses of single avian olfactory bulb neurones to two biologically important gases over relevant concentration ranges. Recordings of extracellular spike activity were made from 80 single units in the left olfactory bulb of 11 anaesthetised, freely breathing adult hens (Gallus domesticus). The units were spontaneously active, exhibiting widely variable firing rates (0.07-47.28 spikes/s) and variable temporal firing patterns. Single units were tested for their response to an ascending concentration series of either ammonia (2.5-100 ppm) or hydrogen sulphide (1-50 ppm), delivered directly to the olfactory epithelium. Stimulation with a calibrated gas delivery system resulted in modification of spontaneous activity causing either inhibition (47% of units) or excitation (53%) of firing. For ammonia, 20 of the 35 units tested exhibited a response, while for hydrogen sulphide, 25 of the 45 units tested were responsive. Approximate response thresholds for ammonia (median threshold 3.75 ppm (range 2.5-60 ppm, n=20)) and hydrogen sulphide (median threshold 1 ppm (range 1-10 ppm, n=25)) were determined with most units exhibiting thresholds near the lower end of these ranges. Stimulus response curves were constructed for 23 units; 16 (the most complete) were subjected to a linear regression analysis to determine whether they were best fitted by a linear, log or power function. No single function provided the best fit for all the curves (seven were linear, eight were log, one was power). These findings show that avian units respond to changes in stimulus concentration in a manner generally consistent with reported responses in mammalian olfactory bulb neurones. However, this study illustrates a level of fine-tuning to small step changes in concentration (<5 ppm) not previously demonstrated in vertebrate single olfactory bulb neurones.

  20. Single-particle response function in finite nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.; Texas A and M Univ., College Station

    1982-01-01

    I derive expressions for the single-particle response (structure) function S(E, q) and its sum rule, (Pauli blocking factor) P(q) = ∫ dE S(E, q), in terms of the Wiqner transforms (WTs) of the single-particle wave functions and the scattering probe sigma(q, r) and discuss the semi-classical phase-space interpretation of the results. For sigma(q, r) = esup(iq x r), I derive simple expressions for S(E, q) and P(q) for finite nuclei within the harmonic-oscillator model and compare the results with the well-known results of the Fermi-gas model. (orig.)

  1. Functions and requirements for single-shell tank leakage mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the initial functions and requirements for the leakage mitigation mission applicable to past and potential future leakage from the Hanford Site's 149 single-shell high-level waste tanks. This mission is a part of the overall mission of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Waste Remediation System division to remediate the tank waste in a safe and acceptable manner. Systems engineering principles are being applied to this effort. A Mission Analysis has been completed, this document reflects the next step in the systems engineering approach to decompose the mission into primary functions and requirements. The functions and requirements in this document apply to mitigative actions to be taken regarding below ground leaks from SST containment boundaries and the resulting soil contamination. Leakage mitigation is invoked in the TWRS Program in three fourth level functions: (1) Store Waste, (2) Retrieve Waste, and (3) Disposition Excess Facilities

  2. Acute single channel EEG predictors of cognitive function after stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aminov

    Full Text Available Early and accurate identification of factors that predict post-stroke cognitive outcome is important to set realistic targets for rehabilitation and to guide patients and their families accordingly. However, behavioral measures of cognition are difficult to obtain in the acute phase of recovery due to clinical factors (e.g. fatigue and functional barriers (e.g. language deficits. The aim of the current study was to test whether single channel wireless EEG data obtained acutely following stroke could predict longer-term cognitive function.Resting state Relative Power (RP of delta, theta, alpha, beta, delta/alpha ratio (DAR, and delta/theta ratio (DTR were obtained from a single electrode over FP1 in 24 participants within 72 hours of a first-ever stroke. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA was administered at 90-days post-stroke. Correlation and regression analyses were completed to identify relationships between 90-day cognitive function and electrophysiological data, neurological status, and demographic characteristics at admission.Four acute qEEG indices demonstrated moderate to high correlations with 90-day MoCA scores: DTR (r = -0.57, p = 0.01, RP theta (r = 0.50, p = 0.01, RP delta (r = -0.47, p = 0.02, and DAR (r = -0.45, p = 0.03. Acute DTR (b = -0.36, p < 0.05 and stroke severity on admission (b = -0.63, p < 0.01 were the best linear combination of predictors of MoCA scores 90-days post-stroke, accounting for 75% of variance.Data generated by a single pre-frontal electrode support the prognostic value of acute DAR, and identify DTR as a potential marker of post-stroke cognitive outcome. Use of single channel recording in an acute clinical setting may provide an efficient and valid predictor of cognitive function after stroke.

  3. Penalized Maximum Likelihood Estimation for univariate normal mixture distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridolfi, A.; Idier, J.

    2001-01-01

    Due to singularities of the likelihood function, the maximum likelihood approach for the estimation of the parameters of normal mixture models is an acknowledged ill posed optimization problem. Ill posedness is solved by penalizing the likelihood function. In the Bayesian framework, it amounts to incorporating an inverted gamma prior in the likelihood function. A penalized version of the EM algorithm is derived, which is still explicit and which intrinsically assures that the estimates are not singular. Numerical evidence of the latter property is put forward with a test

  4. Evaluating measurement equivalence using the item response theory log-likelihood ratio (IRTLR) method to assess differential item functioning (DIF): applications (with illustrations) to measures of physical functioning ability and general distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Kleinman, Marjorie; Cook, Karon F; Crane, Paul K; Gibbons, Laura E; Morales, Leo S; Orlando-Edelen, Maria; Cella, David

    2007-01-01

    Methods based on item response theory (IRT) that can be used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) are illustrated. An IRT-based approach to the detection of DIF was applied to physical function and general distress item sets. DIF was examined with respect to gender, age and race. The method used for DIF detection was the item response theory log-likelihood ratio (IRTLR) approach. DIF magnitude was measured using the differences in the expected item scores, expressed as the unsigned probability differences, and calculated using the non-compensatory DIF index (NCDIF). Finally, impact was assessed using expected scale scores, expressed as group differences in the total test (measure) response functions. The example for the illustration of the methods came from a study of 1,714 patients with cancer or HIV/AIDS. The measure contained 23 items measuring physical functioning ability and 15 items addressing general distress, scored in the positive direction. The substantive findings were of relatively small magnitude DIF. In total, six items showed relatively larger magnitude (expected item score differences greater than the cutoff) of DIF with respect to physical function across the three comparisons: "trouble with a long walk" (race), "vigorous activities" (race, age), "bending, kneeling stooping" (age), "lifting or carrying groceries" (race), "limited in hobbies, leisure" (age), "lack of energy" (race). None of the general distress items evidenced high magnitude DIF; although "worrying about dying" showed some DIF with respect to both age and race, after adjustment. The fact that many physical function items showed DIF with respect to age, even after adjustment for multiple comparisons, indicates that the instrument may be performing differently for these groups. While the magnitude and impact of DIF at the item and scale level was minimal, caution should be exercised in the use of subsets of these items, as might occur with selection for clinical decisions or

  5. Noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Li; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2009-08-18

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have attracted much attention on account of their potential to be transformed into new materials that can be employed to address a wide range of applications. The insolubility of the SWNTs in most solvents and the difficulties of handling these highly intractable carbon nanostructures, however, are restricting their real-life applications at the present time. To improve upon the properties of the SWNTs, low-cost and industrially feasible approaches to their modifications are constantly being sought by chemists and materials scientists. Together, they have shown that noncovalent functionalization of the SWNTs can do much to preserve the desired properties of the SWNTs while remarkably improving their solubilities. This Account describes recent advances in the design, synthesis, and characterization of SWNT hybrids and evaluates applications of these new hybrid materials based on noncovalently functionalized SWNTs. Their solubilization enables the characterization of these hybrids as well as the investigation of the properties of the SWNTs using solution-based techniques. Cognizant of the structural properties of the functional molecules on the SWNTs, we present some of the recent work carried out by ourselves and others under the umbrella of the following three subtopics: (i) aromatic small-molecule-based noncovalent functionalization, (ii) biomacromolecule-based noncovalent functionalization, and (iii) polymer-based noncovalent functionalization. Several examples for the applications of noncovalently functionalized SWNT hybrids in the fabrication of field-effect transistor (FET) devices, chemical sensors, molecular switch tunnel junctions (MSTJs), and photovoltaic devices are highlighted and discussed. The blossoming of new methods for the noncovalent functionalization of the SWNTs promises a new generation of SWNT hybrid-based integrated multifunctional sensors and devices, an outcome which is essential for the development of

  6. From tomography to FWI with a single objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-06-10

    Reflections in our seismic data induce serious nonlinear behavior in the objective function of full waveform inversion (FWI). Thus, without a good initial velocity model, that can produce the reflections within a cycle of the frequency used in the inversion, convergence to the solution becomes hard. Such velocity models are usually extracted from migration velocity analysis or traveltime tomography, among other means, that are not guaranteed to adhere to the FWI requirements. As such, we promote an objective function based on the misfit in the instantaneous traveltime between the observed and modeled data. This phase based attribute of the wavefield, along with its phase unwrapping features, provide a frequency dependent traveltime function. With strong damping of the of the synthetic, potentially low frequency, data, this attribute admits first arrival traveltime that could be compared with picked ones from the observed data, like in wave equation tomography. As we relax the damping on the synthetic and observed data, the objective function measures the misfit in the phase, however unwrapped in an FWI type inversion. It, thus, provides a single objective function and a natural transition from traveltime tomography to full waveform inversion. A Marmousi example demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  7. A systematic error in maximum likelihood fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, U.C.; Riisager, K.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method is normally regarded as the safest method for parameter estimation. We show that this method will give a bias in the often occurring situation where a spectrum of counts is fitted with a theoretical function, unless the fit function is very simple. The bias can become significant when the spectrum contains less than about 100 counts or when the fit interval is too short

  8. Photophysics of covalently functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes with verteporfin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, Angela; Smarandache, Adriana; Pascu, Alexandru; Pascu, Mihail Lucian

    2017-09-01

    Covalently functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with the photosensitizer verteporfin (VP) were synthesized and studied. Photophysical properties of the obtained compounds like optical absorption, laser-induced fluorescence and generated singlet oxygen were investigated. In order to highlight the features of the conjugated compound, its photophysical characteristics were compared with those of the mixtures of the initial components. The optical absorption data evidenced a compound that combines features of the primary SWCNTs and VP. This is the also the case of the laser induced fluorescence of the synthesized product. Moreover, fluorescence quantum yield (Φf) of the compound (Φf = 2.4%) is smaller than for the mixture of SWCNT and VP in (Φf = 3.2%). The behavior is expected, because linked VP (carrying the fluorescent moiety) transfers easier a part of its excitation energy to the SWCNT in the covalent structure. Relative to the quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation (ΦΔ) by Methylene Blue, it was found that the ΦΔ for the conjugated VP-SWCNT is 51% while for the mixture ΦΔ is 23%. The results indicate covalently functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes with verteporfin as potential compounds of interest in targeted drug delivery and photodynamic therapy.

  9. From Protein Structure to Function via Single Crystal Optical Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca eRonda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The more than 100.000 protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography provide a wealth of information for the characterization of biological processes at the molecular level. However, several crystallographic artifacts, including conformational selection, crystallization conditions and radiation damages, may affect the quality and the interpretation of the electron density map, thus limiting the relevance of structure determinations. Moreover, for most of these structures no functional data have been obtained in the crystalline state, thus posing serious questions on their validity in the inference for protein mechanisms. In order to solve these issues, spectroscopic methods have been applied for the determination of equilibrium and kinetic properties of proteins in the crystalline state. These methods are UV-vis spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, IR, EPR, Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy. Some of these approaches have been implemented with on-line instruments at X-ray synchrotron beamlines. Here, we provide an overview of investigations predominantly carried out in our laboratory by single crystal polarized absorption UV-vis microspectrophotometry, the most applied technique for the functional characterization of proteins in the crystalline state. Studies on hemoglobins, pyridoxal 5’-phosphate dependent enzymes and green fluorescent protein in the crystalline state have addressed key biological issues, leading to either straightforward structure-function correlations or limitations to structure-based mechanisms.

  10. UPF201 archaeal specific family members reveal structural similarity to RNA-binding proteins but low likelihood for RNA-binding function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy N Rao

    Full Text Available We have determined X-ray crystal structures of four members of an archaeal specific family of proteins of unknown function (UPF0201; Pfam classification: DUF54 to advance our understanding of the genetic repertoire of archaea. Despite low pairwise amino acid sequence identities (10-40% and the absence of conserved sequence motifs, the three-dimensional structures of these proteins are remarkably similar to one another. Their common polypeptide chain fold, encompassing a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and five alpha-helices, proved to be quite unexpectedly similar to that of the RRM-type RNA-binding domain of the ribosomal L5 protein, which is responsible for binding the 5S- rRNA. Structure-based sequence alignments enabled construction of a phylogenetic tree relating UPF0201 family members to L5 ribosomal proteins and other structurally similar RNA binding proteins, thereby expanding our understanding of the evolutionary purview of the RRM superfamily. Analyses of the surfaces of these newly determined UPF0201 structures suggest that they probably do not function as RNA binding proteins, and that this domain specific family of proteins has acquired a novel function in archaebacteria, which awaits experimental elucidation.

  11. 21 CFR 870.1435 - Single-function, preprogrammed diagnostic computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Single-function, preprogrammed diagnostic computer... Single-function, preprogrammed diagnostic computer. (a) Identification. A single-function, preprogrammed diagnostic computer is a hard-wired computer that calculates a specific physiological or blood-flow parameter...

  12. Efficient Detection of Repeating Sites to Accelerate Phylogenetic Likelihood Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobert, K; Stamatakis, A; Flouri, T

    2017-03-01

    The phylogenetic likelihood function (PLF) is the major computational bottleneck in several applications of evolutionary biology such as phylogenetic inference, species delimitation, model selection, and divergence times estimation. Given the alignment, a tree and the evolutionary model parameters, the likelihood function computes the conditional likelihood vectors for every node of the tree. Vector entries for which all input data are identical result in redundant likelihood operations which, in turn, yield identical conditional values. Such operations can be omitted for improving run-time and, using appropriate data structures, reducing memory usage. We present a fast, novel method for identifying and omitting such redundant operations in phylogenetic likelihood calculations, and assess the performance improvement and memory savings attained by our method. Using empirical and simulated data sets, we show that a prototype implementation of our method yields up to 12-fold speedups and uses up to 78% less memory than one of the fastest and most highly tuned implementations of the PLF currently available. Our method is generic and can seamlessly be integrated into any phylogenetic likelihood implementation. [Algorithms; maximum likelihood; phylogenetic likelihood function; phylogenetics]. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  13. Quantification of functional dynamics of membrane proteins reconstituted in nanodiscs membranes by single turnover functional readout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moses, Matias Emil; Hedegård, Per; Hatzakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule measurements are emerging as a powerful tool to study the individual behavior of biomolecules, revolutionizing our understanding of biological processes. Their ability to measure the distribution of behaviors, instead of the average behavior, allows the direct observation and quan......Single-molecule measurements are emerging as a powerful tool to study the individual behavior of biomolecules, revolutionizing our understanding of biological processes. Their ability to measure the distribution of behaviors, instead of the average behavior, allows the direct observation...... and quantification of the activity, abundance, and lifetime of multiple states and transient intermediates in the energy landscape that are typically averaged out in nonsynchronized ensemble measurements. Studying the function of membrane proteins at the single-molecule level remains a formidable challenge......, and to date there is limited number of available functional assays. In this chapter, we describe in detail our recently developed methodology to reconstitute membrane proteins such as the integral membrane protein cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase on membrane systems such as Nanodiscs and study their functional...

  14. Dimension-Independent Likelihood-Informed MCMC

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Tiangang

    2015-01-07

    Many Bayesian inference problems require exploring the posterior distribution of high-dimensional parameters, which in principle can be described as functions. By exploiting low-dimensional structure in the change from prior to posterior [distributions], we introduce a suite of MCMC samplers that can adapt to the complex structure of the posterior distribution, yet are well-defined on function space. Posterior sampling in nonlinear inverse problems arising from various partial di erential equations and also a stochastic differential equation are used to demonstrate the e ciency of these dimension-independent likelihood-informed samplers.

  15. Crystallization and mechanical properties of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jing; Iftekharul Haque, Rubaiyet; Larsen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes were purified and functionalized by nitric acid and octadecylamine. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the functionalization of the single-walled carbon nanotubes. Polyvinylidene flouride nanocomposites containing 1 wt......% purified or functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared by solution blending and injection molding. The dispersion of different carbon nanotubes in dimethylformamide and in polyvinylidene flouride has been investigated. Mechanical properties show that adding single-walled carbon nanotubes...

  16. Crosslinked Functional Polymer Nanowire Formation Along Single Particle Tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, S.

    2006-01-01

    The use of high-energy charged particles has extended to many fields in recent years. In medicine, non-homogeneous energy deposition along an ion trajectory (ion track) plays a crucial role in cancer radiotherapy, allowing for high spatial selectivity in the distribution of the radiation dose. The direct observation and application of ion tracks in media have also attracted interest in materials science, where it is known as nuclear track fabrication. Since the discovery that high-energy particle leave latent tracks in inorganic and organic polymer materials, the technique has also been applied to the production of micro- and nano-sized pores in materials through chemical etching of the tracks. The clear correlation between the etched pore and the characteristics of the incident charged particle has been utilized for measurement of the velocity and mass of the incident particles, and such organic film detectors are widely used in dosimetry, and in particular for galactic cosmic rays in space. The scope of the present paper is the direct nano-structure formation based on crosslinking reactions induced in nano-scale ultra-small spaces of single particle tracks. We have developed the simple one-step formation processes of nanowires without using any chemical etching or refilling processes. The present technique is in striking contrast to the previous 'nuclear track' nanofabrication techniques. According to its high feasibility for the preparation of 1-D nanowires based on 'any' kinds of polymeric materials, the present paper demonstrates the formation of not only simple polymer nanowires but also ceramic and/or multi-segment multi-functional nanowires

  17. Likelihood analysis of parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, D.; Sharapov, E.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the determination of the root mean-squared matrix element of the parity-violating interaction between compound-nuclear states using likelihood analysis. We briefly review the relevant features of the statistical model of the compound nucleus and the formalism of likelihood analysis. We then discuss the application of likelihood analysis to data on panty-violating longitudinal asymmetries. The reliability of the extracted value of the matrix element and errors assigned to the matrix element is stressed. We treat the situations where the spins of the p-wave resonances are not known and known using experimental data and Monte Carlo techniques. We conclude that likelihood analysis provides a reliable way to determine M and its confidence interval. We briefly discuss some problems associated with the normalization of the likelihood function

  18. Functional Insights into Sponge Microbiology by Single Cell Genomics

    KAUST Repository

    Hentschel, Ute

    2011-04-09

    Marine Sponges (Porifera) are known to harbor enormous amounts of microorganisms with members belonging to at least 30 different bacterial phyla including several candidate phyla and both archaeal lineages. Here, we applied single cell genomics to the mic

  19. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2015-11-17

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  20. Bulk spectral functions in single and multiscalar gravity duals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Todd; Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong

    2010-12-01

    We examine two-point correlation functions involving the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in five-dimensional dual gravity theories supported by one or more scalar fields. A prescription for determining bulk channel spectral functions is developed. This prescription generalizes previous work which centered on one scalar field. As an application of these techniques, we investigate the bulk spectral function and corresponding sum rule in the Chamblin-Reall background. We show that, when expressed in terms of the beta function, the sum rule for the Chamblin-Reall background can be written in a form similar to the sum rule in Yang-Mills theory.

  1. Expression, production and renaturation of a functional single-chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The single-chain variable antibody fragment (scFv) against human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was expressed at a high level in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. We attempted to refold the scFv by ion-exchange chromatography (IEC), dialysis and dilution. The results show that the column ...

  2. Right ventricular function assessment in single LAD lesion patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rania Gaber

    2015-10-09

    Oct 9, 2015 ... Abstract Background: Strain and strain rate imaging is currently the most popular echocardio- graphic technique that reveals subclinical myocardial damage, and data are not available on this imaging method with regard to assessing right ventricular involvement in single LAD lesion. Aim: To evaluate right ...

  3. Multi-Functional Measurement Using a Single FBG Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mizutani, Y.; Groves, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of average strain, strain distribution and vibration of a cantilever beam made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP), using a single Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor mounted on the beam surface. Average strain is determined from the displacement of the peak

  4. Functionalization of oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes with 4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The low-dimension and remarkable physical proper- ties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) ren- der them unique material properties with a wide range of potential applications.1,2 However, the lack of sol- ubility in solvents presents a considerable impediment toward harnessing of their applications.

  5. Phototransformation-Induced Aggregation of Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: The Importance of Amorphous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with proper functionalization are desirable for applications that require dispersion in aqueous and biological environments, and functionalized SWCNTs also serve as building blocks for conjugation with specific molecules in these applicatio...

  6. Functionalized nanopipettes: toward label-free, single cell biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Actis, Paolo; Mak, Andy C.; Pourmand, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Nanopipette technology has been proven to be a label-free biosensor capable of identifying DNA and proteins. The nanopipette can include specific recognition elements for analyte discrimination based on size, shape, and charge density. The fully electrical read-out and the ease and low-cost fabrication are unique features that give this technology an enormous potential. Unlike other biosensing platforms, nanopipettes can be precisely manipulated with submicron accuracy and used to study singl...

  7. Model fit after pairwise maximum likelihood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendse, M. T.; Ligtvoet, R.; Timmerman, M. E.; Oort, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response

  8. Model fit after pairwise maximum likelihood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendse, M.T.; Ligtvoet, R.; Timmerman, M.E.; Oort, F.J.

    Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response

  9. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  10. Variability in expert assessments of child physical abuse likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Daniel Martin; Lindsell, Christopher John; Shapiro, Robert Allan

    2008-04-01

    In the absence of a gold standard, clinicians and researchers often categorize their opinions of the likelihood of inflicted injury using several ordinal scales. The objective of this protocol was to determine the reliability of expert ratings using several of these scales. Participants were pediatricians with substantial academic and clinical activity in the evaluation of children with concerns for physical abuse. The facts from several cases that were referred to 1 hospital's child abuse team were abstracted and recorded as in a multidisciplinary team conference. Participants viewed the recording and rated each case using several scales of child abuse likelihood. Participants (n = 22) showed broad variability for most cases on all scales. Variability was lowest for cases with the highest aggregate concern for abuse. One scale that included examples of cases fitting each category and standard reporting language to summarize results showed a modest (18%-23%) decrease in variability among participants. The interpretation of the categories used by the scales was more consistent. Cases were rarely rated as "definite abuse" when likelihood was estimated at abuse." Only 9 of 858 cases rated > or = 35% likelihood were rated as "reasonable concern for abuse." Assessments of child abuse likelihood often show broad variability between experts. Although a rating scale with patient examples and standard reporting language may decrease variability, clinicians and researchers should be cautious when interpreting abuse likelihood assessments from a single expert. These data support the peer-review or multidisciplinary team approach to child abuse assessments.

  11. Microscopic single-crystal refractometry as a function of wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    The refractive indices of crystal fragments 50--200 μm in size can be measured for light wavelengths between 365 and 1100 nm with a spindle-stage refractometer. Established methods from optical crystallograpy are used to orient a crystal on the microscope spindle stage and then to match its refractive index to an immersion fluid. The refractive index of the fluid for the wavelength of light and matching temperature is determined by comparison of a reference crystal on a second spindle axis with the fluid under the match conditions. Investigations of new nonlinear-optical crystals admirably demonstrate the advantages of measuring the refractive index to ± 0.0004 in small single crystals

  12. Functionalization of oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes with 4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with phase transfer catalyst.7 Along with our previ- ous work on ... typically proper segments to make a junction with larger globular organic .... DMF. Scheme 2. Functionalization of SWCNTs-COOH with 4-amino benzo-9-crown-3 ether (5). LiCl/ H2O-DMF. Li+. ,1h. SWCNT-CE -Li. +. (8). SWCNT-CE (7). O. O. O. NH3. +. C. O.

  13. Penalized likelihood and multi-objective spatial scans for the detection and inference of irregular clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cançado, André L F; Duarte, Anderson R; Duczmal, Luiz H; Ferreira, Sabino J; Fonseca, Carlos M; Gontijo, Eliane C D M

    2010-10-29

    Irregularly shaped spatial clusters are difficult to delineate. A cluster found by an algorithm often spreads through large portions of the map, impacting its geographical meaning. Penalized likelihood methods for Kulldorff's spatial scan statistics have been used to control the excessive freedom of the shape of clusters. Penalty functions based on cluster geometry and non-connectivity have been proposed recently. Another approach involves the use of a multi-objective algorithm to maximize two objectives: the spatial scan statistics and the geometric penalty function. We present a novel scan statistic algorithm employing a function based on the graph topology to penalize the presence of under-populated disconnection nodes in candidate clusters, the disconnection nodes cohesion function. A disconnection node is defined as a region within a cluster, such that its removal disconnects the cluster. By applying this function, the most geographically meaningful clusters are sifted through the immense set of possible irregularly shaped candidate cluster solutions. To evaluate the statistical significance of solutions for multi-objective scans, a statistical approach based on the concept of attainment function is used. In this paper we compared different penalized likelihoods employing the geometric and non-connectivity regularity functions and the novel disconnection nodes cohesion function. We also build multi-objective scans using those three functions and compare them with the previous penalized likelihood scans. An application is presented using comprehensive state-wide data for Chagas' disease in puerperal women in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. We show that, compared to the other single-objective algorithms, multi-objective scans present better performance, regarding power, sensitivity and positive predicted value. The multi-objective non-connectivity scan is faster and better suited for the detection of moderately irregularly shaped clusters. The multi

  14. Penalized likelihood and multi-objective spatial scans for the detection and inference of irregular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Carlos M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irregularly shaped spatial clusters are difficult to delineate. A cluster found by an algorithm often spreads through large portions of the map, impacting its geographical meaning. Penalized likelihood methods for Kulldorff's spatial scan statistics have been used to control the excessive freedom of the shape of clusters. Penalty functions based on cluster geometry and non-connectivity have been proposed recently. Another approach involves the use of a multi-objective algorithm to maximize two objectives: the spatial scan statistics and the geometric penalty function. Results & Discussion We present a novel scan statistic algorithm employing a function based on the graph topology to penalize the presence of under-populated disconnection nodes in candidate clusters, the disconnection nodes cohesion function. A disconnection node is defined as a region within a cluster, such that its removal disconnects the cluster. By applying this function, the most geographically meaningful clusters are sifted through the immense set of possible irregularly shaped candidate cluster solutions. To evaluate the statistical significance of solutions for multi-objective scans, a statistical approach based on the concept of attainment function is used. In this paper we compared different penalized likelihoods employing the geometric and non-connectivity regularity functions and the novel disconnection nodes cohesion function. We also build multi-objective scans using those three functions and compare them with the previous penalized likelihood scans. An application is presented using comprehensive state-wide data for Chagas' disease in puerperal women in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Conclusions We show that, compared to the other single-objective algorithms, multi-objective scans present better performance, regarding power, sensitivity and positive predicted value. The multi-objective non-connectivity scan is faster and better suited for the

  15. Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyimide with Dispersed Functionalized Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.; Gaier, James R.; Sola, Francisco; Scheiman, Daniel A.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular pi-complexes were formed from pristine HiPCO single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and 1-pyrene- N-(4- N'-(5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxyimido)phenyl butanamide, 1. Polyimide films were prepared with these complexes as well as uncomplexed SWCNTs and the effects of nanoadditive addition on mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of these films were evaluated. Although these properties were enhanced by both nanoadditives, larger increases in tensile strength and thermal and electrical conductivities were obtained when the SWCNT/1 complexes were used. At a loading level of 5.5 wt %, the Tg of the polyimide increased from 169 to 197 C and the storage modulus increased 20-fold (from 142 to 3045 MPa). The addition of 3.5 wt % SWCNT/1 complexes increased the tensile strength of the polyimide from 61.4 to 129 MPa; higher loading levels led to embrittlement and lower tensile strengths. The electrical conductivities (DC surface) of the polyimides increased to 1 x 10(exp -4) Scm(exp -1) (SWCNT/1 complexes loading level of 9 wt %). Details of the preparation of these complexes and their effects on polyimide film properties are discussed.

  16. Phylogenetics, likelihood, evolution and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, A P Jason; Gu, Wanjun; Castoe, Todd A; Pollock, David D

    2012-11-15

    Phylogenetics, likelihood, evolution and complexity (PLEX) is a flexible and fast Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo software program for large-scale analysis of nucleotide and amino acid data using complex evolutionary models in a phylogenetic framework. The program gains large speed improvements over standard approaches by implementing 'partial sampling of substitution histories', a data augmentation approach that can reduce data analysis times from months to minutes on large comparative datasets. A variety of nucleotide and amino acid substitution models are currently implemented, including non-reversible and site-heterogeneous mixture models. Due to efficient algorithms that scale well with data size and model complexity, PLEX can be used to make inferences from hundreds to thousands of taxa in only minutes on a desktop computer. It also performs probabilistic ancestral sequence reconstruction. Future versions will support detection of co-evolutionary interactions between sites, probabilistic tests of convergent evolution and rigorous testing of evolutionary hypotheses in a Bayesian framework. PLEX v1.0 is licensed under GPL. Source code and documentation will be available for download at www.evolutionarygenomics.com/ProgramsData/PLEX. PLEX is implemented in C++ and supported on Linux, Mac OS X and other platforms supporting standard C++ compilers. Example data, control files, documentation and accessory Perl scripts are available from the website. David.Pollock@UCDenver.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. Noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with porphyrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouk, María; Basiuk, Vladimir A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Basiuk, Elena V., E-mail: elenagd@unam.mx [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Álvarez-Zauco, Edgar [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Martínez-Herrera, Melchor [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Rojas-Aguilar, Aaron [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 México D.F. (Mexico); Puente-Lee, Iván [Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    The covalent and noncovalent interactions of porphyrins and related tetraazamacrocyclic compounds with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is a subject of increasing research effort, directed toward the design of novel hybrid nanomaterials combining unique electronic and optical properties of both molecular species. In this report, we used different experimental techniques as well as molecular mechanics (MM) calculations to analyze the adsorption of meso-tetraphenylporphine (or 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine, H{sub 2}TPP) and its complexes with Ni(II) and Co(II) (NiTPP and CoTPP, respectively), as well as hemin (a natural porphyrin), onto the surface of SWNTs. Altogether, the results suggested that all four porphyrin species noncovalently interact with SWNTs, forming hybrid nanomaterials. Nevertheless, of all four porphyrin species, the strongest interaction with SWNTs occurs in the case of CoTPP, which is able to intercalate and considerably disperse SWNT bundles, and therefore absorb onto the surface of individual SWNTs. In contrast, NiTPP, CoTPP and hemin, due to a weaker interaction, are unable to do so and therefore are only capable to adsorb onto the surface of SWNT bundles. According to the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging and MM results, the adsorption of CoTPP onto SWNT sidewalls results in the formation of porphyrin arrays in the shape of long-period interacting helixes with variable periodicity, possibly due to different diameters and chiralities of SWNTs present in the samples. Since the remaining porphyrin species were found to adsorb onto the surface of SWNT bundles, the precise geometry of the corresponding porphyrin/SWNT complexes is difficult to characterize.

  18. Noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with porphyrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiouk, María; Basiuk, Vladimir A.; Basiuk, Elena V.; Álvarez-Zauco, Edgar; Martínez-Herrera, Melchor; Rojas-Aguilar, Aaron; Puente-Lee, Iván

    2013-01-01

    The covalent and noncovalent interactions of porphyrins and related tetraazamacrocyclic compounds with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is a subject of increasing research effort, directed toward the design of novel hybrid nanomaterials combining unique electronic and optical properties of both molecular species. In this report, we used different experimental techniques as well as molecular mechanics (MM) calculations to analyze the adsorption of meso-tetraphenylporphine (or 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine, H 2 TPP) and its complexes with Ni(II) and Co(II) (NiTPP and CoTPP, respectively), as well as hemin (a natural porphyrin), onto the surface of SWNTs. Altogether, the results suggested that all four porphyrin species noncovalently interact with SWNTs, forming hybrid nanomaterials. Nevertheless, of all four porphyrin species, the strongest interaction with SWNTs occurs in the case of CoTPP, which is able to intercalate and considerably disperse SWNT bundles, and therefore absorb onto the surface of individual SWNTs. In contrast, NiTPP, CoTPP and hemin, due to a weaker interaction, are unable to do so and therefore are only capable to adsorb onto the surface of SWNT bundles. According to the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging and MM results, the adsorption of CoTPP onto SWNT sidewalls results in the formation of porphyrin arrays in the shape of long-period interacting helixes with variable periodicity, possibly due to different diameters and chiralities of SWNTs present in the samples. Since the remaining porphyrin species were found to adsorb onto the surface of SWNT bundles, the precise geometry of the corresponding porphyrin/SWNT complexes is difficult to characterize.

  19. Subtracting and Fitting Histograms using Profile Likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    D'Almeida, F M L

    2008-01-01

    It is known that many interesting signals expected at LHC are of unknown shape and strongly contaminated by background events. These signals will be dif cult to detect during the rst years of LHC operation due to the initial low luminosity. In this work, one presents a method of subtracting histograms based on the pro le likelihood function when the background is previously estimated by Monte Carlo events and one has low statistics. Estimators for the signal in each bin of the histogram difference are calculated so as limits for the signals with 68.3% of Con dence Level in a low statistics case when one has a exponential background and a Gaussian signal. The method can also be used to t histograms when the signal shape is known. Our results show a good performance and avoid the problem of negative values when subtracting histograms.

  20. Tapered composite likelihood for spatial max-stable models

    KAUST Repository

    Sang, Huiyan

    2014-05-01

    Spatial extreme value analysis is useful to environmental studies, in which extreme value phenomena are of interest and meaningful spatial patterns can be discerned. Max-stable process models are able to describe such phenomena. This class of models is asymptotically justified to characterize the spatial dependence among extremes. However, likelihood inference is challenging for such models because their corresponding joint likelihood is unavailable and only bivariate or trivariate distributions are known. In this paper, we propose a tapered composite likelihood approach by utilizing lower dimensional marginal likelihoods for inference on parameters of various max-stable process models. We consider a weighting strategy based on a "taper range" to exclude distant pairs or triples. The "optimal taper range" is selected to maximize various measures of the Godambe information associated with the tapered composite likelihood function. This method substantially reduces the computational cost and improves the efficiency over equally weighted composite likelihood estimators. We illustrate its utility with simulation experiments and an analysis of rainfall data in Switzerland.

  1. Dissociating response conflict and error likelihood in anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Nick; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2009-11-18

    Neuroimaging studies consistently report activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in conditions of high cognitive demand, leading to the view that ACC plays a crucial role in the control of cognitive processes. According to one prominent theory, the sensitivity of ACC to task difficulty reflects its role in monitoring for the occurrence of competition, or "conflict," between responses to signal the need for increased cognitive control. However, a contrasting theory proposes that ACC is the recipient rather than source of monitoring signals, and that ACC activity observed in relation to task demand reflects the role of this region in learning about the likelihood of errors. Response conflict and error likelihood are typically confounded, making the theories difficult to distinguish empirically. The present research therefore used detailed computational simulations to derive contrasting predictions regarding ACC activity and error rate as a function of response speed. The simulations demonstrated a clear dissociation between conflict and error likelihood: fast response trials are associated with low conflict but high error likelihood, whereas slow response trials show the opposite pattern. Using the N2 component as an index of ACC activity, an EEG study demonstrated that when conflict and error likelihood are dissociated in this way, ACC activity tracks conflict and is negatively correlated with error likelihood. These findings support the conflict-monitoring theory and suggest that, in speeded decision tasks, ACC activity reflects current task demands rather than the retrospective coding of past performance.

  2. Quantifying uncertainty, variability and likelihood for ordinary differential equation models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weisse, Andrea Y

    2010-10-28

    Abstract Background In many applications, ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are subject to uncertainty or variability in initial conditions and parameters. Both, uncertainty and variability can be quantified in terms of a probability density function on the state and parameter space. Results The partial differential equation that describes the evolution of this probability density function has a form that is particularly amenable to application of the well-known method of characteristics. The value of the density at some point in time is directly accessible by the solution of the original ODE extended by a single extra dimension (for the value of the density). This leads to simple methods for studying uncertainty, variability and likelihood, with significant advantages over more traditional Monte Carlo and related approaches especially when studying regions with low probability. Conclusions While such approaches based on the method of characteristics are common practice in other disciplines, their advantages for the study of biological systems have so far remained unrecognized. Several examples illustrate performance and accuracy of the approach and its limitations.

  3. Acupuncture for Functional Dyspepsia: A Single Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the therapeutic potential of acupuncture on patients with functional dyspepsia (FD, patients were randomized to receive acupuncture at classic acupoints with manipulations (treatment group versus acupuncture at nonacupoints without manipulation (control group once every other day, three times a week, for one month and were followed up for three months. The primary outcomes included dyspeptic symptoms, quality of life, and mental status. The secondary outcomes included the fasting serum gastrin concentration, and frequency and propagation velocity of gastric slow waves. Sixty patients with FD were included, among whom, four dropped out. After one month's treatment, patients with FD showed significant improvements in primary (in both groups and secondary (in the eight patients of the treatment group outcomes as compared with baseline (P=0.0078 to <0.0001; treatment group has better outcomes in all primary outcome measures (P<0.0001 except for SDS (P=0.0005. Improvements on dyspeptic symptoms persist during follow-up (better in the treatment group. Acupuncture with manual manipulation had better effects on improving dyspeptic symptoms, mental status, and quality of life in patients with FD. These effects may be related to the increased frequency and propagation speed of gastric slow waves and serum gastrin secretion.

  4. Dimension-independent likelihood-informed MCMC

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Tiangang

    2015-10-08

    Many Bayesian inference problems require exploring the posterior distribution of high-dimensional parameters that represent the discretization of an underlying function. This work introduces a family of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers that can adapt to the particular structure of a posterior distribution over functions. Two distinct lines of research intersect in the methods developed here. First, we introduce a general class of operator-weighted proposal distributions that are well defined on function space, such that the performance of the resulting MCMC samplers is independent of the discretization of the function. Second, by exploiting local Hessian information and any associated low-dimensional structure in the change from prior to posterior distributions, we develop an inhomogeneous discretization scheme for the Langevin stochastic differential equation that yields operator-weighted proposals adapted to the non-Gaussian structure of the posterior. The resulting dimension-independent and likelihood-informed (DILI) MCMC samplers may be useful for a large class of high-dimensional problems where the target probability measure has a density with respect to a Gaussian reference measure. Two nonlinear inverse problems are used to demonstrate the efficiency of these DILI samplers: an elliptic PDE coefficient inverse problem and path reconstruction in a conditioned diffusion.

  5. A theory of timing in scintillation counters based on maximum likelihood estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomitani, Takehiro

    1982-01-01

    A theory of timing in scintillation counters based on the maximum likelihood estimation is presented. An optimum filter that minimizes the variance of timing is described. A simple formula to estimate the variance of timing is presented as a function of photoelectron number, scintillation decay constant and the single electron transit time spread in the photomultiplier. The present method was compared with the theory by E. Gatti and V. Svelto. The proposed method was applied to two simple models and rough estimations of potential time resolution of several scintillators are given. The proposed method is applicable to the timing in Cerenkov counters and semiconductor detectors as well. (author)

  6. Single walled carbon nanotubes functionally adsorbed to biopolymers for use as chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jr., Alan T.; Gelperin, Alan [Princeton, NJ; Staii, Cristian [Madison, WI

    2011-07-12

    Chemical field effect sensors comprising nanotube field effect devices having biopolymers such as single stranded DNA functionally adsorbed to the nanotubes are provided. Also included are arrays comprising the sensors and methods of using the devices to detect volatile compounds.

  7. The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.

  8. A Comparison of Single Factor Markov-Functional and Multi Factor Market Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pietersz (Raoul); A.A.J. Pelsser (Antoon)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe compare single factor Markov-functional and multi factor market models for hedging performance of Bermudan swaptions. We show that hedging performance of both models is comparable, thereby supporting the claim that Bermudan swaptions can be adequately riskmanaged with single factor

  9. Essays on empirical likelihood in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis intends to exploit the roots of empirical likelihood and its related methods in mathematical programming and computation. The roots will be connected and the connections will induce new solutions for the problems of estimation, computation, and generalization of empirical likelihood.

  10. Transient impairments in single muscle fibre contractile function after prolonged cycling in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L G; Gejl, Kasper Degn; Bech, R D

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged muscle activity impairs whole-muscle performance and function. However, little is known about the effects of prolonged muscle activity on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise and subsequent...

  11. Nearly Efficient Likelihood Ratio Tests for Seasonal Unit Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    In an important generalization of zero frequency autore- gressive unit root tests, Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, and Yoo (1990) developed regression-based tests for unit roots at the seasonal frequencies in quarterly time series. We develop likelihood ratio tests for seasonal unit roots and show...... that these tests are "nearly efficient" in the sense of Elliott, Rothenberg, and Stock (1996), i.e. that their local asymptotic power functions are indistinguishable from the Gaussian power envelope. Currently available nearly efficient testing procedures for seasonal unit roots are regression-based and require...... the choice of a GLS detrending parameter, which our likelihood ratio tests do not....

  12. Nearly Efficient Likelihood Ratio Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    Seemingly absent from the arsenal of currently available "nearly efficient" testing procedures for the unit root hypothesis, i.e. tests whose local asymptotic power functions are indistinguishable from the Gaussian power envelope, is a test admitting a (quasi-)likelihood ratio interpretation. We...... show that the likelihood ratio unit root test derived in a Gaussian AR(1) model with standard normal innovations is nearly efficient in that model. Moreover, these desirable properties carry over to more complicated models allowing for serially correlated and/or non-Gaussian innovations....

  13. A simulation study of likelihood inference procedures in rayleigh distribution with censored data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklizi, S. A.; Baker, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    Inference procedures based on the likelihood function are considered for the one parameter Rayleigh distribution with type1 and type 2 censored data. Using simulation techniques, the finite sample performances of the maximum likelihood estimator and the large sample likelihood interval estimation procedures based on the Wald, the Rao, and the likelihood ratio statistics are investigated. It appears that the maximum likelihood estimator is unbiased. The approximate variance estimates obtained from the asymptotic normal distribution of the maximum likelihood estimator are accurate under type 2 censored data while they tend to be smaller than the actual variances when considering type1 censored data of small size. It appears also that interval estimation based on the Wald and Rao statistics need much more sample size than interval estimation based on the likelihood ratio statistic to attain reasonable accuracy. (authors). 15 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Penalized maximum likelihood estimation for generalized linear point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Richard

    2010-01-01

    A generalized linear point process is specified in terms of an intensity that depends upon a linear predictor process through a fixed non-linear function. We present a framework where the linear predictor is parametrized by a Banach space and give results on Gateaux differentiability of the log......-likelihood. Of particular interest is when the intensity is expressed in terms of a linear filter parametrized by a Sobolev space. Using that the Sobolev spaces are reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces we derive results on the representation of the penalized maximum likelihood estimator in a special case and the gradient...... of the negative log-likelihood in general. The latter is used to develop a descent algorithm in the Sobolev space. We conclude the paper by extensions to multivariate and additive model specifications. The methods are implemented in the R-package ppstat....

  15. Penalized maximum likelihood estimation for generalized linear point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Richard

    2010-01-01

    A generalized linear point process is specified in terms of an intensity that depends upon a linear predictor process through a fixed non-linear function. We present a framework where the linear predictor is parametrized by a Banach space and give results on Gateaux differentiability of the log...... of the negative log-likelihood in general. The latter is used to develop a descent algorithm in the Sobolev space. We conclude the paper by extensions to multivariate and additive model specifications. The methods are implemented in the R-package ppstat.......-likelihood. Of particular interest is when the intensity is expressed in terms of a linear filter parametrized by a Sobolev space. Using that the Sobolev spaces are reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces we derive results on the representation of the penalized maximum likelihood estimator in a special case and the gradient...

  16. Measuring coherence of computer-assisted likelihood ratio methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraksim, Rudolf; Ramos, Daniel; Meuwly, Didier; Berger, Charles E H

    2015-04-01

    Measuring the performance of forensic evaluation methods that compute likelihood ratios (LRs) is relevant for both the development and the validation of such methods. A framework of performance characteristics categorized as primary and secondary is introduced in this study to help achieve such development and validation. Ground-truth labelled fingerprint data is used to assess the performance of an example likelihood ratio method in terms of those performance characteristics. Discrimination, calibration, and especially the coherence of this LR method are assessed as a function of the quantity and quality of the trace fingerprint specimen. Assessment of the coherence revealed a weakness of the comparison algorithm in the computer-assisted likelihood ratio method used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluidic Logic Used in a Systems Approach to Enable Integrated Single-cell Functional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Ramalingam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of single cells has evolved over the past several years to include expression and genomic analysis of an increasing number of single cells. Several studies have demonstrated wide-spread variation and heterogeneity within cell populations of similar phenotype. While the characterization of these populations will likely set the foundation for our understanding of genomic- and expression-based diversity, it will not be able to link the functional differences of a single cell to its underlying genomic structure and activity. Currently, it is difficult to perturb single cells in a controlled environment, monitor and measure the response due to perturbation, and link these response measurements to downstream genomic and transcriptomic analysis. In order to address this challenge, we developed a platform to integrate and miniaturize many of the experimental steps required to study single-cell function. The heart of this platform is an elastomer-based Integrated Fluidic Circuit (IFC that uses fluidic logic to select and sequester specific single cells based on a phenotypic trait for downstream experimentation. Experiments with sequestered cells that have been performed include on-chip culture, exposure to a variety of stimulants, and post-exposure image-based response analysis, followed by preparation of the mRNA transcriptome for massively parallel sequencing analysis. The flexible system embodies experimental design and execution that enable routine functional studies of single cells.

  18. On the application of the expected log-likelihood gain to decision making in molecular replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeffner, Robert D; Afonine, Pavel V; Millán, Claudia; Sammito, Massimo; Usón, Isabel; Read, Randy J; McCoy, Airlie J

    2018-04-01

    Molecular-replacement phasing of macromolecular crystal structures is often fast, but if a molecular-replacement solution is not immediately obtained the crystallographer must judge whether to pursue molecular replacement or to attempt experimental phasing as the quickest path to structure solution. The introduction of the expected log-likelihood gain [eLLG; McCoy et al. (2017), Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 114, 3637-3641] has given the crystallographer a powerful new tool to aid in making this decision. The eLLG is the log-likelihood gain on intensity [LLGI; Read & McCoy (2016), Acta Cryst. D72, 375-387] expected from a correctly placed model. It is calculated as a sum over the reflections of a function dependent on the fraction of the scattering for which the model accounts, the estimated model coordinate error and the measurement errors in the data. It is shown how the eLLG may be used to answer the question `can I solve my structure by molecular replacement?'. However, this is only the most obvious of the applications of the eLLG. It is also discussed how the eLLG may be used to determine the search order and minimal data requirements for obtaining a molecular-replacement solution using a given model, and for decision making in fragment-based molecular replacement, single-atom molecular replacement and likelihood-guided model pruning.

  19. Subpixel resolution in maximum-likelihood image restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchello, Jose-Angel; McNally, James G.

    1997-04-01

    A number of algorithms have been developed for three- dimensional (3D) deconvolution of fluorescence microscopical images. These algorithms use a mathematical-physics model for the process of image formation and try to estimate the specimen function, i.e. the distribution of fluorescent dye in the specimen. To keep the algorithms tractable and computational load practical, the algorithms rely on simplifying assumptions, and the extent to which these assumptions approximate the actual process of image formation and recording has a strong effect on the capabilities of the algorithms. The process of image formation is a continuous-space process, but the algorithms must be implemented using a discrete-space approximation to this process and render a sampled specimen function. A commonly-used assumption is that there is one pixel in the specimen for each pixel in the recorded image and that the pixel size in the recorded image is small compared to the size of the diffraction limited spot or Airy disk, a condition necessary to satisfy Nyquist sampling criterion. Modern CCD cameras, however, have large wells that integrate into a single pixel an area of the image that is significantly larger than the Airy disk. We derived a maximum-likelihood-based algorithm to accommodate for these large CCD pixel sizes. In this algorithm we assume that each pixel in the recorded image integrates several pixels that satisfy Nyquist criterion. The algorithm then attempts to estimate the specimen function at a resolution better than that allowed by the CCD camera. Preliminary results of this sub-pixel resolution algorithm are encouraging.

  20. Longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-01-27

    Controlling single-particle wave functions in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle wave functions can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole wave function always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole wave function shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole wave function from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the wave function longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots.

  1. Maximum Likelihood, Consistency and Data Envelopment Analysis: A Statistical Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a formal statistical basis for the efficiency evaluation techniques of data envelopment analysis (DEA). DEA estimators of the best practice monotone increasing and concave production function are shown to be also maximum likelihood estimators if the deviation of actual output from the efficient output is regarded as a stochastic variable with a monotone decreasing probability density function. While the best practice frontier estimator is biased below the theoretical front...

  2. Likelihood inference for unions of interacting discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Helisova, K.

    2010-01-01

    This is probably the first paper which discusses likelihood inference for a random set using a germ-grain model, where the individual grains are unobservable, edge effects occur and other complications appear. We consider the case where the grains form a disc process modelled by a marked point...... with respect to a given marked Poisson model (i.e. a Boolean model). We show how edge effects and other complications can be handled by considering a certain conditional likelihood. Our methodology is illustrated by analysing Peter Diggle's heather data set, where we discuss the results of simulation......-based maximum likelihood inference and the effect of specifying different reference Poisson models....

  3. REDUCING THE LIKELIHOOD OF LONG TENNIS MATCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Barnett

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Long matches can cause problems for tournaments. For example, the starting times of subsequent matches can be substantially delayed causing inconvenience to players, spectators, officials and television scheduling. They can even be seen as unfair in the tournament setting when the winner of a very long match, who may have negative aftereffects from such a match, plays the winner of an average or shorter length match in the next round. Long matches can also lead to injuries to the participating players. One factor that can lead to long matches is the use of the advantage set as the fifth set, as in the Australian Open, the French Open and Wimbledon. Another factor is long rallies and a greater than average number of points per game. This tends to occur more frequently on the slower surfaces such as at the French Open. The mathematical method of generating functions is used to show that the likelihood of long matches can be substantially reduced by using the tiebreak game in the fifth set, or more effectively by using a new type of game, the 50-40 game, throughout the match

  4. 12-month efficacy of a single radiofrequency ablation on autonomously functioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Stacul, Fulvio; Michelli, Andrea; Giudici, Fabiola; Zuolo, Giulia; de Manzini, Nicolò; Dobrinja, Chiara; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Fabris, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has been advocated as an alternative to radioiodine and/or surgery for the treatment of autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. However, only a few studies have measured radiofrequency ablation efficacy on autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. The aim of this work was to evaluate the 12-month efficacy of a single session of radiofrequency ablation (performed with the moving shot technique) on solitary autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Thirty patients with a single, benign autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules, who were either unwilling or ineligible to undergo surgery and radioiodine, were treated with radiofrequency ablation between April 2012 and May 2015. All the patients underwent a single radiofrequency ablation, performed with the 18-gauge needle and the moving shot technique. Clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound evaluations were scheduled at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months from the procedure. A single radiofrequency ablation reduced thyroid nodule volume by 51, 63, 69, and 75 % after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. This was associated with a significant improvement of local cervical discomfort and cosmetic score. As for thyroid function, 33 % of the patients went into remission after 3 months, 43 % after 6 months, and 50 % after 12 months from the procedure. This study demonstrates that a single radiofrequency ablation allowed us to withdraw anti-thyroid medication in 50 % of the patients, who remained euthyroid afterwards. This study shows that a single radiofrequency ablation was effective in 50 % of patients with autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Patients responded gradually to the treatment. It is possible that longer follow-up studies might show greater response rates.

  5. Single proteins that serve linked functions in intracellular and extracellular microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisky, Derek C.; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hirai, Yohei; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-06-03

    Maintenance of organ homeostasis and control of appropriate response to environmental alterations requires intimate coordination of cellular function and tissue organization. An important component of this coordination may be provided by proteins that can serve distinct, but linked, functions on both sides of the plasma membrane. Here we present a novel hypothesis in which non-classical secretion can provide a mechanism through which single proteins can integrate complex tissue functions. Single genes can exert a complex, dynamic influence through a number of different processes that act to multiply the function of the gene product(s). Alternative splicing can create many different transcripts that encode proteins of diverse, even antagonistic, function from a single gene. Posttranslational modifications can alter the stability, activity, localization, and even basic function of proteins. A protein can exist in different subcellular localizations. More recently, it has become clear that single proteins can function both inside and outside the cell. These proteins often lack defined secretory signal sequences, and transit the plasma membrane by mechanisms separate from the classical ER/Golgi secretory process. When examples of such proteins are examined individually, the multifunctionality and lack of a signal sequence are puzzling - why should a protein with a well known function in one context function in such a distinct fashion in another? We propose that one reason for a single protein to perform intracellular and extracellular roles is to coordinate organization and maintenance of a global tissue function. Here, we describe in detail three specific examples of proteins that act in this fashion, outlining their specific functions in the extracellular space and in the intracellular space, and we discuss how these functions may be linked. We present epimorphin/syntaxin-2, which may coordinate morphogenesis of secretory organs (as epimorphin) with control of

  6. Maximum likelihood decay curve fits by the simplex method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorich, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    A multicomponent decay curve analysis technique has been developed and incorporated into the decay curve fitting computer code, MLDS (maximum likelihood decay by the simplex method). The fitting criteria are based on the maximum likelihood technique for decay curves made up of time binned events. The probabilities used in the likelihood functions are based on the Poisson distribution, so decay curves constructed from a small number of events are treated correctly. A simple utility is included which allows the use of discrete event times, rather than time-binned data, to make maximum use of the decay information. The search for the maximum in the multidimensional likelihood surface for multi-component fits is performed by the simplex method, which makes the success of the iterative fits extremely insensitive to the initial values of the fit parameters and eliminates the problems of divergence. The simplex method also avoids the problem of programming the partial derivatives of the decay curves with respect to all the variable parameters, which makes the implementation of new types of decay curves straightforward. Any of the decay curve parameters can be fixed or allowed to vary. Asymmetric error limits for each of the free parameters, which do not consider the covariance of the other free parameters, are determined. A procedure is presented for determining the error limits which contain the associated covariances. The curve fitting procedure in MLDS can easily be adapted for fits to other curves with any functional form. (orig.)

