WorldWideScience

Sample records for single largest supporter

  1. Largest case series of Latin American eyelid tumors over 13-Years from a single center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Carolinne Damasceno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Malignant lesions of the eyelid are the most common eye cancers. Although rarely lethal, late diagnosis can lead to serious visual morbidity. Definitive diagnosis of neoplastic lesions is pathological. Indications and types of eyelid lesions in a single high-volume ophthalmic reference center in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed. Methods: The surgical pathological reports of patients who underwent eye removal procedures between January 2000 and December 2012 were retrieved from the electronic database of the Ophthalmology Department and retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding the final anatomopathological diagnosis, sex, and age were analyzed via the χ2 test with Yates' correction. Results: Of the 1,113 eyelid tumors resected over the 13-year study period, 324 (29% lesions were malignant. The most prevalent lesions were basal cell, squamous cell, and sebaceous gland carcinomas. The median ages of patients (females, n=165, 51%; males, n=159, 49% with a diagnosis of basal cell, squamous cell, and sebaceous gland carcinomas were 65, 75, and 70 years, respectively. Conclusion: This is the largest retrospective cohort analysis of eyelid tumors in a Latin American population. These findings are in agreement with those from large centers in other countries and regions.

  2. Long-term outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for metachromatic leukodystrophy: the largest single-institution cohort report

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Alexander A.; Miller, Weston; Shanley, Ryan; Ziegler, Richard; Lund, Troy; Raymond, Gerald; Orchard, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare, fatal demyelinating disorder with limited treatment options. Published outcomes after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are scant and mixed. We report survival and function following HSCT for a large, single-center MLD cohort. Methods Transplant-related data, survival and serial measures (brain MRI, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), neurologic and neuropsychology evaluations) were reviewed. When possible, parental interviews...

  3. Long-term outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for metachromatic leukodystrophy: the largest single-institution cohort report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Alexander A; Miller, Weston; Shanley, Ryan; Ziegler, Richard; Lund, Troy; Raymond, Gerald; Orchard, Paul J

    2015-08-07

    Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare, fatal demyelinating disorder with limited treatment options. Published outcomes after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are scant and mixed. We report survival and function following HSCT for a large, single-center MLD cohort. Transplant-related data, survival and serial measures (brain MRI, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), neurologic and neuropsychology evaluations) were reviewed. When possible, parental interviews informed current neurologic status, quality-of-life, and adaptive functioning. Gross motor and expressive functions for late-infantile (LI-MLD) and juvenile (J-MLD) patients were described using previously reported, MLD-specific scales. Forty patients with confirmed MLD have undergone HSCT at our center. Twenty-one (53 %) survive at a median 12 years post-HSCT. Most deaths (n = 17) were treatment-related; two died from disease progression. Survival did not depend upon MLD subtype or symptom status at transplant. LI-MLD patients survive beyond reported life expectancy in untreated disease. Abnormal brain MRI and peripheral nerve conduction velocities (NCV) were common before HSCT. Following transplant, fewer patients experienced MRI progression compared to NCV deterioration. Sixteen LI-MLD and J-MLD survivors were evaluable for long-term gross motor and/or expressive language functioning using existing MLD clinical scoring systems. While most J-MLD patients regressed, the aggregate cohort demonstrated superior retention of function compared to published natural history. Seventeen LI-MLD, J-MLD and adult subtype (A-MLD) survivors were evaluable for long-term adaptive functioning, activities of daily living, and/or cognition. Relative cognitive sparing was observed despite overall global decline. Five sibling pairs (one LI-MLD and four J-MLD), in which at least one underwent transplant in our cohort, were evaluable. Within each familial dyad, survival or function was superior for the treated

  4. Using Telepresence to Connect and Engage Classes and the Public in the Exploration of Tamu Massif, the World's Largest Single Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanez-James, S. E.; Sager, W.

    2016-02-01

    Research published in 2013 showed that TAMU Massif, the largest mountain in the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, located approximately 1500 kilometers east of Japan, is the "World's Largest Single Volcano." This claim garnered widespread public interest and wonder concerning how something so big could remain so mysterious in the 21st century. This disconnect highlights the fact that oceans are still widely unexplored, especially the middle of the deep ocean. Because there is so much interest in TAMU Massif, a diverse outreach team lead by chief scientist Dr. William Sager from the University of Houston in partnership with the Texas State Aquarium and the Schmidt Ocean Institute (SOI) conducted a multifaceted ship-to-shore outreach project that included secondary school students, formal and informal educators, university students and professors, the aquarium and museum audience, and the general public. The objective was to work in conjunction with SOI and various other partners, including the Texas Regional Collaborative, the Aquarium of the Pacific, and the Houston Museum of Natural Science, to promote science and ocean literacy while inspiring future scientists - especially those from underserved and underrepresented groups - through ocean connections. Participants were connected through live ship-to-shore distance learning broadcasts of ongoing marine research and discovery of TAMU Massif aboard the R/V Falkor, allowing audiences to participate in real-time research and apply real world science to curriculum in the classrooms. These ship-to-shore presentations connected to existing curriculums and standards, lessons, and career interests of the students and educators with special teacher events and professional development workshops conducted from aboard the R/V Falkor.

  5. Early metabolic change in (18)F-FDG-PET by measuring the single largest lesion predicts chemotherapeutic effects and patients' survival: PEACH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Ueda, Yutaka; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the predictive value of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for early assessment of tumor response to chemotherapy and for patient survival in gynecologic malignancies. We performed CT and FDG-PET scans before initiation of chemotherapy to determine baseline conditions. PET scan was repeated after the first cycle of chemotherapy. The tumor response was later evaluated by CT scans after three cycles of chemotherapy, using RECIST. The PET response was analyzed in terms of the difference in SUVmax for FDG of the patient's largest lesion between the baseline scan and after the first cycle of chemotherapy. The metabolic response for the tumor was defined as a 30% reduction in its SUVmax. Eleven patients received platinum-based regimens, and 20 patients received non-platinum-based regimens. The mean progression-free survival (PFS) for the patients with a metabolic response was 13 months (range 5-29). In contrast, the mean PFS of the patients with no metabolic response was only 4.3 months (range 1-18). There was a statistically significant difference between the metabolic response and PFS (p = 0.002, Mann-Whitney U test). There was a strong correlation between the metabolic response and RECIST, regardless of the chemotherapy regimens used (platinum-based group, p = 0.006; non-platinum group, p = 0.046, Fisher's exact test). The metabolic change in SUVmax was clearly predictive of tumor response in 93.5% of patients. Early FDG-PET assessment by measuring the single largest lesion is a very promising tool for rapidly predicting tumor responses and patient survival, regardless of the chemotherapy regimen.

  6. Fracture resistance of single-tooth implant-supported

    OpenAIRE

    Piloto, P.A.G.; Piloto, Joana F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and compare the fracture behaviour of the ceramic used in a single-tooth implant-supported. This type of prosthesis is mainly used when a single tooth replacement is needed. Two different materials are tested for the abutment (ceramic and titanium), assuming fully connection to the crown. The implant is made of Titanium. The numerical simulations used the concept of continuous damage mechanics to predict crack pattern when loading the tooth in the vert...

  7. Largest College Endowments, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Of all endowments valued at more than $250-million, the UCLA Foundation had the highest rate of growth over the previous year, at 49 percent. This article presents a table of the largest college endowments in 2011. The table covers the "rank," "institution," "market value as of June 30, 2011," and "1-year change" of institutions participating in…

  8. A Community Support Group for Single Custodial Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sandra L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a five-session group experience within the context of establishing a support group for single custodial fathers. Includes topics of dating, remarriage, homemaking and house maintenance, and the effects of divorce on children. A follow-up showed fathers appreciated the sense of community and specific information and coping strategies.…

  9. A Supportive Service to Single Mothers and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Donna Tubach

    1977-01-01

    Describes a supportive program for single, young mothers in need of low-cost housing, job-training or schooling, social services and day care. Most enrollees gained a saleable skill and made progress in personal growth and the development of independent living skills. Techniques included a team approach and use of short-term contracts. (BF)

  10. Compactly supported linearised observables in single-field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fröob, Markus B.; Higuchi, Atsushi; Hack, Thomas-Paul

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the gauge-invariant observables constructed by smearing the graviton and inflaton fields by compactly supported tensors at linear order in general single-field inflation. These observables correspond to gauge-invariant quantities that can be measured locally. In particular, we show that these observables are equivalent to (smeared) local gauge-invariant observables such as the linearised Weyl tensor, which have better infrared properties than the graviton and inflaton fields. Special cases include the equivalence between the compactly supported gauge-invariant graviton observable and the smeared linearised Weyl tensor in Minkowski and de Sitter spaces. Our results indicate that the infrared divergences in the tensor and scalar perturbations in single-field inflation have the same status as in de Sitter space and are both a gauge artefact, in a certain technical sense, at tree level.

  11. Compactly supported linearised observables in single-field inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fröob, Markus B.; Higuchi, Atsushi [Department of Mathematics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Hack, Thomas-Paul, E-mail: mbf503@york.ac.uk, E-mail: thomas-paul.hack@itp.uni-leipzig.de, E-mail: atsushi.higuchi@york.ac.uk [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstraße 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the gauge-invariant observables constructed by smearing the graviton and inflaton fields by compactly supported tensors at linear order in general single-field inflation. These observables correspond to gauge-invariant quantities that can be measured locally. In particular, we show that these observables are equivalent to (smeared) local gauge-invariant observables such as the linearised Weyl tensor, which have better infrared properties than the graviton and inflaton fields. Special cases include the equivalence between the compactly supported gauge-invariant graviton observable and the smeared linearised Weyl tensor in Minkowski and de Sitter spaces. Our results indicate that the infrared divergences in the tensor and scalar perturbations in single-field inflation have the same status as in de Sitter space and are both a gauge artefact, in a certain technical sense, at tree level.

  12. Single directional SMO algorithm for least squares support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xigao; Wu, Kun; Liao, Bifeng

    2013-01-01

    Working set selection is a major step in decomposition methods for training least squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs). In this paper, a new technique for the selection of working set in sequential minimal optimization- (SMO-) type decomposition methods is proposed. By the new method, we can select a single direction to achieve the convergence of the optimality condition. A simple asymptotic convergence proof for the new algorithm is given. Experimental comparisons demonstrate that the classification accuracy of the new method is not largely different from the existing methods, but the training speed is faster than existing ones.

  13. Single Object Tracking With Fuzzy Least Squares Support Vector Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shunli; Zhao, Sicong; Sui, Yao; Zhang, Li

    2015-12-01

    Single object tracking, in which a target is often initialized manually in the first frame and then is tracked and located automatically in the subsequent frames, is a hot topic in computer vision. The traditional tracking-by-detection framework, which often formulates tracking as a binary classification problem, has been widely applied and achieved great success in single object tracking. However, there are some potential issues in this formulation. For instance, the boundary between the positive and negative training samples is fuzzy, and the objectives of tracking and classification are inconsistent. In this paper, we attempt to address the above issues from the fuzzy system perspective and propose a novel tracking method by formulating tracking as a fuzzy classification problem. First, we introduce the fuzzy strategy into tracking and propose a novel fuzzy tracking framework, which can measure the importance of the training samples by assigning different memberships to them and offer more strict spatial constraints. Second, we develop a fuzzy least squares support vector machine (FLS-SVM) approach and employ it to implement a concrete tracker. In particular, the primal form, dual form, and kernel form of FLS-SVM are analyzed and the corresponding closed-form solutions are derived for efficient realizations. Besides, a least squares regression model is built to control the update adaptively, retaining the robustness of the appearance model. The experimental results demonstrate that our method can achieve comparable or superior performance to many state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Short implants supporting single crowns in atrophic jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Asim

    2014-09-01

    PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, LILACS, Ebsco-Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source, Scirus, Embase, Scopus and Journal Ovid databases were searched. In addition hand searching of 14 relevant journals was undertaken along with screening of the reference lists of screened article and reviews. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), prospective cohort studies and case series were included. Studies where short (biological failure proportion (BFP), prosthetic failure proportion (PFP) and radiographic marginal bone loss (MBL) were 5.9% (95% CI: 3.7-9.2%), 3.8% (95%CI: 1.9-7.4%), 2.8% (95%CI: 1.4-5.7%) and 0.83 mm (95%CI: 0.54-1.12 mm) respectively. Quantitative analysis showed that placement in the mandible (p = 0.0002) and implants with length ≤ 8 mm (p = 0.01) increased FP, BFP and MBL, whereas qualitative assessment revealed that crown-to-implant ratio did not influence MBL. Within the limitations of the present systematic review with meta-analysis, it is suggested that single crowns supported by short implants are an acceptable and predictable option in the short- and long-term treatment of the atrophic jaws.

  15. Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Faniel, S.

    2006-01-01

    A simple technique for fabricating single nanowires with well-defined position is presented. The process implies the use of a silicon nitride mask for selective electrochemical growth of the nanowires in a porous alumina template. We show that this method allows the realization of complex nanowire...

  16. Supporting children after single-incident trauma: parents'views.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, E.; Boeije, H.R.; Jongmans, M.J.; Kleber, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To strengthen trauma-informed health care by exploring parents’ experiences of assisting their child after single-incident trauma (eg, violence, accidents, and sudden loss). Method. Semistructured interviews with parents (N = 33) of 25 exposed children (8-12 years). Results. Responsive

  17. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  18. What Can US Single-Payer Supporters Learn From the Swiss Rejection of Single Payer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    On September 27, 2014, Swiss voters rejected a proposal to replace their system of about 60 health insurance companies offering mandatory basic health coverage with a single public insurer, the state, which would offer taxpayer-funded coverage of all medically necessary care. The Swiss and the U.S. media, academia, and business sectors, from conservative and liberal camps, interpreted the results to mean a rejection of single payer and a preference for a privately run system, with important implications for health reform in the United States. While on the surface mainstream interpretations appear reasonable, I argue that they have little basis on fact because they rely on assumptions that, while untrue, are repeated as mantras that conveniently justify the continuation of a model of health insurance that is unraveling, less conspicuously in Switzerland, dramatically in the United States. To make my case, I describe the dominant narrative about Swiss health care and mainstream interpretations of the latest referendum on health reform, unpack the problem within these interpretations, and conclude by identifying what lessons the Swiss referendum contains for single payer advocates in the United States in particular and for those who struggle for social and economic rights more generally. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. An Investigation of Loneliness and Perceived Social Support Among Single and Partnered Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna

    This study investigated the possible differences between single individuals and individuals in nonmarital romantic relationships in the domains of emotional (romantic and family) and social loneliness, and of perceived social support from family, friends and significant others. Based on a Polish university-student sample of 315 participants (167 women and 148 men) aged 19 to 25 years ( M  = 21.90, SD  = 2.15), single relationship status was related to greater romantic and family loneliness, and to less perceived social support from significant others and family. Women reported a lower level of social loneliness and a higher level of perceived social support in comparison to men. Relationship status interacted with gender in predicting perceived social support from significant others and friends. Finally, the duration of remaining single and significant others' support were found to be predictive of single young adults' romantic loneliness. In addition, perceived social support from family and significant others were found to moderate the relationship between the duration of remaining single and romantic loneliness. In particular, high family support and medium-high support from significant others mitigated the negative impact of being single for a long time on romantic loneliness.

  20. Selective alkane activation with single-site atoms on amorphous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Adam S.; Schweitzer, Neil M.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Hu, Bo

    2015-11-24

    The present invention relates generally to catalysts and methods for use in olefin production. More particularly, the present invention relates to novel amorphously supported single-center, Lewis acid metal ions and use of the same as catalysts.

  1. Ventricular assist device support in patients with single ventricles: the Melbourne experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Chin L; Chiletti, Roberto; Zannino, Diana; Brizard, Christian; Konstantinov, Igor E; Horton, Stephen; Millar, Johnny; d'Udekem, Yves

    2017-08-01

    The capacity and limitations of ventricular assist device (VAD) support in single-ventricle physiology remains poorly understood. We aimed to review our experience in the use of VAD support in the single-ventricle circulation to determine its feasibility in this population. We reviewed our experience with VAD support in patients with single ventricles over the past 25 years. Fifty-seven patients received 64 runs of VAD support between 1990 and 2015 at a median age of 13 days [interquartile range (IQR) 4.1-99.4 days], of which 55 were supported for post-cardiotomy failure. The majority of patients received short-term VAD support, while 4 patients were either directly supported (1) or transitioned onto the Berlin Heart EXCOR (3). The median duration of support was 3.5 days (IQR 2.8-5.2 days). Twelve patients suffered significant neurological complications, and thromboembolic events occurred in 8 patients. Twenty-nine of the 55 patients were successfully weaned off support (53%). There were 37 inpatient deaths, with a survival-to-hospital discharge rate of 33% (18 of 55). Of the 4 patients supported after early Fontan failure, 3 died. Having a higher mean arterial blood pressure on initiation of VAD support was the only significant predictor of death (hazards ratio 1.08; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.14; P = 0.002). Patients who required a second run of support had higher hospital mortality (83% vs 63%; P = 0.84). Of the hospital survivors, 12 patients (63%) remain alive without heart transplantation at median 7.2 years (IQR 3.5-14.0) post VAD support. VAD support in patients with a single ventricle has a high hospital mortality, with 1 of 3 patients surviving to discharge. Systemic VAD support is likely futile in the setting of early Fontan failure or when re-initiation of support is required. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. Recombinant human albumin supports single cell cloning of CHO cells in chemically defined media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Wooh, Jong Wei; Hou, Jeff Jia Cheng; Hughes, Benjamin S; Gray, Peter P; Munro, Trent P

    2012-01-01

    Biologic drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies, are commonly made using mammalian cells in culture. The cell lines used for manufacturing should ideally be clonal, meaning derived from a single cell, which represents a technically challenging process. Fetal bovine serum is often used to support low cell density cultures, however, from a regulatory perspective, it is preferable to avoid animal-derived components to increase process consistency and reduce the risk of contamination from adventitious agents. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most widely used cell line in industry and a large number of serum-free, protein-free, and fully chemically defined growth media are commercially available, although these media alone do not readily support efficient single cell cloning. In this work, we have developed a simple, fully defined, single-cell cloning media, specifically for CHO cells, using commercially available reagents. Our results show that a 1:1 mixture of CD-CHO™ and DMEM/F12 supplemented with 1.5 g/L of recombinant albumin (Albucult®) supports single cell cloning. This formulation can support recovery of single cells in 43% of cultures compared to 62% in the presence of serum. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  3. Referential ZMP Trajectory for Minimizing Variation of COG Velocity in Single Support Phase of Biped Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoya; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    The referential ZMP (Zero-Moment Point) trajectory that minimizes the variation of COG (Center of Gravity) velocity in the single support phase of a biped robot is shown. Two advantages of using this ZMP trajectory are discussed. The first advantage is that the variation of COG velocity is gradual. The second advantage is that the biped robot enables the heel-contact motion and the toe-off motion in the single support phase. The trajectory planning based on this ZMP trajectory is proposed. In simulation and experiment, the validity of the proposed method was confirmed.

  4. Single-Atom Catalyst of Platinum Supported on Titanium Nitride for Selective Electrochemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungeun; Kim, Jiwhan; Tak, Young Joo; Soon, Aloysius; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-02-05

    As a catalyst, single-atom platinum may provide an ideal structure for platinum minimization. Herein, a single-atom catalyst of platinum supported on titanium nitride nanoparticles were successfully prepared with the aid of chlorine ligands. Unlike platinum nanoparticles, the single-atom active sites predominantly produced hydrogen peroxide in the electrochemical oxygen reduction with the highest mass activity reported so far. The electrocatalytic oxidation of small organic molecules, such as formic acid and methanol, also exhibited unique selectivity on the single-atom platinum catalyst. A lack of platinum ensemble sites changed the reaction pathway for the oxygen-reduction reaction toward a two-electron pathway and formic acid oxidation toward direct dehydrogenation, and also induced no activity for the methanol oxidation. This work demonstrates that single-atom platinum can be an efficient electrocatalyst with high mass activity and unique selectivity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Single wall carbon nanotube supports for portable direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girishkumar, G; Hall, Timothy D; Vinodgopal, K; Kamat, Prashant V

    2006-01-12

    Single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes are employed as carbon supports in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The morphology and electrochemical activity of single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes obtained from different sources have been examined to probe the influence of carbon support on the overall performance of DMFC. The improved activity of the Pt-Ru catalyst dispersed on carbon nanotubes toward methanol oxidation is reflected as a shift in the onset potential and a lower charge transfer resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The evaluation of carbon supports in a passive air breathing DMFC indicates that the observed power density depends on the nature and source of carbon nanostructures. The intrinsic property of the nanotubes, dispersion of the electrocatalyst and the electrochemically active surface area collectively influence the performance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). As compared to the commercial carbon black support, single wall carbon nanotubes when employed as the support for anchoring the electrocatalyst particles in the anode and cathode sides of MEA exhibited a approximately 30% enhancement in the power density of a single stack DMFC operating at 70 degrees C.

  6. Nanosheet Supported Single-Metal Atom Bifunctional Catalyst for Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chongyi; Shi, Li; Ouyang, Yixin; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Jinlan

    2017-08-09

    Nanosheet supported single-atom catalysts (SACs) can make full use of metal atoms and yet entail high selectivity and activity, and bifunctional catalysts can enable higher performance while lowering the cost than two separate unifunctional catalysts. Supported single-atom bifunctional catalysts are therefore of great economic interest and scientific importance. Here, on the basis of first-principles computations, we report a design of the first single-atom bifunctional eletrocatalyst, namely, isolated nickel atom supported on β 12 boron monolayer (Ni 1 /β 12 -BM), to achieve overall water splitting. This nanosheet supported SAC exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic performance with the computed overpotential for oxygen/hydrogen evolution reaction being just 0.40/0.06 V. The ab initio molecular dynamics simulation shows that the SAC can survive up to 800 K elevated temperature, while enacting a high energy barrier of 1.68 eV to prevent isolated Ni atoms from clustering. A viable experimental route for the synthesis of Ni 1 /β 12 -BM SAC is demonstrated from computer simulation. The desired nanosheet supported single-atom bifunctional catalysts not only show great potential for achieving overall water splitting but also offer cost-effective opportunities for advancing clean energy technology.

  7. CT perfusion measurements of head and neck carcinoma from single section with largest tumor dimensions or average of multiple sections: Agreement between the two methods and effect on intra- and inter-observer agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Ahmed M., E-mail: ahm_m_tawfik@hotmail.com [Institut für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum der J.W.v. Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7 Frankfurt am Main 60590 (Germany); Diagnostic Radiology Department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, 62 Elgomhorya Street, Mansoura 35512 (Egypt); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A.; Naguib, Nagy N. [Institut für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum der J.W.v. Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7 Frankfurt am Main 60590 (Germany); Razek, Ahmed Abdel [Diagnostic Radiology Department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, 62 Elgomhorya Street, Mansoura 35512 (Egypt); Denewer, Adel T. [Surgical Oncology Department, Mansoura Oncology Centre, Mansoura Faculty of medicine (Egypt); Bisdas, Sotirios [Department of Neuroradiology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [Institut für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum der J.W.v. Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7 Frankfurt am Main 60590 (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the agreement between quantitative CT perfusion measurements of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) obtained from single section with maximal tumor dimension and from average values of multiple sections, and to compare intra- and inter-observer agreement of the two methods. Methods: Perfusion was measured for 28 SCC cases using a region of interest (ROI) inserted in the single dynamic CT section showing maximal tumor dimension, then using average values of multiple ROIs inserted in all tumor-containing sections. Agreement between values of blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface area product (PS) calculated by the two methods was assessed. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by comparing repeated calculations done by the same radiologist using both methods after 2 months blinding period. Perfusion measurements were done by another radiologist independently to assess inter-observer agreement of both methods. Results: No significant differences were observed between the means of the 4 perfusion parameters calculated by both methods, all p values >0.05 The 95% limits of agreement between the two methods were (−33.9 to 43) ml/min/100 g for BF, (−2.5 to 2.8) ml/100 g for BV, (−4.9 to 3.9) s for MTT and (−17.5 to 18.6) ml/min/100 g for PS. Narrower limits of agreement were obtained using average of multiple sections than with single section denoting improved intra- and inter-observer agreement. Conclusion: Agreement between both methods is acceptable. Taking the average of multiple sections slightly improves intra- and inter-observer agreement.

  8. A Seasonal Trend of Single Scattering Albedo in Southern African Biomass-burning Particles: Implications for Satellite Products and Estimates of Emissions for the World's Largest Biomass-burning Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Piketh, S. J.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.; Hyer, E. J.; Ward, D. E.; Dubovik, O.; hide

    2013-01-01

    As a representative site of the southern African biomass-burning region, sun-sky data from the 15 year Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) deployment at Mongu, Zambia, was analyzed. For the biomass-burning season months (July-November), we investigate seasonal trends in aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices from almucantar sky scan retrievals. The monthly mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm in Mongu was found to increase significantly from approx.. 0.84 in July to approx. 0.93 in November (from 0.78 to 0.90 at 675 nm in these same months). There was no significant change in particle size, in either the dominant accumulation or secondary coarse modes during these months, nor any significant trend in the Angstrom exponent (440-870 nm; r(exp 2) = 0.02). A significant downward seasonal trend in imaginary refractive index (r(exp 2) = 0.43) suggests a trend of decreasing black carbon content in the aerosol composition as the burning season progresses. Similarly, burning season SSA retrievals for the Etosha Pan, Namibia AERONET site also show very similar increasing single scattering albedo values and decreasing imaginary refractive index as the season progresses. Furthermore, retrievals of SSA at 388 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument satellite sensor show similar seasonal trends as observed by AERONET and suggest that this seasonal shift is widespread throughout much of southern Africa. A seasonal shift in the satellite retrieval bias of aerosol optical depth from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer collection 5 dark target algorithm is consistent with this seasonal SSA trend since the algorithm assumes a constant value of SSA. Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, however, appears less sensitive to the absorption-induced bias.

  9. A seasonal trend of single scattering albedo in southern African biomass-burning particles: Implications for satellite products and estimates of emissions for the world's largest biomass-burning source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Piketh, S. J.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.; Hyer, E. J.; Ward, D. E.; Dubovik, O.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Sorokin, M.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.

    2013-06-01

    As a representative site of the southern African biomass-burning region, sun-sky data from the 15 year Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) deployment at Mongu, Zambia, was analyzed. For the biomass-burning season months (July-November), we investigate seasonal trends in aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices from almucantar sky scan retrievals. The monthly mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm in Mongu was found to increase significantly from 0.84 in July to 0.93 in November (from 0.78 to 0.90 at 675 nm in these same months). There was no significant change in particle size, in either the dominant accumulation or secondary coarse modes during these months, nor any significant trend in the Ångström exponent (440-870 nm; r2 = 0.02). A significant downward seasonal trend in imaginary refractive index (r2 = 0.43) suggests a trend of decreasing black carbon content in the aerosol composition as the burning season progresses. Similarly, burning season SSA retrievals for the Etosha Pan, Namibia AERONET site also show very similar increasing single scattering albedo values and decreasing imaginary refractive index as the season progresses. Furthermore, retrievals of SSA at 388 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument satellite sensor show similar seasonal trends as observed by AERONET and suggest that this seasonal shift is widespread throughout much of southern Africa. A seasonal shift in the satellite retrieval bias of aerosol optical depth from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer collection 5 dark target algorithm is consistent with this seasonal SSA trend since the algorithm assumes a constant value of SSA. Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, however, appears less sensitive to the absorption-induced bias.

  10. Well-defined single-site monohydride silica-supported zirconium from azazirconacyclopropane

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel

    2015-01-13

    The silica-supported azazirconacyclopropane ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(η2-NMeCH2)(NMe2) (1) leads exclusively under hydrogenolysis conditions (H2, 150°C) to the single-site monopodal monohydride silica-supported zirconium species ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(NMe2)2H (2). Reactivity studies by contacting compound 2 with ethylene, hydrogen/ethylene, propene, or hydrogen/propene, at a temperature of 200°C revealed alkene hydrogenation.

  11. Hybrid Tunable Wideband Single Feed Antenna Element for Smartphones supporting Carrier Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanev, Simon Peter; Tatomirescu, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a single feed antenna with a dual branch matching circuit combined with a 3dB microstrip power divider to support the carrier aggregation in LTE advanced mobile handsets. By the use of the matching circuits, an independent and versatile broadband antenna is achieved. Hence, th...

  12. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe 2 ) 4 , cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, 13 C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: The ligand-tailored silica supportedsingle site” titanium complexes were synthesized by SOMC strategy and fully characterized. Their catalytic activity were evaluated by benzaldehyde silylcyanation. - Highlights: • Single-site silica supported Ti active species was prepared by SOMC technique. • O-donor ligand tailored Ti surface species was synthesized. • The surface species was characterized by XPS, 13 C CP-MAS NMR, XANES etc. • Catalytic activity of the Ti active species in silylcyanation reaction was evaluated

  13. Ventilation system consequence calculations to support salt well pumping single-shell tank 241-A-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W.

    1997-05-07

    This document presents the radiological dose and toxicological exposure calculations for an accident scenario involved with the ventilation system used to support salt well pumping single-shell tank 241-A-101. This tank has been listed on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  14. Ventilation system consequence calculations to support salt well pumping single-shell tank 241-A-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, G.W.

    1997-01-01

    This document presents the radiological dose and toxicological exposure calculations for an accident scenario involved with the ventilation system used to support salt well pumping single-shell tank 241-A-101. This tank has been listed on the Hydrogen Watch List

  15. Patients' expectations of and satisfaction with implant-supported fixed partial dentures and single crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Elis Andrade; dos Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes; Marchini, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Patient variables and expectations may influence patients' evaluations of treatment outcomes, which are essential to the success of therapy. The main objective of this study was to compare patients' expectations before and satisfaction after receiving implant-supported fixed partial dentures (FPDs) and single crowns. A secondary objective was to evaluate other variables that may affect patient satisfaction. The sample comprised 52 volunteers (mean age: 51.2 ± 10.6 years) who had received implant-supported FPDs (n = 25) and single crowns (n = 27). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess their expectations before and satisfaction after therapy with regard to mastication, esthetics, comfort, and phonetics. Patients also completed a questionnaire concerning other variables involved in the treatment and their evaluation of their clinician's conduct. Patient expectations before treatment were higher than satisfaction after treatment, but this difference was significant only for esthetics in patients who had received implant-supported FPDs. Negative correlations were found between satisfaction and age and between number of absent teeth and number of post delivery adjustments, but only for implant-supported FPDs. A positive relationship was found for the majority of questions concerning patients' evaluations of clinician conduct and VAS scores. Patients' evaluation of clinician conduct appears to be an important factor that influences their expectations before and satisfaction after receiving implant-supported FPDs and single crowns.

  16. Tunable reactivity of supported single metal atoms by impurity engineering of the MgO(001) support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pašti, Igor A; Johansson, Börje; Skorodumova, Natalia V

    2018-02-28

    Development of novel materials may often require a rational use of high price components, like noble metals, in combination with the possibility to tune their properties in a desirable way. Here we present a theoretical DFT study of Au and Pd single atoms supported by doped MgO(001). By introducing B, C and N impurities into the MgO(001) surface, the interaction between the surface and the supported metal adatoms can be adjusted. Impurity atoms act as strong binding sites for Au and Pd adatoms and can help to produce highly dispersed metal particles. The reactivity of metal atoms supported by doped MgO(001), as probed by CO, is altered compared to their counterparts on pristine MgO(001). We find that Pd atoms on doped MgO(001) are less reactive than on perfect MgO(001). In contrast, Au adatoms bind CO much more strongly when placed on doped MgO(001). In the case of Au on N-doped MgO(001) we find that charge redistribution between the metal atom and impurity takes place even when not in direct contact, which enhances the interaction of Au with CO. The presented results suggest possible ways for optimizing the reactivity of oxide supported metal catalysts through impurity engineering.

  17. Clinical outcomes of zirconia-based implant- and tooth-supported single crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatidanesh, Farahnaz; Moradpoor, Hedayat; Savabi, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations have been increasingly used on implant and teeth abutments, but the evidence about clinical outcomes of these restorations is limited. The aim of this study was to assess up to 7-year clinical outcomes of implant- and tooth-supported zirconia-based single crowns. In this retrospective study, 261 patients with 556 single crowns supported by either teeth (324) or implants (232) were examined during 3- to 7-year follow-up (mean observation of 60.70 months for tooth and 59.20 months for implant-supported crowns). California Dental Association (CDA) quality evaluation system was used to evaluate the restorations. Soft tissue status was assessed using plaque and gingival index scores, bleeding on probing, and pocket depth. Patient and professional satisfaction were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS). The 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 98.3 and 97.3 for implant- and tooth-supported crowns, respectively. In regard to CDA rating, most of the crowns were ranked as either excellent or acceptable (99.5 %). The recorded failures were replacement of the crown due to porcelain chipping (3), implant failure (1), and teeth extraction (5). Soft tissue parameters were not affected by the restorations compare to control teeth. The VAS was high for both patients and clinicians. Zirconia-based single crowns on both tooth and implant abutments showed promising clinical performance in this up to 7-year follow-up. The zirconia-based single crowns can be used clinically for tooth- and implant-supported restorations.

  18. On the structure and dynamics of water associated with single-supported zwitterionic and anionic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiec, A.; Buck, Z. N.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    2017-01-01

    We have used high-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) to investigate the dynamics of water molecules (time scale of motion similar to ∼10-11- 10-9 s) in proximity to single-supported bilayers of the zwitterionic lipid DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine......) and the anionic lipid DMPG (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol) in the temperature range 160-295 K. For both membranes, the temperature dependence of the intensity of neutrons scattered elastically and incoherently from these samples indicates a series of freezing/melting transitions...... present at temperatures below the freezing point of bulk-like water. We then go on to determine the temperature dependence of the translational diffusion coefficient of the water associated with single-supported DMPG membranes containing two different amounts of water as we have previously done for DMPC...

  19. The autogenous immediate implant supported single-tooth restoration: a 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelnuovo, Jacopo; Sönmez, Ayse Burçin

    2012-01-01

    When replacing a missing tooth in the esthetic zone, the implant supported single tooth restoration can result in a very natural and pleasing solution for the patient, being also a conservative procedure that preserves the adjacent remaining dentition. Immediate implant placement with an immediate provisional crown can avoid stressful and uncomfortable healing time for the patient who no longer has to wear an interim removable appliance. In selected clinical situations, excellent tooth esthetics for implant supported single tooth restorations can be achieved by using the natural extracted tooth as both provisional and final restoration. No longterm data is available today as far as the survival rate of such restorations and the predictability of such a treatment modality. This case report describes a technique for utilizing the patient's extracted tooth for the fabrication of an inconspicuous final anterior restoration, reporting a 5-year follow-up.

  20. CO oxidation studies over supported noble metal catalysts and single crystals: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Dirk; Gonzalez, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of CO over noble metal catalysts is reviewed. Results obtained on supported noble metal catalysts and single crystals both at high pressures and under UHV conditions are compared. The underlying causes which result in surface instabilities and multiple steady-state oscillations are considered, in particular, the occurrence of hot spots. CO islands of reactivity, surface oxide formation and phase transformations under oscillatory conditions are discussed.

  1. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang, E-mail: gfzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Gao, Ziwei, E-mail: zwgao@snnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: The ligand-tailored silica supportedsingle site” titanium complexes were synthesized by SOMC strategy and fully characterized. Their catalytic activity were evaluated by benzaldehyde silylcyanation. - Highlights: • Single-site silica supported Ti active species was prepared by SOMC technique. • O-donor ligand tailored Ti surface species was synthesized. • The surface species was characterized by XPS, {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR, XANES etc. • Catalytic activity of the Ti active species in silylcyanation reaction was evaluated.

  2. Implant-supported single crowns predictably survive to five years with limited complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Thomas; Eckert, Steven

    2012-09-01

    An electronic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify cohort studies, prospective or retrospective, describing clinical performance of implant-supported single crowns. Manual searches of bibliographies from full-text articles and related reviews were conducted using numerous scientific journals. Studies were included if the mean follow-up time was at least 5 years, if articles were published in the English or German language, if patients were physically examined, and if study details were sufficient for data extraction. Of the initial 3601 studies identified, only 26 were selected. No randomized control trials were identified. The 5-year survival and complications of implant-supported single crowns. The primary outcome measure in this study was survival of endosseous implants when used to support single crowns. In addition, the clinical performance of soft tissue (peri-implantitis) and hard tissue (bone level) was documented. Clinical complications of a biomechanical nature were recorded relative to fracture of restorative materials. Poisson's regression models were used to estimate failure and complication rates at 5 years. A systematic review of the scientific literature identified 26 studies from which data were extracted (1558 placed implants). Meta-analysis identified survival of implants used to support and retain single crowns at 96.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 95.9%-97.6% after 5 years). The survival rate of the single crown restorations documented in 13 studies was 94.5% (95% 92.5%-95.9%) with a significantly higher survival rate when metal ceramic crowns were used in comparison with all ceramic crowns (95.4% 93.6%-96.7%; 91.2% CI: 86.8%-94.2%). Soft tissue complications, including peri-implantitis, were observed in 9.7% of the single crowns, whereas bone loss exceeding 2 mm was identified on 6.3% of the implants over the 5-year study. Prosthetic or abutment screw loosening was observed in 12.7% of the restoration and screw fracture occurred in 0

  3. Wrinkling instabilities in compressed networks of polymer supported single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John; Iyer, Swathi; Huh, Ji Yeon; Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Chun, Jun Young; Hudson, Steven D.; Obrzut, Jan; Stafford, Christopher M.; Hobbie, Erik K.

    2011-03-01

    Strain-induced structural and electronic changes in polymer supported membranes of purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are evaluated through the wrinkling instabilities that develop under both uniaxial and isotropic compression. Nanotubes that have been purified by length or electronic type using density-gradient ultracentrifugation are assembled as surfactant-free thin membranes on prestrained polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates, and the strain response is measured using a broad range of techniques. The small-strain behavior is inferred from kinetic changes in the wrinkling topography of the SWCNT membranes during the slow drying of pre-swelled polymer supports. The measurements suggest a remarkable degree of strain softening that strongly couples to the anisotropic sheet resistance of the films, which we in turn relate to the microscale anisotropy that develops through excluded volume interactions. Supported by the NSF through CMMI-0969155 and the DOE through DE-FG36-08GO88160.

  4. Oceans of Opportunity. Harnessing Europe's largest domestic energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichaux, N.; Wilkes, J.

    2009-09-01

    Europe's offshore wind potential is enormous and able to power Europe seven times over. Over 100 GW of offshore wind projects are already in various stages of planning. If realised, these projects would produce 10% of the EU's electricity whilst avoiding 200 million tonnes of CO2 emissions each year. EWEA has a target of 40 GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020, implying an average annual market growth of 28% over the coming 12 years. The EU market for onshore wind grew by an average 32% per year in the 12-year period from 1992-2004 - what the wind energy industry has achieved on land can be repeated at sea. EWEA's proposed offshore grid builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 offshore grids currently being considered by the grid operators in the Baltic and North Seas to give Europe a truly pan-European electricity super highway. Strong political support and action from Europe's policy-makers will allow a new, multi-billion euro industry to be built. This new industry will deliver thousands of green collar jobs and a new renewable energy economy and establish Europe as world leader in offshore wind power technology. A single European electricity market with large amounts of wind power will bring affordable electricity to consumers, reduce import dependence, cut CO2 emissions and allow Europe to access its largest domestic energy source.

  5. Electrochemical reduction of CO2on graphene supported transition metals - towards single atom catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiying; Jagvaral, Yesukhei

    2017-05-10

    In this study, we have investigated the use of single metal atoms supported on defective graphene as catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 using the first-principles approach and the computational hydrogen electrode model. Reaction pathways to produce a variety of C 1 products CO, HCOOH, HCHO, CH 3 OH and CH 4 have been studied in detail for five representative transition metals Ag, Cu, Pd, Pt, and Co. Different pathways were revealed in contrast to those found for metallic crystalline surfaces and nanoparticles. These single atom catalysts have demonstrated a general improvement in rate limiting potentials to generate C 1 hydrocarbons. They also show distinct differences in terms of their efficiency and selectivity in CO 2 reduction, which can be correlated with their elemental properties as a function of their group number in the periodic table. Six best candidates for CH 4 production are identified by conducting computational screening of 28 d-block transition metals. Ag has the lowest overpotential (0.73 V), and is followed by Zn, Ni, Pd, Pt and Ru with overpotentials all below 1 V. Cu in the supported single atom form shows a strong preference towards producing CH 3 OH with an overpotential of 0.68 V well below the value of 1.04 V for producing CH 4 .

  6. A 1-year randomised controlled trial comparing zirconia versus metal-ceramic implant supported single-tooth restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Worsaae, Nils; Schiodt, Morten

    2011-01-01

    To compare the biological, technical and aesthetic outcomes of single implant-supported all-ceramic versus metal-ceramic crowns.......To compare the biological, technical and aesthetic outcomes of single implant-supported all-ceramic versus metal-ceramic crowns....

  7. broken magnet highlights largest collider's engineering challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Inman, Mason

    2007-01-01

    "Even at the world's soon-to-be largest particle accelerator - a device that promises to push the boundaries of physics - scientists need to be mindful of one of the most fundamental laws in the universe: Murphy's Law. (2 pages)

  8. Study of water diffusion on single-supported bilayer lipid membranes by quasielastic neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, M.; Miskowiec, A.; Hansen, F. Y.

    2012-01-01

    High-energy-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to elucidate the diffusion of water molecules in proximity to single bilayer lipid membranes supported on a silicon substrate. By varying sample temperature, level of hydration, and deuteration, we identify three different types...... of diffusive water motion: bulk-like, confined, and bound. The motion of bulk-like and confined water molecules is fast compared to those bound to the lipid head groups (7-10 H2O molecules per lipid), which move on the same nanosecond time scale as H atoms within the lipid molecules. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2012...

  9. Surface tailored single walled carbon nanotubes as catalyst support for direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeti, Kota V. M. K.; Jha, Neetu

    2017-10-01

    A strategy for tuning the surface property of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) for enhanced methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) along with methanol tolerance is presented. The surface functionality is tailored using controlled acid and base treatment. Acid treatment leads to the attachment of carboxylic carbon (CC) fragments to SWNT making it hydrophilic (P3-SWNT). Base treatment of P3-SWNT with 0.05 M NaOH reduces the CCs and makes it hydrophobic (P33-SWNT). Pt catalyst supported on the P3-SWNT possesses enhanced MOR whereas that supported on P33-SWNT not only enhances ORR kinetics but also possess good tolerance towards methanol oxidation as verified by the electrochemical technique.

  10. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands.

  11. Performance of Single Electrode-Supported Cells Operating in the Electrolysis Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; G. K. Housley; D. G. Milobar

    2009-11-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of electrode-supported solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from single cells, with an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes (~10 µm thick), nickel-YSZ steam/hydrogen electrodes (~1400 µm thick), and manganite (LSM) air-side electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 – 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented.

  12. Sintering-resistant Single-Site Nickel Catalyst Supported by Metal-Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhanyong; Schweitzer, Neil; League, Aaron; Bernales Candia, Sandra Varinia; Peters, Aaron; Getsoian, Andrew G.; Wang, Timothy; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Gagliardi, Laura; Hupp, Joseph; Farha, Omar

    2016-02-17

    Developing supported single-site catalysts is an important goal in heterogeneous catalysis, since the well-defined active sites afford opportunities for detailed mechanistic studies, thereby facilitating the design of improved catalysts. We present herein a method for installing Ni ions uniformly and precisely on the node of a Zr-based MOF, NU-1000, in high density and large quantity (denoted as Ni-AIM) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a metal–organic framework (MOF) (AIM). Ni-AIM is demonstrated to be an efficient gas-phase hydrogenation catalyst upon activation. The structure of the active sites in Ni-AIM is proposed, revealing its single-site nature. More importantly, due to the organic linker used to construct the MOF support, the Ni ions stay isolated throughout the hydrogenation catalysis, in accord with its long-term stability. A quantum chemical characterization of the catalyst and the catalytic process complements the experimental results. With validation of computational modeling protocols, we further targeted ethylene oligomerization catalysis by Ni-AIM guided by theoretical prediction. Given the generality of the AIM methodology, this emerging class of materials should prove ripe for the discovery of new catalysts for the transformation of volatile substrates.

  13. Sintering-Resistant Single-Site Nickel Catalyst Supported by Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanyong; Schweitzer, Neil M; League, Aaron B; Bernales, Varinia; Peters, Aaron W; Getsoian, Andrew Bean; Wang, Timothy C; Miller, Jeffrey T; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L; Lercher, Johannes A; Cramer, Christopher J; Gagliardi, Laura; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2016-02-17

    Developing supported single-site catalysts is an important goal in heterogeneous catalysis since the well-defined active sites afford opportunities for detailed mechanistic studies, thereby facilitating the design of improved catalysts. We present herein a method for installing Ni ions uniformly and precisely on the node of a Zr-based metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, in high density and large quantity (denoted as Ni-AIM) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a MOF (AIM). Ni-AIM is demonstrated to be an efficient gas-phase hydrogenation catalyst upon activation. The structure of the active sites in Ni-AIM is proposed, revealing its single-site nature. More importantly, due to the organic linker used to construct the MOF support, the Ni ions stay isolated throughout the hydrogenation catalysis, in accord with its long-term stability. A quantum chemical characterization of the catalyst and the catalytic process complements the experimental results. With validation of computational modeling protocols, we further targeted ethylene oligomerization catalysis by Ni-AIM guided by theoretical prediction. Given the generality of the AIM methodology, this emerging class of materials should prove ripe for the discovery of new catalysts for the transformation of volatile substrates.

  14. Reactivation of Reward-Related Patterns from Single Past Episodes Supports Memory-Based Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, G Elliott; Büchel, Christian

    2016-03-09

    Rewarding experiences exert a strong influence on later decision making. While decades of neuroscience research have shown how reinforcement gradually shapes preferences, decisions are often influenced by single past experiences. Surprisingly, relatively little is known about the influence of single learning episodes. Although recent work has proposed a role for episodes in decision making, it is largely unknown whether and how episodic experiences contribute to value-based decision making and how the values of single episodes are represented in the brain. In multiple behavioral experiments and an fMRI experiment, we tested whether and how rewarding episodes could support later decision making. Participants experienced episodes of high reward or low reward in conjunction with incidental, trial-unique neutral pictures. In a surprise test phase, we found that participants could indeed remember the associated level of reward, as evidenced by accurate source memory for value and preferences to re-engage with rewarded objects. Further, in a separate experiment, we found that high-reward objects shown as primes before a gambling task increased financial risk taking. Neurally, re-exposure to objects in the test phase led to significant reactivation of reward-related patterns. Importantly, individual variability in the strength of reactivation predicted value memory performance. Our results provide a novel demonstration that affect-related neural patterns are reactivated during later experience. Reactivation of value information represents a mechanism by which memory can guide decision making. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362868-13$15.00/0.

  15. Effect of interlayer on structure and performance of anode-supported SOFC single cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Tae Wook; Yang, Hae Kwang; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Yoon, Hyon Hee; Kim, Jong Sung; Park, Sang Joon

    2008-01-01

    To lower the operating temperatures in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operations, anode-supported SOFC single cells with a single dip-coated interlayer were fabricated and the effect of the interlayer on the electrolyte structure and the electrical performance was investigated. For the preparation of SOFC single cells, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, NiO-YSZ anode, and 50% YSZ-50% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) cathode were used. In order to characterize the cells, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were utilized and the gas (air) permeability measurements were conducted for gas tightness estimation. When the interlayer was inserted onto NiO-YSZ anode, the surface roughness of anode was diminished by about 40% and dense crack-free electrolytes were obtained. The electrical performance was enhanced remarkably and the maximum power density was 0.57 W/cm 2 at 800 deg. C and 0.44 W/cm 2 at 700 deg. C. On the other hand, the effect of interlayer on the gas tightness was negligible. The characterization study revealed that the enhancement in the electrical performance was mainly attributed to the increase of ion transmission area of anode/electrolyte interface and the increase of ionic conductivity of dense crack-free electrolyte layer

  16. [Study on Sleep Staging Based on Support Vector Machines and Feature Selection in Single Channel Electroencephalogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiujing; Xia, Yongming; Qian, Songrong

    2015-06-01

    Sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) is an important index in diagnosing sleep disorders and related diseases. Manual sleep staging is time-consuming and often influenced by subjective factors. Existing automatic sleep staging methods have high complexity and a low accuracy rate. A sleep staging method based on support vector machines (SVM) and feature selection using single channel EEG single is proposed in this paper. Thirty-eight features were extracted from the single channel EEG signal. Then based on the feature selection method F-Score's definition, it was extended to multiclass with an added eliminate factor in order to find proper features, which were used as SVM classifier inputs. The eliminate factor was adopted to reduce the negative interaction of features to the result. Research on the F-Score with an added eliminate factor was further accomplished with the data from a standard open source database and the results were compared with none feature selection and standard F-Score feature selection. The results showed that the present method could effectively improve the sleep staging accuracy and reduce the computation time.

  17. SVMQA: support-vector-machine-based protein single-model quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavalan, Balachandran; Lee, Jooyoung

    2017-08-15

    The accurate ranking of predicted structural models and selecting the best model from a given candidate pool remain as open problems in the field of structural bioinformatics. The quality assessment (QA) methods used to address these problems can be grouped into two categories: consensus methods and single-model methods. Consensus methods in general perform better and attain higher correlation between predicted and true quality measures. However, these methods frequently fail to generate proper quality scores for native-like structures which are distinct from the rest of the pool. Conversely, single-model methods do not suffer from this drawback and are better suited for real-life applications where many models from various sources may not be readily available. In this study, we developed a support-vector-machine-based single-model global quality assessment (SVMQA) method. For a given protein model, the SVMQA method predicts TM-score and GDT_TS score based on a feature vector containing statistical potential energy terms and consistency-based terms between the actual structural features (extracted from the three-dimensional coordinates) and predicted values (from primary sequence). We trained SVMQA using CASP8, CASP9 and CASP10 targets and determined the machine parameters by 10-fold cross-validation. We evaluated the performance of our SVMQA method on various benchmarking datasets. Results show that SVMQA outperformed the existing best single-model QA methods both in ranking provided protein models and in selecting the best model from the pool. According to the CASP12 assessment, SVMQA was the best method in selecting good-quality models from decoys in terms of GDTloss. SVMQA method can be freely downloaded from http://lee.kias.re.kr/SVMQA/SVMQA_eval.tar.gz. jlee@kias.re.kr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Decision Support System to Choose Digital Single Lens Camera with Simple Additive Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pina Putri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the technologies that evolve today is Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR camera. The number of products makes users have difficulties to choose the appropriate camera based on their criteria. Users may utilize several ways to help them choosing the intended camera such as using magazine, internet, and other media. This paper discusses about a web based decision support system to choose cameras by using SAW (Simple Additive Weighting method in order to make the decision process more effective and efficient. This system is expected to give recommendations about the camera which is appropriate with the user’s need and criteria based on the cost, the resolution, the feature, the ISO, and the censor. The system was implemented by using PHP and MySQL. Based on the result of questionnaire distributed to 20 respondents, 60% respondents agree that this decision support system can help users to choose the appropriate camera DSLR in accordance with the user’s need, 60% of respondents agree that this decision support system is more effective to choose DSLR camera and 75% of respondents agree that this system is more efficient. In addition, 60.55% of respondents agree that this system has met 5 Es Usability Framework.

  19. Implant-supported single-tooth restorations: a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennström, Jan L; Ekestubbe, Annika; Gröndahl, Kerstin; Karlsson, Stig; Lindhe, Jan

    2005-06-01

    Comparatively few studies are available reporting at least 5 years of follow-up data of implant-supported single-tooth replacements. To evaluate prospectively the 5-year outcome of implant-supported single-tooth prosthetic restorations. Forty subjects (mean age 41 years), 23 males and 17 females, who required single-tooth prosthetic replacement for a missing tooth were recruited. A total of 45 self-tapping implants (Astra Tech ST-implants)--40 in the maxilla and five in the mandible--were installed in a two-stage procedure. Abutment connection was performed 3-6 months after implant installation. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at the completion of the prosthetic treatment and once a year during a 5-year follow-up period. The analysis of peri-implant bone level alteration was performed on subject and implant levels and by the use of analysis of variance and binary logistic regression. Three patients were lost during the 5 years of follow-up. One implant was lost after 2.5 years in function and another four implants could not be accounted for at the 5-year follow-up examination. The overall failure rate at 5 years was 2.6% (subject level) and 2.3% (implant level). The mean loss of marginal bone at the implants during the first year in function was 0.06 mm (SD 0.67) on the subject level and 0.02 mm (0.65) on the implant level. During the subsequent 4 years the annual change in peri-implant bone level amounted to -0.02 mm (0.22) on both subject and implant levels. Thus, the mean total bone level change over the 5-year interval was -0.14 mm (1.04) on subject level and -0.11 mm (1.00) on the implant level of analysis (p>0.05). The frequency of implants with a 5-year bone loss of > or =1 mm was 13%. Approximately 50% of the implants demonstrated no bone loss. The present clinical trial on single-tooth replacements with the Astra Tech implant system demonstrated that the bone loss during the first year of function as well as annually thereafter was

  20. CERN tests largest superconducting solenoid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN's Compacts Muon Solenoid (CMS) - the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet - has reached full field in testing. The instrument is part of the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, located in a giant subterranean chamber at Cessy on the Franco-Swiss border." (1 page)

  1. The Largest and Oldest Living Organism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 4. The Largest and Oldest Living Organism. Ramesh Maheshwari. General Article Volume 10 Issue 4 April 2005 pp 4-9. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/04/0004-0009. Keywords.

  2. World's largest particle accelerator almost ready

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "With nearly all the pieces in place, the world's largest particle accelerator is set for start-up in November. It was announced on Saturday that the last quadripolar magnet was brought down into the tunnel of the accelerator." (1 page)

  3. Electronic structure of surface-supported bis(phthalocyaninato) terbium(III) single molecular magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Lucia; Fabris, Stefano; Conte, Adriano Mosca; Brink, Susan; Ruben, Mario; Baroni, Stefano; Kern, Klaus

    2008-10-01

    The electronic structure of isolated bis(phthalocyaninato) terbium(III) molecules, a novel single-molecular-magnet (SMM), supported on the Cu(111) surface has been characterized by density functional theory and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. These studies reveal that the interaction with the metal surface preserves both the molecular structure and the large spin magnetic moment of the metal center. The 4f electron states are not perturbed by the adsorption while a strong molecular/metal interaction can induce the suppression of the minor spin contribution delocalized over the molecular ligands. The calculations show that the inherent spin magnetic moment of the molecule is only weakly affected by the interaction with the surface and suggest that the SMM character might be preserved.

  4. Single Image Super-Resolution by Non-Linear Sparse Representation and Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungang Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sparse representations are widely used tools in image super-resolution (SR tasks. In the sparsity-based SR methods, linear sparse representations are often used for image description. However, the non-linear data distributions in images might not be well represented by linear sparse models. Moreover, many sparsity-based SR methods require the image patch self-similarity assumption; however, the assumption may not always hold. In this paper, we propose a novel method for single image super-resolution (SISR. Unlike most prior sparsity-based SR methods, the proposed method uses non-linear sparse representation to enhance the description of the non-linear information in images, and the proposed framework does not need to assume the self-similarity of image patches. Based on the minimum reconstruction errors, support vector regression (SVR is applied for predicting the SR image. The proposed method was evaluated on various benchmark images, and promising results were obtained.

  5. Automatic pathology classification using a single feature machine learning support - vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Calderon, Fernando; Pedregosa, Fabian; Thirion, Bertrand; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been gaining popularity in the clinic in recent years as a safe in-vivo imaging technique. As a result, large troves of data are being gathered and stored daily that may be used as clinical training sets in hospitals. While numerous machine learning (ML) algorithms have been implemented for Alzheimer's disease classification, their outputs are usually difficult to interpret in the clinical setting. Here, we propose a simple method of rapid diagnostic classification for the clinic using Support Vector Machines (SVM)1 and easy to obtain geometrical measurements that, together with a cortical and sub-cortical brain parcellation, create a robust framework capable of automatic diagnosis with high accuracy. On a significantly large imaging dataset consisting of over 800 subjects taken from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, classification-success indexes of up to 99.2% are reached with a single measurement.

  6. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ligand-modified signal-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts were synthesized by SOMC method and characterized by a variety of techniques. The zirconium surface complexes show high catalytic efficiency for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Some Zr active species have been anchored on the surface of SBA-15 by SOMC technique. • The structures of the Zr species have been characterized by a variety of techniques. • The anchored Zr species are single-sited surface complexes. • The Zr surface complexes are catalytic active for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Abstract: A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe 2 ) 4 , cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15 -500 ) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15 -500 supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, 13 C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands

  7. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang, E-mail: gfzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Gao, Ziwei, E-mail: zwgao@snnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Ligand-modified signal-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts were synthesized by SOMC method and characterized by a variety of techniques. The zirconium surface complexes show high catalytic efficiency for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Some Zr active species have been anchored on the surface of SBA-15 by SOMC technique. • The structures of the Zr species have been characterized by a variety of techniques. • The anchored Zr species are single-sited surface complexes. • The Zr surface complexes are catalytic active for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Abstract: A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15{sub -500}) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15{sub -500} supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands.

  8. Redox cycling performance of inert-substrate-supported tubular single cells with nickel anode current collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Kim, Bok-Hee; Xu, Qing; Du, Yanhai; Ahn, Byung-Guk

    2015-10-01

    An inert-substrate-supported tubular single cell, with a configuration of porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) supporter/Ni anode current collector/Ni-Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 anode/YSZ/Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 bi-layer electrolyte/La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ cathode, has been fabricated by extrusion and dip-coating techniques. Thickness of the Ni layer is modified by controlling the number of dip-coatings from one to four. Electrochemical performance and redox cycling stability of the single cell are investigated with respect to the microstructure of the Ni layer. Increasing the thickness of the Ni layer enhances the maximum power density of the cell, while it is unfavorable for the redox cycling stability. Considering the trade-off between these two aspects, an optimum dip-coating time is determined to be two. The cell shows a reasonable maximum power density of 453 mW cm-2 at 800 °C, as well as good redox cycling stability within eight redox cycles. Additionally, 10 vol.% Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 ceramic particle is incorporated into the Ni layer to further improve the redox cycling stability. The cell exhibits enhanced redox cycling performance after the Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 incorporation. Within seven redox cycles, the cell voltage loss is less than 1% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, and it maintains 93% of its initial performance after 11 redox cycles.

  9. Reactivity of a Carbon-Supported Single-Site Molybdenum Dioxo Catalyst for Biodiesel Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouat, Aidan R.; Lohr, Tracy L.; Wegener, Evan C.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Delferro, Massimiliano; Stair, Peter C.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2016-08-23

    A single-site molybdenum dioxo catalyst, (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C, was prepared via direct grafting of MoO2Cl2(dme) (dme = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) on high-surface- area activated carbon. The physicochemical and chemical properties of this catalyst were fully characterized by N2 physisorption, ICP-AES/OES, PXRD, STEM, XPS, XAS, temperature-programmed reduction with H2 (TPR-H2), and temperature-programmed NH3 desorption (TPD-NH3). The single-site nature of the Mo species is corroborated by XPS and TPR-H2 data, and it exhibits the lowest reported MoOx Tmax of reduction reported to date, suggesting a highly reactive MoVI center. (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C catalyzes the transesterification of a variety of esters and triglycerides with ethanol, exhibiting high activity at moderate temperatures (60-90 °C) and with negligible deactivation. (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C is resistant to water and can be recycled at least three times with no loss of activity. The transesterification reaction is determined experimentally to be first order in [ethanol] and first order in [Mo] with ΔH = 10.5(8) kcal mol-1 and ΔS = -32(2) eu. The low energy of activation is consistent with the moderate conditions needed to achieve rapid turnover. This highly active carbon-supported single-site molybdenum dioxo species is thus an efficient, robust, and lowcost catalyst with significant potential for transesterification processes.

