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Sample records for single largest group

  1. Largest case series of Latin American eyelid tumors over 13-Years from a single center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Carolinne Damasceno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Malignant lesions of the eyelid are the most common eye cancers. Although rarely lethal, late diagnosis can lead to serious visual morbidity. Definitive diagnosis of neoplastic lesions is pathological. Indications and types of eyelid lesions in a single high-volume ophthalmic reference center in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed. Methods: The surgical pathological reports of patients who underwent eye removal procedures between January 2000 and December 2012 were retrieved from the electronic database of the Ophthalmology Department and retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding the final anatomopathological diagnosis, sex, and age were analyzed via the χ2 test with Yates' correction. Results: Of the 1,113 eyelid tumors resected over the 13-year study period, 324 (29% lesions were malignant. The most prevalent lesions were basal cell, squamous cell, and sebaceous gland carcinomas. The median ages of patients (females, n=165, 51%; males, n=159, 49% with a diagnosis of basal cell, squamous cell, and sebaceous gland carcinomas were 65, 75, and 70 years, respectively. Conclusion: This is the largest retrospective cohort analysis of eyelid tumors in a Latin American population. These findings are in agreement with those from large centers in other countries and regions.

  2. Using Telepresence to Connect and Engage Classes and the Public in the Exploration of Tamu Massif, the World's Largest Single Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanez-James, S. E.; Sager, W.

    2016-02-01

    Research published in 2013 showed that TAMU Massif, the largest mountain in the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, located approximately 1500 kilometers east of Japan, is the "World's Largest Single Volcano." This claim garnered widespread public interest and wonder concerning how something so big could remain so mysterious in the 21st century. This disconnect highlights the fact that oceans are still widely unexplored, especially the middle of the deep ocean. Because there is so much interest in TAMU Massif, a diverse outreach team lead by chief scientist Dr. William Sager from the University of Houston in partnership with the Texas State Aquarium and the Schmidt Ocean Institute (SOI) conducted a multifaceted ship-to-shore outreach project that included secondary school students, formal and informal educators, university students and professors, the aquarium and museum audience, and the general public. The objective was to work in conjunction with SOI and various other partners, including the Texas Regional Collaborative, the Aquarium of the Pacific, and the Houston Museum of Natural Science, to promote science and ocean literacy while inspiring future scientists - especially those from underserved and underrepresented groups - through ocean connections. Participants were connected through live ship-to-shore distance learning broadcasts of ongoing marine research and discovery of TAMU Massif aboard the R/V Falkor, allowing audiences to participate in real-time research and apply real world science to curriculum in the classrooms. These ship-to-shore presentations connected to existing curriculums and standards, lessons, and career interests of the students and educators with special teacher events and professional development workshops conducted from aboard the R/V Falkor.

  3. A Renormalisation Group Method. V. A Single Renormalisation Group Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, David C.; Slade, Gordon

    2015-05-01

    This paper is the fifth in a series devoted to the development of a rigorous renormalisation group method applicable to lattice field theories containing boson and/or fermion fields, and comprises the core of the method. In the renormalisation group method, increasingly large scales are studied in a progressive manner, with an interaction parametrised by a field polynomial which evolves with the scale under the renormalisation group map. In our context, the progressive analysis is performed via a finite-range covariance decomposition. Perturbative calculations are used to track the flow of the coupling constants of the evolving polynomial, but on their own perturbative calculations are insufficient to control error terms and to obtain mathematically rigorous results. In this paper, we define an additional non-perturbative coordinate, which together with the flow of coupling constants defines the complete evolution of the renormalisation group map. We specify conditions under which the non-perturbative coordinate is contractive under a single renormalisation group step. Our framework is essentially combinatorial, but its implementation relies on analytic results developed earlier in the series of papers. The results of this paper are applied elsewhere to analyse the critical behaviour of the 4-dimensional continuous-time weakly self-avoiding walk and of the 4-dimensional -component model. In particular, the existence of a logarithmic correction to mean-field scaling for the susceptibility can be proved for both models, together with other facts about critical exponents and critical behaviour.

  4. Long-term outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for metachromatic leukodystrophy: the largest single-institution cohort report

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Alexander A.; Miller, Weston; Shanley, Ryan; Ziegler, Richard; Lund, Troy; Raymond, Gerald; Orchard, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare, fatal demyelinating disorder with limited treatment options. Published outcomes after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are scant and mixed. We report survival and function following HSCT for a large, single-center MLD cohort. Methods Transplant-related data, survival and serial measures (brain MRI, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), neurologic and neuropsychology evaluations) were reviewed. When possible, parental interviews...

  5. Long-term outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for metachromatic leukodystrophy: the largest single-institution cohort report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Alexander A; Miller, Weston; Shanley, Ryan; Ziegler, Richard; Lund, Troy; Raymond, Gerald; Orchard, Paul J

    2015-08-07

    Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare, fatal demyelinating disorder with limited treatment options. Published outcomes after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are scant and mixed. We report survival and function following HSCT for a large, single-center MLD cohort. Transplant-related data, survival and serial measures (brain MRI, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), neurologic and neuropsychology evaluations) were reviewed. When possible, parental interviews informed current neurologic status, quality-of-life, and adaptive functioning. Gross motor and expressive functions for late-infantile (LI-MLD) and juvenile (J-MLD) patients were described using previously reported, MLD-specific scales. Forty patients with confirmed MLD have undergone HSCT at our center. Twenty-one (53 %) survive at a median 12 years post-HSCT. Most deaths (n = 17) were treatment-related; two died from disease progression. Survival did not depend upon MLD subtype or symptom status at transplant. LI-MLD patients survive beyond reported life expectancy in untreated disease. Abnormal brain MRI and peripheral nerve conduction velocities (NCV) were common before HSCT. Following transplant, fewer patients experienced MRI progression compared to NCV deterioration. Sixteen LI-MLD and J-MLD survivors were evaluable for long-term gross motor and/or expressive language functioning using existing MLD clinical scoring systems. While most J-MLD patients regressed, the aggregate cohort demonstrated superior retention of function compared to published natural history. Seventeen LI-MLD, J-MLD and adult subtype (A-MLD) survivors were evaluable for long-term adaptive functioning, activities of daily living, and/or cognition. Relative cognitive sparing was observed despite overall global decline. Five sibling pairs (one LI-MLD and four J-MLD), in which at least one underwent transplant in our cohort, were evaluable. Within each familial dyad, survival or function was superior for the treated

  6. The population genetics of Quechuas, the largest native South American group: autosomal sequences, SNPs, and microsatellites evidence high level of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scliar, Marilia O; Soares-Souza, Giordano B; Chevitarese, Juliana; Lemos, Livia; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Fagundes, Nelson J; Bonatto, Sandro L; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Elucidating the pattern of genetic diversity for non-European populations is necessary to make the benefits of human genetics research available to individuals from these groups. In the era of large human genomic initiatives, Native American populations have been neglected, in particular, the Quechua, the largest South Amerindian group settled along the Andes. We characterized the genetic diversity of a Quechua population in a global setting, using autosomal noncoding sequences (nine unlinked loci for a total of 16 kb), 351 unlinked SNPs and 678 microsatellites and tested predictions of the model of the evolution of Native Americans proposed by (Tarazona-Santos et al.: Am J Hum Genet 68 (2001) 1485-1496). European admixture is Quechua or Melanesian populations, which is concordant with the African origin of modern humans and the fact that South America was the last part of the world to be peopled. The diversity in the Quechua population is comparable with that of Eurasian populations, and the allele frequency spectrum based on resequencing data does not reflect a reduction in the proportion of rare alleles. Thus, the Quechua population is a large reservoir of common and rare genetic variants of South Amerindians. These results are consistent with and complement our evolutionary model of South Amerindians (Tarazona-Santos et al.: Am J Hum Genet 68 (2001) 1485-1496), proposed based on Y-chromosome data, which predicts high genomic diversity due to the high level of gene flow between Andean populations and their long-term effective population size. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cultural Values in Intergroup and Single-Group Social Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst; Carnevale; Triandis

    1999-03-01

    Do cultural values influence the manner in which people cooperate with one another? This study assessed cultural characteristics of individuals and then related these characteristics to cooperative behavior in social dilemmas. Participants were assessed for their degree of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism, cultural values identified by Triandis (1995). They made choices in either a single-group or an intergroup social dilemma. The single-group dilemma entailed a three-person dilemma; the intergroup dilemma was identical but added subgroup competition, i.e., an opposing three-person group. The results indicated an interaction between cultural characteristics and type of dilemma for cooperation. The single-group versus intergroup effect reported by Bornstein and Ben-Yossef (1994) was replicated, but only for vertical individualists. The vertical individualists were least cooperative in the single-group dilemma but were more cooperative in the intergroup dilemma-where cooperation with the group maximized personal outcomes. The vertical collectivists were most cooperative in the single-group dilemma but were less cooperative in the intergroup dilemma- where group defection resulted in maximum group outcomes. The horizontal individualists and collectivists exhibited an intermediate level of cooperation, with no differences in cooperation between the single-group and intergroup dilemmas. Taken together, the results suggest that the relationship between cultural values and cooperation, in particular with reference to vertical and horizontal components of individualism and collectivism, is more complex than has been suggested in past research. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  8. VALUE RELEVANCE OF GROUP FINANCIAL STATEMENTS BASED ON ENTITY VERSUS PARENT COMPANY THEORY: EVIDENCE FROM THE LARGEST THREE EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Victor-Octavian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial statementsn#8217; main objective is to give information on the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of the reporting entity, which is useful to investors and other users in making economic decisions. In order to be useful, financial information needs to be relevant to the decision-making process of users in general, and investors in particular. Regarding consolidated financial statements, the accounting theory knows four perspectives (theories on which the preparation of those statements is based, namely, the proprietary theory, the parent company theory, the parent company extension theory and the entity theory (Baxter and Spinney, 1975. Of practical importance are especially the parent company extension perspective and the entity perspective. The IASB and FASB decided (within an ED regarding the Improvement of the Conceptual Framework that consolidated financial statements should be presented from the perspective of the group entity, and not from the perspective of the parent-company. However, this support for the entity theory is to our knowledge not backed by empirical findings in the academic literature. Therefore, in our paper we set to contribute with empirical arguments to finding an actual answer to the question about the superior market value relevance of one of the two concurrent perspectives (theories. We set to carry out an empirical association study on the problem of market value relevance of consolidated financial statements based on the entity theory respectively on the parent company (extension theory, searching for an answer to the above question. In this sense, we pursued an analysis of market value relevance of consolidated accounting information (based on the two perspectives of listed entities between 2003-2008 on the largest three European Stock Exchanges (London, Paris and Frankfurt. The obtained results showed that a n#8222;restrainedn#8221; entity perspective, which would combine

  9. Discrimination of communication vocalizations by single neurons and groups of neurons in the auditory midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David M; Woolley, Sarah M N

    2010-06-01

    Many social animals including songbirds use communication vocalizations for individual recognition. The perception of vocalizations depends on the encoding of complex sounds by neurons in the ascending auditory system, each of which is tuned to a particular subset of acoustic features. Here, we examined how well the responses of single auditory neurons could be used to discriminate among bird songs and we compared discriminability to spectrotemporal tuning. We then used biologically realistic models of pooled neural responses to test whether the responses of groups of neurons discriminated among songs better than the responses of single neurons and whether discrimination by groups of neurons was related to spectrotemporal tuning and trial-to-trial response variability. The responses of single auditory midbrain neurons could be used to discriminate among vocalizations with a wide range of abilities, ranging from chance to 100%. The ability to discriminate among songs using single neuron responses was not correlated with spectrotemporal tuning. Pooling the responses of pairs of neurons generally led to better discrimination than the average of the two inputs and the most discriminating input. Pooling the responses of three to five single neurons continued to improve neural discrimination. The increase in discriminability was largest for groups of neurons with similar spectrotemporal tuning. Further, we found that groups of neurons with correlated spike trains achieved the largest gains in discriminability. We simulated neurons with varying levels of temporal precision and measured the discriminability of responses from single simulated neurons and groups of simulated neurons. Simulated neurons with biologically observed levels of temporal precision benefited more from pooling correlated inputs than did neurons with highly precise or imprecise spike trains. These findings suggest that pooling correlated neural responses with the levels of precision observed in the

  10. A Community Support Group for Single Custodial Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sandra L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a five-session group experience within the context of establishing a support group for single custodial fathers. Includes topics of dating, remarriage, homemaking and house maintenance, and the effects of divorce on children. A follow-up showed fathers appreciated the sense of community and specific information and coping strategies.…

  11. Multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongwei [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Ma, Haiqiang, E-mail: hqma@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wei, Kejin [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Yang, Xiuqing [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Qu, Wenxiu; Dou, Tianqi; Chen, Yitian; Li, Ruixue; Zhu, Wu [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2016-07-15

    In this letter, we propose a novel scheme for the realization of single-photon dynamic quantum secret sharing between a boss and three dynamic agent groups. In our system, the boss can not only choose one of these three groups to share the secret with, but also can share two sets of independent keys with two groups without redistribution. Furthermore, the security of communication is enhanced by using a control mode. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more flexible and will contribute to a practical application. - Highlights: • A multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons scheme is proposed. • Any one of the groups can be chosen to share secret through controlling the polarization of photons. • Two sets of keys can be shared simultaneously without redistribution.

  12. Largest College Endowments, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Of all endowments valued at more than $250-million, the UCLA Foundation had the highest rate of growth over the previous year, at 49 percent. This article presents a table of the largest college endowments in 2011. The table covers the "rank," "institution," "market value as of June 30, 2011," and "1-year change" of institutions participating in…

  13. Photoinduced nuclear spin conversion of methyl groups of single molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigl, A.

    2007-01-01

    A methyl group is an outstanding quantum system due to its special symmetry properties. The threefold rotation around one of its bond is isomorphic to the group of even permutations of the remaining protons, a property which imposes severe quantum restrictions on the system, for instance a strict correlation of rotational states with nuclear spin states. The resulting long lifetimes of the rotational tunneling states of the methyl group can be exploited for applying certain high resolution optical techniques, like hole burning or single molecule spectroscopy to optically switch the methyl group from one tunneling state to another therebye changing the nuclear spin of the protons. One goal of the thesis was to perform this switching in single methyl groups. To this end the methyl group was attached to a chromophoric system, in the present case terrylene, which is well suited for single molecule spectroscopy as well as for hole burning. Experiments were performed with the bare terrylene molecule in a hexadecane lattice which served as a reference system, with alphamethyl terrylene and betamethyl terrylene, both embedded in hexadecane, too. A single molecular probe is a highly sensitive detector for dynamic lattice instabilities. Already the bare terrylene probe showed a wealth of interesting local dynamic effects of the hexadecane lattice which could be well acounted for by the assumption of two nearly degenerate sites with rather different optical and thermal properties, all of which could be determined in a quantitative fashion. As to the methylated terrylene systems, the experiments verified that for betamethyl terrylene it is indeed possible to measure rotational tunneling events in single methyl groups. However, the spectral patterns obtained was much more complicated than expected pointing to the presence of three spectroscopically different methyl groups. In order to achieve a definite assignement, molecular mechanics simulations of the terrylene probes in the

  14. Single or functionalized fullerenes interacting with heme group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Wallison Chaves; Diniz, Eduardo Moraes, E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Avenida dos Portugueses, 1966, CEP 65080-805, São Luís - MA (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    The heme group is responsible for iron transportation through the bloodstream, where iron participates in redox reactions, electron transfer, gases detection etc. The efficiency of such processes can be reduced if the whole heme molecule or even the iron is somehow altered from its original oxidation state, which can be caused by interactions with nanoparticles as fullerenes. To verify how such particles alter the geometry and electronic structure of heme molecule, here we report first principles calculations based on density functional theory of heme group interacting with single C{sub 60} fullerene or with C{sub 60} functionalized with small functional groups (−CH{sub 3}, −COOH, −NH{sub 2}, −OH). The calculations shown that the system heme + nanoparticle has a different spin state in comparison with heme group if the fullerene is functionalized. Also a functional group can provide a stronger binding between nanoparticle and heme molecule or inhibit the chemical bonding in comparison with single fullerene results. In addition heme molecule loses electrons to the nanoparticles and some systems exhibited a geometry distortion in heme group, depending on the binding energy. Furthermore, one find that such nanoparticles induce a formation of spin up states in heme group. Moreover, there exist modifications in density of states near the Fermi energy. Although of such changes in heme electronic structure and geometry, the iron atom remains in the heme group with the same oxidation state, so that processes that involve the iron might not be affected, only those that depend on the whole heme molecule.

  15. Deriving the largest expected number of elementary particles in the standard model from the maximal compact subgroup H of the exceptional Lie group E7(-5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The maximal number of elementary particles which could be expected to be found within a modestly extended energy scale of the standard model was found using various methods to be N = 69. In particular using E-infinity theory the present Author found the exact transfinite expectation value to be =α-bar o /2≅69 where α-bar o =137.082039325 is the exact inverse fine structure constant. In the present work we show among other things how to derive the exact integer value 69 from the exceptional Lie symmetry groups hierarchy. It is found that the relevant number is given by dim H = 69 where H is the maximal compact subspace of E 7(-5) so that N = dim H = 69 while dim E 7 = 133

  16. Microarray Beads for Identifying Blood Group Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Francesca; Karpasitou, Katerina; Poli, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a high-throughput system for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of alleles of diverse blood group systems exploiting Luminex technology. The method uses specific oligonucleotide probes coupled to a specific array of fluorescent microspheres and is designed for typing Jka/Jkb, Fya/Fyb, S/s, K/k, Kpa/Kpb, Jsa/Jsb, Coa/Cob and Lua/Lub alleles. Briefly, two multiplex PCR reactions (PCR I and PCR II) according to the laboratory specific needs are set up. PCR I amplif...

  17. Microarray Beads for Identifying Blood Group Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesca; Karpasitou, Katerina; Poli, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a high-throughput system for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of alleles of diverse blood group systems exploiting Luminex technology. The method uses specific oligonucleotide probes coupled to a specific array of fluorescent microspheres and is designed for typing Jk(a)/Jk(b), Fy(a)/Fy(b), S/s, K/k, Kp(a)/Kp(b), Js(a)/Js(b), Co(a)/Co(b) and Lu(a)/Lu(b) alleles. Briefly, two multiplex PCR reactions (PCR I and PCR II) according to the laboratory specific needs are set up. PCR I amplifies the alleles tested routinely, namely Jk(a)/Jk(b), Fy(a)/Fy(b), S/s, and K/k. PCR II amplifies those alleles that are typed less frequently. Biotinylated PCR products are hybridized in a single multiplex assay with the corresponding probe mixture. After incubation with R-phycoerythrin-conjugated streptavidin, the emitted fluorescence is analyzed with Luminex 100. So far, we have typed more than 2,000 subjects, 493 of whom with multiplex assay, and there have been no discrepancies with the serology results other than null and/or weak phenotypes. The cost of consumables and reagents for typing a single biallelic pair per sample is less than EUR 3.-, not including DNA extraction costs. The capability to perform multiplexed reactions makes the method markedly suitable for mass screening of red blood cell alleles. This genotyping approach represents an important tool in transfusion medicine.

  18. Renormalisation group analysis of single right-handed neutrino dominance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F.; Nimai Singh, N.

    2000-01-01

    We perform a renormalisation group (RG) analysis of neutrino masses and mixing angles in the see-saw mechanism in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with three right-handed neutrinos, including the effects of the heavy neutrino thresholds. We focus on the case that one of the right-handed neutrinos provides the dominant contribution to the 23 block of the light Majorana matrix, causing its determinant to approximately vanish and giving an automatic neutrino mass hierarchy, so-called single right-handed neutrino dominance which may arise from a U(1) family symmetry. In these models radiative corrections can increase atmospheric and solar neutrino mixing by up to about 10% and 5%, respectively, and may help to achieve bi-maximal mixing. Significantly we find that the radiative corrections over the heavy neutrino threshold region are at least as important as those usually considered from the lightest right-handed neutrino down to low energies

  19. Single electron detachment of carbon group and oxygen group elements incident on helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yongyi; Li Guangwu; Gao Yinghui; Yang Enbo; Gao Mei; Lu Fuquan; Zhang Xuemei

    2006-01-01

    The absolute single electron detachment (SED) cross sections of carbon group elements C - , Si - , Ge - in the energy range of 0.05-0.29 a.u. (5 keV-30 keV) and oxygen group elements O - and S - 0.08-0.27 a.u. (5 keV-30 keV), incident on helium are measured with growth rate method. In our energy region, the SED cross sections of C - , Si - , S - and Ge - increase with the projectiles velocity, at the same time, O - cross sections reach a conspicuous maximum at 0.18 a.u. Some abnormal behavior occurs in measurement of SED cross sections for the oxygen group collision with helium. Our results have been compared with a previous work

  20. Isolated and Single Pedestrians and Pedestrian Groups on Sidewalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pinna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Walking freedom can define the quality of an urban area, but this freedom is conditioned by various factors. The research objective is to study pedestrian behavior on sidewalks. Data are collected during on site surveys by means of concealed camcorders. For each pedestrian many factors are observed, such as gender, age, direction, distractions, transport of objects, etc., which could influence pedestrian behavior. Data processing allows the identification of mathematical models describing the average pedestrian’s behavior, subdivided for user type (isolated, single, group. In general, the mean walking pedestrian speed decreases depending on user type (in a linear manner if age class grows for isolated pedestrians, while with the square of age for other user types, of gender, and of facing type. Models obtained for the different pedestrian types were compared to understand the differences in speeds, underlining that pedestrian interferences play a significant role in defining behavior and, therefore, speed. The results support the idea that, to define a smooth pedestrian speed as an indicator of the “walkability” of a path, in addition to considering the path and user’s characteristics, it is also necessary to define the type of user for which the infrastructure is designed.

  1. Group one impurities in single crystalline Zinc Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Klaus Magnus Håland

    2011-01-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) has been used as a material in many different technologies from pharmaceuticals to electronics. This exciting material can also be utilized as a wide band gap semiconductor for application in optoelectronic devices. The availability of Zn, the possibility to grow single crystal bulk material and the exitonic binding energy of 60 meV makes this material especially interesting. Even though the material has been studied already since the late 1920s there are still some fundament...

  2. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  3. Report of the working group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzani, A.; Bongini, L.; Corbett, J.; Dome, G.; Fedorova, A.; Freguglia, P.; Ng, K.; Ohmi, K.; Owen, H.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Robin, D.; Safranek, J.; Scandale, W.; Terebilo, A.; Turchetti, G.; Todesco, E.; Warnock, R.; Zeitlin, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics has developed a set of tools to study nonlinear dynamics in a particle accelerator. The design of rings with large dynamic apertures is still far from automatic. The Working Group has concluded that nonlinear single-particle dynamics limits the performance of accelerators. (AIP) copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  4. Impact of Group Support on Adjustment to Divorce by Single, Custodial Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sandra L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the effects of a support group for single, custodial fathers (N=36) on measures of divorce adjustment, loneliness, and self-concept. Results indicated that men who attended the group meetings made more positive changes than those who did not attend and indicated a desire for support, sharing, and discussion. (JAC)

  5. A note on resource allocation scheduling with group technology and learning effects on a single machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ji-Bo; Ji, Ping; He, Hongyu

    2017-09-01

    In this article, single-machine group scheduling with learning effects and convex resource allocation is studied. The goal is to find the optimal job schedule, the optimal group schedule, and resource allocations of jobs and groups. For the problem of minimizing the makespan subject to limited resource availability, it is proved that the problem can be solved in polynomial time under the condition that the setup times of groups are independent. For the general setup times of groups, a heuristic algorithm and a branch-and-bound algorithm are proposed, respectively. Computational experiments show that the performance of the heuristic algorithm is fairly accurate in obtaining near-optimal solutions.

  6. A single mothers' group for mothers of children attending an outpatient psychiatric clinic: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, J E; Lipman, E L; Hicks, F

    1995-09-01

    To provide a preliminary report of data from 2 support groups for single mothers, all of whom were mothers of children attending a child outpatient psychiatric clinic. The groups' 2 purposes were: 1. to assess the feasibility of adding structured evaluation to a common clinical intervention; 2. to improve single mothers' parenting skills through raised levels of self-esteem, increased capacity for family functioning and reduced levels of depression. Three structured evaluation instruments were used to measure the domains of self-esteem, family functioning and depression. These instruments were given to both groups of women on 3 occasions: 1. before the group; 2. after the group; 3. at a follow-up session 4 months after group termination. Open-ended questions were also asked at group termination. The questionnaire response rate was 100%; overall response rate for the 3 open-ended questions was 89%. Comparisons of pre-group and post-group scores showed that there was a significant increase in self-esteem (p parenting skills. Methodologic concerns and future directions are discussed.

  7. The Influence of Single - Sex Tourist Groups on Creating the Identity of Their Members - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Švorcová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    This MA thesis deals with the influence of single-sex tourist groups on creating the identity of their members. The aim is to discover the effect of membership in such a non-coeducational tourist clubs on children, and also how this leisure activity affects children's identity and what impact it has on their development.
 The theoretical part discusses socializing, social environment, gender, gender socialization and gender stereotypes. Furthermore, it also deals with the influence of peers a...

  8. Using machine learning to identify structural breaks in single-group interrupted time series designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is a popular evaluation methodology in which a single unit of observation is being studied, the outcome variable is serially ordered as a time series and the intervention is expected to 'interrupt' the level and/or trend of the time series, subsequent to its introduction. Given that the internal validity of the design rests on the premise that the interruption in the time series is associated with the introduction of the treatment, treatment effects may seem less plausible if a parallel trend already exists in the time series prior to the actual intervention. Thus, sensitivity analyses should focus on detecting structural breaks in the time series before the intervention. In this paper, we introduce a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) as an approach to determine if structural breaks can be identified in years prior to the initiation of the intervention, using data from California's 1988 voter-initiated Proposition 99 to reduce smoking rates. The ODA analysis indicates that numerous structural breaks occurred prior to the actual initiation of Proposition 99 in 1989, including perfect structural breaks in 1983 and 1985, thereby casting doubt on the validity of treatment effects estimated for the actual intervention when using a single-group ITSA design. Given the widespread use of ITSA for evaluating observational data and the increasing use of machine-learning techniques in traditional research, we recommend that structural break sensitivity analysis is routinely incorporated in all research using the single-group ITSA design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Electrical properties and mechanical stability of anchoring groups for single-molecule electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Frisenda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental investigation of transport through single molecules, trapped between two gold nano-electrodes fabricated with the mechanically controlled break junction (MCBJ technique. The four molecules studied share the same core structure, namely oligo(phenylene ethynylene (OPE3, while having different aurophilic anchoring groups: thiol (SAc, methyl sulfide (SMe, pyridyl (Py and amine (NH2. The focus of this paper is on the combined characterization of the electrical and mechanical properties determined by the anchoring groups. From conductance histograms we find that thiol anchored molecules provide the highest conductance; a single-level model fit to current–voltage characteristics suggests that SAc groups exhibit a higher electronic coupling to the electrodes, together with better level alignment than the other three groups. An analysis of the mechanical stability, recording the lifetime in a self-breaking method, shows that Py and SAc yield the most stable junctions while SMe form short-lived junctions. Density functional theory combined with non-equlibrium Green’s function calculations help in elucidating the experimental findings.

  10. The electrochemical signature of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes bearing electroactive groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Floch, Fabien; Thuaire, Aurelie; Simonato, Jean-Pierre; Bidan, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    We report the modification and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in view of molecular sensing applications. We found that ultrasonicated SWCNTs present sticking properties that make them adhere on electrode surfaces. This allows excellent characterization of SWCNTs by cyclic voltammetry (CV) before and after chemical functionalization with diazonium salts bearing electroactive groups. Bare SWCNTs presented distinct invariant shapes in CV, used as control curves, in comparison with functionalized SWCNTs for which specific signatures corresponding to the presence of grafted molecules were identified. According to the electronic substituents in the para position of the diazonium salts, divergent behaviours were observed for the grafting reactions. Diazonium salts having electrowithdrawing groups could be grafted without electrochemical induction whereas those bearing electron donating groups required a cathodic potential to generate the formation of the radical species.

  11. The electrochemical signature of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes bearing electroactive groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Floch, Fabien; Thuaire, Aurelie; Simonato, Jean-Pierre [LITEN/DTNM/LCRE, CEA-Grenoble 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Bidan, Gerard [INAC/DIR, CEA-Grenoble 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: jean-pierre.simonato@cea.fr

    2009-04-08

    We report the modification and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in view of molecular sensing applications. We found that ultrasonicated SWCNTs present sticking properties that make them adhere on electrode surfaces. This allows excellent characterization of SWCNTs by cyclic voltammetry (CV) before and after chemical functionalization with diazonium salts bearing electroactive groups. Bare SWCNTs presented distinct invariant shapes in CV, used as control curves, in comparison with functionalized SWCNTs for which specific signatures corresponding to the presence of grafted molecules were identified. According to the electronic substituents in the para position of the diazonium salts, divergent behaviours were observed for the grafting reactions. Diazonium salts having electrowithdrawing groups could be grafted without electrochemical induction whereas those bearing electron donating groups required a cathodic potential to generate the formation of the radical species.

  12. Impact of Anchoring Groups on Ballistic Transport: Single Molecule vs Monolayer Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Tuning the transport properties of molecular junctions by chemically modifying the molecular structure is one of the key challenges for advancing the field of molecular electronics. In the present contribution, we investigate current–voltage characteristics of differently linked metal–molecule–metal systems that comprise either a single molecule or a molecular assembly. This is achieved by employing density functional theory in conjunction with a Green’s function approach. We show that the conductance of a molecular system with a specific anchoring group is fundamentally different depending on whether a single molecule or a continuous monolayer forms the junction. This is a consequence of collective electrostatic effects that arise from dipolar elements contained in the monolayer and from interfacial charge rearrangements. As a consequence of these collective effects, the “ideal” choice for an anchoring group is clearly different for monolayer and single molecule devices. A particularly striking effect is observed for pyridine-docked systems. These are subject to Fermi-level pinning at high molecular packing densities, causing an abrupt increase of the junction current already at small voltages. PMID:26401191

  13. Loy Yang A - Australia's largest privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenckin, C.

    1997-01-01

    The recent A$4,746 million privatisation of the 2000MW Loy Yang A power station and the Loy Yang coal mine by the Victorian Government is Australia's largest privatisation and one of 1997's largest project financing deals. (author)

  14. Single-layer group IV-V and group V-IV-III-VI semiconductors: Structural stability, electronic structures, optical properties, and photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-He; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2017-07-01

    Recently, single-layer group III monochalcogenides have attracted both theoretical and experimental interest at their potential applications in photonic devices, electronic devices, and solar energy conversion. Excited by this, we theoretically design two kinds of highly stable single-layer group IV-V (IV =Si ,Ge , and Sn; V =N and P) and group V-IV-III-VI (IV =Si ,Ge , and Sn; V =N and P; III =Al ,Ga , and In; VI =O and S) compounds with the same structures with single-layer group III monochalcogenides via first-principles simulations. By using accurate hybrid functional and quasiparticle methods, we show the single-layer group IV-V and group V-IV-III-VI are indirect bandgap semiconductors with their bandgaps and band edge positions conforming to the criteria of photocatalysts for water splitting. By applying a biaxial strain on single-layer group IV-V, single-layer group IV nitrides show a potential on mechanical sensors due to their bandgaps showing an almost linear response for strain. Furthermore, our calculations show that both single-layer group IV-V and group V-IV-III-VI have absorption from the visible light region to far-ultraviolet region, especially for single-layer SiN-AlO and SnN-InO, which have strong absorption in the visible light region, resulting in excellent potential for solar energy conversion and visible light photocatalytic water splitting. Our research provides valuable insight for finding more potential functional two-dimensional semiconductors applied in optoelectronics, solar energy conversion, and photocatalytic water splitting.

  15. Comprehensive Wavelengths, Energy Levels, and Hyperfine Structure Parameters of Singly-Ionized Iron-Group Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gillian

    We propose to measure wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters of Ni II, Mn II, Sc II and other singly-ionized iron-group elements, covering the wavelength range 80 nm to 5500 nm. We shall use archival data from spectrometers at NIST and Kitt Peak National Observatory for spectra above 140 nm. Additional experimental observations will be taken if needed using Fourier transform spectrometers at NIST. Spectra will be taken using our normal incidence grating spectrograph to provide better sensitivity than the FT spectra and to extend the wavelength range down to 80 nm. We aim to produce a comprehensive description of the spectra of all singly-ionized iron- group elements. The wavelength uncertainty of the strong lines will be better than 1 part in 10^7. For most singly-ionized iron-group elements available laboratory data have uncertainties an order of magnitude larger than astronomical observations over wide spectra ranges. Some of these laboratory measurements date back to the 1960's. Since then, Fourier transform spectroscopy has made significant progress in improving the accuracy and quantity of data in the UV-vis-IR region, but high quality Fourier transform spectra are still needed for Mn II, Ni II and Sc II. Fourier transform spectroscopy has low sensitivity in the VUV region and is limited to wavelengths above 140 nm. Spectra measured with high-resolution grating spectrographs are needed in this region in order to obtain laboratory data of comparable quality to the STIS and COS spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently, such data exist only for Fe II and Cr II. Lines of Sc II, V II, and Mn II show hyperfine structure, but hyperfine structure parameters have been measured for relatively few lines of these elements. Significant errors can occur if hyperfine structure is neglected when abundances are determined from stellar spectra. Measurements of hyperfine structure parameters will be made using Fourier transform spectroscopy

  16. Controlling formation of single-molecule junctions by electrochemical reduction of diazonium terminal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Thomas; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Nakamura, Hisao; Shimazaki, Tomomi; Asai, Yoshihiro; Tao, Nongjian

    2013-03-06

    We report controlling the formation of single-molecule junctions by means of electrochemically reducing two axialdiazonium terminal groups on a molecule, thereby producing direct Au-C covalent bonds in situ between the molecule and gold electrodes. We report a yield enhancement in molecular junction formation as the electrochemical potential of both junction electrodes approach the reduction potential of the diazonium terminal groups. Step length analysis shows that the molecular junction is significantly more stable, and can be pulled over a longer distance than a comparable junction created with amine anchoring bonds. The stability of the junction is explained by the calculated lower binding energy associated with the direct Au-C bond compared with the Au-N bond.

  17. SINGLE-CASE INVESTIGATION OF AN EMOTION-FOCUSED THERAPY GROUP FOR ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Lafrance Robinson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotion-focused therapy (EFT is an evidence-based treatment for depression and trauma and has shown promise for other presentations including anxiety. Minimal research exists investigating the outcomes of emotion-focused therapy in a group setting. The current research presents a mixed-method single-case study of one client’s experiences and outcomes following a nine-week EFT group for depression and anxiety. Weekly measures of session-feelings evaluations were collected. Follow-up measures, including a qualitative interview, were administered one year post-treatment. Pre-, post-, and follow-up measures assessed depression, anxiety, and emotional regulation. Results showed clinically significant improvements in anxiety, depression, and emotional regulation over time. Indirect and direct evidence of client change were detected. Five super-ordinate themes with sub-themes emerged from the qualitative analysis.

  18. A discrete single server queue with Markovian arrivals and phase type group services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attahiru Sule Alfa

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single-server discrete queueing system in which arrivals occur according to a Markovian arrival process. Service is provided in groups of size no more than M customers. The service times are assumed to follow a discrete phase type distribution, whose representation may depend on the group size. Under a probabilistic service rule, which depends on the number of customers waiting in the queue, this system is studied as a Markov process. This type of queueing system is encountered in the operations of an automatic storage retrieval system. The steady-state probability vector is shown to be of (modified matrix-geometric type. Efficient algorithmic procedures for the computation of the rate matrix, steady-state probability vector, and some important system performance measures are developed. The steady-state waiting time distribution is derived explicitly. Some numerical examples are presented.

  19. Exploring the Relevance of Single-Gender Group Formation: What We Learn from a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayeck, Rebecca Yvonne; Hristova, Adelina; Jablokow, Kathryn W.; Bonafini, Fernanda

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exploratory study on participants' perception of the importance of single-gender grouping in a massive open online course (MOOC) delivered through the Coursera platform. Findings reveal that female and male learners' perception of single-gender grouping differs. Female students more than males indicated less…

  20. Anchor-dependent lipofection with non-glycerol based cytofectins containing single 2-hydroxyethyl head groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Srilakshmi, Gollapudi; Sen, Joyeeta; Chaudhuri, Arabinda; Ramadas, Yerramsetti; Madhusudhana Rao, Nalam

    2002-02-15

    Detailed structure-activity investigations aimed at probing the anchor chain length dependency for glycerol-based lipofectins have been reported previously. Herein, we report on the first detailed investigation on the anchor-dependent transfection biology of non-glycerol based simple monocationic cytofectins containing single 2-hydroxyethyl head group functionality using 11 new structural analogs of our previously published first generation of non-glycerol based transfection lipids (lipids 1-11). The C-14 and C-16 analogs of DOMHAC (lipids 4 and 5, respectively) were found to be remarkably efficient in transfecting COS-1 cells. In addition, the present anchor-dependency investigation also revealed that the C-14 analog of DOHEMAB (lipid 10) is significantly efficient in transfecting both COS-1 and NIH3T3 cells. Our results also indicate that too strong lipid-DNA interactions might result in weaker transfection for non-glycerol based cationic lipids. In summary, the anchor-dependence investigations presented here convincingly demonstrate that non-glycerol based cationic lipids containing a single hydroxyethyl head group and hydrophobic C-14 or C-16 anchors are promising non-toxic cationic transfection lipids for future use in liposomal gene delivery.

  1. A new method for explicit modelling of single failure event within different common cause failure groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kančev, Duško; Čepin, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Redundancy and diversity are the main principles of the safety systems in the nuclear industry. Implementation of safety components redundancy has been acknowledged as an effective approach for assuring high levels of system reliability. The existence of redundant components, identical in most of the cases, implicates a probability of their simultaneous failure due to a shared cause—a common cause failure. This paper presents a new method for explicit modelling of single component failure event within multiple common cause failure groups simultaneously. The method is based on a modification of the frequently utilised Beta Factor parametric model. The motivation for development of this method lays in the fact that one of the most widespread softwares for fault tree and event tree modelling as part of the probabilistic safety assessment does not comprise the option for simultaneous assignment of single failure event to multiple common cause failure groups. In that sense, the proposed method can be seen as an advantage of the explicit modelling of common cause failures. A standard standby safety system is selected as a case study for application and study of the proposed methodology. The results and insights implicate improved, more transparent and more comprehensive models within probabilistic safety assessment.

  2. Evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms as internal controls in prenatal diagnosis of fetal blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doescher, Andrea; Petershofen, Eduard K; Wagner, Franz F; Schunter, Markus; Müller, Thomas H

    2013-02-01

    Determination of fetal blood groups in maternal plasma samples critically depends on adequate amplification of fetal DNA. We evaluated the routine inclusion of 52 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as internal reference in our polymerase chain reaction (PCR) settings to obtain a positive internal control for fetal DNA. DNA from 223 plasma samples of pregnant women was screened for RHD Exons 3, 4, 5, and 7 in a multiplex PCR including 52 SNPs divided into four primer pools. Amplicons were analyzed by single-base extension and the GeneScan method in a genetic analyzer. Results of D screening were compared to standard RHD genotyping of amniotic fluid or real-time PCR of fetal DNA from maternal plasma. The vast majority of all samples (97.8%) demonstrated differences in maternal and fetal SNP patterns when tested with four primer pools. These differences were not observed in less than 2.2% of the samples most probably due to an extraction failure for adequate amounts of fetal DNA. Comparison of the fetal genotypes with independent results did not reveal a single false-negative case among samples (n = 42) with positive internal control and negative fetal RHD typing. Coamplification of 52 SNPs with RHD-specific sequences for fetal blood group determination introduces a valid positive control for the amplification of fetal DNA to avoid false-negative results. This new approach does not require a paternal blood sample. It may also be applicable to other assays for fetal genotyping in maternal blood samples. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Using forecast modelling to evaluate treatment effects in single-group interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel

    2018-05-11

    Interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is an evaluation methodology in which a single treatment unit's outcome is studied serially over time and the intervention is expected to "interrupt" the level and/or trend of that outcome. ITSA is commonly evaluated using methods which may produce biased results if model assumptions are violated. In this paper, treatment effects are alternatively assessed by using forecasting methods to closely fit the preintervention observations and then forecast the post-intervention trend. A treatment effect may be inferred if the actual post-intervention observations diverge from the forecasts by some specified amount. The forecasting approach is demonstrated using the effect of California's Proposition 99 for reducing cigarette sales. Three forecast models are fit to the preintervention series-linear regression (REG), Holt-Winters (HW) non-seasonal smoothing, and autoregressive moving average (ARIMA)-and forecasts are generated into the post-intervention period. The actual observations are then compared with the forecasts to assess intervention effects. The preintervention data were fit best by HW, followed closely by ARIMA. REG fit the data poorly. The actual post-intervention observations were above the forecasts in HW and ARIMA, suggesting no intervention effect, but below the forecasts in the REG (suggesting a treatment effect), thereby raising doubts about any definitive conclusion of a treatment effect. In a single-group ITSA, treatment effects are likely to be biased if the model is misspecified. Therefore, evaluators should consider using forecast models to accurately fit the preintervention data and generate plausible counterfactual forecasts, thereby improving causal inference of treatment effects in single-group ITSA studies. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. broken magnet highlights largest collider's engineering challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Inman, Mason

    2007-01-01

    "Even at the world's soon-to-be largest particle accelerator - a device that promises to push the boundaries of physics - scientists need to be mindful of one of the most fundamental laws in the universe: Murphy's Law. (2 pages)

  5. Are medical treatments for individuals and groups like single-play and multiple-play gambles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. DeKay

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available People are often more likely to accept risky monetary gambles with positive expected values when the gambles will be played more than once. We investigated whether this distinction between single-play and multiple-play gambles extends to medical treatments for individual patients and groups of patients. Resident physicians and medical students (extit{n} = 69 and undergraduates (extit{n} = 99 ranked 9 different flu shots and a no-flu-shot option in 1 of 4 combinations of perspective (individual patient vs. group of 1000 patients and uncertainty frame (probability vs. frequency. The rank of the no-flu-shot option (a measure of preference for treatment vs. no treatment was not significantly related to perspective or participant population. The main effect of uncertainty frame and the interaction between perspective and uncertainty frame approached significance (0.1 {extgreater} extit{p} {extgreater} 0.05, with the no-flu-shot option faring particularly poorly (treatment faring particularly well when decisions about many patients were based on frequency information. Undergraduate participants believed that the no-flu-shot option would be less attractive (treatment would be more attractive in decisions about many patients, but these intuitions were inconsistent with the actual ranks. These results and those of other studies suggest that medical treatments for individuals and groups are not analogous to single-play and multiple-play monetary gambles, perhaps because many people are unwilling to aggregate treatment outcomes over patients in the same way that they would compute net gains or losses over monetary gambles.

  6. The stepping behavior analysis of pedestrians from different age groups via a single-file experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Song, Weiguo; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2018-03-01

    The stepping behavior of pedestrians with different age compositions in single-file experiment is investigated in this paper. The relation between step length, step width and stepping time are analyzed by using the step measurement method based on the calculation of curvature of the trajectory. The relations of velocity-step width, velocity-step length and velocity-stepping time for different age groups are discussed and compared with previous studies. Finally effects of pedestrian gender and height on stepping laws and fundamental diagrams are analyzed. The study is helpful for understanding pedestrian dynamics of movement. Meanwhile, it offers experimental data to develop a microscopic model of pedestrian movement by considering stepping behavior.

  7. Magnetic and optical bistability in tetrairon(III) single molecule magnets functionalized with azobenzene groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Thazhe Kootteri; Poneti, Giordano; Sorace, Lorenzo; Rodriguez-Douton, Maria Jesus; Barra, Anne-Laure; Neugebauer, Petr; Costantino, Luca; Sessoli, Roberta; Cornia, Andrea

    2012-07-21

    Tetrairon(III) complexes known as "ferric stars" have been functionalized with azobenzene groups to investigate the effect of light-induced trans-cis isomerization on single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour. According to DC magnetic data and EPR spectroscopy, clusters dispersed in polystyrene (4% w/w) exhibit the same spin (S = 5) and magnetic anisotropy as bulk samples. Ligand photoisomerization, achieved by irradiation at 365 nm, has no detectable influence on static magnetic properties. However, it induces a small but significant acceleration of magnetic relaxation as probed by AC susceptometry. The pristine behaviour can be almost quantitatively recovered by irradiation with white light. Our studies demonstrate that magnetic and optical bistability can be made to coexist in SMM materials, which are of current interest in molecular spintronics.

  8. Single-molecule fluorescence polarization study of conformational change in archaeal group II chaperonin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Iizuka

    Full Text Available Group II chaperonins found in archaea and in eukaryotic cytosol mediate protein folding without a GroES-like cofactor. The function of the cofactor is substituted by the helical protrusion at the tip of the apical domain, which forms a built-in lid on the central cavity. Although many studies on the change in lid conformation coupled to the binding and hydrolysis of nucleotides have been conducted, the molecular mechanism of lid closure remains poorly understood. Here, we performed a single-molecule polarization modulation to probe the rotation of the helical protrusion of a chaperonin from a hyperthermophilic archaeum, Thermococcus sp. strain KS-1. We detected approximately 35° rotation of the helical protrusion immediately after photorelease of ATP. The result suggests that the conformational change from the open lid to the closed lid state is responsible for the approximately 35° rotation of the helical protrusion.

  9. Single-crystal growth of Group IVB and VB carbides by the floating-zone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, C.B.; Chang, Y.K.; Abraham, M.M.