  7. Analysis and optimization with ecological objective function of irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Ecological performance of a single resonance ESE heat engine with heat leakage is conducted by applying finite time thermodynamics. By introducing Nielsen function and numerical calculations, expressions about power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological objective function are derived; relationships between ecological objective function and power output, between ecological objective function and efficiency as well as between power output and efficiency are demonstrated; influences of system parameters of heat leakage, boundary energy and resonance width on the optimal performances are investigated in detail; a specific range of boundary energy is given as a compromise to make ESE heat engine system work at optimal operation regions. Comparing performance characteristics with different optimization objective functions, the significance of selecting ecological objective function as the design objective is clarified specifically: when changing the design objective from maximum power output into maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of efficiency is 4.56%, while the power output drop is only 2.68%; when changing the design objective from maximum efficiency to maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of power output is 229.13%, and the efficiency drop is only 13.53%. - Highlights: • An irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engine is studied. • Heat leakage between two reservoirs is considered. • Power output, efficiency and ecological objective function are derived. • Optimal performance comparison for three objective functions is carried out.

  8. Model fit after pairwise maximum likelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. eBarendse

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log--likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML of two--way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more, PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations.

  9. Asymptotic Likelihood Distribution for Correlated & Constrained Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ujjwal

    2016-01-01

    It describes my work as summer student at CERN. The report discusses the asymptotic distribution of the likelihood ratio for total no. of parameters being h and 2 out of these being are constrained and correlated.

  10. Enhanced mechanical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes due to chemical functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X Q; Kuang, Y D; Chen, C Y; Li, G Q

    2009-05-27

    Recent studies have shown that the chemical functionalization of carbon nanotubes weakens most of their mechanical properties such as the critical buckling force under compression and the critical buckling moment under torsion. However, the mechanical properties including the critical bending curvature and the critical bending moment of single-walled carbon nanotubes can be improved after functionalization as shown in this paper. The molecular mechanics simulations reveal that there exists an optimum functionalization degree at which the critical curvatures of the functionalized carbon nanotubes reaches its maximum value. The critical curvatures of the carbon nanotubes increase with increasing functionalization degree below the optimum value, while the critical curvatures change little as the functionalization degree is beyond the optimum value. The influences of the bending directions and the aspect ratios of the functionalized carbon nanotubes are also examined via molecular mechanics simulations.

  11. Single particle Green's functions calculation of the electrical conductivity of strong correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, W.A.

    A calculation of the electrical conductivity for Hubbard materials is presented which is valid when U/t >> 1 (U being the Coulomb repulsion and t the nearest neighbor hopping energy) for arbitrary electron concentration and temperature. The derivation emploies the single particle Green's functions with real and imaginary times instead of the usual two-particle real time Green's function. The result is compared with the experimental data available for some organic charge transfer salts [pt

  12. LDheatmap: An R Function for Graphical Display of Pairwise Linkage Disequilibria Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyung Shin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the R function LDheatmap( which produces a graphical display, as a heat map, of pairwise linkage disequilibrium measurements between single nucleotide polymorphisms within a genomic region. LDheatmap( uses the grid graphics system, an alternative to the traditional R graphics system. The features of the LDheatmap( function and the use of tools from the grid package to modify heat maps are illustrated by examples.

  13. Maximum-Likelihood Semiblind Equalization of Doubly Selective Channels Using the EM Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Kutz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximum-likelihood semi-blind joint channel estimation and equalization for doubly selective channels and single-carrier systems is proposed. We model the doubly selective channel as an FIR filter where each filter tap is modeled as a linear combination of basis functions. This channel description is then integrated in an iterative scheme based on the expectation-maximization (EM principle that converges to the channel description vector estimation. We discuss the selection of the basis functions and compare various functions sets. To alleviate the problem of convergence to a local maximum, we propose an initialization scheme to the EM iterations based on a small number of pilot symbols. We further derive a pilot positioning scheme targeted to reduce the probability of convergence to a local maximum. Our pilot positioning analysis reveals that for high Doppler rates it is better to spread the pilots evenly throughout the data block (and not to group them even for frequency-selective channels. The resulting equalization algorithm is shown to be superior over previously proposed equalization schemes and to perform in many cases close to the maximum-likelihood equalizer with perfect channel knowledge. Our proposed method is also suitable for coded systems and as a building block for Turbo equalization algorithms.

  14. Effect of single-particle splitting in the exact wave function of the isovectorial pairing Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerma H, S.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the exact wave function of the isovectorial pairing Hamiltonian with nondegenerate single-particle levels is discussed. The way that the single-particle splittings break the quartet condensate solution found for N=Z nuclei in a single degenerate level is established. After a brief review of the exact solution, the structure of the wave function is analyzed and some particular cases are considered where a clear interpretation of the wave function emerges. An expression for the exact wave function in terms of the isospin triplet of pair creators is given. The ground-state wave function is analyzed as a function of pairing strength, for a system of four protons and four neutrons. For small and large values of the pairing strength a dominance of two-pair (quartets) scalar couplings is found, whereas for intermediate values enhancements of the nonscalar couplings are obtained. A correlation of these enhancements with the creation of Cooper-like pairs is observed.

  15. Spectrally Resolved and Functional Super-resolution Microscopy via Ultrahigh-Throughput Single-Molecule Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Moon, Seonah; Kenny, Samuel J; Xu, Ke

    2018-03-20

    As an elegant integration of the spatial and temporal dimensions of single-molecule fluorescence, single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) overcomes the diffraction-limited resolution barrier of optical microscopy by localizing single molecules that stochastically switch between fluorescent and dark states over time. While this type of super-resolution microscopy (SRM) technique readily achieves remarkable spatial resolutions of ∼10 nm, it typically provides no spectral information. Meanwhile, current scanning-based single-location approaches for mapping the positions and spectra of single molecules are limited by low throughput and are difficult to apply to densely labeled (bio)samples. In this Account, we summarize the rationale, design, and results of our recent efforts toward the integration of the spectral dimension of single-molecule fluorescence with SMLM to achieve spectrally resolved SMLM (SR-SMLM) and functional SRM ( f-SRM). By developing a wide-field scheme for spectral measurement and implementing single-molecule fluorescence on-off switching typical of SMLM, we first showed that in densely labeled (bio)samples it is possible to record the fluorescence spectra and positions of millions of single molecules synchronously within minutes, giving rise to ultrahigh-throughput single-molecule spectroscopy and SR-SMLM. This allowed us to first show statistically that for many dyes, single molecules of the same species exhibit near identical emission in fixed cells. This narrow distribution of emission wavelengths, which contrasts markedly with previous results at solid surfaces, allowed us to unambiguously identify single molecules of spectrally similar dyes. Crosstalk-free, multiplexed SRM was thus achieved for four dyes that were merely 10 nm apart in emission spectrum, with the three-dimensional SRM images of all four dyes being automatically aligned within one image channel. The ability to incorporate single-molecule fluorescence measurement with

  16. Single-molecule, structural and functional studies of Listeria monocytogenes Ca2+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyla, Mateusz

    -ion transport (e.g. H+ for Ca2+-ATPases). P-type ATPases undergo major conformational changes during their functional cycle, as has been learned from a wealth of atomic-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures (4). In this work, single-molecule, structural and functional studies were employed to investigate...... the dynamics and mechanism of the transport cycle of P-type ATPase at a single molecule level. A representative P-type ATPase, the Listeria monocytogenes Ca2+-ATPase (LMCA1) was engineered and characterized to facilitate smFRET studies. Pairs of cysteines were introduced and reacted with maleimide derivatives...... transitions to the E2 state triggered by ATP binding and phosphorylation were very brief, and could only be characterized in a dephosphorylation-deficient LMCA1 mutant. Owing to a spontaneous dephosphorylation of this mutant, full transport cycles at a single-molecule resolution were observed for the first...

  17. Single walled carbon nanotubes with functionally adsorbed biopolymers for use as chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jr., Alan T

    2013-12-17

    Chemical field effect sensors comprising nanotube field effect devices having biopolymers such as single stranded DNA or RNA functionally adsorbed to the nanotubes are provided. Also included are arrays comprising the sensors and methods of using the devices to detect volatile compounds.

  18. Four days of muscle disuse impairs single fiber contractile function in young and old healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of 4days of disuse (knee brace) on contractile function of isolated vastus lateralis fibers (n=486) from 11 young (24.3±0.9yrs) and 11 old (67.2±1.0yrs) healthy men having comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to disuse single fiber...

  19. Modeling gene expression measurement error: a quasi-likelihood approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strimmer Korbinian

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using suitable error models for gene expression measurements is essential in the statistical analysis of microarray data. However, the true probabilistic model underlying gene expression intensity readings is generally not known. Instead, in currently used approaches some simple parametric model is assumed (usually a transformed normal distribution or the empirical distribution is estimated. However, both these strategies may not be optimal for gene expression data, as the non-parametric approach ignores known structural information whereas the fully parametric models run the risk of misspecification. A further related problem is the choice of a suitable scale for the model (e.g. observed vs. log-scale. Results Here a simple semi-parametric model for gene expression measurement error is presented. In this approach inference is based an approximate likelihood function (the extended quasi-likelihood. Only partial knowledge about the unknown true distribution is required to construct this function. In case of gene expression this information is available in the form of the postulated (e.g. quadratic variance structure of the data. As the quasi-likelihood behaves (almost like a proper likelihood, it allows for the estimation of calibration and variance parameters, and it is also straightforward to obtain corresponding approximate confidence intervals. Unlike most other frameworks, it also allows analysis on any preferred scale, i.e. both on the original linear scale as well as on a transformed scale. It can also be employed in regression approaches to model systematic (e.g. array or dye effects. Conclusions The quasi-likelihood framework provides a simple and versatile approach to analyze gene expression data that does not make any strong distributional assumptions about the underlying error model. For several simulated as well as real data sets it provides a better fit to the data than competing models. In an example it also

  20. Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lindholm, V.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Planck likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations. We use this likelihood to derive the Planck CMB power spectrum over three decades in l, covering 2 = 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on angular cross-spectra derived from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-l cross-spectra with residuals of a few uK^2 at l <= 1000. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps, and with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. The best-fit LCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary Planck polarisation spectra. The standard LCDM cosmology is well constrained b...

  1. A single-sided representation for the homogeneous Green's function of a unified scalar wave equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees

    2017-06-01

    A unified scalar wave equation is formulated, which covers three-dimensional (3D) acoustic waves, 2D horizontally-polarised shear waves, 2D transverse-electric EM waves, 2D transverse-magnetic EM waves, 3D quantum-mechanical waves and 2D flexural waves. The homogeneous Green's function of this wave equation is a combination of the causal Green's function and its time-reversal, such that their singularities at the source position cancel each other. A classical representation expresses this homogeneous Green's function as a closed boundary integral. This representation finds applications in holographic imaging, time-reversed wave propagation and Green's function retrieval by cross correlation. The main drawback of the classical representation in those applications is that it requires access to a closed boundary around the medium of interest, whereas in many practical situations the medium can be accessed from one side only. Therefore, a single-sided representation is derived for the homogeneous Green's function of the unified scalar wave equation. Like the classical representation, this single-sided representation fully accounts for multiple scattering. The single-sided representation has the same applications as the classical representation, but unlike the classical representation it is applicable in situations where the medium of interest is accessible from one side only.

  2. Likelihoods for fixed rank nomination networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Peter; Fosdick, Bailey; Volfovsky, Alex; Stovel, Katherine

    2013-12-01

    Many studies that gather social network data use survey methods that lead to censored, missing, or otherwise incomplete information. For example, the popular fixed rank nomination (FRN) scheme, often used in studies of schools and businesses, asks study participants to nominate and rank at most a small number of contacts or friends, leaving the existence of other relations uncertain. However, most statistical models are formulated in terms of completely observed binary networks. Statistical analyses of FRN data with such models ignore the censored and ranked nature of the data and could potentially result in misleading statistical inference. To investigate this possibility, we compare Bayesian parameter estimates obtained from a likelihood for complete binary networks with those obtained from likelihoods that are derived from the FRN scheme, and therefore accommodate the ranked and censored nature of the data. We show analytically and via simulation that the binary likelihood can provide misleading inference, particularly for certain model parameters that relate network ties to characteristics of individuals and pairs of individuals. We also compare these different likelihoods in a data analysis of several adolescent social networks. For some of these networks, the parameter estimates from the binary and FRN likelihoods lead to different conclusions, indicating the importance of analyzing FRN data with a method that accounts for the FRN survey design.

  3. Automatic single- and multi-label enzymatic function prediction by machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervine Amidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of protein structures in the PDB database has been increasing more than 15-fold since 1999. The creation of computational models predicting enzymatic function is of major importance since such models provide the means to better understand the behavior of newly discovered enzymes when catalyzing chemical reactions. Until now, single-label classification has been widely performed for predicting enzymatic function limiting the application to enzymes performing unique reactions and introducing errors when multi-functional enzymes are examined. Indeed, some enzymes may be performing different reactions and can hence be directly associated with multiple enzymatic functions. In the present work, we propose a multi-label enzymatic function classification scheme that combines structural and amino acid sequence information. We investigate two fusion approaches (in the feature level and decision level and assess the methodology for general enzymatic function prediction indicated by the first digit of the enzyme commission (EC code (six main classes on 40,034 enzymes from the PDB database. The proposed single-label and multi-label models predict correctly the actual functional activities in 97.8% and 95.5% (based on Hamming-loss of the cases, respectively. Also the multi-label model predicts all possible enzymatic reactions in 85.4% of the multi-labeled enzymes when the number of reactions is unknown. Code and datasets are available at https://figshare.com/s/a63e0bafa9b71fc7cbd7.

  4. Functional adaptation to loading of a single bone is neuronally regulated and involves multiple bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Susannah J; Behan, Mary; Smith, Lesley; Oldenhoff, William E; Markel, Mark D; Kalscheur, Vicki L; Hao, Zhengling; Miletic, Vjekoslav; Muir, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Regulation of load-induced bone formation is considered a local phenomenon controlled by osteocytes, although it has also been hypothesized that functional adaptation may be neuronally regulated. The aim of this study was to examine bone formation in multiple bones, in response to loading of a single bone, and to determine whether adaptation may be neuronally regulated. Load-induced responses in the left and right ulnas and humeri were determined after loading of the right ulna in male Sprague-Dawley rats (69 +/- 16 days of age). After a single period of loading at -760-, -2000-, or -3750-microepsilon initial peak strain, rats were given calcein to label new bone formation. Bone formation and bone neuropeptide concentrations were determined at 10 days. In one group, temporary neuronal blocking was achieved by perineural anesthesia of the brachial plexus with bupivicaine during loading. We found right ulna loading induces adaptive responses in other bones in both thoracic limbs compared with Sham controls and that neuronal blocking during loading abrogated bone formation in the loaded ulna and other thoracic limb bones. Skeletal adaptation was more evident in distal long bones compared with proximal long bones. We also found that the single period of loading modulated bone neuropeptide concentrations persistently for 10 days. We conclude that functional adaptation to loading of a single bone in young rapidly growing rats is neuronally regulated and involves multiple bones. Persistent changes in bone neuropeptide concentrations after a single loading period suggest that plasticity exists in the innervation of bone.

  5. Shedding Light on Protein Folding, Structural and Functional Dynamics by Single Molecule Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutika Bavishi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The advent of advanced single molecule measurements unveiled a great wealth of dynamic information revolutionizing our understanding of protein dynamics and behavior in ways unattainable by conventional bulk assays. Equipped with the ability to record distribution of behaviors rather than the mean property of a population, single molecule measurements offer observation and quantification of the abundance, lifetime and function of multiple protein states. They also permit the direct observation of the transient and rarely populated intermediates in the energy landscape that are typically averaged out in non-synchronized ensemble measurements. Single molecule studies have thus provided novel insights about how the dynamic sampling of the free energy landscape dictates all aspects of protein behavior; from its folding to function. Here we will survey some of the state of the art contributions in deciphering mechanisms that underlie protein folding, structural and functional dynamics by single molecule fluorescence microscopy techniques. We will discuss a few selected examples highlighting the power of the emerging techniques and finally discuss the future improvements and directions.

  6. Preparation and Properties of Nanocomposites Prepared From Shortened, Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. G., Jr.; Delozier, D. M.; Watson, K. A.; Connell, J. W.; Yu, Aiping; Haddon, R. C.; Bekyarova, E.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a continuing materials development activity, low color space environmentally stable polymeric materials that possess sufficient electrical conductivity for electrostatic charge dissipation (ESD) have been investigated. One method of incorporating sufficient electrical conductivity for ESD without detrimental effects on other polymer properties of interest (i.e., optical and thermo-optical) is through the incorporation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, SWNTs are difficult to fully disperse in the polymer matrix. One means of improving dispersion is by shortening and functionalizing SWNTs. While this improves dispersion, other properties (i.e., electrical) of the SWNTs can be affected which can in turn alter the final nanocomposite properties. Additionally, functionalization of the polymer matrix can also influence nanocomposite properties obtained from shortened, functionalized SWNTs. The preparation and characterization of nanocomposites fabricated from a polyimide, both functionalized and unfunctionalized, and shortened, functionalized SWNTs will be presented.

  7. Likelihood inference for unions of interacting discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Helisová, Katarina

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper which discusses likelihood inference or a random set using a germ-grain model, where the individual grains are unobservable edge effects occur, and other complications appear. We consider the case where the grains form a disc process modelled...... is specified with respect to a given marked Poisson model (i.e. a Boolean model). We show how edge effects and other complications can be handled by considering a certain conditional likelihood. Our methodology is illustrated by analyzing Peter Diggle's heather dataset, where we discuss the results...... of simulation-based maximum likelihood inference and the effect of specifying different reference Poisson models....

  8. Shedding light on protein folding, structural and functional dynamics by single molecule studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavishi, Krutika; Hatzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The advent of advanced single molecule measurements unveiled a great wealth of dynamic information revolutionizing our understanding of protein dynamics and behavior in ways unattainable by conventional bulk assays. Equipped with the ability to record distribution of behaviors rather than the mean...... property of a population, single molecule measurements offer observation and quantification of the abundance, lifetime and function of multiple protein states. They also permit the direct observation of the transient and rarely populated intermediates in the energy landscape that are typically averaged out...

  9. Functionally generated amalgam stops for single complete denture: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravinkumar G Patil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Single complete denture opposing natural dentition is a common occurrence in clinical practice. This article reports a case of a single complete denture with a technique of occlusal refinement by func-tionally generated amalgam stops condensed in prepared resin teeth after initial balancing of the den-ture with semi-adjustable articulator. This technique provides intimacy of contact in all excursions by carving the amalgam in plastic stage. Amalgam stops improve the efficiency of the resin teeth. Den-tures fabricated using this technique require fewer and simpler post-insertion adjustments.

  10. Effects of ageing on single muscle fibre contractile function following short-term immobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Ørtenblad, Niels; Aagaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    Very little attention has been given to the combined effect of healthy ageing and short-term disuse on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of 2 weeks of lower limb cast immobilisation (i.e. disuse) on selected contractile...... properties of single muscle fibres (n=378) from vastus lateralis of 9 young (24 ± 1 years) and 8 old (67 ± 2 years) healthy men with comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to immobilisation, MHC IIa fibres produced higher maximum Ca2+-activated force (approx. 32%) and specific force (approx. 33......%) and had lower Ca2+ sensitivity than MHC I fibres (p...

  11. Maximum likelihood estimation of fractionally cointegrated systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasak, Katarzyna

    In this paper we consider a fractionally cointegrated error correction model and investigate asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the matrix of the cointe- gration relations, the degree of fractional cointegration, the matrix of the speed of adjustment to the equilib......In this paper we consider a fractionally cointegrated error correction model and investigate asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the matrix of the cointe- gration relations, the degree of fractional cointegration, the matrix of the speed of adjustment...

  12. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding.

  13. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigan Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable

  14. Effects of ageing on single muscle fibre contractile function following short-term immobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Ortenblad, Niels; Aagaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    Very little attention has been given to the combined effects of healthy ageing and short-term disuse on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of 2 weeks of lower limb cast immobilisation (i.e. disuse) on selected contractile.......05), respectively. In conclusion, 2 weeks of lower limb immobilisation caused greater impairments in single muscle fibre force and specific force in MHC IIa than MHC I fibres independently of age. In contrast, immobilisation-induced changes in Ca(2+) sensitivity that were dependent on age and MHC isoform....... properties of single muscle fibres (n = 378) from vastus lateralis of nine young (24 ± 1 years) and eight old (67 ± 2 years) healthy men with comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to immobilisation, MHC IIa fibres produced higher maximum Ca(2+)-activated force (approx. 32%) and specific force (approx...

  15. The consistency condition for the three-point function in dissipative single-clock inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacir, Diana López; Porto, Rafael A.; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2012-01-01

    We generalize the consistency condition for the three-point function in single field inflation to the case of dissipative, multi-field, single-clock models. We use the recently introduced extension of the effective field theory of inflation that accounts for dissipative effects, to provide an explicit proof to leading (non-trivial) order in the generalized slow roll parameters and mixing with gravity scales. Our results illustrate the conditions necessary for the validity of the consistency relation in situations with many degrees of freedom relevant during inflation, namely that there is a preferred clock. Departures from this condition in forthcoming experiments would rule out not only single field but also a large class of multi-field models

  16. The consistency condition for the three-point function in dissipative single-clock inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacir, Diana López [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 1, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Porto, Rafael A.; Zaldarriaga, Matias, E-mail: dnacir@df.uba.ar, E-mail: rporto@ias.edu, E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    We generalize the consistency condition for the three-point function in single field inflation to the case of dissipative, multi-field, single-clock models. We use the recently introduced extension of the effective field theory of inflation that accounts for dissipative effects, to provide an explicit proof to leading (non-trivial) order in the generalized slow roll parameters and mixing with gravity scales. Our results illustrate the conditions necessary for the validity of the consistency relation in situations with many degrees of freedom relevant during inflation, namely that there is a preferred clock. Departures from this condition in forthcoming experiments would rule out not only single field but also a large class of multi-field models.

  17. Fontan Completion for Younger than 3 Years of Age: Outcome in Patients with Functional Single Ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuska, Laurynas; Lebetkevicius, Virgilijus; Lankutis, Kestutis; Sudikiene, Rita; Sirvydis, Vytautas Jonas; Tarutis, Virgilijus

    2015-12-01

    Most single ventricle patients undergo Fontan procedure earlier in current era. However, optimal timing of Fontan completion after an intermediate staging surgery is controversial. We present children who had Fontan surgeries younger than 3 years of age comparing the data with older patients. Between 2000 and 2013, 45 patients with functional single ventricle underwent extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) using GORE-TEX(®) conduit at a single institution. Children were divided into group A (age GORE-TEX(®) conduit size were similar in both groups. The time of chest drain stay was significantly lower in group A (median 12 days, IQR 7-22) than in group B (22 days, IQR 16-32.5) (p = 0.014). Extracardiac TCPC can be performed earlier with good intermediate results. Earlier Fontan procedure might be advantageous for reducing chest drains stay.

  18. Effect of single physical load of different duration and intensity on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipavičienė, Saulė; Dumčienė, Audronė; Ramanauskienė, Irina; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single physical load of different duration and intensity on cognitive function. The study population comprised 90 male soldiers. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (n=60) and control group (n=30). The soldiers in the experimental group undertook 3 specific loads of different types, durations, and intensities. Attention concentration and tapping tests were carried out, and the reaction time was measured. After the physical load, the soldiers in the experimental group performed the attention concentration test faster, the number of committed mistakes decreased, and the rate of processing information increased as compared to the corresponding values before physical load (all Preaction time, in the experimental group were found to be worse than before physical loads (P<0.05). No significant changes were observed in the control group of soldiers. Despite fatigue, a single physical load of different duration and intensity improved the cognitive function.

  19. Functional magnetic resonance microscopy at single-cell resolution in Aplysia californica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki, Guillaume; Nargeot, Romuald; Jelescu, Ileana Ozana; Le Bihan, Denis; Ciobanu, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we show the feasibility of performing functional MRI studies with single-cell resolution. At ultrahigh magnetic field, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance microscopy allows the identification of most motor neurons in the buccal network of Aplysia at low, nontoxic Mn2+ concentrations. We establish that Mn2+ accumulates intracellularly on injection into the living Aplysia and that its concentration increases when the animals are presented with a sensory stimulus. We also show that we can distinguish between neuronal activities elicited by different types of stimuli. This method opens up a new avenue into probing the functional organization and plasticity of neuronal networks involved in goal-directed behaviors with single-cell resolution. PMID:24872449

  20. Functional and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation after single-tendon rotator cuff reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H B; Gelineck, J; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tendon integrity after surgical repair of single-tendon rotator cuff lesions. In 31 patients, 31 single-tendon repairs were evaluated. Thirty-one patients were available for clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at follow-up. A standard...... series of MR images was obtained for each. The results of functional assessment were scored according to the system of Constant. According to MRI evaluation, 21 (68%) patients had an intact or thinned rotator cuff and 10 (32%) had recurrence of a full-thickness cuff defect at follow-up. Patients...... with an intact or thinned rotator cuff had a median Constant score of 75.5 points; patients with a full-thickness cuff defect had a median score of 62 points. There was no correlation between tendon integrity on postoperative MR images and functional outcome. Patients with intact or thinned cuffs did not have...

  1. Maximum likelihood as a common computational framework in tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera, G.H.; Shepard, D.M.; Reckwerdt, P.J.; Ruchala, K.; Zachman, J.; Fitchard, E.E.; Mackie, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    Tomotherapy is a dose delivery technique using helical or axial intensity modulated beams. One of the strengths of the tomotherapy concept is that it can incorporate a number of processes into a single piece of equipment. These processes include treatment optimization planning, dose reconstruction and kilovoltage/megavoltage image reconstruction. A common computational technique that could be used for all of these processes would be very appealing. The maximum likelihood estimator, originally developed for emission tomography, can serve as a useful tool in imaging and radiotherapy. We believe that this approach can play an important role in the processes of optimization planning, dose reconstruction and kilovoltage and/or megavoltage image reconstruction. These processes involve computations that require comparable physical methods. They are also based on equivalent assumptions, and they have similar mathematical solutions. As a result, the maximum likelihood approach is able to provide a common framework for all three of these computational problems. We will demonstrate how maximum likelihood methods can be applied to optimization planning, dose reconstruction and megavoltage image reconstruction in tomotherapy. Results for planning optimization, dose reconstruction and megavoltage image reconstruction will be presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are analysed. Future directions for this work are also suggested. (author)

  2. Carbohydrate conjugation through microwave-assisted functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes using perfluorophenyl azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Na; Shimpi, Manishkumar R; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2015-03-20

    Carbohydrate-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were synthesized using microwave-assisted reaction of perfluorophenyl azide with the nanotubes. The results showed that microwave radiation provides a rapid and effective means to covalently attach carbohydrates to SWNTs, producing carbohydrate-SWNT conjugates for biorecognition. The carbohydrate-functionalized SWNTs were furthermore shown to interact specifically with cognate carbohydrate-specific proteins (lectins), resulting in predicted recognition patterns. The carbohydrate-presenting SWNTs constitute a new platform for sensitive protein- or cell recognition, which pave the way for glycoconjugated carbon nanomaterials in biorecognition applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The likelihood for supernova neutrino analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Ianni, A; Strumia, A; Torres, F R; Villante, F L; Vissani, F

    2009-01-01

    We derive the event-by-event likelihood that allows to extract the complete information contained in the energy, time and direction of supernova neutrinos, and specify it in the case of SN1987A data. We resolve discrepancies in the previous literature, numerically relevant already in the concrete case of SN1987A data.

  4. Likelihood analysis of the I(2) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The I(2) model is defined as a submodel of the general vector autoregressive model, by two reduced rank conditions. The model describes stochastic processes with stationary second difference. A parametrization is suggested which makes likelihood inference feasible. Consistency of the maximum...

  5. Maximum likelihood estimation of exponential distribution under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum likelihood estimation of exponential distribution under type-ii censoring from imprecise data. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... This paper deals with the estimation of exponential mean parameter under Type-II censoring scheme when the lifetime observations are fuzzy and are assumed to be ...

  6. Efficient Bit-to-Symbol Likelihood Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce E.; Nakashima, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is an efficient algorithm designed to perform bit-to-symbol and symbol-to-bit likelihood mappings that represent a significant portion of the complexity of an error-correction code decoder for high-order constellations. Recent implementation of the algorithm in hardware has yielded an 8- percent reduction in overall area relative to the prior design.

  7. Comparison of functional results of two fixation systems using single-row suturing of rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa-Herrero, M P; Torres-Campos, A; Urgel-Granados, A; Blanco-Llorca, J A; Floría-Arnal, L J; Roncal-Boj, J C; Castro-Sauras, A

    2018-03-21

    Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff disorders is a technically demanding but successful procedure. Many anchor and suture alternatives are now available. The choice of the implant by the surgeon is less important than the configuration of the suture used to fix the tendon, however it is necessary to know if there are differences in the results, using each one of them. The aim of the study is to evaluate if there are differences between the knotted and non-knotted implant in terms of functional and satisfaction results. A retrospective study was carried out on 83 patients operated between 2010 and 2014 in our center using 2anchoring systems with and without knotting (39 versus 44 patients respectively), with single row in complete rupture of the rotator cuff. At the end of the follow-up, an average score was obtained on the Constant scale of 74.6 points. 98% of the patients considered the result of the surgery satisfactory. Statistically, there were no significant differences between the 2groups in terms of functionality, satisfaction or reincorporation to activities. The functional results of the single-row cuff suture are satisfactory, although biomechanical studies show advantages in favor of sutures that reproduce a transoseo system. It our series of patients the presence of knotting does not show per se a significant functional difference being both superimposable techniques in absolute values of functionality and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy 7. The single particle phase function hockey stick relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    The measured volume-average single particle angular scattering functions of a large number of types of particle of interest for planetary regoliths in the visible-near-IR wavelength region can be represented to a reasonable approximation by two-parameter, double Henyey-Greenstein functions. When the two parameters of this function are plotted against one another they are found to be inversely correlated and lie within a restricted zone shaped like a hockey stick within the parameter space. The centroid of the zone is a curve that can be represented by a simple empirical equation. The wide variety of types of particles used to construct the plot implies that this equation may represent most of the particles found in regoliths. This means that when modeling the bidirectional reflectance of a regolith it may be possible to reduce the number of parameters necessary to specify the reflectance, and also to characterize the entire single particle phase function from observations at phase angles less than 90°. Even if the hockey stick relation has a finite width, rather than being a line, it restricts the parameter space that must be searched when fitting data. The curve should also be useful for forward modeling particle phase functions.

  9. Single step synthesis, characterization and applications of curcumin functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Rohit; Gupta, Prachi; Dziubla, Thomas; Hilt, J. Zach, E-mail: zach.hilt@uky.edu

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been well known for their applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia, targeted drug delivery, etc. The surface modification of these magnetic nanoparticles has been explored extensively to achieve functionalized materials with potential application in biomedical, environmental and catalysis field. Herein, we report a novel and versatile single step methodology for developing curcumin functionalized magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles without any additional linkers, using a simple coprecipitation technique. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The developed MNPs were employed in a cellular application for protection against an inflammatory agent, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) molecule. - Graphical abstract: Novel single step curcumin coated magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles without any additional linkers for medical, environmental, and other applications. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A novel and versatile single step methodology for developing curcumin functionalized magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is reported. • The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were characterized using TEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA. • The developed MNPs were employed in a cellular application for protection against an inflammatory agent, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB).

  10. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T{sub p}:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.

  11. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong

    2014-07-01

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (Tp:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.

  12. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong

    2014-01-01

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T p :I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks

  13. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes for the preparation of composites with improved conductivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vukićević, R.; Vukovic, I.; Stoyanov, H.; Korwitz, A.; Pospiech, D.; Kofod, G.; Loos, K.; Brinke, G. ten; Beuermann, S.

    2012-01-01

    The surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was functionalized with azide-terminated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). Functionalization was confirmed by dispersibility, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analyses. Raman spectra show disordering of the SWCNTs, thus, strongly

  14. A composite likelihood approach for spatially correlated survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Jane; Ying, Zhiliang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a composite likelihood approach to handle spatially correlated survival data using pairwise joint distributions. With e-commerce data, a recent question of interest in marketing research has been to describe spatially clustered purchasing behavior and to assess whether geographic distance is the appropriate metric to describe purchasing dependence. We present a model for the dependence structure of time-to-event data subject to spatial dependence to characterize purchasing behavior from the motivating example from e-commerce data. We assume the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern (FGM) distribution and then model the dependence parameter as a function of geographic and demographic pairwise distances. For estimation of the dependence parameters, we present pairwise composite likelihood equations. We prove that the resulting estimators exhibit key properties of consistency and asymptotic normality under certain regularity conditions in the increasing-domain framework of spatial asymptotic theory.

  15. Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, Jan; Bartlett, J.G.; Bucher, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best......, as well as with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. We further show that the best-fit CDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary PlanckEE and TE polarisation spectra. We find that the standard...... CDM cosmology is well constrained by Planck from the measurements at 1500. One specific example is the spectral index of scalar perturbations, for which we report a 5.4 deviation from scale invariance, n= 1. Increasingthe multipole range beyond 1500 does not increase our accuracy for the CDM...

  16. A composite likelihood approach for spatially correlated survival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Jane; Ying, Zhiliang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a composite likelihood approach to handle spatially correlated survival data using pairwise joint distributions. With e-commerce data, a recent question of interest in marketing research has been to describe spatially clustered purchasing behavior and to assess whether geographic distance is the appropriate metric to describe purchasing dependence. We present a model for the dependence structure of time-to-event data subject to spatial dependence to characterize purchasing behavior from the motivating example from e-commerce data. We assume the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern (FGM) distribution and then model the dependence parameter as a function of geographic and demographic pairwise distances. For estimation of the dependence parameters, we present pairwise composite likelihood equations. We prove that the resulting estimators exhibit key properties of consistency and asymptotic normality under certain regularity conditions in the increasing-domain framework of spatial asymptotic theory. PMID:24223450

  17. Maximum-likelihood method for numerical inversion of Mellin transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for inverting the Mellin transform which uses an expansion in Laguerre polynomials and converts the Mellin transform to Laplace transform, then the maximum-likelihood regularization method is used to recover the original function of the Mellin transform. The performance of the method is illustrated by the inversion of the test functions available in the literature (J. Inst. Math. Appl., 20 (1977) 73; Math. Comput., 53 (1989) 589). Effectiveness of the method is shown by results obtained through demonstration by means of tables and diagrams

  18. Nonparametric likelihood based estimation of linear filters for point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Richard

    2015-01-01

    We consider models for multivariate point processes where the intensity is given nonparametrically in terms of functions in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. The likelihood function involves a time integral and is consequently not given in terms of a finite number of kernel evaluations. The main...... the implementation relies crucially on the use of sparse matrices. As an illustration we consider neuron network modeling, and we use this example to investigate how the computational costs of the approximations depend on the resolution of the time discretization. The implementation is available in the R package...

  19. Single-Molecule Transistor from Graphene Nanoelectrodes and Novel Functional Materials From Self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qizhi

    This thesis introduces a new strategy to fabricate single molecular transistor by utilizing the covalent chemistry to reconnect the molecule with the electroburnt graphene nanogap. We studied the effect of coupling chemistry and molecular length on the efficiency of reconnection between the molecule and the graphene. With this technique, we are also able to observe the Coulomb Blockade phenomenon, which is a characteristics of single-electron transistors. The high yield and versatility of this approach augur well for creating a new generation of sensors, switches, and other functional devices using graphene contacts. This thesis also introduces a new type of organic single-crystal p-n heterojunction inspired from the ball-and-socket shape-complementarity between fullerene and contorted dibenzotetrathienocoronene (c-DBTTC). We studied the influence of temperature, pressure, and time on the self-assembly process of contorted dibenzotetrathienocoronene on the as-grown fullerene crystals. We also utilized fluorescence microscopy to investigate the charge transfer in this type of p-n heterojunction. Finally, this thesis introduces one-dimensional and two-dimensional programming in solid-state materials from superatom macrocycles. We find that the linkers that bridges the two superatoms determine the distance and electronic coupling between the two superatoms in the macrocycle, which in turn determines the way they self-assembled in the solid-state materials. The thesis is composed of four chapters. The first chapter introduces why we are in terested in molecular transistors and new functional materials, and what has been done so far. The second chapter described the approach we developed to assemble single molecule into circuits with graphene electrodes. The third chapter details the method to fabricate the organic single-crystal C60-DBTTC p-n heterojunction, which is of great importance to understand their charge transfer process. The last chapter introduced a new

  20. Investigation of snow single scattering properties based on first order Legendre phase function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar; Casselgren, Johan; Wåhlin, Johan; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2017-04-01

    Angularly resolved bidirectional reflectance measurements were modelled by approximating a first order Legendre expanded phase function to retrieve single scattering properties of snow. The measurements from 10 different snow types with known density and specific surface area (SSA) were investigated. A near infrared (NIR) spectrometer was used to measure reflected light above the snow surface over the hemisphere in the wavelength region of 900-1650 nm. A solver based on discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) model was used to retrieve the estimated Legendre coefficients of the phase function and a correlation between the coefficients and physical properties of different snow types is investigated. Results of this study suggest that the first two coefficients of the first order Legendre phase function provide sufficient information about the physical properties of snow where the latter captures the anisotropic behaviour of snow and the former provides a relative estimate of the single scattering albedo of snow. The coefficients of the first order phase function were compared with the experimental data and observed that both the coefficients are in good agreement with the experimental data. These findings suggest that our approach can be applied as a qualitative tool to investigate physical properties of snow and also to classify different snow types.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony and likelihood methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z

    1996-02-01

    The assumptions underlying the maximum-parsimony (MP) method of phylogenetic tree reconstruction were intuitively examined by studying the way the method works. Computer simulations were performed to corroborate the intuitive examination. Parsimony appears to involve very stringent assumptions concerning the process of sequence evolution, such as constancy of substitution rates between nucleotides, constancy of rates across nucleotide sites, and equal branch lengths in the tree. For practical data analysis, the requirement of equal branch lengths means similar substitution rates among lineages (the existence of an approximate molecular clock), relatively long interior branches, and also few species in the data. However, a small amount of evolution is neither a necessary nor a sufficient requirement of the method. The difficulties involved in the application of current statistical estimation theory to tree reconstruction were discussed, and it was suggested that the approach proposed by Felsenstein (1981, J. Mol. Evol. 17: 368-376) for topology estimation, as well as its many variations and extensions, differs fundamentally from the maximum likelihood estimation of a conventional statistical parameter. Evidence was presented showing that the Felsenstein approach does not share the asymptotic efficiency of the maximum likelihood estimator of a statistical parameter. Computer simulations were performed to study the probability that MP recovers the true tree under a hierarchy of models of nucleotide substitution; its performance relative to the likelihood method was especially noted. The results appeared to support the intuitive examination of the assumptions underlying MP. When a simple model of nucleotide substitution was assumed to generate data, the probability that MP recovers the true topology could be as high as, or even higher than, that for the likelihood method. When the assumed model became more complex and realistic, e.g., when substitution rates were

  2. The role of three-gluon correlation functions in the single spin asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppu Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the twist-3 three-gluon contribution to the single spin asymmetry in the light-hadron production in pp collision in the framework of the collinear factorization. We derive the corresponding cross section formula in the leading order with respect to the QCD coupling constant. We also present a numerical calculation of the asymmetry at the RHIC energy, using a model for the three-gluon correlation functions suggested by the asymmetry for the D-meson production at RHIC. We found that the asymmetries for the light-hadron and the jet productions are very useful to constrain the magnitude and form of the correlation functions. Since the three-gluon correlation functions shift the asymmetry for all kinds of hadrons in the same direction, it is unlikely that they become a main source of the asymmetry.

  3. Single cell cytometry of protein function in RNAi treated cells and in native populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High Content Screening has been shown to improve results of RNAi and other perturbations, however significant intra-sample heterogeneity is common and can complicate some analyses. Single cell cytometry can extract important information from subpopulations within these samples. Such approaches are important for immune cells analyzed by flow cytometry, but have not been broadly available for adherent cells that are critical to the study of solid-tumor cancers and other disease models. Results We have directly quantitated the effect of resolving RNAi treatments at the single cell level in experimental systems for both exogenous and endogenous targets. Analyzing the effect of an siRNA that targets GFP at the single cell level permits a stronger measure of the absolute function of the siRNA by gating to eliminate background levels of GFP intensities. Extending these methods to endogenous proteins, we have shown that well-level results of the knockdown of PTEN results in an increase in phospho-S6 levels, but at the single cell level, the correlation reveals the role of other inputs into the pathway. In a third example, reduction of STAT3 levels by siRNA causes an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, but does not induce apoptosis or necrosis when compared to control cells that express the same levels of STAT3. In a final example, the effect of reduced p53 levels on increased adriamycin sensitivity for colon carcinoma cells was demonstrated at the whole-well level using siRNA knockdown and in control and untreated cells at the single cell level. Conclusion We find that single cell analysis methods are generally applicable to a wide range of experiments in adherent cells using technology that is becoming increasingly available to most laboratories. It is well-suited to emerging models of signaling dysfunction, such as oncogene addition and oncogenic shock. Single cell cytometry can demonstrate effects on cell

  4. Immediate functional loading of implants in single tooth replacement: a prospective clinical multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Mauro; La Scala, Vincenzo; Billi, Mauro; Di Dino, Biagio; Torrisi, Paolo; Berglundh, Tord

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of immediate functional loading of implants in single-tooth replacement using two different installation procedures. One hundred and fifty-one subjects, who required single-tooth rehabilitation in the area of 15-25 and 35-45, were enrolled in eight private clinics in Italy. The implant sites were randomly allocated to one of the following treatment groups. In the control group, in which a standard preparation procedure for implant placement and submerged healing of the implant was used, abutment connection and loading of the implants were performed 3 months after installation. In the test group 1, a standard preparation procedure for the implant placement and immediate functional loading of implant was carried out. In the test 2 group, however, a modified implant installation procedure (osteotome technique) was used followed by immediate functional loading of the implant. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at 3 and 12 months of follow-up at all sites. Three implants (5.5%) from the test 2 group (osteotome preparation) and one (2%) from the test 1 group (conventional drill preparation) failed to integrate and were removed one and three months after implant installation. The mean marginal bone loss assessed at 12 months was 0.31 mm (test 1), 0.25 mm (test 2) and 0.38 mm (control) (no statistically significant differences were found between the three treatment groups.) It is suggested that immediate functional loading of implants that are placed with a conventional installation technique and with sufficient primary stability may be considered as a valid treatment alternative in a single-tooth replacement.

  5. Theoretical Investigation on the Solubilization in Water of Functionalized Single-Wall Carbon Nano tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mananghaya, M.; Rodulfo, E.; Santos, G.N.; Villagracia, A.; Mananghaya, M.

    2012-01-01

    An important technique to increase the solubility and reactivity of carbon nano tube is through functionalization. In this study, the effects of functionalization of some single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNTs) were investigated with the aid of density functional theory. The SWCNT model used in the study consists of a finite, (5, 0) zigzag nano tube segment containing 60 C atoms with hydrogen atoms added to the dangling bonds of the perimeter carbons. There are three water-dispersible SWCNTs used in this study that were functionalized with (a) formic acid, as a model of carboxylic acid, (b) isophthalic acid, as a model aromatic dicarboxylic acid, and (c) benzenesulfonic acid, as a model aromatic sulfonic acid. Binding energies of the organic radicals to the nano tubes are calculated, as well as the HOMO-LUMO gaps and dipole moments of both nano tubes and functionalized nano tubes. Binding was found out to be thermodynamically favorable. The functionalization increases the electrical dipole moments and results in an enhancement in the solubility of the nano tubes in water manifested through favorable changes in the free energies of solvation. This should lower the toxicity of nano tubes and improve their biocompatibility.

  6. Approximate maximum likelihood estimation for population genetic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, Johanna; Ewing, Gregory; Kosiol, Carolin; Futschik, Andreas

    2017-11-27

    In many population genetic problems, parameter estimation is obstructed by an intractable likelihood function. Therefore, approximate estimation methods have been developed, and with growing computational power, sampling-based methods became popular. However, these methods such as Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) can be inefficient in high-dimensional problems. This led to the development of more sophisticated iterative estimation methods like particle filters. Here, we propose an alternative approach that is based on stochastic approximation. By moving along a simulated gradient or ascent direction, the algorithm produces a sequence of estimates that eventually converges to the maximum likelihood estimate, given a set of observed summary statistics. This strategy does not sample much from low-likelihood regions of the parameter space, and is fast, even when many summary statistics are involved. We put considerable efforts into providing tuning guidelines that improve the robustness and lead to good performance on problems with high-dimensional summary statistics and a low signal-to-noise ratio. We then investigate the performance of our resulting approach and study its properties in simulations. Finally, we re-estimate parameters describing the demographic history of Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans.

  7. Maximum likelihood estimation of motor unit firing pattern statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navallas, Javier; Malanda, Armando; Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of motor unit firing pattern statistics is a valuable method in physiological studies and a key procedure in electromyographic (EMG) decomposition algorithms. However, if any firings within the pattern are undetected or missed during the decomposition process, the estimation procedure can be disrupted. In order to provide an optimal solution, we present a maximum likelihood estimator of EMG firing pattern statistics, taking into account that some firings may be undetected. A model of the inter-discharge interval (IDI) probability density function with missing firings has been employed to derive the maximum likelihood estimator of the mean and standard deviation of the IDIs. Actual calculation of the maximum likelihood solution has been obtained by means of numerical optimization. The proposed estimator has been evaluated and compared to other previously developed algorithms by means of simulation experiments and has been tested on real signals. The new estimator was found to be robust and reliable in diverse conditions: IDI distributions with a high coefficient of variance or considerable skewness. Moreover, the proposed estimator outperforms previous algorithms both in simulated and real conditions.

  8. Single-cell profiling reveals GPCR heterogeneity and functional patterning during neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischner, Denise; Grimm, Myriam; Kaur, Harmandeep; Staudenraus, Daniel; Carvalho, Jorge; Looso, Mario; Günther, Stefan; Wanke, Florian; Moos, Sonja; Siller, Nelly; Breuer, Johanna; Schwab, Nicholas; Zipp, Frauke; Waisman, Ari; Kurschus, Florian C; Offermanns, Stefan; Wettschureck, Nina

    2017-08-03

    GPCR expression was intensively studied in bulk cDNA of leukocyte populations, but limited data are available with respect to expression in individual cells. Here, we show a microfluidic-based single-cell GPCR expression analysis in primary T cells, myeloid cells, and endothelial cells under naive conditions and during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the mouse model of multiple sclerosis. We found that neuroinflammation induces characteristic changes in GPCR heterogeneity and patterning, and we identify various functionally relevant subgroups with specific GPCR profiles among spinal cord-infiltrating CD4 T cells, macrophages, microglia, or endothelial cells. Using GPCRs CXCR4, S1P1, and LPHN2 as examples, we show how this information can be used to develop new strategies for the functional modulation of Th17 cells and activated endothelial cells. Taken together, single-cell GPCR expression analysis identifies functionally relevant subpopulations with specific GPCR repertoires and provides a basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies in immune disorders.

  9. Single-pixel interior filling function approach for detecting and correcting errors in particle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Stanislav; Figliozzi, Patrick; Lin, Binhua; Rice, Stuart A; Scherer, Norbert F; Dinner, Aaron R

    2017-01-10

    We present a general method for detecting and correcting biases in the outputs of particle-tracking experiments. Our approach is based on the histogram of estimated positions within pixels, which we term the single-pixel interior filling function (SPIFF). We use the deviation of the SPIFF from a uniform distribution to test the veracity of tracking analyses from different algorithms. Unbiased SPIFFs correspond to uniform pixel filling, whereas biased ones exhibit pixel locking, in which the estimated particle positions concentrate toward the centers of pixels. Although pixel locking is a well-known phenomenon, we go beyond existing methods to show how the SPIFF can be used to correct errors. The key is that the SPIFF aggregates statistical information from many single-particle images and localizations that are gathered over time or across an ensemble, and this information augments the single-particle data. We explicitly consider two cases that give rise to significant errors in estimated particle locations: undersampling the point spread function due to small emitter size and intensity overlap of proximal objects. In these situations, we show how errors in positions can be corrected essentially completely with little added computational cost. Additional situations and applications to experimental data are explored in SI Appendix In the presence of experimental-like shot noise, the precision of the SPIFF-based correction achieves (and can even exceed) the unbiased Cramér-Rao lower bound. We expect the SPIFF approach to be useful in a wide range of localization applications, including single-molecule imaging and particle tracking, in fields ranging from biology to materials science to astronomy.

  10. The electronic fine structure of 4-nitrophenyl functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Amit K; Coleman, Karl S; Dhanak, Vinod R

    2009-01-01

    Controlling the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is of great importance to various CNT based applications. Herein the electronic fine structure of single-walled carbon nanotube films modified with 4-nitrophenyl groups, produced following reaction with 4-nitrobenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate, was investigated for the first time. Various techniques such as x-ray and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies were used to explore the electronic structure, and the results were compared with the measured electrical resistances. A reduction in number of the π electronic states in the valence band consistent with the increased resistance of the functionalized nanotube films was observed.

  11. Realisation of all 16 Boolean logic functions in a single magnetoresistance memory cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Yang, Guang; Cui, Bin; Wang, Shouguo; Zeng, Fei; Song, Cheng; Pan, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Stateful logic circuits based on next-generation nonvolatile memories, such as magnetoresistance random access memory (MRAM), promise to break the long-standing von Neumann bottleneck in state-of-the-art data processing devices. For the successful commercialisation of stateful logic circuits, a critical step is realizing the best use of a single memory cell to perform logic functions. In this work, we propose a method for implementing all 16 Boolean logic functions in a single MRAM cell, namely a magnetoresistance (MR) unit. Based on our experimental results, we conclude that this method is applicable to any MR unit with a double-hump-like hysteresis loop, especially pseudo-spin-valve magnetic tunnel junctions with a high MR ratio. Moreover, after simply reversing the correspondence between voltage signals and output logic values, this method could also be applicable to any MR unit with a double-pit-like hysteresis loop. These results may provide a helpful solution for the final commercialisation of MRAM-based stateful logic circuits in the near future.Stateful logic circuits based on next-generation nonvolatile memories, such as magnetoresistance random access memory (MRAM), promise to break the long-standing von Neumann bottleneck in state-of-the-art data processing devices. For the successful commercialisation of stateful logic circuits, a critical step is realizing the best use of a single memory cell to perform logic functions. In this work, we propose a method for implementing all 16 Boolean logic functions in a single MRAM cell, namely a magnetoresistance (MR) unit. Based on our experimental results, we conclude that this method is applicable to any MR unit with a double-hump-like hysteresis loop, especially pseudo-spin-valve magnetic tunnel junctions with a high MR ratio. Moreover, after simply reversing the correspondence between voltage signals and output logic values, this method could also be applicable to any MR unit with a double-pit-like hysteresis

  12. Single-particle spectral function of a generalized Hubbard model: Metal-insulator transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, E. R.; Aligia, A. A.; Arrachea, Liliana; Avignon, Michel

    1995-05-01

    A generalized Hubbard model with correlated hoppings is studied at half filling using exact diagonalization methods. For certain values of the hopping parameters our results for several static properties, the Drude weight and the single-particle spectra function, suggest the occurrence of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at a finite value of the local Coulomb interaction Uc. We identify the regions of the hopping parameters where the MIT is of the Mott type. In these regions, for large U

  13. Functions and requirements for Hanford single-shell tank leakage detection and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruse, J.M.; Ohl, P.C.