  10. Implant-supported single-tooth restorations. A 12-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Mauro; Ekestubbe, Annika; Lindhe, Jan; Wennström, Jan L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the 12-year outcome of implant-supported single-tooth restorations. Originally 45 self-tapping Astra Tech TiOblast ® ST-implants were installed by a two-stage protocol in 40 subjects requiring single-tooth prosthetic replacement for a missing tooth. Clinical and radiologic examinations were performed at completion of the prosthetic treatment 4-7 months after implant installation surgery and after 5 and 12 years in function. At 12 years 31 patients and 35 implants were available for evaluation. The overall failure rate after 12 years was 10.3% on the subject level and 9.1% on the implant level. The mean bone loss amounted to 0.67 mm (SD 2.20) on a subject level and 0.47 mm (1.72) on an implant level. Three subjects (10%) and three implants (8.6%) were diagnosed with peri-implantitis. Five subjects had experienced technical complications; three incidences of loosening of the abutment retention screw during the first 5 years and two minor porcelain fracture of the crown (two patients) between 5- and 12-years of follow-up. The findings reported in this 12-year prospective case series suggest that the use of the Astra Tech dental implants may be a valid treatment alternative for single-tooth replacement prostheses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 77 FR 58404 - Announcing the Award of Two Urgent Single-Source Grants To Support Unaccompanied Alien Children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ...] Announcing the Award of Two Urgent Single-Source Grants To Support Unaccompanied Alien Children Program...) announces the award of two urgent single-source grants from the Unaccompanied Alien Children's Program to... providing services under the Unaccompanied Alien Children's program. Award Grantee organization Location...

  12. Homogeneity of Surface Sites in Supported Single-Site Metal Catalysts: Assessment with Band Widths of Metal Carbonyl Infrared Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam S; Fang, Chia-Yu; Gates, Bruce C

    2016-10-06

    Determining and controlling the uniformity of isolated metal sites on surfaces of supports are central goals in investigations of single-site catalysts because well-defined species provide opportunities for fundamental understanding of the surface sites. CO is a useful probe of surface metal sites, often reacting with them to form metal carbonyls, the infrared spectra of which provide insights into the nature of the sites and the metal-support interface. Metals bonded to various support surface sites give broad bands in the spectra, and when narrow bands are observed, they indicate a high degree of uniformity of the metal sites. Much recent work on single-site catalysts has been done with supports that are inherently nonuniform, giving supported metal species that are therefore nonuniform. Herein we summarize values of ν CO data characterizing supported iridium gem-dicarbonyls, showing that the most nearly uniform of them are those supported on zeolites and the least uniform are those supported on metal oxides. Guided by ν CO data of supported iridium gem-dicarbonyls, we have determined new, general synthesis methods to maximize the degree of uniformity of iridium species on zeolites and on MgO. We report results for a zeolite HY-supported iridium gem-dicarbonyl with full width at half-maximum values of only 4.6 and 5.2 cm -1 characterizing the symmetric and asymmetric CO stretches and implying that this is the most nearly uniform supported single-site metal catalyst.

  13. Prenatal development supports a single origin of laryngeal echolocation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zhu, Tengteng; Xue, Huiling; Fang, Na; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Libiao; Pang, Jian; Teeling, Emma C; Zhang, Shuyi

    2017-01-09

    Bat laryngeal echolocation is considered as one of the most complex and diverse modes of auditory sensory perception in animals and its evolutionary history has been the cause of many scientific controversies in the past two decades. To date, the majority of scientific evidence supports that bats (Chiroptera) are divided into two subordinal groups: Yinpterochiroptera, containing the laryngeal echolocating superfamily Rhinolophidae as sister taxa to the non-laryngeal echolocating family Pteropodidae; and Yangochiroptera, containing all other laryngeal echolocating lineages. This topology has led to an unanswered question in mammalian biology: was laryngeal echolocation lost in the ancestral pteropodids or gained convergently in the echolocating bat lineages? To date, there is insufficient and conflicting evidence from fossil, genomic, morphological and phylogenomic data to resolve this question. We detail an ontogenetic study of fetal cochlear development from seven species of bats and five outgroup mammals and show that in early fetal development, all bats including the non-laryngeal echolocating pteropodids have a similarly large cochlea typically associated with laryngeal echolocation abilities. The subsequent cochlear growth rate in the pteropodids is the slowest of all mammals and leads to the pteropodids and the non-echolocating lineages eventually sharing a similar cochlear morphospace as adults. The results suggest that pteropodids maintain a vestigial developmental stage indicative of past echolocation capabilities and thus support a single origin of laryngeal echolocation in bats.

  14. On the structure and dynamics of water associated with single-supported zwitterionic and anionic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiec, A.; Buck, Z. N.; Hansen, F. Y.; Kaiser, H.; Taub, H.; Tyagi, M.; Diallo, S. O.; Mamontov, E.; Herwig, K. W.

    2017-03-01

    We have used high-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) to investigate the dynamics of water molecules (time scale of motion ˜10-11-10-9 s) in proximity to single-supported bilayers of the zwitterionic lipid DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine) and the anionic lipid DMPG (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol) in the temperature range 160-295 K. For both membranes, the temperature dependence of the intensity of neutrons scattered elastically and incoherently from these samples indicates a series of freezing/melting transitions of the membrane-associated water, which have not been observed in previous studies of multilayer membranes. We interpret these successive phase transitions as evidence of different types of water that are common to the two membranes and which are defined by their local environment: bulk-like water located furthest from the membrane and two types of confined water in closer proximity to the lipids. Specifically, we propose a water type termed "confined 2" located within and just above the lipid head groups of the membrane and confined 1 water that lies between the bulk-like and confined 2 water. Confined 1 water is only present at temperatures below the freezing point of bulk-like water. We then go on to determine the temperature dependence of the translational diffusion coefficient of the water associated with single-supported DMPG membranes containing two different amounts of water as we have previously done for DMPC. To our knowledge, there have been no previous studies comparing the dynamics of water in proximity to zwitterionic and anionic membranes. Our analysis of the water dynamics of the DMPG and DMPC membranes supports the classification of water types that we have inferred from their freezing/melting behavior. However, just as we observe large differences in the freezing/melting behavior between these model membranes for the same water type, our measurements demonstrate variation between these

  15. Mitochondrial Genome Diversity of Native Americans Supports a Single Early Entry of Founder Populations into America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Jr., Wilson A.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Holanda, Adriano J.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K.; Paixão, Beatriz M.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Abe-Sandes, Kiyoko; Rodriguez-Delfin, Luis; Barbosa, Marcela; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luiza; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Valente, Valeria; Santos, Sidney E. B.; Zago, Marco A.

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that the Native American founder populations migrated from Asia into America through Beringia sometime during the Pleistocene, but the hypotheses concerning the ages and the number of these migrations and the size of the ancestral populations are surrounded by controversy. DNA sequence variations of several regions of the genome of Native Americans, especially in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, have been studied as a tool to help answer these questions. However, the small number of nucleotides studied and the nonclocklike rate of mtDNA control-region evolution impose several limitations to these results. Here we provide the sequence analysis of a continuous region of 8.8 kb of the mtDNA outside the D-loop for 40 individuals, 30 of whom are Native Americans whose mtDNA belongs to the four founder haplogroups. Haplogroups A, B, and C form monophyletic clades, but the five haplogroup D sequences have unstable positions and usually do not group together. The high degree of similarity in the nucleotide diversity and time of differentiation (i.e., ∼21,000 years before present) of these four haplogroups support a common origin for these sequences and suggest that the populations who harbor them may also have a common history. Additional evidence supports the idea that this age of differentiation coincides with the process of colonization of the New World and supports the hypothesis of a single and early entry of the ancestral Asian population into the Americas. PMID:12022039

  16. Interventions to Support Social Interaction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review of Single Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, Jennifer; Mavridis, Alexis; Hott, Brittany L.

    2015-01-01

    Social interaction is a core deficit in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, parents and teachers need effective interventions to support students with ASD. This synthesis provides a quantitative analysis of single-subject studies that examine interventions to support social interactions in children with ASD. Results suggest…

  17. The world's largest time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Peter Glassel, the technical coordinator for the ALICE time projection chamber, is seen sitting inside the detector; the largest in the world at nearly 100 cubic metres. Thousands of wires are connected to read out electronic data produced as particles are created in lead-lead collisions at the centre of the detector. These particles will cause the medium within the time projection chamber to ionise along their tracks allowing the particle paths to be recreated.

  18. Complete digital workflow for the production of implant-supported single-unit monolithic crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joda, Tim; Brägger, Urs

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this case series was to introduce a complete digital workflow for the production of monolithic implant crowns. Six patients were treated with implant-supported crowns made of resin nano ceramic (RNC). Starting with an intraoral optical scan (IOS), and following a CAD/CAM process, the monolithic crowns were bonded either to a novel prefabricated titanium abutment base (group A) or to a CAD/CAM-generated individualized titanium abutment (group B) in premolar or molar sites on a soft tissue level dental implant. Economic analyses included clinical and laboratory steps. An esthetic evaluation was performed to compare the two abutment-crown combinations. None of the digitally constructed RNC crowns required any clinical adaptation. Overall mean work time calculations revealed obvious differences for group A (65.3 min) compared with group B (86.5 min). Esthetic analysis demonstrated a more favorable outcome for the prefabricated bonding bases. Prefabricated or individualized abutments on monolithic RNC crowns using CAD/CAM technology in a model-free workflow seem to provide a feasible and streamlined treatment approach for single-edentulous space rehabilitation in the posterior region. However, RNC as full-contour material has to be considered experimental, and further large-scale clinical investigations with long-term follow-up observation are necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Single-component supported lipid bilayers probed using broadband nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenick, Laura L; Chase, Hilary M; Fu, Li; Zhang, Yun; McGeachy, Alicia C; Dogangun, Merve; Walter, Stephanie R; Wang, Hong-Fei; Geiger, Franz M

    2018-01-31

    Broadband SFG spectroscopy is shown to offer considerable advantages over scanning systems in terms of signal-to-noise ratios when probing well-formed single-component supported lipid bilayers formed from zwitterionic lipids with PC headgroups. The SFG spectra obtained from bilayers formed from DOPC, POPC, DLPC, DMPC, DPPC and DSPC show a common peak at ∼2980 cm -1 , which is subject to interference between the C-H and the O-H stretches from the aqueous phase, while membranes having transition temperatures above the laboratory temperature produce SFG spectra with at least two additional peaks, one at ∼2920 cm -1 and another at ∼2880 cm -1 . The results validate spectroscopic and structural data from SFG experiments utilizing asymmetric bilayers in which one leaflet differs from the other in the extent of deuteration. Differences in H 2 O-D 2 O exchange experiments reveal that the lineshapes of the broadband SFG spectra are significantly influenced by interference from OH oscillators in the aqueous phase, even when those oscillators are not probed by the incident infrared light in our broadband setup. In the absence of spectral interference from the OH stretches of the solvent, the alkyl chain terminal methyl group of the bilayer is found to be tilted at an angle of 15° to 35° from the surface normal.

  20. Structure and composition of single Pt–Ru electrocatalyst nanoparticles supported on multiwall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraguay-Delgado, Francisco; Malac, Marek; Alonso-Nuñez, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Individual Pt-Ru nanoparticles (NPs) supported on multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesized by microemulsion method were characterized by nano beam diffraction (NBD) and high resolution imaging in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Comparing the TEM images and NBD to simulations provided insight into particle composition, structure and morphology in three dimensions. In particular, the NBD allowed us to detect various components of the individual NPs that would be difficult to observe otherwise. We find that the NPs contain four different components: Pt–RuO 2 , Pt–Ru, RuO 2 and metallic Pt. Often an individual NP is composed of more than one component. The most frequently encountered external morphology is close to a spherical shape and ∼3.7 nm in diameter. The collective properties of NPs’ assemblies were studied by thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction. The results allowed us to gain some insight into the relation of the NPs’ structure and composition with their catalytic performance, and revealed the presence of components not detectable by bulk methods. The electrocatalytic properties were evaluated by CO stripping, methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction. Bulk characterization methods miss many properties and structures present in the sample due to low volume fraction and due to overlap of reflections. Single NPs should be analyzed to obtain reliable indication of sample composition. (paper)

  1. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15-500) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15-500 supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands.

  2. Support for non-locking parallel reception of packets belonging to a single memory reception FIFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong [Yorktown Heights, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Yorktown Heights, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Yorktown Heights, NY; Senger, Robert M [Yorktown Heights, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard [Boeblingen, DE; Sugawara, Yutaka [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2011-01-27

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. A plurality of DMA engine units are configured in a multiprocessor system to operate in parallel, one DMA engine unit for transferring a current packet received at a network reception queue to a memory location in a memory FIFO (rmFIFO) region of a memory. A control unit implements logic to determine whether any prior received packet destined for that rmFIFO is still in a process of being stored in the associated memory by another DMA engine unit of the plurality, and prevent the one DMA engine unit from indicating completion of storing the current received packet in the reception memory FIFO (rmFIFO) until all prior received packets destined for that rmFIFO are completely stored by the other DMA engine units. Thus, there is provided non-locking support so that multiple packets destined for a single rmFIFO are transferred and stored in parallel to predetermined locations in a memory.

  3. Support effects on adsorption and catalytic activation of O2 in single atom iron catalysts with graphene-based substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zheng-Yang; Yang, Wei-Jie; Ding, Xun-Lei; Lv, Gang; Yan, Wei-Ping

    2018-03-07

    The adsorption and catalytic activation of O 2 on single atom iron catalysts with graphene-based substrates were investigated systematically by density functional theory calculation. It is found that the support effects of graphene-based substrates have a significant influence on the stability of the single atom catalysts, the adsorption configuration, the electron transfer mechanism, the adsorption energy and the energy barrier. The differences in the stable adsorption configuration of O 2 on single atom iron catalysts with different graphene-based substrates can be well understood by the symmetrical matching principle based on frontier molecular orbital analysis. There are two different mechanisms of electron transfer, in which the Fe atom acts as the electron donor in single vacancy graphene-based substrates while the Fe atom mainly acts as the bridge for electron transfer in double vacancy graphene-based substrates. The Fermi softness and work function are good descriptors of the adsorption energy and they can well reveal the relationship between electronic structure and adsorption energy. This single atom iron catalyst with single vacancy graphene modified by three nitrogen atoms is a promising non-noble metal single atom catalyst in the adsorption and catalytic oxidation of O 2 . Furthermore, the findings can lay the foundation for the further study of graphene-based support effects and provide a guideline for the development and design of new non-noble-metal single atom catalysts.

  4. In patients requiring single-tooth replacement, what are the outcomes of implant- as compared to tooth-supported restorations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Thomas J; Eckert, Steven E

    2007-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review of the literature to determine the long-term survival characteristics of single implant-supported crowns and fixed partial dentures. A search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Collaboration databases was conducted to identify articles that compared survival and success of fixed partial dentures and single implant-supported crowns. In addition to comparative cohort studies, articles that pertained specifically to single implant-supported crowns or fixed partial dentures were included in this review. Inclusion criteria for implant and fixed partial denture articles included a minimum 2-year study, primary publication in the English language, a minimum of 12 implants, implants designed to osseointegrate, and inclusion of data regarding implant and prosthetic performance. Data were analyzed using cumulative proportions of survival and success for both prosthetic types and for individual implants. Wilson score method was used to establish 95% confidence intervals for each population. The chi-square test for homogeneity was performed. The literature search failed to identify any articles that directly compared survival or success of single implant-supported restorations with fixed partial dentures. Following the search criteria, and independent analysis by reviewers, 51 articles were identified in the implant literature (agreement, 95.42%; kappa coefficient, 0.8976), and 41 were identified in the fixed partial denture literature (agreement, 90.97%; kappa coefficient, 0.7524). Pooled success of single-implant restorations at 60 months was 95.1% (CI: 92.2%-98.0%), while fixed partial dentures of all designs exhibited an 84.0% success rate (CI: 79.1%-88.9%). This systematic review of the scientific literature failed to demonstrate any direct comparative studies assessing clinical performance of single implant-supported crowns and tooth-supported fixed partial dentures. The analysis suggested differences at 60 months between survival

  5. Well-Defined Silica Supported Aluminum Hydride: Another Step Towards the Utopian Single Site Dream?

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa

    2015-07-17

    Reaction of triisobutylaluminum with SBA15700 at room temperature occurs by two parallel pathways involving either silanol or siloxane bridges. It leads to the formation of a well-defined bipodal [(≡SiO)2Al-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1a, silicon isobutyl [≡Si-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1b and a silicon hydride [≡Si-H] 1c. Their structural identity was characterized by FT-IR and advance solid-state NMR spectroscopies (1H, 13C, 29Si, 27Al and 2D multiple quantum), elemental and gas phase analysis, and DFT calculations. The reaction involves the formation of a highly reactive monopodal intermediate: [≡SiO-Al-[CH2CH(CH3)2]2], with evolution of isobutane. This intermediate undergoes two parallel routes: Transfer of either one isobutyl fragment or of one hydride to an adjacent silicon atom. Both processes occur by opening of a strained siloxane bridge, ≡Si-O-Si≡ but with two different mechanisms, showing that the reality of “single site” catalyst may be an utopia: DFT calculations indicate that isobutyl transfer occurs via a simple metathesis between the Al-isobutyl and O-Si bonds, while hydride transfer occurs via a two steps mechanism, the first one is a ß-H elimination to Al with elimination of isobutene, whereas the second is a metathesis step between the formed Al-H bond and a O-Si bond. Thermal treatment of 1a (at 250 °C) under high vacuum (10-5 mbar) generates Al-H through a ß-H elimination of isobutyl fragment. These supported well-defined Al-H which are highly stable with time, are tetra, penta and octa coordinated as demonstrated by IR and 27Al–1H J-HMQC NMR spectroscopy. All these observations indicate that surfaces atoms around the site of grafting play a considerable role in the reactivity of a single site system.

  6. Well-defined silica supported aluminum hydride: another step towards the utopian single site dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werghi, Baraa; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Sofack-Kreutzer, Julien; Jedidi, Abdesslem; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-01

    processes occur by opening of a strained siloxane bridge, Si-O-Si but with two different mechanisms, showing that the reality of "single site" catalyst may be an utopia: DFT calculations indicate that isobutyl transfer occurs via a simple metathesis between the Al-isobutyl and O-Si bonds, while hydride transfer occurs via a two steps mechanism, the first one is a β-H elimination to Al with elimination of isobutene, whereas the second is a metathesis step between the formed Al-H bond and a O-Si bond. Thermal treatment of 1a (at 250 °C) under high vacuum (10 -5 mbar) generates Al-H through a β-H elimination of isobutyl fragment. These supported well-defined Al-H which are highly stable with time, are tetra, penta and octa coordinated as demonstrated by IR and 27 Al- 1 H J-HMQC NMR spectroscopy. All these observations indicate that surfaces atoms around the site of grafting play a considerable role in the reactivity of a single site system.

  7. Trade study of leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation technologies to support Hanford single-shell waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System to safely manage and dispose of low-level, high-level, and transuranic wastes currently stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Eastern Washington. This report supports the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone No. M-45-08-T01 and addresses additional issues regarding single-shell tank leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation technologies and provide an indication of the scope of leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation activities necessary to support the Tank Waste Remedial System Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System project

  8. Collapse of the world's largest herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Newsome, Thomas M; Wolf, Christopher; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Everatt, Kristoffer T; Galetti, Mauro; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H; Levi, Taal; Lindsey, Peter A; Macdonald, David W; Malhi, Yadvinder; Painter, Luke E; Sandom, Christopher J; Terborgh, John; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2015-05-01

    Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass ≥100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ~60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in developing countries, where major threats include hunting, land-use change, and resource depression by livestock. Loss of large herbivores can have cascading effects on other species including large carnivores, scavengers, mesoherbivores, small mammals, and ecological processes involving vegetation, hydrology, nutrient cycling, and fire regimes. The rate of large herbivore decline suggests that ever-larger swaths of the world will soon lack many of the vital ecological services these animals provide, resulting in enormous ecological and social costs.

  9. Anode-supported single-chamber SOFCs based on gadolinia doped ceria electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of anode supported electrolytes is a useful strategy to increase the electrical properties of the solid oxide fuel cells, because it is possible to decrease considerably the thickness of the electrolytes. We have prepared successfully singlechamber fuel cells of gadolinia doped ceria electrolytes Ce1-xGdxO2-y (CGO supported on an anode formed by a cermet of Ni-CGO. Mixtures of precursor powders of NiO and gadolinium doped ceria with different particle sizes and compositions were analyzed to obtain optimal bulk porous anodes to be used as anode supported fuel cells. Doped ceria electrolytes were prepared by sol-gel related techniques. Then, ceria based electrolytes were deposited by dip coating at different thickness (15-30 µm using an ink prepared with nanometric powders of electrolytes dispersed in a commercial liquid polymer. Cathodes of La1-xSrxCoO3-s (LSCO were also prepared by sol-gel related techniques and were deposited by dip coating on the electrolyte thick films. Finally, electrical properties were determined in a single-chamber reactor where propane as fuel was mixed with synthetic air above the higher explosive limit. Stable density currents were obtained in these experimental conditions, but flow rates of the carrier gas and propane partial pressure were determinants for the optimization of the electrical properties of the fuel cells.

    La utilización de electrolitos soportados en el ánodo es una estrategia muy útil para mejorar las propiedades eléctricas de las pilas de combustible de óxido sólido, debido a que permiten disminuir considerablemente el espesor de los electrolitos. Para este trabajo, se han preparado exitosamente pilas de combustible de óxido sólido con electrolitos de ceria dopada con Gd, Ce1-xGdxO2-y (CGO soportados sobre un ánodo formado por un cermet de Ni/CGO. Dichas pilas se han

  10. Single Restorations in the Resorbed Posterior Mandible Supported by 6-mm Implants : A 1-Year Prospective Case Series Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulje, Felix L.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this prospective case series study was to assess the clinical performance of single restorations in the posterior mandible supported by 6-mm implants. Materials and MethodsTwenty-one consecutive patients with one or more missing premolars or molars in the posterior mandible and

  11. Centering Single Cells in Microgels via Delayed Crosslinking Supports Long-Term 3D Culture by Preventing Cell Escape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman, Tom; Henke, Sieger; Visser, Claas Willem; Karperien, Marcel; Leijten, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Single-cell-laden microgels support physiological 3D culture conditions while enabling straightforward handling and high-resolution readouts of individual cells. However, their widespread adoption for long-term cultures is limited by cell escape. In this work, it is demonstrated that cell escape is

  12. Influence of restorative materials on color of implant-supported single crowns in esthetic zone: A spectrophotometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M., Peng; W.-J., Zhao; M., Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Restorations of 98 implant-supported single crowns in anterior maxillary area were divided into 5 groups: zirconia abutment, titanium abutment, and gold/gold hue abutment with zirconia coping, respectively, and titanium abutment with metal coping as well as gold/gold hue abutment with metal copin...

  13. On the freezing behavior and diffusion of water in proximity to single-supported zwitterionic and anionic bilayer lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiec, A.; Buck, Z. N.; Brown, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the freezing/melting behavior of water hydrating single-supported bilayers of a zwitterionic lipid DMPC with that of an anionic lipid DMPG. For both membranes, the temperature dependence of the elastically scattered neutron intensity indicates distinct water types undergoing...

  14. A 5-year prospective study of single-tooth replacements supported by the Astra Tech implant: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant-supported single-tooth replacements are an increasingly used method to replace teeth, especially in young patients. Therefore, long-term validation of different treatment modalities with different implant systems is of great importance. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study...... was to make a biologic, technical, and aesthetic evaluation of single-tooth replacement supported by the Astra Tech implant (Astra Tech AB, Mölndal, Sweden) during a 5-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients were divided into two consecutively treated groups. In group A the implants were placed...... "early" in the extraction sockets, and standard single-tooth abutments were used. In group B the implants were placed "delayed," and preparable abutments were used. Clinical examinations including registration of plaque, bleeding, crown lengths, soft tissue marginal level, papilla height, complications...

  15. Weighting and Aggregation in Life Cycle Assessment: Do Present Aggregated Single Scores Provide Correct Decision Support?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten; Nygaard, Simon Elsborg

    2016-01-01

    approach was adopted to facilitate identification of three main problems related to the single-score calculation approach. The prevailing ReCiPe single-score calculation method does not account for either the effect of so-called dominating alternatives (i.e., alternatives having high values across all...... endpoints) or the interdependency of the indicators being aggregated. It was also found that the simple linear weighted sum method, presently used for obtaining single scores, is not capable of accounting for the effect of weighting schemes and thus cannot realistically represent stakeholders' perspectives...

  16. Largest clinic in the world? (Bogota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The IPPF member, the Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia Colombiana (Profamilia), is discussed and its clinic, the Pilot Center in Bogota, reputed to be the largest family clinic in the world, is described. From January 1966 until the end of 1970, the Pilot Center served 59,469 new acceptors. Of the 31 Profamilia clinics in Colombia, the Pilot Center was visited by 22% of all new acceptors during 1970. Profamilia established the first vasectomy clinic in Latin America in February 1970. By the end of 1970, 92 vasectomies had been performed. Profamilia has expanded its family planning program, and part of this expansion is a result of Profamilia's extensive use of mass media in its education campaign. In 1970, there was a 24% increase in new acceptors over 1969 and a 66% increase in follow-up visits. 62,292 radio spots and 7 television programs were broadcast and announcements about family planning were shown in public cinemas in the latter half of 1970. Nearly 300,000 women attended talks, meetings, and film shows on family planning, and approximately 2 million leaflets and information sheets were distributed. To increase community involvement, Profamilia held 26 short courses for various groups including religious and community leaders. Profamilia also conducted a training course for doctors and sociologists from Colombia and other Latin American countries.

  17. The Largest and Oldest Living Organism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    confrontation with 'killed' cells in between (a 'barrage reac- tion'), The results showed that a single individual had parasit- ized trees in approximately 15 hectare area. The nucleotide sequence of DNA is a constant feature of the genome of a particular organism. To confirm that all isolates were genetically the same, ...

  18. Analytic approximation to the largest eigenvalue distribution of a white Wishart matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vlok, JD

    2012-08-14

    Full Text Available offers largely simplified computation and provides statistics such as the mean value and region of support of the largest eigenvalue distribution. Numeric results from the literature are compared with the approximation and Monte Carlo simulation results...

  19. Smart-Geology for the World's largest fossil oyster reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorninger, Peter; Nothegger, Clemens; Djuricic, Ana; Rasztovits, Sascha; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    The geo-edutainment park "Fossilienwelt Weinviertel" at Stetten in Lower Austria exposes the world's largest fossil oyster biostrome. In the past decade, significant progress has been made in 3D digitizing sensor technology. To cope with the high amount of data, processing methods have been automated to a high degree. Consequently, we formulated the hypothesis that appropriate application of state-of-the-art 3D digitizing, data processing, and visualization technologies allows for a significant automation in paleontological prospection, making an evaluation of huge areas commercially feasible in both time and costs. We call the necessary processing steps "Smart Geology", being characterized by automation and large volumes of data. The Smart Geology project (FWF P 25883-N29) investigates three topics, 3D digitizing, automated geological and paleontological analysis and interpretation and finally investigating the applicability of smart devices for on-site accessibility of project data in order to support the two scientific hypotheses concerning the emerging process of the shell bed, i.e. was it formed by a tsunami or a major storm, and does it preserve pre- and post-event features. This contribution concentrates on the innovative and sophisticated 3D documentation and visualization processes being applied to virtualise approximately 15.000 fossil oysters at the approximately 25 by 17 m accessible shell bad. We decided to use a Terrestrial Laserscanner (TLS) for the determination of the geometrical 3D structures. The TLS achieves about 2 mm single point measurement accuracy. The scanning campaign provides a "raw" point cloud of approximately 1 bio. points at the respective area. Due to the scanning configuration used, the occurrence of occluded ares is minimized hence the full 3D structure of this unique site can be modelled. In addition, approximately 300 photos were taken with a nominal resolution of 0.6 mm per pixel. Sophisticated artificial lightning (close to

  20. A high performance catalyst for methane conversion to methanol: graphene supported single atom Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinyun; Zhang, Wenhua; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Jinlong

    2018-02-27

    Employing first principles calculations, we show a two-step reaction mechanism for direct methane oxidation to methanol over a single atom Co-embedded graphene (Gr) catalyst, with N 2 O as the O-donor molecule. C-H activation is the rate-limiting step. The high reaction activity and selectivity under mild conditions were predicted for this catalyst.

  1. Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Effects of Active Metals, Catalyst Supports, and Metal Loading Percentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of active metals, catalyst supports, and metal loading percentage on the formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs were studied. In particular, iron, cobalt, and nickel were investigated for SWNTs synthesis. Iron was found to grow better-quality SWNTs compared to cobalt and nickel. To study the effect of catalyst supports, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, and aluminium oxide were chosen for iron. Among the studied supports, MgO was identified to be a suitable support for iron as it produced SWNTs with better graphitisation determined by Raman analysis. Increasing the iron loading decreased the quality of SWNTs due to extensive agglomeration of the iron particles. Thus, lower metal loading percentage is preferred to grow better-quality SWNTs with uniform diameters.

  2. Novel Anodic Catalyst Support for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell: Characterizations and Single-Cell Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N; Kamarudin, S K; Shyuan, L K

    2018-04-03

    This study introduces a novel titanium dioxide carbon nanofiber (TiO 2 -CNF) support for anodic catalyst in direct methanol fuel cell. The catalytic synthesis process involves several methods, namely the sol-gel, electrospinning, and deposition methods. The synthesized electrocatalyst is compared with other three electrocatalysts with different types of support. All of these electrocatalysts differ based on a number of physical and electrochemical characteristics. Experimental results show that the TiO 2 -CNF support gave the highest current density at 345.64 mA mg catalyst -1 , which is equivalent to 5.54-fold that of carbon support while the power density is almost double that of the commercial electrocatalyst.

  3. Thermal and structural performance of a single tube support post for the Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnet cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1993-07-01

    The reentrant support post currently incorporated in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole cryostat has been shown to meet the structural and thermal requirements of the cryostat, both in prototype magnet assemblies and through component testing. However, the reentrant post design has two major drawbacks: tight dimensional control on all components, and cost driven by these tolerance constraints and a complex assembly procedure. A single tube support post has been developed as an alternative to the reentrant post design. Several prototype assemblies have been fabricated and subjected to structural testing. Compressive, tensile, and bending forces were applied to each assembly with deflection measured at several locations. A prototype support post has also been thermally evaluated in a heat leak measurement facility. Heat load to 4.2 K was measured with the intermediate post intercept operating at various temperatures while thermometers positioned along the conductive path of the post mapped thermal gradients. Results from these measurements indicate the single tube support post meets the design criteria for the SSC dipole magnet cryostat support system

  4. A 1-year randomised controlled trial comparing zirconia versus metal-ceramic implant supported single-tooth restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Worsaae, Nils; Schiødt, Morten

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the biological, technical and aesthetic outcomes of single implant-supported all-ceramic versus metal-ceramic crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with premolar agenesis were randomly treated with 38 all-ceramic (AC) and 37 metal-ceramic (MC) implant......-supported single-tooth restorations. A quasi-randomisation of consecutively included restorations in patients with one or more implants was used, i.e. a combination of parallel group (for 13 patients with one restoration) and split-mouth (for 23 patients with =2 restorations). All patients were recalled......, by blinded assessors. RESULTS: One-year after loading, no patient dropped out and no implant failed, though one MC restoration had to be remade. The marginal bone loss was not significantly different between AC and MC restorations (AC: mean 0.08 mm, SD 0.25; MC: mean 0.10 mm, SD 0.17). Seven out of 10...

  5. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young DKW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results: At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59% of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48 to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18, which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05, while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion: This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. Keywords: support group, mild dementia, Chinese, depression

  6. SSC 50 MM collider dipole cryostat single tube support post conceptual design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnet cold masses are connected to the cryostat vacuum vessel at five places equally spaced along their length. Five supports limit sag of the cold assembly due to its own weight to a level consistent with the final magnet alignment specifications. The design essentially consists of two composite tubes nested within each other as a means of maximizing the thermal path length. In addition it provides an ideal way to utilize materials best suited for the temperature range over which they must operate. Filament wound S-glass is used between 300K and 80K. Filament wound graphite fiber is used between 80K and 20K and between 20K and 4.5K. S-glass is a better thermal performer above approximately 40K. Graphite composites are ideally suited for operation below 40K. The designs for the 50 mm reentrant supports are well documented in the literature. The current design of the reentrant support has two major drawbacks. First, it requires very tight dimensional control on all components; composite tubes and metal attachment parts. Second, it is expensive, with cost being driven by both the tolerance constraints and by a complex assembly procedure. It seems clear that production magnets will require a support structure which is considerably less expensive than that which is currently used. It seems clear that a design alternate for reentrant support posts will be required for production dipoles primarily due to their cost. It seems less clear that injection molded composite materials are the ideal choice. This report describes the conceptual design for a support post whose function is identical to that of the current reentrant design, which requires very few modifications to surrounding cryostat components, is thermally equivalent to the current 50 mm support post, and is nearly equivalent structurally

  7. A technique for fabricating single screw-retained implant-supported interim crowns in conjunction with implant surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRory, M Eric; Cagna, David R

    2014-06-01

    This article presents an intraoral technique for fabricating single screw-retained implant-supported interim crowns immediately after surgical implant placement in extraction sites. The technique may be used with any implant system that provides a provisional abutment or an open-tray impression coping that can be modified for use as a provisional abutment. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-Site Tetracoordinated Aluminum Hydride Supported on Mesoporous Silica. From Dream to Reality!

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa

    2016-09-26

    The reaction of mesoporous silica (SBA15) dehydroxylated at 700 °C with diisobutylaluminum hydride, i-Bu2AlH, gives after thermal treatment a single-site tetrahedral aluminum hydride with high selectivity. The starting aluminum isobutyl and the final aluminum hydride have been fully characterized by FT-IR, advanced SS NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, multiple quanta (MQ) 2D 1H-1H, and 27Al), and elemental analysis, while DFT calculations provide a rationalization of the occurring reactivity. Trimeric i-Bu2AlH reacts selectively with surface silanols without affecting the siloxane bridges. Its analogous hydride catalyzes ethylene polymerization. Indeed, catalytic tests show that this single aluminum hydride site is active in the production of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE). © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  9. A Forward Dynamic Modelling Investigation of Cause-and-Effect Relationships in Single Support Phase of Human Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McGrath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical gait models often fall into one of two categories: simple and complex. There is a large leap in complexity between model types, meaning the effects of individual gait mechanisms get overlooked. This study investigated the cause-and-effect relationships between gait mechanisms and resulting kinematics and kinetics, using a sequence of mathematical models of increasing complexity. The focus was on sagittal plane and single support only. Starting with an inverted pendulum (IP, extended to include a HAT (head-arms-trunk segment and an actuated hip moment, further complexities were added one-by-one. These were a knee joint, an ankle joint with a static foot, heel rise, and finally a swing leg. The presence of a knee joint and an ankle moment (during foot flat were shown to largely influence the initial peak in the vertical GRF curve. The second peak in this curve was achieved through a combination of heel rise and the presence of a swing leg. Heel rise was also shown to reduce errors in the horizontal GRF prediction in the second half of single support. The swing leg is important for centre-of-mass (CM deceleration in late single support. These findings provide evidence for the specific effects of each gait mechanism.

  10. A single protofilament is sufficient to support unidirectional walking of dynein and kinesin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Shibata

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin are two-headed microtubule motor proteins that move in opposite directions on microtubules. It is known that kinesin steps by a 'hand-over-hand' mechanism, but it is unclear by which mechanism dynein steps. Because dynein has a completely different structure from that of kinesin and its head is massive, it is suspected that dynein uses multiple protofilaments of microtubules for walking. One way to test this is to ask whether dynein can step along a single protofilament. Here, we examined dynein and kinesin motility on zinc-induced tubulin sheets (zinc-sheets which have only one protofilament available as a track for motor proteins. Single molecules of both dynein and kinesin moved at similar velocities on zinc-sheets compared to microtubules, clearly demonstrating that dynein and kinesin can walk on a single protofilament and multiple rows of parallel protofilaments are not essential for their motility. Considering the size and the motile properties of dynein, we suggest that dynein may step by an inchworm mechanism rather than a hand-over-hand mechanism.

  11. Depression, social support, and clinical outcomes following lung transplantation: a single-center cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Snyder, Laurie D; Palmer, Scott M; Hoffman, Benson M; Stonerock, Gregory L; Ingle, Krista K; Saulino, Caroline K; Blumenthal, James A

    2017-11-12

    Depressive symptoms are common among lung transplant candidates and have been associated with poorer clinical outcomes in some studies. Previous studies have been plagued by methodologic problems, including small sample sizes, few clinical events, and uncontrolled confounders, particularly perioperative complications. In addition, few studies have examined social support as a potential protective factor. We therefore examined the association between pretransplant depressive symptoms, social support, and mortality in a large sample of lung transplant recipients. As a secondary aim, we also examined the associations between psychosocial factors, perioperative outcomes [indexed by hospital length of stay (LOS)], and mortality. We hypothesized that depression would be associated with longer LOS and that the association between depression, social support, and mortality would be moderated by LOS. Participants included lung transplant recipients, transplanted at Duke University Medical Center from January 2009 to December 2014. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and social support using the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS). Medical risk factors included forced vital capacity (FVC), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 ), donor age, acute rejection, and transplant type. Functional status was assessed using six-minute walk distance (6MWD). We also controlled for demographic factors, including age, gender, and native disease. Transplant hospitalization LOS was examined as a marker of perioperative clinical outcomes. Participants included 273 lung recipients (174 restrictive, 67 obstructive, 26 cystic fibrosis, and six "other"). Pretransplant depressive symptoms were common, with 56 participants (21%) exhibiting clinically elevated levels (BDI-II ≥ 14). Greater depressive symptoms were associated with longer LOS [adjusted b = 0.20 (2 days per 7-point higher BDI-II score), P social support (P social support were

  12. Fracture Strength and Failure Mode of Maxillary Implant-Supported Provisional Single Crowns : A Comparison of Composite Resin Crowns Fabricated Directly Over PEEK Abutments and Solid Titanium Abutments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santing, H.J.; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Raghoebar, G.M.; Ozcan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) temporary abutments have been recently introduced for making implant-supported provisional single crowns. Little information is available in the dental literature on the durability of provisional implant-supported restorations. Purpose: The objectives of this

  13. Carrier mediated transport through supported liquid membranes; determination of transport parameters from a single transport experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrisstoffels, L.A.J.; Struijk, Wilhelmina; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a time-dependent transport model for carrier assisted cation transport through supported liquid membranes. The model describes the flux of salt as a function of time and two parameters viz. the diffusion coefficient of the cation complex (D), and the extraction constant (Kex).

  14. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support in Neonates: A Single Medical Center Experience in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Kuok

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: This is the first report for ECMO in neonatal disease in Taiwan. We achieved an overall survival rate of 59.2% with good neurological outcomes in this 10-year experience. ECMO could be a useful transportation tool for critical neonates who have a poor response to ventilator support.

  15. First Light for World's Largest 'Thermometer Camera'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    LABOCA in Service at APEX The world's largest bolometer camera for submillimetre astronomy is now in service at the 12-m APEX telescope, located on the 5100m high Chajnantor plateau in the Chilean Andes. LABOCA was specifically designed for the study of extremely cold astronomical objects and, with its large field of view and very high sensitivity, will open new vistas in our knowledge of how stars form and how the first galaxies emerged from the Big Bang. ESO PR Photo 35a/07 ESO PR Photo 35a/07 LABOCA on APEX "A large fraction of all the gas in the Universe has extremely cold temperatures of around minus 250 degrees Celsius, a mere 20 degrees above absolute zero," says Karl Menten, director at the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn, Germany, that built LABOCA. "Studying these cold clouds requires looking at the light they radiate in the submillimetre range, with very sophisticated detectors." Astronomers use bolometers for this task, which are, in essence, thermometers. They detect incoming radiation by registering the resulting rise in temperature. More specifically, a bolometer detector consists of an extremely thin foil that absorbs the incoming light. Any change of the radiation's intensity results in a slight change in temperature of the foil, which can then be registered by sensitive electronic thermometers. To be able to measure such minute temperature fluctuations requires the bolometers to be cooled down to less than 0.3 degrees above absolute zero, that is below minus 272.85 degrees Celsius. "Cooling to such low temperatures requires using liquid helium, which is no simple feat for an observatory located at 5100m altitude," says Carlos De Breuck, the APEX instrument scientist at ESO. Nor is it simple to measure the weak temperature radiation of astronomical objects. Millimetre and submillimetre radiation opens a window into the enigmatic cold Universe, but the signals from space are heavily absorbed by water vapour in the Earth

  16. Protein-Nanocrystal Conjugates Support a Single Filament Polymerization Model in R1 Plasmid Segregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Charina L.; Claridge, Shelley A.; Garner, Ethan C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2008-07-15

    To ensure inheritance by daughter cells, many low-copy number bacterial plasmids, including the R1 drug-resistance plasmid, encode their own DNA segregation systems. The par operon of plasmid R1 directs construction of a simple spindle structure that converts free energy of polymerization of an actin-like protein, ParM, into work required to move sister plasmids to opposite poles of rod-shaped cells. The structures of individual components have been solved, but little is known about the ultrastructure of the R1 spindle. To determine the number of ParM filaments in a minimal R1 spindle, we used DNA-gold nanocrystal conjugates as mimics of the R1 plasmid. Wefound that each end of a single polar ParM filament binds to a single ParR/parC-gold complex, consistent with the idea that ParM filaments bind in the hollow core of the ParR/parC ring complex. Our results further suggest that multifilament spindles observed in vivo are associated with clusters of plasmidssegregating as a unit.

  17. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy

    2016-08-16

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  18. Supportive text messaging for depression and comorbid alcohol use disorder: single-blind randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Ahern, Sinead; McLoughlin, Declan M; Farren, Conor K

    2012-12-10

    Mobile phone text message technology has the potential to improve outcomes for patients with depression and co-morbid Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). To perform a randomised rater-blinded trial to explore the effects of supportive text messages on mood and abstinence outcomes for patients with depression and co-morbid AUD. Participants (n=54) with a DSM IV diagnosis of unipolar depression and AUD who completed an in-patient dual diagnosis treatment programme were randomised to receive twice daily supportive text messages (n=26) or a fortnightly thank you text message (n=28) for three months. Primary outcome measures were Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores and Cumulative Abstinence Duration (CAD) in days at three months. NCT0137868. There was a statistically significant difference in three month BDI-II scores between the intervention and control groups; 8.5 (SD=8.0) vs. 16.7 (SD=10.3) respectively after adjusting for the baseline scores, F (1, 49)=9.54, p=0.003, η(p)(2)=0.17. The mean difference in change BDI-II scores was -7.9 (95% CI -13.06 to -2.76, Cohen'sd=0.85). There was a trend for a greater CAD in the text message group than the control group: 88.3 (SD=6.2) vs. 79.3 (SD=24.1), t=1.78, df=48, p=0.08. Limitations of the study include the small sample size, the potential for loss of rater blinding and the lack of long term follow-up to determine the longer term effects of the intervention. Supportive text messages have the potential to improve outcomes for patients with comorbid depression and alcohol dependency syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fracture mode during cyclic loading of implant-supported single-tooth restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Kleven, Erik; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    restorations of zirconia abutment-retained crowns with zirconia copings veneered with glass-ceramics (n=8) and feldspathic ceramics (n=8). The control group was composed of 16 metal ceramic restorations of titanium abutment-retained crowns with gold alloy copings veneered with glass (n=8) and feldspathic......STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Fracture of veneering ceramics in zirconia-based restorations has frequently been reported. Investigation of the fracture mode of implant-supported ceramic restorations by using clinically relevant laboratory protocols is needed. PURPOSE: This study compared the mode...... and resisted more cyclic loads than the ceramic restorations, particularly when the metal ceramic crowns were veneered with glass-ceramics....

  20. The Effect of Peers Support on Postpartum Depression: A Single-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Kamalifard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postpartum depression and its consequences not only involve mothers and their children but it will also affect their families. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of mothers receiving peer support on postpartum depression. Methods: 100 eligible primiparous women participated in a randomized clinical trial. The intervention group received phone calls by their peers from the last three months of pregnancy until two months after delivery. The control group only had access to routine care. Both groups in the second month after delivery were checked regarding depression using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Data analysis was performed using independent t-test, chi-square test and covariance analysis. Results: Mean depression score before intervention was 13.92 (3.23 in the control group and 14.06 (3.12 in the intervention group. In week 8 after delivery, mean score of depression in control group was 13.29 (4.08 but in the intervention group it was reduced to 10.25 (4.18. Difference in the reduction of mean postpartum depression score between the two groups showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that peer support was effective in the prevention of postpartum depression, therefore, it is recommended to be used in the reduction of postpartum depression.

  1. Water Adsorption and Dissociation on Ceria-Supported Single-Atom Catalysts: A First-Principles DFT+U Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhong-Kang; Gao, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Single-atom catalysts have attracted wide attention owing to their extremely high atom efficiency and activities. In this paper, we applied density functional theory with the inclusion of the on-site Coulomb interaction (DFT+U) to investigate water adsorption and dissociation on clean CeO 2 (111) surfaces and single transition metal atoms (STMAs) adsorbed on the CeO 2 (111) surface. It is found that the most stable water configuration is molecular adsorption on the clean CeO 2 (111) surface and dissociative adsorption on STMA/CeO 2 (111) surfaces, respectively. In addition, our results indicate that the more the electrons that transfer from STMA to the ceria substrate, the stronger the binding energies between the STMA and ceria surfaces. A linear relationship is identified between the water dissociation barriers and the d band centers of STMA, known as the generalized Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi principle. By combining the oxygen spillovers, single-atom dispersion stabilities, and water dissociation barriers, Zn, Cr, and V are identified as potential candidates for the future design of ceria-supported single-atom catalysts for reactions in which the dissociation of water plays an important role, such as the water-gas shift reaction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Influence of Restorative Materials on Color of Implant-Supported Single Crowns in Esthetic Zone: A Spectrophotometric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Jie; Hosseini, Mandana; Zhou, Wen-Juan; Xiao, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Restorations of 98 implant-supported single crowns in anterior maxillary area were divided into 5 groups: zirconia abutment, titanium abutment, and gold/gold hue abutment with zirconia coping, respectively, and titanium abutment with metal coping as well as gold/gold hue abutment with metal coping. A reflectance spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the color difference between the implant crowns and contralateral/neighboring teeth, as well as the color difference between the peri-implant soft tissue and the natural marginal mucosa. The mucosal discoloration score was used for subjective evaluation of the esthetic outcome of soft tissue around implant-supported single crowns in the anterior zone, and the crown color match score was used for subjective evaluation of the esthetic outcome of implant-supported restoration. ANOVA analysis was used to compare the differences among groups and Spearman correlation was used to test the relationships. A gold/gold hue abutment with zirconia coping was the best choice for an esthetic crown and the all-ceramic combination was the best for peri-implant soft tissue. Significant correlation was found between the spectrophotometric color difference of peri-implant soft tissue and mucosal discoloration score, while no significant correlation was found between the total spectrophotometric color difference of implant crown and crown color match score. PMID:29349075

  3. Influence of Restorative Materials on Color of Implant-Supported Single Crowns in Esthetic Zone: A Spectrophotometric Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Restorations of 98 implant-supported single crowns in anterior maxillary area were divided into 5 groups: zirconia abutment, titanium abutment, and gold/gold hue abutment with zirconia coping, respectively, and titanium abutment with metal coping as well as gold/gold hue abutment with metal coping. A reflectance spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the color difference between the implant crowns and contralateral/neighboring teeth, as well as the color difference between the peri-implant soft tissue and the natural marginal mucosa. The mucosal discoloration score was used for subjective evaluation of the esthetic outcome of soft tissue around implant-supported single crowns in the anterior zone, and the crown color match score was used for subjective evaluation of the esthetic outcome of implant-supported restoration. ANOVA analysis was used to compare the differences among groups and Spearman correlation was used to test the relationships. A gold/gold hue abutment with zirconia coping was the best choice for an esthetic crown and the all-ceramic combination was the best for peri-implant soft tissue. Significant correlation was found between the spectrophotometric color difference of peri-implant soft tissue and mucosal discoloration score, while no significant correlation was found between the total spectrophotometric color difference of implant crown and crown color match score.

  4. Functions and requirements for subsurface barriers used in support of single-shell tank waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Program includes project and program activities for receiving, storing, maintaining, treating, and disposing onsite, or packaging for offsite disposal, all Hanford tank waste. Hanford tank waste includes the contents of 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), plus any new waste added to these facilities, and all encapsulated cesium and strontium stored onsite and returned from offsite users. A key element of the TWRS Program is retrieval of the waste in the SSTs. The waste stored in these underground tanks must be removed in order to minimize environmental, safety, and health risks associated with continuing waste storage. Subsurface barriers are being considered as a means to mitigate the effects of tank leaks including those occurring during SST waste retrieval. The functions to be performed by subsurface barriers based on their role in retrieving waste from the SSTs are described, and the requirements which constrain their application are identified. These functions and requirements together define the functional baseline for subsurface barriers

  5. Grid Frequency Support by Single-Phase Electric Vehicles Employing an Innovative Virtual Inertia Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Zecchino, Antonio; Pertl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    to limit the rate of change of frequency of power systems, thus, improving frequency dynamics. Electric vehicles (EVs) can represent a reliable solution to enhance frequency stability due to their fast response and capability to provide a large amount of aggregated power. On one hand, EVs are capable...... of adjusting the battery charging process (i.e., power flow) according to pre-defined algorithms. On the other hand, in case of islanded operation (i.e., low inertia), some of the EV's technical constraints might cause oscillations. This study presents two control algorithms which show that the EVs are capable...... of providing virtual inertia support. The first controller employs a traditional droop control, while the second one is equipped with an innovative control algorithm to eliminate likely oscillations. It is shown that, the proposed innovative control algorithm compared to the traditional droop control, assures...

  6. Support vector machines and evolutionary algorithms for classification single or together?

    CERN Document Server

    Stoean, Catalin

    2014-01-01

    When discussing classification, support vector machines are known to be a capable and efficient technique to learn and predict with high accuracy within a quick time frame. Yet, their black box means to do so make the practical users quite circumspect about relying on it, without much understanding of the how and why of its predictions. The question raised in this book is how can this ‘masked hero’ be made more comprehensible and friendly to the public: provide a surrogate model for its hidden optimization engine, replace the method completely or appoint a more friendly approach to tag along and offer the much desired explanations? Evolutionary algorithms can do all these and this book presents such possibilities of achieving high accuracy, comprehensibility, reasonable runtime as well as unconstrained performance.

  7. Cemented versus screw-retained implant-supported single-tooth crowns: a 10-year randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigolo, Paolo; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Givani, Andrea; Stellini, Edoardo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this randomised controlled trial was to compare the long-term clinical outcome of cemented and screw-retained implant-supported single-tooth crowns. Eighteen consecutive patients presenting with single-tooth bilateral edentulous sites in the canine/molar region with adequate bone width, similar bone height at the implant sites, and an occlusal scheme that allowed for the establishment of identical occlusal cusp/fossa contacts were treated. Each patient received two identical implants according to a split-mouth design. One side was randomly selected to be restored with a cemented implant-supported single crown, and the other was restored with a screw-retained implant-supported single crown. Outcome measures were implant success, complications, marginal bone levels and peri-implant soft tissue health. Ten years after initial loading, 2 patients moved away and were lost to follow-up. Two implants placed in the same patient failed 5 years after their insertion; the remaining 30 implants survived, resulting in a cumulative implant success rate of 93.7%. No complication occurred. The mean marginal bone resorption at 10 years after implant placement, measured on intraoral radiographs, was 1.1 ± 0.2 mm for both types of restorations. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to peri-implant marginal bone level at the 10-year follow-up appointment (T2) (P = 0.58); at the 4-year follow-up appointment (T1) a statistically significant difference was observed (P = 0.01), but this was not considered clinically relevant (mean difference: -0.06 mm). The status of the soft tissue around the implants remained stable over the evaluation period. No statistically significant difference was identified for the facial keratinised gingiva between the two groups at T1 (P = 0.10) or at T2 (P = 0.07). Within the limitations of this study, the results indicate that there was no evidence of a significant difference in the clinical

  8. Functional aspects of treatment with implant-supported single crowns: a quality control study in subjects with tooth agenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goshima, Kenichi; Lexner, Michala O; Thomsen, Carsten Eckhart

    2010-01-01

    after implant placement shortly before crown cementation, and again 1 month after cementation. It consisted of questionnaires [including Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49)] and functional examination with plastic strips, the Dental Prescale Film and the Occluzer system, Xylitol color-changeable gum......BACKGROUND: No comprehensive patient-centered and clinical evaluations of the functional effect of treatment with implant-supported single crowns (ISSC) have been reported previously. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether and how treatment with ISSC affects masticatory function and Oral Health...

  9. Single Pot Selective Hydrogenation of Furfural to 2-Methylfuran Over Carbon Supported Iridium Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Date, Nandan S

    2018-03-20

    Various iridium supported carbon catalysts were prepared and screened for direct hydrogenation of furfural (FFR) to 2-methyl furan (2-MF). Amongest these, 5% Ir/C showed excellent results with complete FFR conversion and highest selectivity of 95% to 2-MF at very low H2 pressure of 100 psig. Metallic (Iro) and oxide ( IrO2) phases of Ir catalyzed first step hydrogenation involving FFR to FAL and subsequent hydrogenation to 2-MF,respecively. This was confirmed by XPS analysis and some controlled experiments. At low temperature of 140 oC, almost equal selectivities of FAL (42%) and 2-MF (43%) were observed, while higher temperature (220oC) favored selective hydrodeoxygenation. At optimized temperature, 2-MF formed selectively while higher pressure and higher catalyst loading favored ring hydrogenation of furfural rather than side chain hydrogenation. With combination of several control experimental results and detailed catalyst characterization, a plausible reaction pathway has been proposed for selective formation of 2-MF. The selectivity to various other products in FFR hydrogenation can be manipulated by tailoring the reaction conditions over the same catalyst.

  10. Monolithic lithium-disilicate single crowns supported by zirconia oral implants: three-year results of a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Benedikt Christopher; Patzelt, Sebastian Berthold Maximilian; Vach, Kirstin; Kohal, Ralf-Joachim

    2016-09-01

    To determine the survival and success rate of CAD/CAM-fabricated monolithic lithium-disilicate crowns supported by zirconia oral implants after 3 years. Twenty-four patients in need of a single tooth replacement received a zirconia implant and were finally restored with 24 single crowns (SCs) ground out of pre-crystallized lithium-disilicate blanks. The restorations were adhesively cemented and evaluated using modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. In case of clinically relevant defects that could be repaired to an acceptable level, SCs were regarded as surviving. Restorations with minor chippings, a small-area roughness (ø esthetics, sense, and speech. Monolithic lithium-disilicate SCs supported by zirconia implants showed promising survival and success rates after an observation period of 3 years. It remains to be seen whether the further observation period confirms this positive results. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Single-layer ZnS supported on Au(111): A combined XPS, LEED, STM and DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingyi; Sorescu, Dan C.; Lee, Junseok

    2017-04-01

    Single-layer of ZnS, consisting of one atomic layer of ZnS(111) plane, has been grown on Au(111) and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). While the LEED measurement indicates a coincidence structure of ZnS-(3×3)/Au(111)-(4×4), high resolution STM images reveal hexagonal unit cells of 6.7×6.7 Å2 and 11.6×11.6 Å2, corresponding to √3 and 3 times the unit cell of the ideal zincblende ZnS-(1×1), respectively, depending on the tunneling conditions. Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) indicate a significantly reconstructed non-planar structure of ZnS single-layer on Au(111) with 2/3 of the S anions being located nearly in the plane of the Zn cations and the rest 1/3 of the S anions protruding above the Zn plane. The calculated STM image shows similar characteristics to those of the experimental STM image. Additionally, the DFT calculations reveal the different bonding nature of the S anions in ZnS single-layer supported on Au(111).

  12. Fracture resistance of single-tooth implant-supported zirconia-based indirect composite-layered molar restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kohei; Komine, Futoshi; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Blatz, Markus B; Kamio, Shingo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the fracture resistance of single-tooth implant-supported zirconia-based indirect composite-layered molar restorations. Forty-four titanium abutments (GingiHue Post) were placed on dental implants (Osseotite Implant). Standardized single-tooth cement-retained implant-supported mandibular molar restorations were fabricated for each of four test groups (n = 11) as follows: porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns (PFM), zirconia-based all-ceramic crowns (ZAC), zirconia-based indirect composite-layered crowns primed with Estenia Opaque Primer for zirconia frameworks (ZIC-E), and zirconia-based indirect composite-layered crowns (ZIC). The crowns were luted with a glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Cem Easymix). Fracture resistance (N) was determined by force application of a perpendicular load to the crowns with a universal testing machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's HSD test were used to assess differences in fracture resistance values (α = 0.05). Mean fracture resistances (SD) were 3.09 (0.22) kN, 3.11 (0.34) kN, 2.84 (0.21) kN, and 2.50 (0.36) kN for the PFM, ZAC, ZIC-E, and ZIC groups, respectively. Fracture resistance in the ZIC specimens was significantly lower (P zirconia-based indirect composite-layered molar crowns primed with Estenia Opaque Primer for zirconia frameworks (ZIC-E) is comparable to that of porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) and zirconia-based all-ceramic (ZAC) restorations. Application of Estenia Opaque Primer to zirconia ceramic framework provides superior fracture resistance in implant-supported zirconia-based indirect composite-layered molar crowns. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Gait analysis following treadmill training with body weight support versus conventional physical therapy: a prospective randomized controlled single blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucareli, P R; Lima, M O; Lima, F P S; de Almeida, J G; Brech, G C; D'Andréa Greve, J M

    2011-09-01

    Single-blind randomized, controlled clinical study. To evaluate, using kinematic gait analysis, the results obtained from gait training on a treadmill with body weight support versus those obtained with conventional gait training and physiotherapy. Thirty patients with sequelae from traumatic incomplete spinal cord injuries at least 12 months earlier; patients were able to walk and were classified according to motor function as ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) impairment scale C or D. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 15 patients by the drawing of opaque envelopes: group A (weight support) and group B (conventional). After an initial assessment, both groups underwent 30 sessions of gait training. Sessions occurred twice a week, lasted for 30 min each and continued for four months. All of the patients were evaluated by a single blinded examiner using movement analysis to measure angular and linear kinematic gait parameters. Six patients (three from group A and three from group B) were excluded because they attended fewer than 85% of the training sessions. There were no statistically significant differences in intra-group comparisons among the spatial-temporal variables in group B. In group A, the following significant differences in the studied spatial-temporal variables were observed: increases in velocity, distance, cadence, step length, swing phase and gait cycle duration, in addition to a reduction in stance phase. There were also no significant differences in intra-group comparisons among the angular variables in group B. However, group A achieved significant improvements in maximum hip extension and plantar flexion during stance. Gait training with body weight support was more effective than conventional physiotherapy for improving the spatial-temporal and kinematic gait parameters among patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries.