    1989-02-01

    The floating-zone method for the growth of Group IVB and VB carbides is described and reviewed. We have systematically investigated the technique and confirmed the growth of large single crystals of TiC/sub 0.95/, ZrC/sub 0.93/, ZrC/sub 0.98/, VC/sub 0.80/, NbC/sub 0.95/, TaC/sub 0.89/. Optimal growth conditions were in the 0.5-2.0 cm/h range under 8-12 atm helium. Good crystal growth results were achieved with hot-pressed starting rods of 90-95% density, using a ''double pancake'' induction coil and a 200-kHz/100- kW rf power supply. 36 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of single siloxane dendrimers: Molecular structure and intramolecular mobility of terminal groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatov, A. O.; Balabaev, N. K.; Mazo, M. A.; Kramarenko, E. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of two types of isolated siloxane dendrimers of various generations (from the 2nd to the 8th) have been performed for temperatures ranging from 150 K to 600 K. The first type of dendrimer molecules has short spacers consisting of a single oxygen atom. In the dendrimers of the second type, spacers are longer and comprised of two oxygen atoms separated by a single silicon atom. A comparative analysis of molecular macroscopic parameters such as the gyration radius and the shape factor as well as atom distributions within dendrimer interior has been performed for varying generation number, temperature, and spacer length. It has been found that the short-spacer dendrimers of the 7th and 8th generations have a stressed central part with elongated bonds and deformed valence angles. Investigation of the time evolution of radial displacements of the terminal Si atoms has shown that a fraction of the Si groups have a reduced mobility. Therefore, rather long time trajectories (of the order of tens of nanoseconds) are required to study dendrimer intramolecular dynamics.

  11. A study of planar anchor groups for graphene-based single-molecule electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Steven; Visontai, David; Lambert, Colin J; Bryce, Martin R; Frampton, Harry; Chappell, David

    2014-02-07

    To identify families of stable planar anchor groups for use in single molecule electronics, we report detailed results for the binding energies of two families of anthracene and pyrene derivatives adsorbed onto graphene. We find that all the selected derivatives functionalized with either electron donating or electron accepting substituents bind more strongly to graphene than the parent non-functionalized anthracene or pyrene. The binding energy is sensitive to the detailed atomic alignment of substituent groups over the graphene substrate leading to larger than expected binding energies for -OH and -CN derivatives. Furthermore, the ordering of the binding energies within the anthracene and pyrene series does not simply follow the electron affinities of the substituents. Energy barriers to rotation or displacement on the graphene surface are much lower than binding energies for adsorption and therefore at room temperature, although the molecules are bound to the graphene, they are almost free to move along the graphene surface. Binding energies can be increased by incorporating electrically inert side chains and are sensitive to the conformation of such chains.

  12. A study of planar anchor groups for graphene-based single-molecule electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Steven; Visontai, David; Lambert, Colin J., E-mail: c.lambert@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Bryce, Martin R. [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Frampton, Harry; Chappell, David [BP Exploration Operating Company Limited, Chertsey Road, Sunbury on Thames, Middlesex TW16 7BP (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-07

    To identify families of stable planar anchor groups for use in single molecule electronics, we report detailed results for the binding energies of two families of anthracene and pyrene derivatives adsorbed onto graphene. We find that all the selected derivatives functionalized with either electron donating or electron accepting substituents bind more strongly to graphene than the parent non-functionalized anthracene or pyrene. The binding energy is sensitive to the detailed atomic alignment of substituent groups over the graphene substrate leading to larger than expected binding energies for –OH and –CN derivatives. Furthermore, the ordering of the binding energies within the anthracene and pyrene series does not simply follow the electron affinities of the substituents. Energy barriers to rotation or displacement on the graphene surface are much lower than binding energies for adsorption and therefore at room temperature, although the molecules are bound to the graphene, they are almost free to move along the graphene surface. Binding energies can be increased by incorporating electrically inert side chains and are sensitive to the conformation of such chains.

  13. A study of planar anchor groups for graphene-based single-molecule electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Steven; Visontai, David; Lambert, Colin J.; Bryce, Martin R.; Frampton, Harry; Chappell, David

    2014-02-01

    To identify families of stable planar anchor groups for use in single molecule electronics, we report detailed results for the binding energies of two families of anthracene and pyrene derivatives adsorbed onto graphene. We find that all the selected derivatives functionalized with either electron donating or electron accepting substituents bind more strongly to graphene than the parent non-functionalized anthracene or pyrene. The binding energy is sensitive to the detailed atomic alignment of substituent groups over the graphene substrate leading to larger than expected binding energies for -OH and -CN derivatives. Furthermore, the ordering of the binding energies within the anthracene and pyrene series does not simply follow the electron affinities of the substituents. Energy barriers to rotation or displacement on the graphene surface are much lower than binding energies for adsorption and therefore at room temperature, although the molecules are bound to the graphene, they are almost free to move along the graphene surface. Binding energies can be increased by incorporating electrically inert side chains and are sensitive to the conformation of such chains.

  14. A study of planar anchor groups for graphene-based single-molecule electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Steven; Visontai, David; Lambert, Colin J.; Bryce, Martin R.; Frampton, Harry; Chappell, David

    2014-01-01

    To identify families of stable planar anchor groups for use in single molecule electronics, we report detailed results for the binding energies of two families of anthracene and pyrene derivatives adsorbed onto graphene. We find that all the selected derivatives functionalized with either electron donating or electron accepting substituents bind more strongly to graphene than the parent non-functionalized anthracene or pyrene. The binding energy is sensitive to the detailed atomic alignment of substituent groups over the graphene substrate leading to larger than expected binding energies for –OH and –CN derivatives. Furthermore, the ordering of the binding energies within the anthracene and pyrene series does not simply follow the electron affinities of the substituents. Energy barriers to rotation or displacement on the graphene surface are much lower than binding energies for adsorption and therefore at room temperature, although the molecules are bound to the graphene, they are almost free to move along the graphene surface. Binding energies can be increased by incorporating electrically inert side chains and are sensitive to the conformation of such chains

  15. Effect of Environmental Enrichment on Singly- and Group-Housed Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Sarah E.; Clifford, James O.; Tomko, David L.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Nonhuman primates display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors. Captivity changes these behaviors, and disrupts normal social hierarchies. In captivity, animals may exhibit stereotypical behaviors which are thought to indicate decreased psychological well-being (PWB). If an animal's behaviors can be made to approach those seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal it is assumed that PWB is adequate. Environmental enrichment (EE) devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act's requirement that the PWB of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether various EE devices improve the PWB of captive squirrel monkeys. The present study used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several EE devices in reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed singly or in groups. Results showed that the EE devices used did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  16. CERN tests largest superconducting solenoid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN's Compacts Muon Solenoid (CMS) - the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet - has reached full field in testing. The instrument is part of the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, located in a giant subterranean chamber at Cessy on the Franco-Swiss border." (1 page)

  17. Comparing single-tree selection, group selection, and clearcutting for regenerating oaks and pines in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy G. Jensen; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    In the Missouri Ozarks, there is considerable concern about the effectiveness of the uneven-aged methods of single-tree selection and group selection for oak (Quercus L.) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) regeneration. We compared the changes in reproduction density of oaks and pine following harvesting by single-tree...

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression among adults in Japanese clinical settings: a single-group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating Japanese patients with major depression is lacking, therefore, a feasibility study of CBT for depression in Japanese clinical settings is urgently required. Findings A culturally adapted, 16-week manualized individual CBT program for Japanese patients with major depressive disorder was developed. A total of 27 patients with major depression were enrolled in a single-group study with the purpose of testing the feasibility of the program. Twenty six patients (96%) completed the study. The mean total score on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) for all patients (Intention-to-treat sample) improved from 32.6 to 11.7, with a mean change of 20.8 (95% confidence interval: 17.0 to 24.8). Within-group effect size at the endpoint assessment was 2.64 (Cohen's d). Twenty-one patients (77.7%) showed treatment response and 17 patients (63.0%) achieved remission at the end of the program. Significant improvement was observed in measurement of subjective and objective depression severity (assessed by BDI-II, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Rated, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), dysfunctional attitude (assessed by Dysfunctional Attitude Scale), global functioning (assessed by Global Assessment of Functioning of DSM-IV) and subjective well-being (assessed by WHO Subjective Well-being Inventory) (all p values < 0.001). Conclusions Our manualized treatment comprised of a 16-week individual CBT program for major depression appears feasible and may achieve favorable treatment outcomes among Japanese patients with major depression. Further research involving a larger sample in a randomized, controlled trial design is warranted. Trial registration UMIN-CTR UMIN000002542. PMID:20529252

  19. Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression among adults in Japanese clinical settings: a single-group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Toshiaki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for treating Japanese patients with major depression is lacking, therefore, a feasibility study of CBT for depression in Japanese clinical settings is urgently required. Findings A culturally adapted, 16-week manualized individual CBT program for Japanese patients with major depressive disorder was developed. A total of 27 patients with major depression were enrolled in a single-group study with the purpose of testing the feasibility of the program. Twenty six patients (96% completed the study. The mean total score on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II for all patients (Intention-to-treat sample improved from 32.6 to 11.7, with a mean change of 20.8 (95% confidence interval: 17.0 to 24.8. Within-group effect size at the endpoint assessment was 2.64 (Cohen's d. Twenty-one patients (77.7% showed treatment response and 17 patients (63.0% achieved remission at the end of the program. Significant improvement was observed in measurement of subjective and objective depression severity (assessed by BDI-II, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Rated, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, dysfunctional attitude (assessed by Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, global functioning (assessed by Global Assessment of Functioning of DSM-IV and subjective well-being (assessed by WHO Subjective Well-being Inventory (all p values Conclusions Our manualized treatment comprised of a 16-week individual CBT program for major depression appears feasible and may achieve favorable treatment outcomes among Japanese patients with major depression. Further research involving a larger sample in a randomized, controlled trial design is warranted. Trial registration UMIN-CTR UMIN000002542.

  20. Social support and education groups for single mothers: a randomized controlled trial of a community-based program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L; Boyle, Michael H

    2005-12-06

    Members of families headed by single mothers are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage and mental health problems. We assessed the effect of a community-based program of social support and education groups for single mothers of young children on maternal well-being and parenting. We recruited 116 single mothers of children 3 to 9 years old through community advertisements. Eligible mothers were randomly assigned either to participate in a 10-week program of group sessions (1.5 hours per week) offering social support and education, with a parallel children's activity group, or to receive a standard list of community resources and the option to participate in group sessions at the end of the follow-up period. Interviewers blinded to the randomization collected assessment data from all mothers at baseline and at 3 follow-up visits (immediately after the intervention and at 3 and 6 months after the intervention). Outcome measures were self-reported mood, self-esteem, social support and parenting. Between February 2000 and April 2003, the program was offered to 9 groups of single mothers. Most of the mothers in the trial reported high levels of financial and mental health problems. In the short term (after the intervention), mothers in the intervention group had improved scores for mood (p effect = 0.55) and self-esteem (p effect = 0.29) compared with mothers in the control group; scores for the other 2 measures did not differ between the groups. Growth curve analysis of program effects over the follow-up period showed improvement in all 4 outcomes, with no significant difference between the intervention and control groups. This community-based program of group sessions offering social support and education to low-income single mothers had positive short-term effects on mood and self-esteem but not on social support and parenting. Longer follow-up showed attenuation of these effects.

  1. Growth and study of some gel grown group II single crystals of iodate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Single crystals of calcium iodate and barium iodate were grown by simple gel technique by single diffusion method. The optimum conditions were established by varying various parameters such as pH of gel solution, gel concentration, gel setting time, concentration of the reactants etc. Crystals having different.

  2. Crash testing the largest experiment on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Under Europe lies a 27 km tunnel that is both the coldest and hottest place on Earth. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has already found out what gives mass to all the matter in the Universe. It is now trying to go even deeper into what makes up everything we see around us. Dr Marija Cauchi writes about her research that helped protect this atom smasher from itself. Photography by Jean Claude Vancell. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/crash-testing-the-largest-experiment-on-earth/

  3. The world's largest LNG producer's next market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.; Isworo Suharno; Simandjuntak, W.M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the domestic gas market in Indonesia, the world's largest liquefied natural gas producing country, is described as part of the overall impact of the country's oil and gas production. The first large scale use of natural gas in Indonesia was established in 1968 when a fertiliser plant using gas as the feedstock was built. Ultimately, through increased yields, this has enabled Indonesia to be self-sufficient in rice and an exporter of fertiliser. Problems which stand in the way of further developments include: capital, though Pertamina and PGN are perceived as attractive for foreign investment; the lack of a regulatory framework for gas; geographical constraints, among them the fact that the gas deposits are remote from the largest population concentrations; lack of infrastructure. There are nevertheless plans for expansion and the provision of an integrated gas pipeline system. Pertamina, which has responsibility for all oil and gas developments, and PGN, whose primary role has been as a manufacturer and distributor of gas, are now working together in the coordination of all gas activities. (10 figures). (UK)

  4. The Ten-Group Robson Classification: A Single Centre Approach Identifying Strategies to Optimise Caesarean Section Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Tanaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesarean section (CS rates have been increasing worldwide and have caused concerns. For meaningful comparisons to be made World Health Organization recommends the use of the Ten-Group Robson classification as the global standard for assessing CS rates. 2625 women who birthed over a 12-month period were analysed using this classification. Women with previous CS (group 5 comprised 10.9% of the overall 23.5% CS rate. Women with one previous CS who did not attempt VBAC contributed 5.3% of the overall 23.5% CS rate. Second largest contributor was singleton nulliparous women with cephalic presentation at term (5.1% of the total 23.5%. Induction of labour was associated with higher CS rate (groups 1 and 3 (24.5% versus 11.9% and 6.2% versus 2.6%, resp.. For postdates IOL we recommend a gatekeeper booking system to minimise these being performed <41 weeks. We suggest setting up dedicated VBAC clinic to support for women with one previous CS. Furthermore review of definition of failure to progress in labour not only may lower CS rates in groups 1 and 2a but also would reduce the size of group 5 in the future.

  5. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young DKW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results: At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59% of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48 to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18, which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05, while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion: This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. Keywords: support group, mild dementia, Chinese, depression

  6. Diameter grouping in bulk samples of single-walled carbon nanotubes from optical absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golden, M.S.; Fink, J.; Dunsch, L.; Bauer, H.-D.; Reibold, M.; Knupfer, M.; Friedlein, R.; Pichler, T.; Jost, O.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of the synthesis parameters on the mean characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes in soot produced by the laser vaporization of graphite has been analyzed using optical absorption spectroscopy. The abundance and mean diameter of the nanotubes were found to be most influenced by

  7. Summary report of the group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.; Bartolini, R.; Bazzani, A.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes the research on single-particle nonlinear beam dynamics. It discusses the following topics: analytical and semi-analytical tools; early prediction of the dynamic aperture; how the results are commonly presented; Is the mechanism of the dynamic aperture understand; ripple effects; and beam-beam effects

  8. Single crystal X-ray structural features of aromatic compounds having a pentafluorosulfuranyl (SF5) functional group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Du, J.; Hua, G.; Beier, Petr; Slawin, A. M. Z.; Woollins, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2017), s. 723-733 ISSN 1040-0400 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : pentafluorosulfuranyl (SF5) group * aromatic compounds * single crystal X-ray structure * intramolecular interactions * intermolecular interactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2016

  9. Discrimination of Communication Vocalizations by Single Neurons and Groups of Neurons in the Auditory Midbrain

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, David M.; Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Many social animals including songbirds use communication vocalizations for individual recognition. The perception of vocalizations depends on the encoding of complex sounds by neurons in the ascending auditory system, each of which is tuned to a particular subset of acoustic features. Here, we examined how well the responses of single auditory neurons could be used to discriminate among bird songs and we compared discriminability to spectrotemporal tuning. We then used biologically realistic...

  10. Summary of Group Development and Testing for Single Shell Tank Closure at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This report is a summary of the bench-scale and large scale experimental studies performed by Savannah River National Laboratory for CH2M HILL to develop grout design mixes for possible use in producing fill materials as a part of Tank Closure of the Single-Shell Tanks at Hanford. The grout development data provided in this report demonstrates that these design mixes will produce fill materials that are ready for use in Hanford single shell tank closure. The purpose of this report is to assess the ability of the proposed grout specifications to meet the current requirements for successful single shell tank closure which will include the contracting of services for construction and operation of a grout batch plant. The research and field experience gained by SRNL in the closure of Tanks 17F and 20F at the Savannah River Site was leveraged into the grout development efforts for Hanford. It is concluded that the three Hanford grout design mixes provide fill materials that meet the current requirements for successful placement. This conclusion is based on the completion of recommended testing using Hanford area materials by the operators of the grout batch plant. This report summarizes the regulatory drivers and the requirements for grout mixes as tank fill material. It is these requirements for both fresh and cured grout properties that drove the development of the grout formulations for the stabilization, structural and capping layers

  11. Evolution of the Largest Mammalian Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben J; Upham, Nathan S; Golding, Goeffrey B; Ojeda, Ricardo A; Ojeda, Agustina A

    2017-06-01

    The genome of the red vizcacha rat (Rodentia, Octodontidae, Tympanoctomys barrerae) is the largest of all mammals, and about double the size of their close relative, the mountain vizcacha rat Octomys mimax, even though the lineages that gave rise to these species diverged from each other only about 5 Ma. The mechanism for this rapid genome expansion is controversial, and hypothesized to be a consequence of whole genome duplication or accumulation of repetitive elements. To test these alternative but nonexclusive hypotheses, we gathered and evaluated evidence from whole transcriptome and whole genome sequences of T. barrerae and O. mimax. We recovered support for genome expansion due to accumulation of a diverse assemblage of repetitive elements, which represent about one half and one fifth of the genomes of T. barrerae and O. mimax, respectively, but we found no strong signal of whole genome duplication. In both species, repetitive sequences were rare in transcribed regions as compared with the rest of the genome, and mostly had no close match to annotated repetitive sequences from other rodents. These findings raise new questions about the genomic dynamics of these repetitive elements, their connection to widespread chromosomal fissions that occurred in the T. barrerae ancestor, and their fitness effects-including during the evolution of hypersaline dietary tolerance in T. barrerae. ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. ABO Blood Group and Endometrial Carcinoma: A Preliminary Single-Center Experience from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alsabban, Mohannad; Abuzaid, Mohammed; Alomar, Osama; Al-Badawi, Ismail A; Salem, Hany

    2017-12-18

    Inherited ABO blood groups have been shown to play possible contributions in the pathogenesis of various gynecologic and non-gynecologic carcinomas. With regard to gynecologic carcinomas, there is a confined number of studies that explored the relationship between ABO blood group and endometrial carcinoma (EC) in the PubMed-indexed literature. To the best of our knowledge, no such study has ever been conducted in Saudi Arabia. Our study has two objectives: (I) to determine the prevalence of ABO blood groups among Saudi patients with EC, and (II) to explore the relationship between ABO blood group and several clinico-pathological prognostic parameters (namely: menopausal status [age], body mass index [BMI], tumor grade, FIGO [Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique] stage and recurrence) in Saudi patients with EC. A retrospective cross-sectional study from 01-January-2010 to 31-July-2014 was conducted at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia - a referral tertiary healthcare institute. One-hundred and fourteen patients (n=114) were included in the study. Clinico-pathological data were extrapolated from medical records, and their association with ABO blood groups were evaluated. Categorical data were presented as number of cases (n) and percentages (%). Two-tailed Chi-square test was used for univariate analysis. For all purposes, p values 28 kg/m 2 (84.2%), diagnosed with early FIGO stage I-II (76.3%) and developed no recurrence (86.8%). The frequencies of ABO blood group types A, B, AB, and O were 28.1%, 12.3%, 3.5% and 56.1%, respectively. When ABO blood groups were analyzed as four different types (A, B, AB and O), O-type was the most common ABO blood group in pre- and post-menopausal EC patients (43.8% and 58.2%, respectively; p=0.14). There were no statistically significant correlations between ABO blood groups and all the examined clinico-pathological factors. Moreover, when ABO blood groups were

  13. A randomised, single-blind, single-dose, three-arm, parallel-group study in healthy subjects to demonstrate pharmacokinetic equivalence of ABP 501 and adalimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Primal; Chow, Vincent; Zhang, Nan; Moxness, Michael; Kaliyaperumal, Arunan; Markus, Richard

    2017-03-01

    To demonstrate pharmacokinetic (PK) similarity of biosimilar candidate ABP 501 relative to adalimumab reference product from the USA and European Union (EU) and evaluate safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of ABP 501. Randomised, single-blind, single-dose, three-arm, parallel-group study; healthy subjects were randomised to receive ABP 501 (n=67), adalimumab (USA) (n=69) or adalimumab (EU) (n=67) 40 mg subcutaneously. Primary end points were area under the serum concentration-time curve from time 0 extrapolated to infinity (AUC inf ) and the maximum observed concentration (C max ). Secondary end points included safety and immunogenicity. AUC inf and C max were similar across the three groups. Geometrical mean ratio (GMR) of AUC inf was 1.11 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (USA), and 1.04 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (EU). GMR of C max was 1.04 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (USA) and 0.96 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (EU). The 90% CIs for the GMRs of AUC inf and C max were within the prespecified standard PK equivalence criteria of 0.80 to 1.25. Treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate and were reported for 35.8%, 24.6% and 41.8% of subjects in the ABP 501, adalimumab (USA) and adalimumab (EU) groups; incidence of antidrug antibodies (ADAbs) was similar among the study groups. Results of this study demonstrated PK similarity of ABP 501 with adalimumab (USA) and adalimumab (EU) after a single 40-mg subcutaneous injection. No new safety signals with ABP 501 were identified. The safety and tolerability of ABP 501 was similar to the reference products, and similar ADAb rates were observed across the three groups. EudraCT number 2012-000785-37; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tanks expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. Included with this report is a brief description and approximate compositions of the single-shell tank waste types. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994

  15. Canada's largest co-gen project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    2000-01-01

    In November 2000, the TransAlta Energy Corp. began construction on its $400 million natural gas fuelled cogeneration project in Sarnia Ontario. The Sarnia Regional Cogeneration Project (SRCP) is designed to integrate a new 440 MW cogeneration facility to be built at the Sarnia Division of Dow Chemicals Canada Inc. with nearby existing generators totaling 210 MW at Dow and Bayer Inc. At 650 MW, the new facility will rank as Canada's largest cogeneration installation. Commercial operation is scheduled for October 2002. TransAlta owns three natural gas fuelled cogeneration facilities in Ontario (in Ottawa, Mississauga and Windsor) totaling 250 MW. The cost of electric power in Ontario is currently controlled by rising natural gas prices and the supply demand imbalance. This balance will be significantly affected by the possible return to service of 2000 MW of nuclear generating capacity. The SRCP project was announced just prior to the Ontario Energy Competition Act of October 1998 which committed the province to introduce competition to the electricity sector and which created major uncertainties in the electricity market. Some of the small, 25 MW projects which survived the market uncertainty included the Toronto-based Toromont Energy Ltd. project involving gas fuelled cogeneration and methane gas generation from landfill projects in Sudbury and Waterloo. It was emphasized that cogeneration and combined heat and power projects have significant environmental advantages over large combined cycle facilities. The Ontario Energy Board is currently considering an application from TransAlta to link the SRCP facility to Ontario's Hydro One Network Inc.'s transmission grid. 1 fig

  16. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space

  17. Analysis of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions in mid-Proterozoic sandstones (Roper Group, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljeström, Sandra; Volk, Herbert; George, Simon C.; Lausmaa, Jukka; Sjövall, Peter; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Hode, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbons and organic biomarkers extracted from black shales and other carbonaceous sedimentary rocks are valuable sources of information on the biodiversity and environment of early Earth. However, many Precambrian hydrocarbons including biomarkers are suspected of being younger contamination. An alternative approach is to study biomarkers trapped in oil-bearing fluid inclusions by bulk crushing samples and subsequently analysing the extracted hydrocarbons with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. However, this method does not constrain the hydrocarbons to one particular oil inclusion, which means that if several different generations of oil inclusions are present in the sample, a mix of the content from these oil inclusions will be analysed. In addition, samples with few and/or small inclusions are often below the detection limit. Recently, we showed that it is possible to detect organic biomarkers in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In the present study, single fluid inclusion analysis has been performed on Proterozoic samples for the first time. Four individual oil-bearing fluid inclusions, found in 1430 Ma sandstone from the Roper Superbasin in Northern Australia, were analysed with ToF-SIMS. The ToF-SIMS spectra of the oil in the different inclusions are very similar to each other and are consistent with the presence of n-alkanes/branched alkanes, monocyclic alkanes, bicyclic alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and tetracyclic and pentacyclic hydrocarbons. These results are in agreement with those obtained from bulk crushing of inclusions trapped in the same samples. The capability to analyse the hydrocarbon and biomarker composition of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions is a major breakthrough, as it opens up a way of obtaining molecular compositional data on ancient oils without the ambiguity of the origin of these hydrocarbons. Additionally, this finding suggests that it will be possible

  18. Meta-Analysis of Incremental Rehearsal Using Phi Coefficients to Compare Single-Case and Group Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Kanive, Rebecca; Parker, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study meta-analyzed single-case design (SCD) and group research regarding incremental rehearsal (IR). We used phi to meta-analyze data from 19 IR studies. Data from the SCD studies resulted in a nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP) score of 98.9% (95% CI = 97.6-100%), which resulted in a weighted phi of 0.77 (95% CI = 0.69-0.83). The group…

  19. Functional groups in a single pteridosperm species: Variability and circumscription (Pennsylvanian, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Multiple foliar specimens of the Late Pennsylvanian fossil pteridosperm [gymnosperm] Alethopteris zeilleri (Ragot) Wagner were collected from one restricted stratigraphical horizon in the Canadian Sydney Coalfield. Variability of functional-group distribution using FTIR technique was studied in compressions, adaxial versus abaxial cuticles, and in unseparated cuticles as a function of maceration time from 48 to 168??h. The results obtained document spectral variability that could be expected within specimens of one species. For example, CH2/CH3 and Al/ox ratios can differ by as much as 20% of the values. Moreover, the experiments performed confirm that by using a previously established maceration protocol, long maceration periods do not bias FTIR spectra in terms of oxygenation overprinting. The inference that this cuticle is robust, under the given diagenetic level, probably reflects a reassuring degree of chemical fidelity of the Pennsylvanian plant to support Carboniferous chemotaxonomic observations. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison between group and personal rehabilitation for dementia in a geriatric health service facility: single-blinded randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigeya; Honda, Shin; Nakano, Hajime; Sato, Yuko; Araya, Kazufumi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of rehabilitation involving group and personal sessions on demented participants. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial included 60 elderly participants with dementia in a geriatric health service facility, or R oken. Staff members, who did not participate in the intervention, examined cognitive function, mood, communication ability, severity of dementia, objective quality of life, vitality, and daily behaviour. After a baseline assessment, participants were randomly divided into three groups: (i) group intervention; (ii) personal intervention; and (iii) control. The 1-h group intervention (3-5 subjects) and 20-min personal intervention (one staff member per participant) were performed twice a week for 12 weeks (24 total sessions). The cognitive rehabilitation programme consisted of reminiscence, reality orientation, and physical exercise, and it was based on five principles of brain-activating rehabilitation; (i) pleasant atmosphere; (ii) communication; (iii) social roles; (iv) praising; and (v) errorless support. Data were analyzed after the second assessment. Outcome measures were analyzed in 43 participants-14 in the control group, 13 in group intervention, and 16 in personal intervention. Repeated measure ancova showed a significant interaction for cognitive function score (Mini-Mental State Examination) between group intervention and controls ( F  = 5.535, P = 0.029). In the post-hoc analysis, group intervention showed significant improvement (P = 0.016). Global severity of dementia tended to improve (P = 0.094) in group intervention compared to control (Mann-Whitney U -test). There were no significant interactions or improvements for other measurements. Group rehabilitation for dementia is more effective for improving cognitive function and global severity of dementia than personal rehabilitation in Roken. © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  1. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP. The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. Electricity for the heat pumps is generated by a central CHP unit, which also provides thermal energy to a district heating system. The paper reviews recent smart grid control approaches for central and distributed levels. An online algorithm is described based on the earliest deadline first theory that can be used on the aggregator level to control the CHP and to give signals to the heat pump controllers if they should start or should wait. The central controller requires only a limited amount of privacy-insensitive information from the heat pump controllers about their deadlines, which the heat pump controllers calculate for themselves by model predictions. In this way, a robust heat pump and CHP control is obtained, which is able to minimize energy demand and results in the desired thermal comfort for the households. The simulations demonstrate fast computation times due to minor computational and communication overheads.

  2. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tank expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994

  3. The use of Lorentz group formalism in solving polarization effects of a birefringent single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiekwene, G.C.; Brown, C.S.; Mensah, S.Y.; Bak, A.E.

    2000-07-01

    A theoretical analysis on the polarization effects of a light beam propagating in a birefringent single-mode fiber is presented. We derive a system of differential equations representing the evolution of Stokes parameters and illustrate their application to polarization effects in a straight birefringent single mode optical fiber. The solutions to the set of equations are obtained using specifically the methods of the unified formalism for polarization optics which adopt the use of the Stokes-Mueller equation and the Lorentz group to model polarization phenomena in media such as optical fibers. The analytical results presented using this approach are identical to results obtained from other conventional methods. We observe the characteristic exponential decrease in the total intensity of the input light due to attenuation by the fiber. (author)

  4. Impact of the Korean Diagnosis-Related Groups payment system on the outcomes of adenotonsillectomy: A single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Da Hee; Kim, Jung Min; Byeon, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Won Shik; Koh, Yoon Woo; Kim, Se-Heon; Choi, Eun Chang

    2018-06-01

    To report outcomes with regard to clinical aspects and medical costs of adenotonsillectomy and tonsillectomy at a single institution before and after implementation of the Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) payment system in Korea. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients treated with adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy between July 2012 and June 2014. The Korean DRG payment system was applied to seven groups of specific diseases and surgeries including adenotonsillectomy and tonsillectomy from July 2013 at all hospitals in Korea. We divided patients into four groups according whether the fee-for-service (FFS) or DRG payment system was implemented and operation type (FFS-adenotonsillectomy (AT), DRG-AT, FFS-tonsillectomy (T), and DRG-T). A total of 1402 patients were included (485 FFS-AT, 490 DRG-AT, 203 FFS-T, and 223 DRG-T). The total medical cost of the DRG-AT group was significantly lower than that of the FFS-AT group (1191±404 vs. 1110±279 USD, PDRG system for adenotonsillectomy and tonsillectomy reduced medical costs and clinical outcomes were not significantly altered by the adoption of the DRG system. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type Model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristics groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.G.; Anderson, G.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-02-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) Model is a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTS) into groups of tanks expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. The model has identified 24 different waste-type groups encompassing 133 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTS. The remaining 16 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped. according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. A detailed statistical verification study has been conducted that employs analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the core sample analysis data collected since 1989. These data cover eight tanks and five SORWT groups. The verification study showed that these five SORWT groups are highly statistically significant; they represent approximately 10% of the total waste volume and 26% of the total sludge volume in SSTS. Future sampling recommendations based on the SORWT Model results include 32 core samples from 16 tanks and 18 auger samples from six tanks. Combining these data with the existing body of information will form the basis for characterizing 98 SSTs (66%). These 98 SSTs represent 78% of the total waste volume, 61% of the total sludge volume, and 88 % of the salt cake volume

  6. An examination of variations in the cepstral spectral index of dysphonia across a single breath group in connected speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R; Awan, Shaheen N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use spectral and cepstral analyses of speech to investigate whether underlying physiological changes in voice result in changes in acoustic estimates of dysphonia severity in continuous speech contexts within a single breath group. The effect of dysphonia on acoustic estimates of dysphonia severity, frequency, relative intensity, and vocalization time across initial and terminal segments of a single breath group using a common clinical stimulus was investigated. Prospective quasi-experimental controlled design. Digitized recordings of the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice sentence "We were away a year ago" were obtained from 20 treatment-seeking dysphonic individuals (females, mean age = 39 years) and 20 normal controls (females, mean age = 39 years). Each recorded sample was separated into the first four syllables ("We were away … ") and second four syllables ("…a year ago.") of the breath group. Cepstral and spectral measures, intensity measures, and temporal analyses were obtained and used in calculations of the Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID, an acoustic estimate of dysphonia severity), fundamental frequency (F0), vocalization time, and relative vocal intensity (dB SLP). Statistical analyses were applied to calculations of change (delta [Δ]) in these measures from one breath group segment to the next. Results revealed a significant effect of group on measures of CSID and F0, but not relative intensity or vocalization time. Dysphonic speakers exhibited a significant increase in the CSID from the first to second breath group segment and limited variation in F0 compared with controls. These results may support the hypothesis that voice impairment increases in severity toward the termination of a breath group even within a short temporal frame (i.e., 2 seconds or less of connected speech), and that this portion of the breath group may be an important determinant of perceptual impressions. Further

  7. Comparing a single case to a control group - Applying linear mixed effects models to repeated measures data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Willmes, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    In neuropsychological research, single-cases are often compared with a small control sample. Crawford and colleagues developed inferential methods (i.e., the modified t-test) for such a research design. In the present article, we suggest an extension of the methods of Crawford and colleagues employing linear mixed models (LMM). We first show that a t-test for the significance of a dummy coded predictor variable in a linear regression is equivalent to the modified t-test of Crawford and colleagues. As an extension to this idea, we then generalized the modified t-test to repeated measures data by using LMMs to compare the performance difference in two conditions observed in a single participant to that of a small control group. The performance of LMMs regarding Type I error rates and statistical power were tested based on Monte-Carlo simulations. We found that starting with about 15-20 participants in the control sample Type I error rates were close to the nominal Type I error rate using the Satterthwaite approximation for the degrees of freedom. Moreover, statistical power was acceptable. Therefore, we conclude that LMMs can be applied successfully to statistically evaluate performance differences between a single-case and a control sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Velocities of dislocation groups in very thin neutron-irradiated copper single crystals measured by slip line cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potthoff, H.H. (Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Metallphysik und Nukleare Festkoerperphysik)

    1983-05-16

    Slip line development on very thin flat single crystals of neutron-irradiated Cu (thickness down to only 15 to 20 ..mu..m, orientation for single glide, yield region, room temperature) is recorded by high-speed cinematography during tensile deformation. In such very thin crystals glide dislocations on the slip plane must be arranged in a rather simple way. Drops in tensile load occuring during initiation of single slip lines at the Lueders band front indicate that in the beginning of a slip line development dislocation groups traverse the whole glide plane in very short times. Evaluating the data measured for the slip line growth v/sub s/ >= 10 cm/s is found for screw dislocations and v/sub e/ >= v/sub s/ for edge dislocations. For later stages on thin crystals and for all stages on thick crystals (>= several 100 ..mu..m) slip line development is much slower and slip line show many cross slip events which then appear to control the mean velocity of the dislocations.

  9. Velocities of dislocation groups in very thin neutron-irradiated copper single crystals measured by slip line cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthoff, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Slip line development on very thin flat single crystals of neutron-irradiated Cu (thickness down to only 15 to 20 μm, orientation for single glide, yield region, room temperature) is recorded by high-speed cinematography during tensile deformation. In such very thin crystals glide dislocations on the slip plane must be arranged in a rather simple way. Drops in tensile load occuring during initiation of single slip lines at the Lueders band front indicate that in the beginning of a slip line development dislocation groups traverse the whole glide plane in very short times. Evaluating the data measured for the slip line growth v/sub s/ >= 10 cm/s is found for screw dislocations and v/sub e/ >= v/sub s/ for edge dislocations. For later stages on thin crystals and for all stages on thick crystals (>= several 100 μm) slip line development is much slower and slip line show many cross slip events which then appear to control the mean velocity of the dislocations. (author)

  10. Oxygenated organic functional groups and their sources in single and submicron organic particles in MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF were used to measure organic functional groups and elements of submicron particles collected during MILAGRO in March 2006 on three platforms: the Mexico City urban area (SIMAT, the high altitude site at 4010 m (Altzomoni, and the NCAR C130 aircraft. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS were applied to single particle organic functional group abundance analysis of particles simultaneously collected at SIMAT and C130. Correlations of elemental concentrations showed different groups of source-related elements at SIMAT, Altzomoni, and C130, suggesting different processes affecting the air masses sampled at the three platforms. Cluster analysis resulted in seven distinct clusters of FTIR spectra, with the last three clusters consisting of spectra collected almost exclusively on the C130 platform, reflecting the variety of sources contributing to C130 samples. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF of STXM-NEXAFS spectra identified three main factors representing soot, secondary, and biomass burning type spectra. PMF of FTIR spectra resulted in two fossil fuel combustion factors and one biomass burning factor, the former representative of source regions to the northeast and southwest of SIMAT. Alkane, carboxylic acid, amine, and alcohol functional groups were mainly associated with combustion related sources, while non-acid carbonyl groups were likely from biomass burning events. The majority of OM and O/C was attributed to combustion sources, although no distinction between direct emissions and atmospherically processed OM could be identified.

  11. Oceans of Opportunity. Harnessing Europe's largest domestic energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichaux, N.; Wilkes, J.

    2009-09-01

    Europe's offshore wind potential is enormous and able to power Europe seven times over. Over 100 GW of offshore wind projects are already in various stages of planning. If realised, these projects would produce 10% of the EU's electricity whilst avoiding 200 million tonnes of CO2 emissions each year. EWEA has a target of 40 GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020, implying an average annual market growth of 28% over the coming 12 years. The EU market for onshore wind grew by an average 32% per year in the 12-year period from 1992-2004 - what the wind energy industry has achieved on land can be repeated at sea. EWEA's proposed offshore grid builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 offshore grids currently being considered by the grid operators in the Baltic and North Seas to give Europe a truly pan-European electricity super highway. Strong political support and action from Europe's policy-makers will allow a new, multi-billion euro industry to be built. This new industry will deliver thousands of green collar jobs and a new renewable energy economy and establish Europe as world leader in offshore wind power technology. A single European electricity market with large amounts of wind power will bring affordable electricity to consumers, reduce import dependence, cut CO2 emissions and allow Europe to access its largest domestic energy source.

  12. Development and evaluation of a modified brief assertiveness training for nurses in the workplace: a single-group feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yohei; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Tanoue, Hiroki; Kato, Sayaka; Nakamura, Sayoko; Aoishi, Keiko; Shiraishi, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    Effective communication has a great impact on nurses' job satisfaction, team relationships, as well as patient care/safety. Previous studies have highlighted the various beneficial effects of enhancing communication through assertiveness training programs for nurses. However, most programs take a long time to implement; thus, briefer programs are urgently required for universal on-the-job-training in the workplace. The purpose of this feasibility study was to develop and evaluate a modified brief assertiveness training program (with cognitive techniques) for nurses in the workplace. This study was carried out as a single-group, open trial (pre-post comparison without a control group). Registered nurses and assistant nurses, working at two private psychiatric hospitals in Miyazaki Prefecture in Japan, were recruited. After enrolling in the study, participants received a program of two 90-min sessions with a 1-month interval between sessions. The primary outcome was the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS), with secondary measurements using the Brief Version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE) and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). Assessments were conducted at baseline and after a 1-month interval (pre- and post-intervention). A total of 22 participants enrolled in the study and completed the program. The mean total score on the primary outcome (RAS) significantly improved from -12.9 (SD = 17.2) to -8.6 (SD = 18.6) ( p  = 0.01). The within-group effect size at the post-intervention was Cohen's d = 0.24; this corresponds to the small effect of the program. Regarding secondary outcomes, there were no statistically significant effects on the BFNE or any of the BJSQ subscales (job-stressors, psychological distress, physical distress, worksite support, and satisfaction). This single-group feasibility study demonstrated that our modified brief assertiveness training for nurses seems feasible and may achieve a favorable outcome in improving their

  13. Pharmacokinetics of serelaxin in patients with hepatic impairment: a single-dose, open-label, parallel group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobalava, Zhanna; Villevalde, Svetlana; Kotovskaya, Yulia; Hinrichsen, Holger; Petersen-Sylla, Marc; Zaehringer, Andreas; Pang, Yinuo; Rajman, Iris; Canadi, Jasna; Dahlke, Marion; Lloyd, Peter; Halabi, Atef

    2015-06-01

    Serelaxin is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2 in development for treatment of acute heart failure. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of serelaxin in patients with hepatic impairment. Secondary objectives included evaluation of immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of serelaxin. This was an open-label, parallel group study (NCT01433458) comparing the PK of serelaxin following a single 24 h intravenous (i.v.) infusion (30 μg kg(-1)  day(-1) ) between patients with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A, B, C) and healthy matched controls. Blood sampling and standard safety assessments were conducted. Primary non-compartmental PK parameters [including area under the serum concentration-time curve AUC(0-48 h) and AUC(0-∞) and serum concentration at 24 h post-dose (C24h )] were compared between each hepatic impairment group and healthy controls. A total of 49 subjects (including 25 patients with hepatic impairment) were enrolled, of which 48 subjects completed the study. In all groups, the serum concentration of serelaxin increased over the first few hours of infusion, reached steady-state at 12-24 h and then declined following completion of infusion, with a mean terminal half-life of 7-8 h. All PK parameter estimates were comparable between each group of patients with hepatic impairment and healthy controls. No serious adverse events, discontinuations due to adverse events or deaths were reported. No serelaxin treatment-related antibodies developed during this study. The PK and safety profile of serelaxin were not affected by hepatic impairment. No dose adjustment is needed for serelaxin treatment of 48 h i.v. infusion in patients with hepatic impairment. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Ants farm subterranean aphids mostly in single clone groups - an example of prudent husbandry for carbohydrates and proteins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivens Aniek BF

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutualistic interactions are wide-spread but the mechanisms underlying their evolutionary stability and ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Cultivation mutualisms in which hosts consume symbionts occur in phylogenetically diverse groups, but often have symbiont monocultures for each host. This is consistent with the prediction that symbionts should avoid coexistence with other strains so that host services continue to benefit relatives, but it is less clear whether hosts should always favor monocultures and what mechanisms they might have to manipulate symbiont diversity. Few mutualisms have been studied in sufficient genetic detail to address these issues, so we decided to characterize symbiont diversity in the complex mutualism between multiple root aphid species and Lasius flavus ants. After showing elsewhere that three of these aphid species have low dispersal and mostly if not exclusively asexual reproduction, we here investigate aphid diversity within and between ant nest mounds. Results The three focal species (Geoica utricularia, Forda marginata and Tetraneura ulmi had considerable clonal diversity at the population level. Yet more than half of the ant mounds contained just a single aphid species, a significantly higher percentage than expected from a random distribution. Over 60% of these single-species mounds had a single aphid clone, and clones tended to persist across subsequent years. Whenever multiple species/clones co-occurred in the same mound, they were spatially separated with more than 95% of the aphid chambers containing individuals of a single clone. Conclusions L. flavus “husbandry” is characterized by low aphid “livestock” diversity per colony, especially at the nest-chamber level, but it lacks the exclusive monocultures known from other cultivation mutualisms. The ants appear to eat most of the early instar aphids, so that adult aphids are unlikely to face limited phloem resources and

  15. [Single nucleotide polymorphisms of HIV coreceptor CCR5 gene in Chinese Yi ethnic group and its association with HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-ying; Hong, Kun-xue; Lu, Xiao-zhi; Qin, Guang-ming; Chen, Jian-ping; Chen, Kang-lin; Ruan, Yu-hua; Xing, Hui; Zhu, Jia-hong; Shao, Yi-ming

    2005-11-30

    To investigate the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 gene in Chinese Yi ethnic group and the association between these SNPs and HIV/AIDS. Peripheral blood samples of 102 HIV negative persons of Chinese Yi nationality, 87 males amd 15 females, aged 23 (12-37), and 68 HIV carriers, 61 males and 7 females, aged 27 (17-51). The regulatory and structural regions of the HIV coreceptor CCR5 gene were amplified from the genomic DNA by nested PCR, each of the two regions was divided into three gene fragments which were overlapped. High throughput DHPLC was used for screening of unknown mutations in each gene fragment. The PCR products showing different peak traces from wild types in DHPLC were sequenced by forward and reverse primers respectively. The sequences were analyzed with the help of Sequence Navigator software to search for SNP loci. Statistical analysis by SPSS and PPAP softwares were made to study the association between these SNPs and HIV infection. Five SNPs (A77G, G316A, T532C, C921T, and G668A) and a AGA deletion of the 686-688 nucleotides were discovered in the coding region of this gene in Chinese Yi ethnic group. C921T mutation was a nonsense mutation, and the other SNPs (A77G, G316A, T532C, and G668A) are sense mutation, with the amino acid changes of K26R, G106R, C178R, and R223Q. Only the frequency of R223Q allelic gene was high (0.08) but those of the others were low (less than 0.01). There was no significant difference in the allele frequency between the HIV negative and HIV positive groups (all P > 0.05). Five SNP loci (T58934G, G59029A, T59353C, G59402A, and C59653T) were found in the regulatory region of CCR5 gene with high allelic frequencies of 0.1912-0.2941. Between the HIV negative and HIV positive groups, there were no differences in the SNP loc (all P > 0.05). Statistical analysis of the association between the linkage of mutation loci with HIV infection suggested a significant difference in the haplotype frequency

  16. The Type and Impact of Evidence Review Group Exploratory Analyses in the NICE Single Technology Appraisal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Scope, Alison; Holmes, Michael; Rice, Stephen; Rose, Micah; Tappenden, Paul; Woolacott, Nerys

    2017-06-01

    As part of the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal process, independent evidence review groups (ERGs) critically appraise a company's submission relating to a specific technology and indication. To explore the type of additional exploratory analyses conducted by ERGs and their impact on the recommendations made by NICE. The 100 most recently completed single technology appraisals with published guidance were selected for inclusion. A content analysis of relevant documents was undertaken to identify and extract relevant data, and narrative synthesis was used to rationalize and present these data. The types of exploratory analysis conducted in relation to companies' models were fixing errors, addressing violations, addressing matters of judgment, and the provision of a new, ERG-preferred base case. Ninety-three of the 100 ERG reports contained at least one of these analyses. The most frequently reported type of analysis in these 93 ERG reports related to the category "Matters of judgment," which was reported in 83 reports (89%). At least one of the exploratory analyses conducted and reported by an ERG is mentioned in 97% of NICE appraisal consultation documents and 94% of NICE final appraisal determinations, and had a clear influence on recommendations in 72% of appraisal consultation documents and 47% of final appraisal determinations. These results suggest that the additional analyses undertaken by ERGs in the appraisal of company submissions are highly influential in the policy-making and decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Dendrimer Terminal Group Chemistry on Blockage of the Anthrax Toxin Channel: A Single Molecule Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Goli; Kalu, Nnanya; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M

    2016-11-15

    Nearly all the cationic molecules tested so far have been shown to reversibly block K⁺ current through the cation-selective PA 63 channels of anthrax toxin in a wide nM-mM range of effective concentrations. A significant increase in channel-blocking activity of the cationic compounds was achieved when multiple copies of positively charged ligands were covalently linked to multivalent scaffolds, such as cyclodextrins and dendrimers. Even though multivalent binding can be strong when the individual bonds are relatively weak, for drug discovery purposes we often strive to design multivalent compounds with high individual functional group affinity toward the respective binding site on a multivalent target. Keeping this requirement in mind, here we perform a single-channel/single-molecule study to investigate kinetic parameters of anthrax toxin PA 63 channel blockage by second-generation (G2) poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers functionalized with different surface ligands, including G2-NH₂, G2-OH, G2-succinamate, and G2-COONa. We found that the previously reported difference in IC 50 values of the G2-OH/PA 63 and G2-NH₂/PA 63 binding was determined by both on- and off-rates of the reversible dendrimer/channel binding reaction. In 1 M KCl, we observed a decrease of about three folds in k o n and a decrease of only about ten times in t r e s with G2-OH compared to G2-NH₂. At the same time for both blockers, k o n and t r e s increased dramatically with transmembrane voltage increase. PAMAM dendrimers functionalized with negatively charged succinamate, but not carboxyl surface groups, still had some residual activity in inhibiting the anthrax toxin channels. At 100 mV, the on-rate of the G2-succinamate binding was comparable with that of G2-OH but showed weaker voltage dependence when compared to G2-OH and G2-NH₂. The residence time of G2-succinamate in the channel exhibited opposite voltage dependence compared to G2-OH and G2-NH₂, increasing with the cis

  18. When clusters collide: constraints on antimatter on the largest scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Observations have ruled out the presence of significant amounts of antimatter in the Universe on scales ranging from the solar system, to the Galaxy, to groups and clusters of galaxies, and even to distances comparable to the scale of the present horizon. Except for the model-dependent constraints on the largest scales, the most significant upper limits to diffuse antimatter in the Universe are those on the ∼Mpc scale of clusters of galaxies provided by the EGRET upper bounds to annihilation gamma rays from galaxy clusters whose intracluster gas is revealed through its x-ray emission. On the scale of individual clusters of galaxies the upper bounds to the fraction of mixed matter and antimatter for the 55 clusters from a flux-limited x-ray survey range from 5 × 10 −9 to −6 , strongly suggesting that individual clusters of galaxies are made entirely of matter or of antimatter. X-ray and gamma-ray observations of colliding clusters of galaxies, such as the Bullet Cluster, permit these constraints to be extended to even larger scales. If the observations of the Bullet Cluster, where the upper bound to the antimatter fraction is found to be −6 , can be generalized to other colliding clusters of galaxies, cosmologically significant amounts of antimatter will be excluded on scales of order ∼20 Mpc (M∼5×10 15 M sun )

  19. Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) protein has intrinsic affinity for nucleic acids with preference for single-stranded forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fenghua; Qian, Liangyue; Zhao, Xinliang; Liu, Jesse Y; Song, Limin; D'Urso, Gennaro; Jain, Chaitanya; Zhang, Yanbin

    2012-02-10

    The Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) gene is one of 15 disease-causing genes and has been found to be mutated in ∼60% of Fanconi anemia patients. Using purified protein, we report that human FANCA has intrinsic affinity for nucleic acids. FANCA binds to both single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded (dsDNA) DNAs; however, its affinity for ssDNA is significantly higher than for dsDNA in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. FANCA also binds to RNA with an intriguingly higher affinity than its DNA counterpart. FANCA requires a certain length of nucleic acids for optimal binding. Using DNA and RNA ladders, we determined that the minimum number of nucleotides required for FANCA recognition is ∼30 for both DNA and RNA. By testing the affinity between FANCA and a variety of DNA structures, we found that a 5'-flap or 5'-tail on DNA facilitates its interaction with FANCA. A patient-derived FANCA truncation mutant (Q772X) has diminished affinity for both DNA and RNA. In contrast, the complementing C-terminal fragment of Q772X, C772-1455, retains the differentiated nucleic acid-binding activity (RNA > ssDNA > dsDNA), indicating that the nucleic acid-binding domain of FANCA is located primarily at its C terminus, where most disease-causing mutations are found.