    1995-04-19

    This document provides the initial functions and requirements for leakage detection and monitoring applicable to past and potential future leakage from the Hanford Site`s 149 single-shell high-level waste tanks. This mission is a part of the overall mission of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Waste Remediation System division to remediate the tank waste in a safe and acceptable manner. Systems engineering principles are being applied to this effort. This document reflects the an initial step in the systems engineering approach to decompose the mission into primary functions and requirements. The document is considered approximately 30% complete relative to the effort required to produce a final version that can be used to support demonstration and/or procurement of technologies. The functions and requirements in this document apply to detection and monitoring of below ground leaks from SST containment boundaries and the resulting soil contamination. Leakage detection and monitoring is invoked in the TWRS Program in three fourth level functions: (1) Store Waste, (2) Retrieve Waste, and (3) Disposition Excess Facilities (as identified in DOE/RL-92-60 Rev. 1, Tank Waste Remediation System Functions and Requirements).

  14. The syntax of single words: Evidence from a patient with a selective function word reading deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druks, Judit; Froud, Karen

    2002-05-01

    We describe the reading performance of a patient who has selective deficits for reading nonwords, function words, and morphologically complex words in isolation. His reading of highly abstract nouns and verbs, however, is relatively well preserved. He can recognise and comprehend the meaning of written function words, of derivational morphology, and of most inflectional morphology. We suggest that his deficit in reading grammatical morphemes is unrelated to his problems in reading nonwords and cannot be explained by their low semanticity and imageability. The patient's speech is ungrammatical but is not devoid of grammatical morphemes and his reading of functional elements improves when these are presented within the context of sentences. We argue that syntactic information relevant to individual lexical items including information about how the word may potentially be used within a phrase must be accessed during single word reading tasks (e.g., Levelt, 1989). This is particularly difficult for function words due to their linguistic specification, which is different from that of lexical categories (Chomsky, 1995). Both linguistic theory and Garrett's (e.g., 1982) model of sentence processing account for the patient's improved reading of function words in the context of sentences.

  15. Likelihood Approximation With Hierarchical Matrices For Large Spatial Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2017-09-03

    We use available measurements to estimate the unknown parameters (variance, smoothness parameter, and covariance length) of a covariance function by maximizing the joint Gaussian log-likelihood function. To overcome cubic complexity in the linear algebra, we approximate the discretized covariance function in the hierarchical (H-) matrix format. The H-matrix format has a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where the rank k is a small integer and n is the number of locations. The H-matrix technique allows us to work with general covariance matrices in an efficient way, since H-matrices can approximate inhomogeneous covariance functions, with a fairly general mesh that is not necessarily axes-parallel, and neither the covariance matrix itself nor its inverse have to be sparse. We demonstrate our method with Monte Carlo simulations and an application to soil moisture data. The C, C++ codes and data are freely available.

  16. Single image super-resolution based on approximated Heaviside functions and iterative refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Yu; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Deng, Liang-Jian

    2018-01-01

    One method of solving the single-image super-resolution problem is to use Heaviside functions. This has been done previously by making a binary classification of image components as "smooth" and "non-smooth", describing these with approximated Heaviside functions (AHFs), and iteration including l1 regularization. We now introduce a new method in which the binary classification of image components is extended to different degrees of smoothness and non-smoothness, these components being represented by various classes of AHFs. Taking into account the sparsity of the non-smooth components, their coefficients are l1 regularized. In addition, to pick up more image details, the new method uses an iterative refinement for the residuals between the original low-resolution input and the downsampled resulting image. Experimental results showed that the new method is superior to the original AHF method and to four other published methods.

  17. Single image super-resolution based on approximated Heaviside functions and iterative refinement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available One method of solving the single-image super-resolution problem is to use Heaviside functions. This has been done previously by making a binary classification of image components as "smooth" and "non-smooth", describing these with approximated Heaviside functions (AHFs, and iteration including l1 regularization. We now introduce a new method in which the binary classification of image components is extended to different degrees of smoothness and non-smoothness, these components being represented by various classes of AHFs. Taking into account the sparsity of the non-smooth components, their coefficients are l1 regularized. In addition, to pick up more image details, the new method uses an iterative refinement for the residuals between the original low-resolution input and the downsampled resulting image. Experimental results showed that the new method is superior to the original AHF method and to four other published methods.

  18. Functional mapping of cell surface proteins with localized stimulation of single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingyun; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the development of using individual micro and nano meter-sized vesicles as delivery vessels to functionally map the distribution of cell surface proteins at the level of single cells. The formation of different sizes of vesicles from tens of nanometers to a few micrometers in diameter that contain the desired molecules is addressed. An optical trap is used to manipulate the loaded vesicle to specific cell morphology of interest, and a pulsed UV laser is used to photo-release the stimuli onto the cell membrane. Carbachol activated cellular calcium flux, upon binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, is studied by this method, and the potential of using this method for the functional mapping of localized proteins on the cell surface membrane is discussed.

  19. Single injection techniques in determining age-related changes in porcine renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.

    1984-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were determined in 32 anaesthetised female Large White pigs, aged 4-24 months, from the plasma disappearance curves of [sup(99m)Tc]DTPA and [ 131 I]hippuran respectively. Clearance was also monitored by external counting over the heart. GFR and ERPF increased markedly with age in pigs up to 12 months old, reaching mean values of 242.06 +- 5.89 and 919.39 +- 79.01 mL/min. In pigs aged 12-24 months ERPF increased slightly but renal function remained essentially unchanged after 1 yr of age. These results for renal function were similar to previous estimates, using continuous infusion techniques inferring that GFR and ERPF could be accurately monitored using single injection procedures. (author)

  20. Energy decomposition analysis of single bonds within Kohn-Sham density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Daniel S; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2017-11-28

    An energy decomposition analysis (EDA) for single chemical bonds is presented within the framework of Kohn-Sham density functional theory based on spin projection equations that are exact within wave function theory. Chemical bond energies can then be understood in terms of stabilization caused by spin-coupling augmented by dispersion, polarization, and charge transfer in competition with destabilizing Pauli repulsions. The EDA reveals distinguishing features of chemical bonds ranging across nonpolar, polar, ionic, and charge-shift bonds. The effect of electron correlation is assessed by comparison with Hartree-Fock results. Substituent effects are illustrated by comparing the C-C bond in ethane against that in bis(diamantane), and dispersion stabilization in the latter is quantified. Finally, three metal-metal bonds in experimentally characterized compounds are examined: a [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] dimer, the [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] bond in dizincocene, and the Mn-Mn bond in dimanganese decacarbonyl.

  1. Likelihood-Based Inference in Nonlinear Error-Correction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dennis; Rahbæk, Anders

    We consider a class of vector nonlinear error correction models where the transfer function (or loadings) of the stationary relation- ships is nonlinear. This includes in particular the smooth transition models. A general representation theorem is given which establishes the dynamic properties...... and a linear trend in general. Gaussian likelihood-based estimators are considered for the long- run cointegration parameters, and the short-run parameters. Asymp- totic theory is provided for these and it is discussed to what extend asymptotic normality and mixed normaity can be found. A simulation study...

  2. CCD data processor for maximum likelihood feature classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, H. F.; Kelly, W. L.; Husson, C.; Culotta, P. W.; Snyder, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes an advanced technology development which utilizes a high speed analog/binary CCD correlator to perform the matrix multiplications necessary to implement onboard feature classification. The matrix manipulation module uses the maximum likelihood classification algorithm assuming a Gaussian probability density function. The module will process 16 element multispectral vectors at rates in excess of 500 thousand multispectral vector elements per second. System design considerations for the optimum use of this module are discussed, test results from initial device fabrication runs are presented, and the performance in typical processing applications is described

  3. Functional Virtual Flow Cytometry: A Visual Analytic Approach for Characterizing Single-Cell Gene Expression Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented a novel workflow for detecting distribution patterns in cell populations based on single-cell transcriptome study. With the fast adoption of single-cell analysis, a challenge to researchers is how to effectively extract gene features to meaningfully separate the cell population. Considering that coexpressed genes are often functionally or structurally related and the number of coexpressed modules is much smaller than the number of genes, our workflow uses gene coexpression modules as features instead of individual genes. Thus, when the coexpressed modules are summarized into eigengenes, not only can we interactively explore the distribution of cells but also we can promptly interpret the gene features. The interactive visualization is aided by a novel application of spatial statistical analysis to the scatter plots using a clustering index parameter. This parameter helps to highlight interesting 2D patterns in the scatter plot matrix (SPLOM. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the workflow using two large single-cell studies. In the Allen Brain scRNA-seq dataset, the visual analytics suggested a new hypothesis such as the involvement of glutamate metabolism in the separation of the brain cells. In a large glioblastoma study, a sample with a unique cell migration related signature was identified.

  4. Single-cell profiling reveals heterogeneity and functional patterning of GPCR expression in the vascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, H; Carvalho, J; Looso, M; Singh, P; Chennupati, R; Preussner, J; Günther, S; Albarrán-Juárez, J; Tischner, D; Classen, S; Offermanns, S; Wettschureck, N

    2017-06-16

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expression is extensively studied in bulk cDNA, but heterogeneity and functional patterning of GPCR expression in individual vascular cells is poorly understood. Here, we perform a microfluidic-based single-cell GPCR expression analysis in primary smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC). GPCR expression is highly heterogeneous in all cell types, which is confirmed in reporter mice, on the protein level and in human cells. Inflammatory activation in murine models of sepsis or atherosclerosis results in characteristic changes in the GPCR repertoire, and we identify functionally relevant subgroups of cells that are characterized by specific GPCR patterns. We further show that dedifferentiating SMC upregulate GPCRs such as Gpr39, Gprc5b, Gprc5c or Gpr124, and that selective targeting of Gprc5b modulates their differentiation state. Taken together, single-cell profiling identifies receptors expressed on pathologically relevant subpopulations and provides a basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies in vascular diseases.

  5. Measurement system of correlation functions of microwave single photon source in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenkov, A.; Dmitriev, A.; Astafiev, O.

    2018-02-01

    Several quantum setups, such as quantum key distribution networks[1] and quantum simulators (e.g. boson sampling), by their design rely on single photon sources (SPSs). These quantum setups were demonstrated to operate in optical frequency domain. However, following the steady advances in circuit quantum electrodynamics, a proposal has been made recently[2] to demonstrate boson sampling with microwave photons. This in turn requires the development of reliable microwave SPS. It's one of the most important characteristics are the first-order and the second-order correlation functions g1 and g2. The measurement technique of g1 and g2 is significantly different from that in the optical domain [3],[4] because of the current unavailability of microwave single-photon detectors. In particular, due to high levels of noise present in the system a substantial amount of statistics in needed to be acquired. This work presents a platform for measurement of g1 and g2 that processes the incoming data in real time, maximizing the efficiency of data acquisition. The use of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) electronics, common in similar experiments[3] but complex in programming, is avoided; instead, the calculations are performed on a standard desktop computer. The platform is used to perform the measurements of the first-order and the second-order correlation functions of the microwave SPS.

  6. Single cigar-shaped nanopores functionalized with amphoteric amino acid chains: experimental and theoretical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mubarak; Ramirez, Patricio; Nguyen, Hung Quoc; Nasir, Saima; Cervera, Javier; Mafe, Salvador; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2012-04-24

    We present an experimental and theoretical characterization of single cigar-shaped nanopores with pH-responsive carboxylic acid and lysine chains functionalized on the pore surface. The nanopore characterization includes (i) optical images of the nanostructure obtained by FESEM; (ii) different chemical procedures for the nanopore preparation (etching time and functionalizations; pH and electrolyte concentration of the external solution) allowing externally tunable nanopore responses monitored by the current-voltage (I-V) curves; and (iii) transport simulations obtained with a multilayer nanopore model. We show that a single, approximately symmetric nanopore can be operated as a reconfigurable diode showing different rectifying behaviors by applying chemical and electrical signals. The remarkable characteristics of the new nanopore are the sharp response observed in the I-V curves, the improved tunability (with respect to previous designs of symmetric nanopores) which is achieved because of the direct external access to the nanostructure mouths, and the broad range of rectifying properties. The results concern both fundamental concepts useful for the understanding of transport processes in biological systems (ion channels) and applications relevant for tunable nanopore technology (information processing and drug controlled release).

  7. Likelihood Approximation With Parallel Hierarchical Matrices For Large Spatial Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The main goal of this article is to introduce the parallel hierarchical matrix library HLIBpro to the statistical community. We describe the HLIBCov package, which is an extension of the HLIBpro library for approximating large covariance matrices and maximizing likelihood functions. We show that an approximate Cholesky factorization of a dense matrix of size $2M\\\\times 2M$ can be computed on a modern multi-core desktop in few minutes. Further, HLIBCov is used for estimating the unknown parameters such as the covariance length, variance and smoothness parameter of a Matérn covariance function by maximizing the joint Gaussian log-likelihood function. The computational bottleneck here is expensive linear algebra arithmetics due to large and dense covariance matrices. Therefore covariance matrices are approximated in the hierarchical ($\\\\H$-) matrix format with computational cost $\\\\mathcal{O}(k^2n \\\\log^2 n/p)$ and storage $\\\\mathcal{O}(kn \\\\log n)$, where the rank $k$ is a small integer (typically $k<25$), $p$ the number of cores and $n$ the number of locations on a fairly general mesh. We demonstrate a synthetic example, where the true values of known parameters are known. For reproducibility we provide the C++ code, the documentation, and the synthetic data.

  8. Each protomer of a dimeric YidC functions as a single membrane insertase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Dirk; Pross, Eva; Chen, Yuanyuan; Dalbey, Ross E; Kuhn, Andreas

    2018-01-12

    The membrane insertase YidC catalyzes the entrance of newly synthesized proteins into the lipid bilayer. As an integral membrane protein itself, YidC can be found as a monomer, a dimer or also as a member of the holotranslocase SecYEGDF-YajC-YidC. To investigate whether the dimeric YidC is functional and whether two copies cooperate to insert a single substrate, we constructed a fusion protein where two copies of YidC are connected by a short linker peptide. The 120 kDa protein is stable and functional as it supports the membrane insertion of the M13 procoat protein, the C-tailed protein SciP and the fusion protein Pf3-Lep. Mutations that inhibit either protomer do not inactivate the insertase and rather keep it functional. When both protomers are defective, the substrate proteins accumulate in the cytoplasm. This suggests that the dimeric YidC operates as two insertases. Consistent with this, we show that the dimeric YidC can bind two substrate proteins simultaneously, suggesting that YidC indeed functions as a monomer.

  9. Single and dual incision technique for acute distal biceps rupture: clinical and functional outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmino, Claudia; Massimino, Paolo; Ioppolo, Francesco; Castorina, Sergio; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Di Giunta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Distal bicep tendon injuries are a traumatic event though rather rare. The pathogenesis is not entirely clear. The most common cause for injury is an unexpected load on the biceps when the elbow is in an extended position. Although several studies have provided insight into the pathogenetic processes of the lesion, the literature suggests to treat all injuries surgically (whether partial or total) if there is high functional demand. Methods Between January 2006 and March 2016 were studied 20 patients surgically treated for a disconnected distal bicep, 15 with a total lesion and 5 with a partial lesion. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Surgical access with single incision was performed on 13 patients while a double surgical access was performed on 7 patients. The clinical and functional results were studied using an Ewald System Score (ESS). Results In both groups, the most rapid improvement was achieved for the parameters of pain and deformity with excellent results, while those of function and movement were normalized as gradual and progressive over next 2 months. Conclusion The clinical and functional outcomes during the follow-up examination after surgery showed excellent results in patients treated with both types of surgical procedures. PMID:28217566

  10. Single-site Green function of the Dirac equation for full-potential electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordt, Pascal

    2012-05-30

    I present an elaborated analytical examination of the Green function of an electron scattered at a single-site potential, for both the Schroedinger and the Dirac equation, followed by an efficient numerical solution, in both cases for potentials of arbitrary shape without an atomic sphere approximation. A numerically stable way to calculate the corresponding regular and irregular wave functions and the Green function is via the angular Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations. These are solved based on an expansion in Chebyshev polynomials and their recursion relations, allowing to rewrite the Lippmann-Schwinger equations into a system of algebraic linear equations. Gonzales et al. developed this method for the Schroedinger equation, where it gives a much higher accuracy compared to previous perturbation methods, with only modest increase in computational effort. In order to apply it to the Dirac equation, I developed relativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equations, based on a decomposition of the potential matrix into spin spherical harmonics, exploiting certain properties of this matrix. The resulting method was embedded into a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker code for density functional calculations. As an example, the method is applied by calculating phase shifts and the Mott scattering of a tungsten impurity. (orig.)

  11. From tomography to full-waveform inversion with a single objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-02-17

    In full-waveform inversion (FWI), a gradient-based update of the velocity model requires an initial velocity that produces synthetic data that are within a half-cycle, everywhere, from the field data. Such initial velocity models are usually extracted from migration velocity analysis or traveltime tomography, among other means, and are not guaranteed to adhere to the FWI requirements for an initial velocity model. As such, we evaluated an objective function based on the misfit in the instantaneous traveltime between the observed and modeled data. This phase-based attribute of the wavefield, along with its phase unwrapping characteristics, provided a frequency-dependent traveltime function that was easy to use and quantify, especially compared to conventional phase representation. With a strong Laplace damping of the modeled, potentially low-frequency, data along the time axis, this attribute admitted a first-arrival traveltime that could be compared with picked ones from the observed data, such as in wave equation tomography (WET). As we relax the damping on the synthetic and observed data, the objective function measures the misfit in the phase, however unwrapped. It, thus, provided a single objective function for a natural transition from WET to FWI. A Marmousi example demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  12. Multi-Channel Distributed Coordinated Function over Single Radio in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Keong (Jonathan Loo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel assignments are becoming the solution of choice to improve performance in single radio for wireless networks. Multi-channel allows wireless networks to assign different channels to different nodes in real-time transmission. In this paper, we propose a new approach, Multi-channel Distributed Coordinated Function (MC-DCF which takes advantage of multi-channel assignment. The backoff algorithm of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF was modified to invoke channel switching, based on threshold criteria in order to improve the overall throughput for wireless sensor networks (WSNs over 802.11 networks. We presented simulation experiments in order to investigate the characteristics of multi-channel communication in wireless sensor networks using an NS2 platform. Nodes only use a single radio and perform channel switching only after specified threshold is reached. Single radio can only work on one channel at any given time. All nodes initiate constant bit rate streams towards the receiving nodes. In this work, we studied the impact of non-overlapping channels in the 2.4 frequency band on: constant bit rate (CBR streams, node density, source nodes sending data directly to sink and signal strength by varying distances between the sensor nodes and operating frequencies of the radios with different data rates. We showed that multi-channel enhancement using our proposed algorithm provides significant improvement in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio and delay. This technique can be considered for WSNs future use in 802.11 networks especially when the IEEE 802.11n becomes popular thereby may prevent the 802.15.4 network from operating effectively in the 2.4 GHz frequency band.

  13. Multi-channel distributed coordinated function over single radio in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carlene E-A; Loo, Kok-Keong Jonathan; Gemikonakli, Orhan; Khan, Shafiullah; Singh, Dhananjay

    2011-01-01

    Multi-channel assignments are becoming the solution of choice to improve performance in single radio for wireless networks. Multi-channel allows wireless networks to assign different channels to different nodes in real-time transmission. In this paper, we propose a new approach, Multi-channel Distributed Coordinated Function (MC-DCF) which takes advantage of multi-channel assignment. The backoff algorithm of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) was modified to invoke channel switching, based on threshold criteria in order to improve the overall throughput for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) over 802.11 networks. We presented simulation experiments in order to investigate the characteristics of multi-channel communication in wireless sensor networks using an NS2 platform. Nodes only use a single radio and perform channel switching only after specified threshold is reached. Single radio can only work on one channel at any given time. All nodes initiate constant bit rate streams towards the receiving nodes. In this work, we studied the impact of non-overlapping channels in the 2.4 frequency band on: constant bit rate (CBR) streams, node density, source nodes sending data directly to sink and signal strength by varying distances between the sensor nodes and operating frequencies of the radios with different data rates. We showed that multi-channel enhancement using our proposed algorithm provides significant improvement in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio and delay. This technique can be considered for WSNs future use in 802.11 networks especially when the IEEE 802.11n becomes popular thereby may prevent the 802.15.4 network from operating effectively in the 2.4 GHz frequency band.

  14. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  15. Communicating likelihoods and probabilities in forecasts of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Emma E. H.; McClure, John; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas

    2014-02-01

    The issuing of forecasts and warnings of natural hazard events, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquake aftershock sequences and extreme weather often involves the use of probabilistic terms, particularly when communicated by scientific advisory groups to key decision-makers, who can differ greatly in relative expertise and function in the decision making process. Recipients may also differ in their perception of relative importance of political and economic influences on interpretation. Consequently, the interpretation of these probabilistic terms can vary greatly due to the framing of the statements, and whether verbal or numerical terms are used. We present a review from the psychology literature on how the framing of information influences communication of these probability terms. It is also unclear as to how people rate their perception of an event's likelihood throughout a time frame when a forecast time window is stated. Previous research has identified that, when presented with a 10-year time window forecast, participants viewed the likelihood of an event occurring ‘today’ as being of less than that in year 10. Here we show that this skew in perception also occurs for short-term time windows (under one week) that are of most relevance for emergency warnings. In addition, unlike the long-time window statements, the use of the phrasing “within the next…” instead of “in the next…” does not mitigate this skew, nor do we observe significant differences between the perceived likelihoods of scientists and non-scientists. This finding suggests that effects occurring due to the shorter time window may be ‘masking’ any differences in perception due to wording or career background observed for long-time window forecasts. These results have implications for scientific advice, warning forecasts, emergency management decision-making, and public information as any skew in perceived event likelihood towards the end of a forecast time window may result in

  16. Functionalization of gold and nanocrystalline diamond atomic force microscope tips for single molecule force spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael E.

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has fueled interest in nanotechnology because of its ability to image surfaces at the nanometer level and act as a molecular force sensor. Functionalization of the surface of an AFM tip surface in a stable, controlled manner expands the capabilities of the AFM and enables additional applications in the fields of single molecule force spectroscopy and nanolithography. Two AFM tip functionalizations are described: the assembly of tripodal molecular tips onto gold AFM tips and the photochemical attachment of terminal alkenes to nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) AFM tips. Two separate tripodal molecules with different linker lengths and a monopodal molecule terminated with biotin were synthesized to attach to a gold AFM tip for single molecule force spectroscopy. The immobilization of these molecules was examined by contact angle measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, infrared, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. All three molecules displayed rupture forces that agreed with previously reported values for the biotin--avidin rupture. The tripodal molecular tip displayed narrower distribution in their force histograms than the monopodal molecular tip. The performance of the tripodal molecular tip was compared to the monopodal molecular tip in single molecule force spectroscopy studies. Over repeated measurements, the distribution of forces for the monopodal molecular tip shifted to lower forces, whereas the distribution for the tripodal molecular tip remained constant throughout. Loading rate dependence and control experiments further indicated that the rupture forces of the tripod molecular tips were specific to the biotin--NeutrAvidin interaction. The second functionalization method used the photochemical attachment of undecylenic acid to NCD AFM tips. The photochemical attachment of undecylenic acid to hydrogen-terminated NCD wafer surfaces was investigated by contact angle measurements, x

  17. Statistical-likelihood Exo-Planetary Habitability Index (SEPHI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mozos, J. M.; Moya, A.

    2017-11-01

    A new index, the Statistical-likelihood Exo-Planetary Habitability Index (SEPHI), is presented. It has been developed to cover the current and future features required for a classification scheme disentangling whether any exoplanet discovered is potentially habitable compared with life on Earth. SEPHI uses likelihood functions to estimate the habitability potential. It is defined as the geometric mean of four sub-indexes related to four comparison criteria: Is the planet telluric? Does it have an atmosphere dense enough and a gravity compatible with life? Does it have liquid water on its surface? Does it have a magnetic field shielding its surface from harmful radiation and stellar winds? SEPHI can be estimated with only seven physical characteristics: planetary mass, planetary radius, planetary orbital period, stellar mass, stellar radius, stellar effective temperature and planetary system age. We have applied SEPHI to all the planets in the Exoplanet Encyclopaedia using a Monte Carlo method. Kepler-1229b, Kepler-186f and Kepler-442b have the largest SEPHI values assuming certain physical descriptions. Kepler-1229b is the most unexpected planet in this privileged position since no previous study pointed to this planet as a potentially interesting and habitable one. In addition, most of the tidally locked Earth-like planets present a weak magnetic field, incompatible with habitability potential. We must stress that our results are linked to the physics used in this study. Any change in the physics used implies only an updating of the likelihood functions. We have developed a web application allowing the online estimation of SEPHI (http://sephi.azurewebsites.net/).

  18. Functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes regulates their effect on hemostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, A V; Aseychev, A V; Kostevich, V A; Gusev, A A; Gusev, S A; Vlasova, I I

    2011-01-01

    Applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in medical field imply the use of drug-coupled carbon nanotubes as well as carbon nanotubes functionalized with different chemical groups that change nanotube surface properties and interactions between nanotubes and cells. Covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (c-SWNT) is known to prevent the nanotubes from interaction with macrophages. Here we characterized nanotube's ability to stimulate coagulation processes in platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and evaluated the effect of SWNTs on platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Our study showed that PEG-SWNT did not affect the rate of clotting in PPP, while c-SWNT shortened the clot formation time five times compared to the control PPP. Since c-SWNT failed to accelerate coagulation in plasma lacking coagulation factor XI, it may be suggested that c-SWNT affects the contact activation pathway. In PRP, platelets responded to both SWNT types with irreversible aggregation, as evidenced by changes in the aggregate mean radius. However, the rate of aggregation induced by c-SWNT was two times higher than it was with PEG-SWNT. Cytological analysis also showed that c-SWNT was two times more efficient when compared to PEG-SWNT in aggregating platelets in PRP. Taken together, our results show that functionalization of nanoparticles can diminish their negative influence on blood cells. As seen from our data, modification of c-SWNT with PEG, when only a one percent of carbon atoms is bound to polymer (70 wt %), decreased the nanotube-induced coagulation in PRP and repelled the accelerating effect on the coagulation in PPP. Thus, when functionalized SWNTs are used for administration into bloodstream of laboratory animals, their possible pro-coagulant and pro-aggregating properties must be taken into account.

  19. Functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes regulates their effect on hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, A V; Aseychev, A V; Kostevich, V A; Gusev, A A; Gusev, S A; Vlasova, I I, E-mail: irina.vlasova@yahoo.com [Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine, FMBA, M. Pirogovskaya Str. 1a, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    Applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in medical field imply the use of drug-coupled carbon nanotubes as well as carbon nanotubes functionalized with different chemical groups that change nanotube surface properties and interactions between nanotubes and cells. Covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (c-SWNT) is known to prevent the nanotubes from interaction with macrophages. Here we characterized nanotube's ability to stimulate coagulation processes in platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and evaluated the effect of SWNTs on platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Our study showed that PEG-SWNT did not affect the rate of clotting in PPP, while c-SWNT shortened the clot formation time five times compared to the control PPP. Since c-SWNT failed to accelerate coagulation in plasma lacking coagulation factor XI, it may be suggested that c-SWNT affects the contact activation pathway. In PRP, platelets responded to both SWNT types with irreversible aggregation, as evidenced by changes in the aggregate mean radius. However, the rate of aggregation induced by c-SWNT was two times higher than it was with PEG-SWNT. Cytological analysis also showed that c-SWNT was two times more efficient when compared to PEG-SWNT in aggregating platelets in PRP. Taken together, our results show that functionalization of nanoparticles can diminish their negative influence on blood cells. As seen from our data, modification of c-SWNT with PEG, when only a one percent of carbon atoms is bound to polymer (70 wt %), decreased the nanotube-induced coagulation in PRP and repelled the accelerating effect on the coagulation in PPP. Thus, when functionalized SWNTs are used for administration into bloodstream of laboratory animals, their possible pro-coagulant and pro-aggregating properties must be taken into account.

  20. A retrospective study of functional outcomes after successful replantation versus amputation closure for single fingertip amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yasunori; Doi, Kazuteru; Ikeda, Keisuke; Estrella, Emmanuel P

    2006-01-01

    To compare the functional outcome of successful microsurgical replantation versus amputation closure for single fingertip amputations. Forty-six fingertip amputations in 46 patients (23 were replanted successfully, 23 had amputation closure) were included in this study. Thumb amputations were excluded. Grip strength and active range of motion of the proximal interphalangeal joint were evaluated. The patients were questioned about their symptoms of pain, paresthesia, and cold intolerance. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire was given and the disability/symptom score was evaluated. Patients' satisfaction with the surgical result was assessed. Time spent in the hospital and time off from work were reviewed. Active range of motion of the proximal interphalangeal joint was greater in the successful replantation group. Although the existence of paresthesia and cold intolerance were not statistically different between the 2 groups, pain in the affected fingers was more frequent in the amputation closure group. The average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score of the successful replantation group was statistically better. All patients in the successful replantation group were highly or fairly satisfied with the surgical results, whereas 14 patients in the amputation closure group were highly or fairly satisfied. The time spent in the hospital and the time off from work for the successful replantation group were longer. Successful replantation of single fingertip amputations can result in minimal pain, better functional outcome, better appearance, and higher patient satisfaction. We recommend attempting fingertip replantation not only to obtain the best appearance but also to gain better functional outcome. If the patient requests the simple surgery and earlier return to work amputation closure is an accepted method despite the disadvantage of digital shortening and the risk for a painful stump. Therapeutic, Level III.

  1. Functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes regulates their effect on hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, A. V.; Aseychev, A. V.; Kostevich, V. A.; Gusev, A. A.; Gusev, S. A.; Vlasova, I. I.

    2011-04-01

    Applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in medical field imply the use of drug-coupled carbon nanotubes as well as carbon nanotubes functionalized with different chemical groups that change nanotube surface properties and interactions between nanotubes and cells. Covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (c-SWNT) is known to prevent the nanotubes from interaction with macrophages. Here we characterized nanotube's ability to stimulate coagulation processes in platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and evaluated the effect of SWNTs on platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Our study showed that PEG-SWNT did not affect the rate of clotting in PPP, while c-SWNT shortened the clot formation time five times compared to the control PPP. Since c-SWNT failed to accelerate coagulation in plasma lacking coagulation factor XI, it may be suggested that c-SWNT affects the contact activation pathway. In PRP, platelets responded to both SWNT types with irreversible aggregation, as evidenced by changes in the aggregate mean radius. However, the rate of aggregation induced by c-SWNT was two times higher than it was with PEG-SWNT. Cytological analysis also showed that c-SWNT was two times more efficient when compared to PEG-SWNT in aggregating platelets in PRP. Taken together, our results show that functionalization of nanoparticles can diminish their negative influence on blood cells. As seen from our data, modification of c-SWNT with PEG, when only a one percent of carbon atoms is bound to polymer (70 wt %), decreased the nanotube-induced coagulation in PRP and repelled the accelerating effect on the coagulation in PPP. Thus, when functionalized SWNTs are used for administration into bloodstream of laboratory animals, their possible pro-coagulant and pro-aggregating properties must be taken into account.

  2. LIKEDM: Likelihood calculator of dark matter detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyuan; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming; Yuan, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    With the large progress in searches for dark matter (DM) particles with indirect and direct methods, we develop a numerical tool that enables fast calculations of the likelihoods of specified DM particle models given a number of observational data, such as charged cosmic rays from space-borne experiments (e.g., PAMELA, AMS-02), γ-rays from the Fermi space telescope, and underground direct detection experiments. The purpose of this tool - LIKEDM, likelihood calculator for dark matter detection - is to bridge the gap between a particle model of DM and the observational data. The intermediate steps between these two, including the astrophysical backgrounds, the propagation of charged particles, the analysis of Fermi γ-ray data, as well as the DM velocity distribution and the nuclear form factor, have been dealt with in the code. We release the first version (v1.0) focusing on the constraints from indirect detection of DM with charged cosmic and gamma rays. Direct detection will be implemented in the next version. This manual describes the framework, usage, and related physics of the code.

  3. Acute toxicity of functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes: A biochemical, histopathologic and proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Homa; Ramezani, Mohammad; Yazdian-Robati, Rezvan; Behnam, Behzad; Razavi Azarkhiavi, Kamal; Hashem Nia, Azadeh; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Matbou Riahi, Maryam; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2017-09-25

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) showed promising potentials in different biomedical applications but their safe use in humans and probable toxicities are still challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this project, PEGylated and Tween functionalized SWCNTs were prepared. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into nine groups, including PEGylated SWCNTs (75,150μg/mouse) and PEG, Tween80 suspended SWCNTs, Tween 80 and a control group (intact mice). One or 7 days after intravenous injection, the mice were killed and serum and livers were collected. The oxidative stress markers, biochemical and histopathological changes were studied. Subsequently, proteomics approach was used to investigate the alterations of protein expression profiles in the liver. Results showed that there were not any significant differences in malondealdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and biochemical enzymes (ALT and AST) between groups, while the histopathological observations of livers showed some injuries. The results of proteomics analysis revealed indolethylamine N-Methyltransferase (INMT), glycine N-Methyltransferase (GNMT), selenium binding protein (Selenbp), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), TNF receptor associated protein 1(Trap1), peroxiredoxin-6 (Prdx6), electron transport flavoprotein (Etf-α), regucalcin (Rgn) and ATP5b proteins were differentially expressed in functionalized SWCNTs groups. Western blot analyses confirmed that the changes in Prdx6 were consistent with 2-DE gel analysis. In summary, acute toxicological study on two functionalized SWCNTs did not show any significant toxicity at selected doses. Proteomics analysis also showed that following exposure to functionalized SWCNTs, the expression of some proteins with antioxidant activity and detoxifying properties were increased in liver tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous single-molecule measurements of phage T7 replisome composition and function reveal the mechanism of polymerase exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loparo, Joseph J.; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Richardson, Charles C.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2011-01-01

    A complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of large, multiprotein complexes requires experimental tools capable of simultaneously visualizing molecular architecture and enzymatic activity in real time. We developed a novel single-molecule assay that combines the

  5. Likelihood-Based Inference of B Cell Clonal Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan K Ralph

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The human immune system depends on a highly diverse collection of antibody-making B cells. B cell receptor sequence diversity is generated by a random recombination process called "rearrangement" forming progenitor B cells, then a Darwinian process of lineage diversification and selection called "affinity maturation." The resulting receptors can be sequenced in high throughput for research and diagnostics. Such a collection of sequences contains a mixture of various lineages, each of which may be quite numerous, or may consist of only a single member. As a step to understanding the process and result of this diversification, one may wish to reconstruct lineage membership, i.e. to cluster sampled sequences according to which came from the same rearrangement events. We call this clustering problem "clonal family inference." In this paper we describe and validate a likelihood-based framework for clonal family inference based on a multi-hidden Markov Model (multi-HMM framework for B cell receptor sequences. We describe an agglomerative algorithm to find a maximum likelihood clustering, two approximate algorithms with various trade-offs of speed versus accuracy, and a third, fast algorithm for finding specific lineages. We show that under simulation these algorithms greatly improve upon existing clonal family inference methods, and that they also give significantly different clusters than previous methods when applied to two real data sets.

  6. tmle : An R Package for Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Gruber

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE is a general approach for constructing an efficient double-robust semi-parametric substitution estimator of a causal effect parameter or statistical association measure. tmle is a recently developed R package that implements TMLE of the effect of a binary treatment at a single point in time on an outcome of interest, controlling for user supplied covariates, including an additive treatment effect, relative risk, odds ratio, and the controlled direct effect of a binary treatment controlling for a binary intermediate variable on the pathway from treatment to the out- come. Estimation of the parameters of a marginal structural model is also available. The package allows outcome data with missingness, and experimental units that contribute repeated records of the point-treatment data structure, thereby allowing the analysis of longitudinal data structures. Relevant factors of the likelihood may be modeled or fit data-adaptively according to user specifications, or passed in from an external estimation procedure. Effect estimates, variances, p values, and 95% confidence intervals are provided by the software.

  7. Likelihood ratios of multiple cutoff points of the Taipei City Developmental Checklist for Preschoolers, 2nd version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Fang Liao

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Taipei II with multiple cutoff points could give more useful clinical information than using a single cutoff point. The multiple likelihood ratios of Taipei II for children older than 3 years and in different cultural backgrounds need further study.

  8. Functions and requirements for subsurface barriers used in support of single-shell tank waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Program includes project and program activities for receiving, storing, maintaining, treating, and disposing onsite, or packaging for offsite disposal, all Hanford tank waste. Hanford tank waste includes the contents of 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), plus any new waste added to these facilities, and all encapsulated cesium and strontium stored onsite and returned from offsite users. A key element of the TWRS Program is retrieval of the waste in the SSTs. The waste stored in these underground tanks must be removed in order to minimize environmental, safety, and health risks associated with continuing waste storage. Subsurface barriers are being considered as a means to mitigate the effects of tank leaks including those occurring during SST waste retrieval. The functions to be performed by subsurface barriers based on their role in retrieving waste from the SSTs are described, and the requirements which constrain their application are identified. These functions and requirements together define the functional baseline for subsurface barriers

  9. Electrical Resistivity of Pristine and Functional Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of several pristine and functional single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs deposited and dried on interdigitated electrode (IDE chips was investigated to better understand how functional groups influence their resistivity. Without the external electrical field, the resistance was generally increased for the sulfonated and fluorinated SWNTs but not for COOH-SWNTs. With a 3 V electric field applied during depositing, while no change in resistance was found for the purified pristine SWNTs, fluorinated SWNTs, COOH SWNTs, and Ni-SWNTs, a significant decrease in resistance was observed in sulfonated SWNTs and unpurified pristine SWNTs, which could be due to the alignment of SWNTs in an electric field. The alignment of the sulfonated SWNTs is most likely due to the charge of the sulfate functional group. It is interesting to note that the alignment was found in the unpurified pristine SWNTs but not in the purified pristine ones which have lessened resistivity. The lower resistivity in the purified pristine SWNTs may be due to the smaller number (<5% of impurities. The significance of this research is that hydrophilic COOH-SWNTs could be a better candidate than the hydrophobic pristine SWNTs for being used in many applications, especially in polymer nanocomposites.

  10. Large work function difference driven electron transfer from electrides to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Menamparambath, Mini Mol

    2014-06-23

    A difference in work function plays a key role in charge transfer between two materials. Inorganic electrides provide a unique opportunity for electron transfer since interstitial anionic electrons result in a very low work function of 2.4-2.6 eV. Here we investigated charge transfer between two different types of electrides, [Ca2N]+·e- and [Ca 24Al28O64]4+·4e-, and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a work function of 4.73-5.05 eV. [Ca2N]+·e- with open 2-dimensional electron layers was more effective in donating electrons to SWNTs than closed cage structured [Ca24Al28O64] 4+·4e- due to the higher electron concentration (1.3 × 1022 cm-3) and mobility (∼200 cm 2 V-1 s-1 at RT). A non-covalent conjugation enhanced near-infrared fluorescence of SWNTs as high as 52%. The field emission current density of electride-SWNT-silver paste dramatically increased by a factor of 46000 (14.8 mA cm-2) at 2 V μm-1 (3.5 wt% [Ca2N]+·e-) with a turn-on voltage of 0.85 V μm-1. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  11. GNSS Spoofing Detection and Mitigation Based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Hong; Lu, Mingquan

    2017-06-30

    Spoofing attacks are threatening the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-based positioning technique is a direct positioning method originally developed for multipath rejection and weak signal processing. We find this method also has a potential ability for GNSS anti-spoofing since a spoofing attack that misleads the positioning and timing result will cause distortion to the MLE cost function. Based on the method, an estimation-cancellation approach is presented to detect spoofing attacks and recover the navigation solution. A statistic is derived for spoofing detection with the principle of the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT). Then, the MLE cost function is decomposed to further validate whether the navigation solution obtained by MLE-based positioning is formed by consistent signals. Both formulae and simulations are provided to evaluate the anti-spoofing performance. Experiments with recordings in real GNSS spoofing scenarios are also performed to validate the practicability of the approach. Results show that the method works even when the code phase differences between the spoofing and authentic signals are much less than one code chip, which can improve the availability of GNSS service greatly under spoofing attacks.

  12. Exploring kinetic energy as a new marker of cardiac function in the single ventricle circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, James; Chabiniok, Radomir; Tibby, Shane M; Pushparajah, Kuberan; Sammut, Eva; Celermajer, David S; Giese, Daniel; Hussain, Tarique; Greil, Gerald F; Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza

    2018-01-25

    Ventricular volumetric ejection fraction (VV EF) is often normal in patients with single ventricle circulations despite them experiencing symptoms related to circulatory failure. We sought to determine if kinetic energy (KE) could be a better marker of ventricular performance. KE was prospectively quantified using 4D flow MRI in 41 patients with a single ventricle circulation (aged 0.5 - 28 years) and compared to 43 healthy volunteers (aged 1.5 - 62 years) and 14 patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (aged 28 - 79 years). Intraventricular end-diastolic blood was tracked through systole and divided into ejected and residual blood components. Two ejection fraction (EF) metrics were devised based on the KE of the ejected component over the total of both the ejected and residual components using: (1) instantaneous peak KE to assess KE EF or; (2) summating individual peak particle energy (PE) to assess PE EF. KE EF and PE EF had a smaller range than VV EF in healthy subjects (97.9 {plus minus} 0.8% vs. 97.3 {plus minus} 0.8% vs. 60.1 {plus minus} 5.2%). LV dysfunction caused a fall in KE EF (p =0.01) and PE EF (p =0.0001). VV EF in healthy LVs and single ventricle hearts was equivalent however KE EF and PE EF were lower (p <0.001) with a wider range indicating a spectrum of severity. Those reporting the greatest symptomatic impairment (NYHA II) had lower PE EF than asymptomatic subjects (p =0.0067). KE metrics are markers of healthy cardiac function. PE EF may be useful in grading dysfunction.

  13. Metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and single cell genomics reveal functional response of active Oceanospirillales to Gulf oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Hazen, Terry C.; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Dubinsky, Eric A.; Fortney, Julian L.; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2012-06-12

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.

  14. Preserved cognitive function is associated with suicidal ideation and single suicide attempts in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, C; McGrane, J; Cummings, E; Morris, D W; Tropea, D; Gill, M; Corvin, A; Donohoe, G

    2012-09-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death in schizophrenia. An association between suicidal behavior and both higher and lower cognitive ability in schizophrenia has been reported. To clarify this relationship, we investigated whether the relationship between suicidality and neurocognition varied according to differences in suicidal ideation and behavior. Three hundred and ten patients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were categorized based on patient and staff interviews as either non-suicide attempters, non-attempters expressing suicidal ideation, single suicide attempters, or multiple suicide attempters. These groups were compared on a neuropsychological battery examining current general cognitive ability, episodic and working memory, and attentional control. Neuropsychological performance in those with a history of suicidal ideation (n=63), and those who had made one suicide attempt (n=48) was comparable. Together, these groups outperformed patients with no history of either suicidal behavior or ideation (n=172) on measures of IQ, episodic memory and working memory. Only differences in global cognition remained significant after controlling for between-group differences in depressive symptoms. Those who had either expressed suicidal ideation and/or made a single suicide attempt demonstrated trend level advantages in neuropsychological tests over those that had made multiple suicide attempts. These findings support earlier evidence of an association between suicidality and neurocognitive ability in schizophrenia. Specifically, these data suggest that patients who have contemplated suicide or made a single suicide attempt have better cognitive functioning than those who have not. Suicidality in multiple attempters, who do not perform better in neurocognitive tests than those who have neither contemplated nor attempted suicide, is likely to be influenced by factors other than neurocognitive ability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Non-covalent functionalization of single wall carbon nanotubes and graphene by a conjugated polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Jiwuer, Jilili

    2014-07-07

    We report first-principles calculations on the binding of poly[(9,9-bis-(6-bromohexylfluorene-2,7-diyl)-co-(benzene-1,4-diyl)] to a (8,0) single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and to graphene. Considering different relative orientations of the subsystems, we find for the generalized gradient approximation a non-binding state, whereas the local density approximation predicts reasonable binding energies. The results coincide after inclusion of van der Waals corrections, which demonstrates a weak interaction between the polymer and SWCNT/graphene, mostly of van der Waals type. Accordingly, the density of states shows essentially no hybridization. The physisorption mechanism explains recent experimental observations and suggests that the conjugated polymer can be used for non-covalent functionalization.

  16. A compact model for single material double work function gate MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changyong, Zheng; Wei, Zhang; Tailong, Xu; Yuehua, Dai; Junning, Chen

    2013-09-01

    An analytical surface potential model for the single material double work function gate (SMDWG) MOSFET is developed based on the exact resultant solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation. The model includes the effects of drain biases, gate oxide thickness, different combinations of S-gate and D-gate length and values of substrate doping concentration. More attention has been paid to seeking to explain the attributes of the SMDWG MOSFET, such as suppressing drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), accelerating carrier drift velocity and device speed. The model is verified by comparison to the simulated results using the device simulator MEDICI. The accuracy of the results obtained using our analytical model is verified using numerical simulations. The model not only offers the physical insight into device physics but also provides the basic designing guideline for the device.

  17. Regulation of β2-adrenergic receptor function by conformationally selective single-domain intrabodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staus, Dean P; Wingler, Laura M; Strachan, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    . However, a monomeric single-domain antibody (nanobody) from the Camelid family was recently found to allosterically bind and stabilize an active conformation of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR). Here, we set out to study the functional interaction of 18 related nanobodies with the β2AR to investigate...... their roles as novel tools for studying GPCR biology. Our studies revealed several sequence-related nanobody families with preferences for active (agonist-occupied) or inactive (antagonist-occupied) receptors. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that all nanobodies bind to epitopes displayed...... on the intracellular receptor surface; therefore, we transiently expressed them intracellularly as "intrabodies" to test their effects on β2AR-dependent signaling. Conformational specificity was preserved after intrabody conversion as demonstrated by the ability for the intracellularly expressed nanobodies...

  18. Functional organization of a single nif cluster in the mesophilic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ehlers

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesophilic methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 is able to utilize molecular nitrogen (N2 as its sole nitrogen source. We have identified and characterized a single nitrogen fixation (nif gene cluster in M. mazei Gö1 with an approximate length of 9 kbp. Sequence analysis revealed seven genes with sequence similarities to nifH, nifI1, nifI2, nifD, nifK, nifE and nifN, similar to other diazotrophic methanogens and certain bacteria such as Clostridium acetobutylicum, with the two glnB-like genes (nifI1 and nifI2 located between nifH and nifD. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences for the nitrogenase structural genes of M. mazei Gö1 showed that they are most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri nif2 genes, and also closely resemble those for the corresponding nif products of the gram-positive bacterium C. acetobutylicum. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription PCR analysis demonstrated that the M. mazei nif genes constitute an operon transcribed only under nitrogen starvation as a single 8 kb transcript. Sequence analysis revealed a palindromic sequence at the transcriptional start site in front of the M. mazei nifH gene, which may have a function in transcriptional regulation of the nif operon.

  19. Fourier transforms of single-particle wave functions in cylindrical coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizea, M.; Carjan, N.

    2016-01-01

    A formalism and the corresponding numerical procedures that calculate the Fourier transform of a single-particle wave function defined on a grid of cylindrical (ρ, z) coordinates is presented. Single-particle states in spherical and deformed nuclei have been chosen in view of future applications in the field of nuclear reactions. Bidimensional plots of the probability that the nucleon's momentum has a given value K = √(k ρ 2 +k z 2 ) are produced and from them the K -distributions are deduced. Three potentials have been investigated: (a) a sharp surface spherical well (i.e., of constant depth), (b) a spherical Woods-Saxon potential (i.e., diffuse surface) and (c) a deformed potential of Woods-Saxon type. In the first case the momenta are as well defined as allowed by the uncertainty principle. Depending on the state, their distributions have up to three separated peaks as a consequence of the up to three circular ridges of the bidimensional probabilities plots. In the second case the diffuseness allows very low momenta to be always populated thus creating tails towards the origin (K = 0). The peaks are still present but not well separated. In the third case the deformation transforms the above mentioned circular ridges into ellipses thus spreading the K-values along them. As a consequence the K-distributions have only one broad peak. (orig.)

  20. Challenges of management and therapy in patients with a functionally single ventricle after Fontan operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojnarska, Olga; Ciepłucha, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Forty years ago, Fontan and Baudet performed the first life-saving operation on a patient with a functionally single ventricle. This multi-stage procedure established the connection between systemic venous circulation and pulmonary arteries. As a consequence, the pulmonary circulation is supplied in a passive way, whereas the single ventricle pumps the blood into the systemic circulation only. Over the years, the technique of creating the abovementioned vascular connections has undergone several modifications. Due to the fundamental non-physiological hemodynamic relations between arterial pulmonary and systemic venous pressures, numerous complications can be observed in these patients including: supraventricular arrhythmias, thromboemboli, hepatic dysfunction, protein-losing enteropathy, heart failure, worsening cyanosis, systemic venous collateralization, and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, as well as connective tissue lesions in bronchi. Although based on an ingenious concept, the operation remains of a palliative character. Occasionally, heart transplantation is the ultimate resolution. Pharmacological therapy, and surgical conversion, often appear to be ineffective. However, this procedure has enabled many patients to reach adulthood and enjoy their lives to the full. This fact poses a great challenge for cardiologists wishing to become more knowledgeable and experienced as regards such patients, if we are not to waste such fabulous surgical achievements.

  1. Hanford Site Welding Program Successfully Providing A Single Site Function For Use By Multiple Contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) recently restructured its Hanford work scope, awarding two new contracts over the past several months for a total of three contracts to manage the sites cleanup efforts. DOE-RL met with key contractor personnel prior to and during contract transition to ensure site welding activities had appropriate oversight and maintained code compliance. The transition also provided an opportunity to establish a single site-wide function that would provide welding and materials engineering services to the Hanford site contractors: CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC); Mission Support Alliance (MSA); Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS); and Washington Closure Hanford (WCH). Over the years, multiple and separate welding programs (amongst the several contractors) existed at the Hanford site leading to inefficiencies resulting from duplication of administrative efforts, maintenance of welding procedures, welder performance certifications, etc. The new, single program eliminates these inefficiencies. The new program, co-managed by two of the sites' new contractors, the CHPRC ('owner' of the program and responsible for construction welding services) and the MSA (provides maintenance welding services), provides more than just the traditional construction and maintenance welding services. Also provided, are welding engineering, specialty welding development/qualification for the closure of radioactive materials containers and materials evaluation/failure analysis. The following describes the new Hanford site welding program.

  2. Single-step production of a recyclable nanobiocatalyst for organophosphate pesticides biodegradation using functionalized bacterial magnetosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Ginet

    Full Text Available Enzymes are versatile catalysts in laboratories and on an industrial scale; improving their immobilization would be beneficial to broadening their applicability and ensuring their (reuse. Lipid-coated nano-magnets produced by magnetotactic bacteria are suitable for a universally applicable single-step method of enzyme immobilization. By genetically functionalizing the membrane surrounding these magnetite particles with a phosphohydrolase, we engineered an easy-to-purify, robust and recyclable biocatalyst to degrade ethyl-paraoxon, a commonly used pesticide. For this, we genetically fused the opd gene from Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 encoding a paraoxonase to mamC, an abundant protein of the magnetosome membrane in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. The MamC protein acts as an anchor for the paraoxonase to the magnetosome surface, thus producing magnetic nanoparticles displaying phosphohydrolase activity. Magnetosomes functionalized with Opd were easily recovered from genetically modified AMB-1 cells: after cellular disruption with a French press, the magnetic nanoparticles are purified using a commercially available magnetic separation system. The catalytic properties of the immobilized Opd were measured on ethyl-paraoxon hydrolysis: they are comparable with the purified enzyme, with K(m (and k(cat values of 58 µM (and 178 s(-1 and 43 µM (and 314 s(-1 for the immobilized and purified enzyme respectively. The Opd, a metalloenzyme requiring a zinc cofactor, is thus properly matured in AMB-1. The recycling of the functionalized magnetosomes was investigated and their catalytic activity proved to be stable over repeated use for pesticide degradation. In this study, we demonstrate the easy production of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with suitably genetically modified magnetotactic bacteria that are efficient as a reusable nanobiocatalyst for pesticides bioremediation in contaminated effluents.

  3. Composite likelihood and two-stage estimation in family studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2002-01-01

    Composite likelihood; Two-stage estimation; Family studies; Copula; Optimal weights; All possible pairs......Composite likelihood; Two-stage estimation; Family studies; Copula; Optimal weights; All possible pairs...

  4. Dishonestly increasing the likelihood of winning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaul Shalvi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People not only seek to avoid losses or secure gains; they also attempt to create opportunities for obtaining positive outcomes. When distributing money between gambles with equal probabilities, people often invest in turning negative gambles into positive ones, even at a cost of reduced expected value. Results of an experiment revealed that (1 the preference to turn a negative outcome into a positive outcome exists when people's ability to do so depends on their performance levels (rather than merely on their choice, (2 this preference is amplified when the likelihood to turn negative into positive is high rather than low, and (3 this preference is attenuated when people can lie about their performance levels, allowing them to turn negative into positive not by performing better but rather by lying about how well they performed.