  14. Comparison of Marginal and Internal Adaptation of CAD/CAM and Conventional Cement Retained Implant-Supported Single Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatidanesh, Farahnaz; Shakibamehr, Amir Hossein; Savabi, Omid

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of marginal and internal adaptation of 2 computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and 2 conventionally made cement retained implant-supported restorations. An abutment and its corresponding fixture analog (Astra Tech) were inserted in left central incisor area of a maxillary cast. Four types of implant-supported single restorations were fabricated on the abutment (n = 10): e.max CAD (Cerec AC system), zirconia-based (Cercon system), IPS e.max Press, and metal-ceramic restorations. The internal and marginal gaps of the studied groups were measured by replica method and stereomicroscope. Data were subjected to 1-way ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc tests (α = 0.05). Mean internal gaps of Cercon (59.48 ± 16.49 μm) and e.max Press (75.62 ± 26.92 μm) groups were significantly different from e.max CAD (120.29 ± 16.74 μm) group, but there was no significant difference between metal-ceramic restorations (89.65 ± 47.84 μm) and e.max CAD. The marginal gaps of e.max CAD (32.02 ± 10.38 μm) and Cercon restorations (34.26 ± 11.41 μm) were significantly superior from metal ceramics (59.19 ± 17.81 μm) and e.max press (74.99 ± 24.51 μm). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that although the marginal and internal gaps of the studied implant-supported restorations were in the clinically acceptable range, single crowns made with CAD/CAM technology provide better marginal fit.

  15. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells electrocatalyst single wall carbon nanohorns-supported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Lúcia; Boaventura, Marta; Passeira, Carolina; Gattia, Daniele Mirabile; Marazzi, Renzo; Antisari, Marco Vittori; Mendes, Adélio

    2011-10-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) performance when using single wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH) to support Pt nanoparticles. Additionally, as-prepared and oxidized SWNH Pt-supports were compared with conventional carbon black. Two different oxidizing treatments were considered: oxygen flow at 500 degrees C and reflux in an acid solution at 85 degrees C. Both oxidizing treatments increased SWNH surface area; oxygen treatment increased surface area 4 times while acid treatment increased 2.6 times. The increase in surface area should be related to the opening access to the inner tube of SWNH. Acid treatment of SWNH increased chemical fragility and decreased electrocatalyst load in comparison with as-prepared SWNH. On the other hand, the oxygen treated SWNH sample allowed to obtain the highest electrocatalyst load. The use of as-prepared and oxygen treated SWNH showed in both cases catalytic activities 60% higher than using conventional carbon black as electrocatalyst support in PEMFC. Moreover, EIS analysis indicated that the major improvement in performance is related to the cathode kinetics in the as-prepared SWNH sample, while concerning the oxidized SWNH sample, the improvements are related to the electrokinetics in both anode and cathode electrodes. These improvements should be related with differences in the hydrophobic character between SWNH and carbon black.

  16. Mobile Phone Text Messages to Support Treatment Adherence in Adults With High Blood Pressure (SMS-Text Adherence Support [StAR]): A Single-Blind, Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrow, Kirsten; Farmer, Andrew J; Springer, David; Shanyinde, Milensu; Yu, Ly-Mee; Brennan, Thomas; Rayner, Brian; Namane, Mosedi; Steyn, Krisela; Tarassenko, Lionel; Levitt, Naomi

    2016-02-09

    We assessed the effect of automated treatment adherence support delivered via mobile phone short message system (SMS) text messages on blood pressure. In this pragmatic, single-blind, 3-arm, randomized trial (SMS-Text Adherence Support [StAR]) undertaken in South Africa, patients treated for high blood pressure were randomly allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio to information only, interactive SMS text messaging, or usual care. The primary outcome was change in systolic blood pressure at 12 months from baseline measured with a validated oscillometric device. All trial staff were masked to treatment allocation. Analyses were intention to treat. Between June 26, 2012, and November 23, 2012, 1372 participants were randomized to receive information-only SMS text messages (n=457), interactive SMS text messages (n=458), or usual care (n=457). Primary outcome data were available for 1256 participants (92%). At 12 months, the mean adjusted change in systolic blood pressure compared with usual care was -2.2 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -4.4 to -0.04) with information-only SMS and -1.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -3.7 to 0.6) with interactive SMS. Odds ratios for the proportion of participants with a blood pressure high blood pressure, we found a small reduction in systolic blood pressure control compared with usual care at 12 months. There was no evidence that an interactive intervention increased this effect. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02019823. South African National Clinical Trials Register, number SANCTR DOH-27-1212-386; Pan Africa Trial Register, number PACTR201411000724141. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Development and MASH full-scale crash testing of a high-mounting-height temporary single sign support with aluminum sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Work zone traffic control devices such as temporary single sign supports are a primary means to communicate : information to motorists in work zone areas. The Federal Highway Administration and the Manual on Uniform Traffic : Control Devices require ...

  18. Pt-Fe catalyst nanoparticles supported on single-wall carbon nanotubes: Direct synthesis and electrochemical performance for methanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohui; Luo, Liqiang; Zhu, Limei; Yu, Liming; Sheng, Leimei; An, Kang; Ando, Yoshinori; Zhao, Xinluo

    2013-11-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) supported Pt-Fe nanoparticles have been prepared by one-step hydrogen arc discharge evaporation of carbon electrode containing both Pt and Fe metal elements. The formation of SWCNTs and Pt-Fe nanoparticles occur simultaneously during the evaporation process. High-temperature hydrogen treatment and hydrochloric acid soaking have been carried out to purify and activate those materials in order to obtain a new type of Pt-Fe/SWCNTs catalyst for methanol oxidation. The Pt-Fe/SWCNTs catalyst performs much higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation, better stability and better durability than a commercial Pt/C catalyst according to the electrochemical measurements, indicating that it has a great potential for applications in direct methanol fuel cells.

  19. Immediate and delayed loading of fixed dental prostheses supported by single or two splinted implants: A histomorphometric study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, G; Lang, N P; Viganò, P; Bengazi, F; Apaza Alccayhuaman, K A; Botticelli, D

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate presumptive differences in osseointegration at implants supporting crowns that are physiologically loaded either immediately or 3 months after installation. All premolars and first molars were extracted bilaterally in six dogs. After 3 months of healing, three implants were installed on the premolar region and two in the molar region in one side of the mandible. Likewise, after another 3 months, five implants were installed in the contralateral side, and impressions were taken bilaterally. Within 48 hours, two single crowns were screwed bilaterally onto two implants in the premolar region, and two splinted crowns reproducing the shape of the first molar were screwed bilaterally onto the implants in the molar region. The mesial implants were used as no-loaded controls. Sacrifices were performed after 3 months, and histological analyses were performed. At the premolar sites, mineralised bone-to-implant contact (MBIC%) was 78.0 ± 4.0% and 70.9 ± 7.9% at the delayed and immediately loaded sites, respectively. This difference was statistically significant. At the control implants, MBIC% was 61.4 ± 14.7% and 63.1 ± 13.1% at the delayed and the immediately loaded sites, respectively. At the molar sites, MBIC% was 79.2 ± 10.9% and 61.1 ± 10.3% at the delayed and immediately loaded sites, respectively. Applying a delayed loading to fixed dental prostheses supported by single or two splinted implants yielded higher proportions of bone-to-implant contact (osseointegration) compared to immediately loaded implants. Moreover, both types of loading protocols yielded a higher rate of osseointegration compared to unloaded implant sites after 3 months following implant installation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Screening single-atom catalysts for methane activation: α -A l2O3(0001 ) -supported Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Shiwu; Meng, Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Methane activation is one of the biggest challenges for chemical conversion of hydrocarbons and fundamental science. We systematically screen d -block transition metal elements as potential candidates of single-atom catalysts (SACs) for methane dissociation. The adsorption of methane on free metal atoms strongly depends on the number of d electrons of SAC, where the maximum binding energy is formed with the Ni group (electronic configuration d8s2 or d9s1 ). Interestingly, the magnetic moment of the SACs decreases by 2 μB for strong interactions, suggesting that the methane-metal bond forms a spin singlet state involving two electrons of opposite spins. To examine the effect of substrates, the screened transition metals, Ni, Rh, and Pt are further put onto prototype metal oxide surfaces. The substrate dramatically modifies the discrete energy levels of a single metal and its catalytic properties. Single Ni atoms supported on an O-terminated α -A l2O3(0001 ) surface (N i1/A l2O3 ) show superior catalytic properties, with a low activation barrier of 0.4 eV (0.11 eV after zero-point energy correction) for the C-H bond dissociation and simultaneously an extreme stability with a high binding energy of ˜9.39 eV for the Ni anchor. This work identifies N i1/A l2O3 catalyst as an optimal SAC and offers new atomistic insights into the mechanism of methane activation on SACs.

  1. Structured oligonucleotides for target indexing to allow single-vessel PCR amplification and solid support microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Laurie D; Boissinot, Karel; Peytavi, Régis; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G

    2015-02-07

    The combination of molecular diagnostic technologies is increasingly used to overcome limitations on sensitivity, specificity or multiplexing capabilities, and provide efficient lab-on-chip devices. Two such techniques, PCR amplification and microarray hybridization are used serially to take advantage of the high sensitivity and specificity of the former combined with high multiplexing capacities of the latter. These methods are usually performed in different buffers and reaction chambers. However, these elaborate methods have high complexity and cost related to reagent requirements, liquid storage and the number of reaction chambers to integrate into automated devices. Furthermore, microarray hybridizations have a sequence dependent efficiency not always predictable. In this work, we have developed the concept of a structured oligonucleotide probe which is activated by cleavage from polymerase exonuclease activity. This technology is called SCISSOHR for Structured Cleavage Induced Single-Stranded Oligonucleotide Hybridization Reaction. The SCISSOHR probes enable indexing the target sequence to a tag sequence. The SCISSOHR technology also allows the combination of nucleic acid amplification and microarray hybridization in a single vessel in presence of the PCR buffer only. The SCISSOHR technology uses an amplification probe that is irreversibly modified in presence of the target, releasing a single-stranded DNA tag for microarray hybridization. Each tag is composed of a 3-nucleotide sequence-dependent segment and a unique "target sequence-independent" 14-nucleotide segment allowing for optimal hybridization with minimal cross-hybridization. We evaluated the performance of five (5) PCR buffers to support microarray hybridization, compared to a conventional hybridization buffer. Finally, as a proof of concept, we developed a multiplexed assay for the amplification, detection, and identification of three (3) DNA targets. This new technology will facilitate the design

  2. Single-Trial Classification of Bistable Perception by Integrating Empirical Mode Decomposition, Clustering, and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualou Liang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose an empirical mode decomposition (EMD- based method to extract features from the multichannel recordings of local field potential (LFP, collected from the middle temporal (MT visual cortex in a macaque monkey, for decoding its bistable structure-from-motion (SFM perception. The feature extraction approach consists of three stages. First, we employ EMD to decompose nonstationary single-trial time series into narrowband components called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs with time scales dependent on the data. Second, we adopt unsupervised K-means clustering to group the IMFs and residues into several clusters across all trials and channels. Third, we use the supervised common spatial patterns (CSP approach to design spatial filters for the clustered spatiotemporal signals. We exploit the support vector machine (SVM classifier on the extracted features to decode the reported perception on a single-trial basis. We demonstrate that the CSP feature of the cluster in the gamma frequency band outperforms the features in other frequency bands and leads to the best decoding performance. We also show that the EMD-based feature extraction can be useful for evoked potential estimation. Our proposed feature extraction approach may have potential for many applications involving nonstationary multivariable time series such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI.

  3. Molecular analysis of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) supports the existence of a single species throughout its distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Natália; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis

    2013-01-01

    Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3) nDNA). Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated) from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species.

  4. Molecular analysis of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae supports the existence of a single species throughout its distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Rossi

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3 nDNA. Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species.

  5. Support effects in single atom iron catalysts on adsorption characteristics of toxic gases (NO2, NH3, SO3 and H2S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhengyang; Yang, Weijie; Ding, Xunlei; Lv, Gang; Yan, Weiping

    2018-04-01

    The effects of support on gas adsorption is crucial for single atom catalysts design and optimization. To gain insight into support effects on gas adsorption characteristics, a comprehensive theoretical study was performed to investigate the adsorption characteristics of toxic gases (NO2, NH3, SO3 and H2S) by utilizing single atom iron catalysts with three graphene-based supports. The adsorption geometry, adsorption energy, electronic and magnetic properties of the adsorption system have been explored. Additionally, the support effects have been analyzed through d-band center and Fermi softness, and thermodynamic analysis has been performed to consider the effect of temperature on gas adsorption. The support effects have a remarkable influence on the adsorption characteristics of four types of toxic gases which is determined by the electronic structure of graphene-based support, and the electronic structure can be characterized by Fermi softness of catalysts. Fermi softness and uplift height of Fe atom could be good descriptors for the adsorption activity of single atom iron catalysts with graphene-based supports. The findings can lay a foundation for the further study of graphene-based support effects in single atom catalysts and provide a guideline for development and design of new graphene-based support materials utilizing the idea of Fermi softness.

  6. Evaluation of zirconia-based posterior single crowns supported by zirconia implants: preliminary results of a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Benedikt Christopher; Kohal, Ralf-Joachim; Balmer, Marc; Vach, Kirstin; Jung, Ronald E

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this uncontrolled prospective multicenter study was to determine the success and survival rate of posterior single crowns composed of zirconia frameworks hand-layered with a leucite-reinforced feldspathic ceramic supported by one-piece zirconia oral implants. In two centers, sixty patients received 71 zirconia oral implants. To obtain a clear indication of posterior implant-supported single crowns (ISSCs), 14 patients (25 implants) were excluded from the analysis (11 bridges, three anterior crowns). The remaining patients were provided with single implants in posterior regions. As one patient lost his implant and another refused further participation after final prosthesis insertion, 44 ISSCs/patients (19 females, 25 males) were available for evaluation. Of these patients, all were seen at prosthetic delivery and the 6- and 12-month follow-up appointments. Evaluations were performed using modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Restorations within Alpha and Bravo ratings were regarded as success. This included minor chippings, a slight roughness, slightly soundable restoration margins and minimal contour deficiencies. In case of more distinct defects that could, however, be repaired to a clinically acceptable level, restorations were regarded as surviving. Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank tests were used for the success/survival analyses and the calculation of potential group differences (gender, jaw and center). After a mean observation period of 12.5 months (SD: 0.8 months), no ISSC had to be replaced, resulting in a Kaplan-Meier survival rate of 100%. The Kaplan-Meier success rate was 90.9% (one major chipping, one obvious roughness, one significant crevice and one pronounced over-contouring). Minor chippings and occlusal roughness were frequent complications. No significantly different survival/success rates could be observed between the mentioned groups. The frequent incidence of minor chippings suggests a high technique

  7. Clinical performance of screw-retained and cemented implant-supported zirconia single crowns: 36-month results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacaci, Claudio; Cantner, Friederike; Mücke, Thomas; Randelzhofer, Peter; Hajtó, Jan; Beuer, Florian

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate the clinical performance of implant-supported zirconia crowns with a sintered veneering cap. Furthermore, the influence of the type of retention (screw-retained vs cemented single crowns) was analysed. Fifty-eight patients were accommodated with 114 implants, inserted in the molar and premolar regions. Zirconia-based crowns with a sintered veneering cap were either screw-retained (n = 53) or cemented (n = 61) on the implant. Recalls were performed every 6 months. The state of soft tissue was documented by the modified plaque and gingiva index (mPI) and sulcus bleeding index (mSBI). The restorations were evaluated for technical failures like veneering porcelain fractures, surface qualities and marginal fitting. Neither implant loss nor crown fractures occurred. After a mean clinical service time of 36.9 months, fractures of the veneering porcelain were registered in 1.8 % of the cases. The Kaplan-Meier survival probability regarding eventless restorations was 98.2 %. Chipping of the veneering porcelain was registered in two cemented crowns without statistical influence of the type of retention. The indices showed healthy soft periimplant tissues in both groups. Implant-supported zirconia crowns with a sintered veneering cap demonstrated good clinical performance. The type of retention had no influence on technical complications.

  8. Management of Pediatric Acute Liver Failure in a Region With Insufficient Deceased Donor Support: A Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankol, Yucel; Ertugrul, Mustafa; Kanmaz, Turan; Mecit, Nesimi; Ocak, Ilhan; Durmaz, Ozlem; Acarli, Koray; Kalayoglu, Munci

    2016-10-01

    Acute liver failure is a rapidly progressive and life-threatening disease in children, whose clinical features differ from those of adults. This is a review of a single center's experience with pediatric acute liver failure in a region with insufficient deceased donor support. The study is a retrospective review and analysis of 22 pediatric patients with acute liver failure between January 2007 and May 2013. The cause of acute liver failure was indeterminate in 45.4% of cases. Listing for liver transplant was required in 72.7% of patients, whereas 27.3% developed spontaneous remission. In the patients placed on the liver transplant wait list, 75% underwent liver transplant and 25% died before undergoing liver transplant. The presence of ascites, high-grade encephalopathy, and laboratory findings including high lactate dehydrogenase and phosphorous levels and international normalized ratio were significant parameters in selecting patients needing liver transplants. All liver transplants were from living donors. One- and 3-year patient survival rates after liver transplant were 75% and 75%. No serious donor complications occurred. Living-donor liver transplant may be the only option to save the lives of pediatric patients with acute liver failure, especially in regions with insufficient deceased-donor support. Timely referral to a multidisciplinary transplant center, expedient evaluation of living donors, and appropriate timing of transplant are crucial for a successful outcome.

  9. The role of auditory feedback in music-supported stroke rehabilitation: A single-blinded randomised controlled intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, F T; Kafczyk, T; Kuhn, W; Rollnik, J D; Tillmann, B; Altenmüller, E

    2016-01-01

    Learning to play musical instruments such as piano was previously shown to benefit post-stroke motor rehabilitation. Previous work hypothesised that the mechanism of this rehabilitation is that patients use auditory feedback to correct their movements and therefore show motor learning. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating the auditory feedback timing in a way that should disrupt such error-based learning. We contrasted a patient group undergoing music-supported therapy on a piano that emits sounds immediately (as in previous studies) with a group whose sounds are presented after a jittered delay. The delay was not noticeable to patients. Thirty-four patients in early stroke rehabilitation with moderate motor impairment and no previous musical background learned to play the piano using simple finger exercises and familiar children's songs. Rehabilitation outcome was not impaired in the jitter group relative to the normal group. Conversely, some clinical tests suggests the jitter group outperformed the normal group. Auditory feedback-based motor learning is not the beneficial mechanism of music-supported therapy. Immediate auditory feedback therapy may be suboptimal. Jittered delay may increase efficacy of the proposed therapy and allow patients to fully benefit from motivational factors of music training. Our study shows a novel way to test hypotheses concerning music training in a single-blinded way, which is an important improvement over existing unblinded tests of music interventions.

  10. Workers' voice in the 100 largest European companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hassel, Anke; Helmerich, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Workers' Voice is widely present among the largest 100 firms in Europe. 90 % of the largest firms participate in collective bargaining (CBA), 73 % have a European Works Council (EWC) and 44 % have Board-Level Employee Representation (BLER). 27 % have a European Company Agreement (ECA), and 23 % an International Framework Agreement (IFA). The data set allows three broad conclusions: - First, Workers' Voice is mostly cumulative. Companieswith BLER always participate in collective bargaining and...

  11. Lipid diffusion in the distal and proximal leaflets of supported lipid bilayer membranes studied by single particle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Rafael L.; Barel, Itay; Brown, Frank L. H.; Haran, Gilad

    2018-03-01

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) have been studied extensively as simple but powerful models for cellular membranes. Yet, potential differences in the dynamics of the two leaflets of a SLB remain poorly understood. Here, using single particle tracking, we obtain a detailed picture of bilayer dynamics. We observe two clearly separate diffusing populations, fast and slow, that we associate with motion in the distal and proximal leaflets of the SLB, respectively, based on fluorescence quenching experiments. We estimate diffusion coefficients using standard techniques as well as a new method based on the blur of images due to motion. Fitting the observed diffusion coefficients to a two-leaflet membrane hydrodynamic model allows for the simultaneous determination of the intermonolayer friction coefficient and the substrate-membrane friction coefficient, without any prior assumptions on the strengths of the relevant interactions. Remarkably, our calculations suggest that the viscosity of the interfacial water confined between the membrane and the substrate is elevated by ˜104 as compared to bulk water. Using hidden Markov model analysis, we then obtain insight into the transbilayer movement of lipids. We find that lipid flip-flop dynamics are very fast, with half times in the range of seconds. Importantly, we find little evidence for membrane defect mediated lipid flip-flop for SLBs at temperatures well above the solid-to-liquid transition, though defects seem to be involved when the SLBs are cooled down. Our work thus shows that the combination of single particle tracking and advanced hydrodynamic modeling provides a powerful means to obtain insight into membrane dynamics.

  12. Can an app supporting psoriasis patients improve adherence to topical treatment? A single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten Hammond; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2018-02-07

    Topical corticosteroid or corticosteroid/calcipotriol preparations are recommended first-line topical treatments of psoriasis, but a main cause for the lack of efficacy of topical treatments is considered low rates of adherence to topical drugs. Patient support by the use of applications (apps) for smartphones is suggested to improve medical adherence. Design: An investigator-initiated, single-center, single-blind, parallel-group, phase-4 clinical superiority randomized controlled trial (RCT). 134 patients 18 to 75 years of age with mild-to-moderate psoriasis, who are capable of reading English language, own a smartphone, and are candidates for the study drug calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate (Cal/BD) cutaneous foam once daily prn (pro re nata). A 28-day adherence-supporting app providing compulsory daily treatment reminders that pop-up on the smartphone screen with a short alert sound. The app synchronizes through Bluetooth® to an electronic monitor (EM) attached to the medication canister. The EM contains a chip registering the amount of foam, day and time the patient use the foam dispenser. The information is displayed in a diary that shows the amount of Cal/BD cutaneous foam used and the number of applied treatment sessions. The app has an optional diary with the patient's rating of symptoms. Non-intervention: Use of Cal/BD cutaneous foam and EM without the app. All participants are prescribed Cal/BD cutaneous foam prn for the entire study period. Primary outcome obtained in week 4: rates of adherence measured by patient report, weight of medication canisters, and number of treatment sessions measured by the EM. Secondary outcomes obtained at baseline, weeks 4, 8, and 26: Lattice System Physician's Global Assessment (LS-PGA) and Dermatology Quality of Life Index (DLQI). This trial tests of whether an app can improve rates of adherence to a topical antipsoriatic drug. If the app improves rates of adherence and reduces the burden of psoriasis in a

  13. A 1-year randomised controlled trial comparing zirconia versus metal-ceramic implant supported single-tooth restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Worsaae, Nils; Schiodt, Morten; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    To compare the biological, technical and aesthetic outcomes of single implant-supported all-ceramic versus metal-ceramic crowns. Thirty-six patients with premolar agenesis were randomly treated with 38 all-ceramic (AC) and 37 metal-ceramic (MC) implant-supported single-tooth restorations. A quasi-randomisation of consecutively included restorations in patients with one or more implants was used, i.e. a combination of parallel group (for 13 patients with one restoration) and split-mouth (for 23 patients with ≥2 restorations). All patients were recalled for baseline and 1-year followup examinations. Biological and technical outcomes, including complications, were clinically and radiographically registered. The Copenhagen Index Score and visual analogue scale (VAS) score were used to assess professional and patient-reported aesthetic outcomes, respectively, by blinded assessors. One-year after loading, no patient dropped out and no implant failed, though one MC restoration had to be remade. The marginal bone loss was not significantly different between AC and MC restorations (AC: mean 0.08 mm, SD 0.25; MC: mean 0.10 mm, SD 0.17). Seven out of 10 inflammatory reactions were registered at AC restorations. Two technical complications, one loss of retention and one chipping of veneering porcelain were recorded at two metal-ceramic crowns. The marginal adaptation of the all-ceramic crowns was significantly less optimal than the metal-ceramic crowns (P = 0.014). The professional-reported colour match of all-ceramic crowns was significantly better than metal-ceramic crowns (P = 0.031), but other aesthetic parameters as well as the VAS scores demonstrated no statistically significant difference between AC and MC restorations. Marginal bone loss and the aesthetic outcomes were not significantly different between AC and MC restorations in this short-term follow-up study, though inflammatory reactions in the peri-implant mucosa as well as less optimal marginal adaptation were

  14. A Forest of Sub-1.5-nm-wide Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes over an Engineered Alumina Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Li, Meng; Patscheider, Jörg; Youn, Seul Ki; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2017-04-01

    A precise control of the dimension of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in their vertical array could enable many promising applications in various fields. Here, we demonstrate the growth of vertically aligned, single-walled CNTs (VA-SWCNTs) with diameters in the sub-1.5-nm range (0.98 ± 0.24 nm), by engineering a catalyst support layer of alumina via thermal annealing followed by ion beam treatment. We find out that the ion beam bombardment on the alumina allows the growth of ultra-narrow nanotubes, whereas the thermal annealing promotes the vertical alignment at the expense of enlarged diameters; in an optimal combination, these two effects can cooperate to produce the ultra-narrow VA-SWCNTs. According to micro- and spectroscopic characterizations, ion beam bombardment amorphizes the alumina surface to increase the porosity, defects, and oxygen-laden functional groups on it to inhibit Ostwald ripening of catalytic Fe nanoparticles effectively, while thermal annealing can densify bulk alumina to prevent subsurface diffusion of the catalyst particles. Our findings contribute to the current efforts of precise diameter control of VA-SWCNTs, essential for applications such as membranes and energy storage devices.

  15. Mitochondrial population genomics supports a single pre-Clovis origin with a coastal route for the peopling of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Nelson J R; Kanitz, Ricardo; Eckert, Roberta; Valls, Ana C S; Bogo, Mauricio R; Salzano, Francisco M; Smith, David Glenn; Silva, Wilson A; Zago, Marco A; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K; Santos, Sidney E B; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2008-03-01

    It is well accepted that the Americas were the last continents reached by modern humans, most likely through Beringia. However, the precise time and mode of the colonization of the New World remain hotly disputed issues. Native American populations exhibit almost exclusively five mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (A-D and X). Haplogroups A-D are also frequent in Asia, suggesting a northeastern Asian origin of these lineages. However, the differential pattern of distribution and frequency of haplogroup X led some to suggest that it may represent an independent migration to the Americas. Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Native American haplogroups, including haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population, thereby refuting multiple-migration models. A detailed demographic history of the mtDNA sequences estimated with a Bayesian coalescent method indicates a complex model for the peopling of the Americas, in which the initial differentiation from Asian populations ended with a moderate bottleneck in Beringia during the last glacial maximum (LGM), around approximately 23,000 to approximately 19,000 years ago. Toward the end of the LGM, a strong population expansion started approximately 18,000 and finished approximately 15,000 years ago. These results support a pre-Clovis occupation of the New World, suggesting a rapid settlement of the continent along a Pacific coastal route.

  16. Evaluation of the single-pass flow-through test to support a low-activity waste specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Peeler, D.K.

    1995-09-01

    A series of single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests was performed on five reference low-activity waste glasses and a reference glass from the National Institute of Standards and Technology to support a product specification for low-activity waste (LAW) forms. The results showed that the SPFT test provides a means to quantitatively distinguish among LAW glass forms in terms of their forward reaction rate at a given temperature and solution pH. Two of the test glasses were also subjected to SPFT testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Forward reaction rate constants calculated from the ANL test data were 100 to over 1,000 times larger than the values obtained from the SPFT tests conducted at PNL. An analysis of the ANL results showed that they were inconsistent with independent measurements done on glasses of similar composition, the known pH-dependence of the forward rate, and with the results from low surface-area-to-volume, short duration product consistency tests. Because the data set obtained from the SPFT tests done at PNL was consistent with each of these same factors, a detailed examination of the test procedures used at both laboratories was performed to determine the cause(s) of the discrepancy. The omission of background subtraction in the data analysis procedure and the short-duration (on the order of hours) of the ANL tests are factors that may have significantly affected the calculated rates

  17. Single Mothers by Choice and Inwedlock Mothers: Sex-Role Orientation, Locus of Control, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Kimberly Ann

    An emerging family constellation is the family headed by a "single mother by choice," a structure in which both single marital status and parental status are chosen. This study was conducted to determine whether single mothers by choice (N=12) differed significantly from inwedlock mothers (N=18) regarding their childbearing decisions.…

  18. Comparison of implant versus tooth-supported zirconia-based single crowns in a split-mouth design: a 4-year clinical follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güncü, Mustafa Barış; Cakan, Umut; Aktas, Guliz; Güncü, Güliz Nigar; Canay, Şenay

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the 4-year clinical performance of tooth versus implant-supported single-unit zirconia crowns (LAVA™) placed on posterior region. Twenty-four patients (10 men and 14 women) who had received 48 single crowns (24 implant-supported and 24 tooth-supported) from January 2007 to December 2009, were included. California Dental Association (CDA) quality assessment system, plaque and gingival index scores were used to evaluate the performance of the crowns at baseline and at all follow-up examinations. During the follow-up period, no fracture of zirconia coping has occurred. Major complication was chipping in three patients that required a new crown fabrication. Except for the failure ones, all crowns in both groups were rated as satisfactory at the follow-up examinations based on the CDA quality assessment criteria. There were no statistically significant differences between tooth and implant-supported crowns in terms of periodontal parameters. The present 4-year follow-up clinical study demonstrates that single-unit tooth- and implant-supported zirconia crowns have similar prosthetic and periodontal outcomes. Single-unit implant or tooth-supported zirconia crowns may be considered acceptable treatment modalities for restoration of either missing or compromised posterior teeth.

  19. Examining the rudimentary steps of the oxygen reduction reaction on single-atomic Pt using Ti-based non-oxide supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tak, Young Joo; Yang, Sungeun; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2018-01-01

    In the attempt to reduce the high-cost and improve the overall durability of Pt-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), density-functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the energetics of the elementary steps that occur during ORR on TiN(100)- and T...... of the single-atom Pt catalyst, and directly influences the rudimentary ORR steps on these single-atom platinized supports....

  20. Challenges with the largest commercial hydrogen station in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonneau, Thomas; Gauthier, Pierre [Air Liquide Canada (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This abstract's objective is to share with the participants the story of the largest hydrogen fueling station made to this date and to kick-start the story, we will cover the challenges; first the technical ones; the operational ones; the distribution ones and; the financial ones. We will then move on to review the logistic (geographic) issues raised by the project and conclude our presentation by sharing the output values of the largest fueling station built so far in the world. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of the distribution of stress and deformation in single implant-supported prosthetic units in implants of different diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salvatore MANNARINO

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction When stress and strain levels in the bone-implant system exceed It's capacity, a mechanical fatigue occurs, resulting in collapse and loss of osseointegration. Objective Analyze biomechanical behavior in single implant-supported prosthesis with implants of different diameters in the posterior mandible. Material and method Three different finite element models of Cone-Morse implants with the same height were created, varying the diameter (3.3 mm, 4.1 mm and 4.8 mm. The mandibular first molar area was the location of the implant, with It´s component and overlying prosthetic crown. The jawbone was composed of cortical and cancellous bone. Refined mesh of 0.5 mm was created in the critical interfaces to be analyzed. The loading of the models was performed at the point of occlusal contact with an occlusal load of 400 N. Result Maximum stress and strain occurred in the cervical regions of the implants in all groups, either in the implants or in components as well as in the analysis of cortical bone. The greater the diameter, the lower the stress and strain found in the implant. The 3.3 mm group had the highest strain in peri-implant cortical bone, and the 4.1 mm group had the smallest deformation, significantly lower than in the 4.8 mm group. Conclusion Although the biggest implant diameter (4.8 mm appears to have lower values of stress and strain, the group of intermediate implant diameter (4.1 mm showed less deformation rate in the cortical peri-implant bone. Therefore it is concluded that the 4.1 mm implant platform presented a more biomechanically effective peri-implant bone maintenance.

  2. Synchrotron Emission on the Largest Scales: Radio Detection of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Abstract. Shocks and turbulence generated during large-scale structure formation are predicted to produce large-scale, low surface-brightness synchrotron emission. On the largest scales, this emission is globally correlated with the thermal baryon distribution, and constitutes the `synchrotron cosmic-web'.

  3. starting a laparoscopic surgery programme in the second largest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-01

    Apr 1, 2014 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 91 No. 4 April 2014. STARTING A LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY PROGRAMME IN THE SECOND LARGEST TEACHING HOSPITAL IN. GHANA. A. Gyedu, MD, Department of Surgery, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Directorate of. Surgery, Komfo ...

  4. Analysis of Human Standing Balance by Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals’ standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments.

  5. International team successfully launches world's largest superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The world's largest superconducting magnet was successfully brought online recently as part of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the new particle accelerator scheduled for full scale use in November 2007. The magnet charged and operated successfully on its first attempt. The magnet, called Barrel Toroid, provides the powerful magnetic fiedl for ATLAS, one of the major particle detectors for LHC." (2/3 page)

  6. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  7. The Power of Nature. World's Largest Math Event 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    The theme of the fifth annual World's Largest Math Event (WLME 5) is "The Power of Nature." This theme encourages students to explore natural forces that affect humankind, including phenomena such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and snowstorms, and the mathematics that underlies their study. The 15 activities for WLMES have been grouped into five…

  8. Determinants of International Banking: Evidence from the World's Largest Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, D.; van Laecke, C.

    2007-01-01

    : Banks have expanded their foreign activities due to deregulation and advances in technology. Using a new approach, we measure the level of internationalization of the world's largest commercial banks. The degree of internationalization is found to be uneven across the three main continents.

  9. Toward sustainable harvesting of Africa's largest medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global demand for treating prostate disorders with Prunus africana bark extract has made P. africana Africa's largest medicinal plant export. Unsustainable harvesting practices can lead to local extirpations of this multipurpose tree. Survey research targeting P. africana harvesters in a Tanzania forest reserve revealed that ...

  10. Largest recorded non-invasive true intrathoracic desmoid tumour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Largest recorded non-invasive true intrathoracic desmoid tumour. G R Alexander. Abstract. Intrathoracic desmoid tumours are rare soft-tissue neoplasms arising from fascial or musculo-aponeurotic structures, accounting for less than 0.03% of all neoplasms. Most cases in fact represent intrathoracic extension of chest wall ...

  11. PNNL supercomputer to become largest computing resource on the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hewlett Packard announced that the US DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will connect a 9.3-teraflop HP supercomputer to the DOE Science Grid. This will be the largest supercomputer attached to a computer grid anywhere in the world (1 page).

  12. NAFTA: The World's Largest Trading Zone Turns 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…

  13. Evaluation of aesthetics of implant-supported single-tooth replacements using different bone augmentation procedures : A prospective randomized clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijndert, Leo; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Stellingsma, Kees; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the aesthetics of implant-supported single-tooth replacements using different augmentation procedures in a prospective study with the use of an objective rating index and with a subjective patient questionnaire, and to compare the results with each

  14. Long-term outcomes of short dental implants supporting single crowns in posterior region: a clinical retrospective study of 5-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, H.C.; Si, M.S.; Zhuang, L.F.; Shen, H.; Liu, Y.; Wismeijer, D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aimed to evaluate the long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of short implants supporting single crowns in the posterior regions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study design was adopted. The clinical and radiographic data of 231 short implants (intra-bony length ≤8 mm)

  15. The role of prosthetic abutment material on the stress distribution in a maxillary single implant-supported fixed prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Hugo Eduardo, E-mail: hugo.e.peixoto@hotmail.com [Implantology Team, Latin American Institute of Research and Education in Dentistry, Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Bordin, Dimorvan, E-mail: dimorvan_bordin@hotmail.com [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Del Bel Cury, Altair A., E-mail: altcury@fop.unicamp.br [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Silva, Wander José da, E-mail: wanderjose@fop.unicamp.br [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Faot, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.faot@gmail.com [Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Gonçalves Chaves, 457, 2nd floor, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul 96015-560 (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the influence of abutment's material and geometry on stress distribution in a single implant-supported prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional models were made based on tomographic slices of the upper middle incisor area, in which a morse taper implant was positioned and a titanium (Ti) or zirconia (ZrN) universal abutments was installed. The commercially available geometry of titanium (T) and zirconia (Z) abutments were used to draw two models, TM1 and ZM1 respectively, which served as control groups. These models were compared with 2 experimental groups were the mechanical properties of Z were applied to the titanium abutment (TM2) and vice versa for the zirconia abutment (ZM2). Subsequently, loading was simulated in two steps, starting with a preload phase, calculated with the respective friction coefficients of each materials, followed by a combined preload and chewing force. The maximum von Mises stress was described. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA that considered material composition, geometry and loading (p < 0.05). Results: Titanium and zirconia abutments showed similar von Mises stresses in the mechanical part of the four models. The area with the highest concentration of stress was the screw thread, following by the screw body. The highest stress levels occurred in screw thread was observed during the preloading phase in the ZM1 model (931 MPa); and during the combined loading in the TM1 model (965 MPa). Statistically significant differences were observed for loading, the material × loading interaction, and the loading × geometry interaction (p < 0.05). Preloading contributed for 77.89% of the stress (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences to the other factors (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The screw was the piece most intensely affected, mainly through the preload force, independent of the abutment's material. - Highlights: • The abutment's screw was the most impaired piece of the

  16. Home detection of freezing of gait using support vector machines through a single waist-worn triaxial accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Carlos; Català, Andreu; Moreno Arostegui, Joan M.; Cabestany, Joan; Bayés, Àngels; Alcaine, Sheila; Mestre, Berta; Prats, Anna; Crespo, M. Cruz; Counihan, Timothy J.; Browne, Patrick; Quinlan, Leo R.; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Sweeney, Dean; Lewy, Hadas; Azuri, Joseph; Vainstein, Gabriel; Annicchiarico, Roberta; Costa, Alberto; Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Among Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms, freezing of gait (FoG) is one of the most debilitating. To assess FoG, current clinical practice mostly employs repeated evaluations over weeks and months based on questionnaires, which may not accurately map the severity of this symptom. The use of a non-invasive system to monitor the activities of daily living (ADL) and the PD symptoms experienced by patients throughout the day could provide a more accurate and objective evaluation of FoG in order to better understand the evolution of the disease and allow for a more informed decision-making process in making adjustments to the patient’s treatment plan. This paper presents a new algorithm to detect FoG with a machine learning approach based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) and a single tri-axial accelerometer worn at the waist. The method is evaluated through the acceleration signals in an outpatient setting gathered from 21 PD patients at their home and evaluated under two different conditions: first, a generic model is tested by using a leave-one-out approach and, second, a personalised model that also uses part of the dataset from each patient. Results show a significant improvement in the accuracy of the personalised model compared to the generic model, showing enhancement in the specificity and sensitivity geometric mean (GM) of 7.2%. Furthermore, the SVM approach adopted has been compared to the most comprehensive FoG detection method currently in use (referred to as MBFA in this paper). Results of our novel generic method provide an enhancement of 11.2% in the GM compared to the MBFA generic model and, in the case of the personalised model, a 10% of improvement with respect to the MBFA personalised model. Thus, our results show that a machine learning approach can be used to monitor FoG during the daily life of PD patients and, furthermore, personalised models for FoG detection can be used to improve monitoring accuracy. PMID:28199357

  17. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Byrdina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002 and Corral (2005a, we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial volumes. We come to the conclusion that the seismicity is temporally clustered, and that the distribution of recurrence times is significantly different from a Poisson process even for times largely exceeding corresponding periods of foreshock and aftershock activity. Modeling the recurrence times by a gamma distributed variable, we finally estimate hazard rates with respect to the time elapsed from the last large earthquake.

  18. Synchrotron Emission on the Largest Scales: Radio Detection of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    many short baselines as possible, while insuring the least amount of corruption from. RFI – not an easy task. The nominal largest-scale that the EVLA can detect with a short integration at 1.4 GHz in its most compact configuration (D-array) is roughly. 15 (e.g., Rudnick & Brown 2009), which is 1 Mpc at z ∼ 0.06. Thus, smooth ...

  19. Collapse of the world?s largest herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Ripple, William J.; Newsome, Thomas M.; Wolf, Christopher; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Everatt, Kristoffer T.; Galetti, Mauro; Hayward, Matt W.; Kerley, Graham I. H.; Levi, Taal; Lindsey, Peter A.; Macdonald, David W.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Painter, Luke E.; Sandom, Christopher J.; Terborgh, John

    2015-01-01

    Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass ≥100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ~60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in ...

  20. Rare gas record in the largest Apollo 15 rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, K.; Lightner, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results obtained from mass-spectrometry analyses of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in a 182-mg chip of the largest Apollo 15 rock 15555 are presented. The spallation krypton data indicate a well-shielded location through most of the time during which the rock was exposed to cosmic rays. Gas retention ages are estimated. No evidence for the presence of products from plutonium-244 or iodine-129 was found.

  1. The effect of defects on the catalytic activity of single Au atom supported carbon nanotubes and reaction mechanism for CO oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajjad; Fu Liu, Tian; Lian, Zan; Li, Bo; Sheng Su, Dang

    2017-08-23

    The mechanism of CO oxidation by O 2 on a single Au atom supported on pristine, mono atom vacancy (m), di atom vacancy (di) and the Stone Wales defect (SW) on single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) surface is systematically investigated theoretically using density functional theory. We determine that single Au atoms can be trapped effectively by the defects on SWCNTs. The defects on SWCNTs can enhance both the binding strength and catalytic activity of the supported single Au atom. Fundamental aspects such as adsorption energy and charge transfer are elucidated to analyze the adsorption properties of CO and O 2 and co-adsorption of CO and O 2 molecules. It is found that CO binds stronger than O 2 on Au supported SWCNT. We clearly demonstrate that the defected SWCNT surface promotes electron transfer from the supported single Au atom to O 2 molecules. On the other hand, this effect is weaker for pristine SWCNTs. It is observed that the high density of spin-polarized states are localized in the region of the Fermi level due to the strong interactions between Au (5d orbital) and the adjacent carbon (2p orbital) atoms, which influence the catalytic performance. In addition, we elucidate both the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms of CO oxidation by O 2 . For the LH pathway, the barriers of the rate-limiting step are calculated to be 0.02 eV and 0.05 eV for Au/m-SWCNT and Au/di-SWCNT, respectively. To regenerate the active sites, an ER-like reaction occurs to form a second CO 2 molecule. The ER pathway is observed on Au/m-SWCNT, Au/SW-SWCNT and Au/SWCNT in which the Au/m-SWCNT has a smaller barrier. The comparison with a previous study (Lu et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113, 20156-20160.) indicates that the curvature effect of SWCNTs is important for the catalytic property of the supported single Au. Overall, Au/m-SWCNT is identified as the most active catalyst for CO oxidation compared to pristine SWCNT, SW-SWCNT and di-SWCNT. Our findings give a

  2. Upgrade and modernization of the six largest HPPs in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzievska, M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, Electric Power Company of Macedonia and the International Bank for Development and Reconstruction, started the Power System Improvement Project a part of which is the Project for rehabilitation of the six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPPs) in the Republic of Macedonia. The six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPP Vrutok, HPP Raven, HPP Globocica, HPP Tikves and HPP Spilje and HPP Vrben) represent 91% of the country's hydropower capacity. The rehabilitation program is divided in five parts (contracts) and covers the refurbishment of: turbine runners, turbine and generator bearings, governors, inlet valves; butterfly valves, including accessories and control systems; generators, excitation system and voltage regulation; control system, protection and LV auxiliaries; switch gears and control gears in 220 kV, 110 kV and 35 kV substations. At the moment, only the implementation of switch gears has started, the first phase is already finished, and 50 % of the rehabilitation works for HPP Vrutok, the largest HPP, has been finished. With the realization of this project, greater hydropower production is expected. It also expected that HPPs will become a more vital part of the Macedonian power system

  3. A mixed-methods approach for analysing social support and social anchorage of single mothers’ personal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumino, Rosaria; Ragozini, Giancarlo; van Duijn, Marijtje; Vitale, Maria Prosperina

    2017-01-01

    The present paper analyses the relationship among social support and personal networks by focusing on social anchorage, which is a specific dimension of social support conveying to what extent people feel integrated into their personal networks. Specifying when, why, and how personal relationships

  4. Monitoring Risk Behaviors by Managing Social Support in the Network of a Forensic Psychiatric Patient : A Single-Case Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar-Pomp, Lydia; de Beer, Carlijn; van der Lem, Rosalind; Spreen, Marinus; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This prospective case study examines changes over time in the social support network of a forensic psychiatric patient diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The focus is on the functional and dysfunctional influences of the patient's social support dynamics on his risk

  5. Spine buddy® supportive pad impact on single-leg static balance and a jogging gait of individuals wearing a military backpack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, John; Coats, Jesse; Pourmoghaddam, Amir

    2014-12-09

    The Spine Buddy® supportive pad was developed to be inserted underneath military backpacks to help disperse the heavy load of the backpack. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact the additional supportive pad had on static balance and a running gait while wearing a military backpack. Forty healthy subjects (age= 27.5 + 5.6 yrs, body height= 1.78 + 0.06 m, body mass= 86.5 + 14.0 kg: mean + SD) participated in a static single-leg balance test on a force plate with each lower limb while wearing a 15.9 kg military backpack for 30 s. Following this, participants were randomized to one of two interventions: 1) Intervention, which wore the Spine Buddy® supportive pad underneath their backpack or 2) Control, with no additional supportive pad. Post-intervention measurements of static single-leg balance were then recorded. Afterwards, a similar pre vs post testing schedule and randomization scheme was used to test the impact of the supportive pad on a 5 mph jogging gait using Vicon® cameras. Within-group data were analyzed with a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. Statistically significant differences were not seen between the control and experimental group for balance and gait variables. Preliminarily, this suggests that the Spine Buddy® supportive pad causes no deleterious effect on static balance and a jogging gait in 18-45 year-old asymptomatic individuals.

  6. Spine Buddy® Supportive Pad Impact on Single-Leg Static Balance and a Jogging Gait of Individuals Wearing a Military Backpack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward John

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Spine Buddy® supportive pad was developed to be inserted underneath military backpacks to help disperse the heavy load of the backpack. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact the additional supportive pad had on static balance and a running gait while wearing a military backpack. Forty healthy subjects (age= 27.5 + 5.6 yrs, body height= 1.78 + 0.06 m, body mass= 86.5 + 14.0 kg: mean + SD participated in a static single-leg balance test on a force plate with each lower limb while wearing a 15.9 kg military backpack for 30 s. Following this, participants were randomized to one of two interventions: 1 Intervention, which wore the Spine Buddy® supportive pad underneath their backpack or 2 Control, with no additional supportive pad. Post-intervention measurements of static single-leg balance were then recorded. Afterwards, a similar pre vs post testing schedule and randomization scheme was used to test the impact of the supportive pad on a 5 mph jogging gait using Vicon® cameras. Within-group data were analyzed with a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. Statistically significant differences were not seen between the control and experimental group for balance and gait variables. Preliminarily, this suggests that the Spine Buddy® supportive pad causes no deleterious effect on static balance and a jogging gait in 18-45 year-old asymptomatic individuals.

  7. Surgical Complications after Right Hepatectomy for Live Liver Donation: Largest Single-Center Western World Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgen, Andre; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Zhang, Wei; Rosales, Roizar; Ghanekar, Anand; Lilly, Les; Cattral, Mark; Greig, Paul; McCluskey, Stuart; McGilvray, Ian; Selzner, Nazia; Bhat, Mamatha; Selzner, Markus; Levy, Gary; Grant, David; Sapisochin, Gonzalo

    2018-03-22

    The authors assessed the incidence, management, and risk factors for postoperative complications after right lobe (RL) live donor hepatectomy in a high-volume center in North America. All donors undergoing an RL live donor hepatectomy between 2000 and 2017 at our institution were included. The primary outcome was the development of complications (both medical and surgical). Predictors of postoperative complications were determined by logistic regression. A total of 587 patients underwent RL live donor hepatectomy. Among those, 187 postoperative complications were diagnosed in 141 (24%) patients. One patient had >90-day morbidity, and there were no donor deaths. Overall complications were significantly higher in the first era, 2000 to 2008 (81 [57.4%]) versus the second era, 2009 to 2017 (60 [42.6%]) ( p  = 0.01). On multivariate analysis, the only predictor of postoperative complications was the center volume of RL live donor hepatectomy in the previous 12 months with an odds ratio of 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.95-0.99). In conclusion, increasing center volume is associated with lower rates of postoperative complications after RL living liver donation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Influence of transmucosal height in abutments of single and multiple implant-supported prostheses: a non-linear three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borie, Eduardo; Leal, Eduardo; Orsi, Iara Augusta; Salamanca, Carlos; Dias, Fernando José; Weber, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of three different transmucosal heights of the abutments in single and multiple implant-supported prostheses through the finite element method. External hexagon implants, MicroUnit, and EsthetiCone abutments were scanned and placed in an edentulous maxillary model obtained from a tomography database. The simulations were divided into two groups: (1) one implant with 3.75 × 10 mm placed in the upper central incisor, simulating a single implant-supported fixed prosthesis with an EsthetiCone abutment; and (2) two implants with 3.75 × 10 mm placed in the upper lateral incisors with MicroUnit abutments, simulating a multiple implant-supported prosthesis. Subsequently, each group was subdivided into three models according to the transmucosal height (1, 2, and 3 mm). A static oblique load at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the implant in palatal-buccal direction of 150 and 75 N was applied for multiple and single implant-supported prosthesis, respectively. The implants and abutments were assessed according to the equivalent Von Mises stress analyses while the bone and ceramics were analyzed through maximum and minimum principal stresses. The total deformation values increased in all models, while the transmucosal height was augmented. The transmucosal height of the abutments influences the stress values at the bone, ceramics, implants, and abutments of both the single and multiple implant-supported prostheses, with the transmucosal height of 1 mm showing the lowest stress values.

  9. Investigating the effect of home care program on self-efficacy of femaleheaded single-parent households supported by Isfahan Welfare Organization (Behzisti in year 1394

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Moeini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Female-headed households are among the most vulnerable groups of society and there are potential of many critical jeopardies for these families. Therefore, this study was focused to evaluate the effect of home care program on self-efficacy of female-headed single parent households supported by Isfahan Behzisti-Welfare Organization in year 2015. Methodology: This study was a quasi-experimental design research with random selection of 36 female headed single parent. Prior to the nursing intervention, demographic and life style information of these families were evaluated using 70 questions in a questionnaires. In addition, a pre-test using a standard self-efficacy questionnaires with 17 questions were used to assess the level of self-efficacy of these families. Following the experiment, these families responded to the self-efficacy questionnaires. For descriptive statistics analysis, frequency, average, and standard deviation were evaluated. Furthermore, paired-sample t-test, Pearson's chi-squared test, Mann–Whitney test, Spearman's rank-order correlation, and Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance were analyzed using SPSS v.18 software for statistical inference analysis. Results: Our analysis revealed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05 between the score average of pre- and post- home care program. It supported our hypothesis that the supportive home care program had significant effect on self-efficacy of femaleheaded single parent households. Discussion and Conclusion: Following the effect of the supportive nursing intervention on self-efficacy of female-headed households, it should be mentioned that this supportive program can be the best strategic plan to increase the family’s health and preventing health issues. Therefore, given the multiple roles of public health nurse, supportive home care program is critical and should be emphasized.

  10. Longevity in Calumma parsonii, the World's largest chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, Giulia; Glaw, Frank; Andreone, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Large body size of ectothermic species can be correlated with high life expectancy. We assessed the longevity of the World's largest chameleon, the Parson's chameleon Calumma parsonii from Madagascar by using skeletochronology of phalanges taken from preserved specimens held in European natural history museums. Due to the high bone resorption we can provide only the minimum age of each specimen. The highest minimum age detected was nine years for a male and eight years for a female, confirming that this species is considerably long living among chameleons. Our data also show a strong correlation between snout-vent length and estimated age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...... a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave...

  12. An analysis of reliability and validity of the papilla index score of implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To test the reliability and validity of the papilla index scores of the implant-supported single crowns (ISSCs) of maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with 25 ISSCs were included. Two prosthodontists evaluated the papilla index score (PIS) of three ...... inter-observer agreement. The PIS score demonstrated significant correlation to the corresponding PP value (rs=.567, p=.000). Conclusions: The feasibility, reliability and validity of the PIS made the parameter useful for quality control of the pri-implant soft tissue of ISSCs.......Objectives: To test the reliability and validity of the papilla index scores of the implant-supported single crowns (ISSCs) of maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with 25 ISSCs were included. Two prosthodontists evaluated the papilla index score (PIS) of three...

  13. A 3-year prospective study of implant-supported, single-tooth restorations of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic materials in patients with tooth agenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Worsaae, Nils; Schiødt, Morten

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this clinical study was to describe outcome variables of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic implant-supported, single-tooth restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 59 patients (mean age: 27.9 years) with tooth agenesis and treated with 98 implant-supported single...... abutment materials. The frequency of biological complications was higher at restorations with all-ceramic restorations than metal-ceramic crowns. Loss of retention, which was only observed at metal-ceramic crowns, was the most frequent technical complication, and the marginal adaptations of all-ceramic...... restoration materials were registered. After 3 years, the patient-reported outcome variables at different restoration materials were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: The biological outcomes at the zirconia and metal abutments were comparable. All-ceramic crowns demonstrated better colour match...

  14. Comparison of masticatory efficiency, patient satisfaction for single, two, and three implants supported overdenture in the same patient: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Srinidhi; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Mahoorkar, Sudhindra

    2016-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Over 30% of the world population suffers from edentulism. Implant supported overdenture have been a relatively successful treatment option for edentulism and have shown to slowed the rate of residual resorption and maintain the vertical height of the residual. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure patient masticatary efficiency and satisfaction with the mandibular one-, two-, and three-implant-retained overdenture therapy when compared with conventional denture in a the same patients. Materials and Methods: Ten complete edentulous patients, who were wearing conventional complete dentures, were involved in this study. Three single piece endosseous implant of 3.0 mm in diameter and 13 mm in length were surgically placed in the mandible in the region of B, C, and D. Mandibular denture was connected for single, two, and three implant supported overdenture periodically and checked for masticatory efficiency using a bite gauge and patient satisfaction using a questionnaire. Results: Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Four groups of bite forces when compared to each other. Group 1 was compared with Group 2, with the statistical value showing significance. Signed rank test showed no significance (0.268) when Group 2 was compared with Group 3. When Group 3 was compared with Group 4, and Group 1 compared with Group 4, rank test showed significant values. Four groups were compared with each other for patient satisfaction, Group 1 was compared with Group 2, with the statistical value showing no significance. Conclusions: A single midline implant supported overdenture can be considered as a suitable and cost-effective treatment option over conventional denture. The study concludes that masticatory efficiency of this single midline implant supported overdenture is better than the conventional complete denture. PMID:27141169

  15. Long-term outcomes of short dental implants supporting single crowns in posterior region: a clinical retrospective study of 5-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong-Chang; Si, Mi-Si; Zhuang, Long-Fei; Shen, Hui; Liu, Yue-Lian; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Aimed to evaluate the long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of short implants supporting single crowns in the posterior regions. A retrospective study design was adopted. The clinical and radiographic data of 231 short implants (intra-bony length ≤8 mm) supporting single crowns in 168 patients, were collected after 5-10 (mean 7.22) years' follow-up. Implant and prosthesis failures, peri-implant marginal bone loss, biological and technical complications were evaluated. The influence factors on implant failure were studied. In total 4 implants and 11 prostheses failed. The 10-year (5-year) cumulative survival rate was 98.3% (98.7%) for implant-based analysis and 97.6% (98.2%) for patient-based analysis. The short implants placed in type IV bone yielded more failures than in type I-III and presented a survival rate of 94.0%. The 10-year survival rate of the prostheses was 95.2%. The mean marginal bone loss between implant installation and the 10 years' follow-up visit was 0.63 ± 0.68 mm. The marginal bone loss between the first and 5th year was minimal (0.05 ± 0.10mm and not statistically significant). 18 (7.8%) implants were exposed to biological complications, whereas 29 (12.6%) implants were involved in technical complications. High survival rates for both the implants and the prostheses could be achieved after 5-10 years for short implants supporting single crowns, without severe marginal bone loss and complications. One may conclude that a single crown supported by a short implant is a predictable treatment modality. However, short implants in type IV bone sites should be applied with caution. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Combined single-mode/multimode fiber link supporting simplified in-building 60-GHz gigabit wireless access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Tien Thang; Lebedev, Alexander; Beltrán, Marta

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple, cost-effective hybrid gigabit fiber-wireless system for in-building wireless access. Simplicity and cost-effectiveness are achieved in all parts of the system by utilizing direct laser modulation, optical frequency up-conversion, ......In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple, cost-effective hybrid gigabit fiber-wireless system for in-building wireless access. Simplicity and cost-effectiveness are achieved in all parts of the system by utilizing direct laser modulation, optical frequency up......-conversion, combined single mode/multimode fiber transmission and envelope detection. Error-free transmission of 2-Gbps data in 60-GHz band over a composite channel including 10-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF)/1-km multimode fiber (MMF) and 6.5-m air transmission was successfully achieved....

  17. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cumulative Success Rate of Short and Ultrashort Implants Supporting Single Crowns in the Posterior Maxilla: A 3-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Lombardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine cumulative success rate (CSR of short and ultrashort implants in the posterior maxilla restored with single crowns. Patients and Methods. We performed a retrospective study in 65 patients with 139 implants. 46 were ultrashort and 93 short. Implants were placed with a staged approach and restored with single crowns. Success rate, clinical and radiographic outcomes, and crown-to-implant ratio (CIR were assessed after three years. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics. A log-binomial regression model where the main outcome was implant success was achieved. Coefficients and 95% confidence intervals were reported. Analyses were performed with Stata 13.2 for Windows. Results. 61.54% of patients were female and mean overall age was 51.9±11.08 years old. Overall CSR was 97.1% (95% CI: 92.4–98.9: 97.9 and 95.1% for short and ultrashort, respectively (P value: 0.33. Four implants failed. Covariates were not associated with CSR (P value > 0.05. Regression model showed coefficients correlated with implant success for ultrashort implants (0.87 and most of covariates but none were statistically significant (P values > 0.05. Conclusions. Our results suggest that short and ultrashort implants may be successfully placed and restored with single crowns in the resorbed maxillary molar region.

  19. Cumulative Success Rate of Short and Ultrashort Implants Supporting Single Crowns in the Posterior Maxilla: A 3-Year Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Giorgio; Pighi, Jacopo; Marincola, Mauro; Corrocher, Giovanni; Simancas-Pallares, Miguel; Nocini, Pier Francesco

    2017-01-01

    To determine cumulative success rate (CSR) of short and ultrashort implants in the posterior maxilla restored with single crowns. We performed a retrospective study in 65 patients with 139 implants. 46 were ultrashort and 93 short. Implants were placed with a staged approach and restored with single crowns. Success rate, clinical and radiographic outcomes, and crown-to-implant ratio (CIR) were assessed after three years. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics. A log-binomial regression model where the main outcome was implant success was achieved. Coefficients and 95% confidence intervals were reported. Analyses were performed with Stata 13.2 for Windows. 61.54% of patients were female and mean overall age was 51.9 ± 11.08 years old. Overall CSR was 97.1% (95% CI: 92.4-98.9): 97.9 and 95.1% for short and ultrashort, respectively ( P value: 0.33). Four implants failed. Covariates were not associated with CSR ( P value > 0.05). Regression model showed coefficients correlated with implant success for ultrashort implants (0.87) and most of covariates but none were statistically significant ( P values > 0.05). Our results suggest that short and ultrashort implants may be successfully placed and restored with single crowns in the resorbed maxillary molar region.