  20. Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A (FANCA) Protein Has Intrinsic Affinity for Nucleic Acids with Preference for Single-stranded Forms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fenghua; Qian, Liangyue; Zhao, Xinliang; Liu, Jesse Y.; Song, Limin; D'Urso, Gennaro; Jain, Chaitanya; Zhang, Yanbin

    2012-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) gene is one of 15 disease-causing genes and has been found to be mutated in ∼60% of Fanconi anemia patients. Using purified protein, we report that human FANCA has intrinsic affinity for nucleic acids. FANCA binds to both single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded (dsDNA) DNAs; however, its affinity for ssDNA is significantly higher than for dsDNA in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. FANCA also binds to RNA with an intriguingly higher affinity than its DNA counterpart. FANCA requires a certain length of nucleic acids for optimal binding. Using DNA and RNA ladders, we determined that the minimum number of nucleotides required for FANCA recognition is ∼30 for both DNA and RNA. By testing the affinity between FANCA and a variety of DNA structures, we found that a 5′-flap or 5′-tail on DNA facilitates its interaction with FANCA. A patient-derived FANCA truncation mutant (Q772X) has diminished affinity for both DNA and RNA. In contrast, the complementing C-terminal fragment of Q772X, C772–1455, retains the differentiated nucleic acid-binding activity (RNA > ssDNA > dsDNA), indicating that the nucleic acid-binding domain of FANCA is located primarily at its C terminus, where most disease-causing mutations are found. PMID:22194614

  1. Single case design studies in music therapy: resurrecting experimental evidence in small group and individual music therapy clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Kamile; Hitchcock, John H

    2014-01-01

    The profession would benefit from greater and routine generation of causal evidence pertaining to the impact of music therapy interventions on client outcomes. One way to meet this goal is to revisit the use of Single Case Designs (SCDs) in clinical practice and research endeavors in music therapy. Given the appropriate setting and goals, this design can be accomplished with small sample sizes and it is often appropriate for studying music therapy interventions. In this article, we promote and discuss implementation of SCD studies in music therapy settings, review the meaning of internal study validity and by extension the notion of causality, and describe two of the most commonly used SCDs to demonstrate how they can help generate causal evidence to inform the field. In closing, we describe the need for replication and future meta-analysis of SCD studies completed in music therapy settings. SCD studies are both feasible and appropriate for use in music therapy clinical practice settings, particularly for testing effectiveness of interventions for individuals or small groups. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Is modified brief assertiveness training for nurses effective? A single-group study with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Naoki; Nakamura, Yohei; Tanoue, Hiroki; MacLiam, Fionnula; Aoishi, Keiko; Shiraishi, Yuko

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of modified brief assertiveness training (with cognitive techniques) for nurses. Most assertiveness training takes a long time to conduct; thus, briefer training is required for universal on-the-job training in the workplace. In this single-group study, nurses received two 90-min training sessions with a 1-month interval between sessions. The degree of assertiveness was assessed by using the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule as the primary outcome, at four time points: pre- and post-training, 3-month follow-up and 6-month follow-up. A total of 33 nurses received the training, and the mean Rathus Assertiveness Schedule score improved from -14.2 (SD = 16.5) pre-training to -10.5 (SD = 18.0) post-training (p open environment for communication leads to improved job satisfaction, improved nursing care and increased patient safety. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ponatinib for Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandor, Abdullah; Stevenson, Matt; Stevens, John; James, Marrissa Martyn-St; Hamilton, Jean; Byrne, Jenny; Rudin, Claudius; Rawdin, Andrew; Wong, Ruth

    2018-02-26

    As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures ponatinib (Inclusig ® ; Incyte Corporation) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness for previously treated chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and Philadelphia-chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL). This paper focusses on the three phases of CML: the chronic phase (CP), the accelerated phase (AP) and the blast crisis phase (BP). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article presents the critical review of the company's submission by the ERG and the outcome of the NICE guidance. Clinical evidence for ponatinib was derived from a phase II, industry-sponsored, single-arm, open-label, multicentre, non-comparative study. Despite the limited evidence and potential for biases, this study demonstrated that ponatinib was likely to be an effective treatment (in terms of major cytogenetic response and major haematological response) with an acceptable safety profile for patients with CML. Given the absence of any head-to-head studies comparing ponatinib with other relevant comparators, the company undertook a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) of ponatinib with bosutinib. The approach was only used for patients with CP-CML because comprehensive data were not available for the AP- or BP-CML groups to allow the matching technique to be used. Despite the uncertainty about the MAIC approach, ponatinib was considered likely to offer advantages over bosutinib in the third-line setting, particularly for complete cytogenetic response. The company developed two health economic models to assess the cost effectiveness of ponatinib for the treatment of patients in CP-CML or in advanced CML (AP- or BP-CML, which were modelled separately). The company did

  4. Guaranteeing uptime at worl's largest particle physics lab

    CERN Multimedia

    Brodkin, Jon

    2007-01-01

    "As the European agency CERN was gearing up to build the world's largest particle accelerator, officials there knew they could not afford to have problems in their technical infrastructure cause any downtime." (1 page)

  5. Correlation between disruptive behaviors and school grouping (single-sex vs. coeducational) in students from Callao, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Gordillo, Enrique G.

    2013-01-01

    Debate on single-sex vs. coeducational schooling has increased over the last years. The purpose of the following study is to produce empirical evidence on this debate by comparing the frequency of disruptive behaviors in students thatattend single-sex and coeducational schools, in order to find statistical correlation.The frequency of disruptive behaviors in students coming from 5 single-sex schools was compared to that coming from 5 coeducational ones. Data came from 844 students aged 14, at...

  6. Issues Related to the Frequency of Exploratory Analyses by Evidence Review Groups in the NICE Single Technology Appraisal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenthaler, Eva; Carroll, Christopher; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Scope, Alison; Holmes, Michael; Rice, Stephen; Rose, Micah; Tappenden, Paul; Woolacott, Nerys

    2017-06-01

    Evidence Review Groups (ERGs) critically appraise company submissions as part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process. As part of their critique of the evidence submitted by companies, the ERGs undertake exploratory analyses to explore uncertainties in the company's model. The aim of this study was to explore pre-defined factors that might influence or predict the extent of ERG exploratory analyses. The aim of this study was to explore predefined factors that might influence or predict the extent of ERG exploratory analyses. We undertook content analysis of over 400 documents, including ERG reports and related documentation for the 100 most recent STAs (2009-2014) for which guidance has been published. Relevant data were extracted from the documents and narrative synthesis was used to summarise the extracted data. All data were extracted and checked by two researchers. Forty different companies submitted documents as part of the NICE STA process. The most common disease area covered by the STAs was cancer (44%), and most ERG reports (n = 93) contained at least one exploratory analysis. The incidence and frequency of ERG exploratory analyses does not appear to be related to any developments in the appraisal process, the disease area covered by the STA, or the company's base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). However, there does appear to be a pattern in the mean number of analyses conducted by particular ERGs, but the reasons for this are unclear and potentially complex. No clear patterns were identified regarding the presence or frequency of exploratory analyses, apart from the mean number conducted by individual ERGs. More research is needed to understand this relationship.

  7. Genome size analyses of Pucciniales reveal the largest fungal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Sílvia; Ramos, Ana Paula; Pires, Ana Sofia; Azinheira, Helena G; Caldeirinha, Patrícia; Link, Tobias; Abranches, Rita; Silva, Maria do Céu; Voegele, Ralf T; Loureiro, João; Talhinhas, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) are biotrophic plant pathogens which exhibit diverse complexities in their life cycles and host ranges. The completion of genome sequencing of a few rust fungi has revealed the occurrence of large genomes. Sequencing efforts for other rust fungi have been hampered by uncertainty concerning their genome sizes. Flow cytometry was recently applied to estimate the genome size of a few rust fungi, and confirmed the occurrence of large genomes in this order (averaging 225.3 Mbp, while the average for Basidiomycota was 49.9 Mbp and was 37.7 Mbp for all fungi). In this work, we have used an innovative and simple approach to simultaneously isolate nuclei from the rust and its host plant in order to estimate the genome size of 30 rust species by flow cytometry. Genome sizes varied over 10-fold, from 70 to 893 Mbp, with an average genome size value of 380.2 Mbp. Compared to the genome sizes of over 1800 fungi, Gymnosporangium confusum possesses the largest fungal genome ever reported (893.2 Mbp). Moreover, even the smallest rust genome determined in this study is larger than the vast majority of fungal genomes (94%). The average genome size of the Pucciniales is now of 305.5 Mbp, while the average Basidiomycota genome size has shifted to 70.4 Mbp and the average for all fungi reached 44.2 Mbp. Despite the fact that no correlation could be drawn between the genome sizes, the phylogenomics or the life cycle of rust fungi, it is interesting to note that rusts with Fabaceae hosts present genomes clearly larger than those with Poaceae hosts. Although this study comprises only a small fraction of the more than 7000 rust species described, it seems already evident that the Pucciniales represent a group where genome size expansion could be a common characteristic. This is in sharp contrast to sister taxa, placing this order in a relevant position in fungal genomics research.

  8. 41 CFR 301-71.102 - May we issue a single authorization for a group of employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.102 May we issue a single authorization... are traveling together on a single trip. However, you must attach a list of all travelers to the...

  9. Discovery of the Largest Orbweaving Spider Species: The Evolution of Gigantism in Nephila

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntner, Matja?; Coddington, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400?500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19th century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa...

  10. Correlation between disruptive behaviors and school grouping (single-sex vs. coeducational in students from Callao, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Gordillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Debate on single-sex vs. coeducational schooling has increased over the last years. The purpose of the following study is to produce empirical evidence on this debate by comparing the frequency of disruptive behaviors in students thatattend single-sex and coeducational schools, in order to find statistical correlation.The frequency of disruptive behaviors in students coming from 5 single-sex schools was compared to that coming from 5 coeducational ones. Data came from 844 students aged 14, attending public schools in Callao, Peru. Students from single-sex schools showed less frequent disruptive behavior in each of the three measured categories—disruptive behaviors, behaviors that show lack of responsibility and anti-social behavior. A weak correlation was found between each of the three categories and the main variable. The study controlled for extraneous variables.

  11. Mepolizumab for Treating Severe Eosinophilic Asthma: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Iñigo; Stevenson, Matt; Cooper, Katy; Harnan, Sue; Hamilton, Jean; Clowes, Mark; Carroll, Christopher; Harrison, Tim; Saha, Shironjit

    2018-02-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company (GlaxoSmithKline) that manufactures mepolizumab (Nucala ® ) to submit evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of mepolizumab for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group (ScHARR-TAG) at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent evidence review group (ERG). The ERG produced a review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of mepolizumab as add-on to standard of care (SoC) compared with SoC and omalizumab, based upon the company's submission to NICE. The clinical-effectiveness evidence in the company's submission was based predominantly on three randomised controlled trials (DREAM, MENSA and SIRIUS) comparing add-on mepolizumab with placebo plus SoC. The relevant population was defined in terms of degree of asthma severity (four or more exacerbations in the previous year and/or dependency on maintenance oral corticosteroids [mOCS]) and degree of eosinophilia (a blood eosinophil count of ≥ 300 cells/µl in the previous year) based on post hoc subgroup analyses of the pivotal trials. Other subpopulations were considered throughout the appraisal, defined by different eosinophil measurements, number of exacerbations and dependency (or lack thereof) on mOCS. Statistically significant reductions in clinically significant exacerbations were observed in patients receiving mepolizumab compared with SoC meta-analysed across MENSA and DREAM in the modified intention-to-treat (ITT) population (rate ratio [RR] 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-0.62) as well as in the relevant population (RR 0.47; 95% CI 0.36-0.62). In terms of quality of life, differences on the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire in MENSA for add-on subcutaneous mepolizumab 100 mg vs. placebo were 7 and 7.5 units in the modified ITT and

  12. Joint Asymptotic Distributions of Smallest and Largest Insurance Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansjörg Albrecher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Assume that claims in a portfolio of insurance contracts are described by independent and identically distributed random variables with regularly varying tails and occur according to a near mixed Poisson process. We provide a collection of results pertaining to the joint asymptotic Laplace transforms of the normalised sums of the smallest and largest claims, when the length of the considered time interval tends to infinity. The results crucially depend on the value of the tail index of the claim distribution, as well as on the number of largest claims under consideration.

  13. Challenges with the largest commercial hydrogen station in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonneau, Thomas; Gauthier, Pierre [Air Liquide Canada (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This abstract's objective is to share with the participants the story of the largest hydrogen fueling station made to this date and to kick-start the story, we will cover the challenges; first the technical ones; the operational ones; the distribution ones and; the financial ones. We will then move on to review the logistic (geographic) issues raised by the project and conclude our presentation by sharing the output values of the largest fueling station built so far in the world. (orig.)

  14. Safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple intravenous bolus doses of diclofenac sodium compared with oral diclofenac potassium 50 mg: A randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Okumu, Franklin; McDowell, James; Allenby, Kent

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in 42 healthy adults, the safety and pharmacokinetic parameters of an intravenous formulation of 18.75 and 37.5 mg diclofenac sodium (DFP-08) following single- and multiple-dose bolus administration were compared with diclofenac potassium 50 mg oral tablets. Mean AUC0-inf values for a 50-mg oral tablet and an 18.75-mg intravenous formulation were similar (1308.9 [393.0]) vs 1232.4 [147.6]). As measured by the AUC, DFP-08 18.75 mg and 37.5 mg demonstrated dose proportionality for extent of exposure. One subject in each of the placebo and DFP-08 18.75-mg groups and 2 subjects in the DFP-08 37.5-mg group reported adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be related to the study drug. All were mild in intensity and did not require treatment. Two subjects in the placebo group and 1 subject in the DFP-08 18.75-mg group reported grade 1 thrombophlebitis; no subjects reported higher than grade 1 thrombophlebitis after receiving a single intravenous dose. The 18.75- and 37.5-mg doses of intravenous diclofenac (single and multiple) were well tolerated for 7 days. Additional efficacy and safety studies are required to fully characterize the product. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  15. Ixazomib for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Review from an Evidence Review Group on a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoiry, Xavier; Connock, Martin; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Cummins, Ewen; Melendez-Torres, G J; Royle, Pam; Clarke, Aileen

    2018-03-26

    Ixazomib is an oral proteasome inhibitor used in combination with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone (IXA-LEN-DEX) and licensed for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. As part of a single technology appraisal (ID807) undertaken by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, the Evidence Review Group, Warwick Evidence was invited to independently review the evidence submitted by the manufacturer of ixazomib, Takeda UK Ltd. The main source of clinical effectiveness data about IXA-LEN-DEX came from the Tourmaline-MM1 randomized controlled trial in which 771 patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma received either IXA-LEN-DEX or placebo-LEN-DEX as their second-, third-, or fourth-line treatment. Takeda estimated the cost effectiveness of IXA-LEN-DEX using a de-novo partitioned-survival model with three health states (pre-progression, post-progression, and dead). In their first submission, this model was used to estimate the cost effectiveness of IXA-LEN-DEX vs. bortezomib plus dexamethasone (BORT-DEX) in second-line treatment, and of IXA-LEN-DEX vs. LEN-DEX in third-line treatment. To estimate the relative clinical performance of IXA-LEN-DEX vs. BORT-DEX, Takeda conducted network meta-analyses for important outcomes. The network meta-analysis for overall survival was found to be flawed in several respects, but mainly because a hazard ratio input for one of the studies in the network had been inverted, resulting in a large inflation of the claimed superiority of IXA-LEN-DEX over BORT-DEX and a considerable overestimation of its cost effectiveness. In subsequent submissions, Takeda withdrew second-line treatment as an option for IXA-LEN-DEX. The manufacturer's first submission comparing IXA-LEN-DEX with LEN-DEX for third-line therapy employed Tourmaline-MM1 data from third- and fourth-line patients as proxy for a third-line population. The appraisal committee did not consider this reasonable because randomization in Tourmaline-MM1 was stratified

  16. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...

  17. Social interaction with non-averse group-mates modifies a learned food aversion in single- and mixed-species groups of tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, M J; Buchanan-Smith, H M; Smith, A C

    2005-04-01

    For social species, being a member of a cohesive group and performing activities as a coordinated unit appear to provide a mechanism for the efficient transmission of information about food. Social learning about food palatability was investigated in two captive primates, Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus, which form stable and cohesive mixed-species groups in the wild. We explored whether an induced food aversion toward a preferred food is modified during and after social interaction with non-averse conspecifics or congeners. Sets of intra- and interspecific pairs were presented with two foods, one of which was considered distasteful by one of the pairs (the other was palatable), and their behavior was compared pre-interaction, during interaction, and post-interaction. For the aversely-conditioned individuals of both species, the change in social context corresponded to a change in their preference for the food that they considered unpalatable, regardless of whether they had interacted with a conspecific or congeneric pair, and the change in food preference was maintained post-interaction. In a control condition, in which averse individuals did not have the opportunity to interact with non-averse animals, S. fuscicollis sampled the preferred food, but not as quickly as when given the opportunity to interact. We conclude that the social learning demonstrated here may allow individual tamarins to track environmental change, such as fruit ripening, more efficiently than asocial learning alone, because social learners can more quickly and safely focus on appropriate behavior by sharing up-to-date foraging information. Furthermore, since the behavior of congeners, as well as conspecifics, acts to influence food choice in a more adaptive direction, social learning about food palatability may be an advantage of mixed-species group formation to tamarins of both species. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  18. NAFTA: The World's Largest Trading Zone Turns 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…

  19. Synchrotron Emission on the Largest Scales: Radio Detection of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Shocks and turbulence generated during large-scale structure formation are predicted to produce large-scale, low surface-brightness synchrotron emission. On the largest scales, this emission is globally correlated with the thermal baryon distribution, and constitutes the 'syn- chrotron cosmic-web'. I present the ...

  20. Building Earth's Largest Library: Driving into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Amazon.com online bookstore as a blueprint for designing the world's largest library. Topics include selection; accessibility and convenience; quality of Web sites and search tools; personalized service; library collection development, including interlibrary loan; library catalogs and catalog records; a circulation system; costs;…

  1. Analysis of Human Standing Balance by Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals’ standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments.

  2. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  3. PNNL supercomputer to become largest computing resource on the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hewlett Packard announced that the US DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will connect a 9.3-teraflop HP supercomputer to the DOE Science Grid. This will be the largest supercomputer attached to a computer grid anywhere in the world (1 page).

  4. Toward sustainable harvesting of Africa's largest medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global demand for treating prostate disorders with Prunus africana bark extract has made P. africana Africa's largest medicinal plant export. Unsustainable harvesting practices can lead to local extirpations of this multipurpose tree. Survey research targeting P. africana harvesters in a Tanzania forest reserve revealed that ...

  5. Single Older Women Who Applied for the Giving Life More Lustre Course: Are They the Target Group that Was Aimed for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Ismay P.; Steverink, Nardi; Albersnagel, Frans A.; Slaets, Joris P. J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the women who applied for the self-management of well-being course Giving life more LUSTRE can be considered the target group that was intended. By comparing the course applicants with a random sample of community dwelling single women, it was found that, as expected, course applicants scored worse on…

  6. Single older women who applied for the giving life more lustre course : Are they the target group that was aimed for?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Ismay; Steverink, Nardi; Albersnagel, Frans A.; Slaets, Joris P. J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the women who applied for the self-management of well-being course Giving life more LUSTRE can be considered the target group that was intended. By comparing the course applicants with a random sample of community dwelling single women, it was found that, as

  7. Examining Students' Self-Perceived Competence and Comfort in an Experiential Play Therapy Counseling Course: A Single Group Pretest-Posttest Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasch, Paulina; Taylor, Dalena; Clauber, Rikke Nynne; Robinson, Edward, III

    2017-01-01

    The current study utilized a single-group pretest-posttest design to evaluate students' self-perceived competence and comfort of using a variety of play therapy techniques and interventions with a range of client populations as a result of taking a one-week intensive course in Play Therapy. In an effort to conduct course evaluation and explore…

  8. Evaluating EIV, OLS, and SEM Estimators of Group Slope Differences in the Presence of Measurement Error: The Single-Indicator Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Steven Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Measurement error significantly biases interaction effects and distorts researchers' inferences regarding interactive hypotheses. This article focuses on the single-indicator case and shows how to accurately estimate group slope differences by disattenuating interaction effects with errors-in-variables (EIV) regression. New analytic findings were…

  9. Baricitinib for Previously Treated Moderate or Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shijie; Bermejo, Iñigo; Simpson, Emma; Wong, Ruth; Scott, David L; Young, Adam; Stevenson, Matt

    2018-03-03

    As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence invited the manufacturer (Eli Lilly) of baricitinib (BARI; Olumiant ® ; a Janus kinase inhibitor that is taken orally) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost effectiveness for the treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after the failure of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a detailed review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of the technology, based on the company's submission (CS) to NICE. The clinical-effectiveness evidence in the CS for BARI was based predominantly on three randomised controlled trials comparing the efficacy of BARI against adalimumab or placebo, as well as one long-term extension study. The clinical-effectiveness review identified no head-to-head evidence on the efficacy of BARI against all the comparators within the scope. Therefore, the company performed network meta-analyses (NMAs) in two different populations: one in patients who had experienced an inadequate response to conventional DMARDs (cDMARD-IR), and the other in patients who had experienced an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi-IR). The company's NMAs concluded BARI had comparable efficacy as the majority of its comparators in both populations. The company submitted a de novo discrete event simulation model that analysed the incremental cost-effectiveness of BARI versus its comparators for the treatment of RA from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in four different populations: (1) cDMARD-IR patients with moderate RA, defined as a 28-Joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) > 3.2 and no more than 5.1; (2) cDMARD-IR patients with severe RA (defined as a DAS28 > 5.1); (3) TNFi-IR patients

  10. A comprehensive analysis about thermal conductivity of multi-layer graphene with N-doping, -CH3 group, and single vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Chao; Li, Liang; Lu, Gui; Cao, Bing-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Fan, Zhen; Feng, Zhi-Hai

    2018-04-01

    Graphene has received great attention due to its fascinating thermal properties. The inevitable defects in graphene, such as single vacancy, doping, and functional group, greatly affect the thermal conductivity. The sole effect of these defects on the thermal conductivity has been widely studied, while the mechanisms of the coupling effects are still open. We studied the combined effect of defects with N-doping, the -CH3 group, and single vacancy on the thermal conductivity of multi-layer graphene at various temperatures using equilibrium molecular dynamics with the Green-Kubo theory. The Taguchi orthogonal algorithm is used to evaluate the sensitivity of N-doping, the -CH3 group, and single vacancy. Sole factor analysis shows that the effect of single vacancy on thermal conductivity is always the strongest at 300 K, 700 K, and 1500 K. However, for the graphene with three defects, the single vacancy defect only plays a significant role in the thermal conductivity modification at 300 K and 700 K, while the -CH3 group dominates the thermal conductivity reduction at 1500 K. The phonon dispersion is calculated using a spectral energy density approach to explain such a temperature dependence. The combined effect of the three defects further decreases the thermal conductivity compared to any sole defect at both 300 K and 700 K. The weaker single vacancy effect is due to the stronger Umklapp scattering at 1500 K, at which the combined effect seriously covers almost all the energy gaps in the phonon dispersion relation, significantly reducing the phonon lifetimes. Therefore, the temperature dependence only appears on the multi-layer graphene with combined defects.

  11. Drilling the Bushveld Complex- the world's largest layered mafic intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Trumbull, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The fact that surprising new discoveries can be made in layered mafic intrusions (e.g., subtle 100-150 m cyclicity in apparently homogeneous cumulates over 1000s of m) means that we are still in the first-order characterization phase of understanding these objects. Accordingly, we have secured funding from ICDP for a planning workshop to be held in Johannesburg in early 2014, aimed at scientific drilling of the Bushveld Complex, the world's largest layered mafic intrusion. Science objectives include, but are not limited to: 1. Magma chamber processes & melt evolution. How many melts/magmas/mushes were involved, what were their compositions and how did they interact? What, if anything, is missing from the Complex, and where did it go? Did Bushveld magmatism have an effect upon Earth's atmosphere at 2 Ga? 2. Crust-mantle interactions & origin of Bushveld granitoids. Are Bushveld granites & rhyolites crustal melts, differentiates from the mafic magmas or products of immiscibility? How can the evolved isotopic signatures in the mafic rocks (e.g., epsilon Nd to -8) be understood? 3. Origin of ore deposits. What were the relative roles of gravity settling, magma mixing, immiscibility and hydrothermal fluid transport in producing the PGE, Cr and V deposits? We have identified 3 potential drilling targets representing a total of ~12 km of drill core. Exact locations of drill sites are to be discussed at the workshop. Target A- East-Central Bushveld Complex. We propose 3 overlapping 3 km boreholes that will provide the first roof-to-floor continuous coverage of the Rustenburg Layered Suite. These boreholes will represent a curated, internationally available reference collection of Bushveld material for present and future research. Target B- Southeastern Bushveld Complex. We propose a single borehole of ~2 km depth, collared in Rooiberg felsite, and positioned to intersect the Roof Zone, Upper Zone, Main Zone and floor of the Complex. Amongst other things, this site will

  12. Venetoclax for Treating Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hema; Nduka, Chidozie; Connock, Martin; Colquitt, Jill; Mantopoulos, Theodoros; Loveman, Emma; Walewska, Renata; Mason, James

    2018-04-01

    Venetoclax is licensed to treat relapsed or refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). As part of the Single Technology Appraisal (STA) ID944, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited AbbVie, the manufacturer, to submit evidence on the use of venetoclax, within its licensed indication. The Evidence Review Group (ERG), Warwick Evidence, was asked to provide an independent and critical review of the submitted evidence. Evidence came from three single-arm trials in CLL patients with or without 17p deletion [del(17p])/TP53 chromosomal abnormalities. The anticipated licensed indication specified that venetoclax-eligible del(17p)/TP53 patients should have not responded to, or be deemed unsuitable for, B-cell receptor inhibitor (BCRi) therapy, and that non-del(17p)/TP53 patients should have not responded to both chemoimmunotherapy and BCRi therapy. The three trials were heterogeneous in terms of both del(17p)/TP53 status and previous exposure to BCRi therapy. The M13-982 study investigated 158 R/R CLL patients with the 17p deletion, but only a small number had received previous BCRi therapy; the M12-175 study investigated 67 patients with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma, some with the 17p deletion, but very few previously treated with BCRi therapy; and the M14-032 study included 105 patients previously treated with BCRi therapy (either idelalisib or ibrutinib), some of whom had unknown mutation status. The ERG concluded that the study populations did not directly conform to those specified in the licensed indication or in the NICE scope. Outcomes reported included overall response rate (ORR), duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS); adverse events were reported for the pooled population of all three studies, as well as separately for each study. The median PFS was 41.4 and 27.2 months among patients in the M12-175 and M13-982 trials, respectively, whereas the median PFS was not reached in

  13. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group

    OpenAIRE

    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Mal...

  14. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Byrdina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002 and Corral (2005a, we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial volumes. We come to the conclusion that the seismicity is temporally clustered, and that the distribution of recurrence times is significantly different from a Poisson process even for times largely exceeding corresponding periods of foreshock and aftershock activity. Modeling the recurrence times by a gamma distributed variable, we finally estimate hazard rates with respect to the time elapsed from the last large earthquake.

  15. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...... Dragon has to be scaled in accordance with the wave climate at the deployment site, which makes the Welch demonstrator device the worlds largest WEC so far with a total width of 300 meters. The project budget, the construction methods and the deployment site are also given....... a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave...

  16. Ants farm subterranean aphids mostly in single clone groups : An example of prudent husbandry for carbohydrates and proteins?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Kronauer, Daniel J. C.; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mutualistic interactions are wide-spread but the mechanisms underlying their evolutionary stability and ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Cultivation mutualisms in which hosts consume symbionts occur in phylogenetically diverse groups, but often have symbiont monocultures for

  17. Photoinduced nuclear spin conversion of methyl groups of single molecules; Photoinduzierte Kernspinkonversion von Methylgruppen an einzelnen Molekuelen. Lochbrenn- und Einzelmolekuelspektroskopie an Terrylen und Methylderivaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigl, A.

    2007-12-28

    A methyl group is an outstanding quantum system due to its special symmetry properties. The threefold rotation around one of its bond is isomorphic to the group of even permutations of the remaining protons, a property which imposes severe quantum restrictions on the system, for instance a strict correlation of rotational states with nuclear spin states. The resulting long lifetimes of the rotational tunneling states of the methyl group can be exploited for applying certain high resolution optical techniques, like hole burning or single molecule spectroscopy to optically switch the methyl group from one tunneling state to another therebye changing the nuclear spin of the protons. One goal of the thesis was to perform this switching in single methyl groups. To this end the methyl group was attached to a chromophoric system, in the present case terrylene, which is well suited for single molecule spectroscopy as well as for hole burning. Experiments were performed with the bare terrylene molecule in a hexadecane lattice which served as a reference system, with alphamethyl terrylene and betamethyl terrylene, both embedded in hexadecane, too. A single molecular probe is a highly sensitive detector for dynamic lattice instabilities. Already the bare terrylene probe showed a wealth of interesting local dynamic effects of the hexadecane lattice which could be well acounted for by the assumption of two nearly degenerate sites with rather different optical and thermal properties, all of which could be determined in a quantitative fashion. As to the methylated terrylene systems, the experiments verified that for betamethyl terrylene it is indeed possible to measure rotational tunneling events in single methyl groups. However, the spectral patterns obtained was much more complicated than expected pointing to the presence of three spectroscopically different methyl groups. In order to achieve a definite assignement, molecular mechanics simulations of the terrylene probes in the

  18. Upgrade and modernization of the six largest HPPs in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzievska, M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, Electric Power Company of Macedonia and the International Bank for Development and Reconstruction, started the Power System Improvement Project a part of which is the Project for rehabilitation of the six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPPs) in the Republic of Macedonia. The six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPP Vrutok, HPP Raven, HPP Globocica, HPP Tikves and HPP Spilje and HPP Vrben) represent 91% of the country's hydropower capacity. The rehabilitation program is divided in five parts (contracts) and covers the refurbishment of: turbine runners, turbine and generator bearings, governors, inlet valves; butterfly valves, including accessories and control systems; generators, excitation system and voltage regulation; control system, protection and LV auxiliaries; switch gears and control gears in 220 kV, 110 kV and 35 kV substations. At the moment, only the implementation of switch gears has started, the first phase is already finished, and 50 % of the rehabilitation works for HPP Vrutok, the largest HPP, has been finished. With the realization of this project, greater hydropower production is expected. It also expected that HPPs will become a more vital part of the Macedonian power system

  19. Kabob report. Pt. 3. Chevron plant largest in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-01-18

    Canada's largest fully integrated primary natural- gas processing and sulfur recovery plant is heading for physical completion by mid-summer of 1971. The Ralph M. Parsons Construction Co. of Canada Ltd., contractor for the S. Kaybob Beaverhill Lake Unit No. 3 gas-processing plant, to be operated by Chevron Standard Ltd., estimates completion by June 30. After that the $80 million complex will have tests and running in time. With any reasonable luck, it should be fully on stream by late summer. Preliminary construction on the 200-acre site started in Jan. 1969 with clearing and contouring of the main plant and sulfur storage sites. Initial rough grading started in the early summer, after spring breakup was over. Delivery of most of the big items was made by rail because the local secondary roads were inadequate for them. Concrete has been a large item. The contractor has its own batch plant on the site for the estimated 28,000 cu yd which will be needed for the whole job. Dominating the construction site from the start has been the high sulfur plant stack, first of the major items to be finished. It will serve to dispose of effluent from the largest sulfur recovery unit in Canada. It is 465 ft high, one of the largest in Alberta, and a significant contribution to pollution control and environmental protection.

  20. Opticofiber photoacoustic spectrometry in single-ray two-cell grouping for analytical determination of actinoids in solutions of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin'kov, S.I.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Kikhara, T.; Fuine, S.; Maeda, M.

    1996-01-01

    Single-ray two-cell version of photoacoustic spectrometry with laser excitation (Laser Induced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, LIPAS) for remote determination of actinoids ions in solutions is developed. The spectrometer characteristics were specified by means of uranium-containing solutions, including a great number of non-radioactive ions, the absorption bonds where of imitated the absorption of Pu(3) and Pu(4). The possibilities of the LIPAS technique were studied by analysis of ions, imitating plutonium within the range of 650-724 nm on synthetic solutions with high uranium(6) content and a great number of nonradioactive isotopes of fragmentation-type elements. 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  1. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Malaysia and were confirmed by In-house TTS1-PCR. Isolates were subjected for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to explore their genotypic diversity and to investigate for possible clonal clustering of a certain sequence type. Patient's clinical information was examined to investigate for clinical correlation among the different genotypes. In spite of small sample set, MLST results indicated predictive results; considerable genotypic diversity, predominance and novelty among B. pseudomallei collected over a single geographically-located population in Malaysia. Massive genotypic heterogeneity was observed; 8 different sequence types with predominance of sequence type 54 and discovery of two novel sequence types. However, no clear pathogenomic or organ tropism clonal relationships were predicted.

  2. Gender-Role Identity and Perceived Peer Group Acceptance among Early Adolescents in Belgian Mixed and Single-Sex Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on survey data, this paper explores the association between early adolescents' gender-role identity and sense of peer group acceptance, and how this association may vary as a function of the gender context of the school. Two indicators of gender-role identity were included in the analysis: in one measure the items reflect features of…

  3. Discovery of the largest orbweaving spider species: the evolution of gigantism in Nephila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntner, Matjaz; Coddington, Jonathan A

    2009-10-21

    More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400-500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19(th) century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa and Madagascar, and review size evolution and SSD in Nephilidae. We formally describe N. komaci sp. nov., the largest web spinning species known, and place the species in phylogenetic context to reconstruct the evolution of mean size (via squared change parsimony). We then test female and male mean size correlation using phylogenetically independent contrasts, and simulate nephilid body size evolution using Monte Carlo statistics. Nephila females increased in size almost monotonically to establish a mostly African clade of true giants. In contrast, Nephila male size is effectively decoupled and hovers around values roughly one fifth of female size. Although N. komaci females are the largest Nephila yet discovered, the males are also large and thus their SSD is not exceptional.

  4. Discovery of the largest orbweaving spider species: the evolution of gigantism in Nephila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Kuntner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400-500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19(th century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa and Madagascar, and review size evolution and SSD in Nephilidae.We formally describe N. komaci sp. nov., the largest web spinning species known, and place the species in phylogenetic context to reconstruct the evolution of mean size (via squared change parsimony. We then test female and male mean size correlation using phylogenetically independent contrasts, and simulate nephilid body size evolution using Monte Carlo statistics.Nephila females increased in size almost monotonically to establish a mostly African clade of true giants. In contrast, Nephila male size is effectively decoupled and hovers around values roughly one fifth of female size. Although N. komaci females are the largest Nephila yet discovered, the males are also large and thus their SSD is not exceptional.

  5. Group-Level EEG-Processing Pipeline for Flexible Single Trial-Based Analyses Including Linear Mixed Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömer, Romy; Maier, Martin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2018-01-01

    Here we present an application of an EEG processing pipeline customizing EEGLAB and FieldTrip functions, specifically optimized to flexibly analyze EEG data based on single trial information. The key component of our approach is to create a comprehensive 3-D EEG data structure including all trials and all participants maintaining the original order of recording. This allows straightforward access to subsets of the data based on any information available in a behavioral data structure matched with the EEG data (experimental conditions, but also performance indicators, such accuracy or RTs of single trials). In the present study we exploit this structure to compute linear mixed models (LMMs, using lmer in R) including random intercepts and slopes for items. This information can easily be read out from the matched behavioral data, whereas it might not be accessible in traditional ERP approaches without substantial effort. We further provide easily adaptable scripts for performing cluster-based permutation tests (as implemented in FieldTrip), as a more robust alternative to traditional omnibus ANOVAs. Our approach is particularly advantageous for data with parametric within-subject covariates (e.g., performance) and/or multiple complex stimuli (such as words, faces or objects) that vary in features affecting cognitive processes and ERPs (such as word frequency, salience or familiarity), which are sometimes hard to control experimentally or might themselves constitute variables of interest. The present dataset was recorded from 40 participants who performed a visual search task on previously unfamiliar objects, presented either visually intact or blurred. MATLAB as well as R scripts are provided that can be adapted to different datasets.

  6. Fibrous polymer grafted magnetic chitosan beads with strong poly(cation-exchange) groups for single step purification of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Tekinay, Turgay; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Arica, M Yakup

    2015-05-15

    Lysozyme is an important polypetide used in medical and food applications. We report a novel magnetic strong cation exchange beads for efficient purification of lysozyme from chicken egg white. Magnetic chitosan (MCHT) beads were synthesized via phase inversion method, and then grafted with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (p(GMA)) via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Epoxy groups of the grafted polymer, were modified into strong cation-exchange groups (i.e., sulfonate groups) in the presence of sodium sulfite. The MCTH and MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads were characterized by ATR-FTIR, SEM, and VSM. The sulphonate groups content of the modified MCTH-g-p(GMA)-4 beads was found to be 0.53mmolg(-1) of beads by the potentiometric titration method. The MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads were first used as an ion-exchange support for adsorption of lysozyme from aqueous solution. The influence of different experimental parameters such as pH, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption process was evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 208.7mgg(-1) beads. Adsorption of lysozyme on the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and followed the pseudo second-order kinetic. More than 93% of the adsorbed lysozyme was desorbed using Na2CO3 solution (pH 11.0). The purity of the lysozyme was checked by HPLC and SDS gel electrophoresis. In addition, the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads prepared in this work showed promising potential for separation of various anionic molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electron-withdrawing groups induced remarkable changes in sensory property based on single micro/nanostructure of perylenediimide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yongwei; Zhang, Weiguang; Wang, Junchao; Fu, Lina; Shi, Jiahua

    2015-01-01

    Two perylenediimide derivatives, N, N′-bis(3,7-dimethyloctyl)- 1,7-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-tetracarboxyldiimide and N, N′- bis(3,7-dimethyloctyl)- 1,2,6,7-tetrachloroperylene-3,4:9,10-tetracarboxyldiimide, were prepared and their one-dimensional micro/nanorods were obtained in chloroform/methanol solution. The determination of sensing properties based on their conductometric gas sensors revealed that the increased current was one order of magnitude higher for core-tetrachlorinated perylene than that of core-cyanated one in hydrazine vapor (8 part per million). While better ambient stability in air was found for core-cyanated perylene due to its lower lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level and high-ordered arrangement in solid materials. The differential response to hydrazine vapor was less dependent on their surface area and morphologies. It should be ascribed to the difference in activation energy level and twisted skeleton, which are originated from chloride and cyano groups on the bay positions. Discussion for structure-function relationships suggest core-substituted groups have significant impact on the performance of perylene sensing device by modulating band gap and structure of skeleton. - Highlights: • PTCDIs micro/nanorods were prepared in chloroform/methanol solutions. • High sensitivities to hydrazine were found based on PTCDIs gas sensors. • It showed that core-substituted groups had impact on sensitivity and stability

  8. The Environmental Responsibility of the World’s Largest Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszawska Bożena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transition is changing the role and function of banks, specially their products and services also in relation to stakeholders. Banks are one of the main actors supporting the transition to sustainable economy. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the role of world’s largest banks in that process. Banks are slowly responding to the new demand of sustainability and responsibility, and they try to align with it. The paper is based on an overview of the world’s five largest banks that employ corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting standards, together with detailed enumeration of pro-environmental activities included in the reports. The first section of this paper presents the most popular approaches to the problem at hand, as reported in professional literature. Section two presents the characteristics of the CSR actions in banks. The third section discusses the environmental actions of the biggest banks in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI reporting the most popular standard for reporting non-financial information. And the last part of the paper presents the conclusions resulting from the article. The research was conducted using a variety of sources, such as scientific articles, statistical data, CSR reports of the world’s largest banks, as well reporting principles and standard disclosures. The basic method used in the process of writing was a critical analysis of literature and reports concerning the CSR reporting standards, environmental responsibilities of different kinds of entities, as well as own observations based on special reports of banks. In the article, also the analysis of financial market data, induction method and comparison method have been used. The main conclusions of the analysis of the CSR reports disclosed by the world’s largest banks confirm all three of the theses presented in the article. The findings suggest that the banks under study can be regarded as environmentally responsible

  9. Longevity in Calumma parsonii, the World's largest chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, Giulia; Glaw, Frank; Andreone, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Large body size of ectothermic species can be correlated with high life expectancy. We assessed the longevity of the World's largest chameleon, the Parson's chameleon Calumma parsonii from Madagascar by using skeletochronology of phalanges taken from preserved specimens held in European natural history museums. Due to the high bone resorption we can provide only the minimum age of each specimen. The highest minimum age detected was nine years for a male and eight years for a female, confirming that this species is considerably long living among chameleons. Our data also show a strong correlation between snout-vent length and estimated age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental isotope signatures of the largest freshwater lake in Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.