  5. A Predictive Likelihood Approach to Bayesian Averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Jeřábek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate time series forecasting is applied in a wide range of economic activities related to regional competitiveness and is the basis of almost all macroeconomic analysis. In this paper we combine multivariate density forecasts of GDP growth, inflation and real interest rates from four various models, two type of Bayesian vector autoregression (BVAR models, a New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE model of small open economy and DSGE-VAR model. The performance of models is identified using historical dates including domestic economy and foreign economy, which is represented by countries of the Eurozone. Because forecast accuracy of observed models are different, the weighting scheme based on the predictive likelihood, the trace of past MSE matrix, model ranks are used to combine the models. The equal-weight scheme is used as a simple combination scheme. The results show that optimally combined densities are comparable to the best individual models.

  6. Dipole induced conductance modulation in chromophore-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanchun; Huang, Changshui; Kim, Myungwoong; Gopalan, Padma; Eriksson, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are highly sensitive to local electrostatic environments, making SWNT field-effect transistors (FETs) of interest for a number of sensor applications and optoelectronic devices. Here we demonstrate a direct correlation between the conduction of SWNTs and their surrounding dipolar environments. We use azobenzene-based dipolar chromophores, Disperse Red 1 (DR1) and its derivatives to functionalize the sidewalls of SWNTs. The chromophores are coupled with a pyrenebutyric group for realizing noncovalent attachment and to attempt to direct their dipole moments. The functionalizing chromophores produce a dipole field that shifts the threshold voltage (Vth) of the nanotube FET. Under light illumination, these molecules isomerize from the ground trans state to the excited cis state, leading to a decrease of their dipole moments. This dipole moment change acts as an additional gate, causing a shift in Vth. Our results provide a new insight into the photogating mechanisms of the nanotube-chromophore hybrid devices, and they reveal the possibility to modulate optoelectronic properties of nanotube-hybrid devices by designing chromophores with required photosensitive features.

  7. Surface chemical functionalization of single walled carbon nanotubes with a bacteriorhodopsin mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrosso, Chiara; Bianco, Giuseppe Valerio; Lopalco, Patrizia; Tamborra, Michela; Curri, Maria Lucia; Corcelli, Angela; Bruno, Giovanni; Agostiano, Angela; Siciliano, Pietro; Striccoli, Marinella

    2012-10-21

    In this work, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been chemically functionalized at their walls with a membrane protein, namely the mutated bacteriorhodopsin D96N, integrated in its native archaeal lipid membrane. The modification of the SWNT walls with the mutant has been carried out in different buffer solutions, at pH 5, 7.5 and 9, to investigate the anchoring process, the typical chemical and physical properties of the component materials being dependent on the pH. The SWNTs modified by interactions with bacteriorhodopsin membrane patches have been characterized by UV-vis steady state, Raman and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. The investigation shows that the membrane protein patches wrap the carbon walls by tight chemical interactions undergoing a conformational change; such chemical interactions increase the mechanical strength of the SWNTs and promote charge transfers which p-dope the nano-objects. The functionalization, as well as the SWNT doping, is favoured in acid and basic buffer conditions; such buffers make the nanotube walls more reactive, thus catalysing the anchoring of the membrane protein. The direct electron communication among the materials can be exploited for effectively interfacing the transport properties of carbon nanotubes with both molecular recognition capability and photoactivity of the cell membrane for sensing and photoconversion applications upon integration of the achieved hybrid materials in sensors or photovoltaic devices.

  8. Density-Functional Theory description of transport in the single-electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Krissia; Oliveira, Luiz N.

    The Kondo effect governs the low-temperature transport properties of the single electron transistor (SET), a quantum dot bridging two electron gases. In the weak coupling limit, for odd dot occupation, the gate-potential profile of the conductance approaches a step, known as the Kondo plateau. The plateau and other SET properties being well understood on the basis of the Anderson model, more realistic (i. e., DFT) descriptions of the device are now desired. This poses a challenge, since the SET is strongly correlated. DFT computations that reproduce the conductance plateau have been reported, e. g., by, which rely on the exact functional provided by the Bethe-Ansatz solution for the Anderson model. Here, sticking to DFT tradition, we employ a functional derived from a homogeneous system: the parametrization of the Lieb-Wu solution for the Hubbard model due to. Our computations reproduce the plateau and yield other results in accurate agreement with the exact diagonalization of the Anderson Hamiltonian. The prospects for extensions to realistic descriptions of two-dimensional nanostructured devices will be discussed. Luiz N. Oliveira thanks CNPq (312658/2013-3) and Krissia Zawadzki thanks CNPq (140703/2014-4) for financial support.

  9. Massive optimal data compression and density estimation for scalable, likelihood-free inference in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsing, Justin; Wandelt, Benjamin; Feeney, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Many statistical models in cosmology can be simulated forwards but have intractable likelihood functions. Likelihood-free inference methods allow us to perform Bayesian inference from these models using only forward simulations, free from any likelihood assumptions or approximations. Likelihood-free inference generically involves simulating mock data and comparing to the observed data; this comparison in data-space suffers from the curse of dimensionality and requires compression of the data to a small number of summary statistics to be tractable. In this paper we use massive asymptotically-optimal data compression to reduce the dimensionality of the data-space to just one number per parameter, providing a natural and optimal framework for summary statistic choice for likelihood-free inference. Secondly, we present the first cosmological application of Density Estimation Likelihood-Free Inference (DELFI), which learns a parameterized model for joint distribution of data and parameters, yielding both the parameter posterior and the model evidence. This approach is conceptually simple, requires less tuning than traditional Approximate Bayesian Computation approaches to likelihood-free inference and can give high-fidelity posteriors from orders of magnitude fewer forward simulations. As an additional bonus, it enables parameter inference and Bayesian model comparison simultaneously. We demonstrate Density Estimation Likelihood-Free Inference with massive data compression on an analysis of the joint light-curve analysis supernova data, as a simple validation case study. We show that high-fidelity posterior inference is possible for full-scale cosmological data analyses with as few as ˜104 simulations, with substantial scope for further improvement, demonstrating the scalability of likelihood-free inference to large and complex cosmological datasets.

  10. Higher Order Bootstrap likelihood | Ogbonmwam | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, higher order optimal window width is used to generate bootstrap kernel density likelihood. A simulated study is conducted to compare the distributions of the higher order bootstrap likelihoods with the exact (empirical) bootstrap likelihood. Our results indicate that the optimal window width of orders 2 and 4 ...

  11. Towards single-valued polylogarithms in two variables for the seven-point remainder function in multi-Regge kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Broedel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate single-valued polylogarithms in two complex variables, which are relevant for the seven-point remainder function in N=4 super-Yang–Mills theory in the multi-Regge regime. After constructing these two-dimensional polylogarithms, we determine the leading logarithmic approximation of the seven-point remainder function up to and including five loops.

  12. Bion 11 Spaceflight Project: Effect of Weightlessness on Single Muscle Fiber Function in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, Robert H.; Romatowski, Janell G.; Widrick, Jeffrey J.; DeLaCruz, Lourdes

    1999-01-01

    Although it is well known that microgravity induces considerable limb muscle atrophy, little is known about how weightlessness alters cell function. In this study, we investigated how weightlessness altered the functional properties of single fast and slow striated muscle fibers. Physiological studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that microgravity causes fiber atrophy, a decreased peak force (Newtons), tension (Newtons/cross-sectional area) and power, an elevated peak rate of tension development (dp/dt), and an increased maximal shortening velocity (V(sub o)) in the slow type I fiber, while changes in the fast-twitch fiber are restricted to atrophy and a reduced peak force. For each fiber, we determined the peak force (P(sub o)), V(sub o), dp/dt, the force-velocity relationship, peak power, the power-force relationship, the force-pCa relationship, and fiber stiffness. Biochemical studies were carried out to assess the effects of weightlessness on the enzyme and substrate profile of the fast- and slow-twitch fibers. We predicted that microgravity would increase resting muscle glycogen and glycolytic metabolism in the slow fiber type, while the fast-twitch fiber enzyme profile would be unaltered. The increased muscle glycogen would in part result from an elevated hexokinase and glycogen synthase. The enzymes selected for study represent markers for mitochondrial function (citrate synthase and 0-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase), glycolysis (Phosphofructokinase and lactate dehydrogenase), and fatty acid transport (Carnitine acetyl transferase). The substrates analyzed will include glycogen, lactate, adenosine triphosphate, and phosphocreatine.

  13. EFIN: predicting the functional impact of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shuai; Yang, Jing; Chung, Brian Hon-Yin; Lau, Yu Lung; Yang, Wanling

    2014-06-10

    Predicting the functional impact of amino acid substitutions (AAS) caused by nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) is becoming increasingly important as more and more novel variants are being discovered. Bioinformatics analysis is essential to predict potentially causal or contributing AAS to human diseases for further analysis, as for each genome, thousands of rare or private AAS exist and only a very small number of which are related to an underlying disease. Existing algorithms in this field still have high false prediction rate and novel development is needed to take full advantage of vast amount of genomic data. Here we report a novel algorithm that features two innovative changes: 1. making better use of sequence conservation information by grouping the homologous protein sequences into six blocks according to evolutionary distances to human and evaluating sequence conservation in each block independently, and 2. including as many such homologous sequences as possible in analyses. Random forests are used to evaluate sequence conservation in each block and to predict potential impact of an AAS on protein function. Testing of this algorithm on a comprehensive dataset showed significant improvement on prediction accuracy upon currently widely-used programs. The algorithm and a web-based application tool implementing it, EFIN (Evaluation of Functional Impact of Nonsynonymous SNPs) were made freely available (http://paed.hku.hk/efin/) to the public. Grouping homologous sequences into different blocks according to the evolutionary distance of the species to human and evaluating sequence conservation in each group independently significantly improved prediction accuracy. This approach may help us better understand the roles of genetic variants in human disease and health.

  14. Single Amplified Genomes as Source for Novel Extremozymes: Annotation, Expression and Functional Assessment

    KAUST Repository

    Grötzinger, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Enzymes, as nature’s catalysts, show remarkable abilities that can revolutionize the chemical, biotechnological, bioremediation, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. However, the narrow range of stability of the majority of described biocatalysts limits their use for many applications. To overcome these restrictions, extremozymes derived from microorganisms thriving under harsh conditions can be used. Extremophiles living in high salinity are especially interesting as they operate at low water activity, which is similar to conditions used in standard chemical applications. Because only about 0.1 % of all microorganisms can be cultured, the traditional way of culture-based enzyme function determination needs to be overcome. The rise of high-throughput next-generation-sequencing technologies allows for deep insight into nature’s variety. Single amplified genomes (SAGs) specifically allow for whole genome assemblies from small sample volumes with low cell yields, as are typical for extreme environments. Although these technologies have been available for years, the expected boost in biotechnology has held off. One of the main reasons is the lack of reliable functional annotation of the genomic data, which is caused by the low amount (0.15 %) of experimentally described genes. Here, we present a novel annotation algorithm, designed to annotate the enzymatic function of genomes from microorganisms with low homologies to described microorganisms. The algorithm was established on SAGs from the extreme environment of selected hypersaline Red Sea brine pools with 4.3 M salinity and temperatures up to 68°C. Additionally, a novel consensus pattern for the identification of γ-carbonic anhydrases was created and applied in the algorithm. To verify the annotation, selected genes were expressed in the hypersaline expression system Halobacterium salinarum. This expression system was established and optimized in a continuously stirred tank reactor, leading to

  15. Determination and shaping of the ion-velocity distribution function in a single-ended Q machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1971-01-01

    An electrostatic energy analyzer with a resolution better than 0.03 eV was constructed. This analyzer was used to determine the ion-velocity distribution function at different densities and plate temperatures in a single-ended Q machine. In all regions good agreement with theoretical predictions...... based on simple, physical pictures is obtained. It is shown that within certain limits the velocity distribution function can be shaped; double-humped distribution functions have been obtained. The technique used here is suggested as an accurate method for determination of plasma densities within 10......% in single-ended Q machines...

  16. Maximum likelihood density modification by pattern recognition of structural motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2004-04-13

    An electron density for a crystallographic structure having protein regions and solvent regions is improved by maximizing the log likelihood of a set of structures factors {F.sub.h } using a local log-likelihood function: (x)+p(.rho.(x).vertline.SOLV)p.sub.SOLV (x)+p(.rho.(x).vertline.H)p.sub.H (x)], where p.sub.PROT (x) is the probability that x is in the protein region, p(.rho.(x).vertline.PROT) is the conditional probability for .rho.(x) given that x is in the protein region, and p.sub.SOLV (x) and p(.rho.(x).vertline.SOLV) are the corresponding quantities for the solvent region, p.sub.H (x) refers to the probability that there is a structural motif at a known location, with a known orientation, in the vicinity of the point x; and p(.rho.(x).vertline.H) is the probability distribution for electron density at this point given that the structural motif actually is present. One appropriate structural motif is a helical structure within the crystallographic structure.

  17. Simulation-based marginal likelihood for cluster strong lensing cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killedar, M.; Borgani, S.; Fabjan, D.; Dolag, K.; Granato, G.; Meneghetti, M.; Planelles, S.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.

    2018-01-01

    Comparisons between observed and predicted strong lensing properties of galaxy clusters have been routinely used to claim either tension or consistency with Λ cold dark matter cosmology. However, standard approaches to such cosmological tests are unable to quantify the preference for one cosmology over another. We advocate approximating the relevant Bayes factor using a marginal likelihood that is based on the following summary statistic: the posterior probability distribution function for the parameters of the scaling relation between Einstein radii and cluster mass, α and β. We demonstrate, for the first time, a method of estimating the marginal likelihood using the X-ray selected z > 0.5 Massive Cluster Survey clusters as a case in point and employing both N-body and hydrodynamic simulations of clusters. We investigate the uncertainty in this estimate and consequential ability to compare competing cosmologies, which arises from incomplete descriptions of baryonic processes, discrepancies in cluster selection criteria, redshift distribution and dynamical state. The relation between triaxial cluster masses at various overdensities provides a promising alternative to the strong lensing test.

  18. Likelihood inference for a fractionally cointegrated vector autoregressive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Ørregård Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    such that the process X_{t} is fractional of order d and cofractional of order d-b; that is, there exist vectors ß for which ß'X_{t} is fractional of order d-b, and no other fractionality order is possible. We define the statistical model by 0inference when the true values satisfy b0¿1/2 and d0-b0......We consider model based inference in a fractionally cointegrated (or cofractional) vector autoregressive model with a restricted constant term, ¿, based on the Gaussian likelihood conditional on initial values. The model nests the I(d) VAR model. We give conditions on the parameters...... process in the parameters when errors are i.i.d. with suitable moment conditions and initial values are bounded. When the limit is deterministic this implies uniform convergence in probability of the conditional likelihood function. If the true value b0>1/2, we prove that the limit distribution of (ß...

  19. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA scintillation-camera renography: a new method for estimation of single-kidney function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Moeller, M.L.; Trap-Jensen, J.

    1977-01-01

    A new method of combined serial scintigraphy and renography, using a scintillation camera and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA is evaluated. Renographic curves, corresponding to light-pen ''areas of interest'' over the renal parenchyma, were processed. ''Blood-background'' curves were recorded from an external detector over the temporal region of the head and also from an ''area of interest'' corresponding to the aorta and inferior vena cava. The uptake phase of the renogram was always linear. The sum of the slopes of the uptake phase of both kidneys correlated well with the measured glomerular filtration rate in 25 patients with renal insufficiency of various degrees. Single-kidney function estimated from the slopes correlated reasonably well with single-kidney function estimated from 131 I-Hippuran renography with external detectors. The method described minimizes errors in the estimation of single-kidney function, and both anatomic and functional information is obtained

  20. Single and repeated dose pharmacokinetics of dexketoprofen trometamol in patients with impaired liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, J; Artigas, R; Bertolotti, M; Crea, A; Muller, F; Paredes, I; Capriati, A

    2006-06-01

    Dexketoprofen trometamol, a high water-soluble salt of the active enantiomer of rac-ketoprofen, is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) used for pain relief. This study compared the pharmacokinetics of dexketoprofen in patients with impaired liver function and normal subjects following single and repeated oral dosing. Subjects with normal liver function (n = 6) and with Child-Pugh A (n = 7) or Child-Pugh B (n = 5) hepatic impairment scores completed this open-label and parallel study. They received 25 mg dexketoprofen (equivalent to 37 mg of its tromethamine salt) as a single (day 1) and a 3-day repeated dose (1 dose every 8 hours for a total of 10 doses). Dexketoprofen concentrations were determined in plasma and urine by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. All subjects completed the study. No serious adverse events were recorded. Following the single dose, mean (+/- SEM) Cmax were 3027.7 +/- 429.3 ng/ml (healthy subjects), 2856.3 +/- 340.3 ng/ml (Child-Pugh A) and 1937.2 +/- 328.0 ng/ml (Child-Pugh B). Median tmax were 0.49 h (0.33-0.68) h, 0.50 h (0.33-0.67) h and 0.67 h (0.33-1.50) h. AUC0-x averaged 3778.0 +/- 439.0 ng.h/ml, 4890.4 +/- 539.1 ng.h/ml and 3985.0 +/- 712.0 ng.h/ml. Mean CL/F were 101.1 +/- 11.3 ml/h/kg, 73.3 +/- 9.9 ml/h/kg and 88.8 +/- 15.5 ml/h/kg and V/F averaged 0.192 +/- 0.018 l/kg, 0.162 +/- 0.006 l/kg and 0.214 +/- 0.044 l/kg. Following the repeated administration, similar results were obtained showing no drug accumulation. As related to the administered dose, median excretions of unchanged and conjugated dexketoprofen in urine were 2.1% and 67.1% in healthy subjects, 2.8% and 60.9% in Child-Pugh A subjects and 4.4% and 47.7% in Child-Pugh B volunteers. A trend towards a reduced urinary excretion of conjugated dexketoprofen in hepatic patients, more evident in the Child-Pugh B than in the Child-Pugh A groups, was observed when compared with healthy

  1. A single hidden layer feedforward network with only one neuron in the hidden layer can approximate any univariate function

    OpenAIRE

    Guliyev, Namig; Ismailov, Vugar

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of approximating a continuous function on a compact subset of the real line by a feedforward single hidden layer neural network with a sigmoidal activation function has been studied in many papers. Such networks can approximate an arbitrary continuous function provided that an unlimited number of neurons in a hidden layer is permitted. In this paper, we consider constructive approximation on any finite interval of $\\mathbb{R}$ by neural networks with only one neuron in the hid...

  2. Likelihood analysis of the minimal AMSB model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagnaschi, E.; Weiglein, G. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Borsato, M.; Chobanova, V.; Lucio, M.; Santos, D.M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sakurai, K. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, Department of Physics, Durham (United Kingdom); University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Buchmueller, O.; Citron, M.; Costa, J.C.; Richards, A. [Imperial College, High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Cavanaugh, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); University of Illinois at Chicago, Physics Department, Chicago, IL (United States); De Roeck, A. [Experimental Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Antwerp University, Wilrijk (Belgium); Dolan, M.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, Melbourne (Australia); Ellis, J.R. [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Flaecher, H. [University of Bristol, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Heinemeyer, S. [Campus of International Excellence UAM+CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Cantabria (Spain); Isidori, G. [Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Luo, F. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Olive, K.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-04-15

    We perform a likelihood analysis of the minimal anomaly-mediated supersymmetry-breaking (mAMSB) model using constraints from cosmology and accelerator experiments. We find that either a wino-like or a Higgsino-like neutralino LSP, χ{sup 0}{sub 1}, may provide the cold dark matter (DM), both with similar likelihoods. The upper limit on the DM density from Planck and other experiments enforces m{sub χ{sup 0}{sub 1}} 0) but the scalar mass m{sub 0} is poorly constrained. In the wino-LSP case, m{sub 3/2} is constrained to about 900 TeV and m{sub χ{sup 0}{sub 1}} to 2.9 ± 0.1 TeV, whereas in the Higgsino-LSP case m{sub 3/2} has just a lower limit >or similar 650 TeV (>or similar 480 TeV) and m{sub χ{sup 0}{sub 1}} is constrained to 1.12 (1.13) ± 0.02 TeV in the μ > 0 (μ < 0) scenario. In neither case can the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, (g-2){sub μ}, be improved significantly relative to its Standard Model (SM) value, nor do flavour measurements constrain the model significantly, and there are poor prospects for discovering supersymmetric particles at the LHC, though there are some prospects for direct DM detection. On the other hand, if the χ{sup 0}{sub 1} contributes only a fraction of the cold DM density, future LHC E{sub T}-based searches for gluinos, squarks and heavier chargino and neutralino states as well as disappearing track searches in the wino-like LSP region will be relevant, and interference effects enable BR(B{sub s,d} → μ{sup +}μ{sup -}) to agree with the data better than in the SM in the case of wino-like DM with μ > 0. (orig.)

  3. Single photon sources using oxide apertured micropillars with integrated electrical control for novel functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Nicholas G.

    The goal of this thesis is to apply the oxide apertured vertical cavity laser structure in order to explore quantum dot-microcavity coupling for the development of novel single photon sources (SPS). Optical microcavities combined with active emitters provide an opportunity to study the light matter interaction on a fundamental level. Edward Purcell first theorized in 1947 that the spontaneous emission (SE) rate of an optical emitter could be modified in the presence of an optical cavity. As semiconductor microcavity technology has advanced many optoelectronic devices have benefited from the increased SE rates predicted by the Purcell effect. The development of quantum emitters on an integrated semiconductor platform in the form of semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) has expanded applications in the field. Coupling atomic emitters to optical microcavities in the solid state allows for the study of cavity quantum electrodynamics and the fabrication single photon (SP) devices. Optoelectronic devices providing non-classical light states have a broad range of applications in quantum information science, including quantum key distribution systems, quantum lithography, and quantum computing. Here, the oxide apertured micropillar approach demonstrates high quality microcavities with cavity quality factors up to 50,000 and measured Purcell enhancements of 10. In addition the inherent advantages provided by the oxide apertured micropillar, specifically high collection efficiency, have produced SPSs with record high SP rates and quantum efficiencies representing a six-fold improvement over reported values. In addition we have developed and integrated a scheme allowing for on-chip electrical control of SP devices for the implementation of SPSs with novel functionalities. The active electrical control of QD charge state has allowed for the elimination of dark states which severely limit SP rates and efficiencies. The active electrical tuning of QD emission energy

  4. Likelihood Analysis of Supersymmetric SU(5) GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnaschi, E.

    2017-01-01

    We perform a likelihood analysis of the constraints from accelerator experiments and astrophysical observations on supersymmetric (SUSY) models with SU(5) boundary conditions on soft SUSY-breaking parameters at the GUT scale. The parameter space of the models studied has 7 parameters: a universal gaugino mass $m_{1/2}$, distinct masses for the scalar partners of matter fermions in five- and ten-dimensional representations of SU(5), $m_5$ and $m_{10}$, and for the $\\mathbf{5}$ and $\\mathbf{\\bar 5}$ Higgs representations $m_{H_u}$ and $m_{H_d}$, a universal trilinear soft SUSY-breaking parameter $A_0$, and the ratio of Higgs vevs $\\tan \\beta$. In addition to previous constraints from direct sparticle searches, low-energy and flavour observables, we incorporate constraints based on preliminary results from 13 TeV LHC searches for jets + MET events and long-lived particles, as well as the latest PandaX-II and LUX searches for direct Dark Matter detection. In addition to previously-identified mechanisms for bringi...

  5. Interactions and effects of BSA-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on different cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzi, Laura; Tardani, Franco; La Mesa, Camillo; Bonincontro, Adalberto; Bianco, Alberto; Risuleo, Gianfranco

    2016-04-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great promise in several biomedical contexts, spanning from drug delivery to tissue regeneration. Thanks to their unique size-related properties, single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) are particularly interesting in these fields. However, their use in nanomedicine requires a clear demonstration of their safety in terms of tissue damage, toxicity and pro-inflammatory response. Thus, a better understanding of the cytotoxicity mechanisms, the cellular interactions and the effects that these materials have on cell survival and on biological membranes is an important first step for an appropriate assessment of their biocompatibility. In this study we show how bovine serum albumin (BSA) is able to generate homogeneous and stable dispersions of SWCNTs (BSA-CNTs), suggesting their possible use in the biomedical field. On the other hand, this study wishes to shed more light on the impact and the interactions of protein-stabilized SWCNTs with two different cell types exploiting multidisciplinary techniques. We show that BSA-CNTs are efficiently taken up by cells. We also attempt to describe the effect that the interaction with cells has on the dielectric characteristics of the plasma membrane and ion flux using electrorotation. We then focus on the BSA-CNTs’ acute toxicity using different cellular models. The novel aspect of this work is the evaluation of the membrane alterations that have been poorly investigated to date.

  6. Single and concurrent effects of endurance and resistance training on pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Maryam; Tayebi, Seyed Morteza; Safari, Hamed

    2013-04-01

    As not only few evidences but also contradictory results exist with regard to the effects of resistance training (RT) and resistance plus endurance training (ERT) on respiratory system, so the purpose of this research was therefore to study single and concurrent effects of endurance and resistance training on pulmonary function. Thirty seven volunteer healthy inactive women were randomly divided into 4 groups: without training as control (C), Endurance Training (ET), RT, and ERT. A spirometry test was taken 24 hrs before and after the training course. The training period (8 weeks, 3 sessions/week) for ET was 20-26 min/session running with 60-80% maximum heart rate (HR max); for RT two circuits/session, 40-60s for each exercise with 60-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and 1 and 3 minutes active rest between exercises and circuits respectively; and for ERT was in agreement with either ET or RT protocols, but the times of running and circuits were half of ET and RT. ANCOVA showed that ET and ERT increased significantly (P0.05) on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC ratio. In conclusion, ET combined with RT (ERT) has greater effect on VC, FVC, FEF rating at25%-75%, and also on PEF except MVV, rather than RT, and just ET has greater effect rather than ERT.

  7. Direct injection of functional single-domain antibodies from E. coli into human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Muyldermans, Serge; Frankel, Gad; Fernández, Luis Ángel

    2010-12-08

    Intracellular proteins have a great potential as targets for therapeutic antibodies (Abs) but the plasma membrane prevents access to these antigens. Ab fragments and IgGs are selected and engineered in E. coli and this microorganism may be also an ideal vector for their intracellular delivery. In this work we demonstrate that single-domain Ab (sdAbs) can be engineered to be injected into human cells by E. coli bacteria carrying molecular syringes assembled by a type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The injected sdAbs accumulate in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells at levels ca. 10⁵-10⁶ molecules per cell and their functionality is shown by the isolation of sdAb-antigen complexes. Injection of sdAbs does not require bacterial invasion or the transfer of genetic material. These results are proof-of-principle for the capacity of E. coli bacteria to directly deliver intracellular sdAbs (intrabodies) into human cells for analytical and therapeutic purposes.

  8. Direct injection of functional single-domain antibodies from E. coli into human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Blanco-Toribio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular proteins have a great potential as targets for therapeutic antibodies (Abs but the plasma membrane prevents access to these antigens. Ab fragments and IgGs are selected and engineered in E. coli and this microorganism may be also an ideal vector for their intracellular delivery. In this work we demonstrate that single-domain Ab (sdAbs can be engineered to be injected into human cells by E. coli bacteria carrying molecular syringes assembled by a type III protein secretion system (T3SS. The injected sdAbs accumulate in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells at levels ca. 10⁵-10⁶ molecules per cell and their functionality is shown by the isolation of sdAb-antigen complexes. Injection of sdAbs does not require bacterial invasion or the transfer of genetic material. These results are proof-of-principle for the capacity of E. coli bacteria to directly deliver intracellular sdAbs (intrabodies into human cells for analytical and therapeutic purposes.

  9. Selective distributions of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes in a polymeric reverse hexagonal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jae-Min; Jang, Hyung-Sik; Lim, Sung-Hwan; Choi, Sung-Min

    2015-08-07

    We have investigated the distributions of individually isolated and hydrophilically functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (p-SWNTs) in the Pluronic L121-water system at the reverse hexagonal phase using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and contrast-matched small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. As the p-SWNT-L121-water system is transitioned from the lamellar phase to the reverse hexagonal phase with temperature, p-SWNTs which were selectively distributed in the polar layers of the lamellar structure become selectively distributed in the cylindrical polar cores of the reverse hexagonal structure, forming a hexagonal array of p-SWNTs. This was clearly confirmed by the contrast-matched SANS measurements. The selective distribution of p-SWNTs in the reverse hexagonal phase is driven by the selective affinity of p-SWNTs to the polar domains of the block copolymer system. The method demonstrated in this study provides a new route for fabricating ordered SWNT superstructures and may be applicable for inorganic 1D nanoparticles such as semiconducting, metallic and magnetic nanorods which are of great interest.

  10. Copper hexacyanoferrate functionalized single-walled carbon nano-tubes for selective cesium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draouil, H.; Alvarez, L.; Bantignies, J.L.; Causse, J.; Cambedouzou, J.; Flaud, V.; Zaibi, M.A.; Oueslati, M.

    2017-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nano-tubes (SWCNTs) are functionalized with copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) nanoparticles to prepare solid substrates for sorption of cesium ions (Cs + ) from liquid outflows. The high mechanical resistance and large electrical conductivity of SWCNTs are associated with the ability of CuHCF nanoparticles to selectively complex Cs + ions in order to achieve membrane-like buckypapers presenting high loading capacity of cesium. The materials are thoroughly characterized using electron microscopy, Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses. Cs sorption isotherms are plotted after having measured the Cs + concentration by liquid phase ionic chromatography in the solution before and after exposure to the materials. It is found that the total sorption capacity of the material reaches 230 mg.g -1 , and that about one third of the sorbed Cs (80 mg.g -1 ) is selectively complexed in the CuHCF nanoparticles grafted on SWCNTs. The quantification of Cs + ions on different sorption sites is made for the first time, and the high sorption rates open interesting outlooks in the integration of such materials in devices for the controlled sorption and desorption of these ions. (authors)

  11. Cytogenetic evaluation of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube in mice bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Anita K; Patra, Prabir K; Flountan, Moyesha; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-09-01

    With their unique structure and physicochemical properties, single\\-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have many potential new applications in medicine and industry. However, there is lack of detailed information concerning their impact on human health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects, after intraperitoneal injection of functionalized SWCNTs (f-SWCNT) on the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), frequency of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA), frequency of micronuclei induction, mitotic index, and DNA damage in Swiss-Webster mice. Three doses of f-SWCNTs (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mg/kg) and two controls (negative and positive) were administered to mice, once a day for 5 days. Bone marrow and peripheral blood samples were collected 24 h after the last treatment following standard protocols. F-SWCNT exposure significantly enhanced ROS, increased (p mice at higher level of exposure. Further characterization of their systemic toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity is also essential. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1091-1102, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Extended long term functional outcome of inflatable penile prosthesis in a single institution.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, A Z

    2011-02-01

    We sought to evaluate the extended long term functional outcome of the AMS700 three piece inflatable prosthesis in men with erectile dysfunction in a single urological department and assess our revision rates. Patients that underwent first-time insertion or revision of an AMS700 3 piece inflatable penile prosthesis between 1984-2007 were included. Data was obtained from medical records and long term follow up of patients was conducted by telephone interview. The medical records of 38 patients were available for review. Of these 38 men, 56 prostheses were inserted. The mean follow up was 8.4 years (101 months). The revision rate at 50 months postoperatively was 7\\/38 (18%). The overall revision rate was 18\\/38 (47%). The mean time to revision in these 18 patients was 72 months (12-156 months) after initial insertion of AMS700 penile prosthesis. This study highlights that with longer follow u revision rates markedly increase after 72 months.

  13. Targeting Aging with Functional Food: Pasta with Opuntia Single-Arm Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Candore, Giuseppina; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Aldo; Gambino, Caterina Maria; Ruisi, Paolo; Caruso, Calogero; Vasto, Sonya; Accardi, Giulia

    2017-10-10

    Interventions to extend life span represent the new perspective in aging investigation. Healthy dietary habits are important modifiable factors that can favor a healthy aging phenotype. Many studies have demonstrated benefits for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus resulting from the traditional Mediterranean foods. Opuntia Ficus Indica (OFI), widespread in the Mediterranean basin, belongs to the Cactaceae family. It is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, products containing extracts from OFI fruits or cladodes have been used to control obesity and other metabolic parameters, such as glycemia and lipid profile. The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of pasta with 3% of OFI cladode extracts added to show its beneficial effect in human health. We performed a single arm longitudinal intervention study in 42 healthy volunteers, administrating 500 g/week of this functional pasta for 30 days. Our pasta had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties with putative effect on the aging process and related metabolic diseases. We also demonstrated a hypoglycemic effect. The results are preliminary, but it is possible to speculate that our pasta could be considered an effective food for the prevention of age-related metabolic disorders.

  14. Music genre classification via likelihood fusion from multiple feature models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Yu; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2005-01-01

    Music genre provides an efficient way to index songs in a music database, and can be used as an effective means to retrieval music of a similar type, i.e. content-based music retrieval. A new two-stage scheme for music genre classification is proposed in this work. At the first stage, we examine a couple of different features, construct their corresponding parametric models (e.g. GMM and HMM) and compute their likelihood functions to yield soft classification results. In particular, the timbre, rhythm and temporal variation features are considered. Then, at the second stage, these soft classification results are integrated to result in a hard decision for final music genre classification. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme.

  15. Salient Point and Scale Detection by Minimum Likelihood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; van Dorst, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for detection of salient image points and estimation of their intrinsic scales based on the fractional Brownian image model. Under this model images are realisations of a Gaussian random process on the plane. We define salient points as points that have a locally unique...... image structure. Such points are usually sparsely distributed in images and carry important information about the image content. Locality is defined in terms of the measurement scale of the filters used to describe the image structure. Here we use partial derivatives of the image function defined using...... linear scale space theory. We propose to detect salient points and their intrinsic scale by detecting points in scale-space that locally minimise the likelihood under the model....

  16. Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Item Response Models in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Johnson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Item response theory (IRT models are a class of statistical models used by researchers to describe the response behaviors of individuals to a set of categorically scored items. The most common IRT models can be classified as generalized linear fixed- and/or mixed-effect models. Although IRT models appear most often in the psychological testing literature, researchers in other fields have successfully utilized IRT-like models in a wide variety of applications. This paper discusses the three major methods of estimation in IRT and develops R functions utilizing the built-in capabilities of the R environment to find the marginal maximum likelihood estimates of the generalized partial credit model. The currently available R packages ltm is also discussed.

  17. Maximum likelihood sequence estimation for optical complex direct modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Di; Yuan, Feng; Shieh, William

    2017-04-17

    Semiconductor lasers are versatile optical transmitters in nature. Through the direct modulation (DM), the intensity modulation is realized by the linear mapping between the injection current and the light power, while various angle modulations are enabled by the frequency chirp. Limited by the direct detection, DM lasers used to be exploited only as 1-D (intensity or angle) transmitters by suppressing or simply ignoring the other modulation. Nevertheless, through the digital coherent detection, simultaneous intensity and angle modulations (namely, 2-D complex DM, CDM) can be realized by a single laser diode. The crucial technique of CDM is the joint demodulation of intensity and differential phase with the maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE), supported by a closed-form discrete signal approximation of frequency chirp to characterize the MLSE transition probability. This paper proposes a statistical method for the transition probability to significantly enhance the accuracy of the chirp model. Using the statistical estimation, we demonstrate the first single-channel 100-Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 1600-km fiber with only 10G-class DM lasers.

  18. Likelihood analysis of supersymmetric SU(5) GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagnaschi, E.; Weiglein, G. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Costa, J.C.; Buchmueller, O.; Citron, M.; Richards, A.; De Vries, K.J. [Imperial College, High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Sakurai, K. [University of Durham, Science Laboratories, Department of Physics, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Borsato, M.; Chobanova, V.; Lucio, M.; Martinez Santos, D. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Cavanaugh, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); University of Illinois at Chicago, Physics Department, Chicago, IL (United States); Roeck, A. de [CERN, Experimental Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Antwerp University, Wilrijk (Belgium); Dolan, M.J. [University of Melbourne, ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, Parkville (Australia); Ellis, J.R. [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Flaecher, H. [University of Bristol, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Heinemeyer, S. [Campus of International Excellence UAM+CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Isidori, G. [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Olive, K.A. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-02-15

    We perform a likelihood analysis of the constraints from accelerator experiments and astrophysical observations on supersymmetric (SUSY) models with SU(5) boundary conditions on soft SUSY-breaking parameters at the GUT scale. The parameter space of the models studied has seven parameters: a universal gaugino mass m{sub 1/2}, distinct masses for the scalar partners of matter fermions in five- and ten-dimensional representations of SU(5), m{sub 5} and m{sub 10}, and for the 5 and anti 5 Higgs representations m{sub H{sub u}} and m{sub H{sub d}}, a universal trilinear soft SUSY-breaking parameter A{sub 0}, and the ratio of Higgs vevs tan β. In addition to previous constraints from direct sparticle searches, low-energy and flavour observables, we incorporate constraints based on preliminary results from 13 TeV LHC searches for jets + E{sub T} events and long-lived particles, as well as the latest PandaX-II and LUX searches for direct Dark Matter detection. In addition to previously identified mechanisms for bringing the supersymmetric relic density into the range allowed by cosmology, we identify a novel u{sub R}/c{sub R} - χ{sup 0}{sub 1} coannihilation mechanism that appears in the supersymmetric SU(5) GUT model and discuss the role of ν{sub τ} coannihilation. We find complementarity between the prospects for direct Dark Matter detection and SUSY searches at the LHC. (orig.)

  19. Generalized linear models with random effects unified analysis via H-likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Youngjo; Pawitan, Yudi

    2006-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1972, generalized linear models (GLMs) have proven useful in the generalization of classical normal models. Presenting methods for fitting GLMs with random effects to data, Generalized Linear Models with Random Effects: Unified Analysis via H-likelihood explores a wide range of applications, including combining information over trials (meta-analysis), analysis of frailty models for survival data, genetic epidemiology, and analysis of spatial and temporal models with correlated errors.Written by pioneering authorities in the field, this reference provides an introduction to various theories and examines likelihood inference and GLMs. The authors show how to extend the class of GLMs while retaining as much simplicity as possible. By maximizing and deriving other quantities from h-likelihood, they also demonstrate how to use a single algorithm for all members of the class, resulting in a faster algorithm as compared to existing alternatives. Complementing theory with examples, many of...

  20. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase single nucleotide polymorphism and left ventricular function in early chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Chand

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with accelerated cardiovascular disease and heart failure. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS Glu298Asp single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotype has been associated with a worse phenotype amongst patients with established heart failure and in patients with progression of their renal disease. The association of a cardiac functional difference in non-dialysis CKD patients with no known previous heart failure, and eNOS gene variant is investigated.140 non-dialysis CKD patients, who had cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR imaging and tissue doppler echocardiography as part of two clinical trials, were genotyped for eNOS Glu298Asp SNP retrospectively.The median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was 50 mls/min and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 74% with no overt diastolic dysfunction in this cohort. There were significant differences in LVEF across eNOS genotypes with GG genotype being associated with a worse LVEF compared to other genotypes (LVEF: GG 71%, TG 76%, TT 73%, p = 0.006. After multivariate analysis, (adjusting for age, eGFR, baseline mean arterial pressure, contemporary CMR heart rate, total cholesterol, high sensitive C-reactive protein, body mass index and gender GG genotype was associated with a worse LVEF, and increased LV end-diastolic and systolic index (p = 0.004, 0.049 and 0.009 respectively.eNOS Glu298Asp rs1799983 polymorphism in CKD patients is associated with relevant sub-clinical cardiac remodelling as detected by CMR. This gene variant may therefore represent an important genetic biomarker, and possibly highlight pathways for intervention, in these patients who are at particular risk of worsening cardiac disease as their renal dysfunction progresses.

  1. Prediction of functionally significant single nucleotide polymorphisms in PTEN tumor suppressor gene: An in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Ansari, Irfan A; Singh, Pratichi; Dass J, Febin Prabhu

    2017-09-01

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene plays a crucial role in signal transduction by negatively regulating the PI3K signaling pathway. It is the most frequent mutated gene in many human-related cancers. Considering its critical role, a functional analysis of missense mutations of PTEN gene was undertaken in this study. Thirty five nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) within the coding region of the PTEN gene were selected for our in silico investigation, and five nsSNPs (G129E, C124R, D252G, H61D, and R130G) were found to be deleterious based on combinatorial predictions of different computational tools. Moreover, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to investigate the conformational variation between native and all the five mutant PTEN proteins having predicted deleterious nsSNPs. The results of MD simulation of all mutant models illustrated variation in structural attributes such as root-mean-square deviation, root-mean-square fluctuation, radius of gyration, and total energy; which depicts the structural stability of PTEN protein. Furthermore, mutant PTEN protein structures also showed a significant variation in the solvent accessible surface area and hydrogen bond frequencies from the native PTEN structure. In conclusion, results of this study have established the deleterious effect of the all the five predicted nsSNPs on the PTEN protein structure. Thus, results of the current study can pave a new platform to sort out nsSNPs that can be undertaken for the confirmation of their phenotype and their correlation with diseased status in case of control studies. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Metal coated functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes for composite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang

    This study is considered as a method for producing multifunctional composite materials by using metals coated Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this research, various metals (Ni, Cu, Ag) were successfully deposited onto the surface of SWCNTs. It has been found that homogenous dispersion and dense nucleation sites are the necessary conditions to form uniform coatings on SWCNTs. Functionalization has been applied to achieve considerable improvement in the dispersion of purified SWCNTs and creates more nucleation sites for subsequent metal deposition. A three-step electroless plating approach was used and the coating mechanism is described in the paper. The samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Bulk copper/aluminum-SWNT composites were processed by powder metallurgy with wet mixing techniques. Coated SWCNTs were well dispersed in the metal matrix. Cold pressing followed by sintering was applied to control porosity. The relationships between hardness and SWCNTs addition were discussed. Ni-SWCNTs composite coatings were prepared by electro-composite deposition. SWCNTs were suspended in a Ni deposition electrolyte and deposited together with nickel during electrodeposition. SWCNTs concentrations in the coatings were found to be related to the SWCNTs concentration in the solution, current density and agitation rate. The microstructure of the coatings has been examined by electron microscopy. Ni coated SWCNTs were also incorporated into the high temperature Bismaleimide (BMI)/graphite composite to improve Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding and surface conductivity. The vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) was used to process these composites. Surface and volume resistivity and EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites

  3. FUSED KERNEL-SPLINE SMOOTHING FOR REPEATEDLY MEASURED OUTCOMES IN A GENERALIZED PARTIALLY LINEAR MODEL WITH FUNCTIONAL SINGLE INDEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei; Ma, Yanyuan; Wang, Yuanjia

    We propose a generalized partially linear functional single index risk score model for repeatedly measured outcomes where the index itself is a function of time. We fuse the nonparametric kernel method and regression spline method, and modify the generalized estimating equation to facilitate estimation and inference. We use local smoothing kernel to estimate the unspecified coefficient functions of time, and use B-splines to estimate the unspecified function of the single index component. The covariance structure is taken into account via a working model, which provides valid estimation and inference procedure whether or not it captures the true covariance. The estimation method is applicable to both continuous and discrete outcomes. We derive large sample properties of the estimation procedure and show different convergence rate of each component of the model. The asymptotic properties when the kernel and regression spline methods are combined in a nested fashion has not been studied prior to this work even in the independent data case.

  4. The behavior of the likelihood ratio test for testing missingness

    OpenAIRE

    Hens, Niel; Aerts, Marc; Molenberghs, Geert; Thijs, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    To asses the sensitivity of conclusions to model choices in the context of selection models for non-random dropout, one can oppose the different missing mechanisms to each other; e.g. by the likelihood ratio tests. The finite sample behavior of the null distribution and the power of the likelihood ratio test is studied under a variety of missingness mechanisms. missing data; sensitivity analysis; likelihood ratio test; missing mechanisms

  5. Single-Cell Behavior and Population Heterogeneity: Solving an Inverse Problem to Compute the Intrinsic Physiological State Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Spetsieris, Konstantinos; Zygourakis, Kyriacos

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of isogenic cell populations can be described by cell population balance models that account for phenotypic heterogeneity. To utilize the predictive power of these models, however, we must know the rates of single-cell reaction and division and the bivariate partition probability density function. These three intrinsic physiological state (IPS) functions can be obtained by solving an inverse problem that requires knowledge of the phenotypic distributions for the overall cell popu...

  6. A Specific Network Link and Path Likelihood Prediction Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moy, Gary

    1996-01-01

    .... Providing a specific network link and path likelihood prediction tool gives strategic military commanders additional intelligence information and enables them to manage their limited resources more efficiently...

  7. Assessing Compatibility of Direct Detection Data: Halo-Independent Global Likelihood Analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2016-10-18

    We present two different halo-independent methods utilizing a global maximum likelihood that can assess the compatibility of dark matter direct detection data given a particular dark matter model. The global likelihood we use is comprised of at least one extended likelihood and an arbitrary number of Poisson or Gaussian likelihoods. In the first method we find the global best fit halo function and construct a two sided pointwise confidence band, which can then be compared with those derived from the extended likelihood alone to assess the joint compatibility of the data. In the second method we define a "constrained parameter goodness-of-fit" test statistic, whose $p$-value we then use to define a "plausibility region" (e.g. where $p \\geq 10\\%$). For any halo function not entirely contained within the plausibility region, the level of compatibility of the data is very low (e.g. $p < 10 \\%$). As an example we apply these methods to CDMS-II-Si and SuperCDMS data, assuming dark matter particles with elastic s...

  8. Intra-Nuclear Single-Particle Tracking (I-SPT) to Reveal the Functional Architecture of Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Récamier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome architecture needs to be investigated in relation with the chemical function of DNA. The kinetics of gene expression, DNA replication, and repair are driven by the mechanisms by which a functional nuclear protein finds its substrate in the nucleus. Single-particle tracking (SPT) is a method to quantify fluorescent molecules dynamics from the tracks of the single molecules recorded by high-resolution microscopes. SPT offers direct observation of the movement and single-molecule resolution. Usually SPT is performed on membranes because of higher contrast. Here, we introduce a novel method to record the trajectories of weakly fluorescent molecules in the nucleus of living cells. I-SPT uses some specific detection and analysis tools to enable the computation of reliable statistics on nuclear particle movement.

  9. Functions and Requirements for Automated Liquid Level Gauge Instruments in Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This functions and requirements document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of automated liquid level gauge instruments in the Tank Farms. This document is intended to become the technical baseline for current and future installation, operation and maintenance of automated liquid level gauges in single-shell and double-shell tank farms

  10. Single-Channel Blind Estimation of Arterial Input Function and Tissue Impulse Response in DCE-MRI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taxt, T.; Jiřík, Radovan; Rygh, C. B.; Grüner, R.; Bartoš, M.; Andersen, E.; Curry, F. R.; Reed, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2012), s. 1012-1021 ISSN 0018-9294 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : arterial input function (AIF) * blind deconvolution * dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) * multichannel * perfusion * single channel Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.348, year: 2012

  11. Single-Molecule Break Junctions Based on a Perylene-Diimide Cyano-Functionalized (PDI8-CN2) Derivative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisenda, R.; Parlato, L.; Barra, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Cassinese, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we report the single-molecule conductance properties of a cyano-functionalized perylene-diimide derivative (PDI8-CN 2 ) investigated with gold nano-electrodes. This molecule is of large interest for the fabrication of high-performance and air-stable n-type organic field-effect

  12. Ensembles of indium phosphide nanowires: physical properties and functional devices integrated on non-single crystal platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.; Lohn, Andrew; Onishi, Takehiro [University of California, Santa Cruz (United States). Baskin School of Engineering; NASA Ames Research Center, Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, Univ. of California Santa Cruz, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Mathai, Sagi; Li, Xuema; Straznicky, Joseph; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Williams, R.S. [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Information and Quantum Systems Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Logeeswaran, V.J.; Islam, M.S. [University of California Davis, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Davis, CA (United States)

    2009-06-15

    A new route to grow an ensemble of indium phosphide single-crystal semiconductor nanowires is described. Unlike conventional epitaxial growth of single-crystal semiconductor films, the proposed route for growing semiconductor nanowires does not require a single-crystal semiconductor substrate. In the proposed route, instead of using single-crystal semiconductor substrates that are characterized by their long-range atomic ordering, a template layer that possesses short-range atomic ordering prepared on a non-single-crystal substrate is employed. On the template layer, epitaxial information associated with its short-range atomic ordering is available within an area that is comparable to that of a nanowire root. Thus the template layer locally provides epitaxial information required for the growth of semiconductor nanowires. In the particular demonstration described in this paper, hydrogenated silicon was used as a template layer for epitaxial growth of indium phosphide nanowires. The indium phosphide nanowires grown on the hydrogenerated silicon template layer were found to be single crystal and optically active. Simple photoconductors and pin-diodes were fabricated and tested with the view towards various optoelectronic device applications where group III-V compound semiconductors are functionally integrated onto non-single-crystal platforms. (orig.)

  13. Statistical Properties of Maximum Likelihood Estimators of Power Law Spectra Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, L. W., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A simple power law model consisting of a single spectral index, sigma(sub 2), is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton flux at energies below 10(exp 13) eV, with a transition at the knee energy, E(sub k), to a steeper spectral index sigma(sub 2) greater than sigma(sub 1) above E(sub k). The maximum likelihood (ML) procedure was developed for estimating the single parameter sigma(sub 1) of a simple power law energy spectrum and generalized to estimate the three spectral parameters of the broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses and real cosmic-ray data. The statistical properties of the ML estimator were investigated and shown to have the three desirable properties: (Pl) consistency (asymptotically unbiased), (P2) efficiency (asymptotically attains the Cramer-Rao minimum variance bound), and (P3) asymptotically normally distributed, under a wide range of potential detector response functions. Attainment of these properties necessarily implies that the ML estimation procedure provides the best unbiased estimator possible. While simulation studies can easily determine if a given estimation procedure provides an unbiased estimate of the spectra information, and whether or not the estimator is approximately normally distributed, attainment of the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) can only be ascertained by calculating the CRB for an assumed energy spectrum- detector response function combination, which can be quite formidable in practice. However, the effort in calculating the CRB is very worthwhile because it provides the necessary means to compare the efficiency of competing estimation techniques and, furthermore, provides a stopping rule in the search for the best unbiased estimator. Consequently, the CRB for both the simple and broken power law energy spectra are derived herein and the conditions under which they are stained in practice are investigated.

  14. Functional aspects of treatment with implant-supported single crowns: a quality control study in subjects with tooth agenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goshima, Kenichi; Lexner, Michala O; Thomsen, Carsten Eckhart

    2010-01-01

    after implant placement shortly before crown cementation, and again 1 month after cementation. It consisted of questionnaires [including Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49)] and functional examination with plastic strips, the Dental Prescale Film and the Occluzer system, Xylitol color-changeable gum......BACKGROUND: No comprehensive patient-centered and clinical evaluations of the functional effect of treatment with implant-supported single crowns (ISSC) have been reported previously. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether and how treatment with ISSC affects masticatory function and Oral Health...

  15. In Silico Modeling of Indigo and Tyrian Purple Single-Electron Nano-Transistors Using Density Functional Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shityakov, Sergey; Roewer, Norbert; Förster, Carola; Broscheit, Jens-Albert

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and implement an in silico model of indigoid-based single-electron transistor (SET) nanodevices, which consist of indigoid molecules from natural dye weakly coupled to gold electrodes that function in a Coulomb blockade regime. The electronic properties of the indigoid molecules were investigated using the optimized density-functional theory (DFT) with a continuum model. Higher electron transport characteristics were determined for Tyrian purple, consistent with experimentally derived data. Overall, these results can be used to correctly predict and emphasize the electron transport functions of organic SETs, demonstrating their potential for sustainable nanoelectronics comprising the biodegradable and biocompatible materials.

  16. In-Depth Functional Diagnostics of Mouse Models by Single-Flash and Flicker Electroretinograms without Adapting Background Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Michalakis, Stylianos; Weber, Bernhard H F; Wahl-Schott, Christian A; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Seeliger, Mathias W

    2016-01-01

    Electroretinograms (ERGs) are commonly recorded at the cornea for an assessment of the functional status of the retina in mouse models. Full-field ERGs can be elicited by single-flash as well as flicker light stimulation although in most laboratories flicker ERGs are recorded much less frequently than singleflash ERGs. Whereas conventional single-flash ERGs contain information about layers, i.e., outer and inner retina, flicker ERGs permit functional assessment of the vertical pathways of the retina, i.e., rod system, cone ON-pathway, and cone OFF-pathway, when the responses are evoked at a relatively high luminance (0.5 log cd s/m(2)) with varying frequency (from 0.5 to 30 Hz) without any adapting background illumination. Therefore, both types of ERGs complement an in-depth functional characterization of the mouse retina, allowing for a discrimination of an underlying functional pathology. Here, we introduce the systematic interpretation of the single-flash and flicker ERGs by demonstrating several different patterns of functional phenotype in genetic mouse models, in which photoreceptors and/or bipolar cells are primarily or secondarily affected.