  20. A feasible, aesthetic quality evaluation of implant-supported single crowns: an analysis of validity and reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the reliability and validity of six aesthetic parameters and to compare the professional- and patient-reported aesthetic outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with 66 implant-supported premolar crowns were included. Two prosthodontists and 11 dental students......,24) were found between patient and professional evaluations. CONCLUSIONS: The feasibility, reliability and validity of the CIS make the parameters useful for quality control of implant-supported restorations. The professional- and patient-reported aesthetic outcomes had no significant correlation....

  1. 76 FR 78015 - Announcing the Award of a Single-Source Grant to Support Services for Haitian Medical Evacuees to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... support medical evacuees from the Haiti earthquake of 2010. CFDA Number: 93.576. Statutory Authority: This... affected by the earthquake in 2010. The Haitian medical evacuees were brought to the United States (U.S.) in the aftermath of the earthquake in Haiti on January 12, 2010. This is a population that arrived in...

  2. Grid Frequency Support by Single-Phase Electric Vehicles: Fast Primary Control Enhanced by a Stabilizer Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    ancillary services for supporting the power grid. This paper presents modeling and analysis of the benefits of primary frequency regulation by electric vehicles in a microgrid. An innovative control logic algorithm is introduced, with the purpose of curtailing the number of current set-point variations...

  3. Supported rhodium catalysts for ammonia-borane hydrolysis. Dependence of the catalytic activity on the highest occupied state of the single rhodium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liangbing; Li, Hongliang; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhao, Xiao; Qiu, Jianxiang; Li, Aowen; Zheng, Xusheng; Zeng, Jie [Hefei National Lab. for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Key Lab. of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui(China); Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Hu, Zhenpeng [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Si, Rui [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2017-04-18

    Supported metal nanocrystals have exhibited remarkable catalytic performance in hydrogen generation reactions, which is influenced and even determined by their supports. Accordingly, it is of fundamental importance to determine the direct relationship between catalytic performance and metal-support interactions. Herein, we provide a quantitative profile for exploring metal-support interactions by considering the highest occupied state in single-atom catalysts. The catalyst studied consisted of isolated Rh atoms dispersed on the surface of VO{sub 2} nanorods. It was observed that the activation energy of ammonia-borane hydrolysis changed when the substrate underwent a phase transition. Mechanistic studies indicate that the catalytic performance depended directly on the highest occupied state of the single Rh atoms, which was determined by the band structure of the substrates. Other metal catalysts, even with non-noble metals, that exhibited significant catalytic activity towards NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} hydrolysis were rationally designed by adjusting their highest occupied states. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Influence of implant position on clinical crown length and peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns replacing maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of implant position on clinical crown length and marginal soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors, and to validate the papilla index score (PIS). Twenty-five patients, who had lost one...... as controls. Paired sample t-testand Pearson´s correlation analysis were used to analyze implant position, dimension of crownand papilla fill.Cohen’s ¿ andSpearman correlation were used to validate the PIS.The implant-supported crown was statistically longer than the contra-lateral tooth......, and there was significant correlation between the oro-facial position of the implant and the crown length difference (r=.607, p=.001). The distalpapilla was significantly shorter than the mesialpapilla at implant-supported crowns (ptooth (p=.415...

  5. Influence of group cohesion on maternal well-being among participants in a support/education group program for single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L; Waymouth, Marjorie; Gammon, Tara; Carter, Patricia; Secord, Margaret; Leung, Olivia; Mills, Brenda; Hicks, Frances

    2007-10-01

    Single mothers are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and physical and mental health difficulties. The authors present (1) the results of group cohesion assessments completed by mothers participating in a trial of community-based support/education groups, and (2) assessments of the association between group cohesion ratings and intervention outcomes of maternal self-evaluations of well-being (mood, self-esteem, and social support) and parenting. Mothers participating in groups completed the Group Atmosphere Scale, a measure of group cohesion, post-group. Overall, most participants provided strong ratings of group cohesion. Significant associations were found between group cohesion and specific positive outcomes. This suggests a positive association between group cohesion and mood, self-esteem, social support, and parenting, in this trial.

  6. Medical marijuana: largest provider closed, some alternatives available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-06-05

    The Cannabis Healing Center, the largest of the medical marijuana buyers' clubs in San Francisco, was shut down on May 25 due to a court order obtained by State Attorney General Dan Lungren. The closure creates an emergency situation for thousands of persons who obtained the drug through the center. City officials are exploring ways to develop guidelines for the medical usage of marijuana that would be consistent with California Proposition 215. Proposition 215 does not nullify Federal laws against marijuana, however, Federal authorities usually allow State or local jurisdictions to handle marijuana enforcement. The three other buyers' clubs in the city are unable to meet the needs of everyone due to insufficient staffing. The closure also shut down the campaign office of Dennis Peron, who was the founder of the previous Cannabis Buyers' Club, and who was running for governor. Contact information and documentation requirements are included for the buyers' clubs.

  7. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W; Wilcove, David S

    2016-09-06

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households.

  8. Collapse of the world’s largest herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.; Newsome, Thomas M.; Wolf, Christopher; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Everatt, Kristoffer T.; Galetti, Mauro; Hayward, Matt W.; Kerley, Graham I. H.; Levi, Taal; Lindsey, Peter A.; Macdonald, David W.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Painter, Luke E.; Sandom, Christopher J.; Terborgh, John; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2015-01-01

    Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass ≥100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ~60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in developing countries, where major threats include hunting, land-use change, and resource depression by livestock. Loss of large herbivores can have cascading effects on other species including large carnivores, scavengers, mesoherbivores, small mammals, and ecological processes involving vegetation, hydrology, nutrient cycling, and fire regimes. The rate of large herbivore decline suggests that ever-larger swaths of the world will soon lack many of the vital ecological services these animals provide, resulting in enormous ecological and social costs. PMID:26601172

  9. Switzerland's largest wood-pellet factory in Balsthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, F.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a small Swiss electricity utility has broken out of its traditional role in power generation and the distribution of electricity and gone into the production of wood pellets. The pellets, which are made from waste wood (sawdust) available from wood processing companies, are produced on a large scale in one of Europe's largest pellets production facilities. The boom in the use of wood pellets for heating purposes is discussed. The article discusses this unusual approach for a Swiss power utility, which also operates a wood-fired power station and is even involved in an incineration plant for household wastes. The markets being aimed for in Switzerland and in Europe are described, including modern low-energy-consumption housing projects. A further project is described that is to use waste wood available from a large wood processing facility planned in the utility's own region

  10. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  11. BALU: Largest autoclave research facility in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ucan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large-scale facilities operated at the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade BALU is the world's largest research autoclave. With a loading length of 20m and a loading diameter of 5.8 m the main objective of the facility is the optimization of the curing process operated by components made of carbon fiber on an industrial scale. For this reason, a novel dynamic autoclaving control has been developed that is characterized by peripheral devices to expend the performance of the facility for differential applications, by sensing systems to detect the component state throughout the curing process and by a feedback system, which is capable to intervene into the running autoclave process.

  12. γ-Irradiation assisted synthesis of graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution from interlamellar limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Yunhao; Zhou, Baoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei, E-mail: xuzhiwei@tjpu.edu.cn; Liu, Liangsen; Kuang, Liyun; Ma, Meijun; Fu, Hongjun

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles composites are successfully prepared via γ-irradiation without surfactant or functional agent. • Ag nanoparticles exhibit single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution on the surface of graphene oxide sheets. • Proposing a view that the growth of intercellular AgNPs can be limited by graphite oxide. - Abstract: This paper reported a method to fabricate graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs/GOS) with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution without surfactant or functional agent. We used imidazole silver nitrate as intercalation precursor into the layers of graphite oxide, and subsequently reduction and growth of interlamellar AgNPs were induced via γ-irradiation. The results illustrated that the synergism of interlamellar limitation of graphite oxide and fragmentation ability of γ-irradiation could prevent coalescent reaction of AgNPs with other oligomeric clusters, and the single crystalline and small-sized (below 13.9 nm) AgNPs were prepared. Moreover, the content and size of AgNPs exhibited parabolic distribution on GOS surface because the graphite oxide exfoliated to GOS from the edge to the central area of layers. In addition, complete exfoliation degree of GOS and large-sized AgNPs were obtained simultaneously under suitable silver ions concentration. Optimized composites exhibited outstanding surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties for crystal violet with enhancement factor of 1.3 × 10{sup 6} and detection limit of 1.0 × 10{sup −7} M, indicating that the AgNPs/GOS composites could be applied to trace detection of organic dyes molecules. Therefore, this study presented a strategy for developing GOS supported nanometal with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution based on γ-irradiation.

  13. γ-Irradiation assisted synthesis of graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution from interlamellar limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Yunhao; Zhou, Baoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei; Liu, Liangsen; Kuang, Liyun; Ma, Meijun; Fu, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles composites are successfully prepared via γ-irradiation without surfactant or functional agent. • Ag nanoparticles exhibit single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution on the surface of graphene oxide sheets. • Proposing a view that the growth of intercellular AgNPs can be limited by graphite oxide. - Abstract: This paper reported a method to fabricate graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs/GOS) with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution without surfactant or functional agent. We used imidazole silver nitrate as intercalation precursor into the layers of graphite oxide, and subsequently reduction and growth of interlamellar AgNPs were induced via γ-irradiation. The results illustrated that the synergism of interlamellar limitation of graphite oxide and fragmentation ability of γ-irradiation could prevent coalescent reaction of AgNPs with other oligomeric clusters, and the single crystalline and small-sized (below 13.9 nm) AgNPs were prepared. Moreover, the content and size of AgNPs exhibited parabolic distribution on GOS surface because the graphite oxide exfoliated to GOS from the edge to the central area of layers. In addition, complete exfoliation degree of GOS and large-sized AgNPs were obtained simultaneously under suitable silver ions concentration. Optimized composites exhibited outstanding surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties for crystal violet with enhancement factor of 1.3 × 10 6 and detection limit of 1.0 × 10 −7 M, indicating that the AgNPs/GOS composites could be applied to trace detection of organic dyes molecules. Therefore, this study presented a strategy for developing GOS supported nanometal with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution based on γ-irradiation.

  14. Supported Single-Site Ti(IV) on a Metal–Organic Framework for the Hydroboration of Carbonyl Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhiyuan [College; amp, Molecular Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Liu, Dong [College; amp, Molecular Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Camacho-Bunquin, Jeffrey [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Zhang, Guanghui [Department; Yang, Dali [College; amp, Molecular Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; López-Encarnación, Juan M. [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Department; Xu, Yunjie [Department; Ferrandon, Magali S. [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Niklas, Jens [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Poluektov, Oleg G. [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Jellinek, Julius [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Lei, Aiwen [College; amp, Molecular Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Bunel, Emilio E. [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Delferro, Massimiliano [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States

    2017-10-10

    ABSTRACT: A stable and structurally well-defined titanium alkoxide catalyst supported on a metal-organic-framework (MOF) of UiO-67 topology (ANL1-Ti(OiPr)2) was synthesized and fully characterized by a variety of analytical and spectroscopic techniques, including BET, TGA, PXRD, XAS, DRIFT, SEM, and DFT computations. The Ti-functionalized MOF was demonstrated active for the catalytic hydroboration of a wide range of aldehydes and ketones with HBpin as the boron source. Compared to traditional homogeneous and supported hydroboration catalysts, ANL1-Ti(OiPr)2 is completely recyclable and reusable, making it a promising hydroboration catalyst alternative for green and sustainable chemical synthesis. DFT calculations suggest that the catalytic hydroboration proceeds via a (1) hydride transfer between the active Ti-hydride species and a carbonyl moiety (rate determining step), and (2) alkoxide transfer (intramolecular σ-bond metathesis) to generate the boronate ester product.

  15. Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World's Largest Freshwater Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N. Cable

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most plastic pollution originates on land. As such, freshwater bodies serve as conduits for the transport of plastic litter to the ocean. Understanding the concentrations and fluxes of plastic litter in freshwater ecosystems is critical to our understanding of the global plastic litter budget and underpins the success of future management strategies. We conducted a replicated field survey of surface plastic concentrations in four lakes in the North American Great Lakes system, the largest contiguous freshwater system on the planet. We then modeled plastic transport to resolve spatial and temporal variability of plastic distribution in one of the Great Lakes, Lake Erie. Triplicate surface samples were collected at 38 stations in mid-summer of 2014. Plastic particles >106 μm in size were quantified. Concentrations were highest near populated urban areas and their water infrastructure. In the highest concentration trawl, nearly 2 million fragments km−2 were found in the Detroit River—dwarfing previous reports of Great Lakes plastic abundances by over 4-fold. Yet, the accuracy of single trawl counts was challenged: within-station plastic abundances varied 0- to 3-fold between replicate trawls. In the smallest size class (106–1,000 μm, false positive rates of 12–24% were determined analytically for plastic vs. non-plastic, while false negative rates averaged ~18%. Though predicted to form in summer by the existing Lake Erie circulation model, our transport model did not predict a permanent surface “Lake Erie Garbage Patch” in its central basin—a trend supported by field survey data. Rather, general eastward transport with recirculation in the major basins was predicted. Further, modeled plastic residence times were drastically influenced by plastic buoyancy. Neutrally buoyant plastics—those with the same density as the ambient water—were flushed several times slower than plastics floating at the water's surface and exceeded the

  16. Fifteen Years of Operation at NASA's National Transonic Facility with the World's Largest Adjustable Speed Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, George H.; Bhatia, Ram; Krattiger, Hansueli; Mylius, Justus; Schafer, D.

    2012-01-01

    In September 1995, a project was initiated to replace the existing drive line at NASA's most unique transonic wind tunnel, the National Transonic Facility (NTF), with a single 101 MW synchronous motor driven by a Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). This Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) system also included a custom four-winding transformer, harmonic filter, exciter, switch gear, control system, and feeder cable. The complete system requirements and design details have previously been presented and published [1], as well as the commissioning and acceptance test results [2]. The NTF was returned to service in December 1997 with the new drive system powering the fan. Today, this installation still represents the world s largest horizontal single motor/drive combination. This paper describes some significant events that occurred with the drive system during the first 15 years of service. These noteworthy issues are analyzed and root causes presented. Improvements that have substantially increased the long term viability of the system are given.

  17. Statistics of the largest sunspot and facular areas per solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.M.; Kabasakal Tulunay, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of extreme values is used to investigate the statistical properties of the largest areas sunspots and photospheric faculae per solar cycle. The largest values of the synodic-solar-rotation mean areas of umbrae, whole spots and faculae, which have been recorded for nine solar cycles, are each shown to comply with the general form of the extreme value probability function. Empirical expressions are derived for the three extreme value populations from which the characteristic statistical parameters, namely the mode, median, mean and standard deviation, can be calculated for each population. These three extreme value populations are also used to find the expected ranges of the extreme areas in a group of solar cycles as a function of the number of cycles in the group. The extreme areas of umbrae and whole spots have a dispersion comparable to that found by Siscoe for the extreme values of sunspot number, whereas the extreme areas of faculae have a smaller dispersion which is comparable to that found by Siscoe for the largest geomagnetic storm per solar cycle. The expected range of the largest sunspot area per solar cycle for a group of one hundred cycles appears to be inconsistent with the existence of the prolonged periods of sunspot minima that have been inferred from the historical information on solar variability. This inconsistency supports the contention that there are temporal changes of solar-cycle statistics during protracted periods of sunspot minima (or maxima). Indeed, without such temporal changes, photospheric faculae should have been continually observable throughout the lifetime of the Sun. (orig.)

  18. γ-Irradiation assisted synthesis of graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution from interlamellar limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yunhao; Zhou, Baoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei; Liu, Liangsen; Kuang, Liyun; Ma, Meijun; Fu, Hongjun

    2017-05-01

    This paper reported a method to fabricate graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs/GOS) with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution without surfactant or functional agent. We used imidazole silver nitrate as intercalation precursor into the layers of graphite oxide, and subsequently reduction and growth of interlamellar AgNPs were induced via γ-irradiation. The results illustrated that the synergism of interlamellar limitation of graphite oxide and fragmentation ability of γ-irradiation could prevent coalescent reaction of AgNPs with other oligomeric clusters, and the single crystalline and small-sized (below 13.9 nm) AgNPs were prepared. Moreover, the content and size of AgNPs exhibited parabolic distribution on GOS surface because the graphite oxide exfoliated to GOS from the edge to the central area of layers. In addition, complete exfoliation degree of GOS and large-sized AgNPs were obtained simultaneously under suitable silver ions concentration. Optimized composites exhibited outstanding surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties for crystal violet with enhancement factor of 1.3 × 106 and detection limit of 1.0 × 10-7 M, indicating that the AgNPs/GOS composites could be applied to trace detection of organic dyes molecules. Therefore, this study presented a strategy for developing GOS supported nanometal with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution based on γ-irradiation.

  19. Strategies for Balance maintenance in Different Support Surfaces - Mechanisms, Trainability and Transfer to Single-Leg Landing Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Priscila de Brito

    2016-01-01

    Well-adapted control of posture is crucial for the human body function. Postural control relates to coordination of body segments to maintain or restore balance, making the execution of a task safer with less effort. This PhD thesis focuses on the effects of different support surfaces on postural...... that postural control strategies are affected by surface stability and optimized with training, but also that the adaptations to training are transferred to movement strategies of sports gestures not involved in the training. This thesis offers a new perspective on how balance training provides protective...

  20. Effect of Abutment Height on Retention of Single Cementretained, Wide- and Narrow-platform Implant-supported Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Saleh Saber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. In contrast to prepared natural dentin abutments, little is known concerning factors influencing the retention of fixed prostheses cemented to implant abutments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of implant abutment height on the retention of single castings cemented to wide and narrow platform implant abutments. Materials and methods. Thirty-six parallel-sided abutments (Biohorizon Straight Abutment of narrow platform (NP and wide platform (WP sizes with their analogs were used. In each group of platform size, abutments were prepared with axial wall heights of 5, 4, 3, 2 mm (n=9. On the whole 72 castings were constructed, which incorporated an attachment to allow removal. Castings were cemented to abutments with TempBond®. A uniaxial tensile force was applied to the crown using an Instron machine until cement failure occurred. Analysis of variance of the models were fit to determine the effect of height of abutment of the restorations on the mean tensile strength (α=0.05. Results. The mean peak removal force for corresponding abutments was significantly different (P NP; (2 with alteration of axial wall height for NP: 5 mm > 4 mm > 3 mm = 2 mm and for WP: 5 mm > 4 mm = 3 mm = 2 mm. Conclusion. The retention of NP cement-retained restorations is influenced by the wall height but not in same manner as WP. Restorations of narrow-platform size with longer abutment exhibited higher tensile resistance to dislodgement.

  1. XRLINE, a program to evaluate the crystallite size of supported metal catalysts by single X-ray profile Fourier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldea, N.; Indrea, E.

    1990-01-01

    The computer program presented is based on the Fourier analysis of a singel X-ray diffraction profile. An X-ray diffraction method is presented which is capable of determining the average particle size, microstrain, stacking fault probability as well as the particle size distribution function in crystalline materials. The main numerical methods used are: (i) Smoothing and interpolation by 3rd-order piecewise polynomial functions or by cubic splines with the least squares method; (ii) numerical integration by successive five points formulae and numerical derivative by cubic splines with the least squares method; (iii) estimation of parameters by the weighted least squares method. The results for supported platinum catalysts used in the H/D isotopic exchange reaction are illustrated. (orig.)

  2. Modeling intraparticle transports during propylene polymerizations using supported metallocene and dual function metallocene as catalysts: Single particle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hua-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two improved multigrain models (MGMs for preparing homopolypropylene and long chain branched polypropylene via propylene polymerization using silica-supported metallocene or dual function metallocene as catalysts are presented in this paper. The presented models are used to predict the intraparticle flow fields involved in the polymerizations. The simulation results show that the flow field distributions involve dare basically identical. The results also show that both the two polymerization processes have an initiation stage and the controlling step for them is reaction-diffusion-reaction with the polymerization proceeding. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the intra particle mass transfer resistance has significant effect on the polymerization but the heat transfer resistance can be ignored.

  3. Analysis of Positive Selection at Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Body Mass Index Does Not Support the "Thrifty Gene" Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Speakman, John R

    2016-10-11

    The "thrifty gene hypothesis" suggests genetic susceptibility to obesity arises because of positive selection for alleles that favored fat deposition and survival during famines. We used public domain data to locate signatures of positive selection based on derived allele frequency, genetic diversity, long haplotypes, and differences between populations at SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for BMI. We used SNPs near the lactase (LCT), SLC24A5, and SLC45A2 genes as positive controls and 120 randomly selected SNPs as negative controls. We found evidence for positive selection (p positive selection for the protective allele (i.e., for leanness). The widespread absence of signatures of positive selection, combined with selection favoring leanness at some alleles, does not support the suggestion that obesity provided a selective advantage to survive famines, or any other selective advantage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nedaplatin as a Single-Agent Chemotherapy May Support Palliative Therapy for Patients with Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hirakawa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is a rare form of adenocarcinoma, which is a broad term describing any cancer that begins in the glandular tissues. It can be found in the head and neck. We report a patient with recurrent ACC arising from the submandibular gland, treated with 100 mg/m2 nedaplatin every 4 weeks. Although our patient’s lactate dehydrogenase levels, which is produced by ACC, showed a rising trend throughout the treatment, the level decreased for approximately 2 weeks immediately after administration of nedaplatin every 4 weeks. Thus, there is a possibility that the agent may be effective. Complications such as anorexia and nausea were observed, but they were tolerated and manageable. Nedaplatin may be considered as a supportive agent during palliative therapy for patients with ACC. More clinical trials regarding nedaplatin are necessary, as this study may indicate that a medical approach works well for ACC.

  5. El Paso natural gas nearing completion of system's largest expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    El Paso Natural Gas Co.'s largest expansion program in its 64-year history will be completed along its northern system this spring or early summer. According to the company, the three-tiered, $241.5 million expansion program will increase El Paso's gas-transport capacity by 835 MMcfd to 2.5 bcfd of conventional and coal-seam gas from the San Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico. That's enough natural gas, says the company, to supply the needs of a city of more than 800,000 residents. This paper reports that the expansion involves the San Juan Triangle system, the company's northern main line, and the Permian-San Juan crossover line. The company also filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in October 1991 to construct a new $15.2 million compressor station, Rio Vista, south of Bloomfield, N.M. The station would be used to move additional gas to the main line

  6. Characterization of the largest effector gene cluster of Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brefort

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function.

  7. LHC : The World's Largest Vacuum Systems being commissioned at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, J M

    2008-01-01

    When it switches on in 2008, the 26.7 km Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, will have the world's largest vacuum system operating over a wide range of pressures and employing an impressive array of vacuum technologies. This system is composed by 54 km of UHV vacuum for the circulating beams and 50 km of insulation vacuum around the cryogenic magnets and the liquid helium transfer lines. Over the 54 km of UHV beam vacuum, 48 km of this are at cryogenic temperature (1.9 K). The remaining 6 km of beam vacuum containing the insertions for "cleaning" the proton beams, radiofrequency cavities for accelerating the protons as well as beam-monitoring equipment is at ambient temperature and uses non-evaporable getter (NEG) coatings - a vacuum technology that was born and industrialized at CERN. The pumping scheme is completed using 780 ion pumps to remove noble gases and to provide pressure interlocks to the 303 vacuum safety valves. Pressure readings are provided by 170 Bayard-Alpert gauges and 1084 gauges (Pirani a...

  8. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  9. Swarming behaviour and mass occurrences in the world's largest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first records of mass occurrences (swarming behaviour) in giant pill - millipedes, order Sphaerotheriida, are reported from Madagascar. Swarming behaviour in the order Sphaerotheriida seems to be restricted to a single of more than sixty described Malagasy species, Zoosphaerium neptunus (Butler, 1872), which is the ...

  10. Method for developing an optimal emergence profile using heat-polymerized provisional restorations for single-tooth implant-supported restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Daniel C T; Sutherland, Mark

    2004-03-01

    This article describes a method for creating an improved emergence profile with single-tooth, implant-supported restorations. An easily trimmed silicone gingival substitute is used to allow polymerization of acrylic resin provisional restorations to achieve control of the emergence profile. Gingival trauma is minimized by eliminating intraoral use of monomer and minimizing surgical procedures. Provisional restorations can be assessed to ensure the contour is acceptable and the trimmed gingival substitute can be used to fabricate a similar profile in the definitive prosthesis. The provisional restorations may be used instead of standard prefabricated healing abutments to guide the healing contours of the peri-implant gingival tissue.

  11. Analyses of 32 Loci Clarify Phylogenetic Relationships among Trypanosoma cruzi Lineages and Support a Single Hybridization prior to Human Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-López, Carlos A.; Machado, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been traditionally divided in two major groups, T. cruzi I and II, corresponding to discrete typing units TcI and TcII-VI under a recently proposed nomenclature. The two major groups of T. cruzi seem to differ in important biological characteristics, and are thus thought to represent a natural division relevant for epidemiological studies and development of prophylaxis. To understand the potential connection between the different manifestations of Chagas disease and variability of T. cruzi strains, it is essential to have a correct reconstruction of the evolutionary history of T. cruzi. Methodology/Principal Findings Nucleotide sequences from 32 unlinked loci (>26 Kilobases of aligned sequence) were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of strains representing the known genetic variability of T. cruzi. Thorough phylogenetic analyses show that the original classification of T. cruzi in two major lineages does not reflect its evolutionary history and that there is only strong evidence for one major and recent hybridization event in the history of this species. Furthermore, estimates of divergence times using Bayesian methods show that current extant lineages of T. cruzi diverged very recently, within the last 3 million years, and that the major hybridization event leading to hybrid lineages TcV and TcVI occurred less than 1 million years ago, well before the contact of T. cruzi with humans in South America. Conclusions/Significance The described phylogenetic relationships among the six major genetic subdivisions of T. cruzi should serve as guidelines for targeted epidemiological and prophylaxis studies. We suggest that it is important to reconsider conclusions from previous studies that have attempted to uncover important biological differences between the two originally defined major lineages of T. cruzi especially if those conclusions were obtained from single

  12. A simplified method to develop optimal gingival contours for the single implant-supported, metal-ceramic crown in the aesthetic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsel, Richard P; Capoferri, Daniele

    2008-05-01

    Prosthetic replacement of the missing single maxillary central incisor with an implant-supported crown represents a profound aesthetic challenge for the restorative dentist, laboratory technician, and surgeon. In addition to the visual fidelity of color, translucency, contour, and surface texture, the proper soft tissue outline is sacrosanct to the illusion of a natural tooth. The contrast between the uniformly round shoulder of the implant and the tooth's curvilinear cementoenamel junction is particularly problematic. This clinical report demonstrates a simplified method that precisely controls the facial gingival and proximal soft tissue contours for implant-supported, metal-ceramic crowns in the aesthetic zone, using the cervical anatomy of the maxillary incisor tooth as a guide. A new role for the provisional crown that is intended to maximize the volume of keratinized tissue is also described.

  13. Correlations between fracture load of zirconia implant supported single crowns and mechanical properties of restorative material and cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Nadja; Märtin, Sabrina; Fischer, Jens

    2017-11-23

    Zirconia implants that were restored with veneered zirconia displayed severe chipping rates of the restorations in clinical studies. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture load of different zirconia implant supported monolithic crown materials (zirconia, alumina, lithium disilicate, feldspar ceramic and polymer-infiltrated ceramic) cemented with various cements (Harvard LuteCem SE, Harvard Implant Semi-permanent, Multilink Automix, VITA Adiva F-Cem). Flexural strength and fracture toughness of crown materials and compressive strength of the cements were measured. Fracture load values of crowns fabricated from lithium disilicate, feldspar ceramic and polymer-infiltrated ceramic were increased when cement with high compressive strength was used. Fracture loads for zirconia and alumina crowns were not influenced by the cement. Flexural strength and fracture toughness of the ceramics correlated linearly with the respective fracture load when using adhesive cement with high compressive strength. To achieve sufficient fracture load values, cementation with adhesive cement is essential for feldspar and polymer-infiltrated ceramic.

  14. Marginal Fit Metal-Ceramic and In-Ceram Single Crown Cement retained in Implant-supported Abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Valdimar S; Francischone, Carlos E; Vilarinho Soares de Moura, C D; Francischone, C E; Silva, Antonio M; Ribeiro, Izabella S; Filho, E M Maia; Bandéca, Matheus C; Tonetto, Mateus R; de Jesus Tavarez, R R

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the cervical fit of cemented metal-ceramic and In-Ceram implant-supported crowns, before and after the cementing procedure. Twenty crowns cemented on implant abutments are divided into two groups (n = 10): Group 1 -cemented metal-ceramic crowns and group 2 - cemented In-Ceram crowns. The marginal adaptations before and after cementation were evaluated in a comparison microscope with an error of 1 μm. All crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement. The cervical misalignment of cemented crowns before cementation (52.65 ± 11.83 and 85.73 ± 14.06 μm) was lower than that after cementation (66.80 ± 15.86 and 89.36 ± 22.66 μm). The cementing procedure interferes with the marginal fit of cemented crowns on implant abutments, with the prosthesis having better adaptation before cementation. Cemented metal-ceramic crowns exhibited better cervical adaptation than In-Ceram crowns cemented before and after the cementing procedure. The maintenance of gum health and the longevity of prosthetic restorations are closely related to the restoration's marginal integrity.

  15. Flow mixing at the World's largest river confluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jim; Ianniruberto, Marco; Gualtieri, Carlo; Paes de Almeida, Renato; Freitas, Bernardo; Nogueira, Pedro; Cisneros, Julia

    2017-04-01

    River confluences form key nodes within all fluvial networks and points of significant, and non-linear, changes in flow discharge, sediment grain size and bed morphology. It is generally acknowledged that the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics within the confluence zone are influenced by the junction planform, the momentum flux ratio between the merging streams, and the level of concordance between channel beds at the confluence entrance. Recent work has also identified the role of density differences between the confluent flows as potentially exerting a significant influence on fluid mixing. Perhaps the most well-known example, which has attracted considerable recent study, is at the world's largest river confluence - the Rio Solimões and Rio Negro (the Encontro das Águas), near Manaus, in the Amazonian basin. This paper sheds new light on the patterns of mixing at the Encontro das Águas as revealed by combined multibeam echo sounder (MBES) and acoustic Doppler current profiling (aDcp) surveys. The MBES survey reveals that the scour and bed morphology at this confluence, that can be up to c. 80m deep, is dominated by the presence of Cretaceous bedrock and that the mobile bedload sediment from the Rio Solimões is confined to a narrow zone of transport. The suspended sediment plume from the Rio Solimões interacts with the bedrock, which can comprise subaqueous roughness up to 20m in height, and is consequently diverted both laterally and vertically by this topography. The aDcp surveys reveal the nature of this topographic interaction and suggest that the routing of sediment-laden fluid within the junction, and the patterns of upwelling on the flow surface, are significantly influenced by these flow-bedrock interactions. Details of the topography and these fluid dynamic interactions will be presented, together with an analysis of satellite imagery that links the longevity of the location of some of the upwellings to the presence of bedrock roughness.

  16. Reach and messages of the world's largest ivory burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braczkowski, Alexander; Holden, Matthew H; O'Bryan, Christopher; Choi, Chi-Yeung; Gan, Xiaojing; Beesley, Nicholas; Gao, Yufang; Allan, James; Tyrrell, Peter; Stiles, Daniel; Brehony, Peadar; Meney, Revocatus; Brink, Henry; Takashina, Nao; Lin, Ming-Ching; Lin, Hsien-Yung; Rust, Niki; Salmo, Severino G; Watson, James Em; Kahumbu, Paula; Maron, Martine; Possingham, Hugh P; Biggs, Duan

    2018-03-01

    Recent increases in ivory poaching have depressed African elephant populations. Successful enforcement has led to ivory being stockpiled. Stockpile destruction is becoming increasingly popular, and most destruction has occurred in the last five years. Ivory destruction is intended to send a strong message against ivory consumption, both in promoting a taboo on ivory use and catalyzing policy change. However, there has been no effort to establish the distribution and extent of media reporting on ivory destruction events globally. We analyze media coverage across eleven important nation states of the largest ivory destruction event in history (Kenya, 30 April 2016). We used a well-accepted online media crawling tool and key language translations to search online and print newspapers. We found most online news on the ivory burn came from the US (81% of articles), while print news was dominated by Kenya (61% of articles). We subjected online articles from five key countries and territories to content analysis and found 86-97% of all online articles reported the burn as a positive conservation action, while between 4-50% discussed ivory burning as having a negative impact on elephant conservation. Most articles discussed law enforcement and trade bans as effective for elephant conservation. There was more relative search interest globally on the 2016 Kenyan ivory burn than any other in five years. Our study is the first attempt to track the spread of media around an ivory burn and is a case study in tracking the effects of a conservation-marketing event. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. CO oxidation mechanism on the γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported single Pt atom: First principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hongwei, E-mail: gaohongw369@ms.xjb.ac.cn

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • DFT studied on CO oxidation mechanism on Pt/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. • DFT studied on the adsorption properties of single Pt on Pt/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. • Pt adsorptions on the Al-terminated surface are more favorable than the ones on the O-terminated surface. • The reactive O*−O−C*=O intermediate mechanism is the dominant reaction pathway for CO oxidation on Pt/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: Understanding the role of metal-support interaction for the supported single-atom catalysts is very important in heterogeneous catalysis. Here, Three different CO oxidation mechanisms on Pt/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst were probed by periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations in detail, namely the reactive O*−O−C*=O intermediate mechanism, the reactive CO{sub 3} intermediate mechanism and the Pt-Al{sup 3+} double sites mechanism. According to the calculated results analysis, we concluded that the dominant reaction pathway at the low temperatures is the reactive O*−O−C*=O intermediate mechanism. Our results are in very good agreement with the experimental evidence for O*−O−C*=O coverage on Pt/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at room temperature by an in situ diffuse reflectance infrared detector.

  18. Single-Tooth Rehabilitations Supported by Dental Implants Used in an Immediate-Provisionalization Protocol: Report on Long-Term Outcome with Retrospective Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maló, Paulo; de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Lopes, Armando; Ferro, Ana; Gravito, Inês

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for long-term studies evaluating the outcome of single-tooth rehabilitations supported by dental implants in immediate loading. To report the long-term outcome (in excess of 5 years) of single-tooth rehabilitations supported by dental implants in an immediate-provisionalization protocol. This retrospective cohort study included 332 consecutive patients (189 females and 143 males) with an average age of 47 years (range: 16 to 82 years) who were rehabilitated between 1996 and 2006 with 594 single crowns supported by dental implants in immediate loading. Implant success rates were calculated based on implant function and using life tables. Marginal bone levels were measured at 5 and 10 years. Mechanical and biological complications were calculated for the follow-up period between implant insertion and 5 years and every 6 months thereafter. Fifty-four patients dropped out of the study (16.5%). Nineteen patients lost a total of 25 implants (n = 23 in the maxilla; n = 2 in the mandible), rendering a cumulative survival rate of 95.7% at both 5 and 10 years of follow-up. The mean marginal bone levels were 1.56 mm (standard deviation 0.78 mm) and 1.75 mm (standard deviation 0.29 mm) at 5 and 10 years of follow-up. Mechanical complications occurred in 83 patients and 116 implants (19.5%) up to the 10-year follow-up, namely prosthetic screw loosening (2.4%), abutment complications (4.4%), fracture of provisional crowns (9.6%), and fracture of definitive ceramic crowns (3.5%). Biological complications occurred in 58 patients and 79 implants (13.3%) up to the 10-year follow-up, with the majority consisting in peri-implant pathology. Considering the high survival rates and stable marginal bone levels after 10 years, it can be concluded within the limitations of the present study that replacement of single teeth with dental implants in an immediate-provisionalization protocol is a viable and safe treatment option for both maxilla and mandible.

  19. Clinical evaluation of 209 all-ceramic single crowns cemented on natural and implant-supported abutments with different luting agents: a 6-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Roberto; Galasso, Luigi; Tetè, Stefano; De Simone, Giorgio; Zarone, Fernando

    2012-04-01

    The Procera AllCeram™ system (Nobel Biocare AB, Göteborg, Sweden) is a valid alternative to metal-ceramic restorations. However, limited long-term data of its use for single crowns on natural and implant-supported abutments are available. The present study aimed at evaluating the clinical performances of Procera AllCeram single crowns in both anterior and posterior regions of the oral cavity either on natural tooth or implant abutments over a period of 6 years. Two hundred nine single crowns were fabricated and used in 112 patients. Zinc phosphate and resin luting agents were used to cement the restorations. The crowns were evaluated according to the California Dental Association's quality assessment system. Three crowns were lost at follow-up. Of the 206 restorations, which completed the 6-year follow-up, 9 crowns were affected by mechanical complications and 7 crowns failed. All surviving crowns were ranked as either excellent or acceptable. Cumulative survival and success rates of 95.2 and 90.9%, respectively, were recorded. Within the limitations of the present study, Procera AllCeram crowns proved to be a reliable clinical option to restore both anterior and posterior missing teeth either on natural or implant abutments. The resin cement used in the present study performed better than the zinc phosphate luting agent. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prediction of magnitude of the largest potentially induced seismic event

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hallo, M.; Opršal, I.; Eisner, Leo; Ali, M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2014), s. 421-431 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2451 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : magnitude * seismic moment * b value * induced events Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014

  1. Air pollution and hospitalizations in the largest Brazilian metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson; Corrallo, Flavia Prado; Leon, Antônio Carlos Ponce de; Junger, Washington; Freitas, Clarice Umbelino de

    2017-12-04

    To evaluate the impact of air pollution on hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in the largest Brazilian metropolis. This study was carried out at the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. Environmental data were obtained from the network of monitoring stations of nine municipalities. Air pollution exposure was measured by daily means of PM10 (particles with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) per municipality, while daily counts of hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases within the Brazilian Unified Health System were the outcome. For each municipality a time series analysis was carried out in which a semiparametric Poisson regression model was the framework to explain the daily fluctuations on counts of hospitalizations over time. The results were combined in a meta-analysis to estimate the overall risk of PM10 in hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases at the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. Regarding hospitalizations for respiratory diseases, the effect estimates were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for all municipalities, except Santo André and Taboão da Serra. The RR (Relative Risk) of this outcome for an increase of 10 µg/m3 in the levels of PM10 ranged from 1.011 (95%CI 1.009-1.013) for São Paulo to 1.032 (95%CI 1.024-1.040) in São Bernardo do Campo. The RR of hospitalization for respiratory diseases in children for an increase of 10 µg/m3 of PM10 ranged from 1.009 (95%CI 1.001-1.017) in Santo André to 1.077 (95%CI 1.056-1.098) in Mauá. Only São Paulo and São Bernardo do Campo presented positive and statistically significant results for hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases. This is the first study to estimate the risk of illness from air pollution in the set of municipalities of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. Global estimates of the effect of exposure to pollution in the region indicated associations only with respiratory diseases

  2. GIS learning tool for world's largest earthquakes and their causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moumita

    The objective of this thesis is to increase awareness about earthquakes among people, especially young students by showing the five largest and two most predictable earthquake locations in the world and their plate tectonic settings. This is a geographic based interactive tool which could be used for learning about the cause of great earthquakes in the past and the safest places on the earth in order to avoid direct effect of earthquakes. This approach provides an effective way of learning for the students as it is very user friendly and more aligned to the interests of the younger generation. In this tool the user can click on the various points located on the world map which will open a picture and link to the webpage for that point, showing detailed information of the earthquake history of that place including magnitude of quake, year of past quakes and the plate tectonic settings that made this place earthquake prone. Apart from knowing the earthquake related information students will also be able to customize the tool to suit their needs or interests. Students will be able to add/remove layers, measure distance between any two points on the map, select any place on the map and know more information for that place, create a layer from this set to do a detail analysis, run a query, change display settings, etc. At the end of this tool the user has to go through the earthquake safely guidelines in order to be safe during an earthquake. This tool uses Java as programming language and uses Map Objects Java Edition (MOJO) provided by ESRI. This tool is developed for educational purpose and hence its interface has been kept simple and easy to use so that students can gain maximum knowledge through it instead of having a hard time to install it. There are lots of details to explore which can help more about what a GIS based tool is capable of. Only thing needed to run this tool is latest JAVA edition installed in their machine. This approach makes study more fun and

  3. Impact of prosthetic material on mid- and long-term outcome of dental implants supporting single crowns and fixed partial dentures: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Ayash, Samir; Strasding, Malin; Rücker, Gerta; Att, Wael

    The impact of prosthetic material selection on implant survival is not clear. The current criteria for choosing a prosthetic material seem to be based on clinician preferences. This systematic review aims to evaluate the impact of restorative materials on the mid- and long-term survival of implants supporting single crowns and fixed partial dentures. Hand and MEDLINE searches were performed to identify relevant literature for single crowns (SC) and fixed partial dentures (FPD). Further inclusion criteria were a mean follow-up period of at least 3 years, the inclusion of at least 10 patients in a relevant study cohort, and a clear description of prosthesis type and prosthetic material. A total of 63 studies for the SC group and 11 studies for the FPD group were included. Full arch restorations were not included. The materials utilised in the SC group were metal-ceramic (precious and non-precious), lithium-disilicate, veneered zirconia, veneered alumina, and nanoceramics. The materials used in the FPD group were metal-ceramic (precious), veneered titanium, metal-resin (precious), and veneered zirconia. No significant impact on the prosthetic material relating to mid- or long-term implant survival was identified. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences between the survival rates of the dental prostheses made from different materials (SC and FPD group). Single crowns made of nanoceramics showed a higher risk for decementation relative to other materials (0.80, 95% CI [0.67; 0.89]; P prosthetic material selection has no influence on mid- and long-term survival of implants restored with single crowns and fixed partial dentures. Similarly, the prosthetic material seems to have no significant impact on prosthetic survival rates. Further research is required to provide more evidence regarding the impact of the prosthetic material on long-term outcome. Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

  4. Effect of using a laryngeal tube on the no-flow time in a simulated, single-rescuer, basic life support setting with inexperienced users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, O; Bucher, M; Schröder, J

    2016-03-01

    The laryngeal tube (LT) is a recommended alternative to endotracheal intubation during advanced life support (ALS). Its insertion is relatively simple; therefore, it may also serve as an alternative to bag mask ventilation (BMV) for untrained personnel performing basic life support (BLS). Data support the influence of LT on the no-flow time (NFT) compared with BMV during ALS in manikin studies. We performed a manikin study to investigate the effect of using the LT for ventilation instead of BMV on the NFT during BLS in a prospective, randomized, single-rescuer study. All 209 participants were trained in BMV, but were inexperienced in using LT; each participant performed BLS during a 4-min time period. No significant difference in total NFT (LT: mean 81.1 ± 22.7 s; BMV: mean 83.2 ± 13.1 s, p = 0.414) was found; however, significant differences in the later periods of the scenario were identified. While ventilating with the LT, the proportion of chest compressions increased significantly from 67.2 to 73.2%, whereas the proportion of chest compressions increased only marginally when performing BMV. The quality of the chest compressions and the associated ventilation rate did not differ significantly. The mean tidal volume and mean minute volume were significantly lower when performing BMV. The NFT was significantly shorter in the later periods in a single-rescuer, cardiac arrest scenario when using an LT without previous training compared with BMV with previous training. A possible explanation for this result may be the complexity and workload of alternating tasks (e.g., time loss when reclining the head and positioning the mask for each ventilation during BMV).

  5. Clinical sexological practice at the largest outpatient clinic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Kristensen, Ellids

    2010-01-01

    % dyspareunia. The occurrence of sexual problems was significantly correlated to childhood physical violence, current psychological distress, flashbacks in sexual situations and discomfort with physical endearment. The prevalence of sexual pain disorders were also positively correlated to “no adult support......” in childhood. The present study finds that psychiatric patients in terms of women with a history of intrafamilial CSA have wide-ranging sexual problems. It is crucial to screen for sexual problems and address them during treatment.......This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who...

  6. Fracture strength and failure mode of maxillary implant-supported provisional single crowns: a comparison of composite resin crowns fabricated directly over PEEK abutments and solid titanium abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santing, Hendrik Jacob; Meijer, Henny J A; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Özcan, Mutlu

    2012-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) temporary abutments have been recently introduced for making implant-supported provisional single crowns. Little information is available in the dental literature on the durability of provisional implant-supported restorations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the fracture strength of implant-supported composite resin crowns on PEEK and solid titanium temporary abutments, and to analyze the failure types. Three types of provisional abutments, RN synOcta Temporary Meso Abutment (PEEK; Straumann), RN synOcta Titanium Post for Temporary Restorations (Straumann), and Temporary Abutment Engaging NobRplRP (Nobel Biocare) were used, and provisional screw-retained crowns using composite resin (Solidex) were fabricated for four different locations in the maxilla. The specimens were tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute until fracture occurred. The failure types were analyzed and further categorized as irreparable (Type 1) or reparable (Type 2). No significant difference was found between different abutment types. Only for the position of the maxillary central incisor, composite resin crowns on PEEK temporary abutments showed significantly lower (p Provisional crowns on PEEK abutments showed similar fracture strength as titanium temporary abutments except for central incisors. Maxillary right central incisor composite resin crowns on PEEK temporary abutments fractured below the mean anterior masticatory loading forces reported to be approximately 206 N. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Boosted Regression Trees Outperforms Support Vector Machines in Predicting (Regional) Yields of Winter Wheat from Single and Cumulated Dekadal Spot-VGT Derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stas, Michiel; Dong, Qinghan; Heremans, Stien; Zhang, Beier; Van Orshoven, Jos

    2016-08-01

    This paper compares two machine learning techniques to predict regional winter wheat yields. The models, based on Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) and Support Vector Machines (SVM), are constructed of Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) derived from low resolution SPOT VEGETATION satellite imagery. Three types of NDVI-related predictors were used: Single NDVI, Incremental NDVI and Targeted NDVI. BRT and SVM were first used to select features with high relevance for predicting the yield. Although the exact selections differed between the prefectures, certain periods with high influence scores for multiple prefectures could be identified. The same period of high influence stretching from March to June was detected by both machine learning methods. After feature selection, BRT and SVM models were applied to the subset of selected features for actual yield forecasting. Whereas both machine learning methods returned very low prediction errors, BRT seems to slightly but consistently outperform SVM.

  8. An analysis of reliability and validity of the papilla index score of implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To test the reliability and validity of the papilla index scores of the implant-supported single crowns (ISSCs) of maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with 25 ISSCs were included. Two prosthodontists evaluated the papilla index score (PIS) of three...... fill percent (PP) was calculated. The validity of PIS was tested against the corresponding papilla fill percent (PP) by using the Spearman correlation analysis. Results: The intra-observer agreement was >70% in 4/5 and >50% in all observations, the pooled Cohen’s ¿ was 0.64 and 0.70 for two observers...... inter-observer agreement. The PIS score demonstrated significant correlation to the corresponding PP value (rs=.567, p=.000). Conclusions: The feasibility, reliability and validity of the PIS made the parameter useful for quality control of the pri-implant soft tissue of ISSCs....

  9. An Up-to-15-Year Comparison of the Survival and Complication Burden of Three-Unit Tooth-Supported Fixed Dental Prostheses and Implant-Supported Single Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Terry R

    2015-01-01

    To assess and compare the outcomes and economic complication burden of three-unit tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (TFDPs) and implant-supported single crowns (ISCs) provided to a sequential cohort in a specialist prosthodontic practice over a 15-year period. Sequential patients requiring replacement of a single missing tooth between 1996 and 2010 with a metal-ceramic three-unit TFDP (n = 145 patients, n = 174 prostheses) or ISC (n = 174 patients, n = 220 prostheses) were included. Prostheses subjectively judged at insertion to have an unfavorable 10-year prognosis (17 TFDPs, 0 ISCs) were removed from statistical analyses. The estimated cumulative survival (ECS) was calculated with the life table actuarial method and standard errors calculated with the Greenwood formula. Differences in outcomes between all prostheses and those replacing only anterior or only posterior teeth were assessed with the log rank test. Complication incidence, severity, and economic burden, measured in time/cost accounting units (TAUs), were tallied and compared descriptively. The 15-year ECS did not differ for 112 TFDPs (92.75% ± 3.28%) and 81 ISCs (95.95% ± 2.92%) replacing posterior teeth. However, the 15-year ECS was significantly greater for 139 ISCs (93.33% ± 6.44%) than for 45 TFDPs (82.82% ± 6.50%) replacing anterior teeth. The economic burden of nonterminal complications for both prostheses was low (mean = 0.3 and 0.2 TAUs per prosthesis for TFDPs and ISCs, respectively). This equated to 3 TAUs/100 years in clinical service and 4 TAUs/100 years in clinical service for the TFDPs and ISCs, respectively. The survival of three-unit TFDPs and ISCs over 15 years was not statistically different when replacing posterior teeth, but ISCs survived significantly better when replacing anterior teeth. The complication rates of the TFDPs and ISCs were similar, but the economic burden for the TFDPs was greater.

  10. Experimental zirconia abutments for implant-supported single-tooth restorations in esthetically demanding regions: 4-year results of a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauser, Roland; Sailer, Irena; Wohlwend, Arnold; Studer, Stephan; Schibli, Monica; Schärer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluated an experimental implant abutment made of densely sintered zirconia with respect to peri-implant hard and soft tissue reaction as well as fracture resistance over time. Twenty-seven consecutively treated patients with 54 single-tooth implants were included. Zirconia abutment ingots were individually shaped and set on the implants with gold screws. All-ceramic (Empress I) crowns were cemented using a composite cement. At the 1- and 4-year examinations, reconstructions were evaluated for technical problems (fracture of abutment or crown, loosening of abutment screw). Modified Plaque and simplified Gingival Indices were recorded at implants and neighboring teeth, and peri-implant bone levels were radiographically determined. All but 1 of the 27 patients with 53 restorations could be evaluated at 1 year, and 36 restorations in 18 patients were evaluated 4 years after abutment and crown insertion. The median observation period for the reconstructions was 49.2 months. No abutment fractures occurred. Abutment screw loosening was reported for 2 restorations at 8 months and 27 months, respectively. Mean Plaque Index was 0.4 (SD 0.6) at abutments and 0.5 (SD 0.6) at teeth; mean Gingival Index was 0.7 (SD 0.5) at abutments and 0.9 (SD 0.5) at teeth. Mean marginal bone loss measured 1.2 mm (SD 0.5) after 4 years of functional loading. Zirconia abutments offered sufficient stability to support implant-supported single-tooth reconstructions in anterior and premolar regions. The soft and hard tissue reaction toward zirconia was favorable.

  11. Five-year results of a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing zirconia and titanium abutments supporting single-implant crowns in canine and posterior regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembic, Anja; Bösch, Adrian; Jung, Ronald E; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2013-04-01

    To test the survival rates, and the technical and biological complication rates of customized zirconia and titanium abutments 5 years after crown insertion. Twenty-two patients with 40 single implants in maxillary and mandibular canine and posterior regions were included. The implant sites were randomly assigned to zirconia abutments supporting all-ceramic crowns or titanium abutments supporting metal-ceramic crowns. Clinical examinations were performed at baseline, and at 6, 12, 36 and 60 months of follow-up. The abutments and reconstructions were examined for technical and/or biological complications. Probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque control record (PCR) and Bleeding on Probing (BOP) were assessed at abutments (test) and analogous contralateral teeth (control). Radiographs of the implants revealed the bone level (BL) on mesial (mBL) and distal sides (dBL). Data were statistically analyzed with nonparametric mixed models provided by Brunner and Langer and STATA (P zirconia and 10 titanium abutments were available at a mean follow-up of 5.6 years (range 4.5-6.3 years). No abutment fracture or loss of a reconstruction occurred. Hence, the survival rate was 100% for both. Survival of implants supporting zirconia abutments was 88.9% and 90% for implants supporting titanium abutments. Chipping of the veneering ceramic occurred at three metal-ceramic crowns supported by titanium abutments. No significant differences were found at the zirconia and titanium abutments for PPD (meanPPDZrO2 3.3 ± 0.6 mm, mPPDTi 3.6 ± 1.1 mm), PCR (mPCRZrO2 0.1 ± 0.3, mPCRTi 0.3 ± 0.2) and BOP (mBOPZrO2 0.5 ± 0.3, mBOPTi 0.6 ± 0.3). Moreover, the BL was similar at implants supporting zirconia and titanium abutments (mBLZrO2 1.8 ± 0.5, dBLZrO2 2.0 ± 0.8; mBLTi 2.0 ± 0.8, dBLTi 1.9 ± 0.8). There were no statistically or clinically relevant differences between the 5-year survival rates, and the technical and biological complication rates of zirconia and

  12. Emotion Recognition from Single-Trial EEG Based on Kernel Fisher’s Emotion Pattern and Imbalanced Quasiconformal Kernel Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram-based emotion recognition (EEG-ER has received increasing attention in the fields of health care, affective computing, and brain-computer interface (BCI. However, satisfactory ER performance within a bi-dimensional and non-discrete emotional space using single-trial EEG data remains a challenging task. To address this issue, we propose a three-layer scheme for single-trial EEG-ER. In the first layer, a set of spectral powers of different EEG frequency bands are extracted from multi-channel single-trial EEG signals. In the second layer, the kernel Fisher’s discriminant analysis method is applied to further extract features with better discrimination ability from the EEG spectral powers. The feature vector produced by layer 2 is called a kernel Fisher’s emotion pattern (KFEP, and is sent into layer 3 for further classification where the proposed imbalanced quasiconformal kernel support vector machine (IQK-SVM serves as the emotion classifier. The outputs of the three layer EEG-ER system include labels of emotional valence and arousal. Furthermore, to collect effective training and testing datasets for the current EEG-ER system, we also use an emotion-induction paradigm in which a set of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS are employed as emotion induction stimuli. The performance of the proposed three-layer solution is compared with that of other EEG spectral power-based features and emotion classifiers. Results on 10 healthy participants indicate that the proposed KFEP feature performs better than other spectral power features, and IQK-SVM outperforms traditional SVM in terms of the EEG-ER accuracy. Our findings also show that the proposed EEG-ER scheme achieves the highest classification accuracies of valence (82.68% and arousal (84.79% among all testing methods.

  13. Findings of a Four-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Two-Piece and One-Piece Zirconia Abutments Supporting Single Prosthetic Restorations in Maxillary Anterior Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerino Paolantoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the clinical results obtained over four years and incidence of complications associated with one- versus two-piece custom made zirconia anchorages, in single tooth implant-supported restorations of the maxillary anterior region. Sixty-five patients, with a total of 74 missing maxillary teeth, were selected in the period from February 2007 to July 2010. Two different ways of custom made zirconia abutment and final prosthetic restoration were evaluated: a standard zirconia abutment associated with a pressed layer of lithium disilicate with an all-ceramic cemented restoration versus one-piece restoration with the facing porcelain fired and pressed straight to the custom made zirconia abutment. In 29 cases, the restoration consisted of an all-ceramic restoration for cementation (two pieces; in 45 cases the restoration was a screw-retained restoration (one piece. Three all-ceramic restorations broke during the observation time. Two one-piece restorations fractured after 26 months. At follow-up examination there were no significant differences between one-piece and two-piece groups regarding the PI, BI, and MBL. Awaiting studies with longer follow-up times, a careful conclusion is that zirconia anchorages for single-implant restorations seem to demonstrate good short-term technical and biological results.

  14. Preparation of highly dispersed Ru-Sn bimetallic supported catalysts from the single source precursors Cp(PPh32Ru-SnX3 (X = Cl or Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Bernardes Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work highly dispersed Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts have been prepared from organobimetallic Cp(PPh32Ru-SnX3 (X = Cl or Br complexes. These single source precursors can be easily impregnated in high surface area supports, such as activated carbon and sol-gel SiO2, and upon controlled thermal treatment the ligands are released as volatile products resulting in the formation of the bimetallic system Ru-Sn. Catalytic reactions, such as hydrodechlorination of CCl4 and chlorobenzene and TPR (Temperature Programmed Reduction experiments carried out with these RuSn catalysts suggested a strong interaction between Ruthenium and Tin. Mössbauer measurements showed that these materials when exposed to air are immediately oxidized to form Sn (IV. It was shown that upon controlled reduction conditions with H2 it is possible to reduce selectively Sn to different oxidation states and different phases. The Sn oxidation state showed significant effect on the catalytic hydrogenation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene. The use of these single source precursors with a controlled decomposition/reduction procedure allows the preparation of unique catalysts with an intimate interaction between the components ruthenium and tin and the possibility of varying the Sn oxidation state around the Ru metal.

  15. Findings of a Four-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Two-Piece and One-Piece Zirconia Abutments Supporting Single Prosthetic Restorations in Maxillary Anterior Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolantoni, Guerino; Marenzi, Gaetano; Blasi, Andrea; Mignogna, Jolanda; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the clinical results obtained over four years and incidence of complications associated with one- versus two-piece custom made zirconia anchorages, in single tooth implant-supported restorations of the maxillary anterior region. Sixty-five patients, with a total of 74 missing maxillary teeth, were selected in the period from February 2007 to July 2010. Two different ways of custom made zirconia abutment and final prosthetic restoration were evaluated: a standard zirconia abutment associated with a pressed layer of lithium disilicate with an all-ceramic cemented restoration versus one-piece restoration with the facing porcelain fired and pressed straight to the custom made zirconia abutment. In 29 cases, the restoration consisted of an all-ceramic restoration for cementation (two pieces); in 45 cases the restoration was a screw-retained restoration (one piece). Three all-ceramic restorations broke during the observation time. Two one-piece restorations fractured after 26 months. At follow-up examination there were no significant differences between one-piece and two-piece groups regarding the PI, BI, and MBL. Awaiting studies with longer follow-up times, a careful conclusion is that zirconia anchorages for single-implant restorations seem to demonstrate good short-term technical and biological results. PMID:27027093

  16. Numerical Control Machine Tool Fault Diagnosis Using Hybrid Stationary Subspace Analysis and Least Squares Support Vector Machine with a Single Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tool fault diagnosis in numerical control (NC machines plays a significant role in ensuring manufacturing quality. However, current methods of tool fault diagnosis lack accuracy. Therefore, in the present paper, a fault diagnosis method was proposed based on stationary subspace analysis (SSA and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM using only a single sensor. First, SSA was used to extract stationary and non-stationary sources from multi-dimensional signals without the need for independency and without prior information of the source signals, after the dimensionality of the vibration signal observed by a single sensor was expanded by phase space reconstruction technique. Subsequently, 10 dimensionless parameters in the time-frequency domain for non-stationary sources were calculated to generate samples to train the LS-SVM. Finally, the measured vibration signals from tools of an unknown state and their non-stationary sources were separated by SSA to serve as test samples for the trained SVM. The experimental validation demonstrated that the proposed method has better diagnosis accuracy than three previous methods based on LS-SVM alone, Principal component analysis and LS-SVM or on SSA and Linear discriminant analysis.