    2007-01-01

    Sasthamkotta lake, the largest freshwater lake in Kerala, serves as a source for drinking water for more than half a million people. Environmental 137 Cs analysis done on undisturbed sediment core samples reveals that the recent rate of sedimentation is not uniform in the lake. The useful life of lake is estimated as about 800 years. The δD and δ 18 O values of the lake waters indicate that the lake is well mixed with a slight variation horizontally. The stable isotope studies on well waters from the catchment indicate hydraulic communication with the lake and lake groundwater system is flow-through type. Analytical model also supports this view. (author)

  11. Statistics of the largest sunspot and facular areas per solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.M.; Kabasakal Tulunay, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of extreme values is used to investigate the statistical properties of the largest areas sunspots and photospheric faculae per solar cycle. The largest values of the synodic-solar-rotation mean areas of umbrae, whole spots and faculae, which have been recorded for nine solar cycles, are each shown to comply with the general form of the extreme value probability function. Empirical expressions are derived for the three extreme value populations from which the characteristic statistical parameters, namely the mode, median, mean and standard deviation, can be calculated for each population. These three extreme value populations are also used to find the expected ranges of the extreme areas in a group of solar cycles as a function of the number of cycles in the group. The extreme areas of umbrae and whole spots have a dispersion comparable to that found by Siscoe for the extreme values of sunspot number, whereas the extreme areas of faculae have a smaller dispersion which is comparable to that found by Siscoe for the largest geomagnetic storm per solar cycle. The expected range of the largest sunspot area per solar cycle for a group of one hundred cycles appears to be inconsistent with the existence of the prolonged periods of sunspot minima that have been inferred from the historical information on solar variability. This inconsistency supports the contention that there are temporal changes of solar-cycle statistics during protracted periods of sunspot minima (or maxima). Indeed, without such temporal changes, photospheric faculae should have been continually observable throughout the lifetime of the Sun. (orig.)

  12. Bayesian framework for prediction of future number of failures from a single group of units in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Nader

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers prediction of unknown number of failures in a future inspection of a group of in-service units based on number of failures observed from an earlier inspection. We develop a flexible Bayesian model and calculate Bayesian estimator for this unknown number and other quantities of interest. The paper also includes an illustration of our method in an example about heat exchanger. A main advantage of our approach is in its nonparametric nature. By nonparametric here we simply mean that no assumption is required about the failure time distribution of a unit

  13. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ixekizumab for Treating Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Bram L T; Wolff, Robert F; Pouwels, Xavier; Oosterhoff, Marije; Van Giessen, Anoukh; Worthy, Gill; Noake, Caro; Armstrong, Nigel; Kleijnen, Jos; Joore, Manuela A

    2018-02-26

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence invited Eli Lilly and Company Ltd, the company manufacturing ixekizumab (tradename Taltz ® ), to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of ixekizumab. Ixekizumab was compared with tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab), ustekinumab, secukinumab, best supportive care and, if non-biological treatment or phototherapy is suitable, also compared with systemic non-biological therapies and phototherapy with ultraviolet B radiation for adults with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd, in collaboration with Maastricht University Medical Center, was commissioned as the independent Evidence Review Group. This article presents a summary of the company submission, the Evidence Review Group report and the development of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for the use of this drug in England and Wales by the Appraisal Committee. The Evidence Review Group produced a critical review of the clinical and cost effectiveness of ixekizumab based on the company submission. The company submission presented three randomised controlled trials identified in a systematic review. All randomised controlled trials were phase III, multicentre placebo-controlled trials including 3866 participants with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Two trials also included an active comparator (etanercept). All randomised controlled trials showed statistically significant increases in two primary outcomes, static Physician Global Assessment (0,1) and improvement of 75% from baseline in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Ixekizumab was generally well tolerated in the randomised controlled trials, with similar discontinuation rates because of adverse events as placebo or etanercept. The most frequent adverse events of special interest were infections and injection-site reactions. The company submission also included a network meta-analysis of

  15. Effect of environmental enrichment devices on behaviors of single- and group-housed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, S. E.; Clifford, J. O.; Tomko, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors over a broad area. Captivity limits these behaviors and consequently may disrupt normal social organizations. In captivity, squirrel monkeys may exhibit stereotypical behaviors that are believed to indicate decreased psychologic well-being. When a monkey's behavior can be made to approach that seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal, it is assumed that psychologic well-being is adequate. Environmental enrichment devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act requirement that psychologic well-being of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the study reported here was to examine whether various environmental enrichment devices improve the psychologic well-being of captive squirrel monkeys. In the study, we used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several environmental enrichment devices for reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed alone or in groups. Analysis of our results revealed that the environmental enrichment devices did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  16. Whole body and local cryotherapy in restless legs syndrome: A randomized, single-blind, controlled parallel group pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Svenja; Evers, Stefan; Thiedemann, Christian; Bunten, Sabine; Siegert, Rudolf

    2016-11-15

    Treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is primarily based on drugs. Since many patients report improvement of symptoms due to cooling their legs, we examined the efficacy of cryotherapy in RLS. 35 patients (28 women, 60.9±12.5years) with idiopathic RLS and symptoms starting not later than 6pm were randomized into three groups: cold air chamber at -60°C (n=12); cold air chamber at -10°C (n=12); local cryotherapy at -17°C (n=11). After a two week baseline, the different therapies were applied three minutes daily at 6pm over two weeks, followed by a four week observation period. The patients completed several questionnaires regarding RLS symptoms, sleep, and quality of life on a weekly basis (IRLS, ESS), VAS and sleep/morning protocol were completed daily, MOSS/RLS-QLI were completed once in each period. Additionally, the PLM index was measured by a mobile device at the end of baseline, intervention, and follow-up. The IRLS score was chosen as primary efficacy parameter. At the end of follow-up, significant improvement of RLS symptoms and quality of life could be observed only in the -60°C group as compared to baseline (IRLS: p=0.009; RLS-QLI: p=0.006; ESS: p=0.020). Local cryotherapy led to improvement in quality of life (VAS4: p=0.028; RLS-QLI: p=0.014) and sleep quality (MOSS: p=0.020; MOSS2: p=0.022) but not in IRLS and ESS. In the -10°C group, the only significant effect was shortening of number of wake phases per night. Serious side-effects were not reported. Whole body cryotherapy at -60°C and, to a less extent, local cryotherapy seem to be a treatment option for RLS in addition to conventional pharmacological treatment. However, the exact mode of cryotherapy needs to be established. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. THE EVOLUTION OF THE WORLD’S LARGEST AUTOMAKERS IN THE PERIOD 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George TOMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry has always represented an economic engine for many countries. It is dealing with the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and sale of the motor vehicles. Nowadays, this industry is full of intense competition between big auto groups fighting for higher profits and larger market shares. The key players in the automotive market are operating at a global scale in a highly competitive environment. In the last years, Toyota Motor and Volkswagen Group have proved to be the main competitors. The aim of our paper is to analyze the evolution of the world’s largest automakers in the period 2013-2014. The research type is literature review.

  18. The effect of non-weight bearing group-exercising on females with non-specific chronic low back pain: a randomized single blind controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masharawi, Youssef; Nadaf, Nedal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of active non-weight-bearing (NWB) group exercising on women with non specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). Forty females with NSCLBP were assigned in a randomized control longitudinal single blinded pilot study. 20 of them were assigned to a NWB bi-weekly group exercise class and 20 females were included in the control group. The exercises involved the entire lumbo-pelvic spine aimed at improving lumbar mobility/flexibility and stability. Pain intensity (VAS), back specific disability (Rolland Morris questionnaire-RMQ), and lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion measurements were taken prior to intervention (t(0)), immediately following 4 weeks of intervention (t(1)) and 8 weeks later (t(fu)). Reliability trials were conducted on 10 females. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical significance (p exercising improves functional, painful status, lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion in women suffering from NSCLBP.

  19. Early-onset group B streptococcal disease following culture-based screening in Japan: a single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Akane; Takahashi, Hironori; Kubo, Takahiko; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Tsukamoto, Keiko; Ito, Yushi; Sago, Haruhiko

    2012-08-01

    We investigated trends in early-onset group B streptococcal disease (EOD) after the introduction of culture-based screening in Japan. A retrospective cohort study examined EOD trends in 9506 pregnancies and 10 715 neonates at our center from 2002 to 2009. EOD occurred in four neonates (4/7332: 0.55/1000 live births). The EOD incidence among infants born to women positive for GBS by screening was 0.90 cases per 1000 live births (1/1107). In contrast, the EOD incidence among infants negative by GBS screening was 0.48 cases per 1000 live births (3/6225). Thus, of the four affected neonates, three had mothers who tested negative on antepartum GBS screening. Two neonates had symptoms of infection during labor and intrapartum antibiotic agents were administered. The other two neonates received no antibiotics because deliveries were uneventful and they were negative on GBS screening. The incidence of EOD is 0.90 cases per 1000 live births among GBS-positive women and 0.48 cases per 1000 live births among GBS-negative women. The results of our study implied that EOD can develop regardless of GBS screening and intrapartum clinical course, although the method of sample collection, indications for antibiotic prophylaxis, and the antibiotics regimen should be considered. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Carbon and energy fluxes from China's largest freshwater lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, G.; LIU, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and energy fluxes between lakes and the atmosphere are important aspects of hydrology, limnology, and ecology studies. China's largest freshwater lake, the Poyang lake experiences tremendous water-land transitions periodically throughout the year, which provides natural experimental settings for the study of carbon and energy fluxes. In this study, we use the eddy covariance technique to explore the seasonal and diurnal variation patterns of sensible and latent heat fluxes of Poyang lake during its high-water and low-water periods, when the lake is covered by water and mudflat, respectively. We also determine the annual NEE of Poyang lake and the variations of NEE's components: Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Re). Controlling factors of seasonal and diurnal variations of carbon and energy fluxes are analyzed, and land cover impacts on the variation patterns are also studied. Finally, the coupling between the carbon and energy fluxes are analyzed under different atmospheric, boundary stability and land cover conditions.

  1. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalygin, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ''Research Institute of Atomic Reactors'' (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs

  2. BALU: Largest autoclave research facility in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ucan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large-scale facilities operated at the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade BALU is the world's largest research autoclave. With a loading length of 20m and a loading diameter of 5.8 m the main objective of the facility is the optimization of the curing process operated by components made of carbon fiber on an industrial scale. For this reason, a novel dynamic autoclaving control has been developed that is characterized by peripheral devices to expend the performance of the facility for differential applications, by sensing systems to detect the component state throughout the curing process and by a feedback system, which is capable to intervene into the running autoclave process.

  3. Switzerland's largest wood-pellet factory in Balsthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, F.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a small Swiss electricity utility has broken out of its traditional role in power generation and the distribution of electricity and gone into the production of wood pellets. The pellets, which are made from waste wood (sawdust) available from wood processing companies, are produced on a large scale in one of Europe's largest pellets production facilities. The boom in the use of wood pellets for heating purposes is discussed. The article discusses this unusual approach for a Swiss power utility, which also operates a wood-fired power station and is even involved in an incineration plant for household wastes. The markets being aimed for in Switzerland and in Europe are described, including modern low-energy-consumption housing projects. A further project is described that is to use waste wood available from a large wood processing facility planned in the utility's own region

  4. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households. PMID:27598524

  5. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalygin, V V [State Scientific Centre, Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ``Research Institute of Atomic Reactors`` (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs.

  6. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  7. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  8. The largest glitch observed in the Crab pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, B.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.; Bassa, C. G.; Lien, A. Y.; Mickaliger, M. B.; Breton, R. P.; Jordan, C. A.; Keith, M. J.; Krimm, H. A.

    2018-05-01

    We have observed a large glitch in the Crab pulsar (PSR B0531+21). The glitch occurred around MJD 58064 (2017 November 8) when the pulsar underwent an increase in the rotation rate of Δν = 1.530 × 10-5 Hz, corresponding to a fractional increase of Δν/ν = 0.516 × 10-6 making this event the largest glitch ever observed in this source. Due to our high-cadence and long-dwell time observations of the Crab pulsar we are able to partially resolve a fraction of the total spin-up of the star. This delayed spin-up occurred over a timescale of ˜1.7 days and is similar to the behaviour seen in the 1989 and 1996 large Crab pulsar glitches. The spin-down rate also increased at the glitch epoch by Δ \\dot{ν } / \\dot{ν } = 7 × 10^{-3}. In addition to being the largest such event observed in the Crab, the glitch occurred after the longest period of glitch inactivity since at least 1984 and we discuss a possible relationship between glitch size and waiting time. No changes to the shape of the pulse profile were observed near the glitch epoch at 610 MHz or 1520 MHz, nor did we identify any changes in the X-ray flux from the pulsar. The long-term recovery from the glitch continues to progress as \\dot{ν } slowly rises towards pre-glitch values. In line with other large Crab glitches, we expect there to be a persistent change to \\dot{ν }. We continue to monitor the long-term recovery with frequent, high quality observations.

  9. Hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm for multi-objective single machine group scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup times and learning effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lei; Guan, Zailin; Saif, Ullah; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Group scheduling is significant for efficient and cost effective production system. However, there exist setup times between the groups, which require to decrease it by sequencing groups in an efficient way. Current research is focused on a sequence dependent group scheduling problem with an aim to minimize the makespan in addition to minimize the total weighted tardiness simultaneously. In most of the production scheduling problems, the processing time of jobs is assumed as fixed. However, the actual processing time of jobs may be reduced due to "learning effect". The integration of sequence dependent group scheduling problem with learning effects has been rarely considered in literature. Therefore, current research considers a single machine group scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and learning effects simultaneously. A novel hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm (HPABC) with some steps of genetic algorithm is proposed for current problem to get Pareto solutions. Furthermore, five different sizes of test problems (small, small medium, medium, large medium, large) are tested using proposed HPABC. Taguchi method is used to tune the effective parameters of the proposed HPABC for each problem category. The performance of HPABC is compared with three famous multi objective optimization algorithms, improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2), non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). Results indicate that HPABC outperforms SPEA2, NSGAII and PSO and gives better Pareto optimal solutions in terms of diversity and quality for almost all the instances of the different sizes of problems.

  10. A d-statistic for single-case designs that is equivalent to the usual between-groups d-statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R; Hedges, Larry V; Pustejovsky, James E; Boyajian, Jonathan G; Sullivan, Kristynn J; Andrade, Alma; Barrientos, Jeannette L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a standardised mean difference statistic (d) for single-case designs that is equivalent to the usual d in between-groups experiments. We show how it can be used to summarise treatment effects over cases within a study, to do power analyses in planning new studies and grant proposals, and to meta-analyse effects across studies of the same question. We discuss limitations of this d-statistic, and possible remedies to them. Even so, this d-statistic is better founded statistically than other effect size measures for single-case design, and unlike many general linear model approaches such as multilevel modelling or generalised additive models, it produces a standardised effect size that can be integrated over studies with different outcome measures. SPSS macros for both effect size computation and power analysis are available.

  11. Fifteen Years of Operation at NASA's National Transonic Facility with the World's Largest Adjustable Speed Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, George H.; Bhatia, Ram; Krattiger, Hansueli; Mylius, Justus; Schafer, D.

    2012-01-01

    In September 1995, a project was initiated to replace the existing drive line at NASA's most unique transonic wind tunnel, the National Transonic Facility (NTF), with a single 101 MW synchronous motor driven by a Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). This Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) system also included a custom four-winding transformer, harmonic filter, exciter, switch gear, control system, and feeder cable. The complete system requirements and design details have previously been presented and published [1], as well as the commissioning and acceptance test results [2]. The NTF was returned to service in December 1997 with the new drive system powering the fan. Today, this installation still represents the world s largest horizontal single motor/drive combination. This paper describes some significant events that occurred with the drive system during the first 15 years of service. These noteworthy issues are analyzed and root causes presented. Improvements that have substantially increased the long term viability of the system are given.

  12. The importance of a single methyl group in determining the reaction chemistry of pentamethylcyclopentadienyl cyclooctatetraenyl uranium metallocenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Michael K.; Ziller, Joseph W.; Evans, William J. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2011-04-18

    The steric factors that allow trivalent [(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 3}U] (1) to function as a three-electron reductant with C{sub 8}H{sub 8} to form tetravalent [{(C_5Me_5)(C_8H_8)U}{sub 2}(μ-C{sub 8}H{sub 8})] (2) have been explored by examining the synthesis and reactivity of the intermediate, ''[(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}(C{sub 8}H{sub 8})U]'' (3), and the slightly less crowded analogues, [(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H)(C{sub 8}H{sub 8})U] and [(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2}(C{sub 8}H{sub 8})U], that have, successively one less methyl group. The reaction of [{(C_5Me_5)(C_8H_8)U(μ-OTf)}{sub 2}] (4; OTf=OSO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}) with two equivalents of KC{sub 5}Me{sub 5} in THF gave ring-opening to ''[(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})(C{sub 8}H{sub 8})U{O(CH_2)_4(C_5Me_5)}]'' consistent with in situ formation of 3. Reaction of 4 with two and four equivalents of KC{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H generates two equivalents of [(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H)(C{sub 8}H{sub 8})U] (5) and [(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2}(C{sub 8}H{sub 8})U] (6), respectively, which in contrast to 3 were isolable. Tetravalent 5 reduces phenazine and PhEEPh (E=S, Se, and Te) to form the tetravalent uranium reduction products, [{(C_5Me_5)(C_8H_8)U}{sub 2}(μ-C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})] (7), [{(C_5Me_5)(C_8H_8)U}{sub 2}(μ-SPh){sub 2}] (8), [{(C_5Me_5)(C_8H_8)U}{sub 2}(μ-SePh){sub 2}] (9), and [{(C_5Me_5)(C_8H_8)U}{sub 2}(μ-TePh){sub 2}] (10), consistent with sterically induced reduction. In contrast, the less sterically crowded 6 does not react with these substrates. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Combination of electromembrane extraction and liquid-phase microextraction in a single step: Simultaneous group separation of acidic and basic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    at high concentration. This approach was further investigated from human plasma. Extraction recoveries were strongly dependent on dilution of plasma with buffer and on extraction time. Finally, this simultaneous EME/LPME approach was evaluated in combination with liquid chromatography (LC......Electromembrane extraction (EME) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) were combined in a single step for the first time to realize simultaneous and clear group separation of basic and acidic drugs. Using 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for EME and dihexyl ether...

  14. A Comparison of Cats (Felis silvestris catus Housed in Groups and Single Cages at a Shelter: A Retrospective Matched Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Suchak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The merits of various housing options for domestic cats in shelters have been debated. However, comparisons are difficult to interpret because cats are typically not able to be randomly assigned to different housing conditions. In the current study, we attempted to address some of these issues by creating a retrospective matched cohort of cats in two housing types. Cats in group housing (GH were matched with cats in single housing (SH that were the same age, sex, breed, coat color, and size. Altogether we were able to find a match for 110 GH cats. We compared these two groups on several measures related to their experience at the shelter such as moves and the development of behavioral problems. We also compared these groups on outcomes including length of stay, live release, and returns after adoption. We found that while the frequency of moves was similar in both groups, SH cats were more likely to be moved to offsite facilities than GH cats. SH cats also spent a smaller proportion of time on the adoption floor. Length of stay and, live release and returns after adoption did not significantly differ across groups, however GH cats were two times as likely to be returned after adoption. Future research should look at the behavioral impacts of shelter decision-making regarding moving and management of cats in different housing systems.

  15. Hospital Prices Increase in California, Especially Among Hospitals in the Largest Multi-hospital Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn A. Melnick PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A surge in hospital consolidation is fueling formation of ever larger multi-hospital systems throughout the United States. This article examines hospital prices in California over time with a focus on hospitals in the largest multi-hospital systems. Our data show that hospital prices in California grew substantially (+76% per hospital admission across all hospitals and all services between 2004 and 2013 and that prices at hospitals that are members of the largest, multi-hospital systems grew substantially more (113% than prices paid to all other California hospitals (70%. Prices were similar in both groups at the start of the period (approximately $9200 per admission. By the end of the period, prices at hospitals in the largest systems exceeded prices at other California hospitals by almost $4000 per patient admission. Our study findings are potentially useful to policy makers across the country for several reasons. Our data measure actual prices for a large sample of hospitals over a long period of time in California. California experienced its wave of consolidation much earlier than the rest of the country and as such our findings may provide some insights into what may happen across the United States from hospital consolidation including growth of large, multi-hospital systems now forming in the rest of the rest of the country.

  16. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Cui

    Full Text Available Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79% unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG, 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized

  17. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  18. Characterization of the largest effector gene cluster of Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brefort

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function.

  19. El Paso natural gas nearing completion of system's largest expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    El Paso Natural Gas Co.'s largest expansion program in its 64-year history will be completed along its northern system this spring or early summer. According to the company, the three-tiered, $241.5 million expansion program will increase El Paso's gas-transport capacity by 835 MMcfd to 2.5 bcfd of conventional and coal-seam gas from the San Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico. That's enough natural gas, says the company, to supply the needs of a city of more than 800,000 residents. This paper reports that the expansion involves the San Juan Triangle system, the company's northern main line, and the Permian-San Juan crossover line. The company also filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in October 1991 to construct a new $15.2 million compressor station, Rio Vista, south of Bloomfield, N.M. The station would be used to move additional gas to the main line

  20. Benchmark Testing of the Largest Titanium Aluminide Sheet Subelement Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate wrought titanium aluminide (gamma TiAl) as a viable candidate material for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exhaust nozzle, an international team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field successfully fabricated and tested the largest gamma TiAl sheet structure ever manufactured. The gamma TiAl sheet structure, a 56-percent subscale divergent flap subelement, was fabricated for benchmark testing in three-point bending. Overall, the subelement was 84-cm (33-in.) long by 13-cm (5-in.) wide by 8-cm (3-in.) deep. Incorporated into the subelement were features that might be used in the fabrication of a full-scale divergent flap. These features include the use of: (1) gamma TiAl shear clips to join together sections of corrugations, (2) multiple gamma TiAl face sheets, (3) double hot-formed gamma TiAl corrugations, and (4) brazed joints. The structural integrity of the gamma TiAl sheet subelement was evaluated by conducting a room-temperature three-point static bend test.

  1. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  2. Phosphorus Loadings to the World's Largest Lakes: Sources and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gabriel; Alcamo, Joseph; Flörke, Martina; Reder, Klara

    2018-04-01

    Eutrophication is a major water quality issue in lakes worldwide and is principally caused by the loadings of phosphorus from catchment areas. It follows that to develop strategies to mitigate eutrophication, we must have a good understanding of the amount, sources, and trends of phosphorus pollution. This paper provides the first consistent and harmonious estimates of current phosphorus loadings to the world's largest 100 lakes, along with the sources of these loadings and their trends. These estimates provide a perspective on the extent of lake eutrophication worldwide, as well as potential input to the evaluation and management of eutrophication in these lakes. We take a modeling approach and apply the WorldQual model for these estimates. The advantage of this approach is that it allows us to fill in large gaps in observational data. From the analysis, we find that about 66 of the 100 lakes are located in developing countries and their catchments have a much larger average phosphorus yield than the lake catchments in developed countries (11.1 versus 0.7 kg TP km-2 year-1). Second, the main source of phosphorus to the examined lakes is inorganic fertilizer (47% of total). Third, between 2005-2010 and 1990-1994, phosphorus pollution increased at 50 out of 100 lakes. Sixty percent of lakes with increasing pollution are in developing countries. P pollution changed primarily due to changing P fertilizer use. In conclusion, we show that the risk of P-stimulated eutrophication is higher in developing countries.

  3. LHC : The World's Largest Vacuum Systems being commissioned at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, J M

    2008-01-01

    When it switches on in 2008, the 26.7 km Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, will have the world's largest vacuum system operating over a wide range of pressures and employing an impressive array of vacuum technologies. This system is composed by 54 km of UHV vacuum for the circulating beams and 50 km of insulation vacuum around the cryogenic magnets and the liquid helium transfer lines. Over the 54 km of UHV beam vacuum, 48 km of this are at cryogenic temperature (1.9 K). The remaining 6 km of beam vacuum containing the insertions for "cleaning" the proton beams, radiofrequency cavities for accelerating the protons as well as beam-monitoring equipment is at ambient temperature and uses non-evaporable getter (NEG) coatings - a vacuum technology that was born and industrialized at CERN. The pumping scheme is completed using 780 ion pumps to remove noble gases and to provide pressure interlocks to the 303 vacuum safety valves. Pressure readings are provided by 170 Bayard-Alpert gauges and 1084 gauges (Pirani a...

  4. Genomic diversity and affinities in population groups of North West India: an analysis of Alu insertion and a single nucleotide polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, J S; Kumar, A; Matharoo, K; Sokhi, J; Badaruddoza; Bhanwer, A J S

    2012-12-15

    The North West region of India is extremely important to understand the peopling of India, as it acted as a corridor to the foreign invaders from Eurasia and Central Asia. A series of these invasions along with multiple migrations led to intermixture of variable populations, strongly contributing to genetic variations. The present investigation was designed to explore the genetic diversities and affinities among the five major ethnic groups from North West India; Brahmin, Jat Sikh, Bania, Rajput and Gujjar. A total of 327 individuals of the abovementioned ethnic groups were analyzed for 4 Alu insertion marker loci (ACE, PV92, APO and D1) and a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs2234693 in the intronic region of the ESR1 gene. Statistical analysis was performed to interpret the genetic structure and diversity of the population groups. Genotypes for ACE, APO, ESR1 and PV92 loci were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the ethnic groups, while significant departures were observed at the D1 locus in every investigated population after Bonferroni's correction. The average heterozygosity for all the loci in these ethnic groups was fairly substantial ranging from 0.3927 ± 0.1877 to 0.4333 ± 0.1416. Inbreeding coefficient indicated an overall 10% decrease in heterozygosity in these North West Indian populations. The gene differentiation among the populations was observed to be of the order of 0.013. Genetic distance estimates revealed that Gujjars were close to Banias and Jat Sikhs were close to Rajputs. Overall the study favored the recent division of the populations of North West India into largely endogamous groups. It was observed that the populations of North West India represent a more or less homogenous genetic entity, owing to their common ancestral history as well as geographical proximity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Randomized Single Blind Parallel Group Study Comparing Monoherbal Formulation Containing Holarrhena antidysenterica Extract with Mesalamine in Chronic Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Johari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidences of side effects and relapses are very common in chronic ulcerative colitis patients after termination of the treatment. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to compare the treatment with monoherbal formulation of Holarrhena antidysenterica with Mesalamine in chronic ulcerative colitis patients with special emphasis to side effects and relapse. Settings and Design: Patients were enrolled from an Ayurveda Hospital and a private Hospital, Gujarat. The study was randomized, parallel group and single blind design. Materials and Methods: The protocol was approved by Institutional Human Research Ethics Committee of Anand Pharmacy College on 23rd Jan 2013. Three groups (n = 10 were treated with drug Mesalamine (Group I, monoherbal tablet (Group II and combination of both (Group III respectively. Baseline characteristics, factors affecting quality of life, chronicity of disease, signs and symptoms, body weight and laboratory investigations were recorded. Side effects and complications developed, if any were recorded during and after the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were expressed as mean ± SEM. Data was statistically evaluated using t-test, Wilcoxon test, Mann Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis test and ANOVA, wherever applicable, using GraphPad Prism 6. Results: All the groups responded positively to the treatments. All the patients were positive for occult blood in stool which reversed significantly after treatment along with rise in hemoglobin. Patients treated with herbal tablets alone showed maximal reduction in abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bowel frequency and stool consistency scores than Mesalamine treated patients. Treatment with herbal tablet alone and in combination with Mesalamine significantly reduced the stool infection. Patients treated with herbal drug alone and in combination did not report any side effects, relapse or complications while 50% patients treated with Mesalamine exhibited the relapse with

  6. Reach and messages of the world's largest ivory burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braczkowski, Alexander; Holden, Matthew H; O'Bryan, Christopher; Choi, Chi-Yeung; Gan, Xiaojing; Beesley, Nicholas; Gao, Yufang; Allan, James; Tyrrell, Peter; Stiles, Daniel; Brehony, Peadar; Meney, Revocatus; Brink, Henry; Takashina, Nao; Lin, Ming-Ching; Lin, Hsien-Yung; Rust, Niki; Salmo, Severino G; Watson, James Em; Kahumbu, Paula; Maron, Martine; Possingham, Hugh P; Biggs, Duan

    2018-03-01

    Recent increases in ivory poaching have depressed African elephant populations. Successful enforcement has led to ivory being stockpiled. Stockpile destruction is becoming increasingly popular, and most destruction has occurred in the last five years. Ivory destruction is intended to send a strong message against ivory consumption, both in promoting a taboo on ivory use and catalyzing policy change. However, there has been no effort to establish the distribution and extent of media reporting on ivory destruction events globally. We analyze media coverage across eleven important nation states of the largest ivory destruction event in history (Kenya, 30 April 2016). We used a well-accepted online media crawling tool and key language translations to search online and print newspapers. We found most online news on the ivory burn came from the US (81% of articles), while print news was dominated by Kenya (61% of articles). We subjected online articles from five key countries and territories to content analysis and found 86-97% of all online articles reported the burn as a positive conservation action, while between 4-50% discussed ivory burning as having a negative impact on elephant conservation. Most articles discussed law enforcement and trade bans as effective for elephant conservation. There was more relative search interest globally on the 2016 Kenyan ivory burn than any other in five years. Our study is the first attempt to track the spread of media around an ivory burn and is a case study in tracking the effects of a conservation-marketing event. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. GIS learning tool for world's largest earthquakes and their causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moumita

    The objective of this thesis is to increase awareness about earthquakes among people, especially young students by showing the five largest and two most predictable earthquake locations in the world and their plate tectonic settings. This is a geographic based interactive tool which could be used for learning about the cause of great earthquakes in the past and the safest places on the earth in order to avoid direct effect of earthquakes. This approach provides an effective way of learning for the students as it is very user friendly and more aligned to the interests of the younger generation. In this tool the user can click on the various points located on the world map which will open a picture and link to the webpage for that point, showing detailed information of the earthquake history of that place including magnitude of quake, year of past quakes and the plate tectonic settings that made this place earthquake prone. Apart from knowing the earthquake related information students will also be able to customize the tool to suit their needs or interests. Students will be able to add/remove layers, measure distance between any two points on the map, select any place on the map and know more information for that place, create a layer from this set to do a detail analysis, run a query, change display settings, etc. At the end of this tool the user has to go through the earthquake safely guidelines in order to be safe during an earthquake. This tool uses Java as programming language and uses Map Objects Java Edition (MOJO) provided by ESRI. This tool is developed for educational purpose and hence its interface has been kept simple and easy to use so that students can gain maximum knowledge through it instead of having a hard time to install it. There are lots of details to explore which can help more about what a GIS based tool is capable of. Only thing needed to run this tool is latest JAVA edition installed in their machine. This approach makes study more fun and

  8. German Migrant Teachers in Australia: Insights into the Largest Cohort of Non-English Speaking Background Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this paper investigates the situation of German migrant teachers in Australia. Although German born teachers represent the largest group of non-English speaking background teachers in Australia, there is no study of the circumstances and experiences of these teachers in Australia. This study aims to fill this gap. It…

  9. Constraining the Single-degenerate Channel of Type Ia Supernovae with Stable Iron-group Elements in SNR 3C 397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, Pranav; Kashyap, Rahul; Fisher, Robert [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02740 (United States); Timmes, Frank [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Townsley, Dean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 870324, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Byrohl, Chris [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg August Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-05-20

    Recent Suzaku X-ray spectra of supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397 indicate enhanced stable iron group element abundances of Ni, Mn, Cr, and Fe. Seeking to address key questions about the progenitor and explosion mechanism of 3C 397, we compute nucleosynthetic yields from a suite of multidimensional hydrodynamics models in the near-Chandrasekhar-mass, single-degenerate paradigm for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Varying the progenitor white dwarf (WD) internal structure, composition, ignition, and explosion mechanism, we find that the best match to the observed iron peak elements of 3C 397 are dense (central density ≥6 × 10{sup 9} g cm{sup −3}), low-carbon WDs that undergo a weak, centrally ignited deflagration, followed by a subsequent detonation. The amount of {sup 56}Ni produced is consistent with a normal or bright normal SNe Ia. A pure deflagration of a centrally ignited, low central density (≃2 × 10{sup 9} g cm{sup −3}) progenitor WD, frequently considered in the literature, is also found to produce good agreement with 3C 397 nucleosynthetic yields, but leads to a subluminous SN Ia event, in conflict with X-ray line width data. Additionally, in contrast to prior work that suggested a large supersolar metallicity for the WD progenitor for SNR 3C 397, we find satisfactory agreement for solar- and subsolar-metallicity progenitors. We discuss a range of implications our results have for the single-degenerate channel.

  10. A Complex Multiherbal Regimen Based on Ayurveda Medicine for the Management of Hepatic Cirrhosis Complicated by Ascites: Nonrandomized, Uncontrolled, Single Group, Open-Label Observational Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish V; Patel, Kalapi B; Gupta, Shivenarain; Michalsen, Andreas; Stapelfeldt, Elmar; Kessler, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially if complicated by ascites. This chronic condition can be related to the classical disease entity jalodara in Traditional Indian Medicine (Ayurveda). The present paper aims to evaluate the general potential of Ayurvedic therapy for overall clinical outcomes in hepatic cirrhosis complicated by ascites (HCcA). In form of a nonrandomized, uncontrolled, single group, open-label observational clinical study, 56 patients fulfilling standardized diagnostic criteria for HCcA were observed during their treatment at the P. D. Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad, India. Based on Ayurvedic tradition, a standardized treatment protocol was developed and implemented, consisting of oral administration of single and compound herbal preparations combined with purificatory measures as well as dietary and lifestyle regimens. The outcomes were assessed by measuring liver functions through specific clinical features and laboratory parameters and by evaluating the Child-Pugh prognostic grade score. After 6 weeks of treatment and a follow-up period of 18 weeks, the outcomes showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements. Further larger and randomized trials on effectiveness, safety, and quality of the Ayurvedic approach in the treatment of HCcA are warranted to support these preliminary findings.

  11. A single source precursor route to group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides as highly active supports for gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Shashank K.; Mendez, Violaine; Jeanneau, Erwann; Caps, Valerie; Daniè le, Sté phane

    2012-01-01

    A new Mitsubishi-type of star-shaped homoleptic derivative of indium(III), In4(mdea)6 (2, mdeaH2 = N-methyldiethanolamine) , was synthesized by the chloro-aminoalkoxo exchange reaction of a heteroleptic complex In6Cl6(mdea)6 (1) and used as a facile single source molecular precursor for the sol-gel preparation of high surface area indium oxide. Successful deposition of gold nanoparticles (1 wt.-%) of average size 3.3 nm on the above metal oxide by using HAuCl4· 3H2O afforded a highly efficient Au/In2O3 catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene at low temperature. The above single source precursor approach was further extended to obtain other group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides, namely, α-Ga2O 3, β-Ga2O3 and Al4Ga 2O9, as highly active supports for gold catalysts. The obtained Au/M2O3 (M = Ga, In) and Au/Al4Ga 2O9 catalysts were thoroughly characterized by using several physicochemical techniques such as XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparative study of the above catalysts for the model aerobic oxidation of stilbene in methylcyclohexane was undertaken. Highly efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation reactions were obtained by depositing gold nanoparticles on group 13 mono- or mixed metal oxides prepared from the hydrolysis of well-characterized homo- and heterometallic N-methyldiethanolaminate derivatives. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A single source precursor route to group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides as highly active supports for gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Shashank K.

    2012-12-14

    A new Mitsubishi-type of star-shaped homoleptic derivative of indium(III), In4(mdea)6 (2, mdeaH2 = N-methyldiethanolamine) , was synthesized by the chloro-aminoalkoxo exchange reaction of a heteroleptic complex In6Cl6(mdea)6 (1) and used as a facile single source molecular precursor for the sol-gel preparation of high surface area indium oxide. Successful deposition of gold nanoparticles (1 wt.-%) of average size 3.3 nm on the above metal oxide by using HAuCl4· 3H2O afforded a highly efficient Au/In2O3 catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene at low temperature. The above single source precursor approach was further extended to obtain other group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides, namely, α-Ga2O 3, β-Ga2O3 and Al4Ga 2O9, as highly active supports for gold catalysts. The obtained Au/M2O3 (M = Ga, In) and Au/Al4Ga 2O9 catalysts were thoroughly characterized by using several physicochemical techniques such as XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparative study of the above catalysts for the model aerobic oxidation of stilbene in methylcyclohexane was undertaken. Highly efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation reactions were obtained by depositing gold nanoparticles on group 13 mono- or mixed metal oxides prepared from the hydrolysis of well-characterized homo- and heterometallic N-methyldiethanolaminate derivatives. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Watching the Creation of Southern California's Largest Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The new Diamond Valley Lake Reservoir near the city of Hemet in Riverside County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S.history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million cubic meters of foundation excavation and 84 million cubic meters of embankment construction. This set of MISR images captures the most recent phase in the reservoir's activation. At the upper left is a natural-color view acquired by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on March 14, 2000 (Terra orbit 1273), shortly after the Metropolitan Water District began filling the reservoir with water from the Colorado River and Northern California. Water appears darker than the surrounding land. The image at the upper right was acquired nearly one year later on March 1, 2001 (Terra orbit 6399), and shows a clear increase in the reservoir's water content. When full, the lake will hold nearly a trillion liters of water.According to the Metropolitan Water District, the 7 kilometer x 3 kilometer reservoir nearly doubles Southern California's above-groundwater storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against drought and a six-month emergency supply in the event of earthquake damage to a major aqueduct. In the face of electrical power shortages, it is also expected to reduce dependence on the pumping of water from northern mountains during the high-demand summer months. An unexpected result of site excavation was the uncovering of mastodon and mammoth skeletons along with bones from extinct species not previously thought to have been indigenous to the area, such as the giant long-horned bison and North American lion. A museum and interpretive center is being built to protect these finds.The lower MISR image, from May 20, 2001 (Terra orbit 7564), is a false-color view combining data from the instrument's 26-degree forward view (displayed as blue) with data from the 26-degree backward view

  14. Final Status Survey for the Largest Decommissioning Project on Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiel, R.W.; Miller, J.; Quayle, D.

    2006-01-01

    To assist the United States Department of Energy's (US DOE's) re-industrialization efforts at its gaseous diffusion site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, known as the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), the US DOE awarded a 6-year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) contract to BNG America (formerly BNFL Inc.) in 1997. The ETTP 3-Building D and D Project included the removal and disposition of the materials and equipment from the K-33, K-31, and K-29 Gaseous Diffusion Plant buildings. The three buildings comprise more than 4.8 million square feet (446,000 square meters) of floor surface area and more than 350 million pounds (148 million kilograms) of hazardous and radioactively contaminated material, making it the largest nuclear D and D project in progress anywhere in the world. The logistical hurdles involved in a project of this scope and magnitude required an extensive amount of Engineering and Health Physics professionals. In order to accomplish the Final Status Survey (FSS) for a project of this scope, the speed and efficiency of automated survey equipment was essential. Surveys of floors, structural steel and ceilings up to 60 feet (18 meters) were required. The FSS had to be expanded to include additional remediation and surveys due to characterization surveys and assumptions regarding the nature and extent of contamination provided by the US DOE. Survey design and technical bases had to consider highly variable constituents; including uranium from depleted to low enrichment, variable levels of Technetium-99 and transuranic nuclides, which were introduced into the cascade during the 1960's when recycled uranium (RU) from Savannah River was re-enriched at the facility. The RU was transported to unexpected locations from leaks in the cascade by complex building ventilation patterns. The primary survey tool used for the post remediation and FSS was the Surface Contamination Monitor (SCM) and the associated Survey Information Management System (SIMS

  15. Pertuzumab for the Neoadjuvant Treatment of Early-Stage HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Hazel; Pandor, Abdullah; Thokala, Praveen; Stevens, John W; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Clowes, Mark; Coleman, Robert; Wyld, Lynda

    2018-01-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence invited the manufacturer of pertuzumab (Perjeta ® ; Roche Products Limited) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost- effectiveness for the neoadjuvant treatment of women with high-risk, early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer when used in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy. High-risk women included those with locally advanced (including inflammatory) breast cancer and women with high-risk early-stage breast cancer (classified as T2/3 or N1). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group. This article presents the critical review of the company's submission by the Evidence Review Group and the outcome of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance. The clinical data were mainly taken from a phase II, randomised, open-label, active controlled study (NeoSphere), which reported a significant advantage in terms of pathological complete response rates of pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy, compared with trastuzumab alone with chemotherapy (45.8 vs. 29.0%, p = 0.0141). The company did not make any indirect comparisons. A meta-analysis of 12 neoadjuvant studies investigating the relationship between pathological complete response and event-free survival was used to extrapolate the outcomes reported in the NeoSphere study. A cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA) demonstrated the safety of pertuzumab. The company undertook a model-based economic evaluation of neoadjuvant pertuzumab plus trastuzumab and docetaxel compared with neoadjuvant trastuzumab and docetaxel over a lifetime horizon from the National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective. The probabilistic incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be £20,104 per quality-adjusted life-year gained for pertuzumab

  16. Spatial and temporal activity patterns of the free-living giant mole-rat (Fukomys mechowii, the largest social bathyergid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Lövy

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia, knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels. Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions.

  17. Reconstructing the population history of the largest tribe of India: the Dravidian speaking Gond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Tamang, Rakesh; Pennarun, Erwan; Dubey, Pavan; Rai, Niraj; Upadhyay, Rakesh Kumar; Meena, Rajendra Prasad; Patel, Jayanti R; van Driem, George; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Gond comprise the largest tribal group of India with a population exceeding 12 million. Linguistically, the Gond belong to the Gondi-Manda subgroup of the South Central branch of the Dravidian language family. Ethnographers, anthropologists and linguists entertain mutually incompatible hypotheses on their origin. Genetic studies of these people have thus far suffered from the low resolution of the genetic data or the limited number of samples. Therefore, to gain a more comprehensive view on ancient ancestry and genetic affinities of the Gond with the neighbouring populations speaking Indo-European, Dravidian and Austroasiatic languages, we have studied four geographically distinct groups of Gond using high-resolution data. All the Gond groups share a common ancestry with a certain degree of isolation and differentiation. Our allele frequency and haplotype-based analyses reveal that the Gond share substantial genetic ancestry with the Indian Austroasiatic (ie, Munda) groups, rather than with the other Dravidian groups to whom they are most closely related linguistically.

  18. Clinical sexological practice at the largest outpatient clinic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Kristensen, Ellids

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who...... subsequently began specialized group psychotherapy for CSA sequellae. Clinical interview and questionnaires (Present Sexual Function, Sexual and Body Satisfaction, Symptom Check List 90-R) were used for data collection in a cross sectional study design. Non-parametric analysis, linear and logistic regression...... analysis were applied. Of the women, 63% were unsatisfied with their current sexual life, 39% felt uncomfortable with physical endearments and 71% were unsatisfied with their body. Only 82% had an active sexual life and, of these, 73% reported at least one sexual problem, 48% orgasmic problems and 45...

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North

  20. Triggering of the Largest Deccan Eruptions by the Chicxulub Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M. A.; Alvarez, W.; Self, S.; Karlstrom, L.; Renne, P. R.; Manga, M.; Sprain, C. J.; Smit, J.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Gibson, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Modern constraints on the timing of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction and the Chicxulub impact, together with a particularly voluminous and apparently brief eruptive pulse toward the end of the "main-stage" eruptions of the Deccan continental flood basalt province, suggest that these three events may have occurred within less than about a hundred thousand years of each other. Partial melting induced by the Chicxulub event does not provide an energetically plausible explanation for this remarkable coincidence, and both geochronologic and magnetic-polarity data show that Deccan volcanism was underway well before Chicxulub/K-Pg time. However, historical data show that in some cases eruptions from existing volcanic systems are triggered by earthquakes. Seismic modeling of the ground motion due to the Chicxulub impact suggests that the resulting Mw~11 earthquake could have generated seismic energy densities of at least 0.1-1.0 J/m3 throughout the upper ~200 km of the Earth's mantle, sufficient to trigger volcanic eruptions worldwide based upon comparison with historical examples. Triggering may have been caused by a transient increase in the effective permeability of the existing deep magmatic system beneath the Deccan province, or mantle plume "head." We suggest that the Chicxulub impact triggered the enormous Poladpur, Ambenali, and Mahabaleshwar (Wai sub-group) lava flows that may account for >70% of the Deccan Traps main-stage eruptions. This hypothesis is consistent with independent stratigraphic, geochronologic, geochemical, and tectonic constraints, which combine to indicate that at approximately Chicxulub/K-Pg time a huge pulse of mantle plume-derived magma passed through the crust with little interaction, and erupted to form the most extensive and voluminous lava flows known on Earth. This impact-induced pulse of volcanism may have enhanced the K-Pg extinction event, and/or suppressed post-extinction biotic recovery. High-precision radioisotopic

  1. A general scaling law reveals why the largest animals are not the fastest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Myriam R; Jetz, Walter; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Speed is the fundamental constraint on animal movement, yet there is no general consensus on the determinants of maximum speed itself. Here, we provide a general scaling model of maximum speed with body mass, which holds across locomotion modes, ecosystem types and taxonomic groups. In contrast to traditional power-law scaling, we predict a hump-shaped relationship resulting from a finite acceleration time for animals, which explains why the largest animals are not the fastest. This model is strongly supported by extensive empirical data (474 species, with body masses ranging from 30 μg to 100 tonnes) from terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems. Our approach unravels a fundamental constraint on the upper limit of animal movement, thus enabling a better understanding of realized movement patterns in nature and their multifold ecological consequences.