  17. Comparison of IRT Likelihood Ratio Test and Logistic Regression DIF Detection Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Burcu; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    The Type I error rates and the power of IRT likelihood ratio test and cumulative logit ordinal logistic regression procedures in detecting differential item functioning (DIF) for polytomously scored items were investigated in this Monte Carlo simulation study. For this purpose, 54 simulation conditions (combinations of 3 sample sizes, 2 sample…

  18. A Maximum Likelihood Method for Latent Class Regression Involving a Censored Dependent Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Kamel; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A method is proposed to simultaneously estimate regression functions and subject membership in "k" latent classes or groups given a censored dependent variable for a cross-section of subjects. Maximum likelihood estimates are obtained using an EM algorithm. The method is illustrated through a consumer psychology application. (SLD)

  19. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok Jee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25±4.65 years, 11 older men (71.45±2.94 years, 11 young women (29.64±4.88 years, and 7 older women (67.29±1.70 years were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, isometric torque, and power. Specific force and maximum shortening velocity (Vo were measured with single muscle fibres. Sex difference showed greater impact on the functional properties of both the whole muscle (p<0.01 and single muscle fibres than aging (p<0.05. Sex difference, rather than aging, yielded more remarkable differences in gross mechanical properties in the single muscle fibre study in which significant differences between young men and young women were found only in the cross-sectional area and Vo (p<0.05. Age and sex differences reflect the mechanical properties of both single muscle fibres and whole thigh muscle, with the whole muscle yielding more prominent functional properties.

  20. The modified signed likelihood statistic and saddlepoint approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ledet

    1992-01-01

    SUMMARY: For a number of tests in exponential families we show that the use of a normal approximation to the modified signed likelihood ratio statistic r * is equivalent to the use of a saddlepoint approximation. This is also true in a large deviation region where the signed likelihood ratio...... statistic r is of order √ n. © 1992 Biometrika Trust....

  1. Affective mapping: An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Lauren A J; Robinson, Jennifer L

    2017-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging has the spatial resolution to explain the neural basis of emotions. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE), as opposed to traditional qualitative meta-analysis, quantifies convergence of activation across studies within affective categories. Others have used ALE to investigate a broad range of emotions, but without the convenience of the BrainMap database. We used the BrainMap database and analysis resources to run separate meta-analyses on coordinates reported for anger, anxiety, disgust, fear, happiness, humor, and sadness. Resultant ALE maps were compared to determine areas of convergence between emotions, as well as to identify affect-specific networks. Five out of the seven emotions demonstrated consistent activation within the amygdala, whereas all emotions consistently activated the right inferior frontal gyrus, which has been implicated as an integration hub for affective and cognitive processes. These data provide the framework for models of affect-specific networks, as well as emotional processing hubs, which can be used for future studies of functional or effective connectivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-cell behavior and population heterogeneity: solving an inverse problem to compute the intrinsic physiological state functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetsieris, Konstantinos; Zygourakis, Kyriacos

    2012-04-15

    The dynamics of isogenic cell populations can be described by cell population balance models that account for phenotypic heterogeneity. To utilize the predictive power of these models, however, we must know the rates of single-cell reaction and division and the bivariate partition probability density function. These three intrinsic physiological state (IPS) functions can be obtained by solving an inverse problem that requires knowledge of the phenotypic distributions for the overall cell population, the dividing cell subpopulation and the newborn cell subpopulation. We present here a robust computational procedure that can accurately estimate the IPS functions for heterogeneous cell populations. A detailed parametric analysis shows how the accuracy of the inverse solution is affected by discretization parameters, the type of non-parametric estimators used, the qualitative characteristics of phenotypic distributions and the unknown partitioning probability density function. The effect of finite sampling and measurement errors on the accuracy of the recovered IPS functions is also assessed. Finally, we apply the procedure to estimate the IPS functions of an E. coli population carrying an IPTG-inducible genetic toggle network. This study completes the development of an integrated experimental and computational framework that can become a powerful tool for quantifying single-cell behavior using measurements from heterogeneous cell populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing compatibility of direct detection data: halo-independent global likelihood analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmini, Graciela B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA,475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Huh, Ji-Haeng [CERN Theory Division,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Witte, Samuel J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA,475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-10-18

    We present two different halo-independent methods to assess the compatibility of several direct dark matter detection data sets for a given dark matter model using a global likelihood consisting of at least one extended likelihood and an arbitrary number of Gaussian or Poisson likelihoods. In the first method we find the global best fit halo function (we prove that it is a unique piecewise constant function with a number of down steps smaller than or equal to a maximum number that we compute) and construct a two-sided pointwise confidence band at any desired confidence level, which can then be compared with those derived from the extended likelihood alone to assess the joint compatibility of the data. In the second method we define a “constrained parameter goodness-of-fit” test statistic, whose p-value we then use to define a “plausibility region” (e.g. where p≥10%). For any halo function not entirely contained within the plausibility region, the level of compatibility of the data is very low (e.g. p<10%). We illustrate these methods by applying them to CDMS-II-Si and SuperCDMS data, assuming dark matter particles with elastic spin-independent isospin-conserving interactions or exothermic spin-independent isospin-violating interactions.

  4. Single-hole spectral function and spin-charge separation in the t-J model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, A. S.; Prokof'ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V.

    2001-07-01

    Worm algorithm Monte Carlo simulations of the hole Green function with subsequent spectral analysis were performed for 0.1hole spectral function in the thermodynamic limit. Spectral analysis reveals a δ-function-sharp quasiparticle peak at the lower edge of the spectrum that is incompatible with the power-law singularity and thus rules out the possibility of spin-charge separation in this parameter range. Spectral continuum features two peaks separated by a gap ~4÷5 t.

  5. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of the bacteriophage P1 single-stranded DNA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Nilsson, A.S.; Lehnherr, H.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriophage P1 encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB-P1), which shows 66% amino acid sequence identity to the SSB protein of the host bacterium Escherichia coli. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that the P1 ssb gene coexists with its E. coli counterpart as an independent unit...

  6. Direct observation of spin-injection in tyrosinate-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, Theodoros; Ampoumogli, Asem; Gournis, Dimitrios; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Jankovic, Lubos; Christoforidis, Konstantinos C.; Deligiannakis, Yiannis; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Froudakis, George E.; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Prato, Maurizio

    In this work, we report on the interaction of a tyrosinate radical with single wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). The tyrosinate radical was formed from tyrosine (ester) by Fenton's reagent and, reacted in situ with carbon nanotubes resulting in novel tyrosinated carbon nanotube derivatives. The covalent

  7. Maternal Psychological Functioning, Family Processes, and Child Adjustment in Rural, Single-Parent, African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.

    1997-01-01

    Tested a model linking family financial resources to adjustment among African American 6- to 9-year olds with single, rural, Southern mothers. Found that inadequate financial resources related to mothers' depression and low self-esteem. Self-esteem was linked with family routines and mother-child relationship quality. Child self-regulation…

  8. Isotherm, thermodynamic, kinetics, and adsorption mechanism studies of Ethidium bromide by single-walled carbon nanotube and carboxylate group functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Omid; Fakhri, Ali; Adami, Saeideh; Adami, Sepideh

    2013-04-01

    The studies of kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption of Ethidium bromide in aqueous solutions on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and carboxylate group functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-COOH) surfaces were by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The adsorption kinetics for SWCNT-COOH and SWCNTs were well described by a intra-particle diffusion model, while Langmuir, Freundlich, Harkins-Jura, and Halsey isotherms described the adsorption isotherms, and the adsorption thermodynamic parameters of equilibrium constant (K0), standard free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0), and standard entropy changes (ΔS0) were measured. The maximum surface coverage for SWCNTs is 36.10% and for SWCNT-COOH is 38.42%. The values of ΔH0 and ΔG0 suggested that the adsorption of EtBr on SWCNT-COOH and SWCNTs was endothermic and spontaneous. The adsorption of EtBr on SWCNT-COOH is more than SWCNTs surfaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Possibilistic Belief Functions Generated by Direct Products of Single Possibilistic Measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kramosil, Ivan

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (1999), s. 517-525 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030803 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : belief functions * belief revision * Dempster combination rule * possibilistic measures * possibilistic belief functions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Effects of a single terlipressin administration on cardiac function and perfusion in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming; Mortensen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vasoconstrictor terlipressin is widely used in the treatment of the hepatorenal syndrome and variceal bleeding. However, terlipressin may compromise cardiac function and induce ischemia. AIM: Therefore, we aimed to assess the effects of terlipressin on cardiac function and perfusi...

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Studies on Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Amy Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Functional Communication Training (FCT) is an intervention that involves teaching a communicative response to decrease the occurrence of challenging behavior in individuals with disabilities. FCT is a two step intervention in which the interventionist first determines the function, or purpose, of the challenging behavior and then teaches a…

  12. An Efficient UD-Based Algorithm for the Computation of Maximum Likelihood Sensitivity of Continuous-Discrete Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Juhl, Rune; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses maximum likelihood parameter estimation of continuous-time nonlinear systems with discrete-time measurements. We derive an efficient algorithm for the computation of the log-likelihood function and its gradient, which can be used in gradient-based optimization algorithms....... This algorithm uses UD decomposition of symmetric matrices and the array algorithm for covariance update and gradient computation. We test our algorithm on the Lotka-Volterra equations. Compared to the maximum likelihood estimation based on finite difference gradient computation, we get a significant speedup...

  13. Effects of functionalization on thermal properties of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulotty, Richard; Castellino, Micaela; Jagdale, Pravin; Tagliaferro, Alberto; Balandin, Alexander A

    2013-06-25

    Carboxylic functionalization (-COOH groups) of carbon nanotubes is known to improve their dispersion properties and increase the electrical conductivity of carbon-nanotube-polymer nanocomposites. We have studied experimentally the effects of this type of functionalization on the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites. It was found that while even small quantities of carbon nanotubes (~1 wt %) can increase the electrical conductivity, a larger loading fraction (~3 wt %) is required to enhance the thermal conductivity of nanocomposites. Functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes performed the best as filler material leading to a simultaneous improvement of the electrical and thermal properties of the composites. Functionalization of the single-wall carbon nanotubes reduced the thermal conductivity enhancement. The observed trends were explained by the fact that while surface functionalization increases the coupling between carbon nanotube and polymer matrix, it also leads to formation of defects, which impede the acoustic phonon transport in the single-wall carbon nanotubes. The obtained results are important for applications of carbon nanotubes and graphene flakes as fillers for improving thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of composites.

  14. Density functional theory prediction of pKa for carboxylated single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Fu, Aiping; Xue, Xuyan; Guo, Fengna; Huai, Wenbo; Chu, Tianshu; Wang, Zonghua

    2017-06-01

    Density functional calculations have been performed to investigate the acidities for the carboxylated single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene. The pKa values for different COOH-functionalized models with varying lengths, diameters and chirality of nanotubes and with different edges of graphene were predicted using the SMD/M05-2X/6-31G* method combined with two universal thermodynamic cycles. The effects of following factors, such as, the functionalized position of carboxyl group, the Stone-Wales and single vacancy defects, on the acidity of the functionalized nanotube and graphene have also been evaluated. The deprotonated species have undergone decarboxylation when the hybridization mode of the carbon atom at the functionalization site changed from sp2 to sp3 both for the tube and graphene. The knowledge of the pKa values of the carboxylated nanotube and graphene could be of great help for the understanding of the nanocarbon materials in many diverse areas, including environmental protection, catalysis, electrochemistry and biochemistry.

  15. Computational Analysis of Damaging Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Their Structural and Functional Impact on the Insulin Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabed Mahmud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with complex disorders can create, destroy, or modify protein coding sites. Single amino acid substitutions in the insulin receptor (INSR are the most common forms of genetic variations that account for various diseases like Donohue syndrome or Leprechaunism, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and type A insulin resistance. We analyzed the deleterious nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs in INSR gene based on different computational methods. Analysis of INSR was initiated with PROVEAN followed by PolyPhen and I-Mutant servers to investigate the effects of 57 nsSNPs retrieved from database of SNP (dbSNP. A total of 18 mutations that were found to exert damaging effects on the INSR protein structure and function were chosen for further analysis. Among these mutations, our computational analysis suggested that 13 nsSNPs decreased protein stability and might have resulted in loss of function. Therefore, the probability of their involvement in disease predisposition increases. In the lack of adequate prior reports on the possible deleterious effects of nsSNPs, we have systematically analyzed and characterized the functional variants in coding region that can alter the expression and function of INSR gene. In silico characterization of nsSNPs affecting INSR gene function can aid in better understanding of genetic differences in disease susceptibility.

  16. Using Multiorder Time-Correlation Functions (TCFs) To Elucidate Biomolecular Reaction Pathways from Microsecond Single-Molecule Fluorescence Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Carey; Israels, Brett; Marsh, Morgan C; von Hippel, Peter H; Marcus, Andrew H

    2016-12-29

    Recent advances in single-molecule fluorescence imaging have made it possible to perform measurements on microsecond time scales. Such experiments have the potential to reveal detailed information about the conformational changes in biological macromolecules, including the reaction pathways and dynamics of the rearrangements involved in processes, such as sequence-specific DNA "breathing" and the assembly of protein-nucleic acid complexes. Because microsecond-resolved single-molecule trajectories often involve "sparse" data, that is, they contain relatively few data points per unit time, they cannot be easily analyzed using the standard protocols that were developed for single-molecule experiments carried out with tens-of-millisecond time resolution and high "data density." Here, we describe a generalized approach, based on time-correlation functions, to obtain kinetic information from microsecond-resolved single-molecule fluorescence measurements. This approach can be used to identify short-lived intermediates that lie on reaction pathways connecting relatively long-lived reactant and product states. As a concrete illustration of the potential of this methodology for analyzing specific macromolecular systems, we accompany the theoretical presentation with the description of a specific biologically relevant example drawn from studies of reaction mechanisms of the assembly of the single-stranded DNA binding protein of the T4 bacteriophage replication complex onto a model DNA replication fork.

  17. Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Noh, Heeso; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Dufresne, Eric R.; Prum, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructures produce the vivid structural colors of many butterfly wing scales, but their exact nanoscale organization is uncertain. We used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on single scales to characterize the 3D photonic nanostructures of five butterfly species from two families (Papilionidae, Lycaenidae). We identify these chitin and air nanostructures as single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals. We describe their optical function from SAXS data and photonic band-gap modeling. Butterflies apparently grow these gyroid nanostructures by exploiting the self-organizing physical dynamics of biological lipid-bilayer membranes. These butterfly photonic nanostructures initially develop within scale cells as a core-shell double gyroid (Ia3d), as seen in block-copolymer systems, with a pentacontinuous volume comprised of extracellular space, cell plasma membrane, cellular cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane, and intra-SER lumen. This double gyroid nanostructure is subsequently transformed into a single gyroid network through the deposition of chitin in the extracellular space and the degeneration of the rest of the cell. The butterflies develop the thermodynamically favored double gyroid precursors as a route to the optically more efficient single gyroid nanostructures. Current approaches to photonic crystal engineering also aim to produce single gyroid motifs. The biologically derived photonic nanostructures characterized here may offer a convenient template for producing optical devices based on biomimicry or direct dielectric infiltration. PMID:20547870

  18. Mixture densities, maximum likelihood, and the EM algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redner, R. A.; Walker, H. F.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of estimating the parameters which determine a mixture density is reviewed as well as maximum likelihood estimation for it. A particular iterative procedure for numerically approximating maximum likelihood estimates for mixture density problems is considered. This EM algorithm, is a specialization to the mixture density context of a general algorithm of the same name used to approximate maximum likelihood estimates for incomplete data problems. The formulation and theoretical and practical properties of the EM algorithm for mixture densities are discussed focussing in particular on mixtures of densities from exponential families.

  19. Label-free visualization of nilotinib-functionalized gold nanoparticles within single mammalian cells by C60- SIMS imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Anna N; Tian, Hua; Schoen, Christian; Winograd, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining a comprehensive grasp of the behavior and interaction of pharmaceutical compounds within single cells provides some of the fundamental details necessary for more effective drug development. In particular, the changes ensuing in the carrier, drug, and host environment in targeted drug therapy applications must be explored in greater detail, as these are still not well understood. Here, nilotinib-functionalized gold nanoparticles are examined within single mammalian cells with use of imaging cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry in a model study designed to enhance our understanding of what occurs to these particles once that have been internalized. Nilotinib, several types of gold nanoparticles, and the functionalized combination of the two were surveyed and successfully imaged within single cells to determine uptake and performance. Both nilotinib and the gold particle are able to be distinguished and visualized in the functionalized nanoparticle assembly within the cell. These compounds, while both internalized, do not appear to be present in the same pixels of the chemical image, indicating possible cleavage of nilotinib from the particle after cell uptake. The method provided in this work is a direct measurement of uptake and subcellular distribution of an active drug and its carrier within a framework. The results obtained from this study have the potential to be applied to future studies to provide more effective and specific cellular delivery of a relevant pharmaceutical compound.

  20. DNA-Based Single-Molecule Electronics: From Concept to Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Beyond being the repository of genetic information, DNA is playing an increasingly important role as a building block for molecular electronics. Its inherent structural and molecular recognition properties render it a leading candidate for molecular electronics applications. The structural stability, diversity and programmability of DNA provide overwhelming freedom for the design and fabrication of molecular-scale devices. In the past two decades DNA has therefore attracted inordinate amounts of attention in molecular electronics. This review gives a brief survey of recent experimental progress in DNA-based single-molecule electronics with special focus on single-molecule conductance and I–V characteristics of individual DNA molecules. Existing challenges and exciting future opportunities are also discussed. PMID:29342091

  1. Chasing the precursor of functional hematopoietic stem cells at the single cell levels in mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Gong, Yuemin; Ema, Hideo

    2016-07-22

    Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), the ideal system for regenerative research, were isolated at single cell levels decades ago, whereas studies on embryonic HSCs are much more difficult. Zhou et al identified a new pre-HSC cell surface marker, CD201, by which they isolated pre-HSCs at single cell levels for further analyses. The novel expression pattern of HSC development is revealed, including the fundamental role of mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in HSCs emergence, and the repopulation potential of S/G2/M phase pre-HSCs. Deeper understandings of the cellular origin and developmental regulatory network of HSCs are essential to develop new strategies of generating HSCs in vitro for clinical application.

  2. Dark matter CMB constraints and likelihoods for poor particle physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, James M.; Scott, Pat, E-mail: jcline@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: patscott@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2013-03-01

    The cosmic microwave background provides constraints on the annihilation and decay of light dark matter at redshifts between 100 and 1000, the strength of which depends upon the fraction of energy ending up in the form of electrons and photons. The resulting constraints are usually presented for a limited selection of annihilation and decay channels. Here we provide constraints on the annihilation cross section and decay rate, at discrete values of the dark matter mass m{sub χ}, for all the annihilation and decay channels whose secondary spectra have been computed using PYTHIA in arXiv:1012.4515 (''PPPC 4 DM ID: a poor particle physicist cookbook for dark matter indirect detection''), namely e, μ, τ, V → e, V → μ, V → τ, u, d s, c, b, t, γ, g, W, Z and h. By interpolating in mass, these can be used to find the CMB constraints and likelihood functions from WMAP7 and Planck for a wide range of dark matter models, including those with annihilation or decay into a linear combination of different channels.

  3. Weighted likelihood copula modeling of extreme rainfall events in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Gebremichael, Mekonnen; Yan, Jun

    2010-08-01

    SummaryCopulas have recently emerged as a practical method for multivariate modeling. To date, only limited amount of work has been done to apply copula-based modeling in the context of extreme rainfall analysis, and no work exists on modeling multiple characteristics of rainfall events from data at resolutions finer than hourly. In this study, trivariate copula-based modeling is applied to annual extreme rainfall events constructed from 15-min time series precipitation data at 12 stations within the state of Connecticut. Three characteristics (volume, duration, and peak intensity) are modeled by a multivariate distribution specified by three marginal distributions and a dependence structure via copula. A major issue in this application is that, because the 15-min precipitation data are only available fairly recently, the sample size at most stations is small, ranging from 10 to 33 years. For each station, we estimate the model parameters by maximizing a weighted likelihood, which assigns weight to data at stations nearby, borrowing strengths from them. The weights are assigned by a kernel function whose bandwidth is chosen by cross-validation in terms of predictive loglikelihood. The fitted model and sampling algorithms provide new knowledge on design storms and risk assessment in Connecticut.

  4. Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, E.L; DuFrain, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between the yield of dicentric chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The dicentric yields follow the Poisson distribution, and the expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose for low LET radiation. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been obtained by Kellerer and Rossi using the theory of dual radiation action. The yield of elementary lesions is kappa[γd + g(t, tau)d 2 ], where t is the time and d is dose. The coefficient of the d 2 term is determined by the recovery function and the temporal mode of irradiation. Two special cases of practical interest are split-dose and continuous exposure experiments, and the resulting models are intrinsically nonlinear in the parameters. A general purpose maximum likelihood estimation procedure is described and illustrated with numerical examples from both experimental designs. Poisson regression analysis is used for estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression diagnostics. Results are discussed in the context of exposure assessment procedures for both acute and chronic human radiation exposure

  5. ACID FUNCTIONALIZED SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES ENHANCE CARDIAC ISCHEMIC/REPERFUSIOIN INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered carbon nanotubes are being intensively developed for wide applications. Because of their unique light properties, nanotubes can impose some potentially toxic effects, particularly if they have been modified to express functionally reactive chemical groups on their sur...

  6. ACID-FUNCTIONALIZED SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES ENHANCE CARDIAC ISCHEMIC/REPERFUSION INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanotubes are being intensively developed for biomedical applications such as gene and drug delivery. Because of their unique properties, nanotubes can impose some potentially toxic effects, particularly if they have been modified to express functionally reactive chem...

  7. Laparoscopic surgery in functional and nonfunctional adrenal tumors: A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Öz

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that laparoscopic lateral transabdominal adrenalectomy is a safe, effective, and technically feasible procedure in the treatment of both functioning and nonfunctioning benign tumours of the adrenal gland.

  8. Suboptimal maximum likelihood detection of on-off keying for a wireless optical communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijie; Ding, Shengli; Dang, Anhong

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates a detection scheme without channel state information for wireless optical communication systems. Employing conventional on-off keying signals, we supposed that conditional probability density function P(r|0) is much bigger than P(r|1) when r<0. Under this assumption, the suboptimal maximum likelihood scheme is obtained by utilizing the probability density function without channel information. Theoretical analysis shows the performance of the proposed scheme is close to the maximum likelihood symbol-by-symbol detection. Compared with the maximum likelihood symbol by symbol detection, Monte Carlo simulations show that the performance of the proposed scheme is about 0.62 dB loss for a gamma-gamma channel with a Rytov variance of 1 at the signal-to-noise ratio of 2 dB, but the efficient algorithm makes the real-time implementation of detection based on maximum likelihood feasible. Besides, the experiment is set up under 2 Gbps, and the experimental results match well with that of the theory and simulation.

  9. The skewed weak lensing likelihood: why biases arise, despite data and theory being sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellentin, Elena; Heymans, Catherine; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    We derive the essentials of the skewed weak lensing likelihood via a simple Hierarchical Forward Model. Our likelihood passes four objective and cosmology-independent tests which a standard Gaussian likelihood fails. We demonstrate that sound weak lensing data are naturally biased low, since they are drawn from a skewed distribution. This occurs already in the framework of ΛCDM. Mathematically, the biases arise because noisy two-point functions follow skewed distributions. This form of bias is already known from CMB analyses, where the low multipoles have asymmetric error bars. Weak lensing is more strongly affected by this asymmetry as galaxies form a discrete set of shear tracer particles, in contrast to a smooth shear field. We demonstrate that the biases can be up to 30% of the standard deviation per data point, dependent on the properties of the weak lensing survey and the employed filter function. Our likelihood provides a versatile framework with which to address this bias in future weak lensing analyses.

  10. Fluorescence-based high-throughput functional profiling of ligand-gated ion channels at the level of single cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Talwar

    Full Text Available Ion channels are involved in many physiological processes and are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Their functional properties vary according to their subunit composition, which in turn varies in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and as a consequence of pathophysiological events. Understanding this diversity requires functional analysis of ion channel properties in large numbers of individual cells. Functional characterisation of ligand-gated channels involves quantitating agonist and drug dose-response relationships using electrophysiological or fluorescence-based techniques. Electrophysiology is limited by low throughput and high-throughput fluorescence-based functional evaluation generally does not enable the characterization of the functional properties of each individual cell. Here we describe a fluorescence-based assay that characterizes functional channel properties at single cell resolution in high throughput mode. It is based on progressive receptor activation and iterative fluorescence imaging and delivers >100 dose-responses in a single well of a 384-well plate, using α1-3 homomeric and αβ heteromeric glycine receptor (GlyR chloride channels as a model system. We applied this assay with transiently transfected HEK293 cells co-expressing halide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein and different GlyR subunit combinations. Glycine EC50 values of different GlyR isoforms were highly correlated with published electrophysiological data and confirm previously reported pharmacological profiles for the GlyR inhibitors, picrotoxin, strychnine and lindane. We show that inter and intra well variability is low and that clustering of functional phenotypes permits identification of drugs with subunit-specific pharmacological profiles. As this method dramatically improves the efficiency with which ion channel populations can be characterized in the context of cellular heterogeneity, it should facilitate systems

  11. Posterior distributions for likelihood ratios in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Ardo; Alberink, Ivo

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of evidence in forensic science is discussed using posterior distributions for likelihood ratios. Instead of eliminating the uncertainty by integrating (Bayes factor) or by conditioning on parameter values, uncertainty in the likelihood ratio is retained by parameter uncertainty derived from posterior distributions. A posterior distribution for a likelihood ratio can be summarised by the median and credible intervals. Using the posterior mean of the distribution is not recommended. An analysis of forensic data for body height estimation is undertaken. The posterior likelihood approach has been criticised both theoretically and with respect to applicability. This paper addresses the latter and illustrates an interesting application area. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Practical likelihood analysis for spatial generalized linear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonat, W. H.; Ribeiro, Paulo Justiniano

    2016-01-01

    , respectively, examples of binomial and count datasets modeled by spatial generalized linear mixed models. Our results show that the Laplace approximation provides similar estimates to Markov Chain Monte Carlo likelihood, Monte Carlo expectation maximization, and modified Laplace approximation. Some advantages...

  13. Improved maximum likelihood reconstruction of complex multi-generational pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Nuala A; Bartlett, Mark; Cussens, James

    2014-11-01

    The reconstruction of pedigrees from genetic marker data is relevant to a wide range of applications. Likelihood-based approaches aim to find the pedigree structure that gives the highest probability to the observed data. Existing methods either entail an exhaustive search and are hence restricted to small numbers of individuals, or they take a more heuristic approach and deliver a solution that will probably have high likelihood but is not guaranteed to be optimal. By encoding the pedigree learning problem as an integer linear program we can exploit efficient optimisation algorithms to construct pedigrees guaranteed to have maximal likelihood for the standard situation where we have complete marker data at unlinked loci and segregation of genes from parents to offspring is Mendelian. Previous work demonstrated efficient reconstruction of pedigrees of up to about 100 individuals. The modified method that we present here is not so restricted: we demonstrate its applicability with simulated data on a real human pedigree structure of over 1600 individuals. It also compares well with a very competitive approximate approach in terms of solving time and accuracy. In addition to identifying a maximum likelihood pedigree, we can obtain any number of pedigrees in decreasing order of likelihood. This is useful for assessing the uncertainty of a maximum likelihood solution and permits model averaging over high likelihood pedigrees when this would be appropriate. More importantly, when the solution is not unique, as will often be the case for large pedigrees, it enables investigation into the properties of maximum likelihood pedigree estimates which has not been possible up to now. Crucially, we also have a means of assessing the behaviour of other approximate approaches which all aim to find a maximum likelihood solution. Our approach hence allows us to properly address the question of whether a reasonably high likelihood solution that is easy to obtain is practically as

  14. Sensing and Sensibility: Single-Islet-based Quality Control Assay of Cryopreserved Pancreatic Islets with Functionalized Hydrogel Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanyu; Shu, Zhiquan; Gao, Dayong; Shen, Amy Q

    2016-01-21

    Despite decades of research and clinical studies of islet transplantations, finding simple yet reliable islet quality assays that correlate accurately with in vivo potency is still a major challenge, especially for real-time and single-islet-based quality assessment. Herein, proof-of-concept studies of a cryopreserved microcapsule-based quality control assays are presented for single islets. Individual rat pancreatic islets and fluorescent oxygen-sensitive dye (FOSD) are encapsulated in alginate hydrogel microcapsules via a microfluidic device. To test the susceptibility of the microcapsules and the FOSD to cryopreservation, the islet microcapsules containing FOSD are cryopreserved and the islet functionalities (adenosine triphosphate, static insulin release measurement, and oxygen consumption rate) are assessed after freezing and thawing steps. The cryopreserved islet capsules with FOSD remain functional after encapsulation and freezing/thawing procedures, validating a simple yet reliable individual-islet-based quality control method for the entire islet processing procedure prior to transplantation. This work also demonstrates that the functionality of cryopreserved islets can be improved by introducing trehalose into the routinely used cryoprotectant dimethyl sulfoxide. The functionalized alginate hydrogel microcapsules with embedded FOSD and optimized cryopreservation protocol presented in this work serve as a versatile islet quality assay and offer tremendous promise for tackling existing challenges in islet transplantation procedures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Simulating real world functioning in schizophrenia using a naturalistic city environment and single-trial, goal-directed navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, John A; Girard, Todd A; Foussias, George; Rodrigues, Alicia; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Lerch, Jason P; Grady, Cheryl; Remington, Gary; Wong, Albert H C

    2013-01-01

    To develop a virtual reality platform that would serve as a functionally meaningful measure of cognition in schizophrenia and that would also complement standard batteries of cognitive tests during clinical trials for cognitive treatments in schizophrenia, be amenable to human neuroimaging research, yet lend itself to neurobiological comparison with rodent analogs. Thirty-three patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls matched for age, sex, video gaming experience, and education completed eight rapid, single-trial virtual navigation tasks within a naturalistic virtual city. Four trials tested their ability to find different targets seen during the passive viewing of a closed path that led them around different city blocks. Four subsequent trials tested their ability to return to four different starting points after viewing a path that took them several blocks away from the starting position. Individuals with schizophrenia had difficulties in way-finding, measured as distance travelled to find targets previously encountered within the virtual city. They were also more likely not to notice the target during passive viewing, less likely to find novel shortcuts to targets, and more likely to become lost and fail completely in finding the target. Total travel distances across all eight trials strongly correlated (negatively) with neurocognitive measures and, for 49 participants who completed the Quality of Life Scale, psychosocial functioning. Single-trial, goal-directed navigation in a naturalistic virtual environment is a functionally meaningful measure of cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

  16. Simulating real world functioning in schizophrenia using a naturalistic city environment and single-trial, goal-directed navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Zawadzki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a virtual reality platform that would serve as a functionally meaningful measure of cognition in schizophrenia that would complement standard batteries of cognitive tests during clinical trials for cognitive treatments in schizophrenia, be amenable to human neuroimaging research, yet lend itself to neurobiological comparison with rodent analogues.Method: Thirty-three patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls matched for age, sex, video gaming experience and education completed eight rapid, single-trial virtual navigation tasks within a naturalistic virtual city. Four trials tested their ability to find different targets seen during the passive viewing of a closed path that led them around different city blocks. Four subsequent trials tested their ability to return to four different starting points after viewing a path that took them several blocks away from the starting position. Results: Individuals with schizophrenia had difficulties in way-finding, measured as distance travelled to find targets previously encountered within the virtual city. They were also more likely not to notice the target during passive viewing, less likely to find novel shortcuts to targets and more likely to become lost and fail completely in finding the target. Total travel distances across all eight trials strongly correlated (negatively with neurocognitive measures and, for 49 participants who completed the Quality of Life Scale, psychosocial functioning. Conclusion: Single-trial, goal-directed navigation in a naturalistic virtual environment is a functionally meaningful measure of cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

  17. Predicting the functional states of human iPSC-derived neurons with single-cell RNA-seq and electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardy, C; van den Hurk, M; Kakaradov, B; Erwin, J A; Jaeger, B N; Hernandez, R V; Eames, T; Paucar, A A; Gorris, M; Marchand, C; Jappelli, R; Barron, J; Bryant, A K; Kellogg, M; Lasken, R S; Rutten, B P F; Steinbusch, H W M; Yeo, G W; Gage, F H

    2016-11-01

    Human neural progenitors derived from pluripotent stem cells develop into electrophysiologically active neurons at heterogeneous rates, which can confound disease-relevant discoveries in neurology and psychiatry. By combining patch clamping, morphological and transcriptome analysis on single-human neurons in vitro, we defined a continuum of poor to highly functional electrophysiological states of differentiated neurons. The strong correlations between action potentials, synaptic activity, dendritic complexity and gene expression highlight the importance of methods for isolating functionally comparable neurons for in vitro investigations of brain disorders. Although whole-cell electrophysiology is the gold standard for functional evaluation, it often lacks the scalability required for disease modeling studies. Here, we demonstrate a multimodal machine-learning strategy to identify new molecular features that predict the physiological states of single neurons, independently of the time spent in vitro. As further proof of concept, we selected one of the potential neurophysiological biomarkers identified in this study-GDAP1L1-to isolate highly functional live human neurons in vitro.

  18. First-principles study of structural and work function properties for nitrogen-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Xiji; Li, Detian; Cai, Jianqiu; Luo, Haijun; Dong, Changkun

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Substitutional nitrogen atom doping in capped (5, 5) SWNT is investigated. • Serious defects appear from breaks of C−N bonds with N contents of above 23.3 at.%. • Work function drops after N doping and may reach 4.1 eV. - Abstract: The structural and electronic properties of the capped (5, 5) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), including the structural stability, the work function, and the charge transfer performance, are investigated for the substitutional nitrogen atom doping under different concentrations by first-principles density functional theory. The geometrical structure keeps almost intact with single or two N atom doping, while C−N bonds may break up with serious defects for N concentrations of 23.3 at.% and above. The SWNT remains metallic and the work function drops after doping due to the upward shift of Fermi level, leading to the increase of the electrical conductivity. N doping enhances the oxygen reduction activity stronger than N adsorption because of higher charge transfers.

  19. [DIN-compatible vision assessment of increased reproducibility using staircase measurement and maximum likelihood analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigmann, U; Petersen, J

    1996-08-01

    Visual acuity determination according to DIN 58,220 does not make full use of the information received about the patient, in contrast to the staircase method. Thus, testing the same number of optotypes, the staircase method should yield more reproducible acuity results. On the other hand, the staircase method gives systematically higher acuity values because it converges on the 48% point of the psychometric function (for Landolt rings in eight positions) and not on the 65% probability, as DIN 58,220 with criterion 3/5 does. This bias can be avoided by means of a modified evaluation. Using the staircase data we performed a maximum likelihood estimate of the psychometric function as a whole and computed the acuity value for 65% probability of correct answers. We determined monocular visual acuity in 102 persons with widely differing visual performance. Each subject underwent four tests in random order, two according to DIN 58,220 and two using the modified staircase method (Landolt rings in eight positions scaled by a factor 1.26; PC monitor with 1024 x 768 pixels; distance 4.5 m). Each test was performed with 25 optotypes. The two procedures provide the same mean visual acuity values (difference less than 0.02 acuity steps). The test-retest results match in 30.4% of DIN repetitions but in 50% of the staircases. The standard deviation of the test-retest difference is 1.41 (DIN) and 1.06 (modified staircase) acuity steps. Thus the standard deviation of the single test is 1.0 (DIN) and 0.75 (modified staircase) acuity steps. The new method provides visual acuity values identical to DIN 58,220 but is superior with respect to reproducibility.

  20. Incorporating Nuisance Parameters in Likelihoods for Multisource Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    We describe here the general mathematical approach to constructing likelihoods for fitting observed spectra in one or more dimensions with multiple sources, including the effects of systematic uncertainties represented as nuisance parameters, when the likelihood is to be maximized with respect to these parameters. We consider three types of nuisance parameters: simple multiplicative factors, source spectra "morphing" parameters, and parameters representing statistical uncertainties in the predicted source spectra.

  1. Dynamical Tangles in Third-Order Oscillator with Single Jump Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Petržela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution brings a deep and detailed study of the dynamical behavior associated with nonlinear oscillator described by a single third-order differential equation with scalar jump nonlinearity. The relative primitive geometry of the vector field allows making an exhaustive numerical analysis of its possible solutions, visualizations of the invariant manifolds, and basins of attraction as well as proving the existence of chaotic motion by using the concept of both Shilnikov theorems. The aim of this paper is also to complete, carry out and link the previous works on simple Newtonian dynamics, and answer the question how individual types of the phenomenon evolve with time via understandable notes.

  2. Structural profiling and biological performance of phospholipid-hyaluronan functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvash, Ram; Khatchatouriants, Artium; Solmesky, Leonardo J

    2013-01-01

    In spite of significant insolubility and toxicity, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) erupt into the biomedical research, and create an increasing interest in the field of nanomedicine. Single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) are highly hydrophobic and have been shown to be toxic while systemically administrated. Thus...... an inflammatory response in macrophages as evidenced by the cytokine profiling and the use of image-based high-content analysis approach in contrast to non-modified CNTs. In addition, systemic administration of CNT-PL-HA into healthy C57BL/6 mice did not alter the total number of leukocytes nor increased liver...

  3. Single aromatic residue location alters nucleic acid binding and chaperone function of FIV nucleocapsid protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Wei; Naiyer, Nada; Fichtenbaum, Eric; Qualley, Dominic F.; McCauley, Micah J.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Williams, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus that infects domestic cats, and is an excellent animal model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. The nucleocapsid (NC) protein is critical for replication in both retroviruses. FIV NC has several structural features that differ from HIV-1 NC. While both NC proteins have a single conserved aromatic residue in each of the two zinc fingers, the aromatic residue on the second finger of FIV NC is located on the opposite C-terminal side relative to its location in HIV-1 NC. In addition, whereas HIV-1 NC has a highly charged cationic N-terminal tail and a relatively short C-terminal extension, the opposite is true for FIV NC. To probe the impact of these differences on the nucleic acid (NA) binding and chaperone properties of FIV NC, we carried out ensemble and single-molecule assays with wild-type (WT) and mutant proteins. The ensemble studies show that FIV NC binding to DNA is strongly electrostatic, with a higher effective charge than that observed for HIV-1 NC. The C-terminal basic domain contributes significantly to the NA binding capability of FIV NC. In addition, the non-electrostatic component of DNA binding is much weaker for FIV NC than for HIV-1 NC. Mutation of both aromatic residues in the zinc fingers to Ala (F12A/W44A) further increases the effective charge of FIV NC and reduces its non-electrostatic binding affinity. Interestingly, switching the location of the C-terminal aromatic residue to mimic the HIV-1 NC sequence (N31W/W44A) reduces the effective charge of FIV NC and increases its non-electrostatic binding affinity to values similar to HIV-1 NC. Consistent with the results of these ensemble studies, single-molecule DNA stretching studies show that while WT FIV NC has reduced stacking capability relative to HIV-1 NC, the aromatic switch mutant recovers the ability to intercalate between the DNA bases. Our results demonstrate that altering the position of a single aromatic

  4. Clinical studies of brain functional images by motor activation using single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    Thirty participants (10 normal controls; group A, 5 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus without hemiparesis; group B, 10 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus with hemiparesis; group C, and 5 patients with brain tumors besides the central regions with hemiparesis; group D) were enrolled. The images were performed by means of split-dose method with 99m Tc-ECD at rest condition (SPECT 1) and during hand grasping (SPECT 2). The activation SPECT were obtained by subtracting SPECT 1 from SPECT 2, and the functional mapping was made by the strict registration of the activation SPECT with 3D MRI. To evaluate the changes of CBF (%ΔCBF) of the sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas on the functional mapping, ratio of the average counts of SPECT 1 and SPECT 2 was calculated and statistically compared. The functional activation paradigms caused a significant increase of CBF in the sensorimotor area contra-lateral to the stimulated hand, although the sensorimotor area and the central sulcus in groups B and C were dislocated, compared with hemisphere of non-tumor side. The sensorimotor area ipsi-lateral to the stimulated hand could be detected in almost of all subjects. The supplementary motor area could be detected in all subjects. In group A, the average %ΔCBF were up 24.1±4.3% in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area, and 22.3±3.6% in the supplementary motor area, respectively. The average %ΔCBF in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area of group D was significantly higher than that of group A. The brain functional mapping by motor activation using SPECT could localize the area of cortical motor function in normal volunteers and patients with brain tumors. The changes of regional CBF by activation SPECT precisely assess the cortical motor function even in patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus. (K.H.)

  5. New in protein structure and function annotation: hotspots, single nucleotide polymorphisms and the 'Deep Web'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Yana; Yachdav, Guy; Ofran, Yanay; Schneider, Reinhard; Rost, Burkhard

    2009-05-01

    The rapidly increasing quantity of protein sequence data continues to widen the gap between available sequences and annotations. Comparative modeling suggests some aspects of the 3D structures of approximately half of all known proteins; homology- and network-based inferences annotate some aspect of function for a similar fraction of the proteome. For most known protein sequences, however, there is detailed knowledge about neither their function nor their structure. Comprehensive efforts towards the expert curation of sequence annotations have failed to meet the demand of the rapidly increasing number of available sequences. Only the automated prediction of protein function in the absence of homology can close the gap between available sequences and annotations in the foreseeable future. This review focuses on two novel methods for automated annotation, and briefly presents an outlook on how modern web software may revolutionize the field of protein sequence annotation. First, predictions of protein binding sites and functional hotspots, and the evolution of these into the most successful type of prediction of protein function from sequence will be discussed. Second, a new tool, comprehensive in silico mutagenesis, which contributes important novel predictions of function and at the same time prepares for the onset of the next sequencing revolution, will be described. While these two new sub-fields of protein prediction represent the breakthroughs that have been achieved methodologically, it will then be argued that a different development might further change the way biomedical researchers benefit from annotations: modern web software can connect the worldwide web in any browser with the 'Deep Web' (ie, proprietary data resources). The availability of this direct connection, and the resulting access to a wealth of data, may impact drug discovery and development more than any existing method that contributes to protein annotation.

  6. Analytical determination of Kondo and Fano resonances of electron Green's function in a single-level quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Bich Ha; Nguyen Van Hop

    2009-01-01

    The Kondo and Fano resonances in the two-point Green's function of the single-level quantum dot were found and investigated in many previous works by means of different numerical calculation methods. In this work we present the derivation of the analytical expressions of resonance terms in the expression of the two-point Green's function. For that purpose the system of Dyson equations for the two-point nonequilibrium Green's functions in the complex-time Keldysh formalism was established in the second order with respect to the tunneling coupling constants and the mean field approximation. This system of Dyson equations was solved exactly and the analytical expressions of the resonance terms are derived. The conditions for the existence of Kondo or Fano resonances are found.

  7. Single trap in liquid gated nanowire FETs: Capture time behavior as a function of current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, F.; Zadorozhnyi, I.; Vitusevich, S.

    2015-05-01

    The basic reason for enhanced electron capture time, τ c , of the oxide single trap dependence on drain current in the linear operation regime of p+-p-p+ silicon field effect transistors (FETs) was established, using a quantum-mechanical approach. A strong increase of τ c slope dependence on channel current is explained using quantization and tunneling concepts in terms of strong field dependence of the oxide layer single trap effective cross-section, which can be described by an amplification factor. Physical interpretation of this parameter deals with the amplification of the electron cross-section determined by both decreasing the critical field influence as a result of the minority carrier depletion and the potential barrier growth for electron capture. For the NW channel of n+-p-n+ FETs, the experimentally observed slope of τ c equals (-1). On the contrary, for the case of p+-p-p+ Si FETs in the accumulation regime, the experimentally observed slope of τ c equals (-2.8). It can be achieved when the amplification factor is about 12. Extraordinary high capture time slope values versus current are explained by the effective capture cross-section growth with decreasing electron concentration close to the nanowire-oxide interface.

  8. Supernova: A Versatile Vector System for Single-Cell Labeling and Gene Function Studies in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Mizuno, Hidenobu; Iwata, Ryohei; Nakazawa, Shingo; Yasuda, Kosuke; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Iwasato, Takuji

    2016-10-24

    Here we describe "Supernova" series of vector systems that enable single-cell labeling and labeled cell-specific gene manipulation, when introduced by in utero electroporation (IUE) or adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery. In Supernova, sparse labeling relies on low TRE leakage. In a small population of cells with over-threshold leakage, initial tTA-independent weak expression is enhanced by tTA/TRE-positive feedback along with a site-specific recombination system (e.g., Cre/loxP, Flpe/FRT). Sparse and bright labeling by Supernova with little background enables the visualization of the morphological details of individual neurons in densely packed brain areas such as the cortex and hippocampus, both during development and in adulthood. Sparseness levels are adjustable. Labeled cell-specific gene knockout was accomplished by introducing Cre/loxP-based Supernova vectors into floxed mice. Furthermore, by combining with RNAi, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies, IUE-based Supernova achieved labeled cell-specific gene knockdown and editing/knockout without requiring genetically altered mice. Thus, Supernova system is highly extensible and widely applicable for single-cell analyses in complex organs, such as the mammalian brain.

  9. Detection of Staphylococci aureus cells with single domain antibody functionalized Raman nanoparobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Li-Lin; Tanha, Jamshid; Ryan, Shannon; Veres, Teodor

    2007-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated to be an effective tool in the detection and classification of pathogenic microorganisms. The technique is, however, limited by the inherently low cross-section of the Raman scattering process. Among the many enhanced Raman processes, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique provides the highest sensitivity and can be easily adapted in the bio-sensing applications such as DNA hybridization and protein binding events. In this study, we report the targeted detection of the pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, with novel single domain antibody (sdAb) conjugated SERS nanoprobes. A sdAb specific to protein A of S. aureus cells was conjugated to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP). Bacteria recognition was achieved through specific binding of the sdAb (conjugated to SERS nanoprobe) to protein A. Binding rendered the nanoparticle-labeled S. aureus cells SERS active. As a result, S. aureus cells could be detected rapidly and with excellent sensitivity by monitoring the SERS vibrational signatures. This work demonstrates that the SERS imaging technique offers excellent sensitivity with a detection limit of a single bacterium.

  10. Supplemental single shot femoral nerve block for total hip arthroplasty: impact on early postoperative care, pain management and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, T; Steinfeldt, T; Wagner, G; Wulf, H; Schmitt, J; Zoremba, M

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral regional anesthesia is beneficial in the management of postoperative pain in hip surgery, and can also reduce post-operative care unit (PACU) stay. Its opioid-sparing actions may also be beneficial for respiratory mechanics and pulmonary function. The aim of our pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a supplemental single shot femoral block for elective total hip arthroplasty on early respiratory function and postoperative management within the first 24 postoperative hours. We prospectively studied 80 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Written informed consent was obtained after ethics committee approval. Forty patients were randomLy assigned to receive single shot femoral nerve block (FNB) using 15mL bupivacaine 0.25% and 20 mg clonidine while the remainder received standard treatment without nerve block (STN). Premedication and general anesthesia were standardized. Pulse oximetry saturation and spirometric lung function were measured preoperatively (baseline) and at 0.5 h, 2 h, 6 h and 24 h, after extubation breathing room air. PACU surveillance and postoperative pain therapy was standardized. Oxygen saturation and spirometry results were significantly better within the FNB group during the first six postoperative hours. Although VAS scores during the PACU stay did not significantly differ between the study groups, PACU discharge criteria were met earlier in the FNB group (116±40 min [mean±SD] vs. 152±47 min in the STN group). The FNB group exhibited significantly lower VAS scores at 6 and 24 hours. Supplemental single shot femoral nerve block for total hip arthroplasty resulted in earlier PACU discharge capability, improved lung function during the first six hours and better pain control within the first 24 postoperative hours.

  11. Increased Lower Limb Spasticity but Not Strength or Function Following a Single-Dose Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor in Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourab, Krishnaj; Schmit, Brian D; Hornby, T George

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of single doses of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on lower limb voluntary and reflex function in individuals with chronic stroke. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Outpatient research setting. Individuals (N=10; 7 men; mean age ± SD, 57±10y) with poststroke hemiplegia of >1 year duration who completed all assessments. Patients were assessed before and 5 hours after single-dose, overencapsulated 10-mg doses of escitalopram (SSRI) or placebo, with 1 week between conditions. Primary assessments included maximal ankle and knee isometric strength, and velocity-dependent (30°/s-120°/s) plantarflexor stretch reflexes under passive conditions, and separately during and after 3 superimposed maximal volitional drive to simulate conditions of increased serotonin release. Secondary measures included clinical measures of lower limb coordination and locomotion. SSRI administration significantly increased stretch reflex torques at higher stretch velocities (eg, 90°/s; P=.03), with reflexes at lower velocities enhanced by superimposed voluntary drive (P=.02). No significant improvements were seen in volitional peak torques or in clinical measures of lower limb function (lowest P=.10). Increases in spasticity but not strength or lower limb function were observed with single-dose SSRI administration in individuals with chronic stroke. Further studies should evaluate whether repeated dosing of SSRIs, or as combined with specific interventions, is required to elicit significant benefit of these agents on lower limb function poststroke. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly mesoporous single-crystalline zeolite beta synthesized using a nonsurfactant cationic polymer as a dual-function template

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jie

    2014-02-12

    Mesoporous zeolites are useful solid catalysts for conversion of bulky molecules because they offer fast mass transfer along with size and shape selectivity. We report here the successful synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicate zeolite Beta from a commercial cationic polymer that acts as a dual-function template to generate zeolitic micropores and mesopores simultaneously. This is the first demonstration of a single nonsurfactant polymer acting as such a template. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, we discovered that the resulting material (Beta-MS) has abundant and highly interconnected mesopores. More importantly, we demonstrated using a three-dimensional electron diffraction technique that each Beta-MS particle is a single crystal, whereas most previously reported mesoporous zeolites are comprised of nanosized zeolitic grains with random orientations. The use of nonsurfactant templates is essential to gaining single-crystalline mesoporous zeolites. The single-crystalline nature endows Beta-MS with better hydrothermal stability compared with surfactant-derived mesoporous zeolite Beta. Beta-MS also exhibited remarkably higher catalytic activity than did conventional zeolite Beta in acid-catalyzed reactions involving large molecules. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  13. Method of applying single higher order polynomial basis function over multiple domains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available M) with higher-order polynomial basis functions, and applied to a surface form of the electrical field integral equation, under thin wire approximation. The main advantage of the proposed method is in permitting to reduce the required number of unknowns when...

  14. Method of applying single higher order polynomial basis function over multiple domains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been devised where one set of higher order polynomial-based basis functions can be applied over several wire segments, thus permitting to decouple the number of unknowns from the number of segments, and so from the geometrical...

  15. Awareness of single and multiple emotions in high-functioning childeren with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Kotronopoulo, K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined emotional awareness in children with autism. Twenty-two high functioning children with autism (mean age 10 years and 2 months) and 22 typically developing children, matched for age and gender, were presented with the four basic emotions (happiness, anger, sadness and fear) in

  16. Likelihood-based gene annotations for gap filling and quality assessment in genome-scale metabolic models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N Benedict

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-scale metabolic models provide a powerful means to harness information from genomes to deepen biological insights. With exponentially increasing sequencing capacity, there is an enormous need for automated reconstruction techniques that can provide more accurate models in a short time frame. Current methods for automated metabolic network reconstruction rely on gene and reaction annotations to build draft metabolic networks and algorithms to fill gaps in these networks. However, automated reconstruction is hampered by database inconsistencies, incorrect annotations, and gap filling largely without considering genomic information. Here we develop an approach for applying genomic information to predict alternative functions for genes and estimate their likelihoods from sequence homology. We show that computed likelihood values were significantly higher for annotations found in manually curated metabolic networks than those that were not. We then apply these alternative functional predictions to estimate reaction likelihoods, which are used in a new gap filling approach called likelihood-based gap filling to predict more genomically consistent solutions. To validate the likelihood-based gap filling approach, we applied it to models where essential pathways were removed, finding that likelihood-based gap filling identified more biologically relevant solutions than parsimony-based gap filling approaches. We also demonstrate that models gap filled using likelihood-based gap filling provide greater coverage and genomic consistency with metabolic gene functions compared to parsimony-based approaches. Interestingly, despite these findings, we found that likelihoods did not significantly affect consistency of gap filled models with Biolog and knockout lethality data. This indicates that the phenotype data alone cannot necessarily be used to discriminate between alternative solutions for gap filling and therefore, that the use of other information

  17. XPS Protocol for the Characterization of Pristine and Functionalized Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, E. D.; Allada, R.; Huffman, C. B.; Arepalli, S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent interest in developing new applications for carbon nanotubes (CNT) has fueled the need to use accurate macroscopic and nanoscopic techniques to characterize and understand their chemistry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has proved to be a useful analytical tool for nanoscale surface characterization of materials including carbon nanotubes. Recent nanotechnology research at NASA Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC) helped to establish a characterization protocol for quality assessment for single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Here, a review of some of the major factors of the XPS technique that can influence the quality of analytical data, suggestions for methods to maximize the quality of data obtained by XPS, and the development of a protocol for XPS characterization as a complementary technique for analyzing the purity and surface characteristics of SWCNTs is presented. The XPS protocol is then applied to a number of experiments including impurity analysis and the study of chemical modifications for SWCNTs.

  18. Solution-phase synthesis of chromium-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Kalinina, Irina V.

    2015-03-01

    The solution phase reactions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with Cr(CO)6 and benzene-Cr(CO)3 can lead to the formation of small chromium clusters. The cluster size can be varied from less than 1 nm to about 4 nm by increasing the reaction time. TEM images suggest that the clusters are deposited predominantly on the exterior walls of the nanotubes. TGA analysis was used to obtain the Cr content and carbon to chromium ratio in the Cr-complexed SWNTs. It is suggested that the carbon nanotube benzenoid structure templates the condensation of chromium atoms and facilitates the loss of carbon monoxide leading to well defined metal clusters.