  17. Findings of a Four-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Two-Piece and One-Piece Zirconia Abutments Supporting Single Prosthetic Restorations in Maxillary Anterior Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolantoni, Guerino; Marenzi, Gaetano; Blasi, Andrea; Mignogna, Jolanda; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the clinical results obtained over four years and incidence of complications associated with one- versus two-piece custom made zirconia anchorages, in single tooth implant-supported restorations of the maxillary anterior region. Sixty-five patients, with a total of 74 missing maxillary teeth, were selected in the period from February 2007 to July 2010. Two different ways of custom made zirconia abutment and final prosthetic restoration were evaluated: a standard zirconia abutment associated with a pressed layer of lithium disilicate with an all-ceramic cemented restoration versus one-piece restoration with the facing porcelain fired and pressed straight to the custom made zirconia abutment. In 29 cases, the restoration consisted of an all-ceramic restoration for cementation (two pieces); in 45 cases the restoration was a screw-retained restoration (one piece). Three all-ceramic restorations broke during the observation time. Two one-piece restorations fractured after 26 months. At follow-up examination there were no significant differences between one-piece and two-piece groups regarding the PI, BI, and MBL. Awaiting studies with longer follow-up times, a careful conclusion is that zirconia anchorages for single-implant restorations seem to demonstrate good short-term technical and biological results.

  18. EVALUATION OF E-RECRUITMENT LEVEL AMONG THE LARGEST COMPANIES IN POLAND - PROJECT OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Buchnowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes taking place in the labor market cause that it is increasingly difficult to recruit employees with the right skills and competencies to companies. To reach the right candidates, they use modern IT solutions, such as ATS (Applicant Tracking System, which are supporting the processes of recruitment. Among others, they enable the publication of job offers on the Internet - on corporate websites, job portals and business social networking services - and apply for jobs online through these channels. This article pre-sents the evolution of the use of the Internet, and particularly the social media, in the recruitment process and presents a projekt of comprehensive research, which aims is to analyze and evaluate of the level of development of e-recruitment in Poland among largest companies.

  19. A general scaling law reveals why the largest animals are not the fastest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Myriam R; Jetz, Walter; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Speed is the fundamental constraint on animal movement, yet there is no general consensus on the determinants of maximum speed itself. Here, we provide a general scaling model of maximum speed with body mass, which holds across locomotion modes, ecosystem types and taxonomic groups. In contrast to traditional power-law scaling, we predict a hump-shaped relationship resulting from a finite acceleration time for animals, which explains why the largest animals are not the fastest. This model is strongly supported by extensive empirical data (474 species, with body masses ranging from 30 μg to 100 tonnes) from terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems. Our approach unravels a fundamental constraint on the upper limit of animal movement, thus enabling a better understanding of realized movement patterns in nature and their multifold ecological consequences.

  20. Approaching the largest ‘API’: extracting information from the Internet with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Germann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the need for libraries to algorithmically access and manipulate the world’s largest API: the Internet. The billions of pages on the ‘Internet API’ (HTTP, HTML, CSS, XPath, DOM, etc. are easily accessible and manipulable. Libraries can assist in creating meaning through the datafication of information on the world wide web. Because most information is created for human consumption, some programming is required for automated extraction. Python is an easy-to-learn programming language with extensive packages and community support for web page automation. Four packages (Urllib, Selenium, BeautifulSoup, Scrapy in Python can automate almost any web page for all sized projects. An example warrant data project is explained to illustrate how well Python packages can manipulate web pages to create meaning through assembling custom datasets.

  1. Short (8-mm) locking-taper implants supporting single crowns in posterior region: a prospective clinical study with 1-to 10-years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Francesco Guido; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Sammons, Rachel Lilian; Iaculli, Flavia; Piattelli, Adriano; Mangano, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of short (8-mm) locking-taper implants supporting single crowns in the posterior regions and to analyze the influence of different factors on implant survival and implant-crown success rates. Between June 2002 and September 2011, all patients referred to two private practices for treatment with short (8-mm) implants supporting single tooth restorations in posterior areas of both jaws were considered for inclusion in this study. At each annual follow-up session, clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed. Implant-crown success criteria included absence of pain, suppuration, mobility, and peri-implant radiolucency, distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-to-implant contact (DIB) implant-crown success were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier survival estimator; Chi-square test was applied to evaluate correlations between the study variables. The statistical analysis was performed at the patient and at the implant level. Two hundred and fifteen implants (124 maxilla; 91 mandible) were placed in 194 patients (104 men; 90 women). Three implants failed (2 maxilla; 1 mandible). The 10-year cumulative survival rate was 98.4% (patient-based) and 98.5% (implant-based). Among the surviving implants, the mean DIB was 0.31 (±0.24), 0.43 (±0.29), and 0.62 (±0.31) mm at the 1-, 5-, and 10-year follow-up session; two biologic and three prosthetic complications were reported, for a 10-year cumulative implant-crown success rate of 95.8% (patient-based) and 95.9% (implant-based). The implant survival and implant-crown success rates did not differ significantly with respect to patients' gender, age, smoking habit, parafunctional habit, implant location, implant diameter, and bone type. The use of short (8-mm) locking-taper implants is a predictable treatment modality for the restoration of single tooth gaps of posterior segments of dentition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  2. Tuning the properties of metal–organic framework nodes as supports of single-site iridium catalysts: node modification by atomic layer deposition of aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong [Department of Chemical Engineering; University of California; Davis; USA; Momeni, Mohammad R. [Department of Chemistry; Chemical Theory Center; Supercomputing Institute; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis; Demir, Hakan [Department of Chemistry; Chemical Theory Center; Supercomputing Institute; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis; Pahls, Dale R. [Department of Chemistry; Chemical Theory Center; Supercomputing Institute; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis; Rimoldi, Martino [Department of Chemistry; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Wang, Timothy C. [Department of Chemistry; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Farha, Omar K. [Department of Chemistry; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Department of Chemistry; Hupp, Joseph T. [Department of Chemistry; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Cramer, Christopher J. [Department of Chemistry; Chemical Theory Center; Supercomputing Institute; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis; Gates, Bruce C. [Department of Chemical Engineering; University of California; Davis; USA; Gagliardi, Laura [Department of Chemistry; Chemical Theory Center; Supercomputing Institute; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis

    2017-01-01

    The metal–organic framework NU-1000, with Zr6-oxo, hydroxo, and aqua nodes, was modified by incorporation of hydroxylated Al(iii) ions by ALD-like chemistry with [Al(CH3)2(iso-propoxide)]2followed by steam (ALD = atomic layer deposition). Al ions were installed to the extent of approximately 7 per node. Single-site iridium diethylene complexes were anchored to the nodes of the modified and unmodified MOFs by reaction with Ir(C2H4)2(acac) (acac = acetylacetonate) and converted to Ir(CO)2complexes by treatment with CO. Infrared spectra of these supported complexes show that incorporation of Al weakened the electron donor tendency of the MOF. Correspondingly, the catalytic activity of the initial supported iridium complexes for ethylene hydrogenation increased, as did the selectivity for ethylene dimerization. The results of density functional theory calculations with a simplified model of the nodes incorporating Al(iii) ions are in qualitative agreement with some catalyst performance data.

  3. A 3-year prospective study of implant-supported, single-tooth restorations of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic materials in patients with tooth agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Worsaae, Nils; Schiødt, Morten; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to describe outcome variables of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic implant-supported, single-tooth restorations. A total of 59 patients (mean age: 27.9 years) with tooth agenesis and treated with 98 implant-supported single-tooth restorations were included in this study. Two patients did not attend baseline examination, but all patients were followed for 3 years. The implants supported 52 zirconia, 21 titanium and 25 gold alloy abutments, which retained 64 all-ceramic and 34 metal-ceramic crowns. At baseline and 3-year follow-up examinations, the biological outcome variables such as survival rate of implants, marginal bone level, modified Plaque Index (mPlI), modified Sulcus Bleeding Index (mBI) and biological complications were registered. The technical outcome variables included abutment and crown survival rate, marginal adaptation of crowns, cement excess and technical complications. The aesthetic outcome was assessed by using the Copenhagen Index Score, and the patient-reported outcomes were recorded using the OHIP-49 questionnaire. The statistical analyses were mainly performed by using mixed model of ANOVA for quantitative data and PROC NLMIXED for ordinal categorical data. The 3-year survival rate was 100% for implants and 97% for abutments and crowns. Significantly more marginal bone loss was registered at gold-alloy compared to zirconia abutments (P = 0.040). The mPlI and mBI were not significantly different at three abutment materials. The frequency of biological complications was higher at restorations with all-ceramic restorations than metal-ceramic crowns. Loss of retention, which was only observed at metal-ceramic crowns, was the most frequent technical complication, and the marginal adaptations of all-ceramic crowns were significantly less optimal than metal-ceramic crowns (P = 0.020). The professional-reported aesthetic outcome demonstrated significantly superior colour match of all-ceramic over metal

  4. Effects of single dose GnRH agonist as luteal support on pregnancy outcome in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles: an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Davar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no doubt that luteal phase support is essential to enhance the reproductive outcome in IVF cycles. In addition to progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin, several studies have described GnRH agonists as luteal phase support to improve implantation rate, pregnancy rate and live birth rate, whereas other studies showed dissimilar conclusions. All of these studies have been done in fresh IVF cycles. Objective: To determine whether an additional GnRH agonist administered at the time of implantation for luteal phase support in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET improves the embryo developmental potential. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective controlled trial study in 200 FET cycles, patients were randomized on the day of embryo transfer into group 1 (n=100 to whom a single dose of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg triptorelin was administered three days after transfer and group 2 (n=100, who did not receive agonist. Both groups received daily vaginal progesterone suppositories plus estradiol valerate 6 mg daily. Primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcome measures were implantation rate, chemical, ongoing pregnancy rate and abortion rate. Results: A total of 200 FET cycles were analyzed. Demographic data and embryo quality were comparable between two groups. No statistically significant difference in clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates was observed between the two groups (26% versus 21%, p=0.40 and 21% versus 17%, p=0.37, respectively. Conclusion: Administration of a subcutaneous GnRH agonist at the time of implantation does not increase clinical or ongoing pregnancy.

  5. Supportive text messages for patients with alcohol use disorder and a comorbid depression: a protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled aftercare trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Dan; Murphy, Edel; Kehoe, Elizabeth; Agyapong, Vincent; McLoughlin, Declan M; Farren, Conor

    2017-05-29

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and mood disorders commonly co-occur, and are associated with a range of negative outcomes for patients. Mobile phone technology has the potential to provide personalised support for such patients and potentially improve outcomes in this difficult-to-treat cohort. The aim of this study is to examine whether receiving supporting SMS text messages, following discharge from an inpatient dual diagnosis treatment programme, has a positive impact on mood and alcohol abstinence in patients with an AUD and a comorbid mood disorder. The present study is a single-blind randomised controlled trial. Patients aged 18-70 years who meet the criteria for both alcohol dependency syndrome/alcohol abuse and either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Axis I will be randomised to receive twice-daily supportive SMS text messages for 6 months plus treatment as usual, or treatment as usual alone, and will be followed-up at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postdischarge. Primary outcome measures will include changes from baseline in cumulative abstinence duration, which will be expressed as the proportion of days abstinent from alcohol in the preceding 90 days, and changes from baseline in Beck Depression Inventory scores. The trial has received full ethical approval from the St. Patrick's Hospital Research Ethics Committee (protocol 13/14). Results of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and at academic conferences. NCT02404662; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Clinical Results and Technical Complications of Posterior Implant-Supported Modified Monolithic Zirconia Single Crowns and Short-Span Fixed Dental Prostheses: A 2-Year Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Chien, Chia-Hui; Chen, Chun-Jung; Papaspyridakos, Panos

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this clinical trial was to investigate the clinical outcomes of implant-supported modified monolithic zirconia single crowns (SCs) and short-span fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) after a follow-up of 2 years. Twenty-seven patients in need of implant-supported SCs or 3-unit FDPs in the posterior maxilla or mandible were consecutively selected for this study. A total of 56 modified monolithic zirconia prostheses including 44 SCs (8 screw-retained, 36 cement-retained) and twelve 3-unit FDPs (5 screw-retained, 7 cement-retained) were included in this study. All patients were followed at 6 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 2 years after placement of the modified monolithic zirconia prostheses. During the follow-up period, all prostheses were evaluated with clinical and radiographic examinations. The following technical parameters were assessed: framework fracture, fracture of veneering porcelain, screw loosening, loss of retention because of prosthesis de-cementation and opposing tooth fracture. No implant was lost during the follow-up period, yielding a 2-year implant survival of 100%. One FDP failed because of framework fracture. The overall prosthesis survival rate was 98.2% after 2 years of clinical service. During the study, 5 complication events were observed in 3 SCs and one FDP, including one fracture of veneering porcelain and 2 screw loosenings in 3 SCs, and loss of retention and opposing tooth fracture in the same FDP. Therefore, the complication-free rate of prostheses was 91.1%. According to the results of this study, the modified monolithic zirconia design used in this study resulted in a favorable short-term outcome for posterior implant-supported SCs and 3-unit FDPs. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Comparative Analysis Of Three Largest World Models Of Business Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Samardžija

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Business excellence has become the strongest means of achieving competitive advantage of companies while total management of quality has become the road that ensures support of excellent results recognized by many world companies. Despite many differences, we can conclude that models have many common elements. By the audit in 2005, the DP and MBNQA moved the focus from excellence of product, i.e service, onto the excellence of quality of the entire organization process. Thus, the quality got strategic dimension instead of technical one and the accent passed from the technical quality on the total excellence of all organization processes. The joint movement goes to the direction of good management and appreciation of systems thinking. The very structure of EFOM model criteria itself is adjusted to strategic dimension of quality and that is why the model underwent only short audits within the criteria themselves. Essentially, the model remained unchanged. In all models, the accent is on the satisfaction of buyers, employees and community. National rewards for quality have an important role in promotion and giving a prize to excellence in organization performances. Moreover, they raise quality standards of companies and the country profile as a whole. Considering the GDP per capita and the percentage of certification level of companies, Croatia has all the predispositions for introduction the EFQM model of business excellence with the basic aim of deficit decrease in foreign trade balance and strengthening of competitiveness as the necessary preliminary work for the entrance in the competitive market of the EU. Quality management was introduced in many organizations. The methods used at that time developed in the course of years, and what are to predict is the continuation of the evolution road model as well as the method of business excellence.

  8. Eleven-Year Follow-Up of a Prospective Study of Zirconia Implant Abutments Supporting Single All-Ceramic Crowns in Anterior and Premolar Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembic, Anja; Philipp, Alexander Otto Hermann; Hämmerle, Christoph Hans Franz; Wohlwend, Arnold; Sailer, Irena

    2015-10-01

    Clinical studies on zirconia abutments report very good survival rates and biological and technical results, but few have an observation period of more than 5 years. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term performance of customized zirconia implant abutments supporting all-ceramic crowns. Twenty-seven patients receiving 54 single implants were included (25 incisors, 14 canines, 15 premolars in both jaws). Yttria-stabilized zirconia abutments were screwed to the implants with a defined torque. All-ceramic crowns were adhesively cemented onto the abutments. The implants, abutments, and crowns were clinically and radiographically examined after 11 years of use. Modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria were used to assess technical outcomes: fracture of abutment/crown framework/veneering ceramic, loosening of abutment screw/crown, marginal adaptation, anatomical form, occlusal wear, and abutment fit. The biological parameters were pocket probing depth, plaque control record, bleeding on probing, papilla index, and gingival/mucosal recession at implants and neighboring natural teeth. The cumulative success rate of abutments and crowns was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The results of the USPHS criteria were analyzed descriptively. Sixteen patients with 31 zirconia abutments were examined at 11.3 (±0.9) years after implantation. No abutment or crown was lost. The cumulative success rate was 96.3% for abutments and 90.7% for crowns. Two abutment screws loosened, and three crowns exhibited minor chipping. There were no biological complications. Customized zirconia single implant abutments exhibited excellent long-term outcomes in anterior and premolar regions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A single source precursor route to group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides as highly active supports for gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Shashank K.

    2012-12-14

    A new Mitsubishi-type of star-shaped homoleptic derivative of indium(III), In4(mdea)6 (2, mdeaH2 = N-methyldiethanolamine) , was synthesized by the chloro-aminoalkoxo exchange reaction of a heteroleptic complex In6Cl6(mdea)6 (1) and used as a facile single source molecular precursor for the sol-gel preparation of high surface area indium oxide. Successful deposition of gold nanoparticles (1 wt.-%) of average size 3.3 nm on the above metal oxide by using HAuCl4· 3H2O afforded a highly efficient Au/In2O3 catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene at low temperature. The above single source precursor approach was further extended to obtain other group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides, namely, α-Ga2O 3, β-Ga2O3 and Al4Ga 2O9, as highly active supports for gold catalysts. The obtained Au/M2O3 (M = Ga, In) and Au/Al4Ga 2O9 catalysts were thoroughly characterized by using several physicochemical techniques such as XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparative study of the above catalysts for the model aerobic oxidation of stilbene in methylcyclohexane was undertaken. Highly efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation reactions were obtained by depositing gold nanoparticles on group 13 mono- or mixed metal oxides prepared from the hydrolysis of well-characterized homo- and heterometallic N-methyldiethanolaminate derivatives. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Narrow- and regular-diameter implants in the posterior region of the jaws to support single crowns: A 3-year split-mouth randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, André Barbisan; Sukekava, Flávia; Tolentino, Livia; César-Neto, João Batista; Garcez-Filho, João; Araújo, Mauricio G

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this 3-year split-mouth randomized controlled clinical study was to compare narrow-diameter implants (NDIs) to regular-diameter implants (RDIs) in the posterior region of the jaws (premolars and molars) in regards to (i) the marginal bone level (MBL) and (ii) implant and prosthesis survival and success rates. A total of 22 patients were included in the study. Each patient received at least one implant of each diameter (Ø3.3 and Ø4.1 mm), placed either in the maxilla or mandible to support single crowns. A total 44 implants (22 NDIs and 22 RDIs) were placed and included in the study. Twenty-one implants were placed in the premolar, whereas 23 were placed in molar areas. Radiographic evaluations to access the MBL were performed immediately after implant placement, 1 and 3 years after implant loading. Peri-implant clinical variables including probing pocket depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BoP) were obtained after crown delivery, 1 and 3 years after loading. Furthermore, the survival and success rates of the implants and prosthesis were also evaluated. Twenty patients were able to complete the study. There was no statistically significant difference regarding MBL between groups at implant placement (p = .084), 1-year (p = .794) and 3-year (p = .598) time intervals. The mean peri-implant bone loss at 3-year follow-up was -0.58 ± 0.39 mm (95% CI: -0.751 to -0.409) and -0.53 ± 0.46 mm (95% CI: -0.731 to -0.329) for NDIs and RDIs, respectively. BoP was present at 15% and 10% of NDIs and RDIs, respectively, at 3-year follow-up. PPD >5 mm was observed in 5% and 0% of the implants of NDIs and RDIs, respectively, at 3-year follow-up. At the 3-year examination, the implant success rates were in the NDIs and RDIs sites, respectively, 95% and 100%. The corresponding values for prosthesis success rates were 90% for NDIs and 95% for RDIs. The present study demonstrated that NDIs placed to support single crowns in the posterior region did

  11. Risk factors for single crowns supported by short (6-mm) implants in the posterior region: A prospective clinical and radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarinho, Eduardo Aydos; Triches, Diego Fernandes; Alonso, Fernando Rizzo; Mezzomo, Luis André Mendonça; Teixeira, Eduardo Rolim; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami Arai

    2017-08-01

    The use of short implants is still not a consensus for challenging clinical situations, such as unfavorable crown-to-implant (C/I) ratio. This prospective study evaluated the rates of prosthetic complications and implant failure, the mean marginal bone loss of 6-mm dental implants with single crowns in posterior regions and the potential risk factors. Forty-six dental implants, 6-mm long and 4.1-mm wide, were placed in the posterior region in 20 patients. Patients were clinically and radiographically examined after the restoration with single crowns and on a yearly basis. Potential risk factors (arch, bruxism, maximum bite force, anatomical and clinical C/I ratios, and occlusal table area) were analyzed according to the following outcomes: implant survival, bone loss, and prosthetic complications. The mean follow-up time was 45 ± 9 (16-57) months. There was no early loss of implants. After prosthetic loading, 4 implants were lost (2 in the mandible and 2 in the maxilla; 91.3% survival), and there were 13 prosthetic complications (28.3%), yielding a 65.2% success rate. The frailty term showed a 95% greater chance of loss in the mandible than the maxilla. Mean peri-implant bone loss was of 0.2 ± 0.4 mm, 0.1 ± 0.2 mm, 0.1 ± 0.3 mm, and 0.2 ± 0.4 mm in the first, second, third, and fourth years, respectively, with a mean cumulative loss of 0.3 ± 0.5 mm at 48 months. In the multilevel model, the effects of the clinical C/I ratio and time were significant for bone loss (P implants supporting single crowns performed well, but the mandible shows a higher risk of failure. The time and clinical C/I ratio are predictors for bone loss. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Up-to-14-Year Survival and Complication Burden of 256 TiUnite Implants Supporting One-Piece Cast Abutment/Metal-Ceramic Implant-Supported Single Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Terry R

    To assess the estimated cumulative survival (ECS) and explore the technical and biologic complications of 256 TiUnite implants (Nobel Biocare) supporting one-piece cast abutment/metal-ceramic implant-supported single crowns (ISCs) in situ for up to 14 years. A prospective sequentially recruited cohort of 207 patients received 256 metal-ceramic ISCs on TiUnite implants between 2001 and 2014. All but 24 patients with 27 crowns were clinically evaluated between January 2014 and April 2015 in conjunction with or in addition to their tailored maintenance program. Radiographs were obtained, and any previously recorded treatments associated with the crowns were tabulated. The ECS and standard errors were calculated with the life table actuarial method and Greenwood's formula, respectively. The log rank test was applied to assess differences between anterior and posterior crowns. Complication incidence, severity, and economic burden, measured in time/cost accounting units (TAUs), were tallied and compared descriptively. Independent groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test and related groups with the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The mean clinical service time of the crowns was 5.61 years (44 ≥ 10 years). The 14-year ECS was 95.95% ± 3.20% with no significant difference between anterior and posterior prostheses. Only seven implants lost marginal bone ≥ one thread from the time of crown insertion. There were 30 nonterminal complications (16 biologic, 14 mechanical). The associated economic burden was low (n = 35 TAUs). High gold-alloy one-piece cast abutment/metal-ceramic ISCs on TiUnite implants exhibited excellent longevity and few complications over 14 years.

  13. Dragon bridge - the world largest dragon-shaped (ARCH steel bridge as element of smart city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Luong Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dragon Bridge - The world’s largest dragon-shaped steel bridge, with an installation cost of $85 million USD, features 6 lanes for two separate directions, 666 meters of undulating steel in the shape of a dragon in the Ly Dynasty, the symbol of prosperity in Vietnamese culture. This unique and beautifully lit bridge, which also breathes fire and sprays water. It’s the purposeful integration of the lighting hardware articulates the dragon’s form, and the fire-breathing dragon head. This project transcends the notion of monumental bridge with dynamic colour-changing lighting, creating an iconic sculpture in the skyline that is both reverent and whimsical. The signature feature of the bridge was the massive undulating support structure resembling a dragon flying over the river. The dragon is prominent in Vietnamese culture as a symbol of power and nobility. Dragon Bridge stands out as a model of innovation. It has received worldwide attention in the design community and from the global media for its unique arch support system. Dragon Bridge serves as an example of how aesthetic quality of a design can serve cultural, economic and functional purposes. The article presents design solutions of the object and the evaluation of the technical condition before putting the facility into service.

  14. Corporate social responsibility of the 100 largest Indian companies – an analysis of website communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mulky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility has become an important concept in the business world in recent decades. CSR is important in all countries but is particularly relevant in emerging markets where the levels of human development are not high. The United Nations Development Programme has created the Human Development Index (HDI to measure the human development in countries. The present study analyzes the CSR communication on the websites of the 100 largest Indian companies. The objective was to examine the reported CSR activities and determine whether the activities address the dimensions and indicators of the HDI. The study uses content analysis to classify the CSR activities into categories corresponding to HDI parameters. The findings indicate that about two thirds of the companies are using their websites to communicate CSR. Of the companies which reported CSR, about eighty percent report support for primary education and about seventy percent undertake livelihood support activities. The level of corporate involvement in the health dimension of human development is quite low. Reduction of infant and maternal mortality does not get much corporate attention. This study will add to the literature on CSR in emerging markets and will be useful for firms in India and other emerging markets that are planning CSR activities aimed at human development parameters.

  15. DFT + U investigation on the adsorption and initial decomposition of methylamine by a Pt single-atom catalyst supported on rutile (110) TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Cun-Qin [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009, Shanxi Province (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu, Jian-Hong, E-mail: ljh173@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009, Shanxi Province (China); Guo, Yong; Li, Xue-Mei [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009, Shanxi Province (China); Wang, Gui-Chang, E-mail: wangguichang@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Lab. of Metal and Molecule-Based Material Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • DFT + U is used to investigate the initial decomposition of methylamine. • The adsorption characteristics of possible intermediates involved in methylamine initial decomposition are discussed. • The energy barriers of the possible elementary reactions involved are obtained. • C−H bond scission is the most favored among the C−H, N−H and C−N bond breakings in methylamine. - Abstract: The adsorption and initial decomposition for methylamine catalyzed by a single Pt atom supported on rutile (110) titania (namely, Pt{sub 1}/TiO{sub 2}–R(110)) surface have been investigated by the density functional theory slab calculations with Hubbard corrections (DFT + U). The main purpose of the work is to better understand the role of dispersed platinum metal on the surface of rutile (110) titania in the initial decomposition of methylamine. Our calculated results show that the barriers increased with the order of C−H < N−H < C−N, which indicates that the C−H bond is the easiest to decompose and the C−N bond is the most difficult to break.

  16. Comparison of forward versus backward walking using body weight supported treadmill training in an individual with a spinal cord injury: a single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Gabriele; Pathare, Neeti; Cirone, Cono; Pastore, Danielle; Shears, Dacia; Sulehri, Sahira

    2014-01-01

    Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a task-specific intervention that promotes functional locomotion. There is no research evaluating the effect of backward walking (BW) using BWSTT in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this single subject design was to examine the differences between forward walking (FW) and BW training using BWSTT in an individual with quadriparesis. The participant was a 57-year-old male with incomplete C3-C6 SCI. An ABABAB design (A = BW; B = FW; each phase = 3 weeks of biweekly sessions) was utilized. Outcome measures included: gait parameters; a timed 4-meter walk; the 5-repetition sit-to-stand test (STST); tandem stance time; and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Data was analyzed with split level method of trend estimation. Improvements in gait parameters, on the timed 4-meter walk, 6MWT, tandem balance and aerobic endurance were similar with FW and BW training. The only difference between FW and BW training was that BW training resulted in greater improvements in the STST. The results of this study suggest that in this individual backward walking training was advantageous, resulting in improved ability to perform the 5-repetition STST. It is suspected that these changes can be attributed to the differences in muscle activation and task difficulty between FW and BW.

  17. IMPROVED EX-TANK LEAK DETECTION and MONITORING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) WASTE RETRIEVAL AT HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROGER, R.M.; CAMMANN, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Led by the United States Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), a team of experts from other facilities have been working together to narrow the field of new external tank leak detection technologies. The ability to detect and assess potential leaks more quickly will help reduce potential risks to public health and the environment during efforts to retrieve millions of gallons of waste from Hanford's older single-shell tanks (SST's). A method for early and reliable detection of leaks around and below the entire 75-foot diameter bottom of a SST is needed. ''Proof-of-concept'' testing of six ex-tank leak detection and monitoring technologies was conducted at Hanford's 105-A Mock Tank Site in August 2001. A workshop was conducted in January, 2002 to review the results and select the best of the methods tested for further testing and demonstration in support of an SST retrieval. Three methods were selected: High Resolution Resistivity; Electrical Resistance Tomography--Long Electrodes; and Electrical Resistance Tomography--Point Electrode Arrays. Planned development activity includes performance evaluation tests to determine probability of detection and the probability of false alarm for each technology and deployability tests in an actual Hanford tank farm environment

  18. A Polymer Encapsulation Strategy to Synthesize Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon-Nanosphere-Supported Metal Isolated-Single-Atomic-Site Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Aijuan; Chen, Wenxing; Zhang, Shaolong; Zhang, Maolin; Han, Yunhu; Zhang, Jian; Ji, Shufang; Zheng, Lirong; Wang, Yu; Gu, Lin; Chen, Chen; Peng, Qing; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2018-03-06

    A novel polymer encapsulation strategy to synthesize metal isolated-single-atomic-site (ISAS) catalysts supported by porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanospheres is reported. First, metal precursors are encapsulated in situ by polymers through polymerization; then, metal ISASs are created within the polymer-derived p-CN nanospheres by controlled pyrolysis at high temperature (200-900 °C). Transmission electron microscopy and N 2 sorption results reveal this material to exhibit a nanospheric morphology, a high surface area (≈380 m 2 g -1 ), and a porous structure (with micropores and mesopores). Characterization by aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure confirms the metal to be present as metal ISASs. This methodology is applicable to both noble and nonprecious metals (M-ISAS/p-CN, M = Co, Ni, Cu, Mn, Pd, etc.). In particular, the Co-ISAS/p-CN nanospheres obtained using this method show comparable (E 1/2 = 0.838 V) electrochemical oxygen reduction activity to commercial Pt/C with 20 wt% Pt loading (E 1/2 = 0.834 V) in alkaline media, superior methanol tolerance, and outstanding stability, even after 5000 cycles. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Uranium tris-aryloxide derivatives supported by triazacyclononane: engendering a reactive uranium(III) center with a single pocket for reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rodriguez, Ingrid; Olsen, Kristian; Gantzel, Peter; Meyer, Karsten

    2003-04-16

    The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of the mononuclear uranium complex [((ArO)(3)tacn)U(III)(NCCH(3))] is reported. The uranium(III) complex reacts with organic azides to yield uranium(IV) azido as well as uranium(V) imido complexes, [((ArO)(3)tacn)U(IV)(N(3))] and [((ArO)(3)tacn)U(V)(NSi(CH(3))(3))]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic, and computational studies of this analogous series of uranium tris-aryloxide complexes supported by triazacyclononane are described. The hexadentate, tris-anionic ligand coordinates to the large uranium ion in unprecedented fashion, engendering coordinatively unsaturated and highly reactive uranium centers. The macrocyclic triazacyclononane tris-aryloxide derivative occupies six coordination sites, with the three aryloxide pendant arms forming a trigonal plane at the metal center. DFT quantum mechanic methods were applied to rationalize the reactivity and to elucidate the electronic structure of the newly synthesized compounds. It is shown that the deeply colored uranium(III) and uranium(V) species are stabilized via pi-bonding interaction, involving uranium f-orbitals and the axial acetonitrile and imido ligand, respectively. In contrast, the bonding in the colorless uranium(IV) azido complex is purely ionic in nature. The magnetism of the series of complexes with an [N3O3-N(ax)] core structure and oxidation states +III, +IV, and +V is discussed in context of the electronic structures.

  20. MedTech Mag-Lev, single-use, extracorporeal magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump for mid-term circulatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Eiki; Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Kitao, Takashi; Sakota, Daisuke; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Arai, Hirokuni; Takatani, Setsuo

    2013-01-01

    Short- to mid-term extracorporeal ventricular assist devices (VADs) are recommended for critical cardiogenic shock patients. We have designed a preclinical, single-use MedTech Mag-Lev VAD for one-month extracorporeal use. The impeller-rotor of the pump was suspended by a two degree-of-freedom active magnetic bearing in a 300 μm fluid gap, where the computational fluid dynamics analysis predicted a secondary flow of about 400-500 ml/min at a pump speed of 1800-2200 rpm. Three eddy current sensors were employed to implement noise- and drift-free magnetic levitation. The pump components were injection molded using polycarbonate for smooth surfaces as well as improved reproducibility, followed by coating with a biocompatible 2-methacryloyl-oxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer. Chronic animal experiments were performed in nine calves. Three of the nine calves were excluded from analysis for problems with the circuit. Five of the six (83.3%) completed the 60 day duration of the study, while one prematurely died of massive bleeding due to inflow port detachment. The pump did not stop due to magnetic-levitation malfunction. Neither pump thrombosis nor major organ infarction was observed at autopsy. In comparison to machined surfaces, the injection-molded pump surfaces were thrombus-free after 60 day implantation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of MedTech Mag-Lev VAD for 60 day circulatory support.

  1. Astronomers Break Ground on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) - World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from Europe, North America and Chile are breaking ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths . ALMA - the "Atacama Large Millimeter Array" - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located in the II Region of Chile, in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, at the Chajnantor altiplano, 5,000 metres above sea level. ALMA 's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimetre portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. " ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe" , said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA , also to young scientists and engineers" . " The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare

  2. Echinoderes rex n. sp. (Kinorhyncha: Cyclorhagida, the largest Echinoderes species found so far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Lundbye

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new kinorhynch species, Echinoderes rex n. sp., is described from the Korea Strait. The new species is characterized by a pair of diminutive lateral terminal spines (19-23 μm and a trunk length of 482-528 μm, making it the largest Echinoderes described so far. Unique for the new species is also the presence of a type of putative glandular cell outlets that have not been described previously. This paper presents light and scanning electron micrographs of the new structure. In addition, E. rex n. sp. is characterized by having a single middorsal spine on segment 4, lateroventral tubules on segment 5 and 8 and lateroventral acicular spines on segments 6 and 7. A pair of distinct and conspicuously large sieve plates, only described from two other species of the genus, is present on segment 9 in E. rex n. sp. A comparison is made with other species of Echinoderes and the similarities are discussed.

  3. Invertebrate population genetics across Earth's largest habitat: The deep-sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M L; Roterman, C N

    2017-10-01

    Despite the deep sea being the largest habitat on Earth, there are just 77 population genetic studies of invertebrates (115 species) inhabiting non-chemosynthetic ecosystems on the deep-sea floor (below 200 m depth). We review and synthesize the results of these papers. Studies reveal levels of genetic diversity comparable to shallow-water species. Generally, populations at similar depths were well connected over 100s-1,000s km, but studies that sampled across depth ranges reveal population structure at much smaller scales (100s-1,000s m) consistent with isolation by adaptation across environmental gradients, or the existence of physical barriers to connectivity with depth. Few studies were ocean-wide (under 4%), and 48% were Atlantic-focused. There is strong emphasis on megafauna and commercial species with research into meiofauna, "ecosystem engineers" and other ecologically important species lacking. Only nine papers account for ~50% of the planet's surface (depths below 3,500 m). Just two species were studied below 5,000 m, a quarter of Earth's seafloor. Most studies used single-locus mitochondrial genes revealing a common pattern of non-neutrality, consistent with demographic instability or selective sweeps; similar to deep-sea hydrothermal vent fauna. The absence of a clear difference between vent and non-vent could signify that demographic instability is common in the deep sea, or that selective sweeps render single-locus mitochondrial studies demographically uninformative. The number of population genetics studies to date is miniscule in relation to the size of the deep sea. The paucity of studies constrains meta-analyses where broad inferences about deep-sea ecology could be made. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. All-ceramic or metal-ceramic tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs)? A systematic review of the survival and complication rates. Part I: Single crowns (SCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Irena; Makarov, Nikolay Alexandrovich; Thoma, Daniel Stefan; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pjetursson, Bjarni Elvar

    2015-06-01

    To assess the 5-year survival of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic tooth-supported single crowns (SCs) and to describe the incidence of biological, technical and esthetic complications. Medline (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) searches (2006-2013) were performed for clinical studies focusing on tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a mean follow-up of at least 3 years. This was complimented by an additional hand search and the inclusion of 34 studies from a previous systematic review [1,2]. Survival and complication rates were analyzed using robust Poisson's regression models to obtain summary estimates of 5-year proportions. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 4663 metal-ceramic and 9434 all-ceramic SCs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seventeen studies reported on metal-ceramic crowns, and 54 studies reported on all-ceramic crowns. Meta-analysis of the included studies indicated an estimated survival rate of metal-ceramic SCs of 94.7% (95% CI: 94.1-96.9%) after 5 years. This was similar to the estimated 5-year survival rate of leucit or lithium-disilicate reinforced glass ceramic SCs (96.6%; 95% CI: 94.9-96.7%), of glass infiltrated alumina SCs (94.6%; 95% CI: 92.7-96%) and densely sintered alumina and zirconia SCs (96%; 95% CI: 93.8-97.5%; 92.1%; 95% CI: 82.8-95.6%). In contrast, the 5-year survival rates of feldspathic/silica-based ceramic crowns were lower (pcrowns exhibited significantly lower survival rates in the posterior region (pcrown types performed similarly. Densely sintered zirconia SCs were more frequently lost due to veneering ceramic fractures than metal-ceramic SCs (p<0.001), and had significantly more loss of retention (p<0.001). In total higher 5 year rates of framework fracture were reported for the all-ceramic SCs than for metal-ceramic SCs. Survival rates of most types of all-ceramic SCs were similar to those reported for metal-ceramic SCs, both in anterior and posterior regions. Weaker

  5. Single implant-supported crowns in the aesthetic zone: patient satisfaction with aesthetic appearance compared with appraisals by laypeople and dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Joseph; Lin, Mark; Zahran, Mohammed; Jokstad, Asbjorn

    2015-10-01

    To appraise the patients' satisfaction with aesthetic outcomes following an implant restoration in the anterior maxilla as compared to appraisals made by dentists and laypeople. Randomly selected patients (n = 116) restored with an implant-retained crown in the anterior maxilla were invited to rate their satisfaction with aesthetic outcomes using a questionnaire containing seven criteria, each graded from excellent to poor. Projected images of the patient smiles were appraised by dentists (n = 8) and laypeople (n = 6) using the same assessment criteria in a room setting. In addition, the laypeople judged the same cases on printed 10 × 15 cm photographs in a separate setting. Jemt papilla scores, pink aesthetic score (PES) and white esthetic score (WES) were assigned by the dentists. Differences in the levels of satisfaction between the patient, and appraisals by the dentists and the laypeople were compared using non-parametric statistical tests. Patients' opinions of their aesthetic appearance following the placement of a single implant-supported crown in the aesthetic zone were in general very favourable. The laypeople were more critical than the dentists when the aesthetic outcomes were appraised on magnified images projected onto a screen. Laypeople became less critical when evaluating the aesthetic outcomes on printed photographs compared to appraisals on a screen. Patient satisfaction with their aesthetic appearance differed from dentists' and laypeople's appraisals. Factors other than the actual aesthetic outcome itself appear to influence patients' satisfaction with their end results. Laypeople's appraisal is influenced by the magnification and method used for appraising the aesthetic outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Performance of zirconia abutments for implant-supported single-tooth crowns in esthetic areas: a retrospective study up to 12-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Sheila Pestana; Linke, Bernie; Larjava, Hannu; French, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to assess complications, success, and survival rates of zirconia abutments from different implant designs. Anterior implant-supported single-tooth restorations, after 1-12 years of clinical function, were evaluated. One hundred and fifty-eight zirconia implant abutments placed in 141 patients were evaluated. Mechanical complications were observed, such as presence or absence of abutment fractures and loss of retention. In addition, the peri-implant parameters were observed. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact tests, and bone level was analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test for non-normally distributed data. Sixteen restorations exhibited different complications. However, no significant difference was observed between the standard and platform switching. The standard platforms exhibited higher marginal bone loss than platform switching design followed up to 5 years. Platform switching has a potentially higher risk of fracture in some designs. In our study, one standard platform as well as two-platform switch designs seem to withstand fracture in the anterior area, regardless of the implant width. Survival and success rates were 93.8% and 81.2% (up to >7 years ≤12), respectively, for standard platform; and 90 and 84% (up to >2 years ≤5), respectively, for platform switching. In general, standard platform implants restored with zirconia abutments were successful for the longest periods of observation and are a viable treatment alternative in anterior areas. Some of the studied designs of platform switching implants with zirconia abutments performed well for up to 5 years. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Oral health related quality-of-life outcomes of partially edentulous patients treated with implant-supported single crowns or fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZarea, Bader K

    2017-05-01

    Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is afflicted by different variables. Limited information is available regarding the impact of different phases of implant therapy on OHRQoL of edentulous patients. This study was carried out to assess the OHRQoL of patients treated with implant-supported single crowns or fixed partial dentures. A total of 79 healthy partially edentulous subjects needing implant therapy were incorporated in this study. Before placement of the implants, the subjects were instructed to fill the original version of OHIP questionnaire. Subsequently patients received titanium oral implants of the ITI® Dental Implant System. After 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of implant placement, patients filled the same OHIP-49 questionnaire. In this manner the impact of implant therapy on OHRQoL by putting in comparison pre- and post-treatment OHIP-49 scores was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Science software (SPSS, version 22, Chicago, IL, USA). Paired t test and Unpaired t test were performed and a statistical significance was set at 5% level of significance ( p disability, psychological disability, social disability were significantly decreased from baseline to 1st year ( p 0.05). All variables were also significantly decreased from baseline to 2nd year and 3rd year ( p 0.05). Patients aged less than 60 years and more than 60 years of age groups differed significantly with respect to OHIP scores measured at 1st year, 2nd year and at 3rd year of implant placement ( p Oral health-related quality-of-life.

  8. Revisiting the phylogeny of Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Robert Lücking; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Armin Mangold; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Khwanruan Papong; Dries Van der Broeck; Gothamie Weerakoon; H. Thorsten. Lumbsch; NO-VALUE

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated 3-locus molecular phylogeny of tribe Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within subfamily Graphidoideae in the Graphidaceae. Adding 165 newly generated sequences from the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), and the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2), we currently...

  9. First Experience from the World Largest fully commercial Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m.......The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m....

  10. Landscapes of thermal inequity: disproportionate exposure to urban heat in the three largest US cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bruce C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-11-01

    Heat waves are the most significant cause of mortality in the US compared to other natural hazards. Prior studies have found increased heat exposure for individuals of lower socioeconomic status in several US cities, but few comparative analyses of the social distribution of urban heat have been conducted. To address this gap, our paper examines and compares the environmental justice consequences of urban heat risk in the three largest US cities: New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Risk to urban heat is estimated on the basis of three characteristics of the urban thermal landscape: land surface temperature, vegetation abundance, and structural density of the built urban environment. These variables are combined to develop an urban heat risk index, which is then statistically compared with social vulnerability indicators representing socioeconomic status, age, disability, race/ethnicity, and linguistic isolation. The results indicate a consistent and significant statistical association between lower socioeconomic and minority status and greater urban heat risk, in all three cities. Our findings support a growing body of environmental justice literature that indicates the presence of a landscape of thermal inequity in US cities and underscores the need to conduct comparative analyses of social inequities in exposure to urban heat.

  11. UV-B-induced forest sterility: Implications of ozone shield failure in Earth's largest extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benca, Jeffrey P; Duijnstee, Ivo A P; Looy, Cindy V

    2018-02-01

    Although Siberian Trap volcanism is considered a primary driver of the largest extinction in Earth history, the end-Permian crisis, the relationship between these events remains unclear. However, malformations in fossilized gymnosperm pollen from the extinction interval suggest biological stress coinciding with pulsed forest decline. These grains are hypothesized to have been caused by enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation from volcanism-induced ozone shield deterioration. We tested this proposed mechanism by observing the effects of inferred end-Permian UV-B regimes on pollen development and reproductive success in living conifers. We find that pollen malformation frequencies increase fivefold under high UV-B intensities. Surprisingly, all trees survived but were sterilized under enhanced UV-B. These results support the hypothesis that heightened UV-B stress could have contributed not only to pollen malformation production but also to deforestation during Permian-Triassic crisis intervals. By reducing the fertility of several widespread gymnosperm lineages, pulsed ozone shield weakening could have induced repeated terrestrial biosphere destabilization and food web collapse without exerting a direct "kill" mechanism on land plants or animals. These findings challenge the paradigm that mass extinctions require kill mechanisms and suggest that modern conifer forests may be considerably more vulnerable to anthropogenic ozone layer depletion than expected.

  12. Bedrock Canyons Carved by the Largest Known Floods on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M. P.; Lapôtre, M. G. A.; Larsen, I. J.; Williams, R. M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Earth is a dynamic and permeable interface where the rocky crust is sculpted by ice, wind and water resulting in spectacular mountain ranges, vast depositional basins and environments that support life. These landforms and deposits contain a rich, yet incomplete, record of Earth history that we are just beginning to understand. Some of the most dramatic landforms are the huge bedrock canyons carved by catastrophic floods. On Mars, similar bedrock canyons, known as Outflow Channels, are the most important indicators of large volumes of surface water in the past. Despite their importance and now decades of observations of canyon morphology, we lack a basic understanding of how the canyons formed, which limits our ability to reconstruct flood discharge, duration and water volume. In this presentation I will summarize recent work - using mechanistic numerical models and field observations - that suggests that bedrock canyons carved by megafloods rapidly evolve to a size and shape such that boundary shear stresses just exceed that required to entrain fractured blocks of rock. The threshold shear stress constraint allows for quantitative reconstruction of the largest known floods on Earth and Mars, and implies far smaller discharges than previous methods that assume flood waters fully filled the canyons to high water marks.

  13. Solar energy potential of the largest buildings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wence, E. R.; Grodsky, S.; Hernandez, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable pathways of land use for energy are necessary to mitigate climate change and limit conversion of finite land resources needed for conservation and food production. Large, commercial buildings (LCBs) are increasing in size and number throughout the United States (US) and may serve as suitable recipient environments for photovoltaic (PV) solar energy infrastructure that may support a low carbon, low land footprint energy transition. In this study, we identified, characterized, and evaluated the technical potential of the largest, commercial building rooftops (i.e., exceeding 110,000 m2) and their associated parking lots in the US for PV solar energy systems using Aurora, a cloud-based solar optimization platform. We also performed a case study of building-specific electricity generation: electricity consumption balance. Further, we quantified the environmental co-benefit of land sparing and associated avoided emissions (t-CO2-eq) conferred under the counterfactual scenario that solar development would otherwise proceed as a ground-mounted, utility-scale PV installation of equal nominal capacity. We identified and mapped 37 LCBs (by rooftop area) across 18 states in the US, spanning from as far north as the state of Minnesota to as far south as Florida. Rooftop footprints range from 427,297 to 113,689 m2 and have a cumulative surface area of 99.8 million ft2. We characterize the LCBs as either: distribution/warehouse, factory, shopping center, or administrative office/facility. Three of the 37 LCBs currently support rooftop PV and the numbers of associated, detached buildings number up to 38. This study elucidates the extent to which LCBs and their respective parking lots can serve as suitable sites for PV solar energy generation. Lastly, this study demonstrates research-based applications of the Aurora energy modeling platform and informs decision-making focused on redirecting energy development towards human-modified landscapes to prioritize land use for

  14. Lessons Learned in Deploying the World s Largest Scale Lustre File System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillow, David A [ORNL; Fuller, Douglas [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Spider system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) is the world's largest scale Lustre parallel file system. Envisioned as a shared parallel file system capable of delivering both the bandwidth and capacity requirements of the OLCF's diverse computational environment, the project had a number of ambitious goals. To support the workloads of the OLCF's diverse computational platforms, the aggregate performance and storage capacity of Spider exceed that of our previously deployed systems by a factor of 6x - 240 GB/sec, and 17x - 10 Petabytes, respectively. Furthermore, Spider supports over 26,000 clients concurrently accessing the file system, which exceeds our previously deployed systems by nearly 4x. In addition to these scalability challenges, moving to a center-wide shared file system required dramatically improved resiliency and fault-tolerance mechanisms. This paper details our efforts in designing, deploying, and operating Spider. Through a phased approach of research and development, prototyping, deployment, and transition to operations, this work has resulted in a number of insights into large-scale parallel file system architectures, from both the design and the operational perspectives. We present in this paper our solutions to issues such as network congestion, performance baselining and evaluation, file system journaling overheads, and high availability in a system with tens of thousands of components. We also discuss areas of continued challenges, such as stressed metadata performance and the need for file system quality of service alongside with our efforts to address them. Finally, operational aspects of managing a system of this scale are discussed along with real-world data and observations.

  15. Single crowns in the resorbed posterior maxilla supported by either 6-mm implants or by 11-mm implants combined with sinus floor elevation surgery : A 1-year randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guljé, Felix L; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to assess the clinical performance of single crowns in the posterior maxilla supported by either 6-mm or 11-mm implants combined with maxillary sinus floor elevation. Materials and methods: 41 consecutive patients with one missing premolar or

  16. New Chicago-Indiana computer network will handle dataflow from world's largest scientific experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Massive quantities of data will soon begin flowing from the largest scientific instrument ever built into an international netword of computer centers, including one operated jointly by the University of Chicago and Indiana University." (1,5 page)

  17. Perception and Interpretation of Sustainability Among the Largest Corporations Established in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Petera; Jaroslav Wagner; Kateřina Knorová

    2016-01-01

    The paper addresses perception and interpretation of sustainability among the largest corporations established in the Czech Republic. Despite the fact that the amount of literature on sustainability is substantial, there is lack of empirical investigation into understanding sustainability among corporations established in the Czech Republic. We used qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews) to investigate how the largest corporations established in the Czech Republic understand and...

  18. NEGOTIATING PLACE AND GENDERED VIOLENCE IN CANADA’S LARGEST OPEN DRUG SCENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    Background Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside is home to Canada’s largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and ‘marginal men’ (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants’ spatial practices. Results Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into “dangerous” drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Conclusion Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection

  19. Negotiating place and gendered violence in Canada's largest open drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-05-01

    Vancouver's Downtown Eastside is home to Canada's largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and 'marginal men' (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants' spatial practices. Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into "dangerous" drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection services, to minimize violence and potential drug

  20. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? Discussion A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews. This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z’s ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. Summary With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to

  1. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Hassan; Shah, Ronak; Schroeder, Karl; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews.This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z's ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme) certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to readers in the malaria community, especially in developing

  2. Impact of Crown-Implant Ratio of Single Restorations Supported by 6-mm Implants : A Short-Term Case Series Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulje, Felix L.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Erkens, Ward A. L.; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    PURPOSE: High crown-implant ratios might affect the biologic and technical performance of a reconstruction. The aim of this study was to assess whether a higher crown-implant ratio of single restorations on 6-mm implants resulted in more peri-implant bone loss and more prosthetic complications

  3. Astronomer's new guide to the galaxy: largest map of cold dust revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    "pathfinder" for ALMA -- it is based on a prototype antenna constructed for the ALMA project, it is located on the same plateau and will find many targets that ALMA will be able to study in extreme detail. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ESO is the European partner in ALMA. ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising an array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA will start scientific observations in 2011. ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  4. Single Particle Entropy in Heated Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Chankova, R.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Syed, N. U. H.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal motion of single particles represents the largest contribution to level density (or entropy) in atomic nuclei. The concept of single particle entropy is presented and shown to be an approximate extensive (additive) quantity for mid-shell nuclei. A few applications of single particle entropy are demonstrated

  5. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Cui

    Full Text Available Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79% unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG, 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized

  6. Evaluation of world's largest social welfare scheme: An assessment using non-parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet

    2016-08-01

    Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the world's largest social welfare scheme in India for the poverty alleviation through rural employment generation. This paper aims to evaluate and rank the performance of the states in India under MGNREGA scheme. A non-parametric approach, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to calculate the overall technical, pure technical, and scale efficiencies of states in India. The sample data is drawn from the annual official reports published by the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Based on three selected input parameters (expenditure indicators) and five output parameters (employment generation indicators), I apply both input and output oriented DEA models to estimate how well the states utilize their resources and generate outputs during the financial year 2013-14. The relative performance evaluation has been made under the assumption of constant returns and also under variable returns to scale to assess the impact of scale on performance. The results indicate that the main source of inefficiency is both technical and managerial practices adopted. 11 states are overall technically efficient and operate at the optimum scale whereas 18 states are pure technical or managerially efficient. It has been found that for some states it necessary to alter scheme size to perform at par with the best performing states. For inefficient states optimal input and output targets along with the resource savings and output gains are calculated. Analysis shows that if all inefficient states operate at optimal input and output levels, on an average 17.89% of total expenditure and a total amount of $780million could have been saved in a single year. Most of the inefficient states perform poorly when it comes to the participation of women and disadvantaged sections (SC&ST) in the scheme. In order to catch up with the performance of best performing states, inefficient states on an average need to enhance

  7. The Multivariate Largest Lyapunov Exponent as an Age-Related Metric of Quiet Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest Lyapunov exponent has been researched as a metric of the balance ability during human quiet standing. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of this measurement method are not good enough for clinical use. The present research proposes a metric of the human body’s standing balance ability based on the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent which can quantify the human standing balance. The dynamic multivariate time series of ankle, knee, and hip were measured by multiple electrical goniometers. Thirty-six normal people of different ages participated in the test. With acquired data, the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent was calculated. Finally, the results of the proposed approach were analysed and compared with the traditional method, for which the largest Lyapunov exponent and power spectral density from the centre of pressure were also calculated. The following conclusions can be obtained. The multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent has a higher degree of differentiation in differentiating balance in eyes-closed conditions. The MLLE value reflects the overall coordination between multisegment movements. Individuals of different ages can be distinguished by their MLLE values. The standing stability of human is reduced with the increment of age.

  8. No evidence for mitochondrial genetic variability in the largest population of critically endangered Tonkin snub-nosed monkeys in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Andie; Srivathsan, Amrita; Meier, Rudolf; Luu, Tuong Bach; Le, Quyet Khac; Covert, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The Tonkin snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus avunculus) with a global population of Vietnam and was feared extinct until its rediscovery in 1989. The largest single population of R. avunculus consists of 125-130 individuals in an area of forest called Khau Ca in Ha Giang Province. We used non-invasively collected fecal samples to establish the amount of genetic diversity in this population based on mitochondrial information. We amplified and sequenced a 467- to 650-bp section of the hypervariable region I (HVI) of the mitochondrial D-loop for 201 samples and reconstructed the full mitochondrial genomes for five samples based on metagenomic data. All 201 HVI sequences were identical and no variability was found in the five mitochondrial genomes. Our results highlight the immediate need for a comprehensive assessment of the genetic diversity of all populations of R. avunculus based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers. The latter need to be developed for this species.

  9. Analysis of crestal bone loss around single piece ball attachment implant placed bilaterally in canine region and wear of O-ring in implant supported overdenture: Three year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Fathima Banu; Vaidyanathan, Anand Kumar; Veeravalli, Padmanabhan T; Ravishankar, Subhiksha; Ali, Aashique S

    2018-03-06

    Single piece implant in fixed prosthesis is widely been evaluated, however, long term evaluation of crestal bone loss and the wear of O-ring in single piece ball attachment implant supported overdenture is yet to be evaluated PURPOSE: The present article evaluates the crestal bone loss around single piece ball attachment implants placed bilaterally in the canine region and the wear of O-ring in implant supported overdenture over a period of three years. Twelve completely edentulous patients between the age group of 55-65 years were selected. Two 3.3 mm × 13 mm myriad snap fit implants were placed in the mandibular interforaminal region. All the implants were conventionally loaded at three months after surgical placement. Intra-oral periapical radiographs were made and crestal bone loss was measured at the end of one year and three years. The elasticity and wear of O-Ring was assessed after three years of usage. The crestal bone loss showed no significant difference between the first and third year after implant placement. The mean bone loss at the end of third year was 1.5 mm. Analysis of O-ring for change in the elasticity showed reduction in displacement and a significant increase in maximum displacement and elongation. The area of O-ring and yield stress did not show any changes from the standard value. Compression set damage was observed in the O-ring at the end of three years. The present study shows that the bilateral single piece implant supported overdenture has a success rate equivalent to the two piece implant supported overdenture and is a viable treatment option. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Clinical, esthetic, and radiographic evaluation of small-diameter (3.0-mm) implants supporting single crowns in the anterior region: a 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Francesco; Siroli, Lucia; Forlivesi, Caterina; Corinaldesi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Fifty patients underwent single-tooth replacement in the maxillary and mandibular incisor area using two-piece 3.0-mm-diameter implants. Clinical and radiographic measurements of soft and hard tissue levels and esthetic parameters (pink esthetic score/white esthetic score [PES/WES]) were assessed at 3 years. No implant failed (success rate: 100%), and facial soft tissues and marginal bone levels remained stable throughout the study period. The mean total PES/WES was high (14.1 ± 1.75), and only one implant demonstrated an unfavorable esthetic outcome (PES/WES = 10). The use of 3.0-mm-diameter implants appears to be a viable treatment procedure in the medium term for single-tooth anterior restorations with limited dimensions.

  11. Single-blind randomized clinical trial to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes after one year of immediate versus delayed implant placement supporting full-arch prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Bagán, Leticia; Fichy-Fernandez, Antonio J.; Canullo, Luigi; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare peri-implant health, marginal bone loss and success of immediate and delayed implant placement for rehabilitation with full-arch fixed prostheses. Material and Methods: The present study was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, clinical preliminary trial. Patients were randomized into two treatment groups. In Group A implants were placed immediately post-extraction and in Group B six months after extraction. The following control time-points were establish...

  12. Sensory modulation intervention and behaviour support modification for the treatment of severe aggression in Huntington's disease. A single case experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Caroline A; Brown, Anahita

    2017-09-01

    Aggression is common in Huntington's disease. However, at present there are no standard guidelines for managing aggression in Huntington's sufferers due to a lack of empirical research. This paper presents a case study of the treatment of very high levels of aggression with sensory modulation and behaviour support intervention in a Huntington's sufferer. The client exhibited a range of aggressive behaviours, including physical aggression to people, furniture and objects, and verbal aggression. Following an eight week baseline phase, five weeks of sensory modulation intervention were employed. A behaviour support plan was then implemented as an adjunct to the sensory intervention, with aggressive behaviour systematically audited for a further 11 weeks. The results indicate a significant reduction in reported levels of aggression during the combined sensory modulation and behaviour support phase, compared to both the baseline and the sensory modulation therapy alone phases. This case study highlights the efficacy non-pharmacological interventions may have for reducing aggression in HD.

  13. HOW THE WORLD’S LARGEST CORPORATIONS EVOLVED IN THE PERIOD 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George TOMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The largest multinational and transnational corporations are key actors in the world economy. Their number has significantly increased in the last decades both in the developed and the developing countries. Consequently, they are more dispersed globally than in the past. As the world’s largest corporations have become more powerful over time, they represent not only an economic force, but also a political and cultural force in today’s highly globalized world. They have a huge impact on the lives of billions of people every day. The aim of our paper is to analyse the evolution of the first ten world’s largest corporations by their revenues and profits in the period 2012-2013. The research type is literature review.