  2. The relative age effect in the German Football TID Programme: biases in motor performance diagnostics and effects on single motor abilities and skills in groups of selected players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votteler, Andreas; Höner, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the disturbing effects of relative age on the talent identification process in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. The bias in the selection rate was examined via the extent of relative age effects. The bias in motor performance diagnostics was analysed by comparing the motor performance of selected players with normal motor development. The mechanisms underlying the relative age biases in motor performance were examined by modelling the direct and indirect effects of relative age on single motor performance tests for sprint, running agility, dribbling and ball passing and control. Data from 10,130 selected football players from the U12 to U15 age groups were collected in autumn 2010. The birth distribution differed significantly from the reference population with approximately 61% of the players born in the first half of the year. The selection probability was approximately two times higher for players born in the first quarter of the year than for players born in the last quarter. Revised motor performance diagnostics showed better results on average for relatively younger players. Path analysis revealed significant direct and indirect relative age effects for physiologically demanding tests and almost no effects for technically demanding tests. Large sample sizes allowed high resolution in relative age with additional informational content and multivariate modelling of the complex relationships among relative age, physical development and motor performance. The results are discussed on how relative age affects the effectiveness and fairness of talent identification and development processes.

  3. Evaluation of a multiple-encounter in situ simulation for orientation of staff to a new paediatric emergency service: a single-group pretest/post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Michelle; Kinnear, Frances B; Fulbrook, Paul

    2017-10-01

    To assess the utility of a multiple-encounter in-situ (MEIS) simulation as an orientation tool for multidisciplinary staff prior to opening a new paediatric emergency service. A single-group pretest/post-test study was conducted. During the MEIS simulation, multidisciplinary staff with participant or observer roles managed eight children (mannequins) who attended triage with their parent/guardians (clinical facilitators) for a range of emergency presentations (structured scenarios designed to represent the expected range of presentations plus test various clinical pathways/systems). Participants were debriefed to explore clinical, systems and crisis-resource management issues. Participants also completed a pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaire comprising statements about role confidence and orientation adequacy. Pre-test and post-test results were analysed using t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Eighty-nine staff participated in the MEIS simulation, with the majority completing the pre-simulation and post-simulation questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in post-intervention versus pre-intervention Likert scores for role confidence and orientation adequacy (p=0.001 and orientation adequacy. Nearly all scenarios resulted in significant increases in participants' confidence levels. The MEIS simulation was of utility in orientation of staff, at least with respect to self-reported role confidence and orientation adequacy. Its effectiveness in practice or compared with other orientation techniques was not assessed, but it did identify several flaws in planned systems allowing remediation prior to opening.

  4. Discovery of iron group impurity ion spin states in single crystal Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} with strong coupling to whispering gallery photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Farr, Warrick G.; Carmo Carvalho, Natalia do; Creedon, Daniel L.; Le Floch, Jean-Michel [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Probst, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bushev, Pavel [Experimentalphysik, Universität des Saarlandes, D-66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Tobar, Michael E., E-mail: michael.tobar@uwa.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia)

    2015-06-08

    Interaction of Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) with dilute spin ensembles in solids is an interesting paradigm of Hybrid Quantum Systems potentially beneficial for Quantum Signal Processing applications. Unexpected ion transitions are measured in single crystal Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} using WGM spectroscopy with large Zero Field Splittings at 14.7 GHz, 18.4 GHz, and 25.4 GHz, which also feature considerable anisotropy of the g-tensors as well as two inequivalent lattice sites, indicating spins from Iron Group Ion (IGI) impurities. The comparison of undoped and Rare-Earth doped crystals reveal that the IGIs are introduced during co-doping of Eu{sup 3+} or Er{sup 3+} with concentration at much lower levels of order 100 ppb. The strong coupling regime between an ensemble of IGI spins and WGM photons have been demonstrated at 18.4 GHz and near zero field. This approach together with useful optical properties of these ions opens avenues for “spins-in-solids” Quantum Electrodynamics.

  5. Complex biogeographic scenarios revealed in the diversification of the largest woodpecker radiation in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Vázquez-Miranda, Hernán; Hernández-Alonso, Germán; García-Trejo, Erick A; Sánchez-González, Luis A

    2017-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of evolution within Melanerpes, one of the most diverse groups of New World woodpeckers (22-23 lineages), have been complicated due to complex plumages and morphological adaptations. In an attempt to resolve these issues, we obtained sequence data from four nuclear introns and two mitochondrial protein-coding genes for 22 of the 24 currently recognized species in the genus. We performed phylogenetic analyses involving Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, species-tree divergence dating, and biogeographic reconstructions. Tree topologies from the concatenated and species-tree analyses of the mtDNA and nDNA showed broadly similar patterns, with three relatively well-supported groups apparent: (a) the Sphyrapicus clade (four species); (b) the typical Melanerpes clade, which includes temperate and subtropical dry forest black-backed species; and (c) the mostly barred-backed species, here referred to as the "Centurus" clade. The phylogenetic position of Melanerpes superciliaris regarding the rest of Melanerpes is ambiguous as it is recovered as sister to the rest of Melanerpes or as sister to a group including Sphyrapicus+Melanerpes. Our species tree estimations recovered the same well-delimited highly-supported clades. Geographic range evolution (estimated in BioGeoBEARS) was best explained by a DIVALIKE+j model, which includes vicariance, founder effect speciation, and anagenetic dispersal (range expansion) as important processes involved in the diversification of the largest radiation of woodpeckers in the New World. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation of the Deccan and Rajahmundry Trap lavas: Are these the longest and largest lava flows on Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, S.; Jay, A. E.; Widdowson, M.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

    2008-05-01

    We propose that the Rajahmundry Trap lavas, found near the east coast of peninsular India , are remnants of the longest lava flows yet recognized on Earth (˜ 1000 km long). These outlying Deccan-like lavas are shown to belong to the main Deccan Traps. Several previous studies have already suggested this correlation, but have not demonstrated it categorically. The exposed Rajahmundry lavas are interpreted to be the distal parts of two very-large-volume pāhoehoe flow fields, one each from the Ambenali and Mahabaleshwar Formations of the Wai Sub-group in the Deccan Basalt Group. Eruptive conditions required to emplace such long flows are met by plausible values for cooling and eruption rates, and this is shown by applying a model for the formation of inflated pāhoehoe sheet flow lobes. The model predicts flow lobe thicknesses similar to those observed in the Rajahmundry lavas. For the last 400 km of flow, the lava flows were confined to the pre-existing Krishna valley drainage system that existed in the basement beyond the edge of the gradually expanding Deccan lava field, allowing the flows to extend across the subcontinent to the eastern margin where they were emplaced into a littoral and/or shallow marine environment. These lavas and other individual flow fields in the Wai Sub-group may exceed eruptive volumes of 5000 km 3, which would place them amongst the largest magnitude effusive eruptive units yet known. We suggest that the length of flood basalt lava flows on Earth is restricted mainly by the size of land masses and topography. In the case of the Rajahmundry lavas, the flows reached estuaries and the sea, where their advance was perhaps effectively terminated by cooling and/or disruption. However, it is only during large igneous province basaltic volcanism that such huge volumes of lava are erupted in single events, and when the magma supply rate is sufficiently high and maintained to allow the formation of very long lava flows. The Rajahmundry lava

  7. Restricted versus continued standard caloric intake during the management of refeeding syndrome in critically ill adults: a randomised, parallel-group, multicentre, single-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Gordon S; Simpson, Fiona; Heighes, Philippa T; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Chesher, Douglas; Caterson, Ian D; Reade, Michael C; Harrigan, Peter W J

    2015-12-01

    Equipoise exists regarding the benefits of restricting caloric intake during electrolyte replacement for refeeding syndrome, with half of intensive care specialists choosing to continue normal caloric intake. We aimed to assess whether energy restriction affects the duration of critical illness, and other measures of morbidity, compared with standard care. We did a randomised, multicentre, single-blind clinical trial in 13 hospital intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia (11 sites) and New Zealand (two sites). Adult critically ill patients who developed refeeding syndrome within 72 h of commencing nutritional support in the ICU were enrolled and allocated to receive continued standard nutritional support or protocolised caloric restriction. 1:1 computer-based randomisation was done in blocks of variable size, stratified by enrolment serum phosphate concentration (>0·32 mmol/L vs ≤0·32 mmol/L) and body-mass index (BMI; >18 kg/m(2)vs ≤18 kg/m(2)). The primary outcome was the number of days alive after ICU discharge, with 60 day follow-up, in a modified intention-to-treat population of all randomly allocated patients except those mistakenly enrolled. Days alive after ICU discharge was a composite outcome based on ICU length of stay, overall survival time, and mortality. The Refeeding Syndrome Trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR number 12609001043224). Between Dec 3, 2010, and Aug 13, 2014, we enrolled 339 adult critically ill patients: 170 were randomly allocated to continued standard nutritional support and 169 to protocolised caloric restriction. During the 60 day follow-up, the mean number of days alive after ICU discharge in 165 assessable patients in the standard care group was 39·9 (95% CI 36·4-43·7) compared with 44·8 (95% CI 40·9-49·1) in 166 assessable patients in the caloric restriction group (difference 4·9 days, 95% CI -2·3 to 13·6, p=0·19). Nevertheless, protocolised caloric

  8. Frequency Of C3435 Mdr1 And A6896g Cyp3a5 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in an Iranian Population and Comparison with Other Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. AZARPIRA

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:It is well recognized that different patients respond in different ways to medications. The inter-individual variations are greater than the intera- individual variations,a finding consistent with the notion that inheritance is a determinant of drug responses. The recent identification of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters led to the hypothesis that genetic factors may be implicated in this interindividual variation. Single nucleotide polymorphism in common metabolic pathway,cytochrome P450 and common transporter,multidrug resistance-1 gene are two important sites that might involve clinically significant genetic variations. Ethnicity greatly influences these genetic polymorphism distributions. Methods: We studied the inheritance patterns of polymorphisms for MDR1 and CYP3A5 genes in the Iranian population and compared its genotype and allele frequencies with 3 different ethnic groups: Caucasian (United Kingdom, Chinese and Japanese. Results: We found striking differences in the distribution of MDR allelic variants between Iranian,Japanese and Chinese (p<0.02 and similar between the Iranian and Caucasian population.(p=0.06.Almost 50% of Iranian and Caucasian individuals were homozygous carriers of the variant T allele compared with 32% of the Japanese and 43% of the Chinese (p<0.02.More than half of Iranian subjects have at least one T allele,with lower P-gp level in small intestine.We also noted dramatic differences in the CYP3A5 alleles and genotypes distribution between Iranian subjects with other compared populations.99% of Iranian individuals were homozygous carriers of the variant G allele compared with about 70% of the Chinese and Japanese and 19% of the Caucasian population. The G/G genotype has a very low level of active cytochrome P450 enzyme.Conclusion:Our results emphasize the role of ethnicity in interindividual variability of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics

  9. The Efficacy and Tolerability of the Clonidine Transdermal Patch in the Treatment for Children with Tic Disorders: A Prospective, Open, Single-Group, Self-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pan-Pan; Jiang, Li; Li, Xiu-Juan; Hong, Si-Qi; Li, Shuang-Zi; Hu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a clonidine transdermal patch in the treatment of children with tic disorders (TD) and to establish a predictive model for patients. Forty-one patients who met the inclusion criteria entered into 12 weeks of prospective, open, single-group, self-controlled treatment with a clonidine transdermal patch. The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) was employed before therapy (baseline) and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after therapy. (1) The total effect rates of treatment with a clonidine transdermal patch were 29.27, 53.66, and 63.41% at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, respectively. Compared with the baseline, the differences were significant at three different observation periods. (2) Compared to the level of 25% reduction, there were significant decreases in the score-reducing rate of motor tic and total tic severities at 12 weeks. (3) If the disease course was ≤24 months and the motor tic score was tic score was >16, there was an effective rate of 57.1%. If the disease course was >24 months and the clinical classification was chronic TD, there was an effective rate of 62.5%. If the disease course was >24 months and the clinical classification was Tourette's syndrome, 90% of the patients were invalid. (4) The main adverse events were rash, slight dizziness, and headache. (1) When patients were pretreated with a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist that was ineffective or not tolerated well, switching to a clonidine transdermal patch treatment was effective and safe. (2) A clonidine transdermal patch could be a first-line medication for mild and moderate TD cases that are characterized by motor tics.

  10. Feasibility and Safety of a Powered Exoskeleton for Assisted Walking for Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: A Single-Group Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Allan J; Fabian, Michelle; Lad, Dipan; Delgado, Andrew D

    2017-07-01

    To examine the feasibility, safety, and secondary benefit potential of exoskeleton-assisted walking with one device for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Single-group longitudinal preliminary study with 8-week baseline, 8-week intervention, and 4-week follow-up. Outpatient MS clinic, tertiary care hospital. Participants (N=13; age range, 38-62y) were mostly women with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores ranging from 5.5 to 7.0. Exoskeleton-assisted walk training. Primary outcomes were accessibility (enrollment/screen pass), tolerability (completion/dropout), learnability (time to event for standing, walking, and sitting with little or no assistance), acceptability (satisfaction on the device subscale of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology version 2), and safety (event rates standardized to person-time exposure in the powered exoskeleton). Secondary outcomes were walking without the device (timed 25-foot walk test and 6-minute walk test distance), spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale), and health-related quality of life (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement and Information System pain interference and Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression, and positive affect and well-being). The device was accessible to 11 and tolerated by 5 participants. Learnability was moderate, with 5 to 15 sessions required to walk with minimal assistance. Safety was good; the highest adverse event rate was for skin issues at 151 per 1000 hours' exposure. Acceptability ranged from not very satisfied to very satisfied. Participants who walked routinely improved qualitatively on sitting, standing, or walking posture. Two participants improved and 2 worsened on ≥1 quality of life domain. The pattern of spasticity scores may indicate potential benefit. The device appeared feasible and safe for about a third of our sample, for whom routine exoskeleton-assisted walking may offer secondary benefits. Copyright

  11. The effect of a career activity on the students' perception of the nursing profession and their career plan: A single-group experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Arzu Akman; Ilce, Arzu; Can Cicek, Saadet; Yuzden, Ganime Esra; Yigit, Ummuhan

    2016-04-01

    Students' conceptualizations of nursing and their reasons for choosing the profession motivate them and affect their education, work performance and career plans. Nursing educators should support them to plan their careers consciously during their education. The study aimed to investigate the effect of career-planning event for nursing students on their conceptualizations of the nursing profession and their career plans. The study was as single-group experimental study using a pre-test and post-test. The career-planning event was held in the conference hall of the university involved in the current study, and was open to the all students of the nursing school. The sample of the study consisted of 105 students who participated in the "Nursing Career Symposium" held on 27 March 2015. Methods At the event, the importance of career planning and the opportunities of the nursing profession was presented. The data were collected using a questionnaire consisted of two sections including descriptive characteristics and the opinions of the students regarding their career plans and Perception of Nursing Profession Scale. The students completed the first section of the questionnaire before the career event began and the second section of the questionnaire and scale both before and after the event. The participants had positive conceptualizations of the profession. Following a career event, the participants' opinions of professional qualities and professional status as measured through the Perception of Nursing Profession Scale showed a significant increase, and that the event had made an important contribution to their career plans. In the light of these results, it is possible to suggest that such events have an important place during education in that they introduce the nursing profession, and they develop the students' positive thoughts regarding the profession in terms of both course content and teaching methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. DISCOVERY OF THE LARGEST KNOWN LENSED IMAGES FORMED BY A CRITICALLY CONVERGENT LENSING CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom

    2009-01-01

    We identify the largest known lensed images of a single spiral galaxy, lying close to the center of the distant cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 (z = 0.544). These images cover a total area of ≅150 mbox '' and are magnified ≅200 times. Unusually, there is very little image distortion, implying that the central mass distribution is almost uniform over a wide area (r ≅ 200 kpc) with a surface density equal to the critical density for lensing, corresponding to maximal lens magnification. Many fainter multiply lensed galaxies are also uncovered by our model, outlining a very large tangential critical curve, of radius r ≅ 170 kpc, posing a potential challenge for the standard LCDM cosmology. Because of the uniform central mass distribution, a particularly clean measurement of the mass of the brightest cluster galaxy is possible here, for which we infer stars contribute most of the mass within a limiting radius of ≅30 kpc, with a mass-to-light ratio of M/L B ≅ 4.5(M/L) sun . This cluster with its uniform and central mass distribution acts analogously to a regular magnifying glass, converging light without distorting the images, resulting in the most powerful lens yet discovered for accessing the faint high-z universe.

  13. The largest subsea hot tap (future tap flange) at Angel Field, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, Deepak; Drysdale, Colin [T.D. Williamson (United States); Naidoo, Sashie [T.D. Williamson (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    A subsea hot tap was conducted near the gas production platforms in Angel Field, Australia in September 2007 and verified as the largest no. 900 subsea hot tap by Australian authorities. This paper outlines the subsea tapping process, risks and safety issues in deep water environment, including the need to ensure 100% system accuracy and that the machine fluids used to operate the subsea tapping machines were environmentally friendly. The testing phase included land and water testing. In the land tests, issues relating to metal hardness, temperature, pressure and ocean currents that affected machine stability, torque and cutting rate were considered. All preliminary design and testing focused on being able to mount the tapping machine to a pre-existing hot-tap flange and conduct the tapping operation, start to finish, preferably without changing the cutter. The water depth tests took place inside a pressurized, underwater hyperbaric chamber. The equipment repeated the land testing process in conditions duplicating that of the actual project site. Timing was also measured in multiple climatic conditions (except water depth) to obtain an estimation of various scenarios. The field tapping process was conducted without problems in over six hours with a single cutter and without any stalls. (author)

  14. Invertebrate population genetics across Earth's largest habitat: The deep-sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M L; Roterman, C N

    2017-10-01

    Despite the deep sea being the largest habitat on Earth, there are just 77 population genetic studies of invertebrates (115 species) inhabiting non-chemosynthetic ecosystems on the deep-sea floor (below 200 m depth). We review and synthesize the results of these papers. Studies reveal levels of genetic diversity comparable to shallow-water species. Generally, populations at similar depths were well connected over 100s-1,000s km, but studies that sampled across depth ranges reveal population structure at much smaller scales (100s-1,000s m) consistent with isolation by adaptation across environmental gradients, or the existence of physical barriers to connectivity with depth. Few studies were ocean-wide (under 4%), and 48% were Atlantic-focused. There is strong emphasis on megafauna and commercial species with research into meiofauna, "ecosystem engineers" and other ecologically important species lacking. Only nine papers account for ~50% of the planet's surface (depths below 3,500 m). Just two species were studied below 5,000 m, a quarter of Earth's seafloor. Most studies used single-locus mitochondrial genes revealing a common pattern of non-neutrality, consistent with demographic instability or selective sweeps; similar to deep-sea hydrothermal vent fauna. The absence of a clear difference between vent and non-vent could signify that demographic instability is common in the deep sea, or that selective sweeps render single-locus mitochondrial studies demographically uninformative. The number of population genetics studies to date is miniscule in relation to the size of the deep sea. The paucity of studies constrains meta-analyses where broad inferences about deep-sea ecology could be made. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Certolizumab Pegol for Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis Following Inadequate Response to a TNF-α Inhibitor: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Iñigo; Stevenson, Matt; Archer, Rachel; Stevens, John W; Goka, Edward; Clowes, Mark; Scott, David L; Young, Adam

    2017-11-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (UCB Pharma) of certolizumab pegol (CZP; Cimzia ® ) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost effectiveness for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) following inadequate response to a tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNFi). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a detailed review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of the technology, based upon the company's submission to NICE. The clinical effectiveness evidence in the company's submission for CZP was based predominantly on six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of CZP against placebo. The clinical effectiveness review identified no head-to-head evidence on the efficacy of CZP against the comparators within the scope; therefore, the company performed a network meta-analysis (NMA). The company's NMA concluded that CZP had a similar efficacy to that of its comparators. The company submitted a Markov model that assessed the incremental cost effectiveness of CZP versus comparator biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) for the treatment of RA from the perspective of the National Health Service for three decision problems, each of which followed an inadequate response to a TNFi. These were (1) a comparison against rituximab (RTX) in combination with methotrexate (MTX); (2) a comparison against bDMARDs when RTX was contraindicated or withdrawn due to an adverse event; and (3) a comparison against bDMARDs when MTX was contraindicated or withdrawn due to an adverse event. Results from the company's economic evaluation showed that CZP resulted in a similar number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) produced at similar or lower costs compared with comparator b

  16. Rivaroxaban for Preventing Atherothrombotic Events in People with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Elevated Cardiac Biomarkers: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandor, Abdullah; Pollard, Daniel; Chico, Tim; Henderson, Robert; Stevenson, Matt

    2016-05-01

    As part of its Single Technology Appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures rivaroxaban (Xarelto, Bayer) to submit evidence of the clinical and cost effectiveness of rivaroxaban for the prevention of adverse outcomes in patients after the acute management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of the technology, based upon the company's submission to NICE. The evidence was derived mainly from a randomised, double-blind, phase III, placebo-controlled trial of rivaroxaban (either 2.5 or 5 mg twice daily) in patients with recent ACS [unstable angina, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)]. In addition, all patients received antiplatelet therapy [aspirin alone or aspirin and a thienopyridine either as clopidogrel (approximately 99 %) or ticlopidine (approximately 1 %) according to national or local guidelines]. The higher dose of rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily) did not form part of the marketing authorisation. A post hoc subgroup analysis of the licensed patients who had ACS with elevated cardiac biomarkers (that is, patients with STEMI and NSTEMI) without prior stroke or transient ischaemic stroke showed that compared with standard care, the addition of rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) to existing antiplatelet therapy reduced the composite endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, but increased the risk of major bleeding and intracranial haemorrhage. However, there were a number of limitations in the evidence base that warrant caution in its interpretation. In particular, the evidence may be confounded because of the post hoc subgroup

  17. Crizotinib for Untreated Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip; Woolacott, Nerys; Biswas, Mousumi; Mebrahtu, Teumzghi; Harden, Melissa; Hodgson, Robert

    2017-09-01

    As part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal process, the manufacturer of crizotinib submitted evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of crizotinib in untreated anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK-positive) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Crizotinib has previously been assessed by NICE for patients with previously treated ALK-positive NSCLC (TA 296). It was not approved in this previous appraisal, but had been made available through the cancer drugs fund. As part of this new appraisal, the company included a price discount patient access scheme (PAS). The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Centre for Health Economics Technology Appraisal Group at the University of York was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article provides a description of the company's submission and the ERG's review and summarises the resulting NICE guidance issued in August 2016. The main clinical-effectiveness data were derived from a multicentre randomised controlled trial-PROFILE 1014-that compared crizotinib with pemetrexed chemotherapy in combination with carboplatin or cisplatin in patients with untreated non-squamous ALK-positive NSCLC. In the trial, crizotinib demonstrated improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The company's economic model was a three-state 'area under the curve' Markov model. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated to be greater than £50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained (excluding the PAS discount). The ERG assessment of the evidence submitted by the company raised a number of concerns. In terms of the clinical evidence, the OS benefit was highly uncertain due to the cross-over permitted in the trial and the immaturity of the data; only 26% of events had occurred by the data cut-off point. In the economic modelling, the most significant concerns related to the analysis

  18. Cabazitaxel for Hormone-Relapsed Metastatic Prostate Cancer Previously Treated With a Docetaxel-Containing Regimen: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Benjamin; Pandor, Abdullah; Stevenson, Matt; Hamilton, Jean; Chambers, Duncan; Clowes, Mark; Graham, John; Kumar, M Satish

    2017-04-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures cabazitaxel (Jevtana ® , Sanofi, UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of cabazitaxel for treatment of patients with metastatic hormone-relapsed prostate cancer (mHRPC) previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of the technology based upon the company's submission to NICE. Clinical evidence for cabazitaxel was derived from a multinational randomised open-label phase III trial (TROPIC) of cabazitaxel plus prednisone or prednisolone compared with mitoxantrone plus prednisone or prednisolone, which was assumed to represent best supportive care. The NICE final scope identified a further three comparators: abiraterone in combination with prednisone or prednisolone; enzalutamide; and radium-223 dichloride for the subgroup of people with bone metastasis only (no visceral metastasis). The company did not consider radium-223 dichloride to be a relevant comparator. Neither abiraterone nor enzalutamide has been directly compared in a trial with cabazitaxel. Instead, clinical evidence was synthesised within a network meta-analysis (NMA). Results from TROPIC showed that cabazitaxel was associated with a statistically significant improvement in both overall survival and progression-free survival compared with mitoxantrone. Results from a random-effects NMA, as conducted by the company and updated by the ERG, indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the three active treatments for both overall survival and progression-free survival. Utility data were not collected as part of the TROPIC trial, and

  19. First Experience from the World Largest fully commercial Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m.......The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m....

  20. Revisiting the phylogeny of Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Robert Lücking; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Armin Mangold; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Khwanruan Papong; Dries Van der Broeck; Gothamie Weerakoon; H. Thorsten. Lumbsch; NO-VALUE

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated 3-locus molecular phylogeny of tribe Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within subfamily Graphidoideae in the Graphidaceae. Adding 165 newly generated sequences from the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), and the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2), we currently...

  1. Emergency transfusion of patients with unknown blood type with blood group O Rhesus D positive red blood cell concentrates: a prospective, single-centre, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleng, Kathleen; Jenichen, Gregor; Denker, Kathrin; Selleng, Sixten; Müllejans, Bernd; Greinacher, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Emergency patients with unknown blood type usually receive O Rhesus D negative (RhD-) red blood cell concentrates until their blood group is determined to prevent RhD+ related adverse transfusion reactions. As 85% of individuals are RhD+, this consumption of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates contributes to shortages of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates, sometimes forcing transfusion of known RhD- patients with RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. Here we report the outcome of this transfusion policy transfusing all emergency patients with unknown blood type with O RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. In this prospective single-centre observational study done between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, we assessed all consecutive RhD- patients at the University Medicine Greifswald who received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates (emergency patients with unknown blood type; and RhD- patients receiving RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages). No patients were excluded. The primary endpoint was anti-D allo-immunisation at 2 months follow-up or later. Patients were followed up and tested for immunisation against red blood cell antigens using the direct antiglobulin test and an antibody screen every 3-5 days for 4 weeks or until death, or hospital discharge. Surviving patients were screened for development of anti-D antibodies for up to 12 months (at the predefined timepoints 2, 3, 6, and 12 months) after RhD+ red blood cell transfusion. 437 emergency patients, of whom 85 (20%) were RhD-, received 2836 RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. The overall risk of inducing anti-D antibodies (in all 437 recipients) was 17 (4%, 95% CI 2·44-6·14) of 437 (assuming all patients lost to follow-up developed anti-D allo-immunisation). During this period, 110 known RhD- patients received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages. Of these, 29 (26%; 95% CI 19·0-35·3) developed anti-D allo-immunisation (assuming all

  2. Pharmacokinetic comparison of acetaminophen elixir versus suppositories in vaccinated infants (aged 3 to 36 months): a single-dose, open-label, randomized, parallel-group design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walson, Philip D; Halvorsen, Mark; Edge, James; Casavant, Marcel J; Kelley, Michael T

    2013-02-01

    Because of practical problems and ethical concerns, few studies of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of acetaminophen (ACET) in infants have been published. The goal of this study was to compare the PK of an ACET rectal suppository with a commercially available ACET elixir to complete a regulatory obligation to market the suppository. This study was not submitted previously because of numerous obstacles related to both the investigators and the commercial entities associated with the tested product. Thirty infants (age 3-36 months) prescribed ACET for either fever, pain, or postimmunization prophylaxis of fever and discomfort were randomized to receive a single 10- to 15-mg/kg ACET dose either as the rectal suppository or oral elixir. Blood was collected at selected times for up to 8 hours after administration. ACET concentrations were measured by using a validated HPLC method, and PK behavior and bioavailability were compared for the 2 preparations. All 30 infants enrolled were prescribed ACET for postimmunization prophylaxis. PK samples were available in 27 of the 30 enrolled infants. Subject enrollment (completed in January 1995) was rapid (8.3 months) and drawn entirely from a vaccinated infant clinic population. There were no statistically significant differences between the subjects (elixir, n = 12; suppository, n = 15) in either mean (SD) age (10.0 [6.3] vs 12.4 [8.1] months), weight (8.6 [2.3] vs 9.4 [2.4] kg), sex (7 of 12 males vs 7 of 15 males), or racial distribution (5 white, 5 black, and 2 biracial vs 4 white and 11 black) between the 2 dosing groups (oral vs rectal, respectively). The oral and rectal preparations produced similar, rapid peak concentrations (T(max), 1.16 vs 1.17 hours; P = 0.98) and elimination t(½) (1.84 vs 2.10 hours; P = 0.14), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between either C(max) (7.65 vs 5.68 μg/mL) or total drug exposure (AUC(0-∞), 23.36 vs 20.45 μg-h/mL) for the oral versus rectal preparations

  3. Ramucirumab for Treating Advanced Gastric Cancer or Gastro-Oesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkaramikli, Nasuh C; Blommestein, Hedwig M; Riemsma, Rob; Armstrong, Nigel; Clay, Fiona J; Ross, Janine; Worthy, Gill; Severens, Johan; Kleijnen, Jos; Al, Maiwenn J

    2017-12-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures ramucirumab (Cyramza ® , Eli Lilly and Company) to submit evidence of the clinical and cost effectiveness of the drug administered alone (monotherapy) or with paclitaxel (combination therapy) for treating adults with advanced gastric cancer or gastro-oesophageal junction (GC/GOJ) adenocarcinoma that were previously treated with chemotherapy, as part of the Institute's single technology appraisal (STA) process. Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd (KSR), in collaboration with Erasmus University Rotterdam, was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This paper describes the company's submission, the ERG review, and NICE's subsequent decisions. Clinical effectiveness evidence for ramucirumab monotherapy (RAM), compared with best supportive care (BSC), was based on data from the REGARD trial. Clinical effectiveness evidence for ramucirumab combination therapy (RAM + PAC), compared with paclitaxel monotherapy (PAC), was based on data from the RAINBOW trial. In addition, the company undertook a network meta-analysis (NMA) to compare RAM + PAC with BSC and docetaxel. Cost-effectiveness evidence of monotherapy and combination therapy relied on partitioned survival, cost-utility models. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the company was £188,640 (vs BSC) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for monotherapy and £118,209 (vs BSC) per QALY gained for combination therapy. The ERG assessment indicated that the modelling structure represented the course of the disease; however, a few errors were identified and some of the input parameters were challenged. The ERG provided a new base case, with ICERs (vs BSC) of £188,100 (monotherapy) per QALY gained and £129,400 (combination therapy) per QALY gained and conducted additional exploratory analyses. The NICE Appraisal Committee (AC), considered the company's decision problem was in

  4. Avelumab in patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma: a multicentre, single-group, open-label, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Howard L; Russell, Jeffery; Hamid, Omid; Bhatia, Shailender; Terheyden, Patrick; D'Angelo, Sandra P; Shih, Kent C; Lebbé, Céleste; Linette, Gerald P; Milella, Michele; Brownell, Isaac; Lewis, Karl D; Lorch, Jochen H; Chin, Kevin; Mahnke, Lisa; von Heydebreck, Anja; Cuillerot, Jean-Marie; Nghiem, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive skin cancer with poor prognosis in patients with advanced disease. Current standard care uses various cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens, but responses are seldom durable. Tumour oncogenesis is linked to Merkel cell polyomavirus integration and ultraviolet-radiation-induced mutations, providing rationale for treatment with immunotherapy antibodies that target the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway. We assessed treatment with avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, in patients with stage IV Merkel cell carcinoma that had progressed after cytotoxic chemotherapy. In this multicentre, international, prospective, single-group, open-label, phase 2 trial, patients with stage IV chemotherapy-refractory, histologically confirmed Merkel cell carcinoma (aged ≥18 years) were enrolled from 35 cancer treatment centres and academic hospitals in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia. Key eligibility criteria were an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1, measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, adequate haematological, hepatic, and renal function, and immune-competent status (patients with HIV, immunosuppression, haematological malignancies, and previous organ transplantation were excluded). Patient selection was not based on PD-L1 expression or Merkel cell polyomavirus status. Collection of biopsy material or use of archival tissue for these assessments was mandatory. Avelumab was given intravenously at a dose of 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was confirmed objective response (complete response or partial response) assessed according to RECIST version 1.1 by an independent review committee. Safety and clinical activity were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug (the modified intention-to-treat population). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02155647. Between July 25, 2014, and Sept 3, 2015, 88 patients were enrolled and received at

  5. Largest known Mesozoic multituberculate from Eurasia and implications for multituberculate evolution and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Xingliao; Pu, Hanyong; Jia, Songhai; Zhang, Jiming; Lü, Junchang; Meng, Jin

    2015-10-22

    A new multituberculate, Yubaartar zhongyuanensis gen. and sp. nov., is reported from the Upper Cretaceous of Luanchuan County, Henan Province, China. The holotype of the new taxon is a partial skeleton with nearly complete cranium and associated lower jaws with in situ dentitions. The new species is the southern-most record of a Late Cretaceous multituberculate from outside of the Mongolian Plateau in Asia and represents the largest known Mesozoic multituberculate from Eurasia. The new specimen displays some intriguing features previously unknown in multituberculates, such as the first evidence of replacement of the ultimate upper premolar and a unique paleopathological case in Mesozoic mammals in which the animal with a severely broken right tibia could heal and survive in natural condition. The phylogenetic analysis based on craniodental characters places Yubaartar as the immediate outgroup of Taeniolabidoidea, a group consisting of a North American clade and an Asian clade. This relationship indicates at least a faunal interchange of multituberculates before the K-Pg transition. The new evidence further supports the hypothesis that disparity in dental complexity, which relates to animal diets, increased with generic richness and disparity in body size, and that an adaptive shift towards increased herbivory across the K-Pg transitional interval.

  6. The Local Group: Our Galactic Neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on the properties and largest spirals of the Local Group galaxies. Explains the three categories of galaxies, identifies the brightest members of the Local Group, and discusses recent discoveries within the group. (ML)

  7. States characterized by the irreducible single row representations of the U(3) is contained in SO(3) and U(4) is contained in Dsup(3/2)[SO(3)] chains of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, T.S.

    1977-01-01

    A new method is applied in order to obtain the irreducible single row representations of the groups under study. For the case U(3) contained in SO(3) also an explicit realization is constructed. The method has the advantage of being simpler than the previously used ones. (author)

  8. Pegylated Liposomal Irinotecan Hydrochloride Trihydrate for Treating Pancreatic Cancer After Gemcitabine: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Nigel; Abdulla, Ahmed; Bagust, Adrian; Beale, Sophie; Richardson, Marty; Stainthorpe, Angela; Boland, Angela; Kotas, Eleanor; McEntee, Joanne; Palmer, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Shire Pharmaceuticals) of pegylated liposomal irinotecan hydrochloride trihydrate (liposomal irinotecan) to submit clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence for its use in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and folic acid/leucovorin (LV) for treating patients with pancreatic cancer following prior treatment with gemcitabine as part of the institute's Single Technology Appraisal process. The Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group at the University of Liverpool was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article presents a summary of the company's evidence, the ERG review and the resulting NICE guidance (TA440), issued on 26 April 2017. Clinical evidence for liposomal irinotecan + 5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV was derived from 236 patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer in the multinational, open-label, randomised controlled NAPOLI-1 trial. Results from analyses of progression-free survival and overall survival showed statistically significant improvements for patients treated with liposomal irinotecan + 5-FU/LV compared with those treated with 5-FU/LV. However, 5-FU/LV alone is rarely used in National Health Service clinical practice for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer previously treated with gemcitabine. The company, ERG and Appraisal Committee (AC) all agreed that oxaliplatin + 5-FU/LV is the most commonly used treatment. Oxaliplatin + 5-FU/LV was compared with 5-FU/LV in two trials identified by the company. However, the company and the ERG both considered attempts to compare the efficacy of liposomal irinotecan + 5-FU/LV with oxaliplatin + 5-FU/LV to be methodologically flawed; not only was there heterogeneity between trials and their populations but also the proportional hazards assumption required to conduct a robust indirect treatment comparison (ITC) was violated. Nonetheless, data derived from an ITC were used to inform the

  9. Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin J; Shultz, Allison J; Title, Pascal O; Mason, Nicholas A; Barker, F Keith; Klicka, John; Lanyon, Scott M; Lovette, Irby J

    2014-06-01

    Thraupidae is the second largest family of birds and represents about 4% of all avian species and 12% of the Neotropical avifauna. Species in this family display a wide range of plumage colors and patterns, foraging behaviors, vocalizations, ecotypes, and habitat preferences. The lack of a complete phylogeny for tanagers has hindered the study of this evolutionary diversity. Here, we present a comprehensive, species-level phylogeny for tanagers using six molecular markers. Our analyses identified 13 major clades of tanagers that we designate as subfamilies. In addition, two species are recognized as distinct branches on the tanager tree. Our topologies disagree in many places with previous estimates of relationships within tanagers, and many long-recognized genera are not monophyletic in our analyses. Our trees identify several cases of convergent evolution in plumage ornaments and bill morphology, and two cases of social mimicry. The phylogeny produced by this study provides a robust framework for studying macroevolutionary patterns and character evolution. We use our new phylogeny to study diversification processes, and find that tanagers show a background model of exponentially declining diversification rates. Thus, the evolution of tanagers began with an initial burst of diversification followed by a rate slowdown. In addition to this background model, two later, clade-specific rate shifts are supported, one increase for Darwin's finches and another increase for some species of Sporophila. The rate of diversification within these two groups is exceptional, even when compared to the overall rapid rate of diversification found within tanagers. This study provides the first robust assessment of diversification rates for the Darwin's finches in the context of the larger group within which they evolved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks

    KAUST Repository

    Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Serrano, Oscar; Masqué , Pere; Lavery, P. S.; Mueller, U.; Kendrick, G. A.; Rozaimi, M.; Esteban, A.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Marbà , N.; Mateo, M. A.; Murray, K.; Rule, M. J.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass

  11. New Chicago-Indiana computer network will handle dataflow from world's largest scientific experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Massive quantities of data will soon begin flowing from the largest scientific instrument ever built into an international netword of computer centers, including one operated jointly by the University of Chicago and Indiana University." (1,5 page)

  12. Lagisza, world's largest CFB boiler, begins commercial operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuortimo, K. [Foster Wheeler, Varkaus (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Early operating experience with the Lagisza circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler in Poland - the world's largest such boiler to date, and also the first one with supercritical steam conditions - has been positive. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Analytic approximation to the largest eigenvalue distribution of a white Wishart matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vlok, JD

    2012-08-14

    Full Text Available offers largely simplified computation and provides statistics such as the mean value and region of support of the largest eigenvalue distribution. Numeric results from the literature are compared with the approximation and Monte Carlo simulation results...

  14. Evaluating the efficacy of the current diagnosis-related group reimbursement system for laparoscopic appendectomy at a single institute in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Ri Na; Chung, Chul-Woon; Kim, Jong-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The diagnosis-related group (DRG) system has been adapted to reduce overall medical costs by grouping and classifying relatively homogenous patients based on similar resource consumption patterns in the treatment. However, despite its wide range of disease manifestation from early inflammation to severe peritonitis, acute appendicitis is included in the DRG system. Responding to a need to assess the DRG system for patients diagnosed with appendicitis, this study evaluates the efficacy...

  15. Daily electronic self-monitoring in bipolar disorder using smartphones - the MONARCA I trial: a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind, parallel group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, M; Frost, M; Ritz, C; Christensen, E M; Jacoby, A S; Mikkelsen, R L; Knorr, U; Bardram, J E; Vinberg, M; Kessing, L V

    2015-10-01

    The number of studies on electronic self-monitoring in affective disorder and other psychiatric disorders is increasing and indicates high patient acceptance and adherence. Nevertheless, the effect of electronic self-monitoring in patients with bipolar disorder has never been investigated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The objective of this trial was to investigate in a RCT whether the use of daily electronic self-monitoring using smartphones reduces depressive and manic symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. A total of 78 patients with bipolar disorder according to ICD-10 criteria, aged 18-60 years, and with 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores ≤17 were randomized to the use of a smartphone for daily self-monitoring including a clinical feedback loop (the intervention group) or to the use of a smartphone for normal communicative purposes (the control group) for 6 months. The primary outcomes were differences in depressive and manic symptoms measured using HAMD-17 and YMRS, respectively, between the intervention and control groups. Intention-to-treat analyses using linear mixed models showed no significant effects of daily self-monitoring using smartphones on depressive as well as manic symptoms. There was a tendency towards more sustained depressive symptoms in the intervention group (B = 2.02, 95% confidence interval -0.13 to 4.17, p = 0.066). Sub-group analysis among patients without mixed symptoms and patients with presence of depressive and manic symptoms showed significantly more depressive symptoms and fewer manic symptoms during the trial period in the intervention group. These results highlight that electronic self-monitoring, although intuitive and appealing, needs critical consideration and further clarification before it is implemented as a clinical tool.

  16. Single-Cell Genome and Group-Specific dsrAB Sequencing Implicate Marine Members of the Class Dehalococcoidia (Phylum Chloroflexi) in Sulfur Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasmund, Kenneth; Cooper, Myriel; Schreiber, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The marine subsurface sediment biosphere is widely inhabited by bacteria affiliated with the class Dehalococcoidia (DEH), phylum Chloroflexi, and yet little is known regarding their metabolisms. In this report, genomic content from a single DEH cell (DEH-C11) with a 16S rRNA gene that was affilia......The marine subsurface sediment biosphere is widely inhabited by bacteria affiliated with the class Dehalococcoidia (DEH), phylum Chloroflexi, and yet little is known regarding their metabolisms. In this report, genomic content from a single DEH cell (DEH-C11) with a 16S rRNA gene...... that was affiliated with a diverse cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences prevalent in marine sediments was obtained from sediments of Aarhus Bay, Denmark. The distinctive gene content of this cell suggests metabolic characteristics that differ from those of known DEH and Chloroflexi. The presence of genes encoding...... dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) suggests that DEH could respire oxidized sulfur compounds, although Chloroflexi have never been implicated in this mode of sulfur cycling. Using long-range PCR assays targeting DEH dsr loci, dsrAB genes were amplified and sequenced from various marine sediments. Many...

  17. Geochemical characterization of the largest upland lake of the Brazilian Amazonia: Impact of provenance and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir Martins; da Silva, Marcio Sousa; Nascimento, Wilson, Júnior; Powell, Mike A.; Reis, Luiza Santos; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro

    2017-12-01

    Lake Três Irmãs (LTI), the largest upland lake in the Brazilian Amazonia, located in Serra dos Carajás, was characterized using multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry (δ13C and δ15N) to understand the significance of organic and inorganic sources, weathering and sedimentary processes on the distribution of elements in lake bottom (surficial) sediments. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from sedimentary organic matter suggest C3 terrestrial plants (forests > canga vegetation), macrophytes and freshwater DOC as the main sources. Sediments are depleted in most of the major oxides (except Fe2O3 and P2O5) when compared to upper continental crust (UCC) and their spatial distribution is highly influenced by catchment lithology. Principal Component Analysis revealed that most of the trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Y, V, Cr, Ga, Co, Ni) and REEs are closely correlated with Al and Ti (PC1; Group-1), so their redistribution is less influenced by post-depositional process. This is due to their relative immobility and being hosted by Al-bearing minerals during laterization. High Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mafic Index of Alteration (MIA) and Index of Laterization (IOL) values indicate intense chemical weathering at source areas, but the weathering transformation was better quantified by IOL. A-CN-K plot along with elemental ratios (Al/K, Ti/K, Ti/Zr, La/Al, Cr/Th, Co/Th, La/Sm, La/Gd, Zr/Y, and Eu/Eu*) as well as chondrite-normalized REE patterns show that the detritic sediments are mainly sourced from ferruginous laterites and soils in the catchment, which may have characteristics similar to mafic rocks.

  18. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 94, Group ESH-19. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Childs, M.; Lyons, C.R.; Coriz, F.

    1996-08-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY94 to characterize possible contaminant movement out of Area G through surface-water and sediment runoff. These samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. Ten metals were also analyzed on selected soils using analytical laboratory techniques. All radiochemical data are compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and reported in LA-12986. Baseline concentrations for future disposal operations were established for metals and radionuclides by a sampling program in the proposed Area G Expansion Area. Considering the amount of radioactive waste that has been disposed at Area G, there is evidence of only low concentrations of radionuclides on perimeter surface soils. Consequently, little radioactivity is leaving the confines of Area G via the surface water runoff pathway

  19. Controlling the Morphology of BDTT-DPP-Based Small Molecules via End-Group Functionalization for Highly Efficient Single and Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jong Baek; Yang, Hoichang; Jung, In Hwan; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Kim, Dongwook; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2015-11-04

    A series of narrow-band gap, π-conjugated small molecules based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) electron acceptor units coupled with alkylthienyl-substituted-benzodithiophene (BDTT) electron donors were designed and synthesized for use as donor materials in solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells. In particular, by end-group functionalization of the small molecules with fluorine derivatives, the nanoscale morphologies of the photoactive layers of the photovoltaic cells were successfully controlled. The influences of different fluorine-based end-groups on the optoelectronic and morphological properties, carrier mobilities, and the photovoltaic performances of these materials were investigated. A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.00% under simulated solar light (AM 1.5G) illumination has been achieved for organic photovoltaic cells based on a small-molecule bulk heterojunction system consisting of a trifluoromethylbenzene (CF3) end-group-containing oligomer (BDTT-(DPP)2-CF3) as the donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the acceptor. As a result, the introduction of CF3 end-groups has been found to enhance both the short circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor (FF). A tandem photovoltaic device comprising an inverted BDTT-(DPP)2-CF3:PC71BM cell and a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):indene-C60-bisadduct (IC60BA)-based cell as the top and bottom cell components, respectively, showed a maximum PCE of 8.30%. These results provide valuable guidelines for the rational design of conjugated small molecules for applications in high-performance organic photovoltaic cells. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the design of fluorine-functionalized BDTT-DPP-based small molecules, which have been shown to be a viable candidate for use in inverted tandem cells.