  19. Complex GABAB receptor complexes: how to generate multiple functionally distinct units from a single receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan eXU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, acts on both ligand-gated and G protein-coupled receptors, the GABAA/C and GABAB receptors, respectively. The later play important roles in modulating many synapses, both at the pre- and post-synaptic levels, and are then still considered as interesting targets to treat a number of brain diseases, including addiction. For many years, several subtypes of GABAB receptors were expected, but cloning revealed only two genes that work in concert to generate a single type of GABAB receptor composed of two subunits. Here we will show that the signaling complexity of this unit receptor type can be largely increased through various ways, including receptor stoichiometry, subunit isoforms, membrane expression and localization, crosstalk with other receptors or interacting proteins. These recent data revealed how complexity of a receptor unit can be increased, observation that certainly are not unique to the GABAB receptor.

  20. Large sample approximations of probabilities of correct evolutionary tree estimation and biases of maximum likelihood estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Simulation studies have been the main way in which properties of maximum likelihood estimation of evolutionary trees from aligned sequence data have been studied. Because trees are unusual parameters and because fitting is computationally intensive, such studies have a heavy computational cost. We develop an asymptotic framework that can be used to obtain probabilities of correct topological reconstruction and study other properties of likelihood methods when a single split is poorly resolved. Simulations suggest that while approximations to log likelihood differences are better for less well-resolved topologies, approximations to probabilities of correct reconstruction are generally good. We used the approximations to investigate biases in estimation and found that maximum likelihood estimation has a long-branch-repels bias. This differs from the long-branch-attracts bias often reported in the literature because it is a different form of bias. For maximum likelihood estimation, usually long-branch-attracts bias results arise in the presence of model misspecification and are a form of statistical inconsistency where the estimated tree converges upon an incorrect tree with long edges together. Here, by bias we mean a tendency to favour a particular topology when data are generated from a four-taxon star tree. While we find a tendency to favour the tree with long branches apart, with more extreme long edges, a strong small sequence-length long-branch-attracts bias overwhelms the long-branch-repels bias. The long-branch-repels bias generalizes to five and six taxa in the sense that subtrees containing taxa that are all distant from the poorly resolved split repel each other.

  1. Algorithms, data structures, and numerics for likelihood-based phylogenetic inference of huge trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izquierdo-Carrasco Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid accumulation of molecular sequence data, driven by novel wet-lab sequencing technologies, poses new challenges for large-scale maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses on trees with more than 30,000 taxa and several genes. The three main computational challenges are: numerical stability, the scalability of search algorithms, and the high memory requirements for computing the likelihood. Results We introduce methods for solving these three key problems and provide respective proof-of-concept implementations in RAxML. The mechanisms presented here are not RAxML-specific and can thus be applied to any likelihood-based (Bayesian or maximum likelihood tree inference program. We develop a new search strategy that can reduce the time required for tree inferences by more than 50% while yielding equally good trees (in the statistical sense for well-chosen starting trees. We present an adaptation of the Subtree Equality Vector technique for phylogenomic datasets with missing data (already available in RAxML v728 that can reduce execution times and memory requirements by up to 50%. Finally, we discuss issues pertaining to the numerical stability of the Γ model of rate heterogeneity on very large trees and argue in favor of rate heterogeneity models that use a single rate or rate category for each site to resolve these problems. Conclusions We address three major issues pertaining to large scale tree reconstruction under maximum likelihood and propose respective solutions. Respective proof-of-concept/production-level implementations of our ideas are made available as open-source code.

  2. The equivalence of information-theoretic and likelihood-based methods for neural dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ross S; Sahani, Maneesh; Pillow, Jonathan W

    2015-04-01

    Stimulus dimensionality-reduction methods in neuroscience seek to identify a low-dimensional space of stimulus features that affect a neuron's probability of spiking. One popular method, known as maximally informative dimensions (MID), uses an information-theoretic quantity known as "single-spike information" to identify this space. Here we examine MID from a model-based perspective. We show that MID is a maximum-likelihood estimator for the parameters of a linear-nonlinear-Poisson (LNP) model, and that the empirical single-spike information corresponds to the normalized log-likelihood under a Poisson model. This equivalence implies that MID does not necessarily find maximally informative stimulus dimensions when spiking is not well described as Poisson. We provide several examples to illustrate this shortcoming, and derive a lower bound on the information lost when spiking is Bernoulli in discrete time bins. To overcome this limitation, we introduce model-based dimensionality reduction methods for neurons with non-Poisson firing statistics, and show that they can be framed equivalently in likelihood-based or information-theoretic terms. Finally, we show how to overcome practical limitations on the number of stimulus dimensions that MID can estimate by constraining the form of the non-parametric nonlinearity in an LNP model. We illustrate these methods with simulations and data from primate visual cortex.

  3. The equivalence of information-theoretic and likelihood-based methods for neural dimensionality reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross S Williamson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus dimensionality-reduction methods in neuroscience seek to identify a low-dimensional space of stimulus features that affect a neuron's probability of spiking. One popular method, known as maximally informative dimensions (MID, uses an information-theoretic quantity known as "single-spike information" to identify this space. Here we examine MID from a model-based perspective. We show that MID is a maximum-likelihood estimator for the parameters of a linear-nonlinear-Poisson (LNP model, and that the empirical single-spike information corresponds to the normalized log-likelihood under a Poisson model. This equivalence implies that MID does not necessarily find maximally informative stimulus dimensions when spiking is not well described as Poisson. We provide several examples to illustrate this shortcoming, and derive a lower bound on the information lost when spiking is Bernoulli in discrete time bins. To overcome this limitation, we introduce model-based dimensionality reduction methods for neurons with non-Poisson firing statistics, and show that they can be framed equivalently in likelihood-based or information-theoretic terms. Finally, we show how to overcome practical limitations on the number of stimulus dimensions that MID can estimate by constraining the form of the non-parametric nonlinearity in an LNP model. We illustrate these methods with simulations and data from primate visual cortex.

  4. Revisiting N₂ fixation in Guerrero Negro intertidal microbial mats with a functional single-cell approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woebken, Dagmar; Burow, Luke C; Behnam, Faris; Mayali, Xavier; Schintlmeister, Arno; Fleming, Erich D; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Singer, Steven W; Cortés, Alejandro López; Hoehler, Tori M; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Spormann, Alfred M; Wagner, Michael; Weber, Peter K; Bebout, Brad M

    2015-02-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats are complex, stratified ecosystems in which high rates of primary production create a demand for nitrogen, met partially by N₂ fixation. Dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) genes and transcripts from Cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria (for example, Deltaproteobacteria) were detected in these mats, yet their contribution to N2 fixation is poorly understood. We used a combined approach of manipulation experiments with inhibitors, nifH sequencing and single-cell isotope analysis to investigate the active diazotrophic community in intertidal microbial mats at Laguna Ojo de Liebre near Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Acetylene reduction assays with specific metabolic inhibitors suggested that both sulfate reducers and members of the Cyanobacteria contributed to N₂ fixation, whereas (15)N₂ tracer experiments at the bulk level only supported a contribution of Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterial and nifH Cluster III (including deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers) sequences dominated the nifH gene pool, whereas the nifH transcript pool was dominated by sequences related to Lyngbya spp. Single-cell isotope analysis of (15)N₂-incubated mat samples via high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) revealed that Cyanobacteria were enriched in (15)N, with the highest enrichment being detected in Lyngbya spp. filaments (on average 4.4 at% (15)N), whereas the Deltaproteobacteria (identified by CARD-FISH) were not significantly enriched. We investigated the potential dilution effect from CARD-FISH on the isotopic composition and concluded that the dilution bias was not substantial enough to influence our conclusions. Our combined data provide evidence that members of the Cyanobacteria, especially Lyngbya spp., actively contributed to N₂ fixation in the intertidal mats, whereas support for significant N₂ fixation activity of the targeted deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers could not be found.

  5. Polypyrrole-Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Gas Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoullis, James, Jr.

    The overall objective of this work is to fabricate and evaluate polypyrrole-single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid structures based chemiresistive sensor arrays for sensitive, selective and discriminative sensing at room temperature of emissions from automobiles and industrial manufacturing. To conceive the sensor arrays single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) networks were aligned to bridge a 3 mum gap between a pair of prefabricated microelectrodes followed by coating with polypyrrole (PPY) with different dopants by electrochemical polymerization. Initially, the sensor¡¦s synthesis conditions in terms of PPY thickness on SWNTs networks by varying the electropolymerization charge of the monomer pyrrole in presence of LiClO4 dopant for the sensing of NH3 was optimized. Using the optimized polymerization charge of 1 muC determined previously, arrays of SWNTs-PPY hybrid sensors were fabricated by replacing dopant LiClO4 by L-camphor sulfonic acid, D-camphor sulfonic acid, p-toluene sulfonic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfonate. Room temperature gas sensing performance of the PPY coated SWNTs network arrays to gases of environmental significance such as NH3, NO 2, H2S, SO2, CO and CO2 and volatile organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, p-xylene, methanol, n-hexane and acetone and humidity, was evaluated. Several folds enhancement in sensing performance was observed towards all the tested analytesfor hybrid devices when compared to bare SWNTs network devices. Differences in sensing performance were noticed for PPY coating with different dopants demonstrating the potential of using the array for discrimination of the tested analytes in a mixture by using chemometric techniques. The underlying sensing mechanism was also investigated by using the devices in chemFET mode configuration.

  6. Tidal Volume Single Breath Washout of Two Tracer Gases - A Practical and Promising Lung Function Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Florian; Stern, Georgette; Thamrin, Cindy; Fuchs, Oliver; Riedel, Thomas; Gustafsson, Per; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Background Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI), which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM) and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW) of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and helium (He) using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM). Methods The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC), were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. Results USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60). MM from USFM reflected SF6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. Conclusion The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing. PMID:21423739

  7. The Effects of a Single Night of Sleep Deprivation on Fluency and Prefrontal Cortex Function during Divergent Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshin eVartanian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal and ventral aspects of the prefrontal cortex (PFC are the two regions most consistently recruited in divergent thinking tasks. Given that frontal tasks have been shown to be vulnerable to sleep loss, we explored the impact of a single night of sleep deprivation on fluency (i.e., number of generated responses and PFC function during divergent thinking. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scanning twice while engaged in the Alternate Uses Task (AUT—once following a single night of sleep deprivation and once following a night of normal sleep. They also wore wrist activity monitors, which enabled us to quantify daily sleep and model cognitive effectiveness. The intervention was effective, producing greater levels of fatigue and sleepiness. Modelled cognitive effectiveness and fluency were impaired following sleep deprivation, and sleep deprivation was associated with greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus during AUT. The results suggest that an intervention known to temporarily compromise frontal function can impair fluency, and that this effect is instantiated in the form of an increased haemodynamic response in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

  8. Predictors of Impaired Postpartum Renal Function in Women after Preeclampsia: Results of a Prospective Single Center Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kaleta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the predictive value of single prepartum findings combined with serum biomarkers sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and PlGF (placental growth factor indicating severity of preeclampsia (PE for occurrence and extent of impaired postpartum kidney function. Study Design. In this prospective, single center study 44 PE patients were compared to 39 healthy controls (similar in age and gestational age with singleton pregnancy evaluated at time of delivery and at 6 months and 12 months postpartum. p values below 0.05 are considered statistically significant. Results. The majority of the PE patients had persistence of proteinuria (>120 mg/L after delivery 6 months (p=0.02 and 12 months postpartum (p<0.0001 compared to controls. Also reduced GFR (glomerular filtration rate persisted up to 6 months postpartum in PE patients compared to controls (p<0.001. Prepartum sFlt-1 levels indeed correlated with impaired renal function parameters. Conclusion. A significant proportion of our PE patients had lower GFR levels and persistent proteinuria up to 12 months postpartum. Prepartum sFlt-1 is a trend-setting marker for impaired renal function postpartum, but it is not sufficient enough to predict renal impairment after PE. An evaluation of 24-month follow-up data is scheduled.

  9. Functional design space of single-veined leaves: role of tissue hydraulic properties in constraining leaf size and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Boyce, C Kevin; Holbrook, N Michele

    2004-10-01

    Morphological diversity of leaves is usually quantified with geometrical characters, while in many cases a simple set of biophysical parameters are involved in constraining size and shape. One of the main physiological functions of the leaf is transpiration and thus one can expect that leaf hydraulic parameters can be used to predict potential morphologies, although with the caveat that morphology in turn influences physiological parameters including light interception and boundary layer thickness and thereby heat transfer and net photosynthesis. An iterative model was used to determine the relative sizes and shapes that are functionally possible for single-veined leaves as defined by their ability to supply the entire leaf lamina with sufficient water to prevent stomatal closure. The model variables include the hydraulic resistances associated with vein axial and radial transport, as well as with water movement through the mesophyll and the leaf surface. The four parameters included in the model are sufficient to define a hydraulic functional design space that includes all single-veined leaf shapes found in nature, including scale-, awl- and needle-like morphologies. This exercise demonstrates that hydraulic parameters have dissimilar effects: surface resistance primarily affects leaf size, while radial and mesophyll resistances primarily affect leaf shape. These distinctions between hydraulic parameters, as well as the differential accessibility of different morphologies, might relate to the convergent evolutionary patterns seen in a variety of fossil lineages concerning overall morphology and anatomical detail that frequently have evolved in linear and simple multi-veined leaves.

  10. Multi-method analysis of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes for cesium liquid–solid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, Helena [Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/Université Montpellier 2, BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Laboratoire de Synthèse et Fonctionnalisation des Céramiques, UMR 3080 Saint Gobain/CNRS, F-84306 Cavaillon (France); Nicolle, Jimmy [Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/Université Montpellier 2, BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Cambedouzou, Julien, E-mail: julien.cambedouzou@enscm.fr [Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/Université Montpellier 2, BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Grandjean, Agnès [Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/Université Montpellier 2, BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2014-09-15

    We report a detailed analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) functionalized with Dimethyl Acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) using a large range of techniques, involving different spectroscopic analysis, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. SWCNT functionalization is based on a simple protocol associating ultrasonication and moderate heating under endogenous pressure of the molecules to be grafted. The complete and careful characterization of the resulting grafted SWCNTs revealed that a grafting rate of more than 1 molecule per nanometer of tube length is achieved. Furthermore an original quantification of the grafting homogeneity is developed using the micro-Raman mapping technique. Sorption experiments of Cs{sup +} ions onto grafted SWCNTs resulted in a high loading capacity, i.e. about 250 mg of Cs{sup +} per gram of grafted carbon nanotubes, opening exciting opportunities towards the design of carbon nanotube based materials for liquid treatment applications. - Highlights: • We functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes by dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate. • We performed a complete characterization using a wide range of analytical techniques. • We quantified grafting homogeneity using a micro-Raman mapping based procedure. • A Cesium sorption rate of 250 mg per gram of grafted nanotubes was measured.

  11. Horizon wave function for single localized particles: GUP and quantum black-hole decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Scardigli, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    A localized particle in Quantum Mechanics is described by a wave packet in position space, regardless of its energy. However, from the point of view of General Relativity, if the particle's energy density exceeds a certain threshold, it should be a black hole. To combine these two pictures, we introduce a horizon wave function determined by the particle wave function in position space, which eventually yields the probability that the particle is a black hole. The existence of a minimum mass for black holes naturally follows, albeit not in the form of a sharp value around the Planck scale, but rather like a vanishing probability that a particle much lighter than the Planck mass may be a black hole. We also show that our construction entails an effective generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), simply obtained by adding the uncertainties coming from the two wave functions associated with a particle. Finally, the decay of microscopic (quantum) black holes is also described in agreement with what the GUP predicts. (orig.)

  12. Functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with protein by click chemistry as sensing platform for sensitized electrochemical immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Honglan; Ling Chen; Huang Ru; Qiu Xiaoying; Shangguan Li; Gao Qiang; Zhang Chengxiao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Single-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized with protein by click chemistry. ► The SWNTs conjugated with protein showed excellent dispersion in water and kept good bioacitvity. ► A competitive electrochemical immunoassay for the determination of anti-IgG was developed with high sensitivity and good stability. - Abstract: The application of the Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] Huisgen cycloaddition to the functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with the protein and the use of the artificial SWNTs as a sensing platform for sensitive immunoassay were reported. Covalent functionalization of azide decorated SWNTs with alkyne modified protein was firstly accomplished by the Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] Huisgen cycloaddition. FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron micrograph were used to characterize the protein-functionalized SWNTs. It was found that the SWNTs conjugated with the proteins showed excellent dispersion in water and kept good bioacitivity when immunoglobulin (IgG) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were chosen as model proteins. As a proof-of-concept, IgG-functionalized SWNTs were immobilized onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode by simple casting method as immunosensing platform and a sensitive competitive electrochemical immunoassay was developed for the determination of anti-immunoglobulin (anti-IgG) using HRP as enzyme label. The fabrication of the immunosensor were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with the redox probe [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− . The SWNTs as immobilization platform showed better sensitizing effect, a detection limit of 30 pg mL −1 (S/N = 3) was obtained for anti-IgG. The proposed strategy provided a stable immobilization method and sensitized recognition platform for analytes. This work demonstrated that the click coupling of SWNTs with protein was an effective

  13. Functional and esthetic considerations for single-tooth Ankylos implant-crowns: 8 years of clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Katrin; Eisenmann, Eduard; Stiller, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Following the loss of an anterior natural tooth, the mucogingival complex begins to collapse. The early placement of endosseous dental implants can prevent or reduce the extent of this collapse. If there is a long interval between the loss of the natural tooth and the placement of the implant prosthetic replacement, this collapse tends to increase significantly. This paper will report on the clinical success of this implant product in the fabrication of esthetic, functional, and harmonious replacements for missing single, natural teeth for a period of 8 years. A total of 275 single Ankylos implant tooth restorations in the anterior and posterior jaw regions were placed and monitored for 8 years. Of these, 264 implants were restored using the titanium Balance abutments, and only 11 were restored using ceramic abutments. The final restorations were either metal-ceramic or full-ceramic crowns and were cemented with glass ionomer cement. The survival rate was 98.2%, with only 5 implants being lost during the healing phase. There were no other implant losses in the postloading period that averaged 3.2 years. To date, there have been no mechanical complications associated with the prosthetic components (ie, screw loosening, screw breaking, or crown breaking) for either the titanium or the ceramic abutments. Experience with the Ankylos system with single-tooth replacement indications may be considered positive with regard to the esthetic and functional results of the treatment. The lack of mechanical complications and problems with the hard and soft tissue in the loading phase of the implants suggests the functional safety of the tapered connection between implant and abutment.

  14. Validation of software for calculating the likelihood ratio for parentage and kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábek, J

    2009-03-01

    Although the likelihood ratio is a well-known statistical technique, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products for its calculation are not sufficiently validated to suit general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (EN/ISO/IEC 17025:2005 norm) per se. The software in question can be considered critical as it directly weighs the forensic evidence allowing judges to decide on guilt or innocence or to identify person or kin (i.e.: in mass fatalities). For these reasons, accredited laboratories shall validate likelihood ratio software in accordance with the above norm. To validate software for calculating the likelihood ratio in parentage/kinship scenarios I assessed available vendors, chose two programs (Paternity Index and familias) for testing, and finally validated them using tests derived from elaboration of the available guidelines for the field of forensics, biomedicine, and software engineering. MS Excel calculation using known likelihood ratio formulas or peer-reviewed results of difficult paternity cases were used as a reference. Using seven testing cases, it was found that both programs satisfied the requirements for basic paternity cases. However, only a combination of two software programs fulfills the criteria needed for our purpose in the whole spectrum of functions under validation with the exceptions of providing algebraic formulas in cases of mutation and/or silent allele.

  15. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Likelihood for Small-Scale CMB Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, J.; Calabrese, E.; Sievers, J.; Addison, G. E.; Battaglia, N.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dunner, R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope has measured the angular power spectra of microwave fluctuations to arcminute scales at frequencies of 148 and 218 GHz, from three seasons of data. At small scales the fluctuations in the primordial Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) become increasingly obscured by extragalactic foregounds and secondary CMB signals. We present results from a nine-parameter model describing these secondary effects, including the thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ and kSZ) power; the clustered and Poisson-like power from Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) sources, and their frequency scaling; the tSZ-CIB correlation coefficient; the extragalactic radio source power; and thermal dust emission from Galactic cirrus in two different regions of the sky. In order to extract cosmological parameters, we describe a likelihood function for the ACT data, fitting this model to the multi-frequency spectra in the multipole range 500 < l < 10000. We extend the likelihood to include spectra from the South Pole Telescope at frequencies of 95, 150, and 220 GHz. Accounting for different radio source levels and Galactic cirrus emission, the same model provides an excellent fit to both datasets simultaneously, with ?2/dof= 675/697 for ACT, and 96/107 for SPT. We then use the multi-frequency likelihood to estimate the CMB power spectrum from ACT in bandpowers, marginalizing over the secondary parameters. This provides a simplified 'CMB-only' likelihood in the range 500 < l < 3500 for use in cosmological parameter estimation

  16. X-ray Nanodiffraction on a Single SiGe Quantum Dot inside a Functioning Field-Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    For advanced electronic, optoelectronic, or mechanical nanoscale devices a detailed understanding of their structural properties and in particular the strain state within their active region is of utmost importance. We demonstrate that X-ray nanodiffraction represents an excellent tool to investigate the internal structure of such devices in a nondestructive way by using a focused synchotron X-ray beam with a diameter of 400 nm. We show results on the strain fields in and around a single SiGe island, which serves as stressor for the Si-channel in a fully functioning Si–metal–oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor. PMID:21627099

  17. Shifts in the metabolic function of a benthic estuarine microbial community following a single pulse exposure to silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarri-Bravo, Virginia; Paterson, Lynn; Aspray, Thomas J.; Porter, Joanne S.; Winson, Michael K.; Thornton, Barry; Hartl, Mark G.J.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a biocidal agent and their potential accumulation in sediments may threaten non-target natural environmental bacterial communities. In this study a microcosm approach was established to investigate the effects of well characterized OECD AgNPs (NM-300) on the function of the bacterial community inhabiting marine estuarine sediments (salinity 31‰). The results showed that a single pulse of NM-300 AgNPs (1 mg L −1 ) that led to sediment concentrations below 6 mg Ag kg −1 dry weight inhibited the bacterial utilization of environmentally relevant carbon substrates. As a result, the functional diversity changed, but recovered after 120 h under the experimental conditions. This microcosm study suggests that AgNPs under environmentally relevant experimental conditions can negatively affect bacterial function and provides an insight into the understanding of the bacterial community response and resilience to AgNPs exposure, important for informing relevant regulatory measures. - Highlights: • AgNPs affected the bacterial community function in estuarine marine sediments. • AgNPs inhibited the bacterial utilization of environmentally relevant substrates. • Heterotrophic bacterial groups showed resilience to AgNPs after 120 h exposure. • AgNPs did not affect the bacterial community structure in sediments. - AgNPs inhibited the bacterial utilization of environmentally relevant substrates and caused temporary shifts in the bacterial functional diversity in marine estuarine sediments

  18. Neurons the decision makers, Part I: The firing function of a single neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaty, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    This paper is concerned with understanding synthesis of electric signals in the neural system based on making pairwise comparisons. Fundamentally, every person and every animal are born with the talent to compare stimuli from things that share properties in space or over time. Comparisons always need experience to distinguish among things. Pairwise comparisons are numerically reciprocal. If a value is assigned to the larger of two elements that have a given property when compared with the smaller one, then the smaller has the reciprocal of that value when compared with the larger. Because making comparisons requires the reciprocal property, we need mathematics that can cope with division. There are four division algebras that would allow us to use our reciprocals arising from comparisons: The real numbers, the complex numbers, the non-commutative quaternions and the non-associative octonions. Rather than inferring function as from electric flow in a network, in this paper we infer the flow from function. Neurons fire in response to stimuli and their firings vary relative to the intensities of the stimuli. We believe neurons use some kind of pairwise comparison mechanism to determine when to fire based on the stimuli they receive. The ideas we develop here about flows are used to deduce how a system based on this kind of firing determination works and can be described. Furthermore the firing of neurons requires continuous comparisons. To develop a formula describing the output of these pairwise comparisons requires solving Fredholm's equation of the second kind which is satisfied if and only if a simple functional equation has solutions. The Fourier transform of the real solution of this equation leads to inverse square laws like those that are common in physics. The Fourier transform applied to a complex valued solution leads to Dirac type of firings. Such firings are dense in the very general fields of functions known as Sobolev spaces and thus can be used to

  19. Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor baryons and single heavy hyperon polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, G R

    2001-01-01

    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. $\\Lambda_b$ , $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are calculated and, where possible, compared with experiment. A different approach, also relying on a heavy quark-diquark model, is proposed for the small momentum transfer inclusive production of polarized heavy flavor hyperons. The predicted $\\Lambda_c$ polarization is roughly in agreement with experiment.

  20. A method for multiple sequential analyses of macrophage functions using a small single cell sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R.F. Nascimento

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens such as bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG induce the activation of macrophages. Activated macrophages can be characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites, generated via NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, respectively, and by the increased expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II. Multiple microassays have been developed to measure these parameters. Usually each assay requires 2-5 x 10(5 cells per well. In some experimental conditions the number of cells is the limiting factor for the phenotypic characterization of macrophages. Here we describe a method whereby this limitation can be circumvented. Using a single 96-well microassay and a very small number of peritoneal cells obtained from C3H/HePas mice, containing as little as <=2 x 10(5 macrophages per well, we determined sequentially the oxidative burst (H2O2, nitric oxide production and MHC II (IAk expression of BCG-activated macrophages. More specifically, with 100 µl of cell suspension it was possible to quantify H2O2 release and nitric oxide production after 1 and 48 h, respectively, and IAk expression after 48 h of cell culture. In addition, this microassay is easy to perform, highly reproducible and more economical.

  1. Isolation and functional interrogation of adult human prostate epithelial stem cells at single cell resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yang Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers. Knockdown of KRT13 or PRAC1 reduced sphere formation and symmetric self-renewal highlighting their role in stem cell maintenance. Pathways analysis identified ribosome biogenesis and membrane estrogen-receptor signaling enriched in stem cells with NF-ĸB signaling enriched in progenitors; activities that were biologically confirmed. Further, bioassays identified heightened autophagy flux and reduced metabolism in stem cells relative to progenitors. These approaches similarly identified stem-like cells from prostate cancer specimens and prostate, breast and colon cancer cell lines suggesting wide applicability. Together, the present studies isolate and identify unique characteristics of normal human prostate stem cells and uncover processes that maintain stem cell homeostasis in the prostate gland.

  2. Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius Endospores Function as Nuclei for the Formation of Single Calcite Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius colonies were placed on an agar hydrogel containing acetate, calcium ions, and magnesium ions, resulting in the formation of single calcite crystals (calcites) within and peripheral to the plating area or parent colony. Microscopic observation of purified calcites placed on the surface of soybean casein digest (SCD) nutrient medium revealed interior crevices from which bacterial colonies originated. Calcites formed on the gel contained [1-13C]- and [2-13C]acetate, demonstrating that G. thermoglucosidasius utilizes carbon derived from acetate for calcite formation. During calcite formation, vegetative cells swam away from the parent colony in the hydrogel. Hard-agar hydrogel inhibited the formation of calcites peripheral to the parent colony. The calcite dissolved completely in 1 M HCl, with production of bubbles, and the remaining endospore-like particles were easily stained with Brilliant green dye. The presence of DNA and protein in calcites was demonstrated by electrophoresis. We propose that endospores initiate the nucleation of calcites. Endospores of G. thermoglucosidasius remain alive and encapsulated in calcites. PMID:23455343

  3. Evaluating Fast Maximum Likelihood-Based Phylogenetic Programs Using Empirical Phylogenomic Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Shen, Xing-Xing; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The sizes of the data matrices assembled to resolve branches of the tree of life have increased dramatically, motivating the development of programs for fast, yet accurate, inference. For example, several different fast programs have been developed in the very popular maximum likelihood framework, including RAxML/ExaML, PhyML, IQ-TREE, and FastTree. Although these programs are widely used, a systematic evaluation and comparison of their performance using empirical genome-scale data matrices has so far been lacking. To address this question, we evaluated these four programs on 19 empirical phylogenomic data sets with hundreds to thousands of genes and up to 200 taxa with respect to likelihood maximization, tree topology, and computational speed. For single-gene tree inference, we found that the more exhaustive and slower strategies (ten searches per alignment) outperformed faster strategies (one tree search per alignment) using RAxML, PhyML, or IQ-TREE. Interestingly, single-gene trees inferred by the three programs yielded comparable coalescent-based species tree estimations. For concatenation-based species tree inference, IQ-TREE consistently achieved the best-observed likelihoods for all data sets, and RAxML/ExaML was a close second. In contrast, PhyML often failed to complete concatenation-based analyses, whereas FastTree was the fastest but generated lower likelihood values and more dissimilar tree topologies in both types of analyses. Finally, data matrix properties, such as the number of taxa and the strength of phylogenetic signal, sometimes substantially influenced the programs’ relative performance. Our results provide real-world gene and species tree phylogenetic inference benchmarks to inform the design and execution of large-scale phylogenomic data analyses. PMID:29177474

  4. Electrostatics-mediated α-chymotrypsin inhibition by functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Daohui; Zhou, Jian

    2017-01-04

    The α-chymotrypsin (α-ChT) enzyme is extensively used for studying nanomaterial-induced enzymatic activity inhibition. A recent experimental study reported that carboxylized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) played an important role in regulating the α-ChT activity. In this study, parallel tempering Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations were combined to elucidate the interactions between α-ChT and CNTs in relation to the CNT functional group density. The simulation results indicate that the adsorption and the driving force of α-ChT on different CNTs are contingent on the carboxyl density. Meanwhile, minor secondary structural changes are observed in adsorption processes. It is revealed that α-ChT interacts with pristine CNTs through hydrophobic forces and exhibits a non-competitive characteristic with the active site facing towards the solution; while it binds to carboxylized CNTs with the active pocket through a dominant electrostatic association, which causes enzymatic activity inhibition in a competitive-like mode. These findings are in line with experimental results, and well interpret the activity inhibition of α-ChT at the molecular level. Moreover, this study would shed light on the detailed mechanism of specific recognition and regulation of α-ChT by other functionalized nanomaterials.

  5. Measurement of single-kidney glomerular filtration function from magnetic resonance perfusion renography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Meiying; Cheng, Yingsheng [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Zhao, Binghui, E-mail: binghuizhao@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • MRPR monitors the transit of contrast material through nephron. • MRPR could reveal renal physiological characteristics in quality and quantity. • This review outlines the basics and future challenges of DCE MRPR. - Abstract: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney, and is considered to be the reference standard in the evaluation of renal function. There are many ways to test the GFR clinically, such as serum creatinine concentration, blood urea nitrogen and SPECT renography, however, they’re all not a good standard to evaluate the early damage of renal function. In recent years, the improvement of MRI hardware and software makes it possible to reveal physiological characteristics such as renal blood flow or GFR by dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance perfusion renography (DEC MRPR). MRPR is a method used to monitor the transit of contrast material, typically a gadolinium chelate, through the renal cortex, the medulla, and the collecting system. This review outlines the basics of DCE MRPR included acquisition of dynamic MR perfusion imaging, calculation of the contrast concentration from signal intensity and compartment models, and some challenges of MRPR method faced in prospective clinical application.

  6. Exclusion probabilities and likelihood ratios with applications to kinship problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slooten, Klaas-Jan; Egeland, Thore

    2014-05-01

    In forensic genetics, DNA profiles are compared in order to make inferences, paternity cases being a standard example. The statistical evidence can be summarized and reported in several ways. For example, in a paternity case, the likelihood ratio (LR) and the probability of not excluding a random man as father (RMNE) are two common summary statistics. There has been a long debate on the merits of the two statistics, also in the context of DNA mixture interpretation, and no general consensus has been reached. In this paper, we show that the RMNE is a certain weighted average of inverse likelihood ratios. This is true in any forensic context. We show that the likelihood ratio in favor of the correct hypothesis is, in expectation, bigger than the reciprocal of the RMNE probability. However, with the exception of pathological cases, it is also possible to obtain smaller likelihood ratios. We illustrate this result for paternity cases. Moreover, some theoretical properties of the likelihood ratio for a large class of general pairwise kinship cases, including expected value and variance, are derived. The practical implications of the findings are discussed and exemplified.

  7. Insertion of Short Amino-Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes into Phospholipid Bilayer Occurs by Passive Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraszewski, Sebastian; Bianco, Alberto; Tarek, Mounir; Ramseyer, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been proposed to be efficient nanovectors able to deliver genetic or therapeutic cargo into living cells. However, a direct evidence of the molecular mechanism of their translocation across cell membranes is still needed. Here, we report on an extensive computational study of short (5 nm length) pristine and functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes uptake by phospholipid bilayer models using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Our data support the hypothesis of a direct translocation of the nanotubes through the phospholipid membrane. We find that insertion of neat nanotubes within the bilayer is a “nanoneedle” like process, which can often be divided in three consecutive steps: landing and floating, penetration of the lipid headgroup area and finally sliding into the membrane core. The presence of functional groups at moderate concentrations does not modify the overall scheme of diffusion mechanism, provided that their deprotonated state favors translocation through the lipid bilayer. PMID:22815794

  8. Functional characterization of a conserved archaeal viral operon revealing single-stranded DNA binding, annealing and nuclease activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yang; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; White, Malcolm F.

    2015-01-01

    encoding proteins of unknown function and forming an operon with ORF207 (gp19). SIRV2 gp17 was found to be a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein different in structure from all previously characterized ssDNA binding proteins. Mutagenesis of a few conserved basic residues suggested a U......-shaped binding path for ssDNA. The recombinant gp18 showed an ssDNA annealing activity often associated with helicases and recombinases. To gain insight into the biological role of the entire operon, we characterized SIRV2 gp19 and showed it to possess a 5'→3' ssDNA exonuclease activity, in addition...... for rudiviruses and the close interaction among the ssDNA binding, annealing and nuclease proteins strongly point to a role of the gene operon in genome maturation and/or DNA recombination that may function in viral DNA replication/repair....

  9. Single Amino Acid Insertion in Loop 4 Confers Amphotropic Murine Leukemia Virus Receptor Function upon Murine Pit1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundorf, Mikkel D.; Pedersen, Finn Skou; O'Hara, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Pit1 is the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related human protein Pit2 is a receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV). The A-MuLV-related isolate 10A1 can utilize both Pit1 and Pit2 as receptors. A stretch...... of amino acids named region A was identified in Pit1 (residues 550 to 558 in loop 4) as critical for GALV and FeLV-B receptor function. We have here investigated the role of region A in A-MuLV and 10A1 entry. Insertion of a single amino acid in region A of mouse Pit1 resulted in a functional A...

  10. Investigation of spectral statistics of nuclear systems by maximum likelihood estimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarizadeh, M.A.; Fouladi, N.; Sabri, H.; Rashidian Maleki, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, maximum likelihood estimation technique is employed to consider the spectral statistics of nuclear systems in the nearest neighbor spacing distribution framework. With using the available empirical data, the spectral statistics of different sequences are analyzed. The ML-based estimated values propose more regular dynamics and also minimum uncertainties (variations very close to CRLB) in compare to other estimation methods. Also, the efficiencies of considered distribution functions are examined where suggest the least CRLB for Brody distribution.

  11. On the use of marginal posteriors in marginal likelihood estimation via importance-sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Perrakis, K.; Ntzoufras, I.; Tsionas, E. G.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the efficiency of a marginal likelihood estimator where the product of the marginal posterior distributions is used as an importance-sampling function. The approach is generally applicable to multi-block parameter vector settings, does not require additional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and is not dependent on the type of MCMC scheme used to sample from the posterior. The proposed approach is applied to normal regression models, finite normal mixtures and longitudin...

  12. Clinical Paresthesia Atlas Illustrates Likelihood of Coverage Based on Spinal Cord Stimulator Electrode Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghva, Alexander; Karst, Edward; Underwood, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Concordant paresthesia coverage is an independent predictor of pain relief following spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Using aggregate data, our objective is to produce a map of paresthesia coverage as a function of electrode location in SCS. This retrospective analysis used x-rays, SCS programming data, and paresthesia coverage maps from the EMPOWER registry of SCS implants for chronic neuropathic pain. Spinal level of dorsal column stimulation was determined by x-ray adjudication and active cathodes in patient programs. Likelihood of paresthesia coverage was determined as a function of stimulating electrode location. Segments of paresthesia coverage were grouped anatomically. Fisher's exact test was used to identify significant differences in likelihood of paresthesia coverage as a function of spinal stimulation level. In the 178 patients analyzed, the most prevalent areas of paresthesia coverage were buttocks, anterior and posterior thigh (each 98%), and low back (94%). Unwanted paresthesia at the ribs occurred in 8% of patients. There were significant differences in the likelihood of achieving paresthesia, with higher thoracic levels (T5, T6, and T7) more likely to achieve low back coverage but also more likely to introduce paresthesia felt at the ribs. Higher levels in the thoracic spine were associated with greater coverage of the buttocks, back, and thigh, and with lesser coverage of the leg and foot. This paresthesia atlas uses real-world, aggregate data to determine likelihood of paresthesia coverage as a function of stimulating electrode location. It represents an application of "big data" techniques, and a step toward achieving personalized SCS therapy tailored to the individual's chronic pain. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  13. Improved method for Mica functionalization used in single molecule imaging of DNA with atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Zapletalová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The modified procedure of 1-(3-aminopropylsilatrane (APS compound synthesis based on a new derivative (3‑aminopropyltrimethoxysilane for the purpose of DNA immobilization for AFM single imaging is described. New reaction pathway based on kinetically driven reaction approach is described. Necessity of two‑step purification process is proved; ability of purified APS to provide four times smoother surfaces in comparison with a crude product is demonstrated. Various analytical methods such mass spectroscopy and 1H NMR were used to show structure and enhanced purity of the APS product. APS mediates fixation of DNA molecules to mica substrates to be used for DNA imaging under Atomic Force Microscope. The use of an APS compound for simple and rapid silanization of mica surface is demonstrated. The advantages of APS‑based method are based mainly on low roughness of modified mica and homogeneous surface coverage by short sequence dsDNA (246 bp. The product obtained by the condensation reaction was purified in a two step process whose effectiveness was demonstrated not only by reduction of the silanized surface roughness, but also by mass spectroscopy (MS‑ESi, MALDI‑TOF method and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Experiments demonstrate that 1‑(3‑aminopropylsilatrane can be used to fix dsDNA molecules to a mica surface to be visualized by either the tapping mode or the force‑volume mode of AFM microscopy, as demonstrated by experiments. Moreover, necessity of advanced purification protocol is demonstrated by AFM based roughness measurements – pure vs crude APS product. The kinetics of APS‑layer aging, caused by silicon oxide growth on silanized layers, was studied by water contact angle measurements and is discussed.

  14. Evolution and function of the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae peroxiredoxin, a 2-Cys-like enzyme with a single Cys residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchoroski, Taylor; Virginio, Veridiana G; Thompson, Claudia E; Paes, Jéssica A; Machado, Cláudio X; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2017-04-01

    The minimal genome of the mollicute Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, encodes a limited repertoire of antioxidant enzymes that include a single and atypical peroxiredoxin (MhPrx), whose evolution and function were studied here. MhPrx has only one catalytic cysteine, in contrast with some of its possible ancestors (2-Cys peroxiredoxins), which have two. Although it is more similar to 2-Cys orthologs, MhPrx can still function with a single peroxidatic cysteine (Cys P ), using non-thiolic electron donors to reduce it. Therefore, MhPrx could be a representative of a possible group of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, which have lost the resolving cysteine (Cys R ) residue without losing their catalytic properties. To further investigate MhPrx evolution, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis in the context of several bacterial families, including Prxs belonging to Tpx and AhpE families, shedding light on the evolutionary history of Mycoplasmataceae Prxs and giving support to the hypothesis of a relatively recent loss of the Cys R within this family. Moreover, mutational analyses provided insights into MhPrx function with one, two, or without catalytic cysteines. While removal of the MhPrx putative Cys P caused complete activity loss, confirming its catalytic role, the introduction of a second cysteine in a site correspondent to that of the Cys R of a 2-Cys orthologue, as in the MhPrx supposed ancestral form, was compatible with enzyme activity. Overall, our phylogenetic and mutational studies support that MhPrx recently diverged from a 2-Cys Prx ancestor and pave the way for future studies addressing structural, functional, and evolutive aspects of peroxiredoxin subfamilies in Mollicutes and other bacteria.

  15. Targeting a single function of the multifunctional matrix metalloprotease MT1-MMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsen, Signe; Porse, Astrid; Erpicum, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    the enzyme ability to activate proMMP-2 without interfering with the collagenolytic function or the general proteolytic activity of MT1-MMP. Using this antibody, we have shown that the MT1-MMP-catalyzed activation of proMMP-2 is involved in the outgrowth of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells in a collagen......The group of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) is responsible for multiple processes of extracellular matrix remodeling in the healthy body but also for matrix and tissue destruction during cancer invasion and metastasis. The understanding of the contributions from each individual MMP, both in healthy...... and pathological events, has been complicated by the lack of specific inhibitors and the fact that some of the potent MMPs are multifunctional enzymes. These factors have also hampered the setup of therapeutic strategies targeting MMP activity. A tempting target is the membrane-associated MT1-MMP, which has well...

  16. Neuromodulation for fecal and urinary incontinence: functional results in 57 consecutive patients from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheron, Jean-Luc; Chodez, Marine; Boillot, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is a recognized treatment for fecal and urinary incontinence. Few articles have been published about patients presenting with both types of incontinence. The aim of this study was to report the functional results in patients operated on for simultaneous fecal and urinary incontinence by the use of sacral nerve stimulation. This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. The investigation was conducted in the academic departments of colorectal surgery and urology. Between January 2001 and March 2010, 57 consecutive patients (54 women) with a mean age of 58 years (range, 16-76) were included. Two-stage sacral nerve modulation (test and implant) was performed. Functional study before testing, at 6 months, and at the end of follow-up after implantation included the use of the Cleveland Clinic incontinence score, Urinary Symptoms Profile, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life score, and the Ditrovie score. Patient satisfaction with the technique was evaluated at a median follow-up of 62.8 months. : Fecal incontinence improved from 14.1/20 to 7.2/20 at 6 months and 6.9/20 at the end of follow-up. Urinary incontinence, mainly urge incontinence (47% of patients), and urgency frequency (34% of patients) improved at 6 months and end of follow-up, but not retention and dysuria. Specific quality of life was improved for fecal and urinary incontinence at 6 months and end of follow-up. At the end of follow-up, 73% patients were highly satisfied with the technique, but 9% felt their condition had deteriorated. The reoperation rate was 29%, of which 12% were indicated because of a complication. This study was limited by its retrospective nature and the multiple causes of incontinence. Fecal and urinary incontinence, studied by symptoms scores and specific quality-of-life scores, are improved in patients receiving sacral nerve stimulation for double incontinence.

  17. A new hybrid genetic algorithm for optimizing the single and multivariate objective functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar [Idaho National Laboratory; McCulloch, Richard Chet James [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-07-01

    In this work a new hybrid genetic algorithm was developed which combines a rudimentary adaptive steepest ascent hill climbing algorithm with a sophisticated evolutionary algorithm in order to optimize complex multivariate design problems. By combining a highly stochastic algorithm (evolutionary) with a simple deterministic optimization algorithm (adaptive steepest ascent) computational resources are conserved and the solution converges rapidly when compared to either algorithm alone. In genetic algorithms natural selection is mimicked by random events such as breeding and mutation. In the adaptive steepest ascent algorithm each variable is perturbed by a small amount and the variable that caused the most improvement is incremented by a small step. If the direction of most benefit is exactly opposite of the previous direction with the most benefit then the step size is reduced by a factor of 2, thus the step size adapts to the terrain. A graphical user interface was created in MATLAB to provide an interface between the hybrid genetic algorithm and the user. Additional features such as bounding the solution space and weighting the objective functions individually are also built into the interface. The algorithm developed was tested to optimize the functions developed for a wood pelleting process. Using process variables (such as feedstock moisture content, die speed, and preheating temperature) pellet properties were appropriately optimized. Specifically, variables were found which maximized unit density, bulk density, tapped density, and durability while minimizing pellet moisture content and specific energy consumption. The time and computational resources required for the optimization were dramatically decreased using the hybrid genetic algorithm when compared to MATLAB's native evolutionary optimization tool.

  18. Surgical management of children with intractable functional constipation; experience of a single tertiary children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizenga-Wessel, S; Koppen, I J N; Zwager, L W; Di Lorenzo, C; de Jong, J R; Benninga, M A

    2017-05-01

    Children with intractable functional constipation (FC) may eventually require surgery. However, guidelines regarding the surgical management of children with intractable FC are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the surgical management of FC in children. A retrospective chart review was performed of children with FC (according to the Rome III criteria) who underwent ileostomy, colostomy or (sub)total colectomy at a tertiary hospital. Treatment success was defined as no longer fulfilling the Rome III-FC-criteria or having a functional ostomy. In addition, a self-developed questionnaire was administered to parents by telephone to assess postsurgical satisfaction (yes-no question and rated on a scale of 1-10). Thirty-seven patients (68% female) were included; median age at first surgery was 12 years (range 1.6-17.6). The initial surgical procedure consisted of ileostomy (n=21), colostomy (n=10), sigmoid resection (n=5) and subtotal colectomy (n=1). Success criteria were fulfilled by 85% of the patients. Postsurgical satisfaction of parents was 91% with a median postoperative satisfaction score of 8 (range 2-10), and 97% would opt for the same procedure(s) if necessary. Thirty patients (81%) experienced stoma problems, with 12 patients (32%) requiring stoma-revisions. Other complications occurred in 16 patients (43%). Surgery can improve symptoms in children with intractable FC. Despite morbidity and complications, parental satisfaction is high. Prospective, high-quality research is necessary to develop guidelines for the diagnostic work-up and surgical management in children with intractable FC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. N2 adsorption on the inside and outside the single-walled carbon nanotubes by density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaie, Fahimeh

    2018-01-01

    The adsorption energies, bond order, atomic charge, optical properties, and electrostatic potential of nitrogen molecules of armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and nitrogen-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (N-SWCNTs) were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Our results show that adsorption of the N2 molecules on the external wall of a nanotube is more effective than on the internal wall in SWCNTs. The results show that N2 molecule(s) are weakly bonded to SWCNTs and N-SWCNTs through van der Waals-type interactions. The interaction of N2 molecules with SWCNTs and N-SWCNTs is physisorption as the adsorption energy and charge transfer are small, and adsorption distance is large. The electronic transitions from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) (H→ L) have the maximum wavelength and the lowest oscillator strength. The potential sensor on the surface of pristine SWCNTs and N-SWCNTs for the adsorption of N2 molecule(s) is investigated. The N-loaded single-walled carbon nanotube is introduced as a better N2 molecule(s) detector when compared with SWCNTs.

  20. Functional characterization of an alkaline exonuclease and single strand annealing protein from the SXT genetic element of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jian-dong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SXT is an integrating conjugative element (ICE originally isolated from Vibrio cholerae, the bacterial pathogen that causes cholera. It houses multiple antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes on its ca. 100 kb circular double stranded DNA (dsDNA genome, and functions as an effective vehicle for the horizontal transfer of resistance genes within susceptible bacterial populations. Here, we characterize the activities of an alkaline exonuclease (S066, SXT-Exo and single strand annealing protein (S065, SXT-Bet encoded on the SXT genetic element, which share significant sequence homology with Exo and Bet from bacteriophage lambda, respectively. Results SXT-Exo has the ability to degrade both linear dsDNA and single stranded DNA (ssDNA molecules, but has no detectable endonuclease or nicking activities. Adopting a stable trimeric arrangement in solution, the exonuclease activities of SXT-Exo are optimal at pH 8.2 and essentially require Mn2+ or Mg2+ ions. Similar to lambda-Exo, SXT-Exo hydrolyzes dsDNA with 5'- to 3'-polarity in a highly processive manner, and digests DNA substrates with 5'-phosphorylated termini significantly more effectively than those lacking 5'-phosphate groups. Notably, the dsDNA exonuclease activities of both SXT-Exo and lambda-Exo are stimulated by the addition of lambda-Bet, SXT-Bet or a single strand DNA binding protein encoded on the SXT genetic element (S064, SXT-Ssb. When co-expressed in E. coli cells, SXT-Bet and SXT-Exo mediate homologous recombination between a PCR-generated dsDNA fragment and the chromosome, analogous to RecET and lambda-Bet/Exo. Conclusions The activities of the SXT-Exo protein are consistent with it having the ability to resect the ends of linearized dsDNA molecules, forming partially ssDNA substrates for the partnering SXT-Bet single strand annealing protein. As such, SXT-Exo and SXT-Bet may function together to repair or process SXT genetic elements within infected V

  1. FlowMax: A Computational Tool for Maximum Likelihood Deconvolution of CFSE Time Courses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Nikolaievich Shokhirev

    Full Text Available The immune response is a concerted dynamic multi-cellular process. Upon infection, the dynamics of lymphocyte populations are an aggregate of molecular processes that determine the activation, division, and longevity of individual cells. The timing of these single-cell processes is remarkably widely distributed with some cells undergoing their third division while others undergo their first. High cell-to-cell variability and technical noise pose challenges for interpreting popular dye-dilution experiments objectively. It remains an unresolved challenge to avoid under- or over-interpretation of such data when phenotyping gene-targeted mouse models or patient samples. Here we develop and characterize a computational methodology to parameterize a cell population model in the context of noisy dye-dilution data. To enable objective interpretation of model fits, our method estimates fit sensitivity and redundancy by stochastically sampling the solution landscape, calculating parameter sensitivities, and clustering to determine the maximum-likelihood solution ranges. Our methodology accounts for both technical and biological variability by using a cell fluorescence model as an adaptor during population model fitting, resulting in improved fit accuracy without the need for ad hoc objective functions. We have incorporated our methodology into an integrated phenotyping tool, FlowMax, and used it to analyze B cells from two NFκB knockout mice with distinct phenotypes; we not only confirm previously published findings at a fraction of the expended effort and cost, but reveal a novel phenotype of nfkb1/p105/50 in limiting the proliferative capacity of B cells following B-cell receptor stimulation. In addition to complementing experimental work, FlowMax is suitable for high throughput analysis of dye dilution studies within clinical and pharmacological screens with objective and quantitative conclusions.

  2. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area.

  3. Generalized empirical likelihood methods for analyzing longitudinal data

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, S.

    2010-02-16

    Efficient estimation of parameters is a major objective in analyzing longitudinal data. We propose two generalized empirical likelihood based methods that take into consideration within-subject correlations. A nonparametric version of the Wilks theorem for the limiting distributions of the empirical likelihood ratios is derived. It is shown that one of the proposed methods is locally efficient among a class of within-subject variance-covariance matrices. A simulation study is conducted to investigate the finite sample properties of the proposed methods and compare them with the block empirical likelihood method by You et al. (2006) and the normal approximation with a correctly estimated variance-covariance. The results suggest that the proposed methods are generally more efficient than existing methods which ignore the correlation structure, and better in coverage compared to the normal approximation with correctly specified within-subject correlation. An application illustrating our methods and supporting the simulation study results is also presented.

  4. Fitting Cox Models with Doubly Censored Data Using Spline-Based Sieve Marginal Likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Owzar, Kouros

    2015-01-01

    In some applications, the failure time of interest is the time from an originating event to a failure event, while both event times are interval censored. We propose fitting Cox proportional hazards models to this type of data using a spline-based sieve maximum marginal likelihood, where the time to the originating event is integrated out in the empirical likelihood function of the failure time of interest. This greatly reduces the complexity of the objective function compared with the fully semiparametric likelihood. The dependence of the time of interest on time to the originating event is induced by including the latter as a covariate in the proportional hazards model for the failure time of interest. The use of splines results in a higher rate of convergence of the estimator of the baseline hazard function compared with the usual nonparametric estimator. The computation of the estimator is facilitated by a multiple imputation approach. Asymptotic theory is established and a simulation study is conducted to assess its finite sample performance. It is also applied to analyzing a real data set on AIDS incubation time. PMID:27239090

  5. Regularization parameter selection for penalized-likelihood list-mode image reconstruction in PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Niu, Xiaofeng; Asma, Evren; Wang, Wenli; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-06-21

    Penalized likelihood (PL) reconstruction has demonstrated potential to improve image quality of positron emission tomography (PET) over unregularized ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) algorithm. However, selecting proper regularization parameters in PL reconstruction has been challenging due to the lack of ground truth and variation of penalty functions. Here we present a method to choose regularization parameters using a cross-validation log-likelihood (CVLL) function. This new method does not require any knowledge of the true image and is directly applicable to list-mode PET data. We performed statistical analysis of the mean and variance of the CVLL. The results show that the CVLL provides an unbiased estimate of the log-likelihood function calculated using the noise free data. The predicted variance can be used to verify the statistical significance of the difference between CVLL values. The proposed method was validated using simulation studies and also applied to real patient data. The reconstructed images using optimum parameters selected by the proposed method show good image quality visually.