  14. The NOD3 software package: A graphical user interface-supported reduction package for single-dish radio continuum and polarisation observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Peter; Krause, Marita; Beck, Rainer; Schmidt, Philip

    2017-10-01

    Context. The venerable NOD2 data reduction software package for single-dish radio continuum observations, which was developed for use at the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope, has been successfully applied over many decades. Modern computing facilities, however, call for a new design. Aims: We aim to develop an interactive software tool with a graphical user interface for the reduction of single-dish radio continuum maps. We make a special effort to reduce the distortions along the scanning direction (scanning effects) by combining maps scanned in orthogonal directions or dual- or multiple-horn observations that need to be processed in a restoration procedure. The package should also process polarisation data and offer the possibility to include special tasks written by the individual user. Methods: Based on the ideas of the NOD2 package we developed NOD3, which includes all necessary tasks from the raw maps to the final maps in total intensity and linear polarisation. Furthermore, plot routines and several methods for map analysis are available. The NOD3 package is written in Python, which allows the extension of the package via additional tasks. The required data format for the input maps is FITS. Results: The NOD3 package is a sophisticated tool to process and analyse maps from single-dish observations that are affected by scanning effects from clouds, receiver instabilities, or radio-frequency interference. The "basket-weaving" tool combines orthogonally scanned maps into a final map that is almost free of scanning effects. The new restoration tool for dual-beam observations reduces the noise by a factor of about two compared to the NOD2 version. Combining single-dish with interferometer data in the map plane ensures the full recovery of the total flux density. Conclusions: This software package is available under the open source license GPL for free use at other single-dish radio telescopes of the astronomical community. The NOD3 package is designed to be

  15. "Hydro-metathesis" of olefins: A catalytic reaction using a bifunctional single-site tantalum hydride catalyst supported on fibrous silica (KCC-1) nanospheres

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2011-02-18

    Tantalizing hydrocarbons: Tantalum hydride supported on fibrous silica nanospheres (KCC-1) catalyzes, in the presence of hydrogen, the direct conversion of olefins into alkanes that have higher and lower numbers of carbon atoms (see scheme). This catalyst shows remarkable catalytic activity and stability, with excellent potential of regeneration. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Largest Serous Cystadenoma in the first Trimester treated Laparoscopically: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuliya, Dolly Jaykant; Rahana, Farah; Al Wahibi, Ayman; Al Mamari, Muna Salim; Al Mamari, Altaf Mubarak; Devi, Nirmala; Jahan, Arif; Dar, Manzoor A.; Al Madhani, Ali; Al Kindi, Salam

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case of a giant serous cystadenoma approximately 7.5kg in weight in a 28-year old primigravida at 8 weeks of gestation which was successfully excised laparoscopically. Postoperatively, she had a quick recovery and she was discharged on post op day 3 with an intact pregnancy and no complications. This is the largest ovarian cyst in early pregnancy that has been ever reported from our hospital. We also believe this cyst to be the largest cyst in early pregnancy ever reported in the literature that has been managed by Laparoscopy. PMID:28861184

  17. Oak habitat recovery on California's largest islands: Scenarios for the role of corvid seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesendorfer, Mario B.; Baker, Christopher M.; Stringer, Martin; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Bode, Michael; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott

    2018-01-01

    Seed dispersal by birds is central to the passive restoration of many tree communities. Reintroduction of extinct seed dispersers can therefore restore degraded forests and woodlands. To test this, we constructed a spatially explicit simulation model, parameterized with field data, to consider the effect of different seed dispersal scenarios on the extent of oak populations. We applied the model to two islands in California's Channel Islands National Park (USA), one of which has lost a key seed disperser.We used an ensemble modelling approach to simulate island scrub oak (Quercus pacifica) demography. The model was developed and trained to recreate known population changes over a 20-year period on 250-km2 Santa Cruz Island, and incorporated acorn dispersal by island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and gravity, as well as seed predation. We applied the trained model to 215-km2 Santa Rosa Island to examine how reintroducing island scrub-jays would affect the rate and pattern of oak population expansion. Oak habitat on Santa Rosa Island has been greatly reduced from its historical extent due to past grazing by introduced ungulates, the last of which were removed by 2011.Our simulation model predicts that a seed dispersal scenario including island scrub-jays would increase the extent of the island scrub oak population on Santa Rosa Island by 281% over 100 years, and by 544% over 200 years. Scenarios without jays would result in little expansion. Simulated long-distance seed dispersal by jays also facilitates establishment of discontinuous patches of oaks, and increases their elevational distribution.Synthesis and applications. Scenario planning provides powerful decision support for conservation managers. We used ensemble modelling of plant demographic and seed dispersal processes to investigate whether the reintroduction of seed dispersers could provide cost-effective means of achieving broader ecosystem restoration goals on

  18. Production of propylene from 1-butene on highly active "bi-functional single active site" catalyst: Tungsten carbene-hydride supported on alumina

    KAUST Repository

    Mazoyer, Etienne

    2011-12-02

    1-Butene is transformed in a continuous flow reactor over tungsten hydrides precursor W-H/Al2O3, 1, giving a promising yield into propylene at 150 °C and different pressures. Tungsten carbene-hydride single active site operates as a "bi-functional catalyst" through 1-butene isomerization on W-hydride and 1-butene/2-butenes cross-metathesis on W-carbene. This active moiety is generated in situ at the initiation steps by insertion of 1-butene on tungsten hydrides precursor W-H/Al2O3, 1 followed by α-H and β-H abstraction. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Stabilizing Single Sites on Solid Supports: Robust Grafted Ti(IV)-Calixarene Olefin Epoxidation Catalysts via Surface Polymerization and Cross-Linking

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yijun; Solovyov, Andrew; Grosso-Giordano, Nicolás A.; Hwang, Son-Jong; Katz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript develops a surface polymerization and cross-linking approach for the stabilization of single-site catalysts on solid surfaces, which is demonstrated here for grafted Ti(IV)-calixarene Lewis acids on silica. Our approach relies on cationic polymerization that is initiated by an adsorbed B(C_6F_5)_3 and uses styrene as the monomer and diisopropenylbenzene as the cross-linking agent. The mildness of this polymerization method is demonstrated by its lack of blocking micropores and...

  20. A Common Single-Site Pt(II)–O(OH) x – Species Stabilized by Sodium on “Active” and “Inert” Supports Catalyzes the Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming [Department; Liu, Jilei [Department; Lee, Sungsik [X-ray; Zugic, Branko [Department; Huang, Jun [School; Allard, Lawrence F. [Materials; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria [Department

    2015-03-05

    While it is long known that different types of support oxides have different capabilities to anchor metals and thus tailor the catalytic behavior, it is not always clear whether the support is a mere carrier of the active metal site, itself not participating directly in the reaction pathway. We report that catalytically similar single-atom centric Pt sites are formed by binding to sodium ions through ?O ligands, the ensemble being equally effective on supports as diverse as TiO2, L-zeolites, and mesoporous silica MCM-41. Loading of 0.5 wt.% Pt on all these supports, preserves the Pt in atomic dispersion as Pt(II), the Pt-O(OH)x- species catalyzing the water-gas shift reaction (WGS) from ~120 to 400 oC. Since the effect of support is ?indirect,? these findings pave the way for the use of a variety of earth-abundant supports as carriers of atomically dispersed platinum for application to catalytic fuel-gas processing.

  1. Immediate loading of bimaxillary total fixed prostheses supported by five flapless-placed implants with machined surfaces: A 6-month follow-up prospective single cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Gioacchino; Felice, Pietro; Loi, Ignazio; Viola, Paolo; Ferri, Vittorio; Leone, Michele; Collivasone, Dario; Esposito, Marco

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of fully edentulous patients rehabilitated with immediately loaded bimaxillary screw-retained metal-resin prostheses supported by five implants placed flapless: two in the mandible and three in the maxillae. Twenty-five consecutively treated patients were recruited. To be immediately loaded, implants had to be inserted with a minimum torque of 80 Ncm. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant failures, and complications. Six months after loading no patients dropped out and no prosthesis or implant failed. Two maxillary prostheses were loaded early at 8 weeks because implants were inserted with a torque inferior to 45 Ncm. Three complications occurred in two patients but they were all successfully treated. Six months after loading, immediately loaded bimaxillary cross-arch prostheses can be supported by only two mandibular and three maxillary flapless-placed dental implants. Longer follow-ups of approximately 10 years are needed to understand the prognosis of this treatment modality.

  2. World's third-largest producer of nuclear power. Japan in need of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-04-07

    Japan is the third largest oil consumer in the world behind the United States and China, and the second largest net importer of oil. Japan boasts one of the largest economies in the world. The country continues to experience a moderate economic recovery that began in 2003, following a decade of economic stagnation. Japan's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 2.5% in 2005 and 2.3% in 2004. The modest upturn over the last few years reflects higher business confidence in Japan, a surge in export demand led by exports to China, and robust consumer spending. Unemployment in Japan fell to 4.4% in 2005, down from an early 2003 peak of 5.5%. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves, and in 2005 was the second largest net importer of crude oil in the world. Despite the country's dearth of hydrocarbon resources, Japanese companies have actively pursued upstream oil and natural gas projects overseas. Japan remains one of the major exporters of energy-sector capital equipment, and Japanese companies provide engineering, construction, and project management services for energy projects. (orig.)

  3. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline

  4. Predicting Traffic Flow in Local Area Networks by the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of network traffic are complex and nonlinear, and chaotic behaviors and their prediction, which play an important role in local area networks (LANs, are studied in detail, using the largest Lyapunov exponent. With the introduction of phase space reconstruction based on the time sequence, the high-dimensional traffic is projected onto the low dimension reconstructed phase space, and a reduced dynamic system is obtained from the dynamic system viewpoint. Then, a numerical method for computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of the low-dimensional dynamic system is presented. Further, the longest predictable time, which is related to chaotic behaviors in the system, is studied using the largest Lyapunov exponent, and the Wolf method is used to predict the evolution of the traffic in a local area network by both Dot and Interval predictions, and a reliable result is obtained by the presented method. As the conclusion, the results show that the largest Lyapunov exponent can be used to describe the sensitivity of the trajectory in the reconstructed phase space to the initial values. Moreover, Dot Prediction can effectively predict the flow burst. The numerical simulation also shows that the presented method is feasible and efficient for predicting the complex dynamic behaviors in LAN traffic, especially for congestion and attack in networks, which are the main two complex phenomena behaving as chaos in networks.

  5. Phase space reconstruction and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent for gait kinematic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josiński, Henryk [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Świtoński, Adam [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    The authors describe an example of application of nonlinear time series analysis directed at identifying the presence of deterministic chaos in human motion data by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent. The method was previously verified on the basis of a time series constructed from the numerical solutions of both the Lorenz and the Rössler nonlinear dynamical systems.

  6. Discovery of the largest orbweaving spider species: the evolution of gigantism in Nephila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Kuntner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400-500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19(th century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa and Madagascar, and review size evolution and SSD in Nephilidae.We formally describe N. komaci sp. nov., the largest web spinning species known, and place the species in phylogenetic context to reconstruct the evolution of mean size (via squared change parsimony. We then test female and male mean size correlation using phylogenetically independent contrasts, and simulate nephilid body size evolution using Monte Carlo statistics.Nephila females increased in size almost monotonically to establish a mostly African clade of true giants. In contrast, Nephila male size is effectively decoupled and hovers around values roughly one fifth of female size. Although N. komaci females are the largest Nephila yet discovered, the males are also large and thus their SSD is not exceptional.

  7. Distribution of the Largest Eigenvalues of the Levi-Smirnov Ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, W.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the distribution of the k-th largest eigenvalue in the random matrix Levi - Smirnov Ensemble (LSE), using the spectral dualism between LSE and chiral Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE). Then we reconstruct universal spectral oscillations and we investigate an asymptotic behavior of the spectral distribution. (author)

  8. CERN: Digital image analysis in the world's largest research center for particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Those interested in researching into the smallest building blocks that matter is made up of need the largest instruments. CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland is where the most powerful circular accelerator in the world is being built: the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for proton collisions. It has a circumference of 26.7 km (4 pages)

  9. Phase space reconstruction and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent for gait kinematic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josiński, Henryk; Świtoński, Adam; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe an example of application of nonlinear time series analysis directed at identifying the presence of deterministic chaos in human motion data by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent. The method was previously verified on the basis of a time series constructed from the numerical solutions of both the Lorenz and the Rössler nonlinear dynamical systems

  10. CERN, World's largest particle physics lab, selects Progress SonicMQ

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Progress Software Corporation (NADAQ: PRGS), a global supplier of application insfrastructure software used to develop, deploy, integrate and manage business applications, today announced that CERN the world's largest physis laboratory and particle accelerator, has chosen Progress® SonicMQ® for mission-critical message delivery." (1 page)

  11. OPeNDAP servers like Hyrax and TDS can easily support common single-sign-on authentication protocols using the Apache httpd and related software; adding support for these protocols to clients can be more challenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J. H. R.; Potter, N.; Evans, B. J. K.

    2016-12-01

    OPeNDAP, in conjunction with the Australian National University, documented the installation process needed to add authentication to OPeNDAP-enabled data servers (Hyrax, TDS, etc.) and examined 13 OPeNDAP clients to determine how best to add authentication using LDAP, Shibboleth and OAuth2 (we used NASA's URS). We settled on a server configuration (architecture) that uses the Apache web server and a collection of open-source modules to perform the authentication and authorization actions. This is not the only way to accomplish those goals, but using Apache represents a good balance between functionality, leveraging existing work that has been well vetted and includes support for a wide variety of web services, include those that depend on a servlet engine such as tomcat (which both Hyrax and TDS do). Or work shows how LDAP, OAuth2 and Shibboleth can all be accommodated using this readily available software stack. Also important is that the Apache software is very widely used and is fairly robust - extremely important for security software components. In order to make use of a server requiring authentication, clients must support the authentication process. Because HTTP has included authentication for well over a decade, and because HTTP/HTTPS can be used by simply linking programs with a library, both the LDAP and OAuth2/URS authentication schemes have almost universal support within the OPeNDAP client base. The clients, i.e. the HTTP client libraries they employ, understand how to submit the credentials to the correct server when confronted by an HTTP/S Unauthorized (401) response. Interestingly OAuth2 can achieve it's SSO objectives while relying entirely on normative HTTP transport. All 13 of the clients examined worked.The situation with Shibboleth is different. While Shibboleth does use HTTP, it also requires the client to either scrape a web page or support the SAML2.0 ECP profile, which, for programmatic clients, means using SOAP messages. Since working with

  12. Computational Study on M1/POM Single-Atom Catalysts (M = Cu, Zn, Ag, and Au; POM = [PW12O40]3-): Metal-Support Interactions and Catalytic Cycle for Alkene Epoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Guang; Jiang, Meng-Xu; Su, Zhong-Min

    2017-09-05

    Geometrical structures, metal-support interactions, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy of a series of M 1 /POM (M = Cu, Zn, Ag, and Au; POM = [PW 12 O 40 ] 3- ) single-atom catalysts (SACs), and catalytic cycle for alkene epoxidation catalyzed by M 1 /POM SACs were studied using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculations demonstrate that the most probable anchoring sties for the isolated single atoms studied here in the M 1 /POM SACs are the fourfold hollow sites on the surface of POM support. The bonding interaction between single metal atom and surface of POM support comes from the molecular orbitals with a mixture of d atomic orbital of metal and 2p group orbital of surface oxygen atoms of POM cage. The calculated adsorption energy of isolated metal atoms in these M 1 /POM SACs indicates that the early transition metals (Cu and Zn) have high thermal stability. The DFT-derived IR spectra show that the four characteristic peaks of free Keggin-type POM structure split into six because of introduction of isolated metal atom. Compared with other metal atoms, the Zn 1 /POM SAC has the high reactivity for activity of dioxygen molecule, because the dioxygen moiety in Zn 1 /POM SAC displays O 2 - · radical feature with [POM 4- ·Zn 2+ O 2 - ·] 3- configuration. Finally, a catalytic cycle for ethylene epoxidation by O 2 catalyzed by Zn 1 /POM SAC was proposed based on our DFT calculations. Supported noble-metal SACs are among the most important catalysts currently. However, noble metals are expensive and of limited supply. Development of non-noble-metal SACs is of essential importance. Therefore, the reported Zn 1 /POM SAC would be very useful to guide the search for SACs into non-noble metals.

  13. The Curse of the Gold: Discourses Surrounding the Project of the Largest Pit-mine in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Egresi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, a Canadian company started geological explorations in the Rosia Montana area in the Romanian Carpathians. Two years later it formed a joint-venture with a Romanian state company to exploit what is believed to be Europe´s largest gold reserves. However, as of June 2011 extraction has not started yet and it may never start due to the opposition of numerous NGO´s that have pointed out the environmental, social and economic unsustainability of this mining project. This situation is highly unusual for a country that is hungry for foreign investment especially since up until very recently the state had supported any project promising to revitalize its mining sector. This paper will investigate the changes in the discourses surrounding this mining project taking into consideration the effects of globalization and the effects of Romania´s EU membership after 2007.

  14. Towards a Decision Support Tool for 3d Visualisation: Application to Selectivity Purpose of Single Object in a 3d City Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, R.; Pouliot, J.; Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; De Rudder, L.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the establishment of a comprehensive methodological framework that defines 3D visualisation rules and its application in a decision support tool. Whilst the use of 3D models grows in many application fields, their visualisation remains challenging from the point of view of mapping and rendering aspects to be applied to suitability support the decision making process. Indeed, there exists a great number of 3D visualisation techniques but as far as we know, a decision support tool that facilitates the production of an efficient 3D visualisation is still missing. This is why a comprehensive methodological framework is proposed in order to build decision tables for specific data, tasks and contexts. Based on the second-order logic formalism, we define a set of functions and propositions among and between two collections of entities: on one hand static retinal variables (hue, size, shape…) and 3D environment parameters (directional lighting, shadow, haze…) and on the other hand their effect(s) regarding specific visual tasks. It enables to define 3D visualisation rules according to four categories: consequence, compatibility, potential incompatibility and incompatibility. In this paper, the application of the methodological framework is demonstrated for an urban visualisation at high density considering a specific set of entities. On the basis of our analysis and the results of many studies conducted in the 3D semiotics, which refers to the study of symbols and how they relay information, the truth values of propositions are determined. 3D visualisation rules are then extracted for the considered context and set of entities and are presented into a decision table with a colour coding. Finally, the decision table is implemented into a plugin developed with three.js, a cross-browser JavaScript library. The plugin consists of a sidebar and warning windows that help the designer in the use of a set of static retinal variables and 3D environment

  15. Impact of different catalysis supported by oyster shells on the pyrolysis of tyre wastes in a single and a double fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordoghli, Sana; Khiari, Besma; Paraschiv, Maria; Zagrouba, Fethi; Tazerout, Mohand

    2017-09-01

    The treatment and disposal of tyres from vehicles has long been of considerable environmental importance. Studies have been undertaken to reduce their environmental impact. In this study, an alternative gas was produced from automobile tyre wastes by the means of a controlled pyrolysis. To do so, a novel catalytic system was designed with the aim of increasing the rate of conversion and improving the quality of the pyrolysis products. This work aimed also to reduce the severity of the overall reactions, by using powder catalysts (MgO, Al 2 O 3 , CaCO 3 , and zeolite ZSM-5) uniformly distributed on two layers of oyster shells (OS) particles. The catalyst/tyres mass ratio was kept for all the tests at 1/30. The pyrolysis reactor was maintained at 500°C and the influence of each catalyst and of the number of shell beds (0, 1 or 2), on the yield and composition of the derived products, was examined. The gas yields could contribute by 1.2% of total consumption in Tunisia. Furthermore, some combinations could upgrade the derived gas and made it possible to use it as such or with the minimum of post-treatment. It was found that, with the use of supported catalyst, the gas produced is 45% greater compared to classical thermal pyrolysis. The Heating value of the produced gas was also improved by the use of supported catalysts; it was found 16% greater with the use of Al 2 O 3 /OS compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis. When compared to the gas obtained from only one catalytic supported bed, the sulfur content was reduced by 80% with the use of CaCO 3 /OS on two catalytic beds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Single-Tooth Replacement Using Dental Implants Supporting All-Ceramic and Metal-Based Reconstructions: Results at 18 Months of Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösch, Adrian; Jung, Ronald Ernst; Sailer, Irena; Goran, Benic; Hämmerle, Christoph Hans; Thoma, Daniel Stefan

    The aim of this study was to compare customized zirconia and titanium abutments with respect to survival rates and technical, biologic, and esthetic outcomes. A total of 28 patients with single implants were randomly assigned to 12 customized zirconia (test, AC) and 16 customized titanium (control, MC) abutments. Technical, biologic, and esthetic outcomes were assessed after a mean follow-up time of 18 months. No biologic complications were observed, and no statistical difference for the bone-to-implant distance was found at 18 months (AC -0.05 ± 0.51 mm vs MC -0.28 ± 0.77 mm; P = .40). A similar discoloration of the peri-implant mucosa was observed (ΔE AC 9.6 ± 5.4, ΔE MC 7.6 ± 5.3; P = .46). The mean papilla score values evaluation presented no statistically significant differences between the test and control groups (AC 2.07 ± 0.94, MC 1.96 ± 0.84). At 18 months, reconstructions based on zirconia and titanium abutments exhibited similar survival rates and similar clinical outcomes.

  17. Single Site Silica Supported Tetramethyl Niobium by the SOMC Strategy: Synthesis, Characterization and Structure-Activity Relationship in Ethylene Oligomerization Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Hamieh, Ali Imad Ali

    2017-06-06

    Silica supported Tetramethyl niobium complex [(≡SiO)NbMe4] 2 has been isolated by surface alkylation of [(≡SiO-)NbCl3Me] 1 with dimethyl zinc in pentane. 1 can be easily synthesized by grafting of NbCl3Me2 on to the surface of partially dehydroxylated silica by the SOMC strategy. Precise structural analysis was carried out by the FTIR, advance solid state NMR, elemental analysis and mass balance techniques (gas quantification after treating 2 with degassed water) . Complex 1 was found to be active in the ethylene oligomerization to produce up to C30, whereas to our surprise complex 2 selectively dimerizes ethylene into 1-butene in the absence of a co-catalyst at the same conversion levels.

  18. Single site silica supported tetramethyl niobium by the SOMC strategy: synthesis, characterization and structure-activity relationship in the ethylene oligomerization reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamieh, Ali; Dey, Raju; Nekoueishahraki, Bijan; Samantaray, Manoja K; Chen, Yin; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-06-27

    A silica supported tetramethyl niobium complex [([triple bond, length as m-dash]SiO)NbMe 4 ] 2 has been isolated by the surface alkylation of [([triple bond, length as m-dash]SiO-)NbCl 3 Me] 1 with dimethyl zinc in pentane. 1 can be easily synthesized by grafting NbCl 3 Me 2 onto the surface of partially dehydroxylated silica by the SOMC strategy. Precise structural analysis was carried out using FTIR, advanced solid state NMR, elemental analysis and mass balance techniques (gas quantification after treating 2 with degassed water). Complex 1 was found to be active in the ethylene oligomerization reaction, producing up to C 30 , whereas to our surprise complex 2 selectively dimerized ethylene into 1-butene in the absence of a co-catalyst at the same conversion level.

  19. Public health aspects of the world's largest mass gathering: The 2013 Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsari, Satchit; Greenough, P Gregg; Kazi, Dhruv; Heerboth, Aaron; Dwivedi, Shraddha; Leaning, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    India's Kumbh Mela remains the world's largest and longest mass gathering. The 2013 event, where participants undertook a ritual bath, hosted over 70 million Hindu pilgrims during 55 days on a 1936 hectare flood plain at the confluence of the Yamuna and Ganga Rivers. On the holiest bathing days, the population surged. Unlike other religious, cultural, and sports mass gatherings, the Kumbh Mela's administration cannot estimate or limit the participant number. The event created serious and uncommon public health challenges: initiating crowd safety measures where population density and mobility directly contact flowing bodies of water; providing water, sanitation, and hygiene to a population that frequently defecates in the open; and establishing disease surveillance and resource use measures within a temporary health delivery system. We review the world's largest gathering by observing first-hand the public health challenges, plus the preparations for and responses to them. We recommend ways to improve preparedness.

  20. Overview of pharmacovigilance practices at the largest academic healthcare system in the State of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hail, Moza; Elkassem, Wessam; Hamad, Anas; Abdulrouf, Pallivalappila; Thomas, Binny; Stewart, Derek

    2018-04-03

    Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are major global concern, adversely impacting patient safety and health outcomes. ADRs cause significant morbidity and mortality among hospitalised patients, causing greater length of hospital stay, increased healthcare costs and patient dissatisfaction to the treatments. Pharmacovigilance (PV), a process of detecting, monitoring and preventing drug-related harm, plays a vital role to ensure patient safety. ADR reporting is the cornerstone of PV. PV practices in Qatar are relatively new and are evolving rapidly. The purpose of this article is to explore the medication safety practices (notably ADR reporting) at the largest academic healthcare center in Qatar. The article further provides evidence on how information related to ADRs are generated and interpreted. Furthermore, it describes how a designated center for monitoring medication safety activities was established at the largest healthcare provider in Qatar.

  1. Constraining the magnitude of the largest event in a foreshock-main shock-aftershock sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Robert; Zhuang, Jiancang; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2018-01-01

    Extreme value statistics and Bayesian methods are used to constrain the magnitudes of the largest expected earthquakes in a sequence governed by the parametric time-dependent occurrence rate and frequency-magnitude statistics. The Bayesian predictive distribution for the magnitude of the largest event in a sequence is derived. Two types of sequences are considered, that is, the classical aftershock sequences generated by large main shocks and the aftershocks generated by large foreshocks preceding a main shock. For the former sequences, the early aftershocks during a training time interval are used to constrain the magnitude of the future extreme event during the forecasting time interval. For the latter sequences, the earthquakes preceding the main shock are used to constrain the magnitudes of the subsequent extreme events including the main shock. The analysis is applied retrospectively to past prominent earthquake sequences.

  2. THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY IN A85: THE LARGEST CORE KNOWN SO FAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Cruz, O.; Añorve, C.; Ibarra-Medel, H. J.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Motta, V.

    2014-01-01

    We have found that the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in A85, Holm 15A, displays the largest core known so far. Its cusp radius, r γ = 4.57 ± 0.06 kpc (4.''26 ± 0.''06), is more than 18 times larger than the mean for BCGs and ≳ 1 kpc larger than A2261-BCG, hitherto the largest-cored BCG. Holm 15A hosts the luminous amorphous radio source 0039-095B and has the optical signature of a LINER. Scaling laws indicate that this core could host a supermassive black hole (SMBH) of mass M • ∼ (10 9 -10 11 ) M ☉ . We suggest that cores this large represent a relatively short phase in the evolution of BCGs, whereas the masses of their associated SBMH might be set by initial conditions

  3. THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY IN A85: THE LARGEST CORE KNOWN SO FAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Cruz, O.; Añorve, C.; Ibarra-Medel, H. J. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Astrofísica, Luis Enrique Erro No.1, Tonantzintla, Pue., C.P. 72840 (Mexico); Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M. [HH Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Barkhouse, W. A. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202 (United States); Torres-Papaqui, J. P. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Guanajuato (DAUG), Callejón Jalisco S/N Col. Valenciana, C.P. 36240 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Motta, V., E-mail: omarlx@inaoep.mx [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Avda. Gran Bretaña 1111 Varaíso (Chile)

    2014-11-10

    We have found that the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in A85, Holm 15A, displays the largest core known so far. Its cusp radius, r {sub γ} = 4.57 ± 0.06 kpc (4.''26 ± 0.''06), is more than 18 times larger than the mean for BCGs and ≳ 1 kpc larger than A2261-BCG, hitherto the largest-cored BCG. Holm 15A hosts the luminous amorphous radio source 0039-095B and has the optical signature of a LINER. Scaling laws indicate that this core could host a supermassive black hole (SMBH) of mass M {sub •} ∼ (10{sup 9}-10{sup 11}) M {sub ☉}. We suggest that cores this large represent a relatively short phase in the evolution of BCGs, whereas the masses of their associated SBMH might be set by initial conditions.

  4. Niche overlap of congeneric invaders supports a single-species hypothesis and provides insight into future invasion risk: implications for global management of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew P; Terblanche, John S

    2014-01-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, has expanded its range rapidly over the past 10 years. Here we aimed to determine if the recent range expansion of Bactrocera invadens into southern Africa can be better understood through niche exploration tools, ecological niche models (ENMs), and through incorporating information about Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., a putative conspecific species from Asia. We test for niche overlap of environmental variables between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. as well as two other putative conspecific species, Bactrocera philippinensis and B. papayae. We examine overlap and similarity in the geographical expression of each species' realised niche through reciprocal distribution models between Africa and Asia. We explore different geographical backgrounds, environmental variables and model complexity with multiple and single Bactrocera species hypotheses in an attempt to predict the recent range expansion of B. invadens into northern parts of South Africa. Bactrocera invadens has a high degree of niche overlap with B. dorsalis s.s. (and B. philippinensis and B. papayae). Ecological niche models built for Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. have high transferability to describe the range of B. invadens, and B. invadens is able to project to the core range of B. dorsalis s.s. The ENMs of both Bactrocera dorsalis and B. dorsalis combined with B. philipenesis and B. papayae have significantly higher predictive ability to capture the distribution points in South Africa than for B. invadens alone. Consistent with other studies proposing these Bactrocera species as conspecific, niche similarity and overlap between these species is high. Considering these other Bactrocera dorsalis complex species simultaneously better describes the range expansion and invasion potential of B. invadens in South Africa. We suggest that these species should be considered the same-at least functionally-and global quarantine and management strategies applied

  5. Single-blind randomized clinical trial to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes after one year of immediate versus delayed implant placement supporting full-arch prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Bagán, Leticia; Fichy-Fernandez, Antonio J.; Canullo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare peri-implant health, marginal bone loss and success of immediate and delayed implant placement for rehabilitation with full-arch fixed prostheses. Material and Methods: The present study was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, clinical preliminary trial. Patients were randomized into two treatment groups. In Group A implants were placed immediately post-extraction and in Group B six months after extraction. The following control time-points were established: one week, six months and twelve months after loading. Measurements were taken of peri-implant crevicular fluid volume, plaque index, gingival retraction, keratinized mucosa, probing depth, modified gingival index and presence of mucositis. Implant success rates were evaluated for the two groups. The study sample included fifteen patients (nine women and six men) with a mean average age of 63.7 years. One hundred and forty-four implants were placed: 76 placed in healed sites and 68 placed immediately. Results: At the moment of prosthetic loading, keratinized mucosa width and probing depth were higher in immediate implants than delayed implants, with statistically significant differences. However, after six and twelve months, differences between groups had disappeared. Bone loss was 0.54 ± 0.39 mm for immediate implants and 0.66 ± 0.25 mm for delayed implants (p=0.201). No implants failed in either group. Conclusions: The present study with a short follow-up and a small sample yielded no statistically significant differences in implant success and peri-implant marginal bone loss between immediate and delayed implants with fixed full-arch prostheses. Peri-implant health showed no statistically significant differences for any of the studied parameters (crevicular fluid volume, plaque index, gingival retraction, keratinized mucosa, probing depth, modified gingival index and presence of mucositis) at the twelve-month follow-up. Key words:Immediate implants, delayed implants

  6. Niche Overlap of Congeneric Invaders Supports a Single-Species Hypothesis and Provides Insight into Future Invasion Risk: Implications for Global Management of the Bactrocera dorsalis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew P.; Terblanche, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, has expanded its range rapidly over the past 10 years. Here we aimed to determine if the recent range expansion of Bactrocera invadens into southern Africa can be better understood through niche exploration tools, ecological niche models (ENMs), and through incorporating information about Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., a putative conspecific species from Asia. We test for niche overlap of environmental variables between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. as well as two other putative conspecific species, Bactrocera philippinensis and B. papayae. We examine overlap and similarity in the geographical expression of each species’ realised niche through reciprocal distribution models between Africa and Asia. We explore different geographical backgrounds, environmental variables and model complexity with multiple and single Bactrocera species hypotheses in an attempt to predict the recent range expansion of B. invadens into northern parts of South Africa. Principal Findings Bactrocera invadens has a high degree of niche overlap with B. dorsalis s.s. (and B. philippinensis and B. papayae). Ecological niche models built for Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. have high transferability to describe the range of B. invadens, and B. invadens is able to project to the core range of B. dorsalis s.s. The ENMs of both Bactrocera dorsalis and B. dorsalis combined with B. philipenesis and B. papayae have significantly higher predictive ability to capture the distribution points in South Africa than for B. invadens alone. Conclusions/Significance Consistent with other studies proposing these Bactrocera species as conspecific, niche similarity and overlap between these species is high. Considering these other Bactrocera dorsalis complex species simultaneously better describes the range expansion and invasion potential of B. invadens in South Africa. We suggest that these species should be considered the same–at least

  7. Niche overlap of congeneric invaders supports a single-species hypothesis and provides insight into future invasion risk: implications for global management of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Hill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, has expanded its range rapidly over the past 10 years. Here we aimed to determine if the recent range expansion of Bactrocera invadens into southern Africa can be better understood through niche exploration tools, ecological niche models (ENMs, and through incorporating information about Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., a putative conspecific species from Asia. We test for niche overlap of environmental variables between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. as well as two other putative conspecific species, Bactrocera philippinensis and B. papayae. We examine overlap and similarity in the geographical expression of each species' realised niche through reciprocal distribution models between Africa and Asia. We explore different geographical backgrounds, environmental variables and model complexity with multiple and single Bactrocera species hypotheses in an attempt to predict the recent range expansion of B. invadens into northern parts of South Africa. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bactrocera invadens has a high degree of niche overlap with B. dorsalis s.s. (and B. philippinensis and B. papayae. Ecological niche models built for Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. have high transferability to describe the range of B. invadens, and B. invadens is able to project to the core range of B. dorsalis s.s. The ENMs of both Bactrocera dorsalis and B. dorsalis combined with B. philipenesis and B. papayae have significantly higher predictive ability to capture the distribution points in South Africa than for B. invadens alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Consistent with other studies proposing these Bactrocera species as conspecific, niche similarity and overlap between these species is high. Considering these other Bactrocera dorsalis complex species simultaneously better describes the range expansion and invasion potential of B. invadens in South Africa. We suggest that these species should be considered the same

  8. Sustainability reporting within the shipping industry - An exploratory study of the ten largest container shipping companies

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The shipping industry is one of the driving forces of the global economy, and sustainability issues are of key importance to the future of our world. Therefore, this thesis will combine them and look at sustainability within the shipping sector by doing an exploratory study of the ten largest container sh ipping companies . Sustainability reporting is becoming commonplace among larger companies, and therefore this thesis sets out to look at what i...

  9. Wet scavenging of SO2 emissions around India's largest lignite based power plant

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rai; S. Ghosh; S. Chakraborty

    2010-01-01

    The Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC) is among the largest lignite based power plants in South East Asia. The four elevated stacks from this power plant emanate a substantial amount of sulphur dioxide into a tropical boundary layer. Sulphur dioxide being a soluble pollutant gas is absorbed by falling raindrops. This is a first study that quantifies the scavenging action of the North Eastern monsoonal rains from a lignite based power plant. We find that although the North Eas...

  10. Approaching the largest ‘API’: extracting information from the Internet with Python

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan E. Germann

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the need for libraries to algorithmically access and manipulate the world’s largest API: the Internet. The billions of pages on the ‘Internet API’ (HTTP, HTML, CSS, XPath, DOM, etc.) are easily accessible and manipulable. Libraries can assist in creating meaning through the datafication of information on the world wide web. Because most information is created for human consumption, some programming is required for automated extraction. Python is an easy-to-learn progra...

  11. Immediate rehabilitation of the edentulous jaws with full fixed prostheses supported by four implants: interim results of a single cohort prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, Enrico; Panigatti, Stefano; Clericò, Matteo; Villa, Cristina; Malò, Paulo

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of immediately loaded full-arch fixed prostheses supported by a combination of axially and non-axially positioned implants in a large cohort of patients with completely edentulous jaws, up to 5 years of function. One hundred and seventy-three edentulous patients (80 males and 93 females) were enrolled according to specific selection criteria. Each patient received a full-arch fixed prosthesis supported by two distal tilted implants and two anterior axially placed implants. The provisional functional acrylic prosthesis was delivered the same day as surgery in all cases. All cases were finalized 4-6 months later. The patients were scheduled for follow-up at 6 and 12 months of function, and annually up to 5 years. At each follow-up plaque and bleeding score was assessed and radiographic evaluation of marginal bone level was performed. The overall follow-up range was 4-59 months. A total of 154 immediately loaded prostheses (61 in the maxilla and 93 in the mandible) were in function for at least 1 year and were considered for the analysis. Four axially placed implants failed in the maxilla and one tilted implant in the mandible, all within 6 months of loading. No further implant failure occurred to date. Implant survival at 1 year was 98.36% and 99.73% for the maxilla and the mandible, respectively. Marginal bone loss at 1 year averaged 0.9+/-0.7 mm in the maxilla (204 implants) and 1.2+/-0.9 mm in the mandible (292 implants). No difference was found in marginal bone loss between axial and tilted implants. Plaque and bleeding scores progressively improved from 6 to 12 months. Fracture of the acrylic prosthesis occurred in 14% of total cases. The present preliminary results from a relatively large sample size suggest that the present technique can be considered a viable treatment option for the immediate rehabilitation of both mandible and maxilla.

  12. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  13. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs. India: the third largest illicit opium producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Letizia; Greenfield, Victoria A; Charles, Molly; Reuter, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This paper explores India's role in the world illicit opiate market, particularly its role as a producer. India, a major illicit opiate consumer, is also the sole licensed exporter of raw opium: this unique status may be enabling substantial diversion to the illicit market. Participant observation and interviews were carried out at eight different sites. Information was also drawn from all standard secondary sources and the analysis of about 180 drug-related criminal proceedings reviewed by Indian High Courts and the Supreme Court from 1985 to 2001. Diversion from licit opium production takes place on such a large scale that India may be the third largest illicit opium producer after Afghanistan and Burma. With the possible exceptions of 2005 and 2006, 200-300 tons of India's opium may be diverted yearly. After estimating India's opiate consumption on the basis of UN-reported prevalence estimates, we find that diversion from licit production might have satisfied a quarter to more than a third of India's illicit opiate demand to 2004. India is not only among the world's largest consumer of illicit opiates but also one of the largest illicit opium producers. In contrast to all other illicit producers, India owes the latter distinction not to blatantly illicit cultivation but to diversion from licit cultivation. India's experience suggests the difficulty of preventing substantial leakage, even in a relatively well-governed nation.

  14. Hospital Prices Increase in California, Especially Among Hospitals in the Largest Multi-hospital Systems

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    Glenn A. Melnick PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A surge in hospital consolidation is fueling formation of ever larger multi-hospital systems throughout the United States. This article examines hospital prices in California over time with a focus on hospitals in the largest multi-hospital systems. Our data show that hospital prices in California grew substantially (+76% per hospital admission across all hospitals and all services between 2004 and 2013 and that prices at hospitals that are members of the largest, multi-hospital systems grew substantially more (113% than prices paid to all other California hospitals (70%. Prices were similar in both groups at the start of the period (approximately $9200 per admission. By the end of the period, prices at hospitals in the largest systems exceeded prices at other California hospitals by almost $4000 per patient admission. Our study findings are potentially useful to policy makers across the country for several reasons. Our data measure actual prices for a large sample of hospitals over a long period of time in California. California experienced its wave of consolidation much earlier than the rest of the country and as such our findings may provide some insights into what may happen across the United States from hospital consolidation including growth of large, multi-hospital systems now forming in the rest of the rest of the country.

  15. Collaborative spectrum sensing based on the ratio between largest eigenvalue and Geometric mean of eigenvalues

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new detector referred to as Geometric mean detector (GEMD) which is based on the ratio of the largest eigenvalue to the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues for collaborative spectrum sensing. The decision threshold has been derived by employing Gaussian approximation approach. In this approach, the two random variables, i.e. The largest eigenvalue and the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues are considered as independent Gaussian random variables such that their cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) are approximated by a univariate Gaussian distribution function for any number of cooperating secondary users and received samples. The approximation approach is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the largest eigenvalue and the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues of the received covariance matrix. The decision threshold has been calculated by exploiting the CDF of the ratio of two Gaussian distributed random variables. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables with the moments of the Gaussian distribution function. The performance of the detector is compared with the performance of the energy detector and eigenvalue ratio detector. Analytical and simulation results show that our newly proposed detector yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, our results based on proposed approximation approach are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. DNA sequences of troglobitic nicoletiid insects support Sierra de El Abra and the Sierra de Guatemala as a single biogeographical area: Implications for Astyanax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinasa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blind Mexican tetra fish, Astyanax mexicanus, has become the most influential model for research of cave adapted organisms. Many authors assume that the Sierra de Guatemala populations and the Sierra de El Abra populations are derived from two independent colonizations. This assumption arises in part from biogeography. The 100 m high, 100 m wide Servilleta Canyon of the Boquillas River separates both mountain ranges and is an apparent barrier for troglobite dispersion. Anelpistina quinterensis (Nicoletiidae, Zygentoma, Insecta is one of the most troglomorphic nicoletiid silverfish insects ever described. 16S rRNA sequences support that this species migrated underground to reach both mountain ranges within less than 12,000 years. Furthermore, literature shows a plethora of aquatic and terrestrial cave restricted species that inhabit both mountain ranges. Thus, the Servilleta canyon has not been an effective biological barrier that prevented underground migration of troglobites between the Sierra de Guatemala and the Sierra de El Abra. The Boquillas River has changed its course throughout time. Caves that in the past connected the two Sierras were only recently geologically truncated by the erosion of the new river course. It is likely that, with the geological changes of the area and throughout the 2-8 million years of evolutionary history of cave Astyanax, there have been opportunities to migrate across the Servilleta canyon.

  17. Immediate loading of two flapless placed mandibular implants supporting cross-arch fixed prostheses: a 3-year follow-up prospective single cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Gioacchino; Felice, Pietro; Boveri, Muriel; Lazzarini, Matteo; Ferri, Vittorio; Leone, Michele; Esposito, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of two implants placed flapless in fully edentulous mandibles and immediately restored with a metal-resin screw-retained cross-arch prostheses 3 years after loading. Eighty consecutively patients were recruited. Implants for immediate loading had to be inserted with a minimum torque of 80 Ncm. Outcome measures, evaluated by two independent assessors, were: prosthesis and implant failures, complications, marginal bone level changes, implant stability quotient (ISQ) values and patient satisfaction. Three years after loading, all prostheses were in function although one patient did not come back for the 1- and 3-year follow-ups. Two implants failed early in two patients, but were successfully replaced and their prostheses remade. Twelve complications occurred in 10 patients but were all successfully treated. After 3 years, mean marginal bone loss was 0.43 mm, mean ISQ values decreased from 75.4 to 75.3, and all but four patients were fully satisfied with the therapy. Four patients were partially satisfied because, lacking molars, they could not chew as they wished. Immediately loaded mandibular cross-arch partial dentures can be supported by only two dental implants up to 3 years. Longer follow-ups (around 10 years) are needed to know the prognosis of this treatment modality.

  18. 15 years of social crisis in the largest Circumpolar region: hygienic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrylgin, Mikhail A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the nature and size of the hygienical impact of social crisis on the public health of the population of a Circumpolar region. The study was carried out in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (area 3.1 million km2; population nearly 1 million). The analysis of health indicators was done using demographic and hygienical methods, and 15-year (1989-2005) statistical data from the Federal State Statistic Service division in the Sakha Republic. The study has yielded reliable data on public health trends of the population in the Sakha Republic. During a period of 15 years of social crisis, the population has declined by 13%, mainly due to the departure of 1/3 of the non-Aboriginal population, which clearly demonstrated the negative nature of social changes. The natural increase rate has been reduced to a 1/ 3. Marriage and family institutions were affected seriously, with twice more children born to single mothers and 2.6-fold more to fathers of a foreign origin. Incidence rates of alcoholic psychosis, chronic alcoholism and drug abuse increased 3.1- to 4.2-fold; and mortality associated with psycho-emotional stress (circulatory diseases, external causes of injury, digestive system diseases), 1.7- to 3.1-fold. Rates of mortality due to circulatory, respiratory and malignant neoplastic diseases were 1.6- to 2.7-fold lower than those in Russia in general. Such low mortality due to degenerative diseases was predetermined by the small percent of the elderly in the age structure (8.4%), which was 2.5-fold lower compared to Russia and developed countries. The public health status of the residents of Circumpolar areas was extremely sensitive to socioeconomic changes. The social crisis had a multifactorial effect on lifestyle, quality of life-supporting infrastructure, and particularly, on the medical care system, with highly negative hygienical implications.

  19. Comprehensive smoke-free laws--50 largest U.S. cities, 2000 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes heart disease and lung cancer in nonsmoking adults and several health conditions in children. Only completely eliminating smoking in indoor spaces fully protects nonsmokers from SHS. State and local laws can provide this protection in enclosed workplaces and public places by completely eliminating smoking in these settings. CDC considers a smoke-free law to be comprehensive if it prohibits smoking in all indoor areas of private workplaces, restaurants, and bars, with no exceptions. In response to growing evidence on the health effects of SHS, communities and states have increasingly adopted comprehensive smoke-free (CSF) laws in recent years. To assess trends in protecting the population from SHS exposure, CDC and the American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation (ANRF) compared coverage by local or state CSF laws in the 50 largest U.S. cities as of December 31, 2000, and October 5, 2012. The analysis focused on smoking restrictions in the 50 largest cities because these cities represent an important indicator of nationwide trends in local and state policy and because they are home to an estimated 47 million persons, or nearly 15% of the U.S. population. The analysis found that the number of these cities covered by local and/or state CSF laws increased from one city (2%) in 2000 to 30 cities (60%) in 2012. A total of 20 cities (40%) were not covered by a CSF law at either the local or state level in 2012, although 14 of these cities had 100% smoke-free provisions in place at the local or state level in at least one of the three settings considered. The results of this analysis indicate that substantial progress has been achieved during 2000-2012 in implementing CSF laws in the 50 largest U.S. cities. However, gaps in coverage, especially in the southern United States and in states with laws that preempt local smoking restrictions, are contributing to disparities in SHS protections.

  20. Foreign exchange risk management : how are the largest non-financial companies in Norway managing their foreign exchange rate exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Krister; Wedøe, Ola

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how the largest non-financial companies in Norway manage their foreign exchange rate exposure. This is investigated through the use of a survey distributed to a sample the largest non-financial firms in Norway. According to our results, the largest non-financial companies in Norway have a predefined strategy for managing foreign exchange risk, which is defined by the board of directors or by the management in the organisation. The companies’ mai...

  1. Line Balancing Using Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm In A Garment Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P.Jaganathan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of fast changes in fashion has given rise to the need to shorten production cycle times in the garment industry. As effective usage of resources has a significant effect on the productivity and efficiency of production operations, garment manufacturers are urged to utilize their resources effectively in order to meet dynamic customer demand. This paper focuses specifically on line balancing and layout modification. The aim of assembly line balance in sewing lines is to assign tasks to the workstations, so that the machines of the workstation can perform the assigned tasks with a balanced loading. Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm (LCR has been deployed in this paper.

  2. Female urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention: Reporting the largest diverticulum with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Female urethral diverticulum is a rare entity with diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is a very rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in females presenting with acute urinary retention associated with a vaginal mass. Strong clinical suspicion combined with thorough physical examination and focused radiological investigations are vital for its diagnosis. Herein we report a case of giant urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention in a young female. It was managed by excision and urethral closure, and is the largest urethral diverticulum reported till date in the literature.

  3. OBJECT TRACKING WITH ROTATION-INVARIANT LARGEST DIFFERENCE INDEXED LOCAL TERNARY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shajeena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ideal method for object tracking directly in the compressed domain in video sequences. An enhanced rotation-invariant image operator called Largest Difference Indexed Local Ternary Pattern (LDILTP has been proposed. The Local Ternary Pattern which worked very well in texture classification and face recognition is now extended for rotation invariant object tracking. Histogramming the LTP code makes the descriptor resistant to translation. The histogram intersection is used to find the similarity measure. This method is robust to noise and retain contrast details. The proposed scheme has been verified on various datasets and shows a commendable performance.

  4. THE EVOLUTION OF THE WORLD’S LARGEST AUTOMAKERS IN THE PERIOD 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George TOMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry has always represented an economic engine for many countries. It is dealing with the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and sale of the motor vehicles. Nowadays, this industry is full of intense competition between big auto groups fighting for higher profits and larger market shares. The key players in the automotive market are operating at a global scale in a highly competitive environment. In the last years, Toyota Motor and Volkswagen Group have proved to be the main competitors. The aim of our paper is to analyze the evolution of the world’s largest automakers in the period 2013-2014. The research type is literature review.

  5. Wet scavenging of SO2 emissions around India's largest lignite based power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Chakraborty, S.

    2010-03-01

    The Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC) is among the largest lignite based power plants in South East Asia. The four elevated stacks from this power plant emanate a substantial amount of sulphur dioxide into a tropical boundary layer. Sulphur dioxide being a soluble pollutant gas is absorbed by falling raindrops. This is a first study that quantifies the scavenging action of the North Eastern monsoonal rains from a lignite based power plant. We find that although the North Eastern monsoonal rains have a preponderance of very large droplets, the contribution of the small droplets cannot be neglected. We expect that the estimated scavenging coefficients can be used by large eddy and climate models.

  6. The Genome Russia project: closing the largest remaining omission on the world Genome map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksyk, Taras K; Brukhin, Vladimir; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    We are witnessing the great era of genome exploration of the world, as genetic variation in people is being detailed across multiple varied world populations in an effort unprecedented since the first human genome sequence appeared in 2001. However, these efforts have yet to produce a comprehensive mapping of humankind, because important regions of modern human civilization remain unexplored. The Genome Russia Project promises to fill one of the largest gaps, the expansive regions across the Russian Federation, informing not just medical genomics of the territories, but also the migration settlements  of historic and pre-historic Eurasian peoples.

  7. How the largest electric and gas utility companies administer public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogart, J.D.

    1979-04-12

    This article describes the findings of a survey conducted by the author in the second half of 1978 to determine the sizes of the public relations staffs of the nation's largest operating electric and gas utilities, their budgets, organizational differences, and specific functions. Common public relations issues and major public relations problems of the utilities are identified, as well as recent trends or changes in budgeting and organization. Some functional variations of public relations departments among utility companies were detected and described.

  8. Revisiting the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtac Yildirim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers. For that purpose, we estimate structural vector error correction (SVEC models to show the impacts of oil price increases on industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which are the elements of Taylor rule for the four largest oil importers (the USA, the EU, China and Japan. Our results indicate that oil price increases transmit to output and inflation and lead to fluctuations in industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which in turn influence the monetary policy stance in the following periods. The basic conclusion of research is that the channels through which oil prices affect output, inflation and interest rates should be identified by the monetary policy authorities of the USA, the EU, China and Japan. We also emphasize the importance of the determination of the optimal monetary policy framework to eliminate the negative consequences of oil price increases.

  9. Largest vertebrate vomeronasal type 1 receptor gene repertoire in the semiaquatic platypus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grus, Wendy E; Shi, Peng; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2007-10-01

    Vertebrate vomeronasal chemoreception plays important roles in many aspects of an organism's daily life, such as mating, territoriality, and foraging. Vomeronasal type 1 receptors (V1Rs) and vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2Rs), 2 large families of G protein-coupled receptors, serve as vomeronasal receptors to bind to various pheromones and odorants. Contrary to the previous observations of reduced olfaction in aquatic and semiaquatic mammals, we here report the surprising finding that the platypus, a semiaquatic monotreme, has the largest V1R repertoire and nearly largest combined repertoire of V1Rs and V2Rs of all vertebrates surveyed, with 270 intact genes and 579 pseudogenes in the V1R family and 15 intact genes, 55 potentially intact genes, and 57 pseudogenes in the V2R family. Phylogenetic analysis shows a remarkable expansion of the V1R repertoire and a moderate expansion of the V2R repertoire in platypus since the separation of monotremes from placentals and marsupials. Our results challenge the view that olfaction is unimportant to aquatic mammals and call for further study into the role of vomeronasal reception in platypus physiology and behavior.

  10. SUPERGRANULATION AS THE LARGEST BUOYANTLY DRIVEN CONVECTIVE SCALE OF THE SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossette, Jean-Francois [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Rast, Mark P. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-09-20

    The origin of solar supergranulation remains a mystery. Unlike granulation, the size of which is comparable to both the thickness of the radiative boundary layer and local scale-height in the photosphere, supergranulation does not reflect any obvious length scale of the solar convection zone. Moreover, recent observations of flows in the photosphere using Doppler imaging or correlation or feature tracking show a monotonic decrease in horizontal flow power at scales larger than supergranulation. Both local area and global spherical shell simulations of solar convection by contrast show the opposite, an increase in horizontal flow amplitudes to a low wavenumber. We examine these disparities and investigate how the solar supergranulation may arise as a consequence of nonlocal heat transport by cool diving plumes. Using three-dimensional anelastic simulations with surface driving, we show that the kinetic energy of the largest convective scales in the upper layers of a stratified domain reflects the depth of transition from strong buoyant driving to adiabatic stratification below caused by the dilution of the granular downflows. This depth is quite shallow because of the rapid increase of the mean density below the photosphere. We interpret the observed monotonic decrease in solar convective power at scales larger than supergranulation to be a consequence of this rapid transition, with the supergranular scale the largest buoyantly driven mode of convection in the Sun.

  11. New Closed-Form of the Largest Eigenvalue PDF for Max-SNR MIMO System Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letessier, Jonathan; Vrigneau, Baptiste; Rostaing, Philippe; Burel, Gilles

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) maximum-SNR (max-SNR) system employs the maximum ratio combiner (MRC) at the receiver side and the maximum ratio transmitter (MRT) at the transmitter side. Its performances highly depend on MIMO channel characteristics, which vary according to both the number of antennas and their distribution between the transmitter and receiver sides. By using the decomposition of the ordered Wishart distribution in the uncorrelated Rayleigh case, we derived a closed-form expression of the largest eigenvalue probability density function (PDF). The final result yields to an expression form of the PDF where polynomials are multiplied by exponentials; it is worth underlining that, though this form had been previously observed for given couples of antennas, to date no formally-written closed-form was available in the literature for an arbitrary couple. Then, this new expression permits one to quickly and easily get the well known largest eigenvalue PDF and use it to determine the binary error probability (BEP) of the max-SNR.

  12. Evaluation of nonlinear properties of epileptic activity using largest Lyapunov exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, Tatiana M.; Lüttjohann, Annika; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Sysoev, Ilya V.

    2016-04-01

    Absence seizures are known to be highly non-linear large amplitude oscillations with a well pronounced main time scale. Whilst the appearance of the main frequency is usually considered as a transition from noisy complex dynamics of baseline EEG to more regular absence activity, the dynamical properties of this type of epileptiformic activity in genetic absence models was not studied precisely. Here, the estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent from intracranial EEGs of 10 WAG/Rij rats (genetic model of absence epilepsy) was performed. Fragments of 10 seizures and 10 episodes of on-going EEG each of 4 s length were used for each animal, 3 cortical and 2 thalamic channels were analysed. The method adapted for short noisy data was implemented. The positive values of the largest Lyapunov exponent were found as for baseline as for spike wave discharges (SWDs), with values for SWDs being significantly less than for on-going activity. Current findings may indicate that SWD is a chaotic process with a well pronounced main timescale rather than a periodic regime. Also, the absence activity was shown to be less chaotic than the baseline one.

  13. Perception and Interpretation of Sustainability Among the Largest Corporations Established in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Petera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses perception and interpretation of sustainability among the largest corporations established in the Czech Republic. Despite the fact that the amount of literature on sustainability is substantial, there is lack of empirical investigation into understanding sustainability among corporations established in the Czech Republic. We used qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews to investigate how the largest corporations established in the Czech Republic understand and deal with sustainability-related issues. Key sustainability-related themes are identified and discussed in the paper. On the basis of comparison of our results with the prior literature it is possible to sum up that our findings are mostly in accordance with previous research. Majority of our respondents perceive sustainability as containing economic, environmental and social dimension and their sustainability-related initiatives are both internally and externally oriented. Reporting on sustainability is relatively new topic for respondents, but its importance is growing. The key future challenges include better integration of sustainability-related initiatives into the core business activities, implementation of sustainability accounting and standardization of sustainability reporting (probably on the basis of the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines.

  14. Constraining gravity at the largest scales through CMB lensing and galaxy velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Anthony R.; Alam, Shadab; He, Siyu; Ho, Shirley

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a new method to constrain gravity on the largest cosmological scales by combining measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing and the galaxy velocity field. EG is a statistic, constructed from a gravitational lensing tracer and a measure of velocities such as redshift-space distortions (RSD), that can discriminate between gravity models while being independent of clustering bias and σ8. While traditionally, the lensing field for EG has been probed through galaxy lensing, CMB lensing has been proposed as a more robust tracer of the lensing field for EG at higher redshifts while avoiding intrinsic alignments. We perform the largest-scale measurement of EG ever, up to 150 Mpc h-1, by cross-correlating the Planck CMB lensing map with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) CMASS galaxy sample and combining this with our measurement of the CMASS auto-power spectrum and the RSD parameter β. We report EG(z = 0.57) = 0.243 ± 0.060 (stat) ± 0.013 (sys), a measurement in tension with the general relativity (GR) prediction at a level of 2.6σ. Note that our EG measurement deviates from GR only at scales greater than 80 Mpc h-1, scales which have not been probed by previous EG tests. Upcoming surveys, which will provide an order-of-magnitude reduction in statistical errors, can significantly constrain alternative gravity models when combined with better control of systematics.

  15. The largest magnitudes of earthquakes associated with some historical volcanic eruptions and their volcanological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yokoyama

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We know several reports of earthquake swarms associated with volcanic eruptions in the 19th century or older periods when seismographs were not yet available. Even if we have no seismographs, the largest magnitudes of earthquakes can be estimated by the maximum distances of perceptibility which are determined by reports of felt shocks or by records of earthquake movements at various distances from the origins. For example, the largest magnitudes of the earthquake swarms associated with the 1815 eruption of Tambora is estimated at 7 by the reports of felt shocks from three sites and that of the 1883 eruption of Krakatau is estimated at 5 by examination of magnetograms in place of seismograms. The magnitude of the 7 class is exceptionally large as volcanic origin, but we know a few examples besides Tambora. The magnitude 5 of the Krakatau eruption is rather small contrary to our expectation, and implies that crustal stresses had not accumulated much at the Krakatau area to cause larger earthquakes. The earthquake magnitudes associated with volcanic eruptions are not necessarily proportional to explosion magnitudes or volume of volcanic ejecta, and may have a volcanological significance. Such volcanic earthquakes may be closely related to readjustments of tectonic stresses caused by magma movements or phase transitions of magmatic material beneath and around volcanoes, and may be called magmatotectonic earthquakes.

  16. Ownership structure and economic and socio-environmental disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aquino Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of sustainable practices has become important in the search for competitive advantage, so as to meet the expectations of the various stakeholders. Thus, the study aims to investigate the relationship between the ownership structure and the economic and environmental voluntary disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies, analyzing ownership concentration and the identity of the controlling shareholder. For the analysis, we considered the economic, social and environmental perspectives, addressed both individually and jointly. The sample consists of 47 companies from the 100 largest public companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, according to the magazine Exame Biggest and Best, edition 2013. The research is descriptive and quantitative, using Multiple Linear Regression for statistical analysis. The descriptive analysis of the prospects of (economic, social, environmental and sustainability disclosure showed lower average disclosure for the environmental aspect. The state control organizations stood out with the highest average in three of the four levels of disclosure: economic, social and sustainability. As regards the application of statistical analysis, the regression models were not statistically significant, indicating that, for the companies in the sample, the ownership structure does not influence the economic and socio-environmental disclosure.