  20. Evaluation of world's largest social welfare scheme: An assessment using non-parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet

    2016-08-01

    Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the world's largest social welfare scheme in India for the poverty alleviation through rural employment generation. This paper aims to evaluate and rank the performance of the states in India under MGNREGA scheme. A non-parametric approach, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to calculate the overall technical, pure technical, and scale efficiencies of states in India. The sample data is drawn from the annual official reports published by the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Based on three selected input parameters (expenditure indicators) and five output parameters (employment generation indicators), I apply both input and output oriented DEA models to estimate how well the states utilize their resources and generate outputs during the financial year 2013-14. The relative performance evaluation has been made under the assumption of constant returns and also under variable returns to scale to assess the impact of scale on performance. The results indicate that the main source of inefficiency is both technical and managerial practices adopted. 11 states are overall technically efficient and operate at the optimum scale whereas 18 states are pure technical or managerially efficient. It has been found that for some states it necessary to alter scheme size to perform at par with the best performing states. For inefficient states optimal input and output targets along with the resource savings and output gains are calculated. Analysis shows that if all inefficient states operate at optimal input and output levels, on an average 17.89% of total expenditure and a total amount of $780million could have been saved in a single year. Most of the inefficient states perform poorly when it comes to the participation of women and disadvantaged sections (SC&ST) in the scheme. In order to catch up with the performance of best performing states, inefficient states on an average need to enhance

  1. Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World's Largest Freshwater Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N. Cable

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most plastic pollution originates on land. As such, freshwater bodies serve as conduits for the transport of plastic litter to the ocean. Understanding the concentrations and fluxes of plastic litter in freshwater ecosystems is critical to our understanding of the global plastic litter budget and underpins the success of future management strategies. We conducted a replicated field survey of surface plastic concentrations in four lakes in the North American Great Lakes system, the largest contiguous freshwater system on the planet. We then modeled plastic transport to resolve spatial and temporal variability of plastic distribution in one of the Great Lakes, Lake Erie. Triplicate surface samples were collected at 38 stations in mid-summer of 2014. Plastic particles >106 μm in size were quantified. Concentrations were highest near populated urban areas and their water infrastructure. In the highest concentration trawl, nearly 2 million fragments km−2 were found in the Detroit River—dwarfing previous reports of Great Lakes plastic abundances by over 4-fold. Yet, the accuracy of single trawl counts was challenged: within-station plastic abundances varied 0- to 3-fold between replicate trawls. In the smallest size class (106–1,000 μm, false positive rates of 12–24% were determined analytically for plastic vs. non-plastic, while false negative rates averaged ~18%. Though predicted to form in summer by the existing Lake Erie circulation model, our transport model did not predict a permanent surface “Lake Erie Garbage Patch” in its central basin—a trend supported by field survey data. Rather, general eastward transport with recirculation in the major basins was predicted. Further, modeled plastic residence times were drastically influenced by plastic buoyancy. Neutrally buoyant plastics—those with the same density as the ambient water—were flushed several times slower than plastics floating at the water's surface and exceeded the

  2. The Multivariate Largest Lyapunov Exponent as an Age-Related Metric of Quiet Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest Lyapunov exponent has been researched as a metric of the balance ability during human quiet standing. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of this measurement method are not good enough for clinical use. The present research proposes a metric of the human body’s standing balance ability based on the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent which can quantify the human standing balance. The dynamic multivariate time series of ankle, knee, and hip were measured by multiple electrical goniometers. Thirty-six normal people of different ages participated in the test. With acquired data, the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent was calculated. Finally, the results of the proposed approach were analysed and compared with the traditional method, for which the largest Lyapunov exponent and power spectral density from the centre of pressure were also calculated. The following conclusions can be obtained. The multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent has a higher degree of differentiation in differentiating balance in eyes-closed conditions. The MLLE value reflects the overall coordination between multisegment movements. Individuals of different ages can be distinguished by their MLLE values. The standing stability of human is reduced with the increment of age.

  3. Identifying the node spreading influence with largest k-core values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Dong, Wen-Zhao; Tang, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the nodes with largest spreading influence of complex networks is one of the most promising domains. By taking into account the neighbors' k-core values, we present an improved neighbors' k-core (INK) method which is the sum of the neighbors' k-core values with a tunable parameter α to evaluate the node spreading influence with largest k-core values. Comparing with the Susceptible–Infected–Recovered (SIR) results for four real networks, the INK method could identify the node spreading influence with largest k-core values more accurately than the ones generated by the degree k, closeness C, betweenness B and coreness centrality method. - Highlights: • We present an improved neighbors' k-core (INK) method to evaluate the node spreading influence with largest k-core values. • The INK method could identify the node spreading influence with largest k-core values more accurately. • Kendall's tau τ of INK method with α=1 are highly identical to rank the node influence

  4. Rewriting the Landform History of One of Africa's Three Largest Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    the trunk river controlling size. 2. These perspectives were successfully applied to identify the largest megafan in the group (Cubango), a fan that was sufficiently overprinted by dunes and dry lakelets not to be detectable remotely. Such undertsanding can probably be applied on Mars, where Earth experience suggests megafans ought to exist. 3. Sweep angles of rivers on megafans drastically change the hydrology in some subbasins: when the Cubango and Kunene rivers were oriented to the Etosha Pan, it was probably a permanent water body. Now that the rivers are oriented away from the basin, 93 percent of the discharge area from the pan's northerly (main) source area is gone. 4. Biotic contact between major river systems was probably controlled by megafans situated on divides: various fish species that originated in the Congo basin are now found in the Upper Zambezi R., and vice versa, apparently because of river switching behavior on the Cassai megafan that has mediated migrations both to the south and the north.

  5. First principles study of electronic and structural properties of single walled zigzag boron nitride nanotubes doped with the elements of group IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Ali; jalalinejad, Amir; Bagheri, Mosahhar; Amiri, Masoud

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, structural and electronic properties and stability of (10, 0) born nitride nanotube (BNNT) are considered within density functional theory by doping group IV elements of the periodic table. The HOMO-LUMO gap has been strongly modified and treated a dual manner by choosing B or N sites for dopant atoms. Formation energy calculation shows that B site doping is more stable than N site doping. Results also show that all dopants turn the pristine BNNT into a p-type semiconductor except for carbon-doped BNNT at B site.

  6. Outcomes of Total Parathyroidectomy with Autotransplantation versus Subtotal Parathyroidectomy with Routine Addition of Thymectomy to both Groups: Single Center Experience of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kaan Parsak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common acquired disorder seen in chronic renal failure. It may result in potentially serious complications including metabolic bone diseases, severe atherosclerosis and undesirable cardiovascular events. Parathyroidectomy is required in about 20% of patients after 3-10 years of dialysis and in up to 40% after 20 years. Aims: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism who had undergone total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation and thymectomy or subtotal parathyroidectomy with thymectomy by the same surgical team during the study period. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: Clinical data of 50 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery for secondary hyperparathyroidism between 2003 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two subgroups of total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation or subtotal parathyroidectomy. Thymectomy was routinely performed for both groups. Short term outcome parameters included intact parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels. Bone pain, bone fractures, persistent or recurrent disease were included in long term outcome parameters. Results: The mean duration of dialysis was eight years. The mean ionized calcium levels dropped significantly in the total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation group (p=0.016. No serious postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative intravenous calcium supplementation was required in four patients in the total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation group (total PTX+AT and in three patients in the subtotal parathyroidectomy group (subtotal PTX. Postoperatively, all patients received oral calcium carbonate and calcitriol. The length of average hospital stay was 5 (3-10 days. Including nine patients who underwent successful renal transplantation pre-operative bone

  7. Abiraterone Acetate for the Treatment of Chemotherapy-Naïve Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of an NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Bram L T; Riemsma, Rob; Tomini, Florian; van Asselt, Thea; Deshpande, Sohan; Duffy, Steven; Armstrong, Nigel; Severens, Johan L; Kleijnen, Jos; Joore, Manuela A

    2017-02-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Janssen, the company manufacturing abiraterone acetate (AA; tradename Zytiga ® ), to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of AA in combination with prednisone/prednisolone (AAP) compared with watchful waiting (i.e. best supportive care [BSC]) for chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd (KSR), in collaboration with Maastricht University Medical Center, was commissioned as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This paper presents a summary of the company submission (CS), the ERG report, subsequent addenda, and the development of the NICE guidance for the use of this drug in England and Wales by the Appraisal Committee (AC). The ERG produced a critical review of the clinical and cost effectiveness of AAP based on the CS. An important question in this appraisal was, according to the ERG, whether AAP followed by docetaxel is more effective than BSC followed by docetaxel. In the COU-AA-302 trial, 239 of 546 (43.8 %) AAP patients and 304 of 542 (56.1 %) BSC patients received docetaxel as subsequent therapy, following AA or placebo. The results for this specific group of patients were not presented in the CS; therefore, the ERG asked the company to provide these data in the clarification letter; however, these data were presented as commercial-in-confidence and cannot therefore be reported here. The ERG's critical assessment of the company's economic evaluation highlighted a number of concerns, including (a) not using the intention-to-treat (ITT) population; (b) inconsistencies in estimating prediction equations; (c) not fully incorporating the impact of adverse events; (d) incorrectly incorporating the new patient access scheme (PAS); and (e) the assumption that AA non-compliance leads to recoverable drug costs. Although some of these issues were adjusted in the ERG base case, the ERG could not estimate

  8. Single Particle Entropy in Heated Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Chankova, R.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Syed, N. U. H.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal motion of single particles represents the largest contribution to level density (or entropy) in atomic nuclei. The concept of single particle entropy is presented and shown to be an approximate extensive (additive) quantity for mid-shell nuclei. A few applications of single particle entropy are demonstrated

  9. What caused the UK's largest common dolphin (Delphinus delphis mass stranding event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Jepson

    Full Text Available On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26 but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5 and mild otitis media (1/5 in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26, local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26 suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06:30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June. Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes. International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a "two-stage process" where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3-4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE.

  10. Helicobacter pylori virulence genes in the five largest islands of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Makmun, Dadang; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Zein, Lukman Hakim; Zulkhairi; Akil, Fardah; Uswan, Willi Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Adi, Pangestu; Utari, Amanda Pitarini; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear whether the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia is due to low infection rates only or is also related to low Helicobacter pylori pathogenicity. We collected H. pylori strains from the five largest islands in Indonesia and evaluated genetic virulence factors. The genotypes of H. pylori virulence factors were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing. Histological severity of the gastric mucosa was classified into 4 grades, according to the updated Sydney system. A total of 44 strains were analyzed. Forty-three (97.7 %) were cagA-positive: 26 (60.5 %) were East-Asian-type-cagA, 9 (20.9 %) were Western-type-cagA, and 8 (18.6 %) were novel ABB-type, most of which were obtained from Papuan. EPIYT sequences were more prevalent than EPIYA sequences (P = 0.01) in the EPIYA-B motif of all types of cagA. The majority of cagA-positive strains (48.8 %, 21/43) had a 6-bp deletion in the first pre-EPIYA region. Subjects infected with East-Asian-type-cagA strains with a 6-bp deletion had significantly lower inflammation and atrophy scores in the corpus than those infected with Western-type-cagA strains (both P = 0.02). In total, 70.4 % of strains possessed the vacA s1m1 genotype and 29.5 % were m2. All strains from peptic ulcer patients were of the iceA1 genotype, which occurred at a significantly higher proportion in peptic ulcer patients than that in gastritis patients (55.3 %, P = 0.04). The double positive genotype of jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT was predominant (28/44, 63.6 %), and subjects infected with this type had significantly higher inflammation scores in the corpus than those with the jhp0562 negative/β-(1,3)galT positive genotype (mean [median]; 1.43 [1] vs. 0.83 [1], P = 0.04). There were significant differences in cagA and pre-EPIYA cagA type, oipA status, and jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT type among different ethnic groups (P dupA negative or short type dupA, and the jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT double positive genotype.

  11. What Caused the UK's Largest Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Mass Stranding Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Robert; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Barnett, James; Brownlow, Andrew; Brownell Jr., Robert L.; Clare, Frances C.; Davison, Nick; Law, Robin J.; Loveridge, Jan; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Morris, Steven; Murphy, Sinéad; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Pinn, Eunice; Seibel, Henrike; Siebert, Ursula; Sierra, Eva; Simpson, Victor; Tasker, Mark L.; Tregenza, Nick; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE) of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26) but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5) and mild otitis media (1/5) in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26), local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26) suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06∶30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June). Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes). International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars) occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a “two-stage process” where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3–4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE. PMID

  12. CERN: Digital image analysis in the world's largest research center for particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Those interested in researching into the smallest building blocks that matter is made up of need the largest instruments. CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland is where the most powerful circular accelerator in the world is being built: the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for proton collisions. It has a circumference of 26.7 km (4 pages)

  13. Mass balance of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers - 2000–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howat, I.M.; Ahn, Y.; Joughin, I.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    Acceleration of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers, Helheim, Kangerdlugssuaq and Jakobshavn Isbræ, accounted for a substantial portion of the ice sheet's mass loss over the past decade. Rapid changes in their discharge, however, make their cumulative mass-change uncertain. We derive monthly

  14. Key U.S.-built part fails during testing for world's largest particle collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists are scrambling to redesign a key U.S.-built part that broke "with a loud bang and a cloud of dust" during a high-pressure test for the world's largest particle physics collider that is supposed to start up in November, officials sais Tuesday." (1,5 page)

  15. CERN, World's largest particle physics lab, selects Progress SonicMQ

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "Progress Software Corporation (NADAQ: PRGS), a global supplier of application insfrastructure software used to develop, deploy, integrate and manage business applications, today announced that CERN the world's largest physis laboratory and particle accelerator, has chosen Progress® SonicMQ® for mission-critical message delivery." (1 page)

  16. Phase space reconstruction and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent for gait kinematic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josiński, Henryk [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Świtoński, Adam [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    The authors describe an example of application of nonlinear time series analysis directed at identifying the presence of deterministic chaos in human motion data by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent. The method was previously verified on the basis of a time series constructed from the numerical solutions of both the Lorenz and the Rössler nonlinear dynamical systems.

  17. Predicting Traffic Flow in Local Area Networks by the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of network traffic are complex and nonlinear, and chaotic behaviors and their prediction, which play an important role in local area networks (LANs, are studied in detail, using the largest Lyapunov exponent. With the introduction of phase space reconstruction based on the time sequence, the high-dimensional traffic is projected onto the low dimension reconstructed phase space, and a reduced dynamic system is obtained from the dynamic system viewpoint. Then, a numerical method for computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of the low-dimensional dynamic system is presented. Further, the longest predictable time, which is related to chaotic behaviors in the system, is studied using the largest Lyapunov exponent, and the Wolf method is used to predict the evolution of the traffic in a local area network by both Dot and Interval predictions, and a reliable result is obtained by the presented method. As the conclusion, the results show that the largest Lyapunov exponent can be used to describe the sensitivity of the trajectory in the reconstructed phase space to the initial values. Moreover, Dot Prediction can effectively predict the flow burst. The numerical simulation also shows that the presented method is feasible and efficient for predicting the complex dynamic behaviors in LAN traffic, especially for congestion and attack in networks, which are the main two complex phenomena behaving as chaos in networks.

  18. World's third-largest producer of nuclear power. Japan in need of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Japan is the third largest oil consumer in the world behind the United States and China, and the second largest net importer of oil. Japan boasts one of the largest economies in the world. The country continues to experience a moderate economic recovery that began in 2003, following a decade of economic stagnation. Japan's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 2.5% in 2005 and 2.3% in 2004. The modest upturn over the last few years reflects higher business confidence in Japan, a surge in export demand led by exports to China, and robust consumer spending. Unemployment in Japan fell to 4.4% in 2005, down from an early 2003 peak of 5.5%. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves, and in 2005 was the second largest net importer of crude oil in the world. Despite the country's dearth of hydrocarbon resources, Japanese companies have actively pursued upstream oil and natural gas projects overseas. Japan remains one of the major exporters of energy-sector capital equipment, and Japanese companies provide engineering, construction, and project management services for energy projects. (orig.)

  19. Distribution of the Largest Eigenvalues of the Levi-Smirnov Ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, W.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the distribution of the k-th largest eigenvalue in the random matrix Levi - Smirnov Ensemble (LSE), using the spectral dualism between LSE and chiral Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE). Then we reconstruct universal spectral oscillations and we investigate an asymptotic behavior of the spectral distribution. (author)

  20. A single-blind study of the efficacy and safety of intravenous granisetron compared with alizapride plus dexamethasone in the prophylaxis and control of emesis in patients receiving 5-day cytostatic therapy. The Granisetron Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, K

    1992-01-01

    200 cancer patients who were due to receive fractionated chemotherapy (cisplatin greater than or equal to 15, ifosfamide greater than or equal to 1.2 or etoposide greater than or equal to 120, all mg/m2 per day) for 5 days, entered a multicentre study. Patients were randomised single-blind to receive either prophylactic intravenous granisetron (40 micrograms/kg) or alizapride (4 mg/kg followed by 4 mg/kg at 4 and 8 h post-treatment) plus dexamethasone 8 mg. Granistron was superior to the combination in preventing nausea and vomiting (54% vs. 43% complete responders). The differences were in the cisplatin-treated group. The time to first episode of moderate to severe nausea was significantly longer in the granisetron group (P = 0.03). Dosing with granisetron was more simple, with over 85% of patients requiring only a single prophylactic dose. Fewer patients receiving granisetron experienced adverse events (48% vs. 62%, P = 0.047). The frequency of constipation was, as expected, significantly higher in the granisetron group. Extrapyramidal effects, which were not noted by any granisetron patient, occurred in 5.3% of comparator patients.

  1. Short- and long-term performance of a tripolar down-sized single lead for implantable cardioverter defibrillator treatment: a randomized prospective European multicenter study. European Endotak DSP Investigator Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstedt, B; Kennergren, C; Schaumann, A; Herse, B; Neuzner, J

    1998-11-01

    A new, thinner (10 Fr) and more flexible, single-pass transvenous endocardial ICD lead, Endotak DSP, was compared with a conventional lead, Endotak C, as a control in a prospective randomized multicenter study in combination with a nonactive can ICD. A total of 123 patients were enrolled, 55 of whom received a down-sized DSP lead. Lead-alone configuration was successfully implanted in 95% of the DSP patients vs 88% in the control group. The mean defibrillation threshold (DFT) was determined by means of a step-down protocol, and was identical in the two groups, 10.5 +/- 4.8 J in the DSP group versus 10.5 +/- 4.8 J in the control group. At implantation, the DSP mean pacing threshold was lower, 0.51 +/- 0.18 V versus 0.62 +/- 0.35 V (p < 0.05) in the control group, and the mean pacing impedance higher, 594 +/- 110 omega vs 523 +/- 135 omega (p < 0.05). During the follow-up period, the statistically significant difference in thresholds disappeared, while the difference in impedance remained. Tachyarrhythmia treatment by shock or antitachycardia pacing (ATP) was delivered in 53% and 41%, respectively, of the patients with a 100% success rate. In the DSP group, all 28 episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation were converted by the first shock as compared to 57 of 69 episodes (83%) in the control group (p < 0.05). Monomorphic ventricular tachycardias were terminated by ATP alone in 96% versus 94%. Lead related problems were minor and observed in 5% and 7%, respectively. In summary, both leads were safe and efficacious in the detection and treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. There were no differences between the DSP and control groups regarding short- or long-term lead related complications.

  2. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Phillip M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two components to the clinical efficacy of pediculicides: (i efficacy against the crawling-stages (lousicidal efficacy; and (ii efficacy against the eggs (ovicidal efficacy. Lousicidal efficacy and ovicidal efficacy are confounded in clinical trials. Here we report on a trial that was specially designed to rank the clinical ovicidal efficacy of pediculicides. Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length. Method Subjects with at least 20 live eggs of Pediculus capitis (head lice were randomised to one of three treatment-groups: a melaleuca oil (commonly called tea tree oil and lavender oil pediculicide (TTO/LO; a eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (EO/LTTO; or a "suffocation" pediculicide. Pre-treatment: 10 to 22 live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the live egg attached, before the treatment (total of 1,062 eggs. Treatment: The subjects then received a single treatment of one of the three pediculicides, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-treatment: 10 to 41 treated live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the egg attached (total of 1,183 eggs. Eggs were incubated for 14 days. The proportion of eggs that had hatched after 14 days in the pre-treatment group was compared with the proportion of eggs that hatched in the post-treatment group. The primary outcome measure was % ovicidal efficacy for each of the three pediculicides. Results 722 subjects were examined for the presence of eggs of head lice. 92 of these subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to: the "suffocation" pediculicide (n = 31; the melaleuca oil and lavender oil pediculicide (n = 31; and the eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (n = 30 subjects. The group treated with eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil had an ovicidal efficacy of 3.3% (SD

  3. Differential genome-wide gene expression profiling of bovine largest and second-largest follicles: identification of genes associated with growth of dominant follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Toru

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine follicular development is regulated by numerous molecular mechanisms and biological pathways. In this study, we tried to identify differentially expressed genes between largest (F1 and second-largest follicles (F2, and classify them by global gene expression profiling using a combination of microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR analysis. The follicular status of F1 and F2 were further evaluated in terms of healthy and atretic conditions by investigating mRNA localization of identified genes. Methods Global gene expression profiles of F1 (10.7 +/- 0.7 mm and F2 (7.8 +/- 0.2 mm were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis and expression profiles of 16 representative genes were confirmed by QPCR analysis. In addition, localization of six identified transcripts was investigated in healthy and atretic follicles using in situ hybridization. The healthy or atretic condition of examined follicles was classified by progesterone and estradiol concentrations in follicular fluid. Results Hierarchical cluster analysis of microarray data classified the follicles into two clusters. Cluster A was composed of only F2 and was characterized by high expression of 31 genes including IGFBP5, whereas cluster B contained only F1 and predominantly expressed 45 genes including CYP19 and FSHR. QPCR analysis confirmed AMH, CYP19, FSHR, GPX3, PlGF, PLA2G1B, SCD and TRB2 were greater in F1 than F2, while CCL2, GADD45A, IGFBP5, PLAUR, SELP, SPP1, TIMP1 and TSP2 were greater in F2 than in F1. In situ hybridization showed that AMH and CYP19 were detected in granulosa cells (GC of healthy as well as atretic follicles. PlGF was localized in GC and in the theca layer (TL of healthy follicles. IGFBP5 was detected in both GC and TL of atretic follicles. GADD45A and TSP2 were localized in both GC and TL of atretic follicles, whereas healthy follicles expressed them only in GC. Conclusion We demonstrated that global gene expression profiling of F

  4. Analysis of Multiple Structural Changes in Financial Contagion Based on the Largest Lyapunov Exponents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified multiple structural changes model is built to test structural breaks of the financial system based on calculating the largest Lyapunov exponents of the financial time series. Afterwards, the Lorenz system is used as a simulation example to inspect the new model. As the Lorenz system has strong nonlinearity, the verification results show that the new model has good capability in both finding the breakpoint and revealing the changes in nonlinear characteristics of the time series. The empirical study based on the model used daily data from the S&P 500 stock index during the global financial crisis from 2005 to 2012. The results provide four breakpoints of the period, which divide the contagion into four stages: stationary, local outbreak, global outbreak, and recovery period. An additional significant result is the obvious chaos characteristic difference in the largest Lyapunov exponents and the standard deviation at various stages, particularly at the local outbreak stage.

  5. Constraining the magnitude of the largest event in a foreshock-main shock-aftershock sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Robert; Zhuang, Jiancang; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2018-01-01

    Extreme value statistics and Bayesian methods are used to constrain the magnitudes of the largest expected earthquakes in a sequence governed by the parametric time-dependent occurrence rate and frequency-magnitude statistics. The Bayesian predictive distribution for the magnitude of the largest event in a sequence is derived. Two types of sequences are considered, that is, the classical aftershock sequences generated by large main shocks and the aftershocks generated by large foreshocks preceding a main shock. For the former sequences, the early aftershocks during a training time interval are used to constrain the magnitude of the future extreme event during the forecasting time interval. For the latter sequences, the earthquakes preceding the main shock are used to constrain the magnitudes of the subsequent extreme events including the main shock. The analysis is applied retrospectively to past prominent earthquake sequences.

  6. Draft sequencing and assembly of the genome of the world's largest fish, the whale shark: Rhincodon typus Smith 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Timothy D; Petit, Robert A; Joseph, Sandeep J; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Weil, M Ryan; Ahmad, Maida; Bhimani, Ravila; Vuong, Jocelyn S; Haase, Chad P; Webb, D Harry; Tan, Milton; Dove, Alistair D M

    2017-07-14

    The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) has by far the largest body size of any elasmobranch (shark or ray) species. Therefore, it is also the largest extant species of the paraphyletic assemblage commonly referred to as fishes. As both a phenotypic extreme and a member of the group Chondrichthyes - the sister group to the remaining gnathostomes, which includes all tetrapods and therefore also humans - its genome is of substantial comparative interest. Whale sharks are also listed as an endangered species on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List of threatened species and are of growing popularity as both a target of ecotourism and as a charismatic conservation ambassador for the pelagic ecosystem. A genome map for this species would aid in defining effective conservation units and understanding global population structure. We characterised the nuclear genome of the whale shark using next generation sequencing (454, Illumina) and de novo assembly and annotation methods, based on material collected from the Georgia Aquarium. The data set consisted of 878,654,233 reads, which yielded a draft assembly of 1,213,200 contigs and 997,976 scaffolds. The estimated genome size was 3.44Gb. As expected, the proteome of the whale shark was most closely related to the only other complete genome of a cartilaginous fish, the holocephalan elephant shark. The whale shark contained a novel Toll-like-receptor (TLR) protein with sequence similarity to both the TLR4 and TLR13 proteins of mammals and TLR21 of teleosts. The data are publicly available on GenBank, FigShare, and from the NCBI Short Read Archive under accession number SRP044374. This represents the first shotgun elasmobranch genome and will aid studies of molecular systematics, biogeography, genetic differentiation, and conservation genetics in this and other shark species, as well as providing comparative data for studies of evolutionary biology and immunology across the jawed vertebrate lineages.

  7. Improving anxiety regulation in patients with breast cancer at the beginning of the survivorship period: a randomized clinical trial comparing the benefits of single-component and multiple-component group interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckaert, Isabelle; Lewis, Florence; Delevallez, France; Herman, Sophie; Caillier, Marie; Delvaux, Nicole; Libert, Yves; Liénard, Aurore; Nogaret, Jean-Marie; Ogez, David; Scalliet, Pierre; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Van Houtte, Paul; Razavi, Darius

    2017-08-01

    To compare in a multicenter randomized controlled trial the benefits in terms of anxiety regulation of a 15-session single-component group intervention (SGI) based on support with those of a 15-session multiple-component structured manualized group intervention (MGI) combining support with cognitive-behavioral and hypnosis components. Patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned at the beginning of the survivorship period to the SGI (n = 83) or MGI (n = 87). Anxiety regulation was assessed, before and after group interventions, through an anxiety regulation task designed to assess their ability to regulate anxiety psychologically (anxiety levels) and physiologically (heart rates). Questionnaires were used to assess psychological distress, everyday anxiety regulation, and fear of recurrence. Group allocation was computer generated and concealed till baseline completion. Compared with patients in the SGI group (n = 77), patients attending the MGI group (n = 82) showed significantly reduced anxiety after a self-relaxation exercise (P = .006) and after exposure to anxiety triggers (P = .013) and reduced heart rates at different time points throughout the task (P = .001 to P = .047). The MGI participants also reported better everyday anxiety regulation (P = .005), greater use of fear of recurrence-related coping strategies (P = .022), and greater reduction in fear of recurrence-related psychological distress (P = .017) compared with the SGI group. This study shows that an MGI combining support with cognitive-behavioral techniques and hypnosis is more effective than an SGI based only on support in improving anxiety regulation in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Investigation of Science Faculty with Education Specialties within the Largest University System in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Seth D; Pelaez, Nancy; Rudd, James A, II; Stevens, Michael T; Tanner, Kimberly D; Williams, Kathy, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to improve science education include university science departments hiring Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES), scientists who take on specialized roles in science education within their discipline. Although these positions have existed for decades and may be growing more common, few reports have investigated the SFES approach to improving science education. We present comprehensive data on the SFES in the California State University (CSU) system, the largest university ...

  9. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world’s largest reforestation programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China’s Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world’s largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP’s biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on...

  10. Trend of CO2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    The brochure on the trend of CO 2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany includes tables of the emissions of these power plants. The CO 2 emissions of these power plants in 2013 (25% of the total German greenhouse gas emissions) have increased by 5% compared to 2012. The total CO 2 emission sin Germany increased by 1.5%. The differences between brown coal and black coal fired power plants are discussed.

  11. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanić Milan N.; Janković-Mandić Ljiljana J.; Gajić Boško A.; Daković Marko Z.; Dragović Snežana D.; Bačić Goran G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance) and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th). Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides wa...

  12. THE MASS OF (4) VESTA DERIVED FROM ITS LARGEST GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmanoski, Mike; Novakovic, Bojan; Apostolovska, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a recalculated value of the mass of (4) Vesta, derived from its largest gravitational perturbations on selected asteroids during their mutual close encounters. This was done by using a new method for mass determination, which is based on the linking of pre-encounter observations to the orbit determined from post-encounter ones. The estimated weighted mean of the mass of (4) Vesta is (1.300 ± 0.001) x 10 -10 M sun .

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, B. F.; Aiken, W.; Mayhew, R.; Gordon, Y.; Reid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL). Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5-1059 ng/mL). Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population.

  14. THE CHALLENGE OF THE LARGEST STRUCTURES IN THE UNIVERSE TO COSMOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Kim, Kap-Sung; Kim, Juhan; Gott III, J. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Large galaxy redshift surveys have long been used to constrain cosmological models and structure formation scenarios. In particular, the largest structures discovered observationally are thought to carry critical information on the amplitude of large-scale density fluctuations or homogeneity of the universe, and have often challenged the standard cosmological framework. The Sloan Great Wall (SGW) recently found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) region casts doubt on the concordance cosmological model with a cosmological constant (i.e., the flat ΛCDM model). Here we show that the existence of the SGW is perfectly consistent with the ΛCDM model, a result that only our very large cosmological N-body simulation (the Horizon Run 2, HR2) could supply. In addition, we report on the discovery of a void complex in the SDSS much larger than the SGW, and show that such size of the largest void is also predicted in the ΛCDM paradigm. Our results demonstrate that an initially homogeneous isotropic universe with primordial Gaussian random phase density fluctuations growing in accordance with the general relativity can explain the richness and size of the observed large-scale structures in the SDSS. Using the HR2 simulation we predict that a future galaxy redshift survey about four times deeper or with 3 mag fainter limit than the SDSS should reveal a largest structure of bright galaxies about twice as big as the SGW.

  15. On the statistics of the largest geomagnetic storms per solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siscoe, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of extreme value statistics is applied to the first, second, and third largest geomagnetic storms in nine solar cycles measured by the average half-daily aa indices compiled by Mayaud. Analytic expressions giving the probability of the extremes per solar cycle as a contour function of storm magnitude are obtained by least squares fitting of the observations to the appropriate theoretical extreme value probability functions. The results are used to obtain the statistical characteristics (mode, median, mean, and standard deviation) for the extreme values. The results are applied to find the expected range of extreme values in a set as a function of the number of solar cycles in the set. We find that the expected range of the largest storm is quite narrow and is larger for the second and third largest storms. The observed range of the extreme half-daily aa index for the nine solar cycles is 354--546 γ. In a set of 100 cycles the range is expanded esentially to 311--680γ, an increase of only 39% in the range. The result supports the argument for a change in solar cycle statistics in the latter part of the Seventeenth Century (the Maunder minimum)

  16. Collaborative spectrum sensing based on the ratio between largest eigenvalue and Geometric mean of eigenvalues

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new detector referred to as Geometric mean detector (GEMD) which is based on the ratio of the largest eigenvalue to the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues for collaborative spectrum sensing. The decision threshold has been derived by employing Gaussian approximation approach. In this approach, the two random variables, i.e. The largest eigenvalue and the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues are considered as independent Gaussian random variables such that their cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) are approximated by a univariate Gaussian distribution function for any number of cooperating secondary users and received samples. The approximation approach is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the largest eigenvalue and the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues of the received covariance matrix. The decision threshold has been calculated by exploiting the CDF of the ratio of two Gaussian distributed random variables. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables with the moments of the Gaussian distribution function. The performance of the detector is compared with the performance of the energy detector and eigenvalue ratio detector. Analytical and simulation results show that our newly proposed detector yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, our results based on proposed approximation approach are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs. India: the third largest illicit opium producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Letizia; Greenfield, Victoria A; Charles, Molly; Reuter, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This paper explores India's role in the world illicit opiate market, particularly its role as a producer. India, a major illicit opiate consumer, is also the sole licensed exporter of raw opium: this unique status may be enabling substantial diversion to the illicit market. Participant observation and interviews were carried out at eight different sites. Information was also drawn from all standard secondary sources and the analysis of about 180 drug-related criminal proceedings reviewed by Indian High Courts and the Supreme Court from 1985 to 2001. Diversion from licit opium production takes place on such a large scale that India may be the third largest illicit opium producer after Afghanistan and Burma. With the possible exceptions of 2005 and 2006, 200-300 tons of India's opium may be diverted yearly. After estimating India's opiate consumption on the basis of UN-reported prevalence estimates, we find that diversion from licit production might have satisfied a quarter to more than a third of India's illicit opiate demand to 2004. India is not only among the world's largest consumer of illicit opiates but also one of the largest illicit opium producers. In contrast to all other illicit producers, India owes the latter distinction not to blatantly illicit cultivation but to diversion from licit cultivation. India's experience suggests the difficulty of preventing substantial leakage, even in a relatively well-governed nation.

  18. Epidemiological profile of naive HIV-1/AIDS patients in Istanbul: the largest case series from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemisen, Mucahit; Aydın, Ozlem Altuntas; Gunduz, Alper; Ozgunes, Nail; Mete, Bilgul; Ceylan, Bahadir; Karaosmanoglu, Hayat Kumbasar; Yildiz, Dilek; Sargin, Fatma; Ozaras, Resat; Tabak, Fehmi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report the epidemiological profile of HIV-1 positive patients from, Istanbul, Turkey, which has one of the lowest HIV-1/AIDS prevalences in Europe. The patients were followed by ACTHIV-IST group which was established by the Infectious Diseases Departments of five teaching hospitals (three university hospitals and two public hospitals) in Istanbul, Turkey. The HIV-1 positive patients were added to the standard patient files in all of the centers; these files were then transferred to the ACTHIV-IST database in the Internet. A total of 829 naiv-untreated HIV-1 positive patients were chosen from the database. The number of male patients was 700 (84.4%) and the mean age of the patients was 37 years (range, 17-79). In our study group 348 (42%) of the patients were married and 318 (38.7%) of the patients were single. The probable route of transmission was heterosexual intercourse in 437 (52.7%) patients and homosexual intercourse in 256 (30.9%) patients. In 519 (62.6%) patients the diagnose was made due to a screening test and in 241 (29.1%) patients, the diagnose was made due to an HIV-related/non-related disease. The mean CD4+ T cell number in 788 of the patients was 357.8/mm(3) (±271.1), and the median viral load in 698 of the patients was 100,000 copies/mL (20-9,790,000). In Turkey, the number of HIV-1 positive patients is still low and to diagnose with a screening test is the most common way of diagnostic route.

  19. Characterization of the Ecosole HCPV tracker and single module inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpanelli, Maurizio; Borelli, Gianni; Verdilio, Daniele; De Nardis, Davide; Migali, Fabrizio; Cancro, Carmine; Graditi, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    BECAR, the Beghelli group's R&D company, is leading ECOSOLE (Elevated COncentration SOlar Energy), one of the largest European Demonstration projects in solar photovoltaic. ECOSOLE, started in 2012, is focused on the study, design, and realization of new HCPV generator made of high efficiency PV modules equipped with SoG (Silicone on Glass) fresnel lenses and III-V solar cells, and a low cost matched solar tracker with distributed inverters approach. The project also regards the study and demonstration of new high throughput methods for the industrial large scale productions, at very low manufacturing costs. This work reports the description of the characterization of the tracker and single module.

  20. Astronomers Break Ground on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) - World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from Europe, North America and Chile are breaking ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths . ALMA - the "Atacama Large Millimeter Array" - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located in the II Region of Chile, in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, at the Chajnantor altiplano, 5,000 metres above sea level. ALMA 's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimetre portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. " ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe" , said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA , also to young scientists and engineers" . " The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare

  1. Cardiac magnetic resonance and the need for routine cardiac catheterization in single ventricle patients prior to Fontan: a comparison of 3 groups: pre-Fontan CMR versus cath evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Mark A; Pawlowski, Thomas W; Whitehead, Kevin K; Harris, Matthew A; Keller, Marc S; Glatz, Andrew C; Zhu, Winnie; Shore, David; Diaz, Laura K; Rome, Jonathan J

    2012-09-18

    This study investigated whether cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and echocardiography (echo) can replace catheterization (cath) for routine evaluation prior to Fontan and under what circumstances CMR and cath are used together. Routine cath prior to Fontan has been utilized for years; noninvasive methods, however, may be sufficient. This study reviews clinical data in 119 consecutive patients investigating 3 groups: those who underwent CMR alone (MR; n = 41), cath alone (C; n = 41), or both cath and CMR (C+M; n = 37) prior to Fontan. No clinically significant differences were noted in patient characteristics, hemodynamics, or clinical status prior to or after surgery between the C and MR groups. CMR added information in 82%. There were no discrepant findings between CMR and cath data in the C+M group. Diagnostic success was ≥95% in all groups. Of those undergoing Fontan completion, the C+M group had similar outcomes to C and MR; C and CMR were utilized in combination to assess aortopulmonary collaterals or the need for an intervention or evaluate its success. Echo could not delineate pulmonary arterial anatomy in 46% to 53% of patients. The C+M and C groups were exposed to 6.8 ± 4.1 mSv of radiation. Single ventricle patients not requiring an intervention can undergo successful Fontan completion with CMR and echo alone with similar short-term outcomes to C, which was used as a control, preventing an invasive test and exposure to radiation. CMR can add information in a significant number of patients. Cath and CMR are utilized together for interventions and assessment of aortopulmonary collaterals. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lego Group: An Outsourcing Journey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus Møller; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...

  3. Europe's largest solar thermal power plant. [200 kw thermal output supplemented by two 10-kw windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossel, U

    1976-03-01

    An overview is given over the solar heating plant which has recently been commissioned in the Camargue (France). This is the largest plant in Europe, with a mean heat output of about 200 kW, for the production of thermal energy from solar energy. The plant consists of 108 parabolic collectors (200 sq. metres) and 48 flat collectors (110 sq. metres). Two windmills with outputs of 10 kW each complete the system. The heat energy produced by the solar collectors is given up to 3 different stores, which in turn are connected to various consumers.

  4. OBJECT TRACKING WITH ROTATION-INVARIANT LARGEST DIFFERENCE INDEXED LOCAL TERNARY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shajeena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ideal method for object tracking directly in the compressed domain in video sequences. An enhanced rotation-invariant image operator called Largest Difference Indexed Local Ternary Pattern (LDILTP has been proposed. The Local Ternary Pattern which worked very well in texture classification and face recognition is now extended for rotation invariant object tracking. Histogramming the LTP code makes the descriptor resistant to translation. The histogram intersection is used to find the similarity measure. This method is robust to noise and retain contrast details. The proposed scheme has been verified on various datasets and shows a commendable performance.

  5. Female urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention: Reporting the largest diverticulum with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Female urethral diverticulum is a rare entity with diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is a very rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in females presenting with acute urinary retention associated with a vaginal mass. Strong clinical suspicion combined with thorough physical examination and focused radiological investigations are vital for its diagnosis. Herein we report a case of giant urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention in a young female. It was managed by excision and urethral closure, and is the largest urethral diverticulum reported till date in the literature.

  6. WISMUT AG: Past, present and future of the largest uranium producer in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madel, J.

    1990-01-01

    The author gives a brief summary of WISMUT AG the largest uranium producer operating in Europe. The jointly owned German-Soviet company operates its production facilities in the southern part of the former German Democratic Republic. Given the new political and economic frame in Germany and the Soviet Union WISMUT AG will receive due recognition. Uranium exploration, mining, and milling activities are summarized from 1946-1989, and a summary of present activities and projections of future activities in the area of decontamination, restoration, and recultivation of present and abandoned mining and milling sites are noted. A statement of WISMUT AG's projected role in the international nuclear fuels market is made

  7. How the largest electric and gas utility companies administer public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogart, J.D.

    1979-04-12

    This article describes the findings of a survey conducted by the author in the second half of 1978 to determine the sizes of the public relations staffs of the nation's largest operating electric and gas utilities, their budgets, organizational differences, and specific functions. Common public relations issues and major public relations problems of the utilities are identified, as well as recent trends or changes in budgeting and organization. Some functional variations of public relations departments among utility companies were detected and described.

  8. Line Balancing Using Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm In A Garment Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P.Jaganathan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of fast changes in fashion has given rise to the need to shorten production cycle times in the garment industry. As effective usage of resources has a significant effect on the productivity and efficiency of production operations, garment manufacturers are urged to utilize their resources effectively in order to meet dynamic customer demand. This paper focuses specifically on line balancing and layout modification. The aim of assembly line balance in sewing lines is to assign tasks to the workstations, so that the machines of the workstation can perform the assigned tasks with a balanced loading. Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm (LCR has been deployed in this paper.

  9. Foreign exchange risk management : how are the largest non-financial companies in Norway managing their foreign exchange rate exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Krister; Wedøe, Ola

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how the largest non-financial companies in Norway manage their foreign exchange rate exposure. This is investigated through the use of a survey distributed to a sample the largest non-financial firms in Norway. According to our results, the largest non-financial companies in Norway have a predefined strategy for managing foreign exchange risk, which is defined by the board of directors or by the management in the organisation. The companies’ mai...

  10. Properties of the probability distribution associated with the largest event in an earthquake cluster and their implications to foreshocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Jiancang; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2006-01-01

    The space-time epidemic-type aftershock sequence model is a stochastic branching process in which earthquake activity is classified into background and clustering components and each earthquake triggers other earthquakes independently according to certain rules. This paper gives the probability distributions associated with the largest event in a cluster and their properties for all three cases when the process is subcritical, critical, and supercritical. One of the direct uses of these probability distributions is to evaluate the probability of an earthquake to be a foreshock, and magnitude distributions of foreshocks and nonforeshock earthquakes. To verify these theoretical results, the Japan Meteorological Agency earthquake catalog is analyzed. The proportion of events that have 1 or more larger descendants in total events is found to be as high as about 15%. When the differences between background events and triggered event in the behavior of triggering children are considered, a background event has a probability about 8% to be a foreshock. This probability decreases when the magnitude of the background event increases. These results, obtained from a complicated clustering model, where the characteristics of background events and triggered events are different, are consistent with the results obtained in [Ogata et al., Geophys. J. Int. 127, 17 (1996)] by using the conventional single-linked cluster declustering method

  11. Properties of the probability distribution associated with the largest event in an earthquake cluster and their implications to foreshocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2006-04-01

    The space-time epidemic-type aftershock sequence model is a stochastic branching process in which earthquake activity is classified into background and clustering components and each earthquake triggers other earthquakes independently according to certain rules. This paper gives the probability distributions associated with the largest event in a cluster and their properties for all three cases when the process is subcritical, critical, and supercritical. One of the direct uses of these probability distributions is to evaluate the probability of an earthquake to be a foreshock, and magnitude distributions of foreshocks and nonforeshock earthquakes. To verify these theoretical results, the Japan Meteorological Agency earthquake catalog is analyzed. The proportion of events that have 1 or more larger descendants in total events is found to be as high as about 15%. When the differences between background events and triggered event in the behavior of triggering children are considered, a background event has a probability about 8% to be a foreshock. This probability decreases when the magnitude of the background event increases. These results, obtained from a complicated clustering model, where the characteristics of background events and triggered events are different, are consistent with the results obtained in [Ogata, Geophys. J. Int. 127, 17 (1996)] by using the conventional single-linked cluster declustering method.

  12. Customized overhead cranes for installation of India's largest 3.6m optical telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangia, Tarun; Yadava, Shobhit; Kumar, Brijesh; Ghanti, A. S.; Hardikar, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    India's largest 3.6 m aperture optical telescope facility has been recently established at Devasthal site by Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observation Sciences (ARIES), an autonomous Institute under Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. The telescope is equipped with active optics and it is designed to be used for seeinglimited observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. A steel building with rotating cylindrical steel Dome was erected to house 3.6m telescope and its accessories at hilltop of Devasthal site. Customized cranes were essentially required inside the building as there were space constraints around the telescope building for operating big external heavy duty cranes from outside, transportation constraints in route for bringing heavy weight cranes, altitude of observatory, and sharp bends etc. to site. To meet the challenge of telescope installation from inside the telescope building by lifting components through its hatch, two Single Girder cranes and two Under Slung cranes of 10 MT capacity each were specifically designed and developed. All the four overhead cranes were custom built to achieve the goal of handling telescope mirror and its various components during installation and assembly. Overhead cranes were installed in limited available space inside the building and tested as per IS 3177. Cranes were equipped with many features like VVVFD compatibility, provision for tandem operation, digital load display, anti-collision mechanism, electrical interlocks, radio remote, low hook height and compact carriage etc. for telescope integration at site.