  6. Training-induced brain activation and functional connectivity differentiate multi-talker and single-talker speech training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M

    2018-03-10

    In second language acquisition studies, the high talker variability training approach has been frequently used to train participants to learn new speech patterns. However, the neuroplasticity induced by training is poorly understood. In the present study, native English speakers were trained on non-native pitch patterns (linguistic tones from Mandarin Chinese) in multi-talker (N = 16) or single-talker (N = 16) training conditions. We focused on two aspects of multi-talker training, voice processing and lexical phonology accessing, and used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation and functional connectivity (FC) of two regions of interest in a tone identification task conducted before and after training, namely the anterior part of the right superior temporal gyrus (aRSTG) and the posterior left superior temporal gyrus (pLSTG). The results showed distinct patterns of associations between neural signals and learning success for multi-talker training. Specifically, post-training brain activation in the aRSTG and FC strength between the aRSTG and pLSTG were correlated with learning success in the multi-talker training group but not in the single-talker group. These results suggest that talker variability in the training procedure may enhance neural efficiency in these brain areas and strengthen the cooperation between them. Our findings highlight the brain processing of newly learned speech patterns is influenced by the given training approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Single cell electroporation for longitudinal imaging of synaptic structure and function in the adult mouse neocortex in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane ePages

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal imaging studies of neuronal structures in vivo have revealed rich dynamics in dendritic spines and axonal boutons. Spines and boutons are considered to be proxies for synapses. This implies that synapses display similar dynamics. However, spines and boutons do not always bear synapses, some may contain more than one, and dendritic shaft synapses have no clear structural proxies. In addition, synaptic strength is not always accurately revealed by just the size of these structures. Structural and functional dynamics of synapses could be studied more reliably using fluorescent synaptic proteins as markers for size and function. These proteins are often large and possibly interfere with circuit development, which renders them less suitable for conventional transfection or transgenesis methods such as viral vectors, in utero electroporation and germline transgenesis. Single cell electroporation has been shown to be a potential alternative for transfection of recombinant fluorescent proteins in adult cortical neurons. Here we provide proof of principle for the use of single cell electroporation to express and subsequently image fluorescently tagged synaptic proteins over days to weeks in vivo.

  8. The use of the Berlin Heart EXCOR in patients with functional single ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Samuel; Bello, Ricardo; Pizarro, Christian; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Kirklin, James; Guleserian, Kristine; Woods, Ronald; Tjossem, Christine; Kroslowitz, Robert; Friedmann, Patricia; Jaquiss, Robert

    2014-02-01

    The frequency and successful use of pediatric ventricular assist devices (VADs) as a bridge to cardiac transplantation have been steadily increasing since 2003, but the experience in patients with complex congenital heart disease has not been well described. Using a large prospectively collected dataset of children supported with the Berlin Heart EXCOR VAD, we have reviewed the experience in children with single ventricular anatomy or physiology (SV), and compared the results with those supported with biventricular circulation (BV) over the same time period. The EXCOR Investigational Device Exemption study database was retrospectively reviewed. VAD implants under the primary cohort and compassionate use cohort between May 2007 and December 2011 were included in this review. Twenty-six of 281 patients supported with a VAD were SV. The most common diagnosis was hypoplastic left heart syndrome (15 of 26). Nine patients were supported after neonatal palliative surgery (Blalock-Taussig shunt or Sano), 12 after a superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC), and 5 after total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). Two patients received biventricular assist devices, 1 after stage I surgery and 1 after stage II. SV patients were supported for a median time of 10.5 days (range, 1-363 days) versus 39 days (range, 0-435 days) for BV (P = .01). The ability to be bridged to transplant or recovery in SV patients is lower than for BV patients (11 of 26 [42.3%] vs 185 of 255 [72.5%]; P = .001). Three of 5 patients with TCPC were successfully bridged to transplant and were supported with 1 VAD. Seven of 12 patients with SCPC were bridged to transplant, and only 1 of 9 patients supported after a stage I procedure survived. The EXCOR Pediatric VAD can provide a bridge to transplant for children with SV anatomy or physiology, albeit less successfully than in children with BV. In this small series, results are better in patients with SCPC and TCPC. VAD support for patients with shunted sources

  9. Periodic density functional theory study of structural and electronic properties of single-walled zinc oxide and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marana, Naiara L. [Modeling and Molecular Simulations Group, São Paulo State University, UNESP, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, Anderson R. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertão Pernambucano, 56400-000 Floresta, PE (Brazil); La Porta, Felipe A. [Chemistry Department, Federal Technological University of Paraná, 86036-370 Londrina, PR (Brazil); Longo, Elson [São Paulo State University, Chemistry Institute, UNESP, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Sambrano, Julio R. [Modeling and Molecular Simulations Group, São Paulo State University, UNESP, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Periodic density functional theory calculations with the B3LYP hybrid functional and all-electron Gaussian basis set were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of single-walled ZnO nanotubes (SWZnONTs) and Carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. For all SWZnONTs, the band gap, strain energy, and formation energy converge to ~4.5 eV, 0.0 eV/atom, and 0.40 eV/atom, respectively. This result suggests that the nanotubes are formed more easily from the surface than from the bulk. For SWCNTs, the strain energy is always positive, while the formation energy is negative for armchair and zigzag nanotubes, therefore suggesting that these types of nanotubes can be preferentially formed from the bulk. The electronic properties of SWCNTs depend on the chirality; all armchair nanotubes are metallic, while zigzag and chiral nanotubes can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on the n and m vectors. - Graphical abstract: DFT/B3LYP were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of SWZnONTs and SWCNTs with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. - Highlights: • The energies of SWZnONTs converge for chirality with diameters up 20 Å. • SWCNTs electronic properties depend on the chirality. • The properties of SWZnONTs are very similar to those of monolayer surface.

  10. Paradigm free mapping with sparse regression automatically detects single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation level dependent responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Gaudes, César; Petridou, Natalia; Francis, Susan T; Dryden, Ian L; Gowland, Penny A

    2013-03-01

    The ability to detect single trial responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies is essential, particularly if investigating learning or adaptation processes or unpredictable events. We recently introduced paradigm free mapping (PFM), an analysis method that detects single trial blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses without specifying prior information on the timing of the events. PFM is based on the deconvolution of the fMRI signal using a linear hemodynamic convolution model. Our previous PFM method (Caballero-Gaudes et al., 2011: Hum Brain Mapp) used the ridge regression estimator for signal deconvolution and required a baseline signal period for statistical inference. In this work, we investigate the application of sparse regression techniques in PFM. In particular, a novel PFM approach is developed using the Dantzig selector estimator, solved via an efficient homotopy procedure, along with statistical model selection criteria. Simulation results demonstrated that, using the Bayesian information criterion to select the regularization parameter, this method obtains high detection rates of the BOLD responses, comparable with a model-based analysis, but requiring no information on the timing of the events and being robust against hemodynamic response function variability. The practical operation of this sparse PFM method was assessed with single-trial fMRI data acquired at 7T, where it automatically detected all task-related events, and was an improvement on our previous PFM method, as it does not require the definition of a baseline state and amplitude thresholding and does not compromise on specificity and sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Feasibility of single breath-hold left ventricular function with 3 Tesla TSENSE acquisition and 3D modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alistair A; Cowan, Brett R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Wintersperger, Bernd J

    2008-05-21

    A single breath-hold evaluation of ventricular function would allow assessment in cases where scan time or patient tolerance is limited. Spatiotemporal acceleration techniques such as TSENSE decrease cardiovascular MR acquisition time, but standard slice summation analysis requires enough short axis slices to cover the left ventricle (LV). By reducing the number of short axis slices, incorporating long axis slices, and applying a 3D model based analysis, it may be possible to obtain accurate LV mass and volumes. We evaluated LV volume, mass and ejection fraction at 3.0 T using a 3D modeling analysis in 9 patients with a history of myocardial infarction and one healthy volunteer. Acquisition consisted of a standard short axis SSFP stack and a 15 heart-beat single breath-hold six slice multi-planar (4 short and 2 long axis) TSENSE SSFP protocol with an acceleration factor of R = 4. Differences (standard minus accelerated protocol mean +/- s.d.) and coefficients of variation (s.d. of differences as a percentage of the average estimate) were 7.5 +/- 9.6 mL and 6% for end-diastolic volume (p = 0.035), 0.4 +/- 5.1 mL and 7% for end-systolic volume (p = NS), 7.1 +/- 8.1 mL and 9% for stroke volume (p = 0.022), 2.2 +/- 2.8% and 5% for ejection fraction (p = 0.035), and -7.1 +/- 6.2 g and 4% for LV mass (p = 0.005), respectively. Intra- and inter-observer errors were similar for both protocols (p = NS for all measures). These results suggest that clinically useful estimates of LV function can be obtained in a TSENSE accelerated single breath-hold reduced slice acquisition at 3T using 3D modeling analysis techniques.

  12. Greenery in the university environment: Students' preferences and perceived restoration likelihood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole van den Bogerd

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence shows that interaction with greenery can be beneficial for human stress reduction, emotional states, and improved cognitive function. It can, therefore, be expected that university students might benefit from greenery in the university environment. Before investing in real-life interventions in a university environment, it is necessary to first explore students' perceptions of greenery in the university environment. This study examined (1 preference for university indoor and outdoor spaces with and without greenery (2 perceived restoration likelihood of university outdoor spaces with and without greenery and (3 if preference and perceived restoration likelihood ratings were modified by demographic characteristics or connectedness to nature in Dutch university students (N = 722. Digital photographic stimuli represented four university spaces (lecture hall, classroom, study area, university outdoor space. For each of the three indoor spaces there were four or five stimuli conditions: (1 the standard design (2 the standard design with a colorful poster (3 the standard design with a nature poster (4 the standard design with a green wall (5 the standard design with a green wall plus interior plants. The university outdoor space included: (1 the standard design (2 the standard design with seating (3 the standard design with colorful artifacts (4 the standard design with green elements (5 the standard design with extensive greenery. Multi-level analyses showed that students gave higher preference ratings to the indoor spaces with a nature poster, a green wall, or a green wall plus interior plants than to the standard designs and the designs with the colorful posters. Students also rated preference and perceived restoration likelihood of the outdoor spaces that included greenery higher than those without. Preference and perceived restoration likelihood were not modified by demographic characteristics, but students with strong

  13. Greenery in the university environment: Students’ preferences and perceived restoration likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence shows that interaction with greenery can be beneficial for human stress reduction, emotional states, and improved cognitive function. It can, therefore, be expected that university students might benefit from greenery in the university environment. Before investing in real-life interventions in a university environment, it is necessary to first explore students’ perceptions of greenery in the university environment. This study examined (1) preference for university indoor and outdoor spaces with and without greenery (2) perceived restoration likelihood of university outdoor spaces with and without greenery and (3) if preference and perceived restoration likelihood ratings were modified by demographic characteristics or connectedness to nature in Dutch university students (N = 722). Digital photographic stimuli represented four university spaces (lecture hall, classroom, study area, university outdoor space). For each of the three indoor spaces there were four or five stimuli conditions: (1) the standard design (2) the standard design with a colorful poster (3) the standard design with a nature poster (4) the standard design with a green wall (5) the standard design with a green wall plus interior plants. The university outdoor space included: (1) the standard design (2) the standard design with seating (3) the standard design with colorful artifacts (4) the standard design with green elements (5) the standard design with extensive greenery. Multi-level analyses showed that students gave higher preference ratings to the indoor spaces with a nature poster, a green wall, or a green wall plus interior plants than to the standard designs and the designs with the colorful posters. Students also rated preference and perceived restoration likelihood of the outdoor spaces that included greenery higher than those without. Preference and perceived restoration likelihood were not modified by demographic characteristics, but students with strong

  14. Greenery in the university environment: Students' preferences and perceived restoration likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogerd, Nicole; Dijkstra, S Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C; Maas, Jolanda

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence shows that interaction with greenery can be beneficial for human stress reduction, emotional states, and improved cognitive function. It can, therefore, be expected that university students might benefit from greenery in the university environment. Before investing in real-life interventions in a university environment, it is necessary to first explore students' perceptions of greenery in the university environment. This study examined (1) preference for university indoor and outdoor spaces with and without greenery (2) perceived restoration likelihood of university outdoor spaces with and without greenery and (3) if preference and perceived restoration likelihood ratings were modified by demographic characteristics or connectedness to nature in Dutch university students (N = 722). Digital photographic stimuli represented four university spaces (lecture hall, classroom, study area, university outdoor space). For each of the three indoor spaces there were four or five stimuli conditions: (1) the standard design (2) the standard design with a colorful poster (3) the standard design with a nature poster (4) the standard design with a green wall (5) the standard design with a green wall plus interior plants. The university outdoor space included: (1) the standard design (2) the standard design with seating (3) the standard design with colorful artifacts (4) the standard design with green elements (5) the standard design with extensive greenery. Multi-level analyses showed that students gave higher preference ratings to the indoor spaces with a nature poster, a green wall, or a green wall plus interior plants than to the standard designs and the designs with the colorful posters. Students also rated preference and perceived restoration likelihood of the outdoor spaces that included greenery higher than those without. Preference and perceived restoration likelihood were not modified by demographic characteristics, but students with strong

  15. RENAL FUNCTION AND ADAPTIVE CHANGES AFTER RADICAL OR PARTIAL NEPHRECTOMY: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To study the renal function before partial or total nephrectomy and to study change in renal function and adaptive change in the retained kidney after partial or total nephrectomy. Place and Duration: The prospective study of 40 patients was conducted by the Dept. of Nephrology and Dept. of Urology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur from July 2012 to July 2014 METHODS The data for the study was obtained from all the patients undergoing nephrectomy at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, in the study duration. 20 patients from the donor nephrectomy group and 20 from nephrectomy group were considered. Open Nephrectomy was performed by a lumbar incision in all 40 patients. After tracheal intubation and general anaesthesia, the nephrectomy was performed through an incision under the left or right costal margin. GFR of both kidneys before surgery and of the unilateral retained kidney were determined in each subject using the Tc-99m DTPA Scans. Donors underwent the first follow-up at 1 month after surgery and then at 6 months and 1 year after surgery. The follow-up included measurements of blood pressure, urinary protein, serum creatinine, and GFR of the retained kidney by Tc-99m DTPA scan as well as volume of the retained kidney by ultrasound examination. RESULTS A total number of 80 patients were included in this study. In donor group female to male ratio was 4:1 and in disease group male to female ratio was 3:1. Maximum no. of patients was of age group 50-60 years in both groups, with mean age of 44.8±6.7 years in donor group and 48.7±5.5 years in disease group. In disease group majority patients who underwent nephrectomy were suffering from RCC. Th98ere was no significant effect on blood pressure, haemoglobin, blood sugar level, urine pH., urine specific gravity after nephrectomy in both groups. In both groups 24-hour urine protein increased from preoperative level to 11.3% in donor group and 17.1% in disease

  16. Raman Investigations on PVC-Functionalized Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Jorge; Chipara, Dorina; Ibrahim, Elamin; Chipara, Mircea

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is a widely used polymer whose applications are limited by poor thermal and flame stability. Nanofillers typically enhance the thermal stability and reduce flammability of polymers. Composites containing PVC loaded by COOH functionalized SWNT (PVC-fSWNT) have been obtained by solution mixing. The polymeric matrix was dissolved in THF, the nanofiller was added to the solution, and the as obtained mixture was sonicated for 1 hour. The solvent has been evaporated by heating at 90 oC in an oven for about 12 hours. The concentration of fSWNT ranged from 0 % wt. up to 20 % wt. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) has been performed by using a TA instrument Q500 operating at various heating rates (ranging from 10 to 50 oC/min) from 50 oC to 1000 oC. Measurements have been performed by using a Renishaw InVia confocal Raman microscope, equipped with lasers operating at 432 and 785 nm. The analysis is focused on the effect of polymeric matrix on the fSWNT lines and on the modifications of the Raman lines assigned to the polymeric matrix. Raman measurements on PVC-fSWNT nanocomposites thermally degraded in air in the temperature range 50 to 300 oC are reported. This work was supported by DOD Grant W911NF-15-10063 awarded to University of Rio Grande Valley, Physics Department.

  17. Unbinned likelihood maximisation framework for neutrino clustering in Python

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenders, Stefan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Albeit having detected an astrophysical neutrino flux with IceCube, sources of astrophysical neutrinos remain hidden up to now. A detection of a neutrino point source is a smoking gun for hadronic processes and acceleration of cosmic rays. The search for neutrino sources has many degrees of freedom, for example steady versus transient, point-like versus extended sources, et cetera. Here, we introduce a Python framework designed for unbinned likelihood maximisations as used in searches for neutrino point sources by IceCube. Implementing source scenarios in a modular way, likelihood searches on various kinds can be implemented in a user-friendly way, without sacrificing speed and memory management.

  18. Likelihood-based inference for clustered line transect data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Schweder, Tore

    The uncertainty in estimation of spatial animal density from line transect surveys depends on the degree of spatial clustering in the animal population. To quantify the clustering we model line transect data as independent thinnings of spatial shot-noise Cox processes. Likelihood-based inference...... is implemented using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to obtain efficient estimates of spatial clustering parameters. Uncertainty is addressed using parametric bootstrap or by consideration of posterior distributions in a Bayesian setting. Maximum likelihood estimation and Bayesian inference is compared...

  19. Bayesian and maximum likelihood estimation of genetic maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    York, Thomas L.; Durrett, Richard T.; Tanksley, Steven

    2005-01-01

    that makes the Bayesian method applicable to large data sets. We present an extensive simulation study examining the statistical properties of the method and comparing it with the likelihood method implemented in Mapmaker. We show that the Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) estimator of the genetic distances......, corresponding to the maximum likelihood estimator, performs better than estimators based on the posterior expectation. We also show that while the performance is similar between Mapmaker and the MCMC-based method in the absence of genotyping errors, the MCMC-based method has a distinct advantage in the presence...

  20. A Gaussian Process Data Modelling and Maximum Likelihood Data Fusion Method for Multi-Sensor CMM Measurement of Freeform Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of freeform surfaces in various functional applications has become more widespread. Multi-sensor coordinate measuring machines (CMMs are becoming popular and are produced by many CMM manufacturers since their measurement ability can be significantly improved with the help of different kinds of sensors. Moreover, the measurement accuracy after data fusion for multiple sensors can be improved. However, the improvement is affected by many issues in practice, especially when the measurement results have bias and there exists uncertainty regarding the data modelling method. This paper proposes a generic data modelling and data fusion method for the measurement of freeform surfaces using multi-sensor CMMs and attempts to study the factors which affect the fusion result. Based on the data modelling method for the original measurement datasets and the statistical Bayesian inference data fusion method, this paper presents a Gaussian process data modelling and maximum likelihood data fusion method for supporting multi-sensor CMM measurement of freeform surfaces. The datasets from different sensors are firstly modelled with the Gaussian process to obtain the mean surfaces and covariance surfaces, which represent the underlying surfaces and associated measurement uncertainties. Hence, the mean surfaces and the covariance surfaces are fused together with the maximum likelihood principle so as to obtain the statistically best estimated underlying surface and associated measurement uncertainty. With this fusion method, the overall measurement uncertainty after fusion is smaller than each of the single-sensor measurements. The capability of the proposed method is demonstrated through a series of simulations and real measurements of freeform surfaces on a multi-sensor CMM. The accuracy of the Gaussian process data modelling and the influence of the form error and measurement noise are also discussed and demonstrated in a series of experiments

  1. The functional anatomy of single-digit arithmetic in children with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tanya M; Flowers, D Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M; Olulade, Olumide A; Eden, Guinevere F

    2014-11-01

    Some arithmetic procedures, such as addition of small numbers, rely on fact retrieval mechanisms supported by left hemisphere perisylvian language areas, while others, such as subtraction, rely on procedural-based mechanisms subserved by bilateral parietal cortices. Previous work suggests that developmental dyslexia, a reading disability, is accompanied by subtle deficits in retrieval-based arithmetic, possibly because of compromised left hemisphere function. To test this prediction, we compared brain activity underlying arithmetic problem solving in children with and without dyslexia during addition and subtraction operations using a factorial design. The main effect of arithmetic operation (addition versus subtraction) for both groups combined revealed activity during addition in the left superior temporal gyrus and activity during subtraction in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus, the right supramarginal gyrus and the anterior cingulate, consistent with prior studies. For the main effect of diagnostic group (dyslexics versus controls), we found less activity in dyslexic children in the left supramarginal gyrus. Finally, the interaction analysis revealed that while the control group showed a strong response in the right supramarginal gyrus for subtraction but not for addition, the dyslexic group engaged this region for both operations. This provides physiological evidence in support of the theory that children with dyslexia, because of disruption to left hemisphere language areas, use a less optimal route for retrieval-based arithmetic, engaging right hemisphere parietal regions typically used by good readers for procedural-based arithmetic. Our results highlight the importance of language processing for mathematical processing and illustrate that children with dyslexia have impairments that extend beyond reading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Functional Anatomy of Single-Digit Arithmetic in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tanya M.; Flowers, D. Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M.; Olulade, Olumide A.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2014-01-01

    Some arithmetic procedures, such as addition of small numbers, rely on fact retrieval mechanisms supported by left hemisphere perisylvian language areas, while others, such as subtraction, rely on procedural-based mechanisms subserved by bilateral parietal cortices. Previous work suggests that developmental dyslexia, a reading disability, is accompanied by subtle deficits in retrieval-based arithmetic, possibly because of compromised left hemisphere function. To test this prediction, we compared brain activity underlying arithmetic problem solving in children with and without dyslexia during addition and subtraction operations using a factorial design. The main effect of arithmetic operation (addition versus subtraction) for both groups combined revealed activity during addition in the left superior temporal gyrus and activity during subtraction in bilateral intraparietal sulcus, right supramarginal gyrus and the anterior cingulate, consistent with prior studies. For the main effect of diagnostic group (dyslexics versus controls), we found less activity in dyslexic children in the left supramarginal gyrus. Finally, the interaction analysis revealed that while the control group showed a strong response in right supramarginal gyrus for subtraction but not for addition, the dyslexic group engaged this region for both operations. This provides physiological evidence in support of the theory that children with dyslexia, because of disruption to left hemisphere language areas, use a less optimal route for retrieval-based arithmetic, engaging right hemisphere parietal regions typically used by good readers for procedural-based arithmetic. Our results highlight the importance of language processing for mathematical processing and illustrate that children with dyslexia have impairments that extend beyond reading. PMID:25067820

  3. Oncologic results, functional outcomes, and complication rates of transperitoneal robotic assisted radical prostatectomy: single centre's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan-Tasci, A; Simsek, A; Dogukan-Torer, M B; Sokmen, D; Sahin, S; Bitkin, A; Tugcu, V

    2015-03-01

    We report the operative details and short term oncologic and functional outcome of the first 334 Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy experiences for organ confined prostate cancer From August 2009 to December 2012, details of 334 consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed. The analyzed parameters included: preoperative, per-operative characteristics, postoperative minor and major complications, positive surgical margin continence, potency, and biochemical progression at the follow-up period. The classical extrafascial, interfascial, intrafascial and fascia sparing radical prostatectomy were performed in 31, 41, 200, and 62 cases, respectively. The mean operation time was 213.8±90.1minutes, and the mean estimated blood loss was 116.1±58.9cc during operation. A nerve-sparing procedure was performed bilaterally in 198 (59.3%) cases and unilaterally in 126 (37.7%) cases. The catheter was removed on postoperative day 9, 1±1.9. Surgical margin was positive in 36 (10.7%) patients. The overall, pT2, pT3a and pT3b PSM rates were 8 (2.4%), 12 (3.6%), 16 (4.8%) respectively and PSM and BCR rates were not statistically different among four approach (P>.05). At the follow-up period, the continence rates were 74.4%, 80.4%, 80.5%, and 96.7% (P.05), in classic extrafascial, interfascial, intrafascial, and fascia sparing intrafascial prostatectomy, respectively. RARP is a safe and feasible technique in treatment of localized prostate cancer. Fascia sparing approach has better continence rate. This results need to be supported by new prospective, randomized studies. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. A portable single-sided magnet system for remote NMR measurements of pulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikayel, Dabaghyan; Iga, Muradyan; James, Butler; Eric, Frederick; Feng, Zhou; Angelos, Kyriazis; Charles, Hardin; Samuel, Patz; Mirko, Hrovat

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report initial results from a light-weight, low field magnetic resonance device designed to make relative pulmonary density measurements at the bedside. The development of this device necessarily involves special considerations for the magnet, RF and data acquisition schemes as well as a careful analysis of what is needed to provide useful information in the ICU. A homogeneous field region is created remotely from the surface of the magnet such that when the magnet is placed against the chest, an NMR signal is measured from a small volume in the lung. In order to achieve portability, one must trade off field strength and therefore spatial resolution. We report initial measurements from a ping-pong ball size region in the lung as a function of lung volume. As expected, we measured decreased signal at larger lung volumes since lung density decreases with increasing lung volume. Using a CPMG sequence with ΔTE=3.5 ms and a 20 echo train, a signal to noise ratio ~1100 was obtained from an 8.8mT planar magnet after signal averaging for 43 s. This is the first demonstration of NMR measurements made on a human lung with a light-weight planar NMR device. We argue that very low spatial resolution measurements of different lobar lung regions will provide useful diagnostic information for clinicians treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as clinicians want to avoid ventilator pressures that cause either lung over distension (too much pressure) or lung collapse (too little pressure). PMID:24953556

  5. Improvement of single detector proton radiography by incorporating intensity of time-resolved dose rate functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongxiao; Jee, Kyung-Wook; Cascio, Ethan; Sharp, Gregory C.; Flanz, Jacob B.; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Proton radiography, which images patients with the same type of particles as those with which they are to be treated, is a promising approach to image guidance and water equivalent path length (WEPL) verification in proton radiation therapy. We have shown recently that proton radiographs could be obtained by measuring time-resolved dose rate functions (DRFs) using an x-ray amorphous silicon flat panel. The WEPL values were derived solely from the root-mean-square (RMS) of DRFs, while the intensity information in the DRFs was filtered out. In this work, we explored the use of such intensity information for potential improvement in WEPL accuracy and imaging quality. Three WEPL derivation methods based on, respectively, the RMS only, the intensity only, and the intensity-weighted RMS were tested and compared in terms of the quality of obtained radiograph images and the accuracy of WEPL values. A Gammex CT calibration phantom containing inserts made of various tissue substitute materials with independently measured relative stopping powers (RSP) was used to assess the imaging performances. Improved image quality with enhanced interfaces was achieved while preserving the accuracy by using intensity information in the calibration. Other objects, including an anthropomorphic head phantom, a proton therapy range compensator, a frozen lamb’s head and an ‘image quality phantom’ were also imaged. Both the RMS only and the intensity-weighted RMS methods derived RSPs within  ±  1% for most of the Gammex phantom inserts, with a mean absolute percentage error of 0.66% for all inserts. In the case of the insert with a titanium rod, the method based on RMS completely failed, whereas that based on the intensity-weighted RMS was qualitatively valid. The use of intensity greatly enhanced the interfaces between different materials in the obtained WEPL images, suggesting the potential for image guidance in areas such as patient positioning and tumor tracking by proton

  6. Parathyroid Gland Function in Kidney Transplanted Patient: A single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar BARADARAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Information on the time course of serum parathormone levels after renal transplantation is scanty. Both the abrupt cessation of calcium-containing phosphorus binders and vitamin D (analogs at the time of surgery and the recovery of renal function may be hypothesized to affect parathyroid gland. This study firstly examined frequency distribution of various biochemical parameters such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP, phosphorus (P, intact parathormone (iPTH and calcium (Ca in renal transplanted patients and secondly examined the relationship between these parameters and various demographic data of renal transplanted recipients. Material and Methods: we studied 72 renal transplanted patients (47 men and 25 women with mean ages of 44 ± 12 years and mean body mass index of 24.2 ± 3.9. Serum Ca, P, ALP and serum iPTH were measured. Results: In this study, mean serum Ca and iPTH were 9.5 ± 0.7mg/dL and18.4 ± 8.2 Pg/mL (median=16.5. Mean serum ALP was 169 ± 133 IU/L (median=131. In this study, there was a negative relationship between serum iPTH and creatinine clearance (r=-0.44 P 0.05. There were inverse correlations of serum ALP with age (r=-0.35 P= 0.02 and duration of kidney transplantation (r=-0.29 P= 0.01. Conclusions: In contrast to previous findings, in this group of patients, there was not secondary hyperparathyroism or significantly increased bone activity. The results showed suppressed parathormone secretion. The reason may be due to excessive intake of calcium and Vitamin D analogues, which suppress the parathyroid gland, and may prone these patients to adynamic bone disease.

  7. A portable single-sided magnet system for remote NMR measurements of pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Muradyan, Iga; Hrovat, Alan; Butler, James; Frederick, Eric; Zhou, Feng; Kyriazis, Angelos; Hardin, Charles; Patz, Samuel; Hrovat, Mirko

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we report initial results from a light-weight, low field magnetic resonance device designed to make relative pulmonary density measurements at the bedside. The development of this device necessarily involves special considerations for the magnet, RF and data acquisition schemes as well as a careful analysis of what is needed to provide useful information in the ICU. A homogeneous field region is created remotely from the surface of the magnet such that when the magnet is placed against the chest, an NMR signal is measured from a small volume in the lung. In order to achieve portability, one must trade off field strength and therefore spatial resolution. We report initial measurements from a ping-pong ball size region in the lung as a function of lung volume. As expected, we measured decreased signal at larger lung volumes since lung density decreases with increasing lung volume. Using a CPMG sequence with ΔTE=3.5 ms and a 20 echo train, a signal to noise ratio ~1100 was obtained from an 8.8mT planar magnet after signal averaging for 43 s. This is the first demonstration of NMR measurements made on a human lung with a light-weight planar NMR device. We argue that very low spatial resolution measurements of different lobar lung regions will provide useful diagnostic information for clinicians treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as clinicians want to avoid ventilator pressures that cause either lung over distension (too much pressure) or lung collapse (too little pressure). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Single Session of Functional Electrical Stimulation-Assisted Walking Produces Corticomotor Symmetry Changes Related to Changes in Poststroke Walking Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jacqueline A; Hsiao, HaoYuan; Wright, Tamara; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A

    2017-05-01

    Recent research demonstrated that the symmetry of corticomotor drive with the paretic and nonparetic plantarflexor muscles was related to the biomechanical ankle moment strategy that people with chronic stroke used to achieve their greatest walking speeds. Rehabilitation strategies that promote corticomotor balance might improve poststroke walking mechanics and enhance functional ambulation. The study objectives were to test the effectiveness of a single session of gait training using functional electrical stimulation (FES) to improve plantarflexor corticomotor symmetry and plantarflexion ankle moment symmetry and to determine whether changes in corticomotor symmetry were related to changes in ankle moment symmetry within the session. This was a repeated-measures crossover study. On separate days, 20 people with chronic stroke completed a session of treadmill walking either with or without the use of FES of their ankle dorsi- and plantarflexor muscles. We calculated plantarflexor corticomotor symmetry using transcranial magnetic stimulation and plantarflexion ankle moment symmetry during walking between the paretic and the nonparetic limbs before and after each session. We compared changes and tested relationships between corticomotor symmetry and ankle moment symmetry following each session. Following the session with FES, there was an increase in plantarflexor corticomotor symmetry that was related to the observed increase in ankle moment symmetry. In contrast, following the session without FES, there were no changes in corticomotor symmetry or ankle moment symmetry. No stratification was made on the basis of lesion size, location, or clinical severity. These findings demonstrate, for the first time (to our knowledge), the ability of a single session of gait training with FES to induce positive corticomotor plasticity in people in the chronic stage of stroke recovery. They also provide insight into the neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying improvements in

  9. Acute effects of exergames on cognitive function of institutionalized older persons: a single-blinded, randomized and controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; da Silva Figueiredo, Luiz Felipe; Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo de Tarso; Abud, Erick Lohan Rodrigues; Braga, Ana Elisa Mendes Montalvão; Barca, Maria Lage; Engedal, Knut; Nascimento, Osvaldo José M; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Laks, Jerson

    2017-06-01

    Improvements on balance, gait and cognition are some of the benefits of exergames. Few studies have investigated the cognitive effects of exergames in institutionalized older persons. To assess the acute effect of a single session of exergames on cognition of institutionalized older persons. Nineteen institutionalized older persons were randomly allocated to Wii (WG, n = 10, 86 ± 7 year, two males) or control groups (CG, n = 9, 86 ± 5 year, one male). The WG performed six exercises with virtual reality, whereas CG performed six exercises without virtual reality. Verbal fluency test (VFT), digit span forward and digit span backward were used to evaluate semantic memory/executive function, short-term memory and work memory, respectively, before and after exergames and Δ post- to pre-session (absolute) and Δ % (relative) were calculated. Parametric (t independent test) and nonparametric (Mann-Whitney test) statistics and effect size were applied to tests for efficacy. VFT was statistically significant within WG (-3.07, df = 9, p = 0.013). We found no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05). Effect size between groups of Δ % (median = 21 %) showed moderate effect for WG (0.63). Our data show moderate improvement of semantic memory/executive function due to exergames session. It is possible that cognitive brain areas are activated during exergames, increasing clinical response. A single session of exergames showed no significant improvement in short-term memory, working memory and semantic memory/executive function. The effect size for verbal fluency was promising, and future studies on this issue should be developed. RBR-6rytw2.

  10. Engineering single-molecule, nanoscale, and microscale bio-functional materials via click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Michael Angelo-Anthony

    To expand the design envelope and supplement the materials library available to biomaterials scientists, the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuCAAC) was explored as a route to design, synthesize and characterize bio-functional small-molecules, nanoparticles, and microfibers. In each engineered system, the use of click chemistry provided facile, bio-orthogonal control for materials synthesis; moreover, the results provided a methodology and more complete, fundamental understanding of the use of click chemistry as a tool for the synergy of biotechnology, polymer and materials science. Fluorophores with well-defined photophysical characteristics (ranging from UV to NIR fluorescence) were used as building blocks for small-molecule, fluorescent biosensors. Fluorophores were paired to exhibit fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) and used to probe the metabolic activity of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO). The FRET pair exhibited a significant variation in PL response with exposure to the lysate of Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10, an organism which can degrade variants of both the donor and acceptor fluorophores. Nanoparticle systems were modified via CuCAAC chemistry to carry affinity tags for CARDO and were subsequently utilized for affinity based bioseparation of CARDO from crude cell lysate. The enzymes were baited with an azide-modified carbazolyl-moiety attached to a poly(propargyl acrylate) nanoparticle. Magnetic nanocluster systems were also modified via CuCAAC chemistry to carry fluorescent imaging tags. The iron-oxide nanoclusters were coated with poly(acrylic acid-co-propargyl acrylate) to provide a clickable surface. Ultimately, alternate Cu-free click chemistries were utilized to produce biohybrid microfibers. The biohybrid microfibers were synthesized under benign photopolymerization conditions inside a microchannel, allowing the encapsulation of viable bacteria. By adjusting pre-polymer solutions and laminar flow rates within the

  11. Effects of single-sided inferior turbinectomy on nasal function and airflow characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yang; Chung, Kang Soo; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Sung Kyun

    2012-03-15

    Knowledge of airflow characteristics in the nasal cavity is essential to understanding the physiologic and pathologic aspects of nasal breathing. Airflows inside post-surgery models were investigated both experimentally and numerically to simulate the inferior turbinectomy. The left cavities of all three models are normal and right cavity is modified by (1) excision of the head of the inferior turbinate, (2) resection of the lower fifth of the inferior turbinate, and (3) resection of almost the entire inferior turbinate. Thin-slice CT (computed tomography) data (0.6mm deep) and meticulous refinement of the model surface by over a decade-long collaboration between engineers and an experienced ENT doctor resulted in the creation of sophisticated nasal cavity models. After numerical experiments and validation by comparison with the PIV results, the CFD code using the Reynolds stress turbulent model and variable temperature boundary condition on the mucosal wall was chosen as the proper numerical framework. Both global quantities (pressure drop, flow rate ratio, total wall heat transfer) and local changes (velocity, temperature, humidity, pressure gradient, and wall shear stress) were numerically investigated. The turbinectomy obviously altered the main stream direction. The flow rate in the upper airway near the olfactory slit decreased in models (1) and (3). This may weaken the olfactory function of the nose. Fluid and thermal properties that are believed to be related with physiology and prognosis are dependent on turbinate resection volume, position, and manner. Widening of the inferior airway does not always result in decreased flow resistance or wall heat transfer. The gains and losses of inferior turbinectomy were considered by analysis of the post-surgery model results. Nasal resistance was increased in model (1) due to sudden airway expansion. Nasal resistance increased and the wall heat transfer decreased in model (3) due to sudden airway expansion and

  12. Assessment of left ventricular function with single breath-hold highly accelerated cine MRI combined with guide-point modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, Christina; Nassenstein, Kai; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonia; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Hunold, Peter; Barkhausen, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of highly accelerated cine MRI in multi-orientations combined with a new guide-point modeling post-processing technique (GPM approach) for assessment of left ventricular (LV) function compared to the standard summation of slices method based on a stack of short axis views (SoS approach). Materials and methods: 33 consecutive patients were examined on a 1.5 T scanner with a standard steady state free precession (SSFP) sequence (TR, 3.0 ms; TE, 1.5 m; flip angle (FA), 60 o ; acceleration factor (AF), 2) analyzed with the SoS method and a highly accelerated, single breath-hold temporal parallel acquisition SSFP sequence (TR, 4.6 ms; TE, 1.1 ms; AF, 3) post-processed with the GPM method. LV function values were measured by two independent readers with different experience in cardiac MRI and compared by using the paired t-test and F-test. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were calculated using Bland-Altman-Plots. Results: Mean acquisition and post-processing time was significantly shorter with the GPM approach (15 s/3 min versus 360 s/6 min). For all LV function parameters interobserver agreement between the experienced and non-experienced reader was significantly improved when the GPM approach was used. However, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were larger for the GPM technique when compared to the SoS method (P 0.121). In both readers and for all parameters variances did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.409) and the two approaches showed an excellent linear correlation (r > 0.951). Conclusion: Due to its accurate, fast and reproducible assessment of LV function parameters highly accelerated MRI combined with the GPM technique may become the technique of first choice for assessment of LV function in clinical routine.

  13. Permeabilization of brain tissue in situ enables multiregion analysis of mitochondrial function in a single mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Eric A F; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-02-15

    the analysis of mitochondrial function in multiple subregions within a single mouse brain. Here this technique was applied to assess regional variation in brain mitochondrial function with acute ischaemia-reperfusion injuries and to determine the role of reactive oxygen species in exacerbating dysfunction through the application of a transgenic mouse model overexpressing catalase within mitochondria. Through creating accessibility to small regions for the investigation of mitochondrial function, the permeabilized brain preparation enhances the capacity for examining regional differences in mitochondrial regulation within the brain, as the majority of genetic models used for unique approaches exist in the mouse model. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  14. Comparison of likelihood testing procedures for parallel systems with covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayman Baklizi; Isa Daud; Noor Akma Ibrahim

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we considered investigating and comparing the behavior of the likelihood ratio, the Rao's and the Wald's statistics for testing hypotheses on the parameters of the simple linear regression model based on parallel systems with covariances. These statistics are asymptotically equivalent (Barndorff-Nielsen and Cox, 1994). However, their relative performances in finite samples are generally known. A Monte Carlo experiment is conducted to stimulate the sizes and the powers of these statistics for complete samples and in the presence of time censoring. Comparisons of the statistics are made according to the attainment of assumed size of the test and their powers at various points in the parameter space. The results show that the likelihood ratio statistics appears to have the best performance in terms of the attainment of the assumed size of the test. Power comparisons show that the Rao statistic has some advantage over the Wald statistic in almost all of the space of alternatives while likelihood ratio statistic occupies either the first or the last position in term of power. Overall, the likelihood ratio statistic appears to be more appropriate to the model under study, especially for small sample sizes

  15. Maximum likelihood estimation of the attenuated ultrasound pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus Bolding

    1994-01-01

    The attenuated ultrasound pulse is divided into two parts: a stationary basic pulse and a nonstationary attenuation pulse. A standard ARMA model is used for the basic pulse, and a nonstandard ARMA model is derived for the attenuation pulse. The maximum likelihood estimator of the attenuated...

  16. LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS USING SIMULTANEOUSLY MONITORED PROCESSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The topic is maximum likelihood inference from several simultaneously monitored response processes of a structure to obtain knowledge about the parameters of other not monitored but important response processes when the structure is subject to some Gaussian load field in space and time. The consi....... The considered example is a ship sailing with a given speed through a Gaussian wave field....

  17. Young adult consumers' media usage and online purchase likelihood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convenience sampling resulted in 1 298 completed questionnaires. The results indicate that young adult consumers use new media more frequently than traditional media. Respondents with online shopping experience displayed a higher online purchasing likelihood than those who have not used this medium before.

  18. A simplification of the likelihood ratio test statistic for testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional likelihood ratio test statistic for testing hypothesis about goodness of fit of multinomial probabilities in one, two and multi – dimensional contingency table was simplified. Advantageously, using the simplified version of the statistic to test the null hypothesis is easier and faster because calculating the expected ...

  19. MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD-ESTIMATION OF THE ENTROPY OF AN ATTRACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOUTEN, JC; TAKENS, F; VANDENBLEEK, CM

    In this paper, a maximum-likelihood estimate of the (Kolmogorov) entropy of an attractor is proposed that can be obtained directly from a time series. Also, the relative standard deviation of the entropy estimate is derived; it is dependent on the entropy and on the number of samples used in the

  20. Attitude towards, and likelihood of, complaining in the banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitude towards, and likelihood of, complaining in the banking, domestic airline and restaurant industries. D.J. Petzer & P.G. Mostert. 1AbstrAct. 1It is imperative that service organisations implement effective service recovery strategies when customers experience a service failure, since unresolved service failures can result ...

  1. A modification of the restricted maximum likelihood method in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method of obtaining variance component estimates in generalized linear models with random effects is a complicated procedure requiring the value of the parameter it is intended to estimate. This paper addresses this problem by providing a modification to the existing Restricted ...

  2. Cases in which ancestral maximum likelihood will be confusingly misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Tomer; Chor, Benny

    2017-05-07

    Ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) is a phylogenetic tree reconstruction criteria that "lies between" maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML). ML has long been known to be statistically consistent. On the other hand, Felsenstein (1978) showed that MP is statistically inconsistent, and even positively misleading: There are cases where the parsimony criteria, applied to data generated according to one tree topology, will be optimized on a different tree topology. The question of weather AML is statistically consistent or not has been open for a long time. Mossel et al. (2009) have shown that AML can "shrink" short tree edges, resulting in a star tree with no internal resolution, which yields a better AML score than the original (resolved) model. This result implies that AML is statistically inconsistent, but not that it is positively misleading, because the star tree is compatible with any other topology. We show that AML is confusingly misleading: For some simple, four taxa (resolved) tree, the ancestral likelihood optimization criteria is maximized on an incorrect (resolved) tree topology, as well as on a star tree (both with specific edge lengths), while the tree with the original, correct topology, has strictly lower ancestral likelihood. Interestingly, the two short edges in the incorrect, resolved tree topology are of length zero, and are not adjacent, so this resolved tree is in fact a simple path. While for MP, the underlying phenomenon can be described as long edge attraction, it turns out that here we have long edge repulsion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Likelihood-Based Confidence Intervals in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    In exploratory or unrestricted factor analysis, all factor loadings are free to be estimated. In oblique solutions, the correlations between common factors are free to be estimated as well. The purpose of this article is to show how likelihood-based confidence intervals can be obtained for rotated

  4. Likelihood-based confidence intervals in exploratory factor analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    In exploratory or unrestricted factor analysis, all factor loadings are free to be estimated. In oblique solutions, the correlations between common factors are free to be estimated as well. The purpose of this article is to show how likelihood-based confidence intervals can be obtained for rotated

  5. Likelihood-Based Confidence Intervals in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    In exploratory or unrestricted factor analysis, all factor loadings are free to be estimated. In oblique solutions, the correlations between common factors are free to be estimated as well. The purpose of this article is to show how likelihood-based confidence intervals can be obtained for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations, by…

  6. Robustness of the approximate likelihood of the protracted speciation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonet, C.; Scherrer, R.; Rego-Costa, A.; Etienne, R. S.

    The protracted speciation model presents a realistic and parsimonious explanation for the observed slowdown in lineage accumulation through time, by accounting for the fact that speciation takes time. A method to compute the likelihood for this model given a phylogeny is available and allows

  7. Multilevel maximum likelihood estimation with application to covariance matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turčičová, Marie; Mandel, J.; Eben, Kryštof

    Published online: 23 January (2018) ISSN 0361-0926 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Fisher information * High dimension * Hierarchical maximum likelihood * Nested parameter spaces * Spectral diagonal covariance model * Sparse inverse covariance model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2016

  8. Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter using Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Madsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an adaptive unscented Kalman filter (UKF) by tuning the measurement noise covariance. We use the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and the covariance matching (CM) method to estimate the noise covariance. The multi-step prediction errors generated by the ...

  9. Single-trial classification of motor imagery differing in task complexity: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For brain computer interfaces (BCIs, which may be valuable in neurorehabilitation, brain signals derived from mental activation can be monitored by non-invasive methods, such as functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Single-trial classification is important for this purpose and this was the aim of the presented study. In particular, we aimed to investigate a combined approach: 1 offline single-trial classification of brain signals derived from a novel wireless fNIRS instrument; 2 to use motor imagery (MI as mental task thereby discriminating between MI signals in response to different tasks complexities, i.e. simple and complex MI tasks. Methods 12 subjects were asked to imagine either a simple finger-tapping task using their right thumb or a complex sequential finger-tapping task using all fingers of their right hand. fNIRS was recorded over secondary motor areas of the contralateral hemisphere. Using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA and cross validation, we selected for each subject a best-performing feature combination consisting of 1 one out of three channel, 2 an analysis time interval ranging from 5-15 s after stimulation onset and 3 up to four Δ[O2Hb] signal features (Δ[O2Hb] mean signal amplitudes, variance, skewness and kurtosis. Results The results of our single-trial classification showed that using the simple combination set of channels, time intervals and up to four Δ[O2Hb] signal features comprising Δ[O2Hb] mean signal amplitudes, variance, skewness and kurtosis, it was possible to discriminate single-trials of MI tasks differing in complexity, i.e. simple versus complex tasks (inter-task paired t-test p ≤ 0.001, over secondary motor areas with an average classification accuracy of 81%. Conclusions Although the classification accuracies look promising they are nevertheless subject of considerable subject-to-subject variability. In the discussion we address each of these aspects, their

  10. Classifying Variants of Undetermined Significance in BRCA2 with Protein Likelihood Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary S. Beattie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Missense (amino-acid changing variants found in cancer predisposition genes often create difficulties when clinically interpreting genetic testing results. Although bioinformatics has developed approaches to predicting the impact of these variants, many of these approaches have not been readily applicable in the clinical setting. Bioinformatics approaches for predicting the impact of these variants have not yet found their footing in clinical practice because 1 interpreting the medical relevance of predictive scores is difficult; 2 the relationship between bioinformatics “predictors” (sequence conservation, protein structure and cancer susceptibility is not understood.Methodology/Principal Findings: We present a computational method that produces a probabilistic likelihood ratio predictive of whether a missense variant impairs protein function. We apply the method to a tumor suppressor gene, BRCA2, whose loss of function is important to cancer susceptibility. Protein likelihood ratios are computed for 229 unclassified variants found in individuals from high-risk breast/ovarian cancer families. We map the variants onto a protein structure model, and suggest that a cluster of predicted deleterious variants in the BRCA2 OB1 domain may destabilize BRCA2 and a protein binding partner, the small acidic protein DSS1. We compare our predictions with variant “re-classifications” provided by Myriad Genetics, a biotechnology company that holds the patent on BRCA2 genetic testing in the U.S., and with classifications made by an established medical genetics model [1]. Our approach uses bioinformatics data that is independent of these genetics-based classifications and yet shows significant agreement with them. Preliminary results indicate that our method is less likely to make false positive errors than other bioinformatics methods, which were designed to predict the impact of missense mutations in general

  11. Integrative self-assembly of functional hybrid nanoconstructs by inorganic wrapping of single biomolecules, biomolecule arrays and organic supramolecular assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Avinash J; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2013-08-21

    Synthesis of functional hybrid nanoscale objects has been a core focus of the rapidly progressing field of nanomaterials science. In particular, there has been significant interest in the integration of evolutionally optimized biological systems such as proteins, DNA, virus particles and cells with functional inorganic building blocks to construct mesoscopic architectures and nanostructured materials. However, in many cases the fragile nature of the biomolecules seriously constrains their potential applications. As a consequence, there is an on-going quest for the development of novel strategies to modulate the thermal and chemical stabilities, and performance of biomolecules under adverse conditions. This feature article highlights new methods of "inorganic molecular wrapping" of single or multiple protein molecules, individual double-stranded DNA helices, lipid bilayer vesicles and self-assembled organic dye superstructures using inorganic building blocks to produce bio-inorganic nanoconstructs with core-shell type structures. We show that spatial isolation of the functional biological nanostructures as "armour-plated" enzyme molecules or polynucleotide strands not only maintains their intact structure and biochemical properties, but also enables the fabrication of novel hybrid nanomaterials for potential applications in diverse areas of bionanotechnology.

  12. Integrative self-assembly of functional hybrid nanoconstructs by inorganic wrapping of single biomolecules, biomolecule arrays and organic supramolecular assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Avinash J.; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Synthesis of functional hybrid nanoscale objects has been a core focus of the rapidly progressing field of nanomaterials science. In particular, there has been significant interest in the integration of evolutionally optimized biological systems such as proteins, DNA, virus particles and cells with functional inorganic building blocks to construct mesoscopic architectures and nanostructured materials. However, in many cases the fragile nature of the biomolecules seriously constrains their potential applications. As a consequence, there is an on-going quest for the development of novel strategies to modulate the thermal and chemical stabilities, and performance of biomolecules under adverse conditions. This feature article highlights new methods of ``inorganic molecular wrapping'' of single or multiple protein molecules, individual double-stranded DNA helices, lipid bilayer vesicles and self-assembled organic dye superstructures using inorganic building blocks to produce bio-inorganic nanoconstructs with core-shell type structures. We show that spatial isolation of the functional biological nanostructures as ``armour-plated'' enzyme molecules or polynucleotide strands not only maintains their intact structure and biochemical properties, but also enables the fabrication of novel hybrid nanomaterials for potential applications in diverse areas of bionanotechnology.

  13. Robust Multi-Frame Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Poisson Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongming; Sun, Changming; Yang, Jinhua; Liu, Huan; Peng, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-04-06

    An adaptive optics (AO) system provides real-time compensation for atmospheric turbulence. However, an AO image is usually of poor contrast because of the nature of the imaging process, meaning that the image contains information coming from both out-of-focus and in-focus planes of the object, which also brings about a loss in quality. In this paper, we present a robust multi-frame adaptive optics image restoration algorithm via maximum likelihood estimation. Our proposed algorithm uses a maximum likelihood method with image regularization as the basic principle, and constructs the joint log likelihood function for multi-frame AO images based on a Poisson distribution model. To begin with, a frame selection method based on image variance is applied to the observed multi-frame AO images to select images with better quality to improve the convergence of a blind deconvolution algorithm. Then, by combining the imaging conditions and the AO system properties, a point spread function estimation model is built. Finally, we develop our iterative solutions for AO image restoration addressing the joint deconvolution issue. We conduct a number of experiments to evaluate the performances of our proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm produces accurate AO image restoration results and outperforms the current state-of-the-art blind deconvolution methods.

  14. Robust Multi-Frame Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Poisson Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive optics (AO system provides real-time compensation for atmospheric turbulence. However, an AO image is usually of poor contrast because of the nature of the imaging process, meaning that the image contains information coming from both out-of-focus and in-focus planes of the object, which also brings about a loss in quality. In this paper, we present a robust multi-frame adaptive optics image restoration algorithm via maximum likelihood estimation. Our proposed algorithm uses a maximum likelihood method with image regularization as the basic principle, and constructs the joint log likelihood function for multi-frame AO images based on a Poisson distribution model. To begin with, a frame selection method based on image variance is applied to the observed multi-frame AO images to select images with better quality to improve the convergence of a blind deconvolution algorithm. Then, by combining the imaging conditions and the AO system properties, a point spread function estimation model is built. Finally, we develop our iterative solutions for AO image restoration addressing the joint deconvolution issue. We conduct a number of experiments to evaluate the performances of our proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm produces accurate AO image restoration results and outperforms the current state-of-the-art blind deconvolution methods.

  15. Maximum Likelihood DOA Estimation of Multiple Wideband Sources in the Presence of Nonuniform Sensor Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yao

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the maximum likelihood (ML direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation of multiple wideband sources in the presence of unknown nonuniform sensor noise. New closed-form expression for the direction estimation Cramér-Rao-Bound (CRB has been derived. The performance of the conventional wideband uniform ML estimator under nonuniform noise has been studied. In order to mitigate the performance degradation caused by the nonuniformity of the noise, a new deterministic wideband nonuniform ML DOA estimator is derived and two associated processing algorithms are proposed. The first algorithm is based on an iterative procedure which stepwise concentrates the log-likelihood function with respect to the DOAs and the noise nuisance parameters, while the second is a noniterative algorithm that maximizes the derived approximately concentrated log-likelihood function. The performance of the proposed algorithms is tested through extensive computer simulations. Simulation results show the stepwise-concentrated ML algorithm (SC-ML requires only a few iterations to converge and both the SC-ML and the approximately-concentrated ML algorithm (AC-ML attain a solution close to the derived CRB at high signal-to-noise ratio.