  17. Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ramirez-Llodra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna.

    Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 28 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st century. However, for most of these habitats the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller – indeed, minimal – proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation thus shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps. Here, chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold

  18. Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Brandt, A.; Danovaro, R.; de Mol, B.; Escobar, E.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Menot, L.; Buhl-Mortensen, P.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Smith, C. R.; Tittensor, D. P.; Tyler, P. A.; Vanreusel, A.; Vecchione, M.

    2010-09-01

    The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 28 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st century. However, for most of these habitats the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller - indeed, minimal - proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation thus shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps. Here, chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold-water corals have an increased

  19. One last boom : Alberta's rapidly expanding oil mines may be the largest and messiest industrial projects in Canadian history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, G.

    2001-01-01

    The bitumen deposits of Alberta, 2.5 trillion barrels of oil, of which 300 billion are considered recoverable, represent the greatest single petroleum resources of the world, based on surface and subsurface calculations. Four deposits, covering an area the size of New Brunswick, are located in the area stretching from Cold Lake to Lloydminster (east of Edmonton), the upper reaches of the Athabasca River east to the Peace River. The largest by far is the Athabasca deposit in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, spread over 4.3 million hectares. The deposit is at the centre of the biggest industrial expansion witnessed by the province. Since 1996, 38 billion dollars worth of new projects have been announced. It is estimated that by 2025, the bulk of the national oil production will originate from open-pit mines and underground wells around Fort McMurray. This oil boom has economic benefits for the population, from welders to real estate agents to stakeholders. The environmental effects are not as beneficial. Huge strip mines are being carved next to the Athabasca River, with great amounts of greenhouse gases emissions. The Suncor and Syncrude oil-sands plants combined represent the fourth largest carbon dioxide emission source in Canada. The development of these projects dramatically affects global warming. The nitrogen and sulphur emissions could also acidify lakes and soil in the region. The Suncor mine resulted from the first boom to hit Fort McMurray in 1964. The Syncrude mine is the result of the second boom which took place in 1973. In 1996, Suncor installed a sulphur scrubber system that removes 95 per cent of sulphur dioxide from the electricity and steam-generation plant. Suncor also invested in various projects, such as wind-power, rainforest cultivation and biomass generation. The volume of pollution increases as the operations expand, even if operations are cleaner. If no new gains in pollution control are achieved, it is expected that by 2015, the total

  20. Statistics of the largest geomagnetic storms per solar cycle (1844-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A previous application of extreme-value statistics to the first, second and third largest geomagnetic storms per solar cycle for nine solar cycles is extended to fourteen solar cycles (1844–1993. The intensity of a geomagnetic storm is measured by the magnitude of the daily aa index, rather than the half-daily aa index used previously. Values of the conventional aa index (1868–1993, supplemented by the Helsinki Ak index (1844–1880, provide an almost continuous, and largely homogeneous, daily measure of geomagnetic activity over an interval of 150 years. As in the earlier investigation, analytic expressions giving the probabilities of the three greatest storms (extreme values per solar cycle, as continuous functions of storm magnitude (aa, are obtained by least-squares fitting of the observations to the appropriate theoretical extreme-value probability functions. These expressions are used to obtain the statistical characteristics of the extreme values; namely, the mode, median, mean, standard deviation and relative dispersion. Since the Ak index may not provide an entirely homogeneous extension of the aa index, the statistical analysis is performed separately for twelve solar cycles (1868–1993, as well as nine solar cycles (1868–1967. The results are utilized to determine the expected ranges of the extreme values as a function of the number of solar cycles. For fourteen solar cycles, the expected ranges of the daily aa index for the first, second and third largest geomagnetic storms per solar cycle decrease monotonically in magnitude, contrary to the situation for the half-daily aa index over nine solar cycles. The observed range of the first extreme daily aa index for fourteen solar cycles is 159–352 nT and for twelve solar cycles is 215–352 nT. In a group of 100 solar cycles the expected ranges are expanded to 137–539 and 177–511 nT, which represent increases of 108% and 144% in the respective ranges. Thus there is at least a

  1. UV-B–induced forest sterility: Implications of ozone shield failure in Earth’s largest extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benca, Jeffrey P.; Duijnstee, Ivo A. P.; Looy, Cindy V.

    2018-01-01

    Although Siberian Trap volcanism is considered a primary driver of the largest extinction in Earth history, the end-Permian crisis, the relationship between these events remains unclear. However, malformations in fossilized gymnosperm pollen from the extinction interval suggest biological stress coinciding with pulsed forest decline. These grains are hypothesized to have been caused by enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation from volcanism-induced ozone shield deterioration. We tested this proposed mechanism by observing the effects of inferred end-Permian UV-B regimes on pollen development and reproductive success in living conifers. We find that pollen malformation frequencies increase fivefold under high UV-B intensities. Surprisingly, all trees survived but were sterilized under enhanced UV-B. These results support the hypothesis that heightened UV-B stress could have contributed not only to pollen malformation production but also to deforestation during Permian-Triassic crisis intervals. By reducing the fertility of several widespread gymnosperm lineages, pulsed ozone shield weakening could have induced repeated terrestrial biosphere destabilization and food web collapse without exerting a direct “kill” mechanism on land plants or animals. These findings challenge the paradigm that mass extinctions require kill mechanisms and suggest that modern conifer forests may be considerably more vulnerable to anthropogenic ozone layer depletion than expected. PMID:29441357

  2. Analyzing hidden populations online: topic, emotion, and social network of HIV-related users in the largest Chinese online community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuchu; Lu, Xin

    2018-01-05

    Traditional survey methods are limited in the study of hidden populations due to the hard to access properties, including lack of a sampling frame, sensitivity issue, reporting error, small sample size, etc. The rapid increase of online communities, of which members interact with others via the Internet, have generated large amounts of data, offering new opportunities for understanding hidden populations with unprecedented sample sizes and richness of information. In this study, we try to understand the multidimensional characteristics of a hidden population by analyzing the massive data generated in the online community. By elaborately designing crawlers, we retrieved a complete dataset from the "HIV bar," the largest bar related to HIV on the Baidu Tieba platform, for all records from January 2005 to August 2016. Through natural language processing and social network analysis, we explored the psychology, behavior and demand of online HIV population and examined the network community structure. In HIV communities, the average topic similarity among members is positively correlated to network efficiency (r = 0.70, p Online communities have generated copious amounts of data offering new opportunities for understanding hidden populations with unprecedented sample sizes and richness of information. It is recommended that support through online services for HIV/AIDS consultation and diagnosis be improved to avoid privacy concerns and social discrimination in China.

  3. Microbial life in the Lake Medee, the largest deep-sea salt-saturated formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimov, Michail M; La Cono, Violetta; Slepak, Vladlen Z; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Messina, Enzo; Borghini, Mireno; Monticelli, Luis S; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Golyshina, Olga V; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura

    2013-12-19

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Eastern Mediterranean represent some of the most hostile environments on our planet. We investigated microbial life in the recently discovered Lake Medee, the largest DHAL found to-date. Medee has two unique features: a complex geobiochemical stratification and an absence of chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria, which usually play the primary role in dark bicarbonate assimilation in DHALs interfaces. Presumably because of these features, Medee is less productive and exhibits reduced diversity of autochthonous prokaryotes in its interior. Indeed, the brine community almost exclusively consists of the members of euryarchaeal MSBL1 and bacterial KB1 candidate divisions. Our experiments utilizing cultivation and [(14)C]-assimilation, showed that these organisms at least partially rely on reductive cleavage of osmoprotectant glycine betaine and are engaged in trophic cooperation. These findings provide novel insights into how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated conditions and sustain active metabolism at the thermodynamic edge of life.

  4. What could we learn about high energy particle physics from cosmological observations at largest spatial scales ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The very well known example of cosmology testing particle physics is the number of relativistic particles (photons and three active neutrinos within the Standard Model at primordial nucleosynthesis. These days the earliest moment we can hope to probe with present cosmological data is the early time inflation. The particle physics conditions there and now are different because of different energy scales and different values of the scalar fields, that usually prohibits a reliable connection between the particle physics parameters at the two interesting epochs. The physics at the highest energy scales may be probed with observations at the largest spatial scales (just somewhat smaller than the size of the visible Universe. However, we are not (yet ready to make the tests realistic, because of lack of a self-consistent theoretical description of the presently favorite cosmological models to be valid right after inflation.

  5. The Large Hadron Collider and the Role of Superconductivity in One of the Largest Scientific Enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Lucio

    2007-01-01

    After ten years of R&D and industrialization and seven years of construction, the LHC is near completion. The manufacture of the 1750 main superconducting magnets and of the 8000 superconducting correctors for the accelerator, as well as their cold test at CERN, is approaching the end, while their commissioning in the 27 km-long tunnel has started. The very large superconducting magnets for the main detectors, ATLAS and CMS, are installed and their commissioning is under way. Superconductivity is the key technology for the largest scientific enterprise of this decade: it accounts for half of the total cost and has proved to be affordable and reliable. Thanks to superconductivity we can probe new states of matters and reproduce conditions of 1 ps after the big bang. The paper will give the link between the Physics requirements and the answers that applied superconductivity has offered in this project.

  6. Analysis of the Emergence in Swarm Model Based on Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergent behaviors of collective intelligence systems, exemplified by swarm model, have attracted broad interests in recent years. However, current research mostly stops at observational interpretations and qualitative descriptions of emergent phenomena and is essentially short of quantitative analysis and evaluation. In this paper, we conduct a quantitative study on the emergence of swarm model by using chaos analysis of complex dynamic systems. This helps to achieve a more exact understanding of emergent phenomena. In particular, we evaluate the emergent behaviors of swarm model quantitatively by using the chaos and stability analysis of swarm model based on largest Lyapunov exponent. It is concluded that swarm model is at the edge of chaos when emergence occurs, and whether chaotic or stable at the beginning, swarm model will converge to stability with the elapse of time along with interactions among agents.

  7. Contamination Control Assessment of the World's Largest Space Environment Simulation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Aaron; Henry, Michael W.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Sinclair, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Power Facility s thermal vacuum test chamber is the largest chamber in the world capable of providing an environment for space simulation. To improve performance and meet stringent requirements of a wide customer base, significant modifications were made to the vacuum chamber. These include major changes to the vacuum system and numerous enhancements to the chamber s unique polar crane, with a goal of providing high cleanliness levels. The significance of these changes and modifications are discussed in this paper. In addition, the composition and arrangement of the pumping system and its impact on molecular back-streaming are discussed in detail. Molecular contamination measurements obtained with a TQCM and witness wafers during two recent integrated system tests of the chamber are presented and discussed. Finally, a concluding remarks section is presented.

  8. Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Mauna Loa on the Island Hawaiʻi is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawaiʻi (Island of Hawaiʻi) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

  9. Enhanced natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activity: the largest contributor to the Chinese population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Liu Yanyang

    2011-01-01

    For the radiation exposure caused by human activities, the enhanced natural radiation exposure is the largest contributor to Chinese population dose. This problem has attracted social attention in recent years. Efforts have been made in several fields, such as radon indoors and in workplace, environmental problems associated with NORMs, occupational radiation hazards of non-uranium mine, and radiation dose evaluation for energy chain, but there are still many problems to be solved. In order to protect the health of workers and the public, while ensuring industrial production and economic development, it is also necessary to continue to strengthen research in all aspects above mentioned, and gradually promote the control of natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activities. (authors)

  10. Field Note: Threatening Tonle Sap: Challenges for Southeast-Asia’s largest Freshwater Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tonle Sap ecosystem in Cambodia is Southeast Asia’s largest freshwater lake; strongly impacted by the Mekong river flood pulse. The lake is home to exceptional biodiversity, and rural communities living in free floating villages on the lake and on its shores. The fragile niche ecosystems as well as the rural livelihoods of Tonle Sap are under severe threat. Overfishing, illegal wood harvesting, further resource exploitation, and water quality deterioration all impact the stability of the socio-ecological system of Tonle Sap. At the same time, expected flood pulse changes due to regulatory measures in the context of hydropower development upstream on the Mekong are a severe threat for Tonle Sap’s ecosystem stability. The area needs to shift into the focus of attention of national and international re-searchers, stakeholders, and decision makers, to find suitable pathways for a future sustainable development of this unique and pristine region.

  11. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks

    KAUST Repository

    Arias-Ortiz, A.

    2018-03-29

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass ecosystem, containing up to 1.3% of the total C stored within the top metre of seagrass sediments worldwide. On the basis of field studies and satellite imagery, we estimate that 36% of Shark Bay’s seagrass meadows were damaged following a marine heatwave in 2010/2011. Assuming that 10 to 50% of the seagrass sediment C stock was exposed to oxic conditions after disturbance, between 2 and 9 Tg CO could have been released to the atmosphere during the following three years, increasing emissions from land-use change in Australia by 4–21% per annum. With heatwaves predicted to increase with further climate warming, conservation of seagrass ecosystems is essential to avoid adverse feedbacks on the climate system.

  12. The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca; Soule, S Adam; Manga, Michael; White, James; McPhie, Jocelyn; Wysoczanski, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoerger, Dana; Fornari, Daniel; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Houghton, Bruce; Mitchell, Samuel; Ikegami, Fumihiko; Conway, Chris; Murch, Arran; Fauria, Kristen; Jones, Meghan; Cahalan, Ryan; McKenzie, Warren

    2018-01-01

    The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km 2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.

  13. Quicksort, largest bucket, and min-wise hashing with limited independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Randomized algorithms and data structures are often analyzed under the assumption of access to a perfect source of randomness. The most fundamental metric used to measure how “random” a hash function or a random number generator is, is its independence: a sequence of random variables is said...... to be k-independent if every variable is uniform and every size k subset is independent. In this paper we consider three classic algorithms under limited independence. Besides the theoretical interest in removing the unrealistic assumption of full independence, the work is motivated by lower independence...... being more practical. We provide new bounds for randomized quicksort, min-wise hashing and largest bucket size under limited independence. Our results can be summarized as follows. Randomized Quicksort. When pivot elements are computed using a 5-independent hash function, Karloff and Raghavan, J.ACM’93...

  14. On a thin set of integers involving the largest prime factor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie De Koninck

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For each integer n≥2, let P(n denote its largest prime factor. Let S:={n≥2:n does not divide P(n!} and S(x:=#{n≤x:n∈S}. Erdős (1991 conjectured that S is a set of zero density. This was proved by Kastanas (1994 who established that S(x=O(x/logx. Recently, Akbik (1999 proved that S(x=O(x exp{−(1/4logx}. In this paper, we show that S(x=x exp{−(2+o(1×log x log log x}. We also investigate small and large gaps among the elements of S and state some conjectures.

  15. The chance of transport behavior paradigm in the largest cities of Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Denis

    2017-06-01

    This article discusses the issue of transit scenarios (or paradigm) changes in the largest Russian cities. Carrying out research and evaluation studies the authors surveyed the passengers of the new rapid off-street transit system, the Moscow Central Circle (MCC). The survey was prepared using the MCC reports data on passengers landing measured in the morning peak hours. Analysis of the survey results obtained by the authors, reveals shifts in pedestrian traffic and permits to estimate its size and main directions. It was noted a significant change in common behaviour regarding the increased length of the walking distance to the stations of rapid off-street transport. In view of the fact that the issue of the walking distance standard governs a huge range of further decisions, the research results can be used in sustainable transit travel planning and urban territorial development as well as in preparation of the regulatory documentation.

  16. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Backwaters of North America's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueche, S. M.; Xu, Y. J.; Reiman, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) is the largest distributary of the Mississippi River flowing through south-central Louisiana, creating North America's largest river swamp basin - the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). Prior to human settlement, the AR's main channel was highly connected to this large wetland ecosystem. However, due to constructed levee systems and other human modifications, much of the ARB is now hydrologically disconnected from the AR's main channel except during high flow events. This lack of regular inputs of fresh, oxygenated water to these wetlands, paired with high levels of organic matter decomposition in wetlands, has caused low oxygen-deprived hypoxic conditions in the ARB's back waters. In addition, due to the incredibly nutrient-rich and warm nature of the ARB, microbial decomposition in backwater areas with limited flow often results in potentially stressful, if not lethal, levels of DO for organisms during and after flood pulses. This study aims to investigate dynamics of dissolved oxygen in backwaters of the Atchafalaya River Basin, intending to answer a crucial question about hydrological and water quality connectivity between the river's mainstem and its floodplain. Specifically, the study will 1) conduct field water quality measurements, 2) collect composite water samples for chemical analysis of nutrients and carbon, 3) investigate DO dynamics over different seasons for one year, and 4) determine the major factors that affect DO dynamics in this unique swamp ecosystem. The study is currently underway; therefore, in this presentation we will share the major findings gained in the past several months and discuss backwater effects on river chemistry.

  17. Is Kasei Valles (Mars) the largest volcanic channel in the solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David W.

    2018-02-01

    With a length of more than 2000 km and widths of up to several hundred kilometers, Kasei Valles is the largest outflow system on Mars. Superficially, the scabland-like character of Kasei Valles is evocative of terrestrial systems carved by catastrophic aqueous floods, and the system is widely interpreted as a product of outbursts from aquifers. However, as at other Martian outflow channels, clear examples of fluvial sedimentary deposits have proven difficult to identify here. Though Kasei Valles lacks several key properties expected of aqueous systems, its basic morphological and contextual properties are aligned with those of ancient volcanic channels on Venus, the Moon, Mercury, and Earth. There is abundant evidence that voluminous effusions of low-viscosity magmas occurred at the head of Kasei Valles, the channel system acted as a conduit for associated flows, and mare-style volcanic plains developed within its terminal basin. Combined mechanical and thermal incision rates of at least several meters per day are estimated to have been readily achieved at Kasei Valles by 20-m-deep magmas flowing with viscosities of 1 Pa s across low topographic slopes underlain by bedrock. If Kasei Valles formed through incision by magma, it would be the largest known volcanic channel in the solar system. The total volume of magma erupted at Kasei Valles is estimated here to have possibly reached or exceeded ∼5 × 106 km3, a volume comparable in magnitude to those that characterize individual Large Igneous Provinces on Earth. Development of other large outflow systems on Mars is expected to have similarly involved eruption of up to millions of cubic kilometers of magma.

  18. An analysis of audit committee effectiveness at the largest listed companies in South Africa from a CFO and audit committee perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Marx

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate and analyse the effective functioning of audit committees at the largest listed companies in South Africa. Problem investigated: The modern audit committee is often seen as the panacea of the corporate world and as such is looked upon to cure all the financial reporting and control-related problems of entities. Audit committees are, however, not always as effective as they are held to be, as is evidenced by the many well-known corporate scandals and business failures that occurred where audit committees existed and fraudulent financial reporting, audit failures, internal control breakdowns and other irregularities prevailed. The modern audit committee will be of value only if it is properly constituted, is functioning effectively and if its role is clearly understood by all the parties concerned. The research problem investigated stems precisely from this issue, and the paper therefore aims to analyse the effective functioning of the audit committees at the largest listed companies in South Africa. Methodology: The study empirically tested the audit committee practices at the largest listed companies in South Africa. This was done through questionnaires addressed to the CFOs and audit committee chairs. Findings: The study found that audit committees at the largest listed companies in South Africa are well established, properly constituted, have the authority and resources to effectively discharge their responsibilities and consist of members who act independently and who have the right mix of appropriate experience, financial literacy and financial expertise amongst their members. The audit committee's role was found to be generally well understood and supported by the board and the Chief Financial Officers. It was further found that the audit committees are effective in discharging their oversight responsibilities on the board's behalf, with the only real exception being their effectiveness

  19. Spatial and temporal activity patterns of the free-living giant mole-rat (Fukomys mechowii, the largest social bathyergid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Lövy

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia, knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels. Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions.

  20. [Steroid dominance, enzyme activity and morphological appearance of granulosa cells in the largest follicles in cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazár, L; Kolodzieyski, L

    1993-01-01

    The cyclic nature of the female reproduction process depends to a considerable degree on the unique capacity of ovarial follicles to change their structure and function. The differentiation process during folliculogenesis takes place in all parts of the follicle. Granulosa cells reflect a high degree of structural changes and play an important role in functional maturation of the inert follicle. Changes in the reaction to endocrine and paracrine effects from a unique environment that is inevitably necessary for oocyte growth and ovulation were reached by changes in the biochemical activity and the internal anatomic mutual relation of the follicle (Linder et al., 1976; Hsueh, 1976). This growth process and differentiation depend on gonadotropic stimulation of the follicles and the quantity of receptor sites able to bind them. The aim of this work was compare estradiol 17-beta and progesterone levels in the follicular fluid of the largest follicles with the morphological structure and enzymatic activity of membrana granulosa cells. Ovaries were obtained from 34 SS x LBS randomly chosen cows at the slaughter-house. Follicular fluid to estradiol 17-beta and progesterone level determination was obtained by aspiration of the largest follicles. Estradiol 17-beta and progesterone levels were determined by RIA sets from the URVJT (Institute of Radioecology and Use of Nuclear Techniques) in Kosice, type RIA-test-ESTRA (SI-125-129) and RIAA-test-Prog (SI-125-6), respectively. With the methods used the variation coefficient of intra- and interassay for the estradiol 17-beta of the RIA set were 10.1 and 13.3%, for progesterone of the RIA set these values were 11.4 and 13.7% respectively. Steroid dominance of follicles was determined by the method described by Căllesen et al. (1986), based on the expression of the index of the mutual relation between progesterone levels and estradiol 17-beta was levels. Excisions from the follicular wall were examined under the scanning

  1. Bioremediation efficiency of the largest scale artificial Porphyra yezoensis cultivation in the open sea in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hailong; Huo, Yuanzi; Zhang, Jianheng; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yating; He, Peimin

    2015-06-15

    The bioremediation efficiency of China's largest scale Porphyra yezoensis cultivation for removing dissolved nutrients and controlling harmful algae was studied in the radial sandbanks waters of Jiangsu Province in the year 2012-2013. Mean nutrient concentration values in the P. yezoensis cultivation area were significantly lower than those in the non-cultivation area, especially during the cultivation season (p<0.05). Tissue nitrogen and phosphorus contents of seaweeds were 5.99-0.80% (dry weight (DW)) and 0.16-0.19% (DW), respectively. Production of P. yezoensis was 58950.87tons DW. Based on these values, 3688.15tons of tissue nitrogen and 105.61tons of tissue phosphorus were removed by harvesting P. yezoensis. The richness index of the red tide species Skeleton emacostatum declined from 0.32 to 0.05 during the P. yezoensis cultivation season. These results indicate that large-scale cultivation of P. yezoensis can be used to efficiently alleviate eutrophication and control harmful algae blooms in open sea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.

    2016-11-01

    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  3. Dynamics of sediment disturbance by periodic artificial discharges from the world's largest tidal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. W.; Ha, H. K.; Woo, S. B.

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the dynamics of sediment disturbance near the world's largest Sihwa tidal power plant (TPP), two mooring observations have been conducted. The mooring results show that current velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were significantly disturbed over various time scales. On the short-term (flood-ebb) time scale, resuspension of bottom sediment is mainly controlled by the strong jet-flow (>2 m s-1) and resulting anticlockwise rotating vortex associated with the artificial discharge. During ebb phase, the strong flow resulted in suspension of high-concentration near-bed sediment and seaward transport of the suspended sediment. After turning to flood phase, the vortex produced secondary SSC peaks, transporting the suspended sediment toward the Sihwa TPP. The most active suspension of bed sediment predominantly occurred during 1-2 h immediately after the start of artificial discharge. For the fortnightly (spring-neap) time scale, SSC during spring tide was approximately 2-5 times higher than that during neap tide. During the combined period of ebb and spring tides, in particular, the periodic artificial discharge can enhance the responses of SSC in the vicinity of Sihwa TPP.

  4. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lace, M. J.; Kambesis, P. N.; Mylroie, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  5. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Sternberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity’s collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance.

  6. Characteristics and Trends in Hypnotics Consumption in the Largest Health Care System in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Marom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To quantify and characterize hypnotics consumption habits among adult patients insured by Clalit Health Services (CHS, the largest health care provider in Israel, in 2000 and 2010. Methods. A retrospective analysis of CHS computerized pharmacy records. Data were collected for all patients over the age of 18 years who were prescribed hypnotics in 2000 and in 2010. Results. Sleep medications were consumed by 8.7% of the adult CHS population in 2000 and by 9.6% in 2010. About one-quarter of consumers were treated for more than 6 months in both years. Multiple sleeping drugs were consumed more often in 2010 (45.2% than a decade before (22%. While in 2000 benzodiazepines accounted for 84.5% of hypnotics, in 2010 this was reduced to 73.7% (p<0.05. Of all patients treated for longer than 6 months only 11% in 2000 and 9% in 2010 required a dose escalation suggesting the absence of tolerance. Conclusions. Nine percent of the Israeli population consumes hypnotics. There is a major increase in prescription of combination of medications between 2000 and 2010, with an increase in Z class medications use and reduction in benzodiazepines. Most patients chronically treated did not escalate dosage, suggesting the absence of tolerance.

  7. Racial Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality in the 50 Largest U.S. Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamins, Maureen R; Hirschtick, Jana L; Hunt, Bijou R; Hughes, Michelle M; Hunter, Brittany

    2016-12-06

    Heart disease is not only the leading cause of death in the U.S. but also the main contributor to racial disparities in life expectancy. Despite this, heart disease mortality rates and racial disparities in these rates are not readily available at the city level where they can be the most quickly and effectively addressed. We calculated age-adjusted heart disease mortality rates and corresponding racial rate ratios (RRs) and rate differences (RDs) for the non-Hispanic Black (Black) and non-Hispanic White (White) populations for the years 1990-1994 and 2005-2009 for the U.S. and the 50 largest cities therein. We then examined relationships between the disparities and city-level population indicators. Nationally, mortality rates were significantly higher among Blacks than Whites at both time periods. Larger improvements in rates for Whites compared to Blacks resulted in a significant increase in disparities over the 20-year period for 11 cities. There were 19,448 excess Black deaths in the U.S. annually. City-level income inequality, as well as the overall city and White median household income, contributed to these disparities. By identifying city-specific disparities and trends, health care providers, public health agencies, and researchers can target the areas with the most need and can look at cities without disparities for clues on how to best advance health equity in heart disease morbidity and mortality.

  8. Stand Up for the Burrup: Saving the Largest Aboriginal Rock Art Precinct in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dampier Rock Art Precinct contains the largest and most ancient collection of Aboriginal rock art in Australia. The cultural landscape created by generations of Aboriginal people includes images of long-extinct fauna and demonstrates the response of peoples to a changing climate over thousands of years as well as the continuity of lived experience. Despite Australian national heritage listing in 2007, this cultural landscape continues to be threatened by industrial development. Rock art on the eastern side of the archipelago, on the Burrup Peninsula, was relocated following the discovery of adjacent off-shore gas reserves so that a major gas plant could be constructed. Work has now begun on the construction of a second major gas plant nearby. This article describes the rock art of the Dampier Archipelago and the troubled history of European-Aboriginal contact history, before examining the impact of industry on the region and its environment. The destruction of Aboriginal rock art to meet the needs of industry is an example of continuing indifference to Aboriginal culture. While the complex struggle to protect the cultural landscape of the Burrup, in particular, involving Indigenous people, archaeologists, historians, state and federal politicians, government bureaucrats and multi-national companies, eventually led to national heritage listing, it is not clear that the battle to save the Burrup has been won.

  9. Reconstructing the population history of the largest tribe of India: the Dravidian speaking Gond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Tamang, Rakesh; Pennarun, Erwan; Dubey, Pavan; Rai, Niraj; Upadhyay, Rakesh Kumar; Meena, Rajendra Prasad; Patel, Jayanti R; van Driem, George; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Gond comprise the largest tribal group of India with a population exceeding 12 million. Linguistically, the Gond belong to the Gondi-Manda subgroup of the South Central branch of the Dravidian language family. Ethnographers, anthropologists and linguists entertain mutually incompatible hypotheses on their origin. Genetic studies of these people have thus far suffered from the low resolution of the genetic data or the limited number of samples. Therefore, to gain a more comprehensive view on ancient ancestry and genetic affinities of the Gond with the neighbouring populations speaking Indo-European, Dravidian and Austroasiatic languages, we have studied four geographically distinct groups of Gond using high-resolution data. All the Gond groups share a common ancestry with a certain degree of isolation and differentiation. Our allele frequency and haplotype-based analyses reveal that the Gond share substantial genetic ancestry with the Indian Austroasiatic (ie, Munda) groups, rather than with the other Dravidian groups to whom they are most closely related linguistically.

  10. Inequalities in noncommunicable disease mortality in the ten largest Japanese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Megumi; Hotta, Miyuki; Prasad, Amit

    2013-12-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases and social inequalities in health among urban populations is becoming a common problem around the world. This phenomenon is further compounded by population aging. Japan faces the task of maintaining its high level of population health while dealing with these challenges. This study focused on the ten largest cities in Japan and, using publicly available administrative data, analyzed standardized mortality ratios to examine inequalities in relative mortality levels due to major noncommunicable disease at both city and subcity levels. On average, the ten major cities had excess mortality due to cancer and lower mortality due to heart disease and cerebrovascular disease compared to the country as a whole. Substantial inequalities in relative mortality were observed both between and within cities, especially for heart disease and cerebrovascular disease among men. Inequalities in relative mortality levels within cities appear to be increasing over time even while relative mortality levels are decreasing overall. The widely observed health inequalities signal the need for actions to ensure health equity while addressing the burden of noncommunicable diseases. Increasingly, more countries will have to deal with these challenges of inequity, urbanization, aging, and noncommunicable diseases. Local health governance informed by locally specific data on health determinants and outcomes is essential for developing contextualized interventions to improve health and health equity in major urban areas.

  11. Mortgage loans: an analysis of the portfolios of the largest banks in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vinícius Ramos Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the current macroeconomic environment experienced in Brazil, where inflation has stabilized and the basic interest rate of the economy is in one of their historical lows, demand for mortgages is increasing. In this context, the mortgage is presented with great emphasis to meet the demand for purchasing housing in addition to being a catalyst for the reduction of the high housing deficit. From a descriptive and empirical-analytic was analyzed the mortgage loan portfolio of the largest banks of the country between the years 2001 and 2010 through Quarterly Financial Information (IFT available on the Central Bank website. It was settled a comparative relationship between the data in order to check the development of mortgage portfolios over the years and the factors that influenced this evolution, and evaluate the timeliness and quality of those loans. For the evolution of the portfolio there was an economic context in which Brazil was included in the period, and observed that for most of these operations are long term the banks are more exposed to market risk. With regard to credit risk parse that, over the years, Brazilian banks are presenting a mortgage loan portfolio with lower risk, and it is found that institutions with real estate credits with higher levels of portfolio risk are subject to have higher losses on such operations in the possibility of default.

  12. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Arroyo-García

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology.

  13. Monitoring coastal pollution associated with the largest oil refinery complex of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Croquer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated pollution levels in water and sediments of Península de Paraguaná and related these levels with benthic macrofauna along a coastal area where the largest Venezuelan oil refineries have operated over the past 60 years. For this, the concentration of heavy metals, of hydrocarbon compounds and the community structure of the macrobenthos were examined at 20 sites distributed along 40 km of coastline for six consecutive years, which included windy and calm seasons. The spatial variability of organic and inorganic compounds showed considerably high coastal pollution along the study area, across both years and seasons. The southern sites, closest to the refineries, had consistently higher concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds in water and sediments when compared to those in the north. The benthic community was dominated by polychaetes at all sites, seasons and years, and their abundance and distribution were significantly correlated with physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Sites close to the oil refineries were consistently dominated by families known to tolerate xenobiotics, such as Capitellidae and Spionidae. The results from this study highlight the importance of continuing long-term environmental monitoring programs to assess the impact of effluent discharge and spill events from the oil refineries that operate in the western coast of Paraguaná, Venezuela.

  14. KEPLER-1647B: THE LARGEST AND LONGEST-PERIOD KEPLER TRANSITING CIRCUMBINARY PLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, Veselin B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Doyle, Laurance R. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Principia College, IMoP, One Maybeck Place, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Quarles, Billy [Department of Physics and Physical Science, The University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States); Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas as Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Ford, Eric B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 428A Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gregorio, Joao [Atalaia Group and Crow-Observatory, Portalegre (Portugal); Hinse, Tobias C. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Advanced Astronomy and Space Science Division, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jenkins, Jon M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Jensen, Eric L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States); Kane, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Kull, Ilya, E-mail: veselin.b.kostov@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); and others

    2016-08-10

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R {sub Jup}, it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M {sub Jup}. The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric ( e {sub bin} = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  15. KEPLER-1647B: THE LARGEST AND LONGEST-PERIOD KEPLER TRANSITING CIRCUMBINARY PLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Veselin B.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B.; Gregorio, Joao; Hinse, Tobias C.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Kane, Stephen; Kull, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R Jup , it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M Jup . The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric ( e bin = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  16. Percolation under noise: Detecting explosive percolation using the second-largest component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viles, Wes; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Tang, Ariana; Kramer, Mark A.; Kolaczyk, Eric D.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of distinguishing between different rates of percolation under noise. A statistical model of percolation is constructed allowing for the birth and death of edges as well as the presence of noise in the observations. This graph-valued stochastic process is composed of a latent and an observed nonstationary process, where the observed graph process is corrupted by type-I and type-II errors. This produces a hidden Markov graph model. We show that for certain choices of parameters controlling the noise, the classical (Erdős-Rényi) percolation is visually indistinguishable from a more rapid form of percolation. In this setting, we compare two different criteria for discriminating between these two percolation models, based on the interquartile range (IQR) of the first component's size, and on the maximal size of the second-largest component. We show through data simulations that this second criterion outperforms the IQR of the first component's size, in terms of discriminatory power. The maximal size of the second component therefore provides a useful statistic for distinguishing between different rates of percolation, under physically motivated conditions for the birth and death of edges, and under noise. The potential application of the proposed criteria for the detection of clinically relevant percolation in the context of applied neuroscience is also discussed.

  17. Multisensor Parallel Largest Ellipsoid Distributed Data Fusion with Unknown Cross-Covariances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyu; Zhan, Xingqun; Zhu, Zheng H

    2017-06-29

    As the largest ellipsoid (LE) data fusion algorithm can only be applied to two-sensor system, in this contribution, parallel fusion structure is proposed to introduce the LE algorithm into a multisensor system with unknown cross-covariances, and three parallel fusion structures based on different estimate pairing methods are presented and analyzed. In order to assess the influence of fusion structure on fusion performance, two fusion performance assessment parameters are defined as Fusion Distance and Fusion Index. Moreover, the formula for calculating the upper bounds of actual fused error covariances of the presented multisensor LE fusers is also provided. Demonstrated with simulation examples, the Fusion Index indicates fuser's actual fused accuracy and its sensitivity to the sensor orders, as well as its robustness to the accuracy of newly added sensors. Compared to the LE fuser with sequential structure, the LE fusers with proposed parallel structures not only significantly improve their properties in these aspects, but also embrace better performances in consistency and computation efficiency. The presented multisensor LE fusers generally have better accuracies than that of covariance intersection (CI) fusion algorithm and are consistent when the local estimates are weakly correlated.

  18. Hydrodynamic and Inundation Modeling of China’s Largest Freshwater Lake Aided by Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China’s largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake, is characterized by rapid changes in its inundation area and hydrodynamics, so in this study, a hydrodynamic model of Poyang Lake was established to simulate these long-term changes. Inundation information was extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS remote sensing data and used to calibrate the wetting and drying parameter by assessing the accuracy of the simulated inundation area and its boundary. The bottom friction parameter was calibrated using current velocity measurements from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP. The results show the model is capable of predicting the inundation area dynamic through cross-validation with remotely sensed inundation data, and can reproduce the seasonal dynamics of the water level, and water discharge through a comparison with hydrological data. Based on the model results, the characteristics of the current velocities of the lake in the wet season and the dry season of the lake were explored, and the potential effect of the current dynamic on water quality patterns was discussed. The model is a promising basic tool for prediction and management of the water resource and water quality of Poyang Lake.

  19. Epidemiological study of hepatitis A, B and C in the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Márcia A D; Reis, Nádia Rúbia S; Kozlowski, Aline G; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Mello, Francisco C A; Gomes, Selma A; Martins, Regina M B

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis A, B and C in the Kalunga population, which represents the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community. Among 878 individuals studied, the overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies was 80.9%, with a significant rise from 44.8% to near 100% between the first and fourth decade of life. Rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) of 1.8% and 35.4%, respectively, were found. Increasing age, male gender, illiteracy and history of multiple sexual partners were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An occult HBV infection rate of 1.7% (5/295) was found among anti-HBc-positive individuals. HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) was dominant in this community. Only 5/878 individuals (0.6%) were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV RNA was detected in three of them, who were infected with genotype 1 (subtype 1a). These findings point out high, intermediate and low endemicity for hepatitis A, B and C, respectively, in the Kalunga community in Brazil. Circulation of HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) in this Afro-Brazilian isolated community indicates the introduction of this virus during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  20. Psychiatric disorders and suicide in the nation's largest state prison system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Penn, Joseph V; Thomas, Christopher R; Temple, Jeff R; Baillargeon, Gwen; Murray, Owen J

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the overall rate of psychiatric disorders and suicides in the nation's largest state prison population. Data from 234,031 Texas Department of Criminal Justice inmates who were incarcerated for any duration between September 2006 and September 2007 were analyzed by Poisson regression, to assess the independent associations of major psychiatric disorders and demographic characteristics with suicide. Across the entire study cohort, 41 inmates (18 per 100,000) were reported to have committed suicide during the 12-month follow-up period; 21 of them had a diagnosis of a serious mental illness. An elevated risk of suicide was observed among inmates with major depressive disorder (relative risk [RR] = 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-13.8), bipolar disorder (RR = 4.6, CI = 1.3-15.9), and schizophrenia (RR = 7.3, CI = 1.7-15.9). The highest overall risk was present in those inmates with a nonschizophrenic psychotic disorder (RR = 13.8, CI = 5.8-32.9). These findings highlight the importance of maintaining suicide prevention programs in correctional settings, with particular emphasis on screening and monitoring of patients with severe psychiatric disorders.

  1. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sources and distribution of microplastics in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Xianchuan; Shi, Huahong; Luo, Ze; Wu, Chenxi

    2018-04-01

    Microplastic pollution was studied in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake in this work. Microplastics were detected with abundance varies from 0.05 × 10 5 to 7.58 × 10 5 items km -2 in the lake surface water, 0.03 × 10 5 to 0.31 × 10 5 items km -2 in the inflowing rivers, 50 to 1292 items m -2 in the lakeshore sediment, and 2 to 15 items per individual in the fish samples, respectively. Small microplastics (0.1-0.5 mm) dominated in the lake surface water while large microplastics (1-5 mm) are more abundant in the river samples. Microplastics were predominantly in sheet and fiber shapes in the lake and river water samples but were more diverse in the lakeshore sediment samples. Polymer types of microplastics were mainly polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) as identified using Raman Spectroscopy. Spatially, microplastic abundance was the highest in the central part of the lake, likely due to the transport of lake current. Based on the higher abundance of microplastics near the tourist access points, plastic wastes from tourism are considered as an important source of microplastics in Qinghai Lake. As an important area for wildlife conservation, better waste management practice should be implemented, and waste disposal and recycling infrastructures should be improved for the protection of Qinghai Lake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, Consuelo; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes

  4. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, Consuelo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: consuelo.riva@unimi.it; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes.

  5. Monitoring carbon monoxide pollution over the largest ten cities in the US using satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; de Beurs, K.; Owsley, B.; Krehbiel, C. P.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the several air pollutants that are largely produced by anthropogenic activities in urban areas as a result of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels. Long-term satellite data can monitor spatial and temporal changes in CO globally. Here we investigated spatial, vertical, and temporal changes in CO concentrations over the largest ten US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) using Version 6 MOPITT TIR-only CO retrievals. The 15-year average of MOPITT Surface CO concentrations over urban areas were highest (388 ppbv) over New York City and lowest (151 ppbv) over Miami. The influence of cities on elevated CO levels extends well beyond the immediate urban area. The CO seasonal profiles above the surface show distinct seasonality with peaks March-April and troughs September-October. However, larger cities show a lack of CO seasonality near the surface. We applied the nonparametric Seasonal Kendall (SK) trend test to the CO time series. Results revealed significant decreasing trends in CO concentration, with stronger trends in the lower atmosphere (>700 hPa) than in the mid-troposphere (500-700 hPa). Our results demonstrate the strong influence of local urban emissions on (near-) surface CO concentrations. Decreasing urban CO over the past 15 years reflects improved urban metabolism through improved energy efficiency, and increasing use of alternative transportation and zero-emission vehicles.

  6. Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijnen, V.; Wooster, M. J.; Kaiser, J. W.; Gaveau, D. L. A.; Flemming, J.; Parrington, M.; Inness, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Main, B.; van Weele, M.

    2016-05-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño. We estimate carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest seen in maritime southeast Asia since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997. Compared to that event, a much better constrained regional total carbon emission estimate can be made for the 2015 fires through the use of present-day satellite observations of the fire’s radiative power output and atmospheric CO concentrations, processed using the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and combined with unique in situ smoke measurements made on Kalimantan.

  7. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  8. Differences between serious and nonserious patient safety incidents in the largest hospital district in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jämsä, Juho Olavi; Palojoki, Sari Hannele; Lehtonen, Lasse; Tapper, Anna-Maija

    2018-01-10

    To determine if and in what ways serious patient safety incidents differ from nonserious patient safety incidents. Statistical analysis was performed on patient safety incident reports that were reported in 2015 in Finland's largest hospital district (Helsinki and Uusimaa, HUS). Reports were divided into two groups: nonserious incidents and serious incidents. Differences between groups were studied from several types of categorically divided information. Of the total number of reports (15,863), 1% were serious incidents (175). Serious and nonserious incidents differed significantly from each other. Serious incidents concerning laboratory, imaging, or medical equipment were more common. On the other hand, incidents concerning medication, infusion, and blood transfusion were less frequent. In serious incidents, the proportion of doctors reporting was greater, and contributing factors were better recognized, the most common being working of procedures. In the future, special attention should be given to the particular aspects of serious patient safety incidents, such as safe use of medical equipment, training, and handling of procedures. Root cause analysis is an effective way to handle serious incidents and enables the prevention of their reoccurrence. However, a systematic follow-up of the root cause analysis should be developed. © 2018 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  9. Critical Gaps in the World’s Largest Electronic Medical Record: Ad Hoc Nursing Narratives and Invisible Adverse Drug Events

    OpenAIRE

    Hurdle, John F.; Weir, Charlene R.; Roth, Beverly; Hoffman, Jennifer; Nebeker, Jonathan R.

    2003-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, operates one of the largest healthcare networks in the world. Its electronic medical record (EMR) is fully integrated into clinical practice, having evolved over several decades of design, testing, trial, and error. It is unarguably the world’s largest EMR, and as such it makes an important case study for a host of timely informatics issues. The VHA consistently has been at the vanguard of patient safety, esp...

  10. Rewriting the Landform History of One of Africa's Three Largest Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Kalahari Basin in southern Africa - one of the largest basins in Africa, along with the Congo and Chad basins - has attracted attention since David Livingstone traveled through the area in the 1840s. It is a semiarid desert with a large freshwater swampland known as the Okavango Swamp (150 km radius). This prominent megafan (a fan with radii >100 km), with its fingers of dark green forests projecting into the dun colors of the dunes of the Kalahari semi-desert, has been well photographed by astronauts over the years. The study area in the northern Kalahari basin is centered on the Okavango megafan of northwest Botswana, whose swampland has become well known as an African wildlife preserve of importance to biology and tourism alike. The Okavango River is unusual because it has deposited not one but two megafans along its course: the Okavango megafan and the Cubango megafan. The Okavango megafan is one of only three well-known megafans in Africa. Megafans on Earth were once thought to be rare, but recent research has documented 68 in Africa alone. Eleven megafans, plus three more candidates, have been documented in the area immediately surrounding the Okavango feature. These 11 megafans occupy the flattest and smoothest terrains adjacent to the neighboring upland and stand out as the darkest areas in the roughness map of the area. Megafan terrains occupy at least 200,000 sq km of the study area. The roughness map shown is based on an algorithm used first on Mars to quantify topographic roughness. Research of Earth's flattest terrains is just beginning with the aid of such maps, and it appears that these terrains are analogous to the flattest regions of Mars. Implications: 1. The variability in depositional style in each subbasin may apply Africa-wide: rift megafan length is dominated by rift width, whereas Owambo subbasin megafans are probably controlled by upland basin size; Zambezi subbasin megafans appear more like foreland basin types, with the position of

  11. A comparison of the effects of visual deprivation and regular body weight support treadmill training on improving over-ground walking of stroke patients: a multiple baseline single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kang, Sun-Young; Jeon, Hye-Seon

    2015-01-01

    The body-weight-support treadmill (BWST) is commonly used for gait rehabilitation, but other forms of BWST are in development, such as visual-deprivation BWST (VDBWST). In this study, we compare the effect of VDBWST training and conventional BWST training on spatiotemporal gait parameters for three individuals who had hemiparetic strokes. We used a single-subject experimental design, alternating multiple baselines across the individuals. We recruited three individuals with hemiparesis from stroke; two on the left side and one on the right. For the main outcome measures we assessed spatiotemporal gait parameters using GAITRite, including: gait velocity; cadence; step time of the affected side (STA); step time of the non-affected side (STN); step length of the affected side (SLA); step length of the non-affected side (SLN); step-time asymmetry (ST-asymmetry); and step-length asymmetry (SL-asymmetry). Gait velocity, cadence, SLA, and SLN increased from baseline after both interventions, but STA, ST-asymmetry, and SL-asymmetry decreased from the baseline after the interventions. The VDBWST was significantly more effective than the BWST for increasing gait velocity and cadence and for decreasing ST-asymmetry. VDBWST is more effective than BWST for improving gait performance during the rehabilitation for ground walking.

  12. Assessment of Marginal Peri-implant Bone-Level Short-Length Implants Compared with Standard Implants Supporting Single Crowns in a Controlled Clinical Trial: 12-Month Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Azpur, Gerardo; Lau, Miguel; Valdivia, Erick; Rojas, Jorge; Muñoz, Henry; Nevins, Myron

    In oral rehabilitation, crown-to-root ratio is accepted as an indicator of bone loss, and this concept was transferred to implants. Recent studies have indicated that there is no significant difference between short and standard implants. The aim of this study was to compare marginal bone-level alteration through radiographic evaluation and clinical parameters between short and standard implants supporting single crowns. This prospective clinical trial study included 82 systemically healthy, nonsmoking subjects. Patients were divided into two groups: one group for short dental implants measuring 5.5 or 7 mm, and one group for standard dental implants measuring 10 or 12 mm, in accordance with the individual needs of the patient. A clinical dental history was taken for each subject, including model casts, dental radiography, and cone beam computed tomography. A periapical analysis was also performed using ImageJ computer software to establish the initial bone measurement and periapical bone loss. A statistically significant difference was found in favor of the standard-length implants after 12 months, with greater gingival recession around the implant; however, bone loss in the short implants did not exceed 0.53 mm. The treatment with 5.5- to 7-mm-length implants is as reliable as treatment with 10- or 12-mm implants. Peri-implant bone loss is minimal, and therefore use of short implants can be recommended as treatment for the restoration of partially edentulous patients without the need for splinted crowns.

  13. Indication and implementation of lipidapheresis, rheopheresis, or immunoadsorption (lessons learnt from Germany's largest apheresis center).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heigl, Franz; Hettich, Reinhard; Lotz, Norbert; Reeg, Harduin; Eder, Bernadette; Steckholzer-Kroth, Karin; Browatzki, Michael; Harre, Kerstin; Arendt, Rainer

    2009-12-29

    Efficient modes of extracorporeal blood purification are available today for apheresis treatment of progressive atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease, or for improving hemorheology. Advanced technology and sophisticated care render apheresis treatment selective, safe and tolerable. Our task is to constantly update indications for apheresis based on best evidence available and good clinical practice, as well as, to determine how apheresis therapy can be made available to those in need or with otherwise refractory disease. Presenting examples of lipid apheresis, rheopheresis, or immunoadsorption for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipoproteinemia (a), acute hearing loss, refractory or exacerbating multiple sclerosis, we highlight real world obstacles for implementation of treatment, resulting in still too many patients with proven or recommended indication left untreated. Based on the experience of the largest apheresis center in Germany, with more than 3,300 treatments per year, we depict the necessary structure for identification of patients, defining indication, referral, implementation of therapy, and reimbursement. Apheresis is unfamiliar to most patients and many practitioners or consultants. Nephrologists, performing >90% of apheresis treatments in Germany, have to form a network for referral comprising all regional care-givers, general practitioners as well as the respective specialists (mainly, cardiologists, endocrinologists, diabetologists, ORL specialists, neurologists, ophthalmologists, or rheumatologists), and insurances or other cost-bearing parties for offering a scientifically approved therapeutic regimen and comprehensive care. We have realized this concept in a high volume apheresis center acting in a closely knit network characterized by an unrelenting effort at ongoing medical education. As a consequence, we include approximately 10 times more patients with appropriate diagnoses in our apheresis program as compared to the national average

  14. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; van Vliet, Michelle T H; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-07-15

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline in irrigation water use replacing a former plan which intended to develop reservoirs and irrigation. However, none of these water management plans, which have large socio-economic impacts, have been assessed under future changes in climate and water availability. By adapting a method of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for hypersaline lakes, we estimated annually 3.7·10(9)m(3) water is needed to preserve Urmia Lake. Then, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was forced with bias-corrected climate model outputs for both the lowest (RCP2.6) and highest (RCP8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios to estimate future water availability and impacts of water management strategies. Results showed a 10% decline in future water availability in the basin under RCP2.6 and 27% under RCP8.5. Our results showed that if future climate change is highly limited (RCP2.6) inflow can be just enough to meet the EFRs by implementing the reduction irrigation plan. However, under more rapid climate change scenario (RCP8.5) reducing irrigation water use will not be enough to save the lake and more drastic measures are needed. Our results showed that future water management plans are not robust under climate change in this region. Therefore, an integrated approach of future land-water use planning and climate change adaptation is therefore needed to improve future water security and to reduce the desiccating of this hypersaline lake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nature appropriation and associations with population health in Canada's largest cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainham, Daniel; Cantwell, Rory; Jason, Timothy

    2013-03-26

    Earth is a finite system with a limited supply of resources. As the human population grows, so does the appropriation of Earth's natural capital, thereby exacerbating environmental concerns such as biodiversity loss, increased pollution, deforestation and global warming. Such concerns will negatively impact human health although it is widely believed that improving socio-economic circumstances will help to ameliorate environmental impacts and improve health outcomes. However, this belief does not explicitly acknowledge the fact that improvements in socio-economic position are reliant on increased inputs from nature. Gains in population health, particularly through economic means, are disconnected from the appropriation of nature to create wealth so that health gains become unsustainable. The current study investigated the sustainability of human population health in Canada with regard to resource consumption or "ecological footprints" (i.e., the resources required to sustain a given population). Ecological footprints of the 20 largest Canadian cities, along with several important determinants of health such as income and education, were statistically compared with corresponding indicators of human population health outcomes. A significant positive relationship was found between ecological footprints and life expectancy, as well as a significant negative relationship between ecological footprints and the prevalence of high blood pressure. Results suggest that increased appropriation of nature is linked to improved health outcomes. To prevent environmental degradation from excessive appropriation of natural resources will require the development of health promotion strategies that are de-coupled from ever-increasing and unsustainable resource use. Efforts to promote population health should focus on health benefits achieved from a lifestyle based on significantly reduced consumption of natural resources.

  16. Iceland as the largest source of natural air pollution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Meinander, Outi; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur

    2017-04-01

    Arctic aerosols are often attributed to the Arctic Haze and long-range transport tracers. There is, however, an important dust source in the Arctic/Sub-arctic region which should receive more attention. The largest desert in the Arctic as well as in the Europe is Iceland with > 40,000 km2 of desert areas. The mean dust suspension frequency was 135 dust days annually in 1949-2012 with decreasing numbers in 2013-2015. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 31-40 million tons yr-1 affecting the area of > 500,000 km2. Satelite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes traveling > 1000 km at times. The physical properties of Icelandic dust showed differences in mineralogy, geochemical compositions, shapes, sizes, and colour, compared to the crustal mineral dust. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin, dark in colour with sharp-tipped shards and large bubbles. About 80% of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals, such as iron and titanium. Suspended dust measured at the glacial dust source consisted of such high number of close-to-ultrafine particles as concentrations during active eruptions. Generally, about 50% of the suspended PM10 are submicron particles in Iceland. Contrarily, suspended grains > 2 mm were captured during severe dust storm after the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption when the aeolian transport exceeded 11 t m-1 of materials and placed this storms among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. Our reflectance measurements showed that Icelandic dust deposited on snow lowers the snow albedo and reduces the snow density as much as Black Carbon. Icelandic volcanic dust tends to act as a positive climate forcing agent, both directly and indirectly, which is different to what generally concluded for crustal dust in the 2013 IPCC report. The high frequency, severity and year-round activity of volcanic dust emissions suggest that Icelandic dust may contribute to Arctic warming.

  17. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Site Optimization for Poyang Lake, the Largest Freshwater Lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a coupled method to optimize the surface water quality monitoring sites for a huge freshwater lake based on field investigations, mathematical analysis, and numerical simulation tests. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as the research area. Based on the field investigated water quality data in the 5 years from 2008 to 2012, the water quality inter-annual variation coefficients at all the present sites and the water quality correlation coefficients between adjacent sites were calculated and analyzed to present an optimization scheme. A 2-D unsteady water quality model was established to get the corresponding water quality data at the optimized monitoring sites, which were needed for the rationality test on the optimized monitoring network. We found that: (1 the water quality of Piaoshan (No. 10 fluctuated most distinguishably and the inter-annual variation coefficient of NH3-N and TP could reach 99.77% and 73.92%, respectively. The four studied indexes were all closely related at Piaoshan (No. 10 and Tangyin (No. 11, and the correlation coefficients of COD and NH3-N could reach 0.91 and 0.94 separately. (2 It was suggested that the present site No. 10 be removed to avoid repeatability, and it was suggested that the three sites of Changling, Huzhong, and Nanjiang be added to improve the representativeness of the monitoring sites. (3 According to the rationality analysis, the 21 optimized water quality monitoring sites could scientifically replace the primary network, and the new monitoring network could better reflect the water quality of the whole lake.

  18. Geochemical characterization of the largest upland lake of the Brazilian Amazonia: Impact of provenance and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir Martins; da Silva, Marcio Sousa; Nascimento, Wilson, Júnior; Powell, Mike A.; Reis, Luiza Santos; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro

    2017-12-01

    Lake Três Irmãs (LTI), the largest upland lake in the Brazilian Amazonia, located in Serra dos Carajás, was characterized using multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry (δ13C and δ15N) to understand the significance of organic and inorganic sources, weathering and sedimentary processes on the distribution of elements in lake bottom (surficial) sediments. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from sedimentary organic matter suggest C3 terrestrial plants (forests > canga vegetation), macrophytes and freshwater DOC as the main sources. Sediments are depleted in most of the major oxides (except Fe2O3 and P2O5) when compared to upper continental crust (UCC) and their spatial distribution is highly influenced by catchment lithology. Principal Component Analysis revealed that most of the trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Y, V, Cr, Ga, Co, Ni) and REEs are closely correlated with Al and Ti (PC1; Group-1), so their redistribution is less influenced by post-depositional process. This is due to their relative immobility and being hosted by Al-bearing minerals during laterization. High Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mafic Index of Alteration (MIA) and Index of Laterization (IOL) values indicate intense chemical weathering at source areas, but the weathering transformation was better quantified by IOL. A-CN-K plot along with elemental ratios (Al/K, Ti/K, Ti/Zr, La/Al, Cr/Th, Co/Th, La/Sm, La/Gd, Zr/Y, and Eu/Eu*) as well as chondrite-normalized REE patterns show that the detritic sediments are mainly sourced from ferruginous laterites and soils in the catchment, which may have characteristics similar to mafic rocks.

  19. Solomon Islands largest hawksbill turtle rookery shows signs of recovery after 150 years of excessive exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Hamilton

    Full Text Available The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands' future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet.

  20. The world's largest macroalgal bloom in the Yellow Sea, China: Formation and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyan; Keesing, John K.; He, Peimin; Wang, Zongling; Shi, Yajun; Wang, Yujue

    2013-09-01

    The world's largest trans-regional macroalgal blooms during 2008-2012 occurred in the Yellow Sea, China. This review addresses the causes, development and future challenges in this unique case. Satellite imagery and field observations showed that the macroalgal blooms in the Yellow Sea originated from the coast of Jiangsu province and that favorable geographic and oceanographic conditions brought the green macroalgae from the coast offshore. Optimal temperature, light, nutrients and wind contributed to the formation and transport of the massive bloom north into the Yellow Sea and its deposition onshore along the coast of Shandong province. Morphological and genetic evidence demonstrated that the species involved was Ulva prolifera, a fouling green commonly found growing on structures provided by facilities of Porphyra aquaculture. Large scale Porphyra aquaculture (covering >20,000 ha) along the Jiangsu coast thus hypothetically provided a nursery bed for the original biomass of U. prolifera. Porphyra growers remove U. prolifera from the mariculture rafts, and the cleaning releases about 5000 wet weight tonnes of green algae into the water column along the coast of Jiangsu province; the biomass then is dispersed by hydrographic forcing, and takes advantage of rather high nutrient supply and suitable temperatures to grow to impressive levels. Certain biological traits of U. prolifera —efficient photosynthesis, rapid growth rates, high capacity for nutrient uptake, and diverse reproductive systems— allowed growth of the original 5000 tonnes of U. prolifera biomass into more than one million tonnes of biomass in just two months. The proliferation of U. prolifera in the Yellow Sea resulted from a complex contingency of circumstances, including human activity (eutrophication by release of nutrients from wastewater, agriculture, and aquaculture), natural geographic and hydrodynamic conditions (current, wind) and the key organism's biological attributes. Better

  1. Dragon's paradise lost: palaeobiogeography, evolution and extinction of the largest-ever terrestrial lizards (Varanidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Hocknull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The largest living lizard species, Varanus komodoensis Ouwens 1912, is vulnerable to extinction, being restricted to a few isolated islands in eastern Indonesia, between Java and Australia, where it is the dominant terrestrial carnivore. Understanding how large-bodied varanids responded to past environmental change underpins long-term management of V. komodoensis populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reconstruct the palaeobiogeography of Neogene giant varanids and identify a new (unnamed species from the island of Timor. Our data reject the long-held perception that V. komodoensis became a giant because of insular evolution or as a specialist hunter of pygmy Stegodon. Phyletic giantism, coupled with a westward dispersal from mainland Australia, provides the most parsimonious explanation for the palaeodistribution of V. komodoensis and the newly identified species of giant varanid from Timor. Pliocene giant varanid fossils from Australia are morphologically referable to V. komodoensis suggesting an ultimate origin for V. komodoensis on mainland Australia (>3.8 million years ago. Varanus komodoensis body size has remained stable over the last 900,000 years (ka on Flores, a time marked by major faunal turnovers, extinction of the island's megafauna, the arrival of early hominids by 880 ka, co-existence with Homo floresiensis, and the arrival of modern humans by 10 ka. Within the last 2000 years their populations have contracted severely. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Giant varanids were once a ubiquitous part of Subcontinental Eurasian and Australasian faunas during the Neogene. Extinction played a pivotal role in the reduction of their ranges and diversity throughout the late Quaternary, leaving only V. komodoensis as an isolated long-term survivor. The events over the last two millennia now threaten its future survival.