  13. Application of Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in Identification of Some Beta-Globin Gene Mutations in A Group of Egyptian Beta-Thalassemia Patients and Carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somaya, E.T.; Soliman, M.D

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) method could be employed to identify (rather than simply detect) four of the most common beta-globin gene mutations in the Egyptian population: IVS-I-110, IVS-I-6, the IVS-I-1, and Codon 39. Using DNA from 90 beta-thalassemia patients and carriers, by PCR the appropriate 238-bp region of the human beta-globin gene was amplified, the reaction products (Single-stranded DNA) were analyzed by none denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the bands visualized by silver staining. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments showed reproducible pattern of bands that were characteristic of the mutations present. With the use of control samples containing six of the 10 possible combinations of the four beta-globin gene mutations under study, we were able to predict the mutations present in 23 out of 90 (26.4%) of the patients studied. These predictions were confirmed independently by the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) method. It is concluded that this non-radioactive PCR-SSCP method can be used to reliably identify mutations in beta-thalassemia patients, provided that suitable controls are available. However, usefulness of this method for determining the genotype of beta-thalassaemic individuals is obviously limited by the great number of controls required. Moreover, the ability to detect mutations by SSCP is in general lower compared to other methods, ARMS, DGGE or DHPLC, which are reported to detect 49.5% to 73% of the mutations present. The SSCP method is nevertheless much easier to employ than other methods and is especially successful for beta-thalassemia carriers. This method would thus be particularly useful for an initial screening of target groups (prenatal diagnosis)

  14. Revisiting the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtac Yildirim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers. For that purpose, we estimate structural vector error correction (SVEC models to show the impacts of oil price increases on industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which are the elements of Taylor rule for the four largest oil importers (the USA, the EU, China and Japan. Our results indicate that oil price increases transmit to output and inflation and lead to fluctuations in industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which in turn influence the monetary policy stance in the following periods. The basic conclusion of research is that the channels through which oil prices affect output, inflation and interest rates should be identified by the monetary policy authorities of the USA, the EU, China and Japan. We also emphasize the importance of the determination of the optimal monetary policy framework to eliminate the negative consequences of oil price increases.

  15. Rehabilitation of the 6 largest hydropower plants in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chingoski, Vlatko; Savevski, Vasil

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, ESM (Electric Power Co. of Macedonia) received a loan from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD - The World bank) for the cost of the Power System Improvement Project, major part of which is the partial rehabilitation of the six largest HPPs in the Republic of Macedonia. Rehabilitation and life extension of these six largest hydro power plants is given the highest priority in the whole Power System Improvement Project mainly because these HPPs are, in general, fairly old, older than most of the thermal generation capacity and because a significant part of their equipment is wearing out, or is now obsolete with spare parts difficult to obtain. Furthermore, these plants play a vital role in the Macedonian Power System, providing peaking capacity, reserve capacity and frequency control. With the realization of this project, greater hydropower production is expected. It is also expected that HPPs will become a more vital part of the Macedonian Power System, which is also beneficial from an environmental aspect, due to greater usage of renewable energy resources in the country. (Original)

  16. Ownership structure and economic and socio-environmental disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aquino Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of sustainable practices has become important in the search for competitive advantage, so as to meet the expectations of the various stakeholders. Thus, the study aims to investigate the relationship between the ownership structure and the economic and environmental voluntary disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies, analyzing ownership concentration and the identity of the controlling shareholder. For the analysis, we considered the economic, social and environmental perspectives, addressed both individually and jointly. The sample consists of 47 companies from the 100 largest public companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, according to the magazine Exame Biggest and Best, edition 2013. The research is descriptive and quantitative, using Multiple Linear Regression for statistical analysis. The descriptive analysis of the prospects of (economic, social, environmental and sustainability disclosure showed lower average disclosure for the environmental aspect. The state control organizations stood out with the highest average in three of the four levels of disclosure: economic, social and sustainability. As regards the application of statistical analysis, the regression models were not statistically significant, indicating that, for the companies in the sample, the ownership structure does not influence the economic and socio-environmental disclosure.

  17. Sex- and age-related differences in half-marathon performance and competitiveness in the world's largest half-marathon - the GöteborgsVarvet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, B; Nikolaidis, P T

    2018-01-01

    In road runners, the age-related performance decline has been well investigated for marathoners, but little is known for half-marathoners. We analysed data from 138,616 runners (48,148 women and 90,469 men) competing between 2014 and 2016 in GöteborgsVarvet, the world's largest half-marathon. The men-to-women ratio in participants increased with age, the fastest race times were observed in age groups ˂35 and 35-39 years in women and in age group 35-39 years in men, the main effect of sex and the sex × age group interaction on race time were trivial, and the competitiveness was denser in men and in the younger age groups. In summary, in half-marathon running in the largest half-marathon in the world, the GöteborgsVarvet, women achieved the fastest race time at an earlier age compared to men where the fastest race times were observed in women in age groups ˂35 and 35-39 years and in men in age group 35-39 years.

  18. Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ramirez-Llodra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna.

    Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 28 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st century. However, for most of these habitats the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller – indeed, minimal – proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation thus shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps. Here, chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold

  19. One last boom : Alberta's rapidly expanding oil mines may be the largest and messiest industrial projects in Canadian history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, G.

    2001-01-01

    The bitumen deposits of Alberta, 2.5 trillion barrels of oil, of which 300 billion are considered recoverable, represent the greatest single petroleum resources of the world, based on surface and subsurface calculations. Four deposits, covering an area the size of New Brunswick, are located in the area stretching from Cold Lake to Lloydminster (east of Edmonton), the upper reaches of the Athabasca River east to the Peace River. The largest by far is the Athabasca deposit in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, spread over 4.3 million hectares. The deposit is at the centre of the biggest industrial expansion witnessed by the province. Since 1996, 38 billion dollars worth of new projects have been announced. It is estimated that by 2025, the bulk of the national oil production will originate from open-pit mines and underground wells around Fort McMurray. This oil boom has economic benefits for the population, from welders to real estate agents to stakeholders. The environmental effects are not as beneficial. Huge strip mines are being carved next to the Athabasca River, with great amounts of greenhouse gases emissions. The Suncor and Syncrude oil-sands plants combined represent the fourth largest carbon dioxide emission source in Canada. The development of these projects dramatically affects global warming. The nitrogen and sulphur emissions could also acidify lakes and soil in the region. The Suncor mine resulted from the first boom to hit Fort McMurray in 1964. The Syncrude mine is the result of the second boom which took place in 1973. In 1996, Suncor installed a sulphur scrubber system that removes 95 per cent of sulphur dioxide from the electricity and steam-generation plant. Suncor also invested in various projects, such as wind-power, rainforest cultivation and biomass generation. The volume of pollution increases as the operations expand, even if operations are cleaner. If no new gains in pollution control are achieved, it is expected that by 2015, the total

  20. Field Note: Threatening Tonle Sap: Challenges for Southeast-Asia’s largest Freshwater Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tonle Sap ecosystem in Cambodia is Southeast Asia’s largest freshwater lake; strongly impacted by the Mekong river flood pulse. The lake is home to exceptional biodiversity, and rural communities living in free floating villages on the lake and on its shores. The fragile niche ecosystems as well as the rural livelihoods of Tonle Sap are under severe threat. Overfishing, illegal wood harvesting, further resource exploitation, and water quality deterioration all impact the stability of the socio-ecological system of Tonle Sap. At the same time, expected flood pulse changes due to regulatory measures in the context of hydropower development upstream on the Mekong are a severe threat for Tonle Sap’s ecosystem stability. The area needs to shift into the focus of attention of national and international re-searchers, stakeholders, and decision makers, to find suitable pathways for a future sustainable development of this unique and pristine region.

  1. Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Mauna Loa on the Island Hawaiʻi is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawaiʻi (Island of Hawaiʻi) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

  2. Approaching the largest ‘API’: extracting information from the Internet with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Germann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the need for libraries to algorithmically access and manipulate the world’s largest API: the Internet. The billions of pages on the ‘Internet API’ (HTTP, HTML, CSS, XPath, DOM, etc. are easily accessible and manipulable. Libraries can assist in creating meaning through the datafication of information on the world wide web. Because most information is created for human consumption, some programming is required for automated extraction. Python is an easy-to-learn programming language with extensive packages and community support for web page automation. Four packages (Urllib, Selenium, BeautifulSoup, Scrapy in Python can automate almost any web page for all sized projects. An example warrant data project is explained to illustrate how well Python packages can manipulate web pages to create meaning through assembling custom datasets.

  3. Quicksort, largest bucket, and min-wise hashing with limited independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Randomized algorithms and data structures are often analyzed under the assumption of access to a perfect source of randomness. The most fundamental metric used to measure how “random” a hash function or a random number generator is, is its independence: a sequence of random variables is said...... to be k-independent if every variable is uniform and every size k subset is independent. In this paper we consider three classic algorithms under limited independence. Besides the theoretical interest in removing the unrealistic assumption of full independence, the work is motivated by lower independence...... being more practical. We provide new bounds for randomized quicksort, min-wise hashing and largest bucket size under limited independence. Our results can be summarized as follows. Randomized Quicksort. When pivot elements are computed using a 5-independent hash function, Karloff and Raghavan, J.ACM’93...

  4. Contamination Control Assessment of the World's Largest Space Environment Simulation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Aaron; Henry, Michael W.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Sinclair, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Power Facility s thermal vacuum test chamber is the largest chamber in the world capable of providing an environment for space simulation. To improve performance and meet stringent requirements of a wide customer base, significant modifications were made to the vacuum chamber. These include major changes to the vacuum system and numerous enhancements to the chamber s unique polar crane, with a goal of providing high cleanliness levels. The significance of these changes and modifications are discussed in this paper. In addition, the composition and arrangement of the pumping system and its impact on molecular back-streaming are discussed in detail. Molecular contamination measurements obtained with a TQCM and witness wafers during two recent integrated system tests of the chamber are presented and discussed. Finally, a concluding remarks section is presented.

  5. What could we learn about high energy particle physics from cosmological observations at largest spatial scales ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The very well known example of cosmology testing particle physics is the number of relativistic particles (photons and three active neutrinos within the Standard Model at primordial nucleosynthesis. These days the earliest moment we can hope to probe with present cosmological data is the early time inflation. The particle physics conditions there and now are different because of different energy scales and different values of the scalar fields, that usually prohibits a reliable connection between the particle physics parameters at the two interesting epochs. The physics at the highest energy scales may be probed with observations at the largest spatial scales (just somewhat smaller than the size of the visible Universe. However, we are not (yet ready to make the tests realistic, because of lack of a self-consistent theoretical description of the presently favorite cosmological models to be valid right after inflation.

  6. The role and attributes of entrepreneurs at South Africa´s largest arts festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jonker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Klein Karoo National Arts Festival (KKNK in Oudtshoorn, South Africa, is the largest arts festival in South Africa. The purpose of this research was to determine the attributes and role of the entrepreneurs at the Klein Karoo National Arts Festival. This was done by means of a questionnaire survey (N=249. After data capturing was completed, two factor analyses were conducted. The first factor analysis revealed six factors (entrepreneurial attributes, namely organisational skills, resourcefulness, self-edification, explorative, acquired skill and drive, of which resourcefulness had the highest mean value. The second factor analysis identified the role of entrepreneurs at KKNK and revealed three primary roles, namely festival promotion, product promotion and income generation, of which product promotion had the highest mean value. This is the first time that the roles of entrepreneurs at festivals were investigated in South Africa.

  7. EVALUATION OF E-RECRUITMENT LEVEL AMONG THE LARGEST COMPANIES IN POLAND - PROJECT OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Buchnowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes taking place in the labor market cause that it is increasingly difficult to recruit employees with the right skills and competencies to companies. To reach the right candidates, they use modern IT solutions, such as ATS (Applicant Tracking System, which are supporting the processes of recruitment. Among others, they enable the publication of job offers on the Internet - on corporate websites, job portals and business social networking services - and apply for jobs online through these channels. This article pre-sents the evolution of the use of the Internet, and particularly the social media, in the recruitment process and presents a projekt of comprehensive research, which aims is to analyze and evaluate of the level of development of e-recruitment in Poland among largest companies.

  8. Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the 600 largest European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Boris F.; Boettle, Markus; Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The economic assessment of the impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise in coastal cities requires high-level information on the damage and protection costs associated with varying flood heights. We provide a systematically and consistently calculated dataset of macroscale damage and protection cost curves for the 600 largest European coastal cities opening the perspective for a wide range of applications. Offering the first comprehensive dataset to include the costs of dike protection, we provide the underpinning information to run comparative assessments of costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Aggregate cost curves for coastal flooding at the city-level are commonly regarded as by-products of impact assessments and are generally not published as a standalone dataset. Hence, our work also aims at initiating a more critical discussion on the availability and derivation of cost curves. PMID:29557944

  9. Using largest Lyapunov exponent to confirm the intrinsic stability of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavilian-Moreno, Carlos; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs). Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution

  10. Using largest Lyapunov exponent to confirm the intrinsic stability of boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilian-Moreno, Carlos [Iberdrola Generacion, S.A., Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, Project Engineering Department, Paraje le Plano S/N, Valencia (Spain); Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Area de ingeniera en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico city (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs). Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution.

  11. World's largest off-road tires to be recycled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    Suncor Energy is the first company in Canada to use a new technology designed uniquely for tire recycling at oil sand facilities. The technology is owned by CuttingEdge Tire Recycling, a partnership between Denesoline Environmental Limited Partnership and Beaver Environmental Rubber Technologies Limited. Suncor has supported the development of this Aboriginal-owned and operated business by offering land, electricity, diesel fuel and stockpiles of used truck tires from its oil sand mining activities. These tires are the largest off-road tires in the world. In this new technology, tires that are worn-out through oil sand mining are shredded in a portable shredder before being recycled for subsequent use by the Alberta Recycling Management Association. 1 fig.

  12. Enhanced natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activity: the largest contributor to the Chinese population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Liu Yanyang

    2011-01-01

    For the radiation exposure caused by human activities, the enhanced natural radiation exposure is the largest contributor to Chinese population dose. This problem has attracted social attention in recent years. Efforts have been made in several fields, such as radon indoors and in workplace, environmental problems associated with NORMs, occupational radiation hazards of non-uranium mine, and radiation dose evaluation for energy chain, but there are still many problems to be solved. In order to protect the health of workers and the public, while ensuring industrial production and economic development, it is also necessary to continue to strengthen research in all aspects above mentioned, and gradually promote the control of natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activities. (authors)

  13. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks

    KAUST Repository

    Arias-Ortiz, A.

    2018-03-29

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass ecosystem, containing up to 1.3% of the total C stored within the top metre of seagrass sediments worldwide. On the basis of field studies and satellite imagery, we estimate that 36% of Shark Bay’s seagrass meadows were damaged following a marine heatwave in 2010/2011. Assuming that 10 to 50% of the seagrass sediment C stock was exposed to oxic conditions after disturbance, between 2 and 9 Tg CO could have been released to the atmosphere during the following three years, increasing emissions from land-use change in Australia by 4–21% per annum. With heatwaves predicted to increase with further climate warming, conservation of seagrass ecosystems is essential to avoid adverse feedbacks on the climate system.

  14. Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the 600 largest European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Boris F.; Boettle, Markus; Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2018-03-01

    The economic assessment of the impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise in coastal cities requires high-level information on the damage and protection costs associated with varying flood heights. We provide a systematically and consistently calculated dataset of macroscale damage and protection cost curves for the 600 largest European coastal cities opening the perspective for a wide range of applications. Offering the first comprehensive dataset to include the costs of dike protection, we provide the underpinning information to run comparative assessments of costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Aggregate cost curves for coastal flooding at the city-level are commonly regarded as by-products of impact assessments and are generally not published as a standalone dataset. Hence, our work also aims at initiating a more critical discussion on the availability and derivation of cost curves.

  15. The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca; Soule, S Adam; Manga, Michael; White, James; McPhie, Jocelyn; Wysoczanski, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoerger, Dana; Fornari, Daniel; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Houghton, Bruce; Mitchell, Samuel; Ikegami, Fumihiko; Conway, Chris; Murch, Arran; Fauria, Kristen; Jones, Meghan; Cahalan, Ryan; McKenzie, Warren

    2018-01-01

    The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km 2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.

  16. Largest solar installation on a hotel in Switzerland; Groesste Hotel-Solaranlage der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadelmann, M.

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the solar thermal installation on the Hotel Europa in St. Moritz-Champfer, Switzerland. The installation provides heat energy for domestic hot water preparation and for the heating of the hotel's indoor swimming pool. A thirty-percent reduction of heating oil consumption has been obtained. The system, which is based on the 'low-flow' principle, provides the highest possible temperature difference while using low pumping energy. The hotel's hot-water circulation system, which ensures fast availability of hot water at the taps, is also discussed. This largest hotel solar installation is designed to meet heating and hot-water requirements during the summer season. The high requirements placed on the materials used are discussed. Schematics are provided and first operational experience is briefly discussed.

  17. Using Largest Lyapunov Exponent to Confirm the Intrinsic Stability of Boiling Water Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Gavilán-Moreno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs. Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution.

  18. From Pushing Paper to Pushing Dirt - Canada's Largest LLRW Cleanup Gets Underway - 13111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, Walter van; Lawrence, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The Port Hope Project is the larger of the two projects in the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), Canada's largest low level radioactive waste (LLRW) cleanup. With a budget of approximately $1 billion, the Port Hope Project includes a broad and complex range of remedial elements from a state of the art water treatment plant, an engineered waste management facility, municipal solid waste removal, remediation of 18 major sites within the Municipality of Port Hope (MPH), sediment dredging and dewatering, an investigation of 4,800 properties (many of these homes) to identify LLRW and remediation of approximately 450 of these properties. This paper discusses the status of the Port Hope Project in terms of designs completed and regulatory approvals received, and sets out the scope and schedule for the remaining studies, engineering designs and remediation contracts. (authors)

  19. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world's largest seagrass carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Ortiz, A.; Serrano, O.; Masqué, P.; Lavery, P. S.; Mueller, U.; Kendrick, G. A.; Rozaimi, M.; Esteban, A.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Marbà, N.; Mateo, M. A.; Murray, K.; Rule, M. J.; Duarte, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass ecosystem, containing up to 1.3% of the total C stored within the top metre of seagrass sediments worldwide. On the basis of field studies and satellite imagery, we estimate that 36% of Shark Bay's seagrass meadows were damaged following a marine heatwave in 2010/2011. Assuming that 10 to 50% of the seagrass sediment C stock was exposed to oxic conditions after disturbance, between 2 and 9 Tg CO2 could have been released to the atmosphere during the following three years, increasing emissions from land-use change in Australia by 4-21% per annum. With heatwaves predicted to increase with further climate warming, conservation of seagrass ecosystems is essential to avoid adverse feedbacks on the climate system.

  20. Mapping Biomass for REDD in the Largest Forest of Central Africa: the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurelie; Saatchi, Sassan

    2014-05-01

    With the support of the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Conservation, and Nuclear Security, the implementation of the German Development Bank KfW, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Germany, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and local DRC partners will produce a national scale biomass map for the entire forest coverage of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along with feasibility assessments of different forest protection measures within a framework of a REDD+ model project. The « Carbon Map and Model (CO2M&M) » project will produce a national forest biomass map for the DRC, which will enable quantitative assessments of carbon stocks and emissions in the largest forest of the Congo Basin. This effort will support the national REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) program in DRC, which plays a major role in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. This map will be developed from field data, complemented by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, systematically sampled throughout the forests of the DRC and up-scaled to satellite images to accurately estimate carbon content in all forested areas. The second component of the project is to develop specific approaches for model REDD projects in key landscapes. This project represents the largest LiDAR-derived mapping effort in Africa, under unprecedented logistical constraints, which will provide one of the poorest nations in the world with the richest airborne and satellites derived datasets for analyzing forest structure, biomass and biodiversity.

  1. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Backwaters of North America's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueche, S. M.; Xu, Y. J.; Reiman, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) is the largest distributary of the Mississippi River flowing through south-central Louisiana, creating North America's largest river swamp basin - the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). Prior to human settlement, the AR's main channel was highly connected to this large wetland ecosystem. However, due to constructed levee systems and other human modifications, much of the ARB is now hydrologically disconnected from the AR's main channel except during high flow events. This lack of regular inputs of fresh, oxygenated water to these wetlands, paired with high levels of organic matter decomposition in wetlands, has caused low oxygen-deprived hypoxic conditions in the ARB's back waters. In addition, due to the incredibly nutrient-rich and warm nature of the ARB, microbial decomposition in backwater areas with limited flow often results in potentially stressful, if not lethal, levels of DO for organisms during and after flood pulses. This study aims to investigate dynamics of dissolved oxygen in backwaters of the Atchafalaya River Basin, intending to answer a crucial question about hydrological and water quality connectivity between the river's mainstem and its floodplain. Specifically, the study will 1) conduct field water quality measurements, 2) collect composite water samples for chemical analysis of nutrients and carbon, 3) investigate DO dynamics over different seasons for one year, and 4) determine the major factors that affect DO dynamics in this unique swamp ecosystem. The study is currently underway; therefore, in this presentation we will share the major findings gained in the past several months and discuss backwater effects on river chemistry.

  2. Is Kasei Valles (Mars) the largest volcanic channel in the solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David W.

    2018-02-01

    With a length of more than 2000 km and widths of up to several hundred kilometers, Kasei Valles is the largest outflow system on Mars. Superficially, the scabland-like character of Kasei Valles is evocative of terrestrial systems carved by catastrophic aqueous floods, and the system is widely interpreted as a product of outbursts from aquifers. However, as at other Martian outflow channels, clear examples of fluvial sedimentary deposits have proven difficult to identify here. Though Kasei Valles lacks several key properties expected of aqueous systems, its basic morphological and contextual properties are aligned with those of ancient volcanic channels on Venus, the Moon, Mercury, and Earth. There is abundant evidence that voluminous effusions of low-viscosity magmas occurred at the head of Kasei Valles, the channel system acted as a conduit for associated flows, and mare-style volcanic plains developed within its terminal basin. Combined mechanical and thermal incision rates of at least several meters per day are estimated to have been readily achieved at Kasei Valles by 20-m-deep magmas flowing with viscosities of 1 Pa s across low topographic slopes underlain by bedrock. If Kasei Valles formed through incision by magma, it would be the largest known volcanic channel in the solar system. The total volume of magma erupted at Kasei Valles is estimated here to have possibly reached or exceeded ∼5 × 106 km3, a volume comparable in magnitude to those that characterize individual Large Igneous Provinces on Earth. Development of other large outflow systems on Mars is expected to have similarly involved eruption of up to millions of cubic kilometers of magma.

  3. Effects of oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol with either drospirenone or levonorgestrel on various parameters associated with well-being in healthy women: a randomized, single-blind, parallel-group, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sue; Davies, Emyr; Fearns, Simon; McKinnon, Carol; Carter, Rick; Gerlinger, Christoph; Smithers, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The combined oral contraceptive Yasmin (drospirenone 3 mg plus ethinylestradiol 30 microg [DRSP 3 mg/EE 30 microg]) has been shown to be a well tolerated and effective combination that provides high contraceptive reliability and good cycle control. Furthermore, DRSP 3 mg/EE 30 microg has been shown to have a positive effect on premenstrual symptoms and well-being/health-related quality of life, and to improve the skin condition of women with acne. To date, however, there have been relatively few studies that have compared the effects of DRSP 3 mg/EE 30 microg on the general well-being of women with those of other oral contraceptives. To compare the impact of DRSP 3 mg/EE 30 microg with that of levonorgestrel 150 microg/EE 30 microg (LNG 150 microg/EE 30 microg; Microgynon 30) on various parameters associated with well-being in healthy female subjects. This was a randomized, single-blind, parallel-group, multicentre study conducted using 21/7-day regimens of DRSP 3 mg/EE 30 microg and LNG 150 microg/EE 30 microg over seven cycles. Efficacy parameters included: changes in Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) normative T scores; the proportion of subjects with acne; and menstrual symptoms. Cycle control and subjective well-being parameters were also assessed. Treatment with DRSP 3 mg/EE 30 microg had similar beneficial effects on symptoms of water retention and impaired concentration to LNG 150 microg/EE 30 microg, but was significantly better in alleviating negative affect symptoms during the menstrual phase (median difference in MDQ T score -3; p = 0.027; Wilcoxon rank sum test). The proportion of subjects with acne decreased from approximately 55% to approximately 45% in the DRSP 3 mg/EE 30 microg group, but remained static at approximately 60% in the LNG 150 microg/EE 30 microg group. Somatic and psychological symptoms occurred at the greatest intensity and for most subjects during the menstrual phase of the cycle in both groups. Both drugs had similar cycle

  4. Single histidine residue in head-group region is sufficient to impart remarkable gene transfection properties to cationic lipids: evidence for histidine-mediated membrane fusion at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V V; Pichon, C; Refregiers, M; Guerin, B; Midoux, P; Chaudhuri, A

    2003-08-01

    Presence of endosome-disrupting multiple histidine functionalities in the molecular architecture of cationic polymers, such as polylysine, has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance their in vitro gene delivery efficiencies. Towards harnessing improved transfection property through covalent grafting of endosome-disrupting single histidine functionality in the molecular structure of cationic lipids, herein, we report on the design, the synthesis and the transfection efficiency of two novel nonglycerol-based histidylated cationic amphiphiles. We found that L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine)ethylamide (lipid 1) and L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine,-N-methyl)ethylamide (lipid 2) in combination with cholesterol gave efficient transfections into various cell lines. The transfection efficiency of Chol/lipid 1 lipoplexes into HepG2 cells was two order of magnitude higher than that of FuGENE(TM)6 and DC-Chol lipoplexes, whereas it was similar into A549, 293T7 and HeLa cells. A better efficiency was obtained with Chol/lipid 2 lipoplexes when using the cytosolic luciferase expression vector (pT7Luc) under the control of the bacterial T7 promoter. Membrane fusion activity measurements using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique showed that the histidine head-groups of Chol/lipid 1 liposomes mediated membrane fusion in the pH range 5-7. In addition, the transgene expression results using the T7Luc expression vector convincingly support the endosome-disrupting role of the presently described mono-histidylated cationic transfection lipids and the release of DNA into the cytosol. We conclude that covalent grafting of a single histidine amino acid residue to suitable twin-chain hydrophobic compounds is able to impart remarkable transfection properties on the resulting mono-histidylated cationic amphiphile, presumably via the endosome-disrupting characteristics of the histidine functionalities.

  5. The Influence of Hepatic and Renal Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of a Treatment for Herpes Zoster, Amenamevir (ASP2151): Phase 1, Open-Label, Single-Dose, Parallel-Group Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusawake, Tomohiro; Kowalski, Donna; Takada, Akitsugu; Kato, Kota; Katashima, Masataka; Keirns, James J; Lewand, Michaelene; Lasseter, Kenneth C; Marbury, Thomas C; Preston, Richard A

    2017-12-01

    Amenamevir (ASP2151) is a nonnucleoside human herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor that was approved in Japan for the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles) in 2017. This article reports the results of two clinical trials that investigated the effects of renal and hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of amenamevir. These studies were phase 1, open-label, single-dose (oral 400 mg), parallel-group studies evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of amenamevir in healthy participants and participants with moderate hepatic impairment and mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment. In the hepatic impairment study, the pharmacokinetic profile of amenamevir in participants with moderate hepatic impairment was generally similar to that of participants with normal hepatic function. In the renal impairment study, the area under the amenamevir concentration versus time curve from the time of dosing up to the time of the last sample with extrapolation to infinity of the terminal phase was increased by 78.1% in participants with severe renal impairment. There was a positive relationship between creatinine clearance and oral and renal clearance for amenamevir in the renal impairment study. In both studies, amenamevir was safe and well tolerated. The findings of the hepatic impairment study indicate that no dosing adjustment is required in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. In the renal impairment study, systemic amenamevir exposure was increased by renal impairment. However, it is unlikely that renal impairment will have a significant effect on the safety of amenamevir given that in previous pharmacokinetic and safety studies in healthy individuals amenamevir was safe and well tolerated after a single dose (5-2400 mg, fasted condition) and repeated doses for 7 days (300 or 600 mg, fed condition), and the amount of amenamevir exposure in the renal impairment study was covered by those studies. These findings suggest that amenamevir does not

  6. Atmospheric thorium pollution and inhalation exposure in the largest rare earth mining and smelting area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingqing; Zhong, Buqing; Liang, Tao; Xing, Baoshan; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to radionuclide thorium (Th) has generated widespread public concerns, mainly because of its radiological effects on human health. Activity levels of airborne 232 Th in total suspended particulate (TSP) were measured in the vicinity of the largest rare earth mine in China in August 2012 and March 2013. The mean activity concentrations of 232 Th in TSP ranged from 820μBqm -3 in a mining area in August 2012 to 39,720μBqm -3 in a smelting area in March 2013, much higher than the world reference of 0.5μBqm -3 . Multistatistical analysis and Kohonen's self-organizing maps suggested that 232 Th in TSP was mainly derived from rare earth mining and smelting practices. In addition, personal inhalation exposures to 232 Th associated with respirable particulate (PM 10 ) were also measured among local dwellers via personal monitoring. The mean dose values for different age groups in the smelting and mining areas ranged from 97.86 to 417μSvyear - 1 and from 101.03 to 430.83μSvyear -1 , respectively. These results indicate that people living in the study areas are exposed to high levels of widespread 232 Th. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Injury Rates on New and Old Technology Oil and Gas Rigs Operated by the Largest United States Onshore Drilling Contractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackley, David J.; Retzer, Kyla D.; Hubler, Warren G.; Hill, Ryan D.; Laney, A. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background Occupational fatality rates among oil and gas extraction industry and specifically among drilling contractor workers are high compared to the U.S. all-industry average. There is scant literature focused on non-fatal injuries among drilling contractors, some of which have introduced engineering controls to improve rig efficiency and reduce injury risk. Methods We compared injury rates on new and old technology rigs operated by the largest U.S. drilling contractor during 2003–2012, stratifying by job type and grouping outcomes by injury severity and body part affected. Results Six hundred seventy-one injuries were recorded over 77.4 million person-hours. The rate on new rigs was 66% of that on old rigs. Roughnecks had lower injury rates on new rigs, largely through reduced limb injury rates. New rigs had lower rates in each non-fatal injury severity category. Conclusions For this company, new technology rigs appear to provide a safer environment for roughnecks. Future studies could include data from additional companies. PMID:25164118

  8. Injury rates on new and old technology oil and gas rigs operated by the largest United States onshore drilling contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackley, David J; Retzer, Kyla D; Hubler, Warren G; Hill, Ryan D; Laney, A Scott

    2014-10-01

    Occupational fatality rates among oil and gas extraction industry and specifically among drilling contractor workers are high compared to the U.S. all-industry average. There is scant literature focused on non-fatal injuries among drilling contractors, some of which have introduced engineering controls to improve rig efficiency and reduce injury risk. We compared injury rates on new and old technology rigs operated by the largest U.S. drilling contractor during 2003-2012, stratifying by job type and grouping outcomes by injury severity and body part affected. Six hundred seventy-one injuries were recorded over 77.4 million person-hours. The rate on new rigs was 66% of that on old rigs. Roughnecks had lower injury rates on new rigs, largely through reduced limb injury rates. New rigs had lower rates in each non-fatal injury severity category. For this company, new technology rigs appear to provide a safer environment for roughnecks. Future studies could include data from additional companies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Health Education Research and Practice Literature on Hispanic Health Issues: Have We Lost Sight of the Largest Minority Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2016-03-01

    Hispanics constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority population in the United States and are the fastest growing segment of the population. Knowledge about health needs and practices, effective health promotion programs, and health policy making for Hispanics has the potential to improve population health outcomes for this group. Continued research and practice literature will aid in accomplishing these objectives. However, little is known about the extent of health education-related literature available on Hispanic health issues. In this review, we analyzed research and practice publications in all health education-related journals to assess the volume of articles published on Hispanic health issues. We found that the portion of journal articles devoted to Hispanic health issues varied widely among the journals and that there was a very limited emphasis on Hispanic health-related issues. Journal editors and editorial board members may need to be more proactive in soliciting manuscripts on Hispanic health, and our practitioners may have to improve their professional skills and cultural competence in order to work with Hispanic populations to produce research and practice literature that is of adequate quantity and quality to help improve Hispanics' health. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  10. Understanding Single Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  11. Olaratumab in Combination with Doxorubicin for the Treatment of Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, Irina A; Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Dunham, James; Warren, Fiona C; Robinson, Sophie; Stephens, Peter; Hoyle, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The manufacturer of olaratumab (Lartruvo ® ), Eli Lilly & Company Limited, submitted evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of this drug, in combination with doxorubicin, for untreated advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) not amenable to surgery or radiotherapy, as part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Single Technology Appraisal process. The Peninsula Technology Assessment Group, commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG), critically reviewed the company's submission. Clinical effectiveness evidence for the company's analysis was derived from an open-label, randomised controlled trial, JGDG. The analysis was based on a partitioned survival model with a time horizon of 25 years, and the perspective was of the UK National Health Service (NHS) and Personal Social Services. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3.5% per year. Given the available evidence, olaratumab is likely to meet NICE's end-of-life criteria. To improve the cost effectiveness of olaratumab, the company offered a discount through a Commercial Access Agreement (CAA) with the NHS England. When the discount was applied, the mean base-case and probabilistic incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for olaratumab plus doxorubicin versus the standard-of-care doxorubicin were £46,076 and £47,127 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, respectively; the probability of this treatment being cost effective at the willingness-to-pay threshold of £50,000 per QALY gained, applicable to end-of-life treatments, was 0.54. The respective ICERs from the ERG's analysis were approximately £60,000/QALY gained, and the probability of the treatment being cost effective was 0.21. In August 2017, the NICE Appraisal Committee recommended olaratumab in combination with doxorubicin for this indication for use via the UK Cancer Drugs Fund under the agreed CAA until further evidence being collected in the ongoing phase III trial-ANNOUNCE-becomes available in

  12. Algorithm Sorts Groups Of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    For efficient sorting, algorithm finds set containing minimum or maximum most significant data. Sets of data sorted as desired. Sorting process simplified by reduction of each multielement set of data to single representative number. First, each set of data expressed as polynomial with suitably chosen base, using elements of set as coefficients. Most significant element placed in term containing largest exponent. Base selected by examining range in value of data elements. Resulting series summed to yield single representative number. Numbers easily sorted, and each such number converted back to original set of data by successive division. Program written in BASIC.

  13. Landscapes of thermal inequity: disproportionate exposure to urban heat in the three largest US cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bruce C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-11-01

    Heat waves are the most significant cause of mortality in the US compared to other natural hazards. Prior studies have found increased heat exposure for individuals of lower socioeconomic status in several US cities, but few comparative analyses of the social distribution of urban heat have been conducted. To address this gap, our paper examines and compares the environmental justice consequences of urban heat risk in the three largest US cities: New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Risk to urban heat is estimated on the basis of three characteristics of the urban thermal landscape: land surface temperature, vegetation abundance, and structural density of the built urban environment. These variables are combined to develop an urban heat risk index, which is then statistically compared with social vulnerability indicators representing socioeconomic status, age, disability, race/ethnicity, and linguistic isolation. The results indicate a consistent and significant statistical association between lower socioeconomic and minority status and greater urban heat risk, in all three cities. Our findings support a growing body of environmental justice literature that indicates the presence of a landscape of thermal inequity in US cities and underscores the need to conduct comparative analyses of social inequities in exposure to urban heat.

  14. KEPLER-1647B: THE LARGEST AND LONGEST-PERIOD KEPLER TRANSITING CIRCUMBINARY PLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, Veselin B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Doyle, Laurance R. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Principia College, IMoP, One Maybeck Place, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Quarles, Billy [Department of Physics and Physical Science, The University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States); Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas as Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Ford, Eric B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 428A Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gregorio, Joao [Atalaia Group and Crow-Observatory, Portalegre (Portugal); Hinse, Tobias C. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Advanced Astronomy and Space Science Division, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jenkins, Jon M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Jensen, Eric L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States); Kane, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Kull, Ilya, E-mail: veselin.b.kostov@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); and others

    2016-08-10

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R {sub Jup}, it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M {sub Jup}. The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric ( e {sub bin} = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  15. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  16. Scaling relationships among drivers of aquatic respiration from the smallest to the largest freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ed K; Schoolmaster, Donald; Amado, A.M; Stets, Edward G.; Lennon, J.T.; Domaine, L.; Cotner, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    To address how various environmental parameters control or constrain planktonic respiration (PR), we used geometric scaling relationships and established biological scaling laws to derive quantitative predictions for the relationships among key drivers of PR. We then used empirical measurements of PR and environmental (soluble reactive phosphate [SRP], carbon [DOC], chlorophyll a [Chl-a)], and temperature) and landscape parameters (lake area [LA] and watershed area [WA]) from a set of 44 lakes that varied in size and trophic status to test our hypotheses. We found that landscape-level processes affected PR through direct effects on DOC and temperature and indirectly via SRP. In accordance with predictions made from known relationships and scaling laws, scale coefficients (the parameter that describes the shape of a relationship between 2 variables) were found to be negative and have an absolute value 1, others respiration from small pond catchments to the largest body of freshwater on the planet, Lake Superior, these findings should be applicable to controls of PR for the great majority of temperate aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Investigation of science faculty with education specialties within the largest university system in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Seth D; Pelaez, Nancy J; Rudd, James A; Stevens, Michael T; Tanner, Kimberly D; Williams, Kathy S

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to improve science education include university science departments hiring Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES), scientists who take on specialized roles in science education within their discipline. Although these positions have existed for decades and may be growing more common, few reports have investigated the SFES approach to improving science education. We present comprehensive data on the SFES in the California State University (CSU) system, the largest university system in the United States. We found that CSU SFES were engaged in three key arenas including K-12 science education, undergraduate science education, and discipline-based science education research. As such, CSU SFES appeared to be well-positioned to have an impact on science education from within science departments. However, there appeared to be a lack of clarity and agreement about the purpose of these SFES positions. In addition, formal training in science education among CSU SFES was limited. Although over 75% of CSU SFES were fulfilled by their teaching, scholarship, and service, our results revealed that almost 40% of CSU SFES were seriously considering leaving their positions. Our data suggest that science departments would likely benefit from explicit discussions about the role of SFES and strategies for supporting their professional activities.

  18. Sources and distribution of microplastics in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Xianchuan; Shi, Huahong; Luo, Ze; Wu, Chenxi

    2018-04-01

    Microplastic pollution was studied in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake in this work. Microplastics were detected with abundance varies from 0.05 × 10 5 to 7.58 × 10 5 items km -2 in the lake surface water, 0.03 × 10 5 to 0.31 × 10 5 items km -2 in the inflowing rivers, 50 to 1292 items m -2 in the lakeshore sediment, and 2 to 15 items per individual in the fish samples, respectively. Small microplastics (0.1-0.5 mm) dominated in the lake surface water while large microplastics (1-5 mm) are more abundant in the river samples. Microplastics were predominantly in sheet and fiber shapes in the lake and river water samples but were more diverse in the lakeshore sediment samples. Polymer types of microplastics were mainly polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) as identified using Raman Spectroscopy. Spatially, microplastic abundance was the highest in the central part of the lake, likely due to the transport of lake current. Based on the higher abundance of microplastics near the tourist access points, plastic wastes from tourism are considered as an important source of microplastics in Qinghai Lake. As an important area for wildlife conservation, better waste management practice should be implemented, and waste disposal and recycling infrastructures should be improved for the protection of Qinghai Lake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Sternberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity’s collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance.

  20. A study on the regionalization of tornadogenesis for the domestic largest scale of tornado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Soichiro; Nohara, Daisuke; Hirakuchi, Hiromaru

    2014-01-01

    A new regulatory guide has been issued by the Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan since the last year. According to this guide, electric power companies have to assess the influence of tornadoes on their nuclear power plants for operation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the likelihood of the occurrence of F3 tornadoes, which are the largest encountered in Japan, and to consider the possibility of the regionalization of the maximum wind speed. Then, mesoscale analysis with a numerical meteorological model and re-analysis data is performed along with synoptic scale analysis. Especially, tornado parameters such as SReH (Storm Relative Helicity) and CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) are used for evaluating the potential tornadogenesis of F3 tornado. Both analyses indicate that favorable meteorological condition tends to occur in the coastal zones in the Pacific side west of Ibaraki and around Kyushu island. The frequency in these zones is different from the one in the other area in the order of 1 or 2, which is large enough for regionalization. (author)

  1. Vascular access in lipoprotein apheresis: a retrospective analysis from the UK's largest lipoprotein apheresis centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Daniel J; Pottle, Alison; Malietzis, George; Hakim, Nadey; Barbir, Mahmoud; Crane, Jeremy S

    2018-01-01

    Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) has proven to be an effective, safe and life-saving therapy. Vascular access is needed to facilitate this treatment but has recognised complications. Despite consistency in treatment indication and duration there are no guidelines in place. The aim of this study is to characterise vascular access practice at the UK's largest LA centre and forward suggestions for future approaches. A retrospective analysis of vascular access strategies was undertaken in all patients who received LA treatment in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) Apheresis Unit at Harefield Hospital (Middlesex, UK) from November 2000 to March 2016. Fifty-three former and current patients underwent 4260 LA treatments. Peripheral vein cannulation represented 79% of initial vascular access strategies with arteriovenous (AV) fistula use accounting for 15%. Last used method of vascular access was peripheral vein cannulation in 57% versus AV fistula in 32%. Total AV fistula failure rate was 37%. Peripheral vein cannulation remains the most common method to facilitate LA. Practice trends indicate a move towards AV fistula creation; the favoured approach receiving support from the expert body in this area. AV fistula failure rate is high and of great concern, therefore we suggest the implementation of upper limb ultrasound vascular mapping in all patients who meet treatment eligibility criteria. We encourage close ties between apheresis units and specialist surgical centres to facilitate patient counselling and monitoring. Further prospective data regarding fistula failure is needed in this expanding treatment field.

  2. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lace, M. J.; Kambesis, P. N.; Mylroie, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  3. Stand Up for the Burrup: Saving the Largest Aboriginal Rock Art Precinct in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dampier Rock Art Precinct contains the largest and most ancient collection of Aboriginal rock art in Australia. The cultural landscape created by generations of Aboriginal people includes images of long-extinct fauna and demonstrates the response of peoples to a changing climate over thousands of years as well as the continuity of lived experience. Despite Australian national heritage listing in 2007, this cultural landscape continues to be threatened by industrial development. Rock art on the eastern side of the archipelago, on the Burrup Peninsula, was relocated following the discovery of adjacent off-shore gas reserves so that a major gas plant could be constructed. Work has now begun on the construction of a second major gas plant nearby. This article describes the rock art of the Dampier Archipelago and the troubled history of European-Aboriginal contact history, before examining the impact of industry on the region and its environment. The destruction of Aboriginal rock art to meet the needs of industry is an example of continuing indifference to Aboriginal culture. While the complex struggle to protect the cultural landscape of the Burrup, in particular, involving Indigenous people, archaeologists, historians, state and federal politicians, government bureaucrats and multi-national companies, eventually led to national heritage listing, it is not clear that the battle to save the Burrup has been won.

  4. Percolation under noise: Detecting explosive percolation using the second-largest component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viles, Wes; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Tang, Ariana; Kramer, Mark A.; Kolaczyk, Eric D.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of distinguishing between different rates of percolation under noise. A statistical model of percolation is constructed allowing for the birth and death of edges as well as the presence of noise in the observations. This graph-valued stochastic process is composed of a latent and an observed nonstationary process, where the observed graph process is corrupted by type-I and type-II errors. This produces a hidden Markov graph model. We show that for certain choices of parameters controlling the noise, the classical (Erdős-Rényi) percolation is visually indistinguishable from a more rapid form of percolation. In this setting, we compare two different criteria for discriminating between these two percolation models, based on the interquartile range (IQR) of the first component's size, and on the maximal size of the second-largest component. We show through data simulations that this second criterion outperforms the IQR of the first component's size, in terms of discriminatory power. The maximal size of the second component therefore provides a useful statistic for distinguishing between different rates of percolation, under physically motivated conditions for the birth and death of edges, and under noise. The potential application of the proposed criteria for the detection of clinically relevant percolation in the context of applied neuroscience is also discussed.