  16. Maximum-likelihood and other processors for incoherent and coherent matched-field localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosso, Stan E; Wilmut, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    This paper develops a series of maximum-likelihood processors for matched-field source localization given various states of information regarding the frequency and time variation of source amplitude and phase, and compares these with existing approaches to coherent processing with incomplete source knowledge. The comparison involves elucidating each processor's approach to source spectral information within a unifying formulation, which provides a conceptual framework for classifying and comparing processors and explaining their relative performance, as quantified in a numerical study. The maximum-likelihood processors represent optimal estimators given the assumption of Gaussian noise, and are based on analytically maximizing the corresponding likelihood function over explicit unknown source spectral parameters. Cases considered include knowledge of the relative variation in source amplitude over time and/or frequency (e.g., a flat spectrum), and tracking the relative phase variation over time, as well as incoherent and coherent processing. Other approaches considered include the conventional (Bartlett) processor, cross-frequency incoherent processor, pair-wise processor, and coherent normalized processor. Processor performance is quantified as the probability of correct localization from Monte Carlo appraisal over a large number of random realizations of noise, source location, and environmental parameters. Processors are compared as a function of signal-to-noise ratio, number of frequencies, and number of sensors.

  17. The VGAM Package for Capture-Recapture Data Using the Conditional Likelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Yee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that using individual covariate information (such as body weight or gender to model heterogeneity in capture-recapture (CR experiments can greatly enhance inferences on the size of a closed population. Since individual covariates are only observable for captured individuals, complex conditional likelihood methods are usually required and these do not constitute a standard generalized linear model (GLM family. Modern statistical techniques such as generalized additive models (GAMs, which allow a relaxing of the linearity assumptions on the covariates, are readily available for many standard GLM families. Fortunately, a natural statistical framework for maximizing conditional likelihoods is available in the Vector GLM and Vector GAM classes of models. We present several new R functions (implemented within the VGAM package specifically developed to allow the incorporation of individual covariates in the analysis of closed population CR data using a GLM/GAM-like approach and the conditional likelihood. As a result, a wide variety of practical tools are now readily available in the VGAM object oriented framework. We discuss and demonstrate their advantages, features and flexibility using the new VGAM CR functions on several examples.

  18. Structure-Processing-Property Interrelationships of Vapor Grown Carbon Nanofiber, Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube and Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube - Polypropylene Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Vinod Karumathil

    This dissertation describes the first use of a design of experiments approach to investigate the interrelationships between structure, processing, and properties of melt extruded polypropylene (PP) carbon nanomaterial composites. The effect of nanomaterial structure was evaluated by exploring the incorporation of vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCFs), or pristine or functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs or C12SWNTs) in polypropylene, while the effect of processing was investigated by studying the influence of melt extrusion temperature, speed, and time. The nanomaterials and PP were combined by an initial mixing method prior to melt extrusion. The nanocomposite properties were characterized by a combination of morphological, rheological, and thermal methods. Preliminary investigations into the effects of the initial mixing method revealed that the distribution of nanomaterials obtained after the mixing had a considerable influence on the properties of the final melt extruded nanocomposite. Dry mixing (DM) resulted in minimal adhesion between nanomaterials and PP during initial mixing; the majority of nanomaterials descended to the bottom. Hot coagulation (HC) mixing resulted in extremely high degrees of interaction between the nanomaterials and PP chains. Rotary evaporation (RE) mixing resulted in nanomaterial distribution uniformity between that obtained from DM and HC. Employing design of experiments to investigate the effects of structure and processing conditions on melt extruded PP nanocomposite properties revealed several interesting effects. The effect of processing conditions varied depending on the degree of nanomaterial distribution in PP attained prior to melt processing. Increasing melt extrusion temperature increased the decomposition temperature (Td) of PP/C12SWNT obtained from HC mixing but decreased T d of PP/C12SWNT obtained from RE mixing. Higher melt extrusion screw speed, on the other hand, significantly improved the nanocomposite

  19. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity study in unilateral pulsatile tinnitus patients with single etiology: A seed-based functional connectivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Peng; Yan, Fei; Liu, Liheng; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Li, Ting; Dong, Cheng; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Zhenchang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies demonstrated altered regional neural activations in several brain areas in patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT), especially indicating an important role of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). However, few studies focused on the degree of functional connectivity (FC) of this area in PT patients. In this study, we will compare the FC of PCC in patients affected with this condition and normal controls by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Structural and functional MRI data were obtained from 36 unilateral PT patients with single etiology and 36 matched healthy controls. FC feature of the region of interest (PCC) were characterized using a seed-based correlation method with the voxels in the whole-brain. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients showed significant decreased FC to the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right thalamus and bilateral insula. By contrast, PCC demonstrated increased functional connectivity between the precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule and middle occipital gyrus. We also found correlations between the disease duration of PT and FC of PCC-right MTG (r = −0.616, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Unilateral PT patients could have abnormal FC to the PCC bilaterally in the brain. PCC, as a highly integrated brain area, is an example of nucleus that was involved in mediation between different neural networks. It might be a modulation core between visual network and auditory network. The decreased FC of MTG to PCC may indicate a down regulation of activity between PCC and auditory associated brain cortex. Decreased FC between limbic system (bilateral AI) and PCC may reflect the emotional message control in patient group. This study facilitated understanding of the underlying neuropathological process in patients with pulsatile tinnitus.

  20. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity study in unilateral pulsatile tinnitus patients with single etiology: A seed-based functional connectivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Han [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050 (China); Neuroradiology Division, Department of Radiology, Stanford University, CA, 94305 (United States); Zhao, Pengfei [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Zhaohui [Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100730 (China); Li, Rui; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Peng [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050 (China); Yan, Fei [Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100730 (China); Liu, Liheng [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050 (China); Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050 (China); Li, Ting [Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100730 (China); Dong, Cheng [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050 (China); Gong, Shusheng, E-mail: gongss@ccmu.edu.cn [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Objective: Previous studies demonstrated altered regional neural activations in several brain areas in patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT), especially indicating an important role of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). However, few studies focused on the degree of functional connectivity (FC) of this area in PT patients. In this study, we will compare the FC of PCC in patients affected with this condition and normal controls by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Structural and functional MRI data were obtained from 36 unilateral PT patients with single etiology and 36 matched healthy controls. FC feature of the region of interest (PCC) were characterized using a seed-based correlation method with the voxels in the whole-brain. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients showed significant decreased FC to the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right thalamus and bilateral insula. By contrast, PCC demonstrated increased functional connectivity between the precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule and middle occipital gyrus. We also found correlations between the disease duration of PT and FC of PCC-right MTG (r = −0.616, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Unilateral PT patients could have abnormal FC to the PCC bilaterally in the brain. PCC, as a highly integrated brain area, is an example of nucleus that was involved in mediation between different neural networks. It might be a modulation core between visual network and auditory network. The decreased FC of MTG to PCC may indicate a down regulation of activity between PCC and auditory associated brain cortex. Decreased FC between limbic system (bilateral AI) and PCC may reflect the emotional message control in patient group. This study facilitated understanding of the underlying neuropathological process in patients with pulsatile tinnitus.

  1. Planck 2015 results. XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Giard, M.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G.W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlation functions of CMB temperature and polarization. They use the hybrid approach employed previously: pixel-based at low multipoles, $\\ell$, and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of cross-power spectra at higher $\\ell$. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization data, and more detailed foreground and instrumental models. More than doubling the data allows further checks and enhanced immunity to systematics. Progress in foreground modelling enables a larger sky fraction, contributing to enhanced precision. Improvements in processing and instrumental models further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish robustness and accuracy, from temperature, from polarization, and from their combination, and show that the {\\Lambda}CDM model continues to offer a very good fit. We further validate the likelihood against specific extensions to this baseline, suc...

  2. FINDING REGULATORY ELEMENTS USING JOINT LIKELIHOODS FOR SEQUENCE AND EXPRESSION PROFILE DATA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IAN HOLMES, UC BERKELEY, CA, WILLIAM J. BRUNO, LANL

    2000-08-20

    A recent, popular method of finding promoter sequences is to look for conserved motifs up-stream of genes clustered on the basis of expression data. This method presupposes that the clustering is correct. Theoretically, one should be better able to find promoter sequences and create more relevant gene clusters by taking a unified approach to these two problems. We present a likelihood function for a sequence-expression model giving a joint likelihood for a promoter sequence and its corresponding expression levels. An algorithm to estimate sequence-expression model parameters using Gibbs sampling and Expectation/Maximization is described. A program, called kimono, that implements this algorithm has been developed and the source code is freely available over the internet.

  3. A new unfolding code combining maximum entropy and maximum likelihood for neutron spectrum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Shigetaka; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    We present a new spectrum unfolding code, the Maximum Entropy and Maximum Likelihood Unfolding Code (MEALU), based on the maximum likelihood method combined with the maximum entropy method, which can determine a neutron spectrum without requiring an initial guess spectrum. The Normal or Poisson distributions can be used for the statistical distribution. MEALU can treat full covariance data for a measured detector response and response function. The algorithm was verified through an analysis of mock-up data and its performance was checked by applying it to measured data. The results for measured data from the Joyo experimental fast reactor were also compared with those obtained by the conventional J-log method for neutron spectrum adjustment. It was found that MEALU has potential advantages over conventional methods with regard to preparation of a priori information and uncertainty estimation. (author)

  4. Exclusion probabilities and likelihood ratios with applications to mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slooten, Klaas-Jan; Egeland, Thore

    2016-01-01

    The statistical evidence obtained from mixed DNA profiles can be summarised in several ways in forensic casework including the likelihood ratio (LR) and the Random Man Not Excluded (RMNE) probability. The literature has seen a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of likelihood ratios and exclusion probabilities, and part of our aim is to bring some clarification to this debate. In a previous paper, we proved that there is a general mathematical relationship between these statistics: RMNE can be expressed as a certain average of the LR, implying that the expected value of the LR, when applied to an actual contributor to the mixture, is at least equal to the inverse of the RMNE. While the mentioned paper presented applications for kinship problems, the current paper demonstrates the relevance for mixture cases, and for this purpose, we prove some new general properties. We also demonstrate how to use the distribution of the likelihood ratio for donors of a mixture, to obtain estimates for exceedance probabilities of the LR for non-donors, of which the RMNE is a special case corresponding to L R>0. In order to derive these results, we need to view the likelihood ratio as a random variable. In this paper, we describe how such a randomization can be achieved. The RMNE is usually invoked only for mixtures without dropout. In mixtures, artefacts like dropout and drop-in are commonly encountered and we address this situation too, illustrating our results with a basic but widely implemented model, a so-called binary model. The precise definitions, modelling and interpretation of the required concepts of dropout and drop-in are not entirely obvious, and we attempt to clarify them here in a general likelihood framework for a binary model.

  5. Scintigraphy at 3 months after single lung transplantation and observations of primary graft dysfunction and lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmaati, Esther Okeke; Iversen, Martin; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2012-01-01

    Scintigraphy has been used as a tool to detect dysfunction of the lung before and after transplantation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the development of the ventilation-perfusion relationships in single lung transplant recipients in the first year, at 3 months after transplantation......, and to investigate whether scintigraphic findings at 3 months were predictive for the outcome at 12 months in relation to primary graft dysfunction (PGD) and lung function. A retrospective study was carried out on all patients who prospectively and consecutively were referred for a routine lung scintigraphy...... abnormal. There was a significant difference in the normal versus abnormal perfusion and ventilation scintigraphic images evaluated from the same patients. Ventilation was distributed more homogenously in the transplanted lung than perfusion in the same lung. The relative distribution of perfusion...

  6. TTT and PIKK Complex Genes Reverted to Single Copy Following Polyploidization and Retain Function Despite Massive Retrotransposition in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Garcia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The TEL2, TTI1, and TTI2 proteins are co-chaperones for heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 to regulate the protein folding and maturation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs. Referred to as the TTT complex, the genes that encode them are highly conserved from man to maize. TTT complex and PIKK genes exist mostly as single copy genes in organisms where they have been characterized. Members of this interacting protein network in maize were identified and synteny analyses were performed to study their evolution. Similar to other species, there is only one copy of each of these genes in maize which was due to a loss of the duplicated copy created by ancient allotetraploidy. Moreover, the retained copies of the TTT complex and the PIKK genes tolerated extensive retrotransposon insertion in their introns that resulted in increased gene lengths and gene body methylation, without apparent effect in normal gene expression and function. The results raise an interesting question on whether the reversion to single copy was due to selection against deleterious unbalanced gene duplications between members of the complex as predicted by the gene balance hypothesis, or due to neutral loss of extra copies. Uneven alteration of dosage either by adding extra copies or modulating gene expression of complex members is being proposed as a means to investigate whether the data supports the gene balance hypothesis or not.

  7. Two-Photon Functional Imaging of the Auditory Cortex in Behaving Mice: From Neural Networks to Single Spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijie Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging is a powerful tool for recording neuronal activities during perceptual tasks and has been increasingly applied to behaving animals for acute or chronic experiments. However, the auditory cortex is not easily accessible to imaging because of the abundant temporal muscles, arteries around the ears and their lateral locations. Here, we report a protocol for two-photon Ca2+ imaging in the auditory cortex of head-fixed behaving mice. By using a custom-made head fixation apparatus and a head-rotated fixation procedure, we achieved two-photon imaging and in combination with targeted cell-attached recordings of auditory cortical neurons in behaving mice. Using synthetic Ca2+ indicators, we recorded the Ca2+ transients at multiple scales, including neuronal populations, single neurons, dendrites and single spines, in auditory cortex during behavior. Furthermore, using genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs, we monitored the neuronal dynamics over days throughout the process of associative learning. Therefore, we achieved two-photon functional imaging at multiple scales in auditory cortex of behaving mice, which extends the tool box for investigating the neural basis of audition-related behaviors.

  8. Prediction of postoperative pulmonary function. Preliminary comparison of single-breath dual-energy xenon CT with three conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagita, Hisami; Honda, Norinari; Nakayama, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of xenon ventilation maps (Xe-images) for predicting postoperative pulmonary function. After study approval by the institutional review board, written informed consent was obtained from 30 patients with lung tumors who underwent pre- and postoperative spirometry, pulmonary perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and dual-energy CT (80 kV and 140 kV/Sn) after single-breath inspiration of 35% xenon. Xe-images were calculated by three-material decomposition. Sum of pixel values of the part to be resected (A) and of the whole lung (B) on Xe-images or lung perfusion SPECT, and volumes or the number of segments of the part to be resected (A) and of the whole lung (B) on Xe-images were enumerated, respectively. We multiplied (1-A/B) by each preoperative value from spirometry for prediction. Predictions by each of the four methods were compared with postoperative values. Predicted values for vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) by the four methods regressed significantly with measured values (R 2 =0.56-0.77, p 1 with accuracy comparable to that of CT volumetry. (author)

  9. Generation of functionally competent single bovine adrenal chromaffin cells from cell aggregates using the neutral protease dispase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craviso, Gale L

    2004-08-30

    A simple and efficient procedure has been developed to enzymatically dissociate aggregates of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in suspension culture into viable, responsive single cells. For dissociation, the neutral protease dispase is added directly to the culture medium for a minimum of 3 h, followed by incubation of the cells in Hank's calcium-magnesium-free balanced salt solution at 37 degrees C with intermittent trituration to facilitate dispersion. This procedure generates a population of phase-bright single cells that are round in morphology, take up the dye neutral red, exclude the dye trypan blue and readily attach to tissue culture dishes coated with collagen, fibronectin or polylysine, thereby permitting applications that require plated-down conditions. When transferred to culture medium, the cells begin to reaggregate. By altering the length of time the cells are incubated in culture medium prior to attachment, the degree of reaggregation can be controlled to obtain plate-down profiles that consist of both isolated cells and cells in aggregates of varying sizes. Returning dissociated cells to suspension culture results in the reformation of large cell aggregates. Several measures of chromaffin cell function were indistinguishable for dissociated cells placed either in monolayer culture or suspension culture versus non-dissociated cells, implying that the dissociation procedure does not alter cellular responses or cause cellular damage.

  10. Effect of immediate functional loading on osseointegration of implants used for single tooth replacement. A human histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Mauro; Botticelli, Daniele; La Scala, Vincenzo; Tomasi, Cristiano; Berglundh, Tord

    2013-07-01

    To analyze hard tissue reactions to immediate functionally loaded single implants that were installed either with a conventional drill preparation procedure or with an osteotome preparation technique. Thirteen subjects with two sites requiring single tooth rehabilitation by means of implants volunteered for the study. Each subject received one test (immediate functionally loaded) and one control (non-loaded) implant. In six subjects (group 1) the implants were placed using a conventional drilling procedure, whereas in the remaining seven subjects (group 2) an osteotome preparation procedure was performed. Block biopsies containing test and control implants and peri-implant bone tissues were collected at 1 month in four of the subjects in group 1 and in five subjects of group 2. The remaining implant sites were sampled at 3 months after implant placement. The biopsies were prepared for histological examination. Two implants of the test-2 group (osteotome preparation) representing 1 month of healing and another test-2 implant representing 3 months of healing failed to integrate. A multilevel multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that no differences in bone-to-implant contact (BIC)% were found in between test and control implants, the density of newly formed peri-implant bone was significantly higher around test than control implants at 1 and 3 months of healing. Sections representing osteotome technique sites showed fractured trabeculae and large amounts of bone particles. It is suggested that immediate loading of implants does not influence the osseointegration process, whereas the density of newly formed peri-implant bone at such sites appears to be increased in relation to unloaded control implants. The use of an osteotome preparation technique during installation results in damage of peri-implant bone and enhances the risk for failure in osseointegration. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. The changes in renal function after a single dose of intravenous furosemide in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejirisky Yoram

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with compensated Child-A cirrhosis have sub clinical hypovolemia and diuretic treatment could result in renal impairment. Aim To evaluate the changes in renal functional mass as reflected by DMSA uptake after single injection of intravenous furosemide in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis. Methods Eighteen cirrhotic patients were divided in two groups; eight patients (group 1, age 56 ± 9.6 yrs, Gender 5M/3F, 3 alcoholic and 5 non alcoholic were given low intravenous 40 mg furosemide and ten other patients (group 2, age 54 ± 9.9, Gender 6M/4F, 4 alcoholic and 6 non alcoholic were given high 120 mg furosemide respectively. Renoscintigraphy with 100MBq Of Tc 99 DMSA was given intravenously before and 90 minutes after furosemide administration and SPECT imaging was determined 3 hours later. All patients were kept under low sodium diet (80mEq/d and all diuretics were withdrawn for 3 days. 8-hours UNa exertion, Calculated and measured Creatinine clearance (CCT were performed for all patients. Results Intravenous furosemide increased the mean renal DMSA uptake in 55% of patients with compensated cirrhosis and these changes persist up to three hours after injection. This increase was at the same extent in either low or high doses of furosemide. (From 12.8% ± 3.8 to 15.2% ± 2.2, p 40%, as compared to normal calculated creatinine clearance (CCT 101 ± 26, and measured CCT of 87 ± 30 cc/min (P Conclusion A single furosemide injection increases renal functional mass as reflected by DMSA in 55% of patients with compensated cirrhosis and identify 45% of patients with reduced uptake and who could develop renal impairment under diuretics. Whether or not albumin infusion exerts beneficial effect in those patients with reduced DMSA uptake remains to be determined.

  12. Evaluation of single right atrial volume and function with magnetic resonance imaging in children with hypoplastic left heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijarnsorn, Chodchanok; Myers, Kimberley; Patton, David J.; Noga, Michelle; Crawley, Cinzia; Tham, Edythe

    2016-01-01

    Standardized methods to evaluate atrial properties in single ventricles are lacking. To determine the feasibility of quantifying right atrial volumes and function in hypoplastic left heart using MRI. We studied 15 infants with hypoplastic left heart prior to Glenn surgery (mean age 4.2 months [standard deviation 0.3]) who underwent cardiac MRI with evaluation of atrial volumes and emptying fraction using monoplane two-chamber, monoplane four-chamber, and biplane methods, all of which were compared to the atrial short-axial oblique stack method. We compared atrial end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and emptying fraction among these methods. We analyzed reproducibility of the methods using Bland-Altman plots. Both four-chamber and biplane methods showed high correlations for atrial end-diastolic volume (r = 0.7 and r = 0.8, respectively; P < 0.01) and end-systolic volume (r = 0.8 and r = 0.9, respectively; P < 0.01) with small mean differences (-0.2 ± 2.9 standard deviation [SD] ml and -0.8 ± 1.6 ml, respectively, for atrial end-diastolic volume and -0.8 ± 1.5 ml and -0.9 ± 0.9 ml, respectively, for atrial end-systolic volume). The short-axial oblique method was the most reproducible, followed by the four-chamber method. MRI assessment of atrial volume and function is feasible in hypoplastic left heart and might provide further insight into single-ventricle mechanics. (orig.)

  13. Aptamer based voltammetric determination of ampicillin using a single-stranded DNA binding protein and DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ma, Kui; Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Ai, Shiyun

    2017-12-20

    An aptamer based method is described for the electrochemical determination of ampicillin. It is based on the use of DNA aptamer, DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs), and single-stranded DNA binding protein (ssDNA-BP). When the aptamer hybridizes with the target DNA on the AuNPs, the ssDNA-BP is captured on the electrode surface via its specific interaction with ss-DNA. This results in a decreased electrochemical signal of the redox probe Fe(CN) 6 3- which is measured best at a voltage of 0.188 mV (vs. reference electrode). In the presence of ampicillin, the formation of aptamer-ampicillin conjugate blocks the further immobilization of DNA-AuNPs and ssDNA-BP, and this leads to an increased response. The method has a linear reposne that convers the 1 pM to 5 nM ampicillin concentration range, with a 0.38 pM detection limit (at an S/N ratio of 3). The assay is selective, stable and reproducible. It was applied to the determination of ampicillin in spiked milk samples where it gave recoveries ranging from 95.5 to 105.5%. Graphical abstract Schematic of a simple and sensitive electrochemical apta-biosensor for ampicillin detection. It is based on the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), DNA aptamer, DNA functionalized AuNPs (DNA-AuNPs), and single-strand DNA binding protein (SSBP).

  14. Evaluation of single right atrial volume and function with magnetic resonance imaging in children with hypoplastic left heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijarnsorn, Chodchanok [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Stollery Children' s Hospital, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mahidol University, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Myers, Kimberley; Patton, David J. [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Calgary, AB (Canada); Noga, Michelle; Crawley, Cinzia; Tham, Edythe [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Stollery Children' s Hospital, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Standardized methods to evaluate atrial properties in single ventricles are lacking. To determine the feasibility of quantifying right atrial volumes and function in hypoplastic left heart using MRI. We studied 15 infants with hypoplastic left heart prior to Glenn surgery (mean age 4.2 months [standard deviation 0.3]) who underwent cardiac MRI with evaluation of atrial volumes and emptying fraction using monoplane two-chamber, monoplane four-chamber, and biplane methods, all of which were compared to the atrial short-axial oblique stack method. We compared atrial end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and emptying fraction among these methods. We analyzed reproducibility of the methods using Bland-Altman plots. Both four-chamber and biplane methods showed high correlations for atrial end-diastolic volume (r = 0.7 and r = 0.8, respectively; P < 0.01) and end-systolic volume (r = 0.8 and r = 0.9, respectively; P < 0.01) with small mean differences (-0.2 ± 2.9 standard deviation [SD] ml and -0.8 ± 1.6 ml, respectively, for atrial end-diastolic volume and -0.8 ± 1.5 ml and -0.9 ± 0.9 ml, respectively, for atrial end-systolic volume). The short-axial oblique method was the most reproducible, followed by the four-chamber method. MRI assessment of atrial volume and function is feasible in hypoplastic left heart and might provide further insight into single-ventricle mechanics. (orig.)

  15. Single photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) for functional investigation of the proximal tubule in conscious mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouret, François; Walrand, Stéphan; Parreira, Kleber S; Courtoy, Pierre J; Pauwels, Stanislas; Devuyst, Olivier; Jamar, François

    2010-02-01

    Noninvasive analysis of renal function in conscious mice is necessary to optimize the use of mouse models. In this study, we evaluated whether single photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) using specific radionuclear tracers can be used to analyze changes in renal proximal tubule functions. The tracers included (99m)TC- dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA), which is used for cortex imaging; (99m)Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine ((99m)Tc-MAG3), used for dynamic renography; and (123)I-beta(2)-microglobulin, which monitors receptor-mediated endocytosis. (99m)Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging was shown to delineate the functional renal cortex with a approximately 1-mm spatial resolution and accumulated in the cortex reaching a plateau 5 h after injection. The cortical uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was abolished in Clcn5 knockout mice, a model of proximal tubule dysfunction. Dynamic renography with (99m)Tc-MAG3 in conscious mice demonstrated rapid extraction from blood, renal accumulation, and subsequent tubular secretion. Anesthesia induced a significant delay in the (99m)Tc-MAG3 clearance. The tubular reabsorption of (123)I-beta(2)-microglobulin was strongly impaired in the Clcn5 knockout mice, with defective tubular processing and loss of the native tracer in urine, reflecting proximal tubule dysfunction. Longitudinal studies in a model of cisplatin-induced acute tubular injury revealed a correlation between tubular recovery and (123)I-beta(2)-microglobulin uptake. These data show that SPECT imaging with well-validated radiotracers allows in vivo investigations of specific proximal tubule functions in conscious mice.

  16. Assessment of left ventricular diastolic function by gated single-photon emission tomography: comparison with Doppler echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Tetsuhiro; Sakamoto, Kenzo; Hikosaka, Takato; Zen, Kan; Nakamura, Takeshi; Sawada, Takahisa; Azuma, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Masao; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    Gated single-photon emission tomography (SPET) is not yet an established procedure for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. This study examined diastolic function derived from gated SPET in comparison with an established diagnostic tool, Doppler echocardiography. We examined 37 consecutive patients with normal sinus rhythm who underwent gated technetium-99m tetrofosmin SPET. A gated SPET program was used with a temporal resolution of 32 frames per R-R interval. We obtained the Doppler transmitral flow velocity waveform immediately before gated SPET image acquisition. Patients who showed a ratio of peak early transmitral flow velocity to atrial flow velocity (E/A) of >1 or whose R-R intervals differed by >5% between Doppler echocardiography and gated SPET were excluded from this investigation. We compared diastolic indices and presumed corresponding intervals in diastole using the two methods. The peak filling rate (PFR) derived from gated SPET correlated with the Doppler peak velocity of the early transmitral flow (E) wave (r=0.65) and deceleration of the E wave (r=0.71). The time to PFR and percent atrial contribution to LV filling from gated SPET correlated excellently with the Doppler LV isovolumic relaxation time (r=0.93) and the E/A ratio (r=-0.85), respectively. There was a significant linear correlation in all the intervals from the R wave to the presumed corresponding diastolic points. The point of PFR in gated SPET and the peak of the E wave in Doppler echocardiography generally coincided. The onset of filling in gated SPET tended to be closer to the second heart sound than the start of the E wave in Doppler echocardiography. We conclude that gated SPET permits the assessment of not only myocardial perfusion and LV systolic function but also diastolic function, although there may be some errors in detection of the precise beginning of LV filling. (orig.)

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with P2X7R function regulate the onset of gouty arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin-Hui; Cheng, Miao; Tang, Jiang-Ping; Dai, Xiao-Juan; Zhang, Yong; Li, Xiang-Pei; Liu, Qin; Wang, Ya-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Gout is an inflammatory disease that is caused by the increased production of Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulated by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. However, some hyperuricemia patients, even gouty patients with tophi in the joints, never experience gout attack, which indicates that pathogenic pathways other than MSU participate in the secretion of IL-1β in the pathogenesis of acute gouty arthritis. The ATP-P2X7R-IL-1β axis may be one of these pathways. This study examines the role of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the pathogenesis of gout and the association of ATP receptor (P2X7R) function with single nucleotide polymorphisms and gout arthritis. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) loci of P2X7R in Chinese people were screened to compare the frequencies of different alleles and genotype distribution of selective SNPs in 117 gouty patients and 95 hyperuricemia patients. Peripheral white blood cells were purified from the peripheral blood of 43 randomly selected gout patients and 36 hyperuricemia patients from the total group. Cells were cultured with MSU or MSU + ATP, and supernatants were collected for the detection of IL-1β concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 1. Eight SNP loci, including rs1653624, rs10160951, rs1718119, rs7958316, rs16950860, rs208294, rs17525809 and rs2230912, were screened and detected, and rs1653624, rs7958316 and rs17525809 were associated with gout arthritis. 2. IL-1β concentrations in supernatants after MSU + ATP stimulation were significantly higher in gouty patients than in the hyperuricemia group [(131.08 ± 176.11) pg/ml vs. (50.84 ± 86.10) pg/ml]; Patients (including gout and hyperuricemia) carrying the susceptibility genotype AA or AT of rs1653624 exhibited significantly higher concentrations of IL-1β than patients carrying the non-susceptibility genotype TT [(104.20 ± 164.25) pg/ml vs. (21.90 ± 12.14) pg/ml]; However, no differences were found with MSU stimulation alone. ATP

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with P2X7R function regulate the onset of gouty arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hui Tao

    Full Text Available Gout is an inflammatory disease that is caused by the increased production of Interleukin-1β (IL-1β stimulated by monosodium urate (MSU crystals. However, some hyperuricemia patients, even gouty patients with tophi in the joints, never experience gout attack, which indicates that pathogenic pathways other than MSU participate in the secretion of IL-1β in the pathogenesis of acute gouty arthritis. The ATP-P2X7R-IL-1β axis may be one of these pathways.This study examines the role of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP in the pathogenesis of gout and the association of ATP receptor (P2X7R function with single nucleotide polymorphisms and gout arthritis.Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP loci of P2X7R in Chinese people were screened to compare the frequencies of different alleles and genotype distribution of selective SNPs in 117 gouty patients and 95 hyperuricemia patients. Peripheral white blood cells were purified from the peripheral blood of 43 randomly selected gout patients and 36 hyperuricemia patients from the total group. Cells were cultured with MSU or MSU + ATP, and supernatants were collected for the detection of IL-1β concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.1. Eight SNP loci, including rs1653624, rs10160951, rs1718119, rs7958316, rs16950860, rs208294, rs17525809 and rs2230912, were screened and detected, and rs1653624, rs7958316 and rs17525809 were associated with gout arthritis. 2. IL-1β concentrations in supernatants after MSU + ATP stimulation were significantly higher in gouty patients than in the hyperuricemia group [(131.08 ± 176.11 pg/ml vs. (50.84 ± 86.10 pg/ml]; Patients (including gout and hyperuricemia carrying the susceptibility genotype AA or AT of rs1653624 exhibited significantly higher concentrations of IL-1β than patients carrying the non-susceptibility genotype TT [(104.20 ± 164.25 pg/ml vs. (21.90 ± 12.14 pg/ml]; However, no differences were found with MSU stimulation alone

  19. Functional expression of single-chain variable fragment antibody against c-Met in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Mi-Ae; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Jin; Chung, Junho; Oh, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2006-05-01

    c-Met, a high affinity receptor for hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, shown to be overexpressed in a variety of malignant cells, is a potential biomarker as well as a therapeutic target. Thus, single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) specific for c-Met is expected to be efficiently employed in the clinical treatment or imaging of many cancer cells. Here, we constructed the expression system for anti-c-Met scFv fused with T7 tag at its N-terminus using pET vector and investigated the expression conditions to achieve a functional and soluble expression of the scFv in the cytoplasm of recombinant Escherichia coli. The redox potential of E. coli cytoplasm was the most critical factor for the functional expression of anti-c-Met scFv. The employment of a host with oxidizing cytoplasm, E. coli trxB/gor double mutant, improved the productivity of functional anti-c-Met scFv by approximately 10-fold compared to the production of anti-c-Met scFv in the reducing cytoplasm of wild type E. coli. Productivity of functional anti-c-Met scFv could be further enhanced by co-expressing molecular chaperones such as GroELS, trigger factor, and DsbC with the scFv. Coexpression of DsbC increased the yield of functional anti-c-Met scFv about 2.5-fold in the cytoplasm of E. coli trxB/gor mutant compared to the production of scFv without DsbC coexpression. Lowering the IPTG concentration from 1 to 0.05 mM led to the slight enhancement, approximately 1.6-fold, of productivity of functional scFv. Although the use of low temperature for anti-c-Met scFv expression increased the ratio of soluble scFv fraction to insoluble fraction, productivity of soluble scFv decreased owing to the significant reduction of expression rate. The addition of 0.5 M sucrose in the medium inhibited the formation of intracellular insoluble anti-c-Met scFv. To purify the anti-c-Met scFv simply, we fused hexahistidine at the C-terminus of scFv and purified the scFv showing 98% of purity through the interaction

  20. Density functional theory study of chemical sensing on surfaces of single-layer MoS2 and graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, F.; Pachter, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to investigate chemical sensing on surfaces of single-layer MoS 2 and graphene, considering the adsorption of the chemical compounds triethylamine, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, o-nitrotoluene, o-dichlorobenzene, and 1,5-dicholoropentane. Physisorption of the adsorbates on free-standing surfaces was analyzed in detail for optimized material structures, considering various possible adsorption sites. Similar adsorption characteristics for the two surface types were demonstrated, where inclusion of a correction to the DFT functional for London dispersion was shown to be important to capture interactions at the interface of molecular adsorbate and surface. Charge transfer analyses for adsorbed free-standing surfaces generally demonstrated very small effects. However, charge transfer upon inclusion of the underlying SiO 2 substrate rationalized experimental observations for some of the adsorbates considered. A larger intrinsic response for the electron-donor triethylamine adsorbed on MoS 2 as compared to graphene was demonstrated, which may assist in devising chemical sensors for improved sensitivity

  1. Multiple single-cell genomes provide insight into functions of uncultured Deltaproteobacteria in the human oral cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisha G Campbell

    Full Text Available Despite a long history of investigation, many bacteria associated with the human oral cavity have yet to be cultured. Studies that correlate the presence or abundance of uncultured species with oral health or disease highlight the importance of these community members. Thus, we sequenced several single-cell genomic amplicons from Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio (class Deltaproteobacteria to better understand their function within the human oral community and their association with periodontitis, as well as other systemic diseases. Genomic data from oral Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio species were compared to other available deltaproteobacterial genomes, including from a subset of host-associated species. While both groups share a large number of genes with other environmental Deltaproteobacteria genomes, they encode a wide array of unique genes that appear to function in survival in a host environment. Many of these genes are similar to virulence and host adaptation factors of known human pathogens, suggesting that the oral Deltaproteobacteria have the potential to play a role in the etiology of periodontal disease.

  2. Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube-based fuel cell benchmarked against US DOE 2017 technical targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Neetu; Ramesh, Palanisamy; Bekyarova, Elena; Tian, Xiaojuan; Wang, Feihu; Itkis, Mikhail E; Haddon, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Chemically modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with varying degrees of functionalization were utilized for the fabrication of SWNT thin film catalyst support layers (CSLs) in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), which were suitable for benchmarking against the US DOE 2017 targets. Use of the optimum level of SWNT -COOH functionality allowed the construction of a prototype SWNT-based PEMFC with total Pt loading of 0.06 mg(Pt)/cm²--well below the value of 0.125 mg(Pt)/cm² set as the US DOE 2017 technical target for total Pt group metals (PGM) loading. This prototype PEMFC also approaches the technical target for the total Pt content per kW of power (<0.125 g(PGM)/kW) at cell potential 0.65 V: a value of 0.15 g(Pt)/kW was achieved at 80°C/22 psig testing conditions, which was further reduced to 0.12 g(Pt)/kW at 35 psig back pressure.

  3. FunSAV: predicting the functional effect of single amino acid variants using a two-stage random forest model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Wang

    Full Text Available Single amino acid variants (SAVs are the most abundant form of known genetic variations associated with human disease. Successful prediction of the functional impact of SAVs from sequences can thus lead to an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms of why a SAV may be associated with certain disease. In this work, we constructed a high-quality structural dataset that contained 679 high-quality protein structures with 2,048 SAVs by collecting the human genetic variant data from multiple resources and dividing them into two categories, i.e., disease-associated and neutral variants. We built a two-stage random forest (RF model, termed as FunSAV, to predict the functional effect of SAVs by combining sequence, structure and residue-contact network features with other additional features that were not explored in previous studies. Importantly, a two-step feature selection procedure was proposed to select the most important and informative features that contribute to the prediction of disease association of SAVs. In cross-validation experiments on the benchmark dataset, FunSAV achieved a good prediction performance with the area under the curve (AUC of 0.882, which is competitive with and in some cases better than other existing tools including SIFT, SNAP, Polyphen2, PANTHER, nsSNPAnalyzer and PhD-SNP. The sourcecodes of FunSAV and the datasets can be downloaded at http://sunflower.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sjn/FunSAV.

  4. A molecular dynamics study on the thermal conductivity of endohedrally functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes with gold nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajori, Shahram; Haghighi, Samieh; Ansari, Reza

    2018-02-01

    The thermal conductivity of endohedrally functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with gold nanowires (GNWs) is studied by using a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The effect of geometrical parameters, i.e. length and radius of pure SWCNTs/GNWs/SWCNTs filled with GNWs on the thermal conductivity are investigated. Also, the influence of various structures of GNWs such as pentagonal and multishell-GNWs on the thermal conductivity of the system is explored. The results indicate that as the length of the system rises, the thermal conductivity increases. It is also found that the thermal conductivity of GNWs is considerably lower than that of pure SWCNTs and GNWs@SWCNTs at a constant length of SWCNT or GNWs. For long pure SWCNTs, by increasing the radii of nanotubes, the thermal conductivity increases. Moreover, the thermal conductivity of the multishell-GNWs@SWCNTs is obtained higher than that of pentagonal configurations for the same lengths of SWCNTs. Through inserting the GNWs inside the SWCNTs, by maintaining the natural properties of NWs due to endohedral functionalization, the thermal conductivity is increased. This finding can be used as a benchmark for more efficient design of NEMS based on metallic NWs.

  5. Assessing motor, visual and language function using a single 5-minute fMRI paradigm: three birds with one stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simona; Zendler, Carolin; Hauser, Till-Karsten; Lidzba, Karen; Wilke, Marko

    2018-02-26

    Clinical functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) requires inferences on localization of major brain functions at the individual subject level. We hypothesized that a single "triple use" task would satisfy sensitivity and reliability requirements for successfully assessing the motor, visual and language domain in this context. This was tested here by the application in a group of healthy adults, assessing sensitivity and reliability at the individual subject level, separately for each domain.Our "triple use" task consisted of 2 conditions (condition 1, assessing motor and visual domain, and condition 2, assessing the language domain), serving mutually as active/control. We included 20 healthy adult subjects. Random effect analyses showed activation in primary motor, visual and language regions, as expected. Less expected regions were activated both for the motor and visual domains. Further, reliability of primary activation patterns was very high across individual subjects, with activation seen in 70-100% of subjects in primary motor, visual, and left-lateralized language regions.These findings suggest the "triple use" task to be reliable at the individual subject's level to assess motor, visual and language domains in the clinical fMRI context. Benefits of such an approach include shortening of acquisition time, simplicity of the task for each domain, and using a visual stimulus. Following establishment of reliability in adults, the task may also be a valuable addition in the pediatric clinical fMRI context, where each of these factors is of high relevance.

  6. The Association between a Single Bout of Moderate Physical Activity and Executive Function in Young Adults with Down Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-C.; Ringenbach, S. D. R.; Crews, D.; Kulinna, P. H.; Amazeen, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed at investigating the impact of a single exercise intervention on executive function in young adults with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: Considering the relations among executive function, physical and mental health and early onset of Alzheimer's disease in this population, we tested three components of executive…

  7. Maximum likelihood analysis of the first KamLAND results

    CERN Document Server

    Ianni, A

    2003-01-01

    A maximum likelihood approach has been used to analize the first results from KamLAND emphasizing the application of this method for low statistics samples. The goodness of fit has been determined exploiting a simple Monte Carlo approach in order to test two different null hytpotheses. It turns out that with the present statistics the neutrino oscillation hypothesis has a significance of about 90% (the best-fit for the oscillation parameters from KamLAND are found to be: $\\delta m_{12}^2 \\sim 7.1 \\times 10^{-5}$ eV$^2$ and $\\sin^2 \\theta_{12} = 0.424/0.576$), while the no-oscillation hypothesis of about 50%. Through the likelihood ratio the hypothesis of no disappearence is rejected at about 99.9% C.L. with the present data from the positron spectrum. A comparison with other analyses is presented.

  8. Maximum likelihood analysis of the first KamLAND results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianni, Aldo [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, S. S. 17bis Km 18-910, I-67010 Assergi, Aquila (Italy)

    2003-09-01

    A maximum likelihood approach has been used to analyse the first results from KamLAND emphasizing the application of this method for low statistics samples. The goodness of fit has been determined by using the Monte Carlo method in order to test two different null hypotheses. It turns out that with the present statistics, the neutrino oscillation hypothesis has a significance of about 90% (the best fits for the oscillation parameters from KamLAND are found to be: {delta}m{sup 2}{sub 12} {approx} 7.1 x 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 12} = 0.424/0.576), while the no-oscillation hypothesis has a significance of about 50%. Through the likelihood ratio test, the hypothesis of no disappearance is rejected at about 99.9% C.L. with the present data from the positron spectrum. A comparison with other analyses is presented.

  9. Composite likelihood and two-stage estimation in family studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2004-01-01

    In this paper register based family studies provide the motivation for linking a two-stage estimation procedure in copula models for multivariate failure time data with a composite likelihood approach. The asymptotic properties of the estimators in both parametric and semi-parametric models...... are derived, combining the approaches of Parner (2001) and Andersen (2003). The method is mainly studied when the families consist of groups of exchangeable members (e.g. siblings) or members at different levels (e.g. parents and children). The advantages of the proposed method are especially clear...... in this last case where very flexible modelling is possible. The suggested method is also studied in simulations and found to be efficient compared to maximum likelihood. Finally, the suggested method is applied to a family study of deep venous thromboembolism where it is seen that the association between ages...

  10. Maximum Likelihood Compton Polarimetry with the Compton Spectrometer and Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, A. W.; Boggs, S. E.; Chiu, C. L.; Kierans, C. A.; Sleator, C.; Tomsick, J. A.; Zoglauer, A. C.; Chang, H.-K.; Tseng, C.-H.; Yang, C.-Y.; Jean, P.; von Ballmoos, P.; Lin, C.-H.; Amman, M.

    2017-10-01

    Astrophysical polarization measurements in the soft gamma-ray band are becoming more feasible as detectors with high position and energy resolution are deployed. Previous work has shown that the minimum detectable polarization (MDP) of an ideal Compton polarimeter can be improved by ˜21% when an unbinned, maximum likelihood method (MLM) is used instead of the standard approach of fitting a sinusoid to a histogram of azimuthal scattering angles. Here we outline a procedure for implementing this maximum likelihood approach for real, nonideal polarimeters. As an example, we use the recent observation of GRB 160530A with the Compton Spectrometer and Imager. We find that the MDP for this observation is reduced by 20% when the MLM is used instead of the standard method.

  11. GENERALIZATION OF RAYLEIGH MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD DESPECKLING FILTER USING QUADRILATERAL KERNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sridevi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Speckle noise is the most prevalent noise in clinical ultrasound images. It visibly looks like light and dark spots and deduce the pixel intensity as murkiest. Gazing at fetal ultrasound images, the impact of edge and local fine details are more palpable for obstetricians and gynecologists to carry out prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. A robust despeckling filter has to be contrived to proficiently suppress speckle noise and simultaneously preserve the features. The proposed filter is the generalization of Rayleigh maximum likelihood filter by the exploitation of statistical tools as tuning parameters and use different shapes of quadrilateral kernels to estimate the noise free pixel from neighborhood. The performance of various filters namely Median, Kuwahura, Frost, Homogenous mask filter and Rayleigh maximum likelihood filter are compared with the proposed filter in terms PSNR and image profile. Comparatively the proposed filters surpass the conventional filters.

  12. Determining the likelihood of pauses and surges in global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Andrew P.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Obrochta, Stephen P.

    2015-07-01

    The recent warming "hiatus" is subject to intense interest, with proposed causes including natural forcing and internal variability. Here we derive samples of all natural and internal variability from observations and a recent proxy reconstruction to investigate the likelihood that these two sources of variability could produce a hiatus or rapid warming in surface temperature. The likelihood is found to be consistent with that calculated previously for models and exhibits a similar spatial pattern, with an Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation-like structure, although with more signal in the Atlantic than in model patterns. The number and length of events increases if natural forcing is also considered, particularly in the models. From the reconstruction it can be seen that large eruptions, such as Mount Tambora in 1815, or clusters of eruptions, may result in a hiatus of over 20 years, a finding supported by model results.

  13. Empirical likelihood-based tests for stochastic ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARMI, HAMMOU EL; MCKEAGUE, IAN W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical likelihood approach to testing for the presence of stochastic ordering among univariate distributions based on independent random samples from each distribution. The proposed test statistic is formed by integrating a localized empirical likelihood statistic with respect to the empirical distribution of the pooled sample. The asymptotic null distribution of this test statistic is found to have a simple distribution-free representation in terms of standard Brownian bridge processes. The approach is used to compare the lengths of rule of Roman Emperors over various historical periods, including the “decline and fall” phase of the empire. In a simulation study, the power of the proposed test is found to improve substantially upon that of a competing test due to El Barmi and Mukerjee. PMID:23874142

  14. Likelihood inference for a nonstationary fractional autoregressive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Ørregård Nielsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses model-based inference in an autoregressive model for fractional processes which allows the process to be fractional of order d or d-b. Fractional differencing involves infinitely many past values and because we are interested in nonstationary processes we model the data X1......,...,X_{T} given the initial values X_{-n}, n=0,1,..., as is usually done. The initial values are not modeled but assumed to be bounded. This represents a considerable generalization relative to all previous work where it is assumed that initial values are zero. For the statistical analysis we assume...... the conditional Gaussian likelihood and for the probability analysis we also condition on initial values but assume that the errors in the autoregressive model are i.i.d. with suitable moment conditions. We analyze the conditional likelihood and its derivatives as stochastic processes in the parameters, including...

  15. Strand bias in complementary single-nucleotide polymorphisms of transcribed human sequences: evidence for functional effects of synonymous polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majewski Jacek

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may not be distributed equally between two DNA strands if the strands are functionally distinct, such as in transcribed genes. In introns, an excess of A↔G over the complementary C↔T substitutions had previously been found and attributed to transcription-coupled repair (TCR, demonstrating the valuable functional clues that can be obtained by studying such asymmetry. Here we studied asymmetry of human synonymous SNPs (sSNPs in the fourfold degenerate (FFD sites as compared to intronic SNPs (iSNPs. Results The identities of the ancestral bases and the direction of mutations were inferred from human-chimpanzee genomic alignment. After correction for background nucleotide composition, excess of A→G over the complementary T→C polymorphisms, which was observed previously and can be explained by TCR, was confirmed in FFD SNPs and iSNPs. However, when SNPs were separately examined according to whether they mapped to a CpG dinucleotide or not, an excess of C→T over G→A polymorphisms was found in non-CpG site FFD SNPs but was absent from iSNPs and CpG site FFD SNPs. Conclusion The genome-wide discrepancy of human FFD SNPs provides novel evidence for widespread selective pressure due to functional effects of sSNPs. The similar asymmetry pattern of FFD SNPs and iSNPs that map to a CpG can be explained by transcription-coupled mechanisms, including TCR and transcription-coupled mutation. Because of the hypermutability of CpG sites, more CpG site FFD SNPs are relatively younger and have confronted less selection effect than non-CpG FFD SNPs, which can explain the asymmetric discrepancy of CpG site FFD SNPs vs. non-CpG site FFD SNPs.

  16. Oxygenated organic functional groups and their sources in single and submicron organic particles in MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF were used to measure organic functional groups and elements of submicron particles collected during MILAGRO in March 2006 on three platforms: the Mexico City urban area (SIMAT, the high altitude site at 4010 m (Altzomoni, and the NCAR C130 aircraft. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS were applied to single particle organic functional group abundance analysis of particles simultaneously collected at SIMAT and C130. Correlations of elemental concentrations showed different groups of source-related elements at SIMAT, Altzomoni, and C130, suggesting different processes affecting the air masses sampled at the three platforms. Cluster analysis resulted in seven distinct clusters of FTIR spectra, with the last three clusters consisting of spectra collected almost exclusively on the C130 platform, reflecting the variety of sources contributing to C130 samples. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF of STXM-NEXAFS spectra identified three main factors representing soot, secondary, and biomass burning type spectra. PMF of FTIR spectra resulted in two fossil fuel combustion factors and one biomass burning factor, the former representative of source regions to the northeast and southwest of SIMAT. Alkane, carboxylic acid, amine, and alcohol functional groups were mainly associated with combustion related sources, while non-acid carbonyl groups were likely from biomass burning events. The majority of OM and O/C was attributed to combustion sources, although no distinction between direct emissions and atmospherically processed OM could be identified.

  17. Effects of a single bout of walking on psychophysiologic responses and executive function in elderly adults: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatta A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Arihiro Hatta,1 Yoshiaki Nishihira,2 Takuro Higashiura3 1Department of Health Pharmacy, Yokohama College of Pharmacy, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Department of Law, Faculty of Law, Seiwa University, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a single bout of walking on mood, psychophysiologic responses, and executive function in elderly adults. Methods: Twenty healthy, elderly adults (10 women and 10 men; mean age 70.50 ± 3.4 years participated in this study. Mood, as assessed by the Profile of Mood States, and salivary α-amylase activity were examined before and after walking. Executive functions were also evaluated by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Results: Negative feeling scores such as tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, and confusion significantly improved after walking. No significant differences were found for either salivary α-amylase activities or Wisconsin Card Sorting Test scores before and after walking. However, the changes in salivary α-amylase activity before and after walking correlated positively with the number of total errors and perseverative errors of Nelson in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusion: These results suggest that moderate exercise, such as self-paced one-time walking, induces beneficial psychologic effects in elderly adults. Meanwhile, the significant increase in salivary α-amylase activity after walking might temporarily cause deterioration of executive function. Keywords: salivary α-amylase, Profile of Mood States, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, perseverative error

  18. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies: Experience at a single university referral hospital centre in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of I-131 therapy in patients suffering from various types of functional autonomies of the thyroid gland. The efficacy and adverse effects of radioiodine therapy are presented. Seven hundred ninety-nine patients (age range= 33 to 86 years; average age= 58.7 years; Male: Female = 7.4:1) with unifocal, multifocal and disseminated functional autonomies of thyroid gland were treated with at least one therapeutic dose of I-131. Baseline Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scans, radioactive iodine uptake studies and ultrasonography were performed in all cases prior to radio iodine therapy. Baseline serum total and free thyroxine (T-T4 and F-T4), total triiodothyronine (T-T3) and TSH levels were estimated in all cases. Effective half life of radio iodine in the thyroids was also determined in all patients prior to therapy and a few patients were subjected to TRH stimulation tests. Following treatment all patients were evaluated after a period of 4-6 months. Further follow up evaluations were done at one year in 545 patients and at two years in 254 patients. Complete elimination of functional autonomy was achieved in 733 (91.74%) patients with a single therapeutic dose of I-131, while 62 (7.76%) patients required two doses of I-131 and only 4 (0.5%) patients required three therapeutic doses of I-131. Following I-131 therapy, the suppression of TSH levels in serum disappeared in 607 (76%) of treated patients. An average volume reduction of 38% was noted in the thyroid gland following I-131. Side effects were minimal and only a few patients complained of transient neck pressure, pain and neck swelling. Postradiation hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 36 patients (4.5%). We conclude that radio iodine treatment is the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the thyroid functional autonomies. The results of our approach show that the radioiodine therapy of the thyroid functional autonomies is safe, with low incidence of adverse effects

  19. Posteriori Probabilities and Likelihoods Combination for Speech and Speaker Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    BenZeghiba, Mohamed Faouzi; Bourlard, Hervé

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates a new approach to perform simultaneous speech and speaker recognition. The likelihood estimated by a speaker identification system is combined with the posterior probability estimated by the speech recognizer. So, the joint posterior probability of the pronounced word and the speaker identity is maximized. A comparison study with other standard techniques is carried out in three different applications, (1) closed set speech and speaker identification, (2) open set spee...

  20. Estimating small signals by using maximum likelihood and Poisson statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hannam, M D

    1999-01-01

    Estimation of small signals from counting experiments with backgrounds larger than signals is solved using maximum likelihood estimation for situations in which both signal and background statistics are Poissonian. Confidence levels are discussed, and Poisson, Gauss and least-squares fitting methods are compared. Efficient algorithms that estimate signal strengths and confidence levels are devised for computer implementation. Examples from simulated data and a low count rate experiment in nuclear physics are given. (author)