  2. Smart phone Acceptance among physicians: Application of structural equation modeling in Iranian largest university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollahi M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to determine attitudes and effective factors in the acceptance of smart phones by physicians of the largest University of Medical Sciences in the south of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM in 2014. Study participants included 200 physicians working in the hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences selected through two-stage stratified sampling, but 185 participants completed the study. The study data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire completed through a 5-point Likert scale. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts, its construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis, and its reliability by Cronbach’s alpha of 0.802. All data analyses were performed using SPSS (version 22 and LISREL (version 8.8. Results: Results showed that most physicians had a desirable attitude towards using smart phones. Besides, the results of SEM indicated a significant relationship between attitude and compatibility, observability, personal experience, voluntariness of use and perceived usefulness. Moreover, some important fitness indices revealed appropriate fitness of the study model (p=0.26, X2 /df=1.35, RMR=0.070, GFI=0.77, AGFI=0.71, NNFI=0.93, CFI=0.94. Conclusion: The results revealed that compatibility, observability, personal experience, voluntariness of use and perceived usefulness were effective in the physicians’ attitude towards using smart phones. Thus, by preparation of the required infrastructures, policymakers in the field of health technology can enhance the utilization of smart phones in hospitals.

  3. Forest biomonitoring of the largest Slovene thermal power plant with respect to reduction of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar

    2013-02-01

    The condition of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the largest Slovene power plant [the Šoštanj Thermal Power Plant (ŠTPP)] was monitored during the period 1991-2008 by determining the total concentration of sulphur, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll in Norway spruce needles. After 1995, the introduction of cleaning devices at the ŠTPP dramatically reduced the former extremely high SO(2) and dust emissions. The most significant findings of this comprehensive, long-duration survey are as follows: (1) the chosen parameters are suitable bioindicators of stress caused by air pollution in Norway spruce needles; they reflect both spatial and temporal variations in air pollution as well as the degree of efficiency of the cleaning devices; (2) observations show that the physiological condition of Norway spruce in northern Slovenia has significantly improved since 1995, when the first desulphurization device at ŠTPP was built, together with a reduction in the area influenced by pollution from ŠTPP; (3) metabolic processes in spruce needles react to air pollution according to the severity of the pollution and the length of exposure; exposure to high SO(2) ambient levels and/or spread over a long duration can damage the antioxidant defence mechanisms of spruce trees as well as diminishing the concentration of ascorbic acid; (4) a reduction in the exposure to air pollution improves the vitality of the trees (e.g. higher concentrations of total (a + b) chlorophyll), as well as restoring their defence capabilities as shown by higher concentrations of ascorbic acid; and (5) forest monitoring should be continued and focused on integrating the effects of multiple stressors, which can additionally affect a forest ecosystem.

  4. Solomon Islands largest hawksbill turtle rookery shows signs of recovery after 150 years of excessive exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Richard J; Bird, Tomas; Gereniu, Collin; Pita, John; Ramohia, Peter C; Walter, Richard; Goerlich, Clara; Limpus, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands' future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA) was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet.

  5. The 100-C-7 Remediation Project. An Overview of One of DOE's Largest Remediation Projects - 13260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, Thomas C.; Strom, Dean; Beulow, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Closure Hanford LLC (WCH) completed remediation of one of the largest waste sites in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The waste site, 100-C-7, covers approximately 15 football fields and was excavated to a depth of 85 feet (groundwater). The project team removed a total of 2.3 million tons of clean and contaminated soil, concrete debris, and scrap metal. 100-C-7 lies in Hanford's 100 B/C Area, home to historic B and C Reactors. The waste site was excavated in two parts as 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1. The pair of excavations appear like pit mines. Mining engineers were hired to design their tiered sides, with safety benches every 17 feet and service ramps which allowed equipment access to the bottom of the excavations. The overall cleanup project was conducted over a span of almost 10 years. A variety of site characterization, excavation, load-out and sampling methodologies were employed at various stages of remediation. Alternative technologies were screened and evaluated during the project. A new method for cost effectively treating soils was implemented - resulting in significant cost savings. Additional opportunities for minimizing waste streams and recycling were identified and effectively implemented by the project team. During the final phase of cleanup the project team applied lessons learned throughout the entire project to address the final, remaining source of chromium contamination. The C-7 cleanup now serves as a model for remediating extensive deep zone contamination sites at Hanford. (authors)

  6. Nature Appropriation and Associations with Population Health in Canada’s Largest Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jason

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earth is a finite system with a limited supply of resources. As the human population grows, so does the appropriation of Earth’s natural capital, thereby exacerbating environmental concerns such as biodiversity loss, increased pollution, deforestation and global warming. Such concerns will negatively impact human health although it is widely believed that improving socio-economic circumstances will help to ameliorate environmental impacts and improve health outcomes. However, this belief does not explicitly acknowledge the fact that improvements in socio-economic position are reliant on increased inputs from nature. Gains in population health, particularly through economic means, are disconnected from the appropriation of nature to create wealth so that health gains become unsustainable. The current study investigated the sustainability of human population health in Canada with regard to resource consumption or “ecological footprints” (i.e., the resources required to sustain a given population. Ecological footprints of the 20 largest Canadian cities, along with several important determinants of health such as income and education, were statistically compared with corresponding indicators of human population health outcomes. A significant positive relationship was found between ecological footprints and life expectancy, as well as a significant negative relationship between ecological footprints and the prevalence of high blood pressure. Results suggest that increased appropriation of nature is linked to improved health outcomes. To prevent environmental degradation from excessive appropriation of natural resources will require the development of health promotion strategies that are de-coupled from ever-increasing and unsustainable resource use. Efforts to promote population health should focus on health benefits achieved from a lifestyle based on significantly reduced consumption of natural resources.

  7. Single Purpose Satellite Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Warren

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the need for tactically responsive space systems capable of supporting battlefield and fleet commanders. Terminology used to describe this category of satellite system varies according to organization or agency. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Lightsat, the Naval Space Command's SPINSAT, and the Air Force Space Command s TACSAT, are reviewed. The United State Space Command's space support mission IS addressed and the role single-purpose satellites can play ...

  8. Kuřim–the largest small town in the South-Moravian Region (Czechia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2015), s. 135-147 ISSN 2084-5456 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : small town * suburbanization * Kuřim Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://annalesgeo.up.krakow.pl/article/view/2839/2502

  9. What caused the UK's largest common dolphin (Delphinus delphis mass stranding event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Jepson

    Full Text Available On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26 but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5 and mild otitis media (1/5 in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26, local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26 suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06:30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June. Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes. International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a "two-stage process" where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3-4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE.

  10. What Caused the UK's Largest Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Mass Stranding Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Robert; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Barnett, James; Brownlow, Andrew; Brownell Jr., Robert L.; Clare, Frances C.; Davison, Nick; Law, Robin J.; Loveridge, Jan; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Morris, Steven; Murphy, Sinéad; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Pinn, Eunice; Seibel, Henrike; Siebert, Ursula; Sierra, Eva; Simpson, Victor; Tasker, Mark L.; Tregenza, Nick; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE) of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26) but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5) and mild otitis media (1/5) in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26), local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26) suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06∶30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June). Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes). International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars) occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a “two-stage process” where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3–4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE. PMID

  11. SEQUENCING of TSUNAMI WAVES: Why the first wave is not always the largest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, C.; Okal, E.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss what contributes to the `sequencing' of tsunami waves in the far field, that is, to the distribution of the maximum sea surface amplitude inside the dominant wave packet constituting the primary arrival at a distant harbour. Based on simple models of sources for which analytical solutions are available, we show that, as range is increased, the wave pattern evolves from a regime of maximum amplitude in the first oscillation to one of delayed maximum, where the largest amplitude takes place during a subsequent oscillation. In the case of the simple, instantaneous uplift of a circular disk at the surface of an ocean of constant depth, the critical distance for transition between those patterns scales as r 30 /h2 where r0 is the radius of the disk and h the depth of the ocean. This behaviour is explained from simple arguments based on a model where sequencing results from frequency dispersion in the primary wave packet, as the width of its spectrum around its dominant period T0 becomes dispersed in time in an amount comparable to T0 , the latter being controlled by a combination of source size and ocean depth. The general concepts in this model are confirmed in the case of more realistic sources for tsunami excitation by a finite-time deformation of the ocean floor, as well as in real-life simulations of tsunamis excited by large subduction events, for which we find that the influence of fault width on the distribution of sequencing is more important than that of fault length. Finally, simulation of the major events of Chile (2010) and Japan (2011) at large arrays of virtual gauges in the Pacific Basin correctly predicts the majority of the sequencing patterns observed on DART buoys during these events. By providing insight into the evolution with time of wave amplitudes inside primary wave packets for far field tsunamis generated by large earthquakes, our results stress the importance, for civil defense authorities, of issuing warning and evacuation orders

  12. Sequencing of tsunami waves: why the first wave is not always the largest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Emile A.; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the factors contributing to the `sequencing' of tsunami waves in the far field, that is, to the distribution of the maximum sea surface amplitude inside the dominant wave packet constituting the primary arrival at a distant harbour. Based on simple models of sources for which analytical solutions are available, we show that, as range is increased, the wave pattern evolves from a regime of maximum amplitude in the first oscillation to one of delayed maximum, where the largest amplitude takes place during a subsequent oscillation. In the case of the simple, instantaneous uplift of a circular disk at the surface of an ocean of constant depth, the critical distance for transition between those patterns scales as r_0^3 / h^2 where r0 is the radius of the disk and h the depth of the ocean. This behaviour is explained from simple arguments based on a model where sequencing results from frequency dispersion in the primary wave packet, as the width of its spectrum around its dominant period T0 becomes dispersed in time in an amount comparable to T0, the latter being controlled by a combination of source size and ocean depth. The general concepts in this model are confirmed in the case of more realistic sources for tsunami excitation by a finite-time deformation of the ocean floor, as well as in real-life simulations of tsunamis excited by large subduction events, for which we find that the influence of fault width on the distribution of sequencing is more important than that of fault length. Finally, simulation of the major events of Chile (2010) and Japan (2011) at large arrays of virtual gauges in the Pacific Basin correctly predicts the majority of the sequencing patterns observed on DART buoys during these events. By providing insight into the evolution with time of wave amplitudes inside primary wave packets for far field tsunamis generated by large earthquakes, our results stress the importance, for civil defense authorities, of issuing warning and

  13. Well-defined silica supported aluminum hydride: another step towards the utopian single site dream?† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02276b Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werghi, Baraa; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Sofack-Kreutzer, Julien; Jedidi, Abdesslem; Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2015-01-01

    of a strained siloxane bridge, Si–O–Si but with two different mechanisms, showing that the reality of “single site” catalyst may be an utopia: DFT calculations indicate that isobutyl transfer occurs via a simple metathesis between the Al-isobutyl and O–Si bonds, while hydride transfer occurs via a two steps mechanism, the first one is a β-H elimination to Al with elimination of isobutene, whereas the second is a metathesis step between the formed Al–H bond and a O–Si bond. Thermal treatment of 1a (at 250 °C) under high vacuum (10–5 mbar) generates Al–H through a β-H elimination of isobutyl fragment. These supported well-defined Al–H which are highly stable with time, are tetra, penta and octa coordinated as demonstrated by IR and 27Al–1H J-HMQC NMR spectroscopy. All these observations indicate that surfaces atoms around the site of grafting play a considerable role in the reactivity of a single site system. PMID:28757945

  14. The impact of severity of initial illness, determined by SOFA score, and presence of anemia on outcomes among patients requiring Extra Corporal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) support: A single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbassi, Wael; Aila, Farah Al; Chowdhury, Mohammed Andaleeb; Najib, Ahmed; Zaid, H; Michelin, M; Nooryani, Arif Al

    ECMO provides respiratory and circulatory support in critically ill patients. In our study, we report on a single center experience with ECMO and aim to identify the prognostic markers for survival to discharge from hospital. A registry was maintained on all patients who underwent ECMO implantation from September 2012 till January 2016 at a single institution. The collected data was analyzed to identify baseline characteristics, outcomes including clinical variables predictive of poor outcome. A total of 29 patients underwent ECMO implantation. The average age of patients was 42±18years. 59% were males (N=17). 19 cases had a cardiac indication for ECMO (66%) while 10 cases had a pulmonary indication (34%). On univariate analysis; presence of Multi-organ failure, SOFA score more than 18 and hemoglobin less than 10g/dl at baseline and after ECMO removal were associated with increased 30day mortality. Pearson correlation with 30day mortality showed a positive correlation with MOF (+0.562, p=0.002) and SOFA score >18 (+0.448, p=0.015) and a negative correlation with anemia (-0.507, p=0.005). 15 out of the total 29 patients (52%) died within 30days of admission. Patients with MOF (log rank: 10.926, p=0.001), SOFA score >18 (log rank: 7.758, p=0.005) and hemoglobin <10g/dl (log rank: 5.595, p=0.018) had decreased survival on 30day follow up. Although the use of ECMO as a last line in the treatment of critical patients refractory to conventional treatment measures constitutes an important improvement in their care; with 48% overall survival; patient selection and timing of ECMO initiation remains challenging. Patients who already had signs of MOF and a high SOFA score portended a poor response. Similarly for anemic patients. Hence the importance of consideration for ECMO use earlier in course of illness rather than later. Screening and aggressive treatment of anemia in those patients may help improve the outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Evaluation of the clinical and aesthetic outcomes of Straumann(®) Standard Plus implants supported single crowns placed in non-augmented healed sites in the anterior maxilla: a 5-8 years retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Qiao, Shi-Chong; Shi, Jun-Yu; Uemura, Naoya; Arai, Korenori; Lai, Hong-Chang

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term aesthetic outcome of the single crowns supported by soft tissue level implants placed in healed sites in the anterior maxilla region via the pink aesthetic score (PES) and the white aesthetic score (WES). According to the inclusion criteria, patients who had received a single Straumann(®) Standard Plus implant in the anterior maxilla at the Shanghai 9th People's Hospital between 2005 and 2008 were invited for a re-examination based on a number of inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Clinical, radiographic and aesthetic outcomes (PES/WES) were assessed during their revisit at 5-8 years after crown placement. Forty-five patients were enrolled in the study. All 45 implants were successfully integrated and most of the implants did not show signs of peri-implant disease at the time of the assessment. The marginal bone resorption was 1.10 ± 0.92 mm. The mean total PES was 8.48 ± 2.62 at the baseline, 9.57 ± 2.37 at the 6-10 months revisit and 9.01 ± 2.45 at the 5-8 years follow-up. The scores of the mesial and distal papillae increased significantly between the baseline and 6-10 months follow-up, this improvement remained stable at the 5-8 years follow-up. The scores of soft tissue level, colour of the soft tissue, soft tissue texture and the alveolar process decreased significantly between the 6-10 months and 5-8 years revisits. The mean WES was 7.83 ± 1.60 at the baseline and 7.72 ± 1.43 at the 5-8 years revisit. There was no significant difference of the WES between the baseline and 5-8 years revisit. The possibility of spontaneous papillae regeneration after implant treatment and the long-term stability of the regenerated papillae were confirmed. However, recession of the facial soft tissue has been found. The incidence of the recession at thin biotype sites tended to be higher. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Earth's Largest Terrestrial Landslide (The Markagunt Gravity Slide of Southwest Utah): Insights from the Catastrophic Collapse of a Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, D. B.; Biek, R. F.; Rowley, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    The newly discovered Miocene Markagunt gravity slide (MGS; Utah, USA) represents the largest volcanic landslide structure on Earth. Recent geologic mapping of the MGS indicates that it was a large contiguous volcanic sheet of allochthonous andesitic mudflow breccias and lava flows, volcaniclastic rocks, and intertonguing regional ash-flow tuffs that blanketed an area of at least 5000 km2 with an estimated volume of ~3000 km3. From its breakaway zone in the Tushar and Mineral Mountains to its southern limits, the MGS is over 95 km long and at least 65 km wide. The MGS consists of four distinct structural segments: 1) a high-angle breakaway segment, 2) a bedding-plane segment, ~60 km long and ~65 km wide, typically located within the volcaniclastic Eocene-Oligocene Brian Head Formation, 3) a ramp segment ~1-2 km wide where the slide cuts upsection, and 4) a former land surface segment where the upper-plate moved at least 35 km over the Miocene landscape. The presence of basal and lateral cataclastic breccias, clastic dikes, jigsaw puzzle fracturing, internal shears, pseudotachylytes, and the overall geometry of the MGS show that it represents a single catastrophic emplacement event. The MGS represents gravitationally induced collapse of the southwest sector of the Oligocene to Miocene Marysvale volcanic field. We suggest that continuous growth of the Marysvale volcanic field, loading more volcanic rocks on a structurally weak Brian Head basement, created conditions necessary for gravity sliding. In addition, inflation of the volcanic pile due to multiple magmatic intrusions tilted the strata gently southward, inducing lateral spreading of the sub-volcanic rocks prior to failure. Although similar smaller-scale failures have been recognized from individual volcanoes, the MGS represents a new class of low frequency but high impact hazards associated with catastrophic sector collapse of large volcanic fields containing multiple volcanoes. The relationship of the MGS to

  17. Reproduction in a gecko assemblage (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae in the Marañon Region (Peru and comments on the largest gecko in the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Aurich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction is described for four phyllodactylid geckos, Phyllopezus maranjonensis, Phyllodactylus delsolari, P. thompsoni and P. reissii from the upper Marañon Valley, Peru. Observations were made between March and May 2010 and voucher specimens, already housed in the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK, were X-rayed to check for gravid females. Gravid female P. maranjonensis, P. delsolari and P. reissii contain two eggs, whereas P. thompsoni produces a single egg that is deposited in leaf litter or crevices of stone walls. It is likely that females of all of these species produce multiple clutches in one year; the reproductive period seems to be extended in at least two species. Furthermore, measurements of numerous specimens of all four species are presented herein, revealing that Phyllopezus maranjonensis is the largest species of New World geckos.

  18. High HIV Burden in Men Who Have Sex with Men across Colombia's Largest Cities: Findings from an Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Mendoza, Martha Lucía; Jacobson, Jerry Owen; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Sierra Alarcón, Clara Ángela; Luque Núñez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Among Latin America's concentrated HIV epidemics, little is known about men who have sex with men (MSM) in Colombia, the region's third largest country. To date, surveillance studies have been limited to Bogota, while 80% of HIV cases and deaths originate from Colombia's other cities and departments. The extent to which interventions should prioritize MSM outside of Bogota is unknown. We recruited 2603 MSM using respondent-driven sampling from seven of Colombia's largest cities. HIV prevalence was estimated by site from dried blood spot samples. Behavioral data were collected through face-to-face interviews and risk factors for HIV infection analyzed using weighted, multi-level logistical regression models accounting for recruitment patterns. Across cities, HIV prevalence averaged 15%, varied from 6% to 24% and was highest in Cali, Bogota, and Barranquilla. In the past 12 months, 65% of MSM had ≥ 5 casual male partners and 23% had a female partner. Across partnerships (i.e., casual, stable, and commercial), the proportion of MSM engaging in unprotected sex was ≥ 52% with male partners and ≥ 66% with female partners. Self-reported history of STI (24%) and past-year illicit drug use (38%) were also common. In multivariate analysis, age ≥ 35 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 19.2) and 25-39 (AOR, 5.6) relative to ≤ 18-24 years, identifying as homosexual relative to heterosexual (AOR 0.1), meeting casual partners on the Internet (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1) and age of sexual debut of ≤ 13 years (AOR, 3.1) predicted HIV infection. HIV testing and prevention messaging reached just 24% of MSM in the past year. Findings support consistently elevated HIV burden among MSM throughout Colombia's largest cities and a need for enhanced behavioral prevention and HIV testing, emphasizing men who use the Internet as well as physical venues to meet sex partners.

  19. Always single and single again women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K G; Moon, S

    1997-04-01

    What is it like to be a single woman today? Are the experiences of women who have always been single different from those who find themselves single again after having been married? How can family therapists promote the development of single women both individually and relationally? The purpose of this phenomenological, multiple-case study was to investigate perceptions of being single among heterosexual single women between the ages of 30 and 65. Nine focus group interviews and a semistructured, mailed questionnaire were used to collect the data. Constant comparative analyses were used to develop the findings. The findings were organized around the most salient theme that emerged from the analyses: single women have unresolved or unrecognized ambivalences about being single. This overarching theme was supported by three subassertions: (a) single women are aware of both the advantages and the drawbacks of being single; (b) single women are ambivalent about the reasons for their singleness; (c) although content with being single, many women simultaneously experience feelings of loss and grief. Implications for the clinical practice of family therapy and future research on single women are discussed.

  20. Four decades of wetland changes of the largest freshwater lake in China in response to the Three Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands provide important ecosystem functions for water alteration and conservation of bio-diversity, yet they are vulnerable to both human activities and climate changes. Using four decades of Landsat, MODIS and HJ-1A/1B satellites observations, the long-term wetland changes in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake of China, have been investigated in this study. A Support Vector Machines (SVM) method was firstly developed to obtain wetland classification maps of major cover types between 1973 and 2013 using Landsat and HJ-1A/1B images. A statistically significant increasing trend of the wetland vegetation (15.9 km2 year-1) was found, where the vegetation tended to spread into the lake center in the past four decades. While the transitions from mudflat to vegetation and vice versa were comparable before 2001, vegetation area increased by 620.8 km2 (16.6% of the lake area) between 2001 and 2013. Then, a phenology-based decision tree approach was developed to classify wetland vegetation at community level, with the help of the spatial and spectral information of frequent MODIS observations between 2000 and 2014. MODIS wetland maps confirmed the replacement of water and mudflat by expanded vegetated areas since the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), where both the total coverage of vegetation and the area of each community showed significantly increasing trends. More importantly, results indicated that the vegetation community transitions occurred mainly from hydrophilic cover types to those adapted to dryer conditions. Hydrological analysis revealed that 1) the relationships between the water levels and vegetation coverage showed two regimes for the pre-TGD period (before 2003) and post-TGD period (after 2003); and 2) despite the significant changes in wetland cover types, the most preferable water depth for each cover type remained stable before and after the TGD. The findings here unambiguously led to the conclusion that the landscape changes seen in

  1. Phytoplankton assemblages in Lake Orta: has functional structure recovered in one of the largest acidic lakes in the world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Morabito

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta (Northern Italy became one of the world’s largest acidic lakes, following industrial pollution, beginning in the late 1920s. Prior to pollution, Lake Orta supported a rich and diversified phytoplankton community dominated by diatoms, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Their taxonomic composition was comparable to that of the nearby Lake Maggiore, which provides a useful reference comparison. After pollution, Lake Orta was so acidic and contaminated with trace metals that only a few tolerant phytoplankton species persisted, supplemented by sudden and short living outbursts of occasional colonists. The lake was limed in 1989-1990. This has permitted the gradual recovery of its chemistry and biology, and many phytoplankton species that inhabit Lake Maggiore are now re-appearing in Lake Orta. I tested the two hypotheses that Lakes Orta and Maggiore would now have a similar phytoplankton taxonomic assemblages, and similar diversity of functional groups given their similar morphometry, physical features and trophic states. The two hypotheses were tested by comparing the phytoplankton assemblages of lakes Maggiore and Orta for the first 10 years after liming, i.e. 1990 to 2001. Phytoplankton was classified according the Reynolds' Morpho Functional Groups and five diversity indices were calculated (S, number of units; H, Shannon-Wiener; E, evenness; D, dominance; J, equitability. SHE analysis (an analysis of diversity changes based on the relationship among species richness (S, H Index (H and evenness (E was also carried out, in order to compare the long term trend of both functional groups and taxa biodiversity. Both taxonomic and the functional composition differed in the two lakes, likely because chemical quality have played a role in taxaselection. Moreover, it was quite clear that, during the first post-liming decade, Lake Orta’s phytoplankton was characterized by low diversity and evenness and by marked year-to-year fluctuations

  2. "The largest Lean transformation in the world": the implementation and evaluation of lean in Saskatchewan healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Leigh; Rotter, Thomas; Stevenson, Katherine; Bath, Brenna; Goodridge, Donna; Harrison, Liz; Dobson, Roy; Sari, Nazmi; Jeffery, Cathy; Bourassa, Carrie; Westhorp, Gill

    2014-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health has committed to a multi-million dollar investment toward the implementation of Lean methodology across the province's healthcare system. Originating as a production line discipline (the Toyota Production System), Lean has evolved to encompass process improvements including inventory management, waste reduction and quality improvement techniques. With an initial focus on leadership, strategic alignment, training and the creation of a supportive infrastructure (Lean promotion offices), the goal in Saskatchewan is a whole health system transformation that produces "better health, better value, better care, and better teams." Given the scope and scale of the initiative and the commitment of resources, it is vital that a comprehensive, longitudinal evaluation plan be implemented to support ongoing decision-making and program design. The nature of the initiative also offers a unique opportunity to contribute to health quality improvement science by advancing our understanding of the implementation and evaluation of complex, large-scale healthcare interventions. The purpose of this article is to summarize the background to Lean in Saskatchewan and the proposed evaluation methods. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  3. STAR Formation Histories Across the Interacting Galaxy NGC 6872, the Largest-Known Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, RIchard G.; deMello, Duilia F.; Gadotti, DImitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; deOliveira, CLaudia Mendes; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    NGC6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 micrometer) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  4. Star formation histories across the interacting galaxy NGC 6872, the largest-known spiral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; De Mello, Duilia F. [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Benford, Dominic J. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; De Oliveira, Claudia Mendes, E-mail: rafael.t.eufrasio@nasa.gov [Departamento de Astronomia, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas da USP, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-090 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    NGC 6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 μm) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  5. Alcohol consumption among students - a cross-sectional study at three largest universities in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use among university students is increasing in many countries. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate alcohol consumption and alcohol-related knowledge, attitudes and risky behaviors among Serbian university students. Methods. The cross-sectional study was carried out at the three state universities from January to June in the academic year 2009/2010 and included 2,285 students of both genders. The students filled out a questionnaire consisting of 70 questions with respect to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, their lifestyle habits, styles and attitudes, health assessment, as well as exposure to different risk factors. Results. It was found that 77.7% of students drank alcohol occasionally, 4.6% of them consumed it on a daily basis. Friedman’s test (p<0.001 showed that students prefer drinking beer to all other alcoholic beverages. Students in Belgrade and students of Technical faculties are undisputed champions when it comes to how often they drink six or more drinks on a single occasion. Older students in Serbia drink more and get drunk more frequently. Conclusion. A high percentage of Serbian students consume alcohol, and even though they have their first drink at an early age, they generally drink less than students in many other countries.

  6. The Determinants of Bank Internationalisation in Times of Financial Globalisation: Evidence from the World's Largest Banks (1980-2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, Gerarda; Mulder, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the determinants of bank internationalisation, of the world's largest banks from the period 1980–2007. The purpose of the article is twofold. First, we show how a mixed-methods research design, in which we combine a variables-based research with three case studies, can

  7. Ownership, financing, and management strategies of the ten largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Hauser, Clarilee; Olney, Brian; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the ownership, financing, and management strategies of the 10 largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States, including the four largest chains purchased by private equity corporations. Descriptive data were collected from Internet searches, company reports, and other sources for the decade 1998-2008. Since 1998, the largest chains have made many changes in their ownership and structure, and some have converted from publicly traded companies to private ownership. This study shows the increasing complexity of corporate nursing home ownership and the lack of public information about ownership and financial status. The chains have used strategies to maximize shareholder and investor value that include increasing Medicare revenues, occupancy rates, and company diversification, establishing multiple layers of corporate ownership, developing real estate investment trusts, and creating limited liability companies. These strategies enhance shareholder and investor profits, reduce corporate taxes, and reduce liability risk. There is a need for greater transparency in ownership and financial reporting and for more government oversight of the largest for-profit chains, including those owned by private equity companies.

  8. Pay less, take more: the myth of quality of life at the Brazil’s largest drugstore chain counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the role of cultural transformer that the brandoccupies in the contemporary and seeking to delineate the role played bymyth in this construction, we look at Pague Menos, the largest pharmacyretail network in the country, through a qualitative study based on Barthesiansemiology. Our results showed six myths, whose relationships reveal ametanarrative: the quality of life.

  9. Successful Completion of the Largest Shipment of Russian Research Reactor High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Czech Republic to Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Jeff Chamberlin

    2008-07-01

    On December 8, 2007, the largest shipment of high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program in support of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. In February 2003, RRRFR Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Rež, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  10. Automated anesthesia carts reduce drug recording errors in medication administrations - A single center study in the largest tertiary referral hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Du, Yingying; Zhao, Yingying; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    To clinically evaluate a type of patented automated anesthesia cart in medication administrations in anesthesia. This was a prospectively randomized open label clinical trial. In 10 designated operating suits in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, in China. 1066 cases originated from 10,812 medication administrations in anesthesia were randomized. 78 registered anesthesiologists managed the medication. The patients received medication administrations in anesthesia with either an automated or a conventional manual cart. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, sex, duration of anesthesia and surgical specialty, errors in administration of medications (incorrect medication given (substitution), medication not given (omission) and drug recordings errors"), compliance and satisfaction were recorded. The total error rate was 7.3% with the automated anesthesia carts (1 in 14 administrations) and 11.9% with conventional manual carts (1 in 8 administrations). Automated anesthesia carts significantly reduced the drug recording error rate compared to conventional manual carts (Perrors omission errors was found between groups of automated anesthesia carts and conventional manual carts. The anesthesiologists' compliance with the automated anesthesia carts was unsatisfactory, and all the errors in medication recordings with the automated anesthesia carts were due to the incorrect use of the carts. Most of the participating anesthesiologists preferred the automated anesthesia carts (Perrors in medication administrations of anesthesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Terrorist attacks in the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan: Profile of soft tissue and skeletal injuries from a single trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahid; Waheed, Shahan; Ali, Arif; Mumtaz, Narjis; Feroze, Asher; Noordin, Shahryar

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan has been hugely struck with massive bomb explosions (car and suicide bombs) resulting in multiple casualties in the past few years. The aim of this study is to present the patterns of skeletal and soft tissue injuries and to review the outcome of the victims who presented to our hospital. This is a retrospective chart review from January 2008 to December 2012. The medical record numbers of patients were obtained from the hospital Health Information and Management Sciences (HIMS) as per the ICD-9 coding. During the study period, more than 100 suicide and implanted bomb blast attacks took place in the public proceedings, government offices, residential areas and other places of the city. Altogether 262 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the patients was 31±14 years. The shrapnel inflicted wounds were present on to the upper limb in 24 patients and the lower limb in 50. Long bone fractures were the most common skeletal injuries. The fractures were complicated by penetrating fragments and nails which result in post operative infections and prolonged hospital stay.

  12. Cheetah paradigm revisited: MHC diversity in the world's largest free-ranging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Prieto, Aines; Wachter, Bettina; Sommer, Simone

    2011-04-01

    For more than two decades, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been considered a paradigm of disease vulnerability associated with low genetic diversity, particularly at the immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Cheetahs have been used as a classic example in numerous conservation genetics textbooks as well as in many related scientific publications. However, earlier studies used methods with low resolution to quantify MHC diversity and/or small sample sizes. Furthermore, high disease susceptibility was reported only for captive cheetahs, whereas free-ranging cheetahs show no signs of infectious diseases and a good general health status. We examined whether the diversity at MHC class I and class II-DRB loci in 149 Namibian cheetahs was higher than previously reported using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, cloning, and sequencing. MHC genes were examined at the genomic and transcriptomic levels. We detected ten MHC class I and four class II-DRB alleles, of which nine MHC class I and all class II-DRB alleles were expressed. Phylogenetic analyses and individual genotypes suggested that the alleles belong to four MHC class I and three class II-DRB putative loci. Evidence of positive selection was detected in both MHC loci. Our study indicated that the low number of MHC class I alleles previously observed in cheetahs was due to a smaller sample size examined. On the other hand, the low number of MHC class II-DRB alleles previously observed in cheetahs was further confirmed. Compared with other mammalian species including felids, cheetahs showed low levels of MHC diversity, but this does not seem to influence the immunocompetence of free-ranging cheetahs in Namibia and contradicts the previous conclusion that the cheetah is a paradigm species of disease vulnerability.

  13. Food web de-synchronization in England's largest lake: an assessment based on multiple phenological metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Stephen J; Henrys, Peter A; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Jones, Ian D; Maberly, Stephen C; Winfield, Ian J

    2013-12-01

    Phenological changes have been observed globally for marine, freshwater and terrestrial species, and are an important element of the global biological 'fingerprint' of climate change. Differences in rates of change could desynchronize seasonal species interactions within a food web, threatening ecosystem functioning. Quantification of this risk is hampered by the rarity of long-term data for multiple interacting species from the same ecosystem and by the diversity of possible phenological metrics, which vary in their ecological relevance to food web interactions. We compare phenological change for phytoplankton (chlorophyll a), zooplankton (Daphnia) and fish (perch, Perca fluviatilis) in two basins of Windermere over 40 years and determine whether change has differed among trophic levels, while explicitly accounting for among-metric differences in rates of change. Though rates of change differed markedly among the nine metrics used, seasonal events shifted earlier for all metrics and trophic levels: zooplankton advanced most, and fish least, rapidly. Evidence of altered synchrony was found in both lake basins, when combining information from all phenological metrics. However, comparisons based on single metrics did not consistently detect this signal. A multimetric approach showed that across trophic levels, earlier phenological events have been associated with increasing water temperature. However, for phytoplankton and zooplankton, phenological change was also associated with changes in resource availability. Lower silicate, and higher phosphorus, concentrations were associated with earlier phytoplankton growth, and earlier phytoplankton growth was associated with earlier zooplankton growth. The developing trophic mismatch detected between the dominant fish species in Windermere and important zooplankton food resources may ultimately affect fish survival and portend significant impacts upon ecosystem functioning. We advocate that future studies on phenological

  14. The challenge of reducing energy consumption of the Top-1000 largest industrial enterprises in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Lynn; Wang Xuejun; Yun Jiang

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the Chinese government announced an ambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 20% between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizing this goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. The energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for 33% of national and 47% of industrial energy usage in 2004. Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets were determined for each enterprise. The objective of this article is to evaluate the program design and initial results, given limited information and data, to understand the possible implications of its success in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emission reductions and to recommend future program modifications based on international experience with similar target-setting agreement programs. Even though the Top-1000 program was designed and implemented rapidly, it appears that - depending upon the GDP growth rate - it could contribute to somewhere between approximately 10% and 25% of the savings required to support China's efforts to meet a 20% reduction in energy use per unit of GDP by 2010.

  15. Determination of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences reveals that the largest reported mitochondrial genome in plants contains a significant amount of DNA having a nuclear origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda Miguel A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among vegetable crops is second only to Solanaceae. The melon has a small genome size (454 Mb, which makes it suitable for molecular and genetic studies. Despite similar nuclear and chloroplast genome sizes, cucurbits show great variation when their mitochondrial genomes are compared. The melon possesses the largest plant mitochondrial genome, as much as eight times larger than that of other cucurbits. Results The nucleotide sequences of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were determined. The chloroplast genome (156,017 bp included 132 genes, with 98 single-copy genes dispersed between the small (SSC and large (LSC single-copy regions and 17 duplicated genes in the inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb. A comparison of the cucumber and melon chloroplast genomes showed differences in only approximately 5% of nucleotides, mainly due to short indels and SNPs. Additionally, 2.74 Mb of mitochondrial sequence, accounting for 95% of the estimated mitochondrial genome size, were assembled into five scaffolds and four additional unscaffolded contigs. An 84% of the mitochondrial genome is contained in a single scaffold. The gene-coding region accounted for 1.7% (45,926 bp of the total sequence, including 51 protein-coding genes, 4 conserved ORFs, 3 rRNA genes and 24 tRNA genes. Despite the differences observed in the mitochondrial genome sizes of cucurbit species, Citrullus lanatus (379 kb, Cucurbita pepo (983 kb and Cucumis melo (2,740 kb share 120 kb of sequence, including the predicted protein-coding regions. Nevertheless, melon contained a high number of repetitive sequences and a high content of DNA of nuclear origin, which represented 42% and 47% of the total sequence, respectively. Conclusions Whereas the size and gene organisation of chloroplast genomes are similar among the cucurbit species, mitochondrial genomes show a wide variety of sizes

  16. Determination of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences reveals that the largest reported mitochondrial genome in plants contains a significant amount of DNA having a nuclear origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; González, Víctor M; Benjak, Andrej; Martí, M Carmen; Puigdomènech, Pere; Aranda, Miguel A; Garcia-Mas, Jordi

    2011-08-20

    The melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among vegetable crops is second only to Solanaceae. The melon has a small genome size (454 Mb), which makes it suitable for molecular and genetic studies. Despite similar nuclear and chloroplast genome sizes, cucurbits show great variation when their mitochondrial genomes are compared. The melon possesses the largest plant mitochondrial genome, as much as eight times larger than that of other cucurbits. The nucleotide sequences of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were determined. The chloroplast genome (156,017 bp) included 132 genes, with 98 single-copy genes dispersed between the small (SSC) and large (LSC) single-copy regions and 17 duplicated genes in the inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb). A comparison of the cucumber and melon chloroplast genomes showed differences in only approximately 5% of nucleotides, mainly due to short indels and SNPs. Additionally, 2.74 Mb of mitochondrial sequence, accounting for 95% of the estimated mitochondrial genome size, were assembled into five scaffolds and four additional unscaffolded contigs. An 84% of the mitochondrial genome is contained in a single scaffold. The gene-coding region accounted for 1.7% (45,926 bp) of the total sequence, including 51 protein-coding genes, 4 conserved ORFs, 3 rRNA genes and 24 tRNA genes. Despite the differences observed in the mitochondrial genome sizes of cucurbit species, Citrullus lanatus (379 kb), Cucurbita pepo (983 kb) and Cucumis melo (2,740 kb) share 120 kb of sequence, including the predicted protein-coding regions. Nevertheless, melon contained a high number of repetitive sequences and a high content of DNA of nuclear origin, which represented 42% and 47% of the total sequence, respectively. Whereas the size and gene organisation of chloroplast genomes are similar among the cucurbit species, mitochondrial genomes show a wide variety of sizes, with a non-conserved structure both in gene number

  17. The development of online doctor reviews in China: an analysis of the largest online doctor review website in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haijing

    2015-06-01

    Since the time of Web 2.0, more and more consumers have used online doctor reviews to rate their doctors or to look for a doctor. This phenomenon has received health care researchers' attention worldwide, and many studies have been conducted on online doctor reviews in the United States and Europe. But no study has yet been done in China. Also, in China, without a mature primary care physician recommendation system, more and more Chinese consumers seek online doctor reviews to look for a good doctor for their health care concerns. This study sought to examine the online doctor review practice in China, including addressing the following questions: (1) How many doctors and specialty areas are available for online review? (2) How many online reviews are there on those doctors? (3) What specialty area doctors are more likely to be reviewed or receive more reviews? (4) Are those reviews positive or negative? This study explores an empirical dataset from Good Doctor website, haodf.com—the earliest and largest online doctor review and online health care community website in China—from 2006 to 2014, to examine the stated research questions by using descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, and multivariate linear regression. The dataset from the Good Doctor website contained 314,624 doctors across China and among them, 112,873 doctors received 731,543 quantitative reviews and 772,979 qualitative reviews as of April 11, 2014. On average, 37% of the doctors had been reviewed on the Good Doctor website. Gynecology-obstetrics-pediatrics doctors were most likely to be reviewed, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.497 (95% CI 1.461-1.535), and internal medicine doctors were less likely to be reviewed, with an OR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.921-0.960), relative to the combined small specialty areas. Both traditional Chinese medicine doctors and surgeons were more likely to be reviewed than the combined small specialty areas, with an OR of 1.483 (95% CI 1.442-1.525) and an OR of 1

  18. Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Munir

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC, located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats. Each month from April 2006 to April 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage random sampling scheme, in conjunction with participatory information from each selected farm. Furthermore, we also collected epithelium samples from animals with clinical disease, as well as mouth-swabs samples from those farms. In addition, we analysed a total of 180 serum samples randomly collecting 30 samples each month at the local slaughterhouse, from October 2006 to March 2007. Samples have been screened for FMDV by real-time RT-PCR and the partial or full 1D coding region of selected isolates has been sequenced. Serum samples have been analysed by applying serotype-specific antibody ELISA and non-structural proteins (NSP antibody ELISA. Results FMDV infection prevalence at aggregate level shows an endemic occurrence of FMDV in the colony, with peaks in August 2006, December 2006 and February 2007 to March 2007. A significant association of prevalence peaks to the rainy seasons, which includes the coldest time of the year and the muslimic Eid-festival, has been demonstrated. Participatory information indicated that 88% of all questioned farmers vaccinate their animals. Analysis of the serum samples showed high levels of antibodies for serotypes O, A, Asia 1 and C. The median endpoint-titre for all tested serotypes, except serotype C, in VNT titration is at a serum dilution of equal or above 1/100. All 180 serum samples collected have been tested for antibodies against the non-structural proteins and all but four have been found

  19. Searching for Physics Beyond the Standard Model with the World's Largest Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. Lee

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of the magnetic moments of the electron and muon were intertwined with the development of the modern physics of the 20th century, where μ --> = g(Qeℏ / 2 m) s --> with Q = +/- 1 and e > 0 . The g-value consists of a Dirac piece and the anomaly, g = 2(1 + a) or a =(g - 2) / 2 . For point-like particles, a arises from radiative corrections. The simplest correction, a = α / 2 π ~= 0 . 00116 ... , was first obtained by Schwinger. This result was also found to describe the muon's magnetic moment, indicating that the muon behaved like a heavy electron in a magnetic field. Loops containing all virtual particles that interact with the muon, including as yet undiscovered ones, can contribute to the muon anomaly. The relative contribution from heavier particles to the muon and electron anomalies scales as (mμ /me) 2 ~= 43 , 000 , giving the muon a distinct advantage in the search for effects from New Physics. E821 at the Brookhaven AGS obtained a relative precision of +/- 0 . 54 ppm, half the magnitude of the contributions from the Z and W gauge bosons. This result differs from the Standard-Model prediction by > 3 σ . To clarify whether this difference is a harbinger of New Physics beyond the Standard Model, E989 is being mounted at Fermilab with a design precision of 140 ppb. The 700 ton, 14 m diameter storage ring magnet will be shimmed to a point-to-point magnetic dipole field uniformity of +/- 25 ppm over the 1.137 m3 volume where the muon beam is stored, with the azimuthal averaged uniformity motivation for this new experiment, along with the experimental technique and outlook. This work supported in part by the US DOE and NSF.

  20. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  1. Critical gaps in the world's largest electronic medical record: Ad Hoc nursing narratives and invisible adverse drug events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdle, John F; Weir, Charlene R; Roth, Beverly; Hoffman, Jennifer; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2003-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, operates one of the largest healthcare networks in the world. Its electronic medical record (EMR) is fully integrated into clinical practice, having evolved over several decades of design, testing, trial, and error. It is unarguably the world's largest EMR, and as such it makes an important case study for a host of timely informatics issues. The VHA consistently has been at the vanguard of patient safety, especially in its provider-oriented EMR. We describe here a study of a large set of adverse drug events (ADEs) that eluded a rigorous ADE survey based on prospective EMR chart review. These numerous ADEs were undetected (and hence invisible) in the EMR, missed by an otherwise sophisticated ADE detection scheme. We speculate how these invisible nursing ADE narratives persist and what they portend for safety re-engineering.

  2. Critical Gaps in the World’s Largest Electronic Medical Record: Ad Hoc Nursing Narratives and Invisible Adverse Drug Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdle, John F.; Weir, Charlene R.; Roth, Beverly; Hoffman, Jennifer; Nebeker, Jonathan R.

    2003-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, operates one of the largest healthcare networks in the world. Its electronic medical record (EMR) is fully integrated into clinical practice, having evolved over several decades of design, testing, trial, and error. It is unarguably the world’s largest EMR, and as such it makes an important case study for a host of timely informatics issues. The VHA consistently has been at the vanguard of patient safety, especially in its provider-oriented EMR. We describe here a study of a large set of adverse drug events (ADEs) that eluded a rigorous ADE survey based on prospective EMR chart review. These numerous ADEs were undetected (and hence invisible) in the EMR, missed by an otherwise sophisticated ADE detection scheme. We speculate how these invisible nursing ADE narratives persist and what they portend for safety re-engineering. PMID:14728184

  3. The largest Fresco in Europe on cooling tower of nuclear power station of Cruas Meysse in Ardeche, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mayo, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Station Cruas Meysse is on the most important communication way of France, in the Rhone Valley, between the Rhin and the Mediterranean Sea. In the South of the Rhone Valley, the Nuclear Power Plant is situated near the very important site of 'Tricastin', the largest nuclear area in France. Cruas Meysse has a very good integration to the economy, social, and cultural scheme ; that's why EDF and the Ardeche Department had enter into partnership to associate art and technology of our time, and offer a work for everybody - 'Le Verseau' is the largest fresco in Europe - It gives a gigantic signalling system to the Ardeche Department, because the Nuclear Power Station has a very interesting position, close the motor way A7, the National 7 road, and the way of high speed train (TGV) an another symbol of the high French technology

  4. Texture and composition of Titan's equatorial region inferred from Cassini SAR inversion: Implications for aeolian transport at Saturn's largest moon

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Antoine; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Lemonnier, Florentin; Gall, Alice Le; Ferrari, Cécile; Paillou, Philippe; Narteau, Clément

    2017-01-01

    Sand seas on Titan may reflect the present and past climatic conditions. Understanding the morphodynamics and physico-chemical properties of Titan's dunes is therefore essential for a better comprehension of the climatic and geological history of the largest Saturn's moon. We derived quantitatively surface properties (texture, composition) from the modelling of microwave backscattered signal and Monte-Carlo inversion of despeckled Cassini/SAR data over sand sea. We show that dunes and interdu...

  5. Mapping Dynamics of Inundation Patterns of Two Largest River-Connected Lakes in China: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guiping Wu; Yuanbo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake are the two largest freshwater lakes in China. The lakes are located approximately 300 km apart on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and are differently connected through their respective tributary systems, which will lead to different river–lake water exchanges and discharges. Thus, differences in their morphological and hydrological conditions should induce individual lake spatio-temporal inundation patterns. Quantitative comparative analyses of the dynam...

  6. Transcription initiation complexes and upstream activation with RNA polymerase II lacking the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit.

    OpenAIRE

    Buratowski, S; Sharp, P A

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II assembles with other factors on the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter to generate pairs of transcription initiation complexes resolvable by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. The pairing of the complexes is caused by the presence or absence of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit. This domain is not required for transcription stimulation by the major late transcription factor in vitro.

  7. Cu isotope variability in Bavariás largest Cu-Zn deposit in Kupferberg (NE Bavaria, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Stefan; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Debaille, Vinciane; Debouge, Wendy

    2016-04-01

    Kupferberg, a small town c. 15 km northeast of Kulmbach, owns its existence to Bavaria's largest Cu-Zn deposit, which was mined intermittently from the 13th to the 19th century. The deposit is located in the Saxothuringian Zone of the Variscan basement in northeastern Bavaria. It is positioned between the allochthonous Münchberg metamorphic complex in the east and a major northwest-southeast tending regional fault zone, the "Franconian Lineament", in the west. The deposit is hosted by an Early Palaeozoic volcano-sedimentary succession of the Randschiefer Formation (RF) and consists of a northwest-southeast directed string of several stratiform, sulfide-rich ore lenses. These lenses show a remarkably simple mineralogy dominated by quartz, carbonate, pyrite and chalcopyrite with minor amounts of sphalerite and chlorite. The genesis of the Cu-Zn mineralization has remained speculative. A purely syngenetic model, supported by the generally laminated appearance of the ore, has to be questioned because of the ore lenses occurring in different tectonic units. Urban & Vaché (1972) proposed supergene enrichment between the Cretaceous and the Tertiary as most critical. To test such a supergene versus hypogene Cu-mineralization, we investigated the Cu isotopic composition of primary and secondary Cu phases as well as the trace element distribution in three pyrite generations. The pyrite generation that is coeval with the principal Cu-mineralization in the form of chalcopyrite has Co/Ni ratios (on average 35) typical of hydrothermal, possibly metamorphic, formation. Chalcopyrite, present at highly variable modal proportions, yielded a narrow range in δ65Cu from -0.26 to 0.36 ‰Ḃoth the absolute values and the narrow range are similar to the δ65Cu range known for hydrothermal chalcopyrite in crustal rocks (Markl et al. 2006). Metamorphism has been shown to further restrict the range in δ65Cu (Ikehata et al. 2011) - an effect that might be applicable to Kupferberg. In

  8. High HIV Burden in Men Who Have Sex with Men across Colombia’s Largest Cities: Findings from an Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Mendoza, Martha Lucía; Jacobson, Jerry Owen; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Sierra Alarcón, Clara Ángela; Luque Núñez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Among Latin America’s concentrated HIV epidemics, little is known about men who have sex with men (MSM) in Colombia, the region’s third largest country. To date, surveillance studies have been limited to Bogota, while 80% of HIV cases and deaths originate from Colombia’s other cities and departments. The extent to which interventions should prioritize MSM outside of Bogota is unknown. Methods We recruited 2603 MSM using respondent-driven sampling from seven of Colombia’s largest cities. HIV prevalence was estimated by site from dried blood spot samples. Behavioral data were collected through face-to-face interviews and risk factors for HIV infection analyzed using weighted, multi-level logistical regression models accounting for recruitment patterns. Results Across cities, HIV prevalence averaged 15%, varied from 6% to 24% and was highest in Cali, Bogota, and Barranquilla. In the past 12 months, 65% of MSM had ≥ 5 casual male partners and 23% had a female partner. Across partnerships (i.e., casual, stable, and commercial), the proportion of MSM engaging in unprotected sex was ≥ 52% with male partners and ≥ 66% with female partners. Self-reported history of STI (24%) and past-year illicit drug use (38%) were also common. In multivariate analysis, age ≥ 35 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 19.2) and 25–39 (AOR, 5.6) relative to ≤ 18–24 years, identifying as homosexual relative to heterosexual (AOR 0.1), meeting casual partners on the Internet (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1) and age of sexual debut of ≤ 13 years (AOR, 3.1) predicted HIV infection. HIV testing and prevention messaging reached just 24% of MSM in the past year. Conclusions Findings support consistently elevated HIV burden among MSM throughout Colombia’s largest cities and a need for enhanced behavioral prevention and HIV testing, emphasizing men who use the Internet as well as physical venues to meet sex partners. PMID:26252496

  9. Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp., the largest terrestrial predator from Europe, and a proposed terminology of the maxilla anatomy in nonavian theropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Hendrickx

    Full Text Available The Lourinhã Formation (Kimmeridgian-Tithonian of Central West Portugal is well known for its diversified dinosaur fauna similar to that of the Morrison Formation of North America; both areas share dinosaur taxa including the top predator Torvosaurus, reported in Portugal. The material assigned to the Portuguese T. tanneri, consisting of a right maxilla and an incomplete caudal centrum, was briefly described in the literature and a thorough description of these bones is here given for the first time. A comparison with material referred to Torvosaurus tanneri allows us to highlight some important differences justifying the creation of a distinct Eastern species. Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp. displays two autapomorphies among Megalosauroidea, a maxilla possessing fewer than eleven teeth and an interdental wall nearly coincidental with the lateral wall of the maxillary body. In addition, it differs from T. tanneri by a reduced number of maxillary teeth, the absence of interdental plates terminating ventrally by broad V-shaped points and falling short relative to the lateral maxillary wall, and the absence of a protuberant ridge on the anterior part of the medial shelf, posterior to the anteromedial process. T. gurneyi is the largest theropod from the Lourinhã Formation of Portugal and the largest land predator discovered in Europe hitherto. This taxon supports the mechanism of vicariance that occurred in the Iberian Meseta during the Late Jurassic when the proto-Atlantic was already well formed. A fragment of maxilla from the Lourinhã Formation referred to Torvosaurus sp. is ascribed to this new species, and several other bones, including a femur, a tibia and embryonic material all from the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian of Portugal, are tentatively assigned to T. gurneyi. A standard terminology and notation of the theropod maxilla is also proposed and a record of the Torvosaurus material from Portugal is given.

  10. PVM Support for Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, P.

    2000-01-01

    The latest version of PVM (3.4.3) now contains support for a PC cluster running Linux, also known as a Beowulf system. A PVM user of a computer outside the Beowulf system can add the Beowulf as a single machine.

  11. From single-site tantalum complexes to nanoparticles of TaxNy and TaOxNy supported on silica: elucidation of synthesis chemistry by dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Mohandas, Janet Chakkamadathil

    2017-06-08

    Air-stable catalysts consisting of tantalum nitride nanoparticles represented as a mixture of TaxNy and TaOxNy with diameters in the range of 0.5 to 3 nm supported on highly dehydroxylated silica were synthesized from TaMe5 (Me = methyl) and dimeric Ta-2(OMe)(10) with guidance by the principles of surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). Characterization of the supported precursors and the supported nanoparticles formed from them was carried out by IR, NMR, UV-Vis, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies complemented with XRD and high-resolution TEM, with dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy being especially helpful by providing enhanced intensities of the signals of H-1, C-13, Si-29, and N-15 at their natural abundances. The characterization data provide details of the synthesis chemistry, including evidence of (a) O-2 insertion into Ta-CH3 species on the support and (b) a binuclear to mononuclear transformation of species formed from Ta-2(OMe)(10) on the support. A catalytic test reaction, cyclooctene epoxidation, was used to probe the supported nanoparticles, with 30% H2O2 serving as the oxidant. The catalysts gave selectivities up to 98% for the epoxide at conversions as high as 99% with a 3.4 wt% loading of Ta present as TaxNy/TaOxNy.

  12. Largest terrestrial electromagnetic pulsar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pardy, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 6 (2002), s. 1155-1163 ISSN 0020-7748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : source theory, spectral formula, synchrotron radiation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.655, year: 2002

  13. A descriptive study of TB cases finding practices in the three largest public general hospitals in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Binh Hoa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A project was implemented in 2010 to improve TB notification and TB screening and diagnostic routines in large general hospitals. The aims of present study was to assess baseline TB screening and diagnostic practices in the three largest general hospitals in Vietnam. Objectives To assess baseline TB screening and diagnostic practices in the three largest general hospitals in Vietnam. Method The study had three elements: 1 Focus group discussions with hospital physicians; 2 review of hospital records and structured interviews of people who had a chest X-ray on any indication; and 3 record reviews and structured interviews of people newly diagnosed with TB. Results The most commonly reported diagnostic pathway for pulmonary TB was chest X-ray followed by sputum-smear microscopy. Among 599 individuals who had a chest X-ray performed, 391 (65.1% had recorded any abnormality, significantly higher in males (73.8% than in females (54.7%, (p  Of 103 consecutive TB cases enrolled in the study, 92 (90% had chest X-ray as the initial test. Sixty-three (61.2% fulfilled the TB suspect criteria based on respiratory symptoms (productive cough >2 weeks. Conclusion Chest X-ray is the preferred first test for TB in the largest hospitals in Vietnam. Chest X-ray is a sensitive screening tool for TB, which should be followed by a confirmatory TB test. While the majority of those with chest X-ray abnormalities are investigated with smear-microscopy, the high sputum-smear positivity ratio among them suggests that sputum-smear microscopy is done mainly for persons with quite clear TB signs or symptoms. TB screening and use of confirmatory diagnostic tests on wider indications seem warranted.

  14. Black:White disparities in lung cancer mortality in the 50 largest cities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Bijou; Balachandran, Banujan

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents race-specific lung cancer mortality rates and the corresponding rate ratios for the 50 largest U.S. cities for the 5-year intervals 1990-1994 and 2005-2009. The 50 largest cities in the U.S. were the units of analysis. Numerator data were abstracted from national death files where the cause was malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lung (lung cancer) (ICD-9=162 and ICD-10=C33-C34). Population-based denominators were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau for 1990, 2000, and 2010. To measure the racial disparity, we calculated non-Hispanic Black:non-Hispanic White rate ratios (RRs) and confidence intervals for each 5-year period. We calculated correlation coefficients for 12 ecological variables and the RRs. At the final time point (2005-2009), 15RRs were less than 1, but only 8 significantly so while 29RRs were greater than 1, 16 of them significantly so. Of the 45 cities included in the analysis, 21 saw an increase in the Black:White RR between the first and second time points. Measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and inequalities therein were found to be associated with the RRs. This analysis revealed large disparities in Black:White lung cancer mortality in the U.S. and many of its largest cities during the period 1990-2009. The data demonstrate considerable variation in the degree of disparity across cities, even among cities within the same state. These data can inform and motivate local health officials to implement targeted prevention and treatment strategies where they are needed most, ultimately contributing to a reduction in the disparity in lung cancer mortality rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing Black:White disparities in breast cancer mortality in the 50 largest cities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Bijou R; Whitman, Steve; Hurlbert, Marc S

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents race-specific breast cancer mortality rates and the corresponding rate ratios for the 50 largest U.S. cities for each of the 5-year intervals between 1990 and 2009. The 50 largest cities in the U.S. were the units of analysis. Numerator data were abstracted from national death files where the cause was malignant neoplasm of the breast (ICD-9=174 and ICD-10=C50) for women. Population-based denominators were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau for 1990, 2000, and 2010. To measure the racial disparity, we calculated non-Hispanic Black:non-Hispanic White rate ratios (RRs) and confidence intervals for each 5-year period. At the final time point (2005-2009), two RRs were less than 1, but neither significantly so, while 39 RRs were >1, 23 of them significantly so. Of the 41 cities included in the analysis, 35 saw an increase in the Black:White RR between 1990-1994 and 2005-2009. In many of the cities, the increase in the disparity occurred because White rates improved substantially over the 20-year study period, while Black rates did not. There were 1710 excess Black deaths annually due to this disparity in breast cancer mortality, for an average of about 5 each day. This analysis revealed large and growing disparities in Black:White breast cancer mortality in the U.S. and many of its largest cities during the period 1990-2009. Much work remains to achieve equality in breast cancer mortality outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimating and analysing currency options implied risk-neutral density functions for the largest new EU member states

    OpenAIRE

    Castrén, Olli

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses data on currency options prices for the exchange rates of the three largest new EU member states Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary vis-à-vis the euro and the US dollar to estimate the risk-neutral density (RND) functions and the density interval bands. Analysing the RNDs, we find that only some of the implied moments on the Polish zloty exchange rate systematically move around policy events, while the implied moments on the RNDs on the Czech koruna and Hungarian forint show m...

  17. World's largest DC flywheel generator for the toroidal field power supply of JAERI's JFT-2M Tokamak nuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Takashi; Nakanishi, Yuji; Horita, Tsuyoshi; Kawase, Chiharu; Oyabu, Isao; Kishimoto, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    Mitsubishi Electric has delivered the world's largest DC generator for the toroidal field coil power supply of the JFT-2M Tokamak at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The unit rotates at 225 or 460 rpm, providing a maximum rated output of 2,700 V, 19,000 A and 51.3 MW. The toroidal field is a DC field, so use of a DC generator permits a simpler design consuming less floor space than an AC drive system. The generator was manufactured following extensive studies on commutation, mechan