  5. North Andean origin and diversification of the largest ithomiine butterfly genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa De-Silva, Donna; Mota, Luísa L.; Chazot, Nicolas; Mallarino, Ricardo; Silva-Brandão, Karina L.; Piñerez, Luz Miryam Gómez; Freitas, André V.L.; Lamas, Gerardo; Joron, Mathieu; Mallet, James; Giraldo, Carlos E.; Uribe, Sandra; Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra; Jiggins, Chris D.; Willmott, Keith R.; Elias, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The Neotropics harbour the most diverse flora and fauna on Earth. The Andes are a major centre of diversification and source of diversity for adjacent areas in plants and vertebrates, but studies on insects remain scarce, even though they constitute the largest fraction of terrestrial biodiversity. Here, we combine molecular and morphological characters to generate a dated phylogeny of the butterfly genus Pteronymia (Nymphalidae: Danainae), which we use to infer spatial, elevational and temporal diversification patterns. We first propose six taxonomic changes that raise the generic species total to 53, making Pteronymia the most diverse genus of the tribe Ithomiini. Our biogeographic reconstruction shows that Pteronymia originated in the Northern Andes, where it diversified extensively. Some lineages colonized lowlands and adjacent montane areas, but diversification in those areas remained scarce. The recent colonization of lowland areas was reflected by an increase in the rate of evolution of species’ elevational ranges towards present. By contrast, speciation rate decelerated with time, with no extinction. The geological history of the Andes and adjacent regions have likely contributed to Pteronymia diversification by providing compartmentalized habitats and an array of biotic and abiotic conditions, and by limiting dispersal between some areas while promoting interchange across others. PMID:28387233

  6. Level of patient and operator dose in the largest cardiac centre in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapaki, V.; Patsilinakos, S.; Voudris, V.; Magginas, A.; Pavlidis, S.; Maounis, T.; Theodorakis, G.; Koutelou, M.; Vrantza, T.; Nearchou, M.; Nikolaki, N.; Kollaros, N.; Kyrozi, E.; Kottou, S.; Karaiskos, P.; Neofotistou, E.; Cokkinos, D.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the patient and staff doses in the most frequent interventional cardiology (IC) procedures performed in Onassio, the largest Cardiac Centre in Greece. Data were collected from three digital X-ray systems for 212 coronary angiographies, 203 percutaneous transluminal coronary angio-plasties (PTCA) and 134 various electrophysiological studies. Patient skin dose was measured using suitably calibrated slow radiotherapy films and cardiologist dose using suitably calibrated thermoluminescent dosemeters placed on left arm, hand and foot. Patient median dose area product (DAP) (all examinations) ranged between 6.7 and 83.5 Gy cm 2 . Patient median skin dose in PTCA was 799 mGy (320-1660 mGy) and in RF ablation 160 mGy (35-1920 mGy). Median arm, hand and foot dose to the cardiologist were 12.6, 27 and 13 μSv, respectively, per procedure. The great range of radiation doses received by both patients and operators confirms the need for continuous monitoring of all IC techniques. (authors)

  7. Epidemiological study of hepatitis A, B and C in the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Márcia A D; Reis, Nádia Rúbia S; Kozlowski, Aline G; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Mello, Francisco C A; Gomes, Selma A; Martins, Regina M B

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis A, B and C in the Kalunga population, which represents the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community. Among 878 individuals studied, the overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies was 80.9%, with a significant rise from 44.8% to near 100% between the first and fourth decade of life. Rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) of 1.8% and 35.4%, respectively, were found. Increasing age, male gender, illiteracy and history of multiple sexual partners were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An occult HBV infection rate of 1.7% (5/295) was found among anti-HBc-positive individuals. HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) was dominant in this community. Only 5/878 individuals (0.6%) were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV RNA was detected in three of them, who were infected with genotype 1 (subtype 1a). These findings point out high, intermediate and low endemicity for hepatitis A, B and C, respectively, in the Kalunga community in Brazil. Circulation of HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) in this Afro-Brazilian isolated community indicates the introduction of this virus during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  8. Bubble nucleation in simple and molecular liquids via the largest spherical cavity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Abascal, José L. F.; Valeriani, Chantal; Bresme, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a methodology to compute bubble nucleation free energy barriers using trajectories generated via molecular dynamics simulations. We follow the bubble nucleation process by means of a local order parameter, defined by the volume of the largest spherical cavity (LSC) formed in the nucleating trajectories. This order parameter simplifies considerably the monitoring of the nucleation events, as compared with the previous approaches which require ad hoc criteria to classify the atoms and molecules as liquid or vapor. The combination of the LSC and the mean first passage time technique can then be used to obtain the free energy curves. Upon computation of the cavity distribution function the nucleation rate and free-energy barrier can then be computed. We test our method against recent computations of bubble nucleation in simple liquids and water at negative pressures. We obtain free-energy barriers in good agreement with the previous works. The LSC method provides a versatile and computationally efficient route to estimate the volume of critical bubbles the nucleation rate and to compute bubble nucleation free-energies in both simple and molecular liquids

  9. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  10. Mortgage loans: an analysis of the portfolios of the largest banks in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vinícius Ramos Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the current macroeconomic environment experienced in Brazil, where inflation has stabilized and the basic interest rate of the economy is in one of their historical lows, demand for mortgages is increasing. In this context, the mortgage is presented with great emphasis to meet the demand for purchasing housing in addition to being a catalyst for the reduction of the high housing deficit. From a descriptive and empirical-analytic was analyzed the mortgage loan portfolio of the largest banks of the country between the years 2001 and 2010 through Quarterly Financial Information (IFT available on the Central Bank website. It was settled a comparative relationship between the data in order to check the development of mortgage portfolios over the years and the factors that influenced this evolution, and evaluate the timeliness and quality of those loans. For the evolution of the portfolio there was an economic context in which Brazil was included in the period, and observed that for most of these operations are long term the banks are more exposed to market risk. With regard to credit risk parse that, over the years, Brazilian banks are presenting a mortgage loan portfolio with lower risk, and it is found that institutions with real estate credits with higher levels of portfolio risk are subject to have higher losses on such operations in the possibility of default.

  11. Corporate social responsibility of the 100 largest Indian companies – an analysis of website communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mulky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility has become an important concept in the business world in recent decades. CSR is important in all countries but is particularly relevant in emerging markets where the levels of human development are not high. The United Nations Development Programme has created the Human Development Index (HDI to measure the human development in countries. The present study analyzes the CSR communication on the websites of the 100 largest Indian companies. The objective was to examine the reported CSR activities and determine whether the activities address the dimensions and indicators of the HDI. The study uses content analysis to classify the CSR activities into categories corresponding to HDI parameters. The findings indicate that about two thirds of the companies are using their websites to communicate CSR. Of the companies which reported CSR, about eighty percent report support for primary education and about seventy percent undertake livelihood support activities. The level of corporate involvement in the health dimension of human development is quite low. Reduction of infant and maternal mortality does not get much corporate attention. This study will add to the literature on CSR in emerging markets and will be useful for firms in India and other emerging markets that are planning CSR activities aimed at human development parameters.

  12. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanić Milan N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th. Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides was determined and analyzed to show the relations between the specific activities in the soil and soil properties and the most influential factors of natural radionuclide variability were identified. The radiological indices for surface soil were calculated and radiological risk assessment was performed. The measured specific activities were similar to values of background levels for Serbia. The sampling depth did not show any significant influence on specific activities of natural radionuclides. The strongest predictor of specific activities of the investigated radionuclides was soil granulometry. All parameters of radiological risk assessment were below the recommended values and adopted limits. It appears that the coal-fired power plant does not have a significant impact on the spatial and vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in the area of interest, but technologically enhanced natural radioactivity as a consequence of the plant operations was identified within the first 1.5 km from the power plant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. III43009 i br. III41005

  13. Psyche's UV Reflectance Spectra: Exploring the origins of the largest exposed-core metallic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Tracy

    2016-10-01

    (16) Psyche is the largest of the M-class asteroids, and is presumed to be the exposed core of a differentiated asteroid stripped of its mantle through hit-and-run collisions. However, other origins for Psyche have been proposed, including that it formed from a highly-reduced, metal rich material in the inner solar system or that its surface is olivine that has been space weathered. If (16) Psyche is an exposed core, then studying its properties enhances our understanding of the cores of all terrestrial planets, including the Earth's. If it accreted in the inner part of the solar system and was later injected into the asteroid belt, then Psyche sheds light on the conditions and subsequent evolution of the early solar system. Lastly, if Psyche is weathered olivine, then olivine may be more abundant in the solar system than currently measured, rectifying the so-called Great Dunite Shortage. Our program to obtain high-resolution UV spectra of Psyche with the COS G140L mode and the STIS NUV MAMA G230L mode to measure spectral signatures between 90 - 315 nm is designed to distinguish between the 3 hypothesized cases. These observations will enable identification of absorption bands, especially Fe-O charge transfer bands and will be sensitive to spectral blueing that occurs at UV wavelengths for space-weathered objects. When combined, the presence of these UV features, or not, provides a novel test of Psyche formation theories.

  14. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.

    2016-11-01

    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  16. State-owned companies dominate list of largest non-U.S. producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    Because state-owned oil and gas companies dominate Oil and Gas Journal's list of largest non-US producers, data aren't fully comparable with those of the OGJ300. Many state companies report only production and reserves, with little or no financial data. Companies on the OGJ100, therefore, cannot be ranked by assets or revenues. Instead, they are listed by regions, based on location of corporate headquarters. There was no change in makeup of the top 20 holders of crude oil reserves. These companies' reserves totaled 872.3 billion bbl in 1993. The top 20 non-US companies now control 87.3 % of total world crude oil reserves, according to OGJ estimates. This is up marginally from 87.2 % of total world oil reserves in 1992. The top 20 had 87.7 % of total world reserves in 1991 and 85.5 % in 1990. The table lists company name, total assets, revenues, net income, capital and exploratory expenditures, worldwide oil production, gas production, oil and gas reserves worldwide

  17. Estimation of the largest enterprises’ impact on the socio-economic development of territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Dmitrievna Razgulina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The key basic trends of modern society development are associated with the transfer of some government functions to big business. Thus, scientific and public circles argue about social partnership between government, business and employees and offer different variants of the corporate social responsibility concept. The article presents the experience to assess social responsibility of business on the example of the largest chemical enterprises located in the Vologda and Novgorod oblasts. The evaluation results have revealed a number of problems hindering the formation of socially responsible behavior of enterprises, particularly the lack of standardized reporting on corporate social responsibility; provision of formal corporate social responsibility report; business’ non-system participation in social and economic development of territories. According to the authors, the development of a special model to regulate participants’ mutual relations can increase social responsibility of Russian business. Unified interests and resources of business and government promote the development of an agreed strategy in the field of regional social-economic development

  18. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, Consuelo; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes

  19. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, Consuelo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: consuelo.riva@unimi.it; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes.

  20. Monitoring coastal pollution associated with the largest oil refinery complex of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Croquer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated pollution levels in water and sediments of Península de Paraguaná and related these levels with benthic macrofauna along a coastal area where the largest Venezuelan oil refineries have operated over the past 60 years. For this, the concentration of heavy metals, of hydrocarbon compounds and the community structure of the macrobenthos were examined at 20 sites distributed along 40 km of coastline for six consecutive years, which included windy and calm seasons. The spatial variability of organic and inorganic compounds showed considerably high coastal pollution along the study area, across both years and seasons. The southern sites, closest to the refineries, had consistently higher concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds in water and sediments when compared to those in the north. The benthic community was dominated by polychaetes at all sites, seasons and years, and their abundance and distribution were significantly correlated with physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Sites close to the oil refineries were consistently dominated by families known to tolerate xenobiotics, such as Capitellidae and Spionidae. The results from this study highlight the importance of continuing long-term environmental monitoring programs to assess the impact of effluent discharge and spill events from the oil refineries that operate in the western coast of Paraguaná, Venezuela.

  1. Hydrodynamic and Inundation Modeling of China’s Largest Freshwater Lake Aided by Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China’s largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake, is characterized by rapid changes in its inundation area and hydrodynamics, so in this study, a hydrodynamic model of Poyang Lake was established to simulate these long-term changes. Inundation information was extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS remote sensing data and used to calibrate the wetting and drying parameter by assessing the accuracy of the simulated inundation area and its boundary. The bottom friction parameter was calibrated using current velocity measurements from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP. The results show the model is capable of predicting the inundation area dynamic through cross-validation with remotely sensed inundation data, and can reproduce the seasonal dynamics of the water level, and water discharge through a comparison with hydrological data. Based on the model results, the characteristics of the current velocities of the lake in the wet season and the dry season of the lake were explored, and the potential effect of the current dynamic on water quality patterns was discussed. The model is a promising basic tool for prediction and management of the water resource and water quality of Poyang Lake.

  2. Bedrock Canyons Carved by the Largest Known Floods on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M. P.; Lapôtre, M. G. A.; Larsen, I. J.; Williams, R. M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Earth is a dynamic and permeable interface where the rocky crust is sculpted by ice, wind and water resulting in spectacular mountain ranges, vast depositional basins and environments that support life. These landforms and deposits contain a rich, yet incomplete, record of Earth history that we are just beginning to understand. Some of the most dramatic landforms are the huge bedrock canyons carved by catastrophic floods. On Mars, similar bedrock canyons, known as Outflow Channels, are the most important indicators of large volumes of surface water in the past. Despite their importance and now decades of observations of canyon morphology, we lack a basic understanding of how the canyons formed, which limits our ability to reconstruct flood discharge, duration and water volume. In this presentation I will summarize recent work - using mechanistic numerical models and field observations - that suggests that bedrock canyons carved by megafloods rapidly evolve to a size and shape such that boundary shear stresses just exceed that required to entrain fractured blocks of rock. The threshold shear stress constraint allows for quantitative reconstruction of the largest known floods on Earth and Mars, and implies far smaller discharges than previous methods that assume flood waters fully filled the canyons to high water marks.

  3. KEPLER-1647B: THE LARGEST AND LONGEST-PERIOD KEPLER TRANSITING CIRCUMBINARY PLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Veselin B.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B.; Gregorio, Joao; Hinse, Tobias C.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Kane, Stephen; Kull, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R Jup , it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M Jup . The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric ( e bin = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  4. Seasonal variations of trace elements in precipitation at the largest city in Tibet, Lhasa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Qianggong; Tripathee, Lekhendra; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Precipitation samples were collected from March 2010 to August 2012 at an urban site in Lhasa, the capital and largest city of Tibet. The volume weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of 17 trace elements in precipitation were higher during the non-monsoon season than in the monsoon season, but inverse seasonal variations occurred for wet deposition fluxes of most of the trace elements. Concentrations for most of trace elements were negatively correlated with precipitation amount, indicating that below-cloud scavenging of trace elements was an important mechanism contributing to wet deposition of these elements. The elements Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and U displayed low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), whereas Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd Sn, Pb, and Bi showed high EF values in precipitation, suggesting that anthropogenic activities might be important contributors of these elements at Lhasa. However, this present work indicates a much lower anthropogenic emission at Lhasa than in seriously polluted regions. Our study will not only provide insights for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in Lhasa but also enhance our understanding for updating the baseline for environmental protection over the Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Dragon bridge - the world largest dragon-shaped (ARCH steel bridge as element of smart city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Luong Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dragon Bridge - The world’s largest dragon-shaped steel bridge, with an installation cost of $85 million USD, features 6 lanes for two separate directions, 666 meters of undulating steel in the shape of a dragon in the Ly Dynasty, the symbol of prosperity in Vietnamese culture. This unique and beautifully lit bridge, which also breathes fire and sprays water. It’s the purposeful integration of the lighting hardware articulates the dragon’s form, and the fire-breathing dragon head. This project transcends the notion of monumental bridge with dynamic colour-changing lighting, creating an iconic sculpture in the skyline that is both reverent and whimsical. The signature feature of the bridge was the massive undulating support structure resembling a dragon flying over the river. The dragon is prominent in Vietnamese culture as a symbol of power and nobility. Dragon Bridge stands out as a model of innovation. It has received worldwide attention in the design community and from the global media for its unique arch support system. Dragon Bridge serves as an example of how aesthetic quality of a design can serve cultural, economic and functional purposes. The article presents design solutions of the object and the evaluation of the technical condition before putting the facility into service.

  6. Astronomer's new guide to the galaxy: largest map of cold dust revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Astronomers have unveiled an unprecedented new atlas of the inner regions of the Milky Way, our home galaxy, peppered with thousands of previously undiscovered dense knots of cold cosmic dust -- the potential birthplaces of new stars. Made using observations from the APEX telescope in Chile, this survey is the largest map of cold dust so far, and will prove an invaluable map for observations made with the forthcoming ALMA telescope, as well as the recently launched ESA Herschel space telescope. ESO PR Photo 24a/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey (annotated and in five sections) ESO PR Photo 24b/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey (annotated) ESO PR Photo 24c/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey (in five sections) ESO PR Photo 24d/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey ESO PR Photo 24e/09 The Galactic Centre and Sagittarius B2 ESO PR Photo 24f/09 The NGC 6357 and NGC 6334 nebulae ESO PR Photo 24g/09 The RCW120 nebula ESO PR Video 24a/09 Annotated pan as seen by the ATLASGAL survey This new guide for astronomers, known as the APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL) shows the Milky Way in submillimetre-wavelength light (between infrared light and radio waves [1]). Images of the cosmos at these wavelengths are vital for studying the birthplaces of new stars and the structure of the crowded galactic core. "ATLASGAL gives us a new look at the Milky Way. Not only will it help us investigate how massive stars form, but it will also give us an overview of the larger-scale structure of our galaxy", said Frederic Schuller from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, leader of the ATLASGAL team. The area of the new submillimetre map is approximately 95 square degrees, covering a very long and narrow strip along the galactic plane two degrees wide (four times the width of the full Moon) and over 40 degrees long. The 16 000 pixel-long map was made with the LABOCA submillimetre

  7. Solar energy potential of the largest buildings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wence, E. R.; Grodsky, S.; Hernandez, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable pathways of land use for energy are necessary to mitigate climate change and limit conversion of finite land resources needed for conservation and food production. Large, commercial buildings (LCBs) are increasing in size and number throughout the United States (US) and may serve as suitable recipient environments for photovoltaic (PV) solar energy infrastructure that may support a low carbon, low land footprint energy transition. In this study, we identified, characterized, and evaluated the technical potential of the largest, commercial building rooftops (i.e., exceeding 110,000 m2) and their associated parking lots in the US for PV solar energy systems using Aurora, a cloud-based solar optimization platform. We also performed a case study of building-specific electricity generation: electricity consumption balance. Further, we quantified the environmental co-benefit of land sparing and associated avoided emissions (t-CO2-eq) conferred under the counterfactual scenario that solar development would otherwise proceed as a ground-mounted, utility-scale PV installation of equal nominal capacity. We identified and mapped 37 LCBs (by rooftop area) across 18 states in the US, spanning from as far north as the state of Minnesota to as far south as Florida. Rooftop footprints range from 427,297 to 113,689 m2 and have a cumulative surface area of 99.8 million ft2. We characterize the LCBs as either: distribution/warehouse, factory, shopping center, or administrative office/facility. Three of the 37 LCBs currently support rooftop PV and the numbers of associated, detached buildings number up to 38. This study elucidates the extent to which LCBs and their respective parking lots can serve as suitable sites for PV solar energy generation. Lastly, this study demonstrates research-based applications of the Aurora energy modeling platform and informs decision-making focused on redirecting energy development towards human-modified landscapes to prioritize land use for

  8. Indication and implementation of lipidapheresis, rheopheresis, or immunoadsorption (lessons learnt from Germany's largest apheresis center).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heigl, Franz; Hettich, Reinhard; Lotz, Norbert; Reeg, Harduin; Eder, Bernadette; Steckholzer-Kroth, Karin; Browatzki, Michael; Harre, Kerstin; Arendt, Rainer

    2009-12-29

    Efficient modes of extracorporeal blood purification are available today for apheresis treatment of progressive atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease, or for improving hemorheology. Advanced technology and sophisticated care render apheresis treatment selective, safe and tolerable. Our task is to constantly update indications for apheresis based on best evidence available and good clinical practice, as well as, to determine how apheresis therapy can be made available to those in need or with otherwise refractory disease. Presenting examples of lipid apheresis, rheopheresis, or immunoadsorption for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipoproteinemia (a), acute hearing loss, refractory or exacerbating multiple sclerosis, we highlight real world obstacles for implementation of treatment, resulting in still too many patients with proven or recommended indication left untreated. Based on the experience of the largest apheresis center in Germany, with more than 3,300 treatments per year, we depict the necessary structure for identification of patients, defining indication, referral, implementation of therapy, and reimbursement. Apheresis is unfamiliar to most patients and many practitioners or consultants. Nephrologists, performing >90% of apheresis treatments in Germany, have to form a network for referral comprising all regional care-givers, general practitioners as well as the respective specialists (mainly, cardiologists, endocrinologists, diabetologists, ORL specialists, neurologists, ophthalmologists, or rheumatologists), and insurances or other cost-bearing parties for offering a scientifically approved therapeutic regimen and comprehensive care. We have realized this concept in a high volume apheresis center acting in a closely knit network characterized by an unrelenting effort at ongoing medical education. As a consequence, we include approximately 10 times more patients with appropriate diagnoses in our apheresis program as compared to the national average

  9. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Pina-Amargós

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope, inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  10. Smart phone Acceptance among physicians: Application of structural equation modeling in Iranian largest university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollahi M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to determine attitudes and effective factors in the acceptance of smart phones by physicians of the largest University of Medical Sciences in the south of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM in 2014. Study participants included 200 physicians working in the hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences selected through two-stage stratified sampling, but 185 participants completed the study. The study data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire completed through a 5-point Likert scale. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts, its construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis, and its reliability by Cronbach’s alpha of 0.802. All data analyses were performed using SPSS (version 22 and LISREL (version 8.8. Results: Results showed that most physicians had a desirable attitude towards using smart phones. Besides, the results of SEM indicated a significant relationship between attitude and compatibility, observability, personal experience, voluntariness of use and perceived usefulness. Moreover, some important fitness indices revealed appropriate fitness of the study model (p=0.26, X2 /df=1.35, RMR=0.070, GFI=0.77, AGFI=0.71, NNFI=0.93, CFI=0.94. Conclusion: The results revealed that compatibility, observability, personal experience, voluntariness of use and perceived usefulness were effective in the physicians’ attitude towards using smart phones. Thus, by preparation of the required infrastructures, policymakers in the field of health technology can enhance the utilization of smart phones in hospitals.

  11. Negotiating place and gendered violence in Canada's largest open drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-05-01

    Vancouver's Downtown Eastside is home to Canada's largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and 'marginal men' (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants' spatial practices. Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into "dangerous" drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection services, to minimize violence and potential drug

  12. NEGOTIATING PLACE AND GENDERED VIOLENCE IN CANADA’S LARGEST OPEN DRUG SCENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    Background Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside is home to Canada’s largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and ‘marginal men’ (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants’ spatial practices. Results Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into “dangerous” drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Conclusion Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection

  13. Effect of noise and filtering on largest Lyapunov exponent of time series associated with human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali

    2017-11-07

    This study aimed to determine the effect of added noise, filtering and time series length on the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) value calculated for time series obtained from a passive dynamic walker. The simplest passive dynamic walker model comprising of two massless legs connected by a frictionless hinge joint at the hip was adopted to generate walking time series. The generated time series was used to construct a state space with the embedding dimension of 3 and time delay of 100 samples. The LyE was calculated as the exponential rate of divergence of neighboring trajectories of the state space using Rosenstein's algorithm. To determine the effect of noise on LyE values, seven levels of Gaussian white noise (SNR=55-25dB with 5dB steps) were added to the time series. In addition, the filtering was performed using a range of cutoff frequencies from 3Hz to 19Hz with 2Hz steps. The LyE was calculated for both noise-free and noisy time series with different lengths of 6, 50, 100 and 150 strides. Results demonstrated a high percent error in the presence of noise for LyE. Therefore, these observations suggest that Rosenstein's algorithm might not perform well in the presence of added experimental noise. Furthermore, findings indicated that at least 50 walking strides are required to calculate LyE to account for the effect of noise. Finally, observations support that a conservative filtering of the time series with a high cutoff frequency might be more appropriate prior to calculating LyE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The 100-C-7 Remediation Project. An Overview of One of DOE's Largest Remediation Projects - 13260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, Thomas C.; Strom, Dean; Beulow, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Closure Hanford LLC (WCH) completed remediation of one of the largest waste sites in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The waste site, 100-C-7, covers approximately 15 football fields and was excavated to a depth of 85 feet (groundwater). The project team removed a total of 2.3 million tons of clean and contaminated soil, concrete debris, and scrap metal. 100-C-7 lies in Hanford's 100 B/C Area, home to historic B and C Reactors. The waste site was excavated in two parts as 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1. The pair of excavations appear like pit mines. Mining engineers were hired to design their tiered sides, with safety benches every 17 feet and service ramps which allowed equipment access to the bottom of the excavations. The overall cleanup project was conducted over a span of almost 10 years. A variety of site characterization, excavation, load-out and sampling methodologies were employed at various stages of remediation. Alternative technologies were screened and evaluated during the project. A new method for cost effectively treating soils was implemented - resulting in significant cost savings. Additional opportunities for minimizing waste streams and recycling were identified and effectively implemented by the project team. During the final phase of cleanup the project team applied lessons learned throughout the entire project to address the final, remaining source of chromium contamination. The C-7 cleanup now serves as a model for remediating extensive deep zone contamination sites at Hanford. (authors)

  15. HOT Faults", Fault Organization, and the Occurrence of the Largest Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J. M.; Hillers, G.; Archuleta, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    We apply the concept of "Highly Optimized Tolerance" (HOT) for the investigation of spatio-temporal seismicity evolution, in particular mechanisms associated with largest earthquakes. HOT provides a framework for investigating both qualitative and quantitative features of complex feedback systems that are far from equilibrium and punctuated by rare, catastrophic events. In HOT, robustness trade-offs lead to complexity and power laws in systems that are coupled to evolving environments. HOT was originally inspired by biology and engineering, where systems are internally very highly structured, through biological evolution or deliberate design, and perform in an optimum manner despite fluctuations in their surroundings. Though faults and fault systems are not designed in ways comparable to biological and engineered structures, feedback processes are responsible in a conceptually comparable way for the development, evolution and maintenance of younger fault structures and primary slip surfaces of mature faults, respectively. Hence, in geophysical applications the "optimization" approach is perhaps more aptly replaced by "organization", reflecting the distinction between HOT and random, disorganized configurations, and highlighting the importance of structured interdependencies that evolve via feedback among and between different spatial and temporal scales. Expressed in the terminology of the HOT concept, mature faults represent a configuration optimally organized for the release of strain energy; whereas immature, more heterogeneous fault networks represent intermittent, suboptimal systems that are regularized towards structural simplicity and the ability to generate large earthquakes more easily. We discuss fault structure and associated seismic response pattern within the HOT concept, and outline fundamental differences between this novel interpretation to more orthodox viewpoints like the criticality concept. The discussion is flanked by numerical simulations of a

  16. Dragon's paradise lost: palaeobiogeography, evolution and extinction of the largest-ever terrestrial lizards (Varanidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Hocknull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The largest living lizard species, Varanus komodoensis Ouwens 1912, is vulnerable to extinction, being restricted to a few isolated islands in eastern Indonesia, between Java and Australia, where it is the dominant terrestrial carnivore. Understanding how large-bodied varanids responded to past environmental change underpins long-term management of V. komodoensis populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reconstruct the palaeobiogeography of Neogene giant varanids and identify a new (unnamed species from the island of Timor. Our data reject the long-held perception that V. komodoensis became a giant because of insular evolution or as a specialist hunter of pygmy Stegodon. Phyletic giantism, coupled with a westward dispersal from mainland Australia, provides the most parsimonious explanation for the palaeodistribution of V. komodoensis and the newly identified species of giant varanid from Timor. Pliocene giant varanid fossils from Australia are morphologically referable to V. komodoensis suggesting an ultimate origin for V. komodoensis on mainland Australia (>3.8 million years ago. Varanus komodoensis body size has remained stable over the last 900,000 years (ka on Flores, a time marked by major faunal turnovers, extinction of the island's megafauna, the arrival of early hominids by 880 ka, co-existence with Homo floresiensis, and the arrival of modern humans by 10 ka. Within the last 2000 years their populations have contracted severely. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Giant varanids were once a ubiquitous part of Subcontinental Eurasian and Australasian faunas during the Neogene. Extinction played a pivotal role in the reduction of their ranges and diversity throughout the late Quaternary, leaving only V. komodoensis as an isolated long-term survivor. The events over the last two millennia now threaten its future survival.

  17. Nature Appropriation and Associations with Population Health in Canada’s Largest Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jason

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earth is a finite system with a limited supply of resources. As the human population grows, so does the appropriation of Earth’s natural capital, thereby exacerbating environmental concerns such as biodiversity loss, increased pollution, deforestation and global warming. Such concerns will negatively impact human health although it is widely believed that improving socio-economic circumstances will help to ameliorate environmental impacts and improve health outcomes. However, this belief does not explicitly acknowledge the fact that improvements in socio-economic position are reliant on increased inputs from nature. Gains in population health, particularly through economic means, are disconnected from the appropriation of nature to create wealth so that health gains become unsustainable. The current study investigated the sustainability of human population health in Canada with regard to resource consumption or “ecological footprints” (i.e., the resources required to sustain a given population. Ecological footprints of the 20 largest Canadian cities, along with several important determinants of health such as income and education, were statistically compared with corresponding indicators of human population health outcomes. A significant positive relationship was found between ecological footprints and life expectancy, as well as a significant negative relationship between ecological footprints and the prevalence of high blood pressure. Results suggest that increased appropriation of nature is linked to improved health outcomes. To prevent environmental degradation from excessive appropriation of natural resources will require the development of health promotion strategies that are de-coupled from ever-increasing and unsustainable resource use. Efforts to promote population health should focus on health benefits achieved from a lifestyle based on significantly reduced consumption of natural resources.

  18. Solomon Islands largest hawksbill turtle rookery shows signs of recovery after 150 years of excessive exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Hamilton

    Full Text Available The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands' future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet.

  19. Lessons Learned in Deploying the World s Largest Scale Lustre File System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillow, David A [ORNL; Fuller, Douglas [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Spider system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) is the world's largest scale Lustre parallel file system. Envisioned as a shared parallel file system capable of delivering both the bandwidth and capacity requirements of the OLCF's diverse computational environment, the project had a number of ambitious goals. To support the workloads of the OLCF's diverse computational platforms, the aggregate performance and storage capacity of Spider exceed that of our previously deployed systems by a factor of 6x - 240 GB/sec, and 17x - 10 Petabytes, respectively. Furthermore, Spider supports over 26,000 clients concurrently accessing the file system, which exceeds our previously deployed systems by nearly 4x. In addition to these scalability challenges, moving to a center-wide shared file system required dramatically improved resiliency and fault-tolerance mechanisms. This paper details our efforts in designing, deploying, and operating Spider. Through a phased approach of research and development, prototyping, deployment, and transition to operations, this work has resulted in a number of insights into large-scale parallel file system architectures, from both the design and the operational perspectives. We present in this paper our solutions to issues such as network congestion, performance baselining and evaluation, file system journaling overheads, and high availability in a system with tens of thousands of components. We also discuss areas of continued challenges, such as stressed metadata performance and the need for file system quality of service alongside with our efforts to address them. Finally, operational aspects of managing a system of this scale are discussed along with real-world data and observations.

  20. Iceland as the largest source of natural air pollution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Meinander, Outi; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur

    2017-04-01

    Arctic aerosols are often attributed to the Arctic Haze and long-range transport tracers. There is, however, an important dust source in the Arctic/Sub-arctic region which should receive more attention. The largest desert in the Arctic as well as in the Europe is Iceland with > 40,000 km2 of desert areas. The mean dust suspension frequency was 135 dust days annually in 1949-2012 with decreasing numbers in 2013-2015. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 31-40 million tons yr-1 affecting the area of > 500,000 km2. Satelite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes traveling > 1000 km at times. The physical properties of Icelandic dust showed differences in mineralogy, geochemical compositions, shapes, sizes, and colour, compared to the crustal mineral dust. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin, dark in colour with sharp-tipped shards and large bubbles. About 80% of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals, such as iron and titanium. Suspended dust measured at the glacial dust source consisted of such high number of close-to-ultrafine particles as concentrations during active eruptions. Generally, about 50% of the suspended PM10 are submicron particles in Iceland. Contrarily, suspended grains > 2 mm were captured during severe dust storm after the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption when the aeolian transport exceeded 11 t m-1 of materials and placed this storms among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. Our reflectance measurements showed that Icelandic dust deposited on snow lowers the snow albedo and reduces the snow density as much as Black Carbon. Icelandic volcanic dust tends to act as a positive climate forcing agent, both directly and indirectly, which is different to what generally concluded for crustal dust in the 2013 IPCC report. The high frequency, severity and year-round activity of volcanic dust emissions suggest that Icelandic dust may contribute to Arctic warming.

  1. RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, U; Jaensson, M; Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Grönlund, Å; Hagberg, L; Eriksson, M

    2016-01-13

    Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery.The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A-C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. NCT02492191; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  2. Health Insurance Premium Increases for the 5 Largest School Districts in the United States, 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Local school districts are often one of the largest, if not the largest, employers in their respective communities. Like many large employers, school districts offer health insurance to their employees. There is a lack of information about the rate of health insurance premiums in US school districts relative to other employers. Objective To assess the change in the costs of healthcare insurance in the 5 largest public school districts in the United States, between 2004 and 2008, as representative of large public employers in the country. Methods Data for this study were drawn exclusively from a survey sent to the 5 largest public school districts in the United States. The survey requested responses on 3 data elements for each benefit plan offered from 2004 through 2008; these included enrollment, employee costs, and employer costs. Results The premium growth for the 5 largest school districts has slowed down and is consistent with other purchasers—Kaiser/Health Research & Educational Trust and the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program. The average increase in health insurance premium for the schools was 5.9% in 2008, and the average annual growth rate over the study period was 7.5%. For family coverage, these schools provide the most generous employer contribution (80.8%) compared with the employer contribution reported by other employers (73.5%) for 2008. Conclusions Often the largest employers in their communities, school districts demonstrate a commitment to provide choice of benefits and affordability for employees and their families. Despite constraints typical of public employers, the 5 largest school districts in the United States have decelerated in premium growth consistent with other purchasers, albeit at a slower pace. PMID:25126311

  3. Health insurance premium increases for the 5 largest school districts in the United States, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, John R

    2010-03-01

    Local school districts are often one of the largest, if not the largest, employers in their respective communities. Like many large employers, school districts offer health insurance to their employees. There is a lack of information about the rate of health insurance premiums in US school districts relative to other employers. To assess the change in the costs of healthcare insurance in the 5 largest public school districts in the United States, between 2004 and 2008, as representative of large public employers in the country. Data for this study were drawn exclusively from a survey sent to the 5 largest public school districts in the United States. The survey requested responses on 3 data elements for each benefit plan offered from 2004 through 2008; these included enrollment, employee costs, and employer costs. The premium growth for the 5 largest school districts has slowed down and is consistent with other purchasers-Kaiser/Health Research & Educational Trust and the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program. The average increase in health insurance premium for the schools was 5.9% in 2008, and the average annual growth rate over the study period was 7.5%. For family coverage, these schools provide the most generous employer contribution (80.8%) compared with the employer contribution reported by other employers (73.5%) for 2008. Often the largest employers in their communities, school districts demonstrate a commitment to provide choice of benefits and affordability for employees and their families. Despite constraints typical of public employers, the 5 largest school districts in the United States have decelerated in premium growth consistent with other purchasers, albeit at a slower pace.

  4. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Hassan; Shah, Ronak; Schroeder, Karl; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews.This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z's ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme) certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to readers in the malaria community, especially in developing

  5. Oak habitat recovery on California's largest islands: Scenarios for the role of corvid seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesendorfer, Mario B.; Baker, Christopher M.; Stringer, Martin; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Bode, Michael; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott

    2018-01-01

    California's second-largest island. The simulation model, extensively parameterized with field data, suggests that re-establishing the mutualism with seed-hoarding jays would accelerate the expansion of island scrub oak, which could benefit myriad species of conservation concern.

  6. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? Discussion A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews. This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z’s ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. Summary With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to

  7. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  8. Earth's Largest Terrestrial Landslide (The Markagunt Gravity Slide of Southwest Utah): Insights from the Catastrophic Collapse of a Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, D. B.; Biek, R. F.; Rowley, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    The newly discovered Miocene Markagunt gravity slide (MGS; Utah, USA) represents the largest volcanic landslide structure on Earth. Recent geologic mapping of the MGS indicates that it was a large contiguous volcanic sheet of allochthonous andesitic mudflow breccias and lava flows, volcaniclastic rocks, and intertonguing regional ash-flow tuffs that blanketed an area of at least 5000 km2 with an estimated volume of ~3000 km3. From its breakaway zone in the Tushar and Mineral Mountains to its southern limits, the MGS is over 95 km long and at least 65 km wide. The MGS consists of four distinct structural segments: 1) a high-angle breakaway segment, 2) a bedding-plane segment, ~60 km long and ~65 km wide, typically located within the volcaniclastic Eocene-Oligocene Brian Head Formation, 3) a ramp segment ~1-2 km wide where the slide cuts upsection, and 4) a former land surface segment where the upper-plate moved at least 35 km over the Miocene landscape. The presence of basal and lateral cataclastic breccias, clastic dikes, jigsaw puzzle fracturing, internal shears, pseudotachylytes, and the overall geometry of the MGS show that it represents a single catastrophic emplacement event. The MGS represents gravitationally induced collapse of the southwest sector of the Oligocene to Miocene Marysvale volcanic field. We suggest that continuous growth of the Marysvale volcanic field, loading more volcanic rocks on a structurally weak Brian Head basement, created conditions necessary for gravity sliding. In addition, inflation of the volcanic pile due to multiple magmatic intrusions tilted the strata gently southward, inducing lateral spreading of the sub-volcanic rocks prior to failure. Although similar smaller-scale failures have been recognized from individual volcanoes, the MGS represents a new class of low frequency but high impact hazards associated with catastrophic sector collapse of large volcanic fields containing multiple volcanoes. The relationship of the MGS to

  9. Group Flow and Group Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  10. The epidemiological trends of head injury in the largest Canadian adult trauma center from 1986 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadotte, David W; Vachhrajani, Shobhan; Pirouzmand, Farhad

    2011-06-01

    This study documents the epidemiology of head injury over the course of 22 years in the largest Level I adult trauma center in Canada. This information defines the current state, changing pattern, and relative distribution of demographic factors in a defined group of trauma patients. It will aid in hypothesis generation to direct etiological research, administrative resource allocation, and preventative strategies. Data on all the trauma patients treated at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (SHSC) from 1986 to 2007 were collected in a consecutive, prospective fashion. The authors reviewed these data from the Sunnybrook Trauma Registry Database in a retrospective fashion. The aggregate data on head injury included demographic data, cause of injury, and Injury Severity Score (ISS). The collected data were analyzed using univariate techniques to depict the trend of variables over years. The authors used the length of stay (LOS) and number of deaths per year (case fatality rate) as crude measures of outcome. A total of 16,678 patients were treated through the Level I trauma center at SHSC from January 1986 to December 2007. Of these, 9315 patients met the inclusion criteria (ISS > 12, head Abbreviated Injury Scale score > 0). The median age of all trauma patients was 36 years, and 69.6% were male. The median ISS of the head-injury patients was 27. The median age of this group of patients increased by 12 years over the study period. Motorized vehicle accidents accounted for the greatest number of head injuries (60.3%) although the relative percentage decreased over the study period. The median transfer time of patients sustaining a head injury was 2.58 hours, and there was an approximately 45 minute improvement over the 22-year study period. The median LOS in our center decreased from 19 to 10 days over the study period. The average case fatality rate was 17.4% over the study period. In multivariate analysis, more severe injuries were associated with increased LOS as

  11. Reproduction in a gecko assemblage (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae in the Marañon Region (Peru and comments on the largest gecko in the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Aurich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction is described for four phyllodactylid geckos, Phyllopezus maranjonensis, Phyllodactylus delsolari, P. thompsoni and P. reissii from the upper Marañon Valley, Peru. Observations were made between March and May 2010 and voucher specimens, already housed in the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK, were X-rayed to check for gravid females. Gravid female P. maranjonensis, P. delsolari and P. reissii contain two eggs, whereas P. thompsoni produces a single egg that is deposited in leaf litter or crevices of stone walls. It is likely that females of all of these species produce multiple clutches in one year; the reproductive period seems to be extended in at least two species. Furthermore, measurements of numerous specimens of all four species are presented herein, revealing that Phyllopezus maranjonensis is the largest species of New World geckos.

  12. Lessons from the Largest Epidemic of Avian Influenza Viruses in Taiwan, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Fen; King, Chwan-Chuen; Wan, Cho-Hua; Chang, Yun-Cheng; Chan, Ta-Chien; David Lee, Chang-Chun; Chou, Po-Hao Borris; Li, Zheng-Rong Tiger; Li, Yao-Tsun; Tseng, Tzu-Jung; Lee, Pei-Fen; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung

    2016-05-01

    The largest epidemic of avian influenza (AI) in history attacked poultry and wild birds throughout Taiwan starting January 6, 2015. This study analyzed surveillance results, epidemiologic characteristics, and viral sequences by using government-released information, with the intention to provide recommendations to minimize future pandemic influenza. The H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic AI viruses (HPAIVs) had not been detected in Taiwan before 2015. During this epidemic, four types of etiologic agents were identified: the three novel subtypes H5N2, H5N8, and H5N3 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIVs and one endemic chicken H5N2 subtype (Mexican-like lineage) of low pathogenic AI viruses. Cocirculation of mixed subtypes also occurred, with H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIVs accompanied by the H5N8 and H5N3 subtypes or old H5N2 viruses in the same farm. More than 90% of domestic geese died from this AI epidemic; geese were affected the most at the early outbreaks. The epidemic peaked in mid-January for all three novel H5 subtypes. Spatial epidemiology found that most affected areas were located in southwestern coastal areas. In terrestrial poultry (mostly chickens), different geographic distributions of AI virus subtypes were detected, with hot spots of H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 vs. past-endemic old H5N2 viruses in Changhwa (P = 0.03) and Yunlin (P = 0.007) counties, respectively, of central Taiwan. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of all the early 10 Taiwan H5 clade 2.3.4.4 isolates covering the three subtypes showed that they were very different from the HA of the past local H5 viruses from domestic ducks (75%-80%) and chickens (70%-75%). However, they had the highest sequence identity percentages (99.53%-100%), with the HA of A/crane/Kagoshima/KU13/2014(H5N8) isolated on December 7, 2014, in Japan being higher than those of recent American and Korean H5 HPAIVs [A/Northern pintail/Washington/40964/2014 (H5N2) and A/gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014 (H5N8): 99.02%-99.54% and A/Baikal teal

  13. Process-optimization in Europe's largest refinery; Prozessoptimierung in Europas groesster Raffinerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbstritt, M. [AUMA Riester GmbH und Co. KG, Muellheim (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    More than 1000 valves are to be replaced, with new actuator systems, in the context of the PROMS (''Profitable Oil Movement Systems'') project at the Nerefco refinery in Rotterdam. The requirements for this project include redundant data transmission, facilities for scanning of all actuator parameters and states from the control room, and the ability to record torque curves for the valves, in order to permit deductions concerning valve condition. Explosion-safety and high resistance to corrosion are, of course, basic preconditions. Finally, conversion to the new valve and actuator systems is to be accomplished without interruption to plant operation. A single manufacturer, who thus simultaneously plays the role of a system integrator, has been able to meet all these demands. (orig.)

  14. Group Recommendation in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    interests 8,822,921 DOUBAN Largest Chinese community providing user review and recommendation services for movies, books, and music . It also...doubles up as the Chinese language book, movie and music database. 46,850,000 FACEBOOK General 750,000,000+ FLIXSTER Movies 32,000,000 FOURSQUARE...groups, events and community pages) • More than 30 billion pieces of content (web links, news stories, blog posts, notes, photo albums , etc.) shared

  15. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  16. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  17. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order

  18. Lie groups and algebraic groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We give an exposition of certain topics in Lie groups and algebraic groups. This is not a complete ... of a polynomial equation is equivalent to the solva- bility of the equation ..... to a subgroup of the group of roots of unity in k (in particular, it is a ...

  19. ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, announced today that it has signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe. The ALMA antennas present difficult technical challenges, since the antenna surface accuracy must be within 25 microns, the pointing accuracy within 0.6 arc seconds, and the antennas must be able to be moved between various stations on the ALMA site. This is especially remarkable since the antennas will be located outdoor in all weather conditions, without any protection. Moreover, the ALMA antennas can be pointed directly at the Sun. ALMA will have a collecting area of more than 5,600 square meters, allowing for unprecedented measurements of extremely faint objects. The signing ceremony took place on December 6, 2005 at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany. "This contract represents a major milestone. It allows us to move forward, together with our American and Japanese colleagues, in this very ambitious and unique project," said ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "By building ALMA, we are giving European astronomers access to the world's leading submillimetre facility at the beginning of the next decade, thereby fulfilling Europe's desire to play a major role in this field of fundamental research." Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO of Alcatel Alenia Space, said: "We would like to thank ESO for trusting us to take on this new challenge. We are bringing to the table not only our recognized expertise in antenna development, but also our long-standing experience in

  20. Business Subsidies in Canada Comprehensive Estimates for the Government of Canada and the Four Largest Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lester

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Business subsidies in Canada: the “winner” is Alberta; the loser is the taxpayer The federal government and the four largest provinces in Canada spend about $29 billion a year on business subsidies, delivered through program spending, the tax system, government business enterprises and direct investments by government. These subsidies represent almost half of the corporate income tax revenue collected by the five jurisdictions. Surprisingly, given its reputation as a bastion of free enterprise, Alberta is the most prolific subsidizer. In the 2014-15 fiscal year, per person subsidies were $640 in Alberta, about $100 ahead of the next most generous jurisdiction, Québec. Alberta has probably added to its “lead” through measures introduced in the October 2015 Fiscal Update and the 2016 budget. Alberta also stands out by having the least transparent public reporting of business subsidies. What motivates governments to subsidize business? Abstracting from cynical efforts to win votes, business subsidies have two broad objectives: to improve economic performance and to achieve a social objective by supporting specific firms, industries or regions. On average in the five jurisdictions, the split between the two categories is about 70-30 in favour of economic development measures. Assessing value for money from programs with a social objective is subjective, but measures intended to improve economic performance should be assessed on their ability to raise real income. Business subsidies can only raise real income if markets fail to allocate labour and capital to their best uses. The classic case is R&D. When a firm undertakes R&D, some of the knowledge created inevitably spills over to the benefit other firms. Firms are focused on their own benefits and costs when deciding how much to spend on R&D, not the benefits received by other firms, so society has an interest in encouraging additional R&D. While markets generally do a good job allocating

  1. Plant species and communities in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant species richness and composition of a wetland is essential when estimating its ecological importance and ecosystem services, especially if a particular wetland is subjected to human disturbances. Poyang Lake, located in the middle reaches of Yangtze River (central China, constitutes the largest freshwater lake of the country. It harbours high biodiversity and provides important habitat for local wildlife. A dam that will maintain the water capacity in Poyang Lake is currently being planned. However, the local biodiversity and the likely effects of this dam on the biodiversity (especially on the endemic and rare plants have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, in order to assess the richness of plant species and plant communities in Poyang Lake, we conducted a detailed field investigation combined with a literature review. A total of 124 families, 339 genera, and 512 species (including sub-species, varieties and forms as well as eight dominant plant communities were identified, confirming the lake’s wetland as a regional hotspot of plant diversity. It is imperative to carry out further research on the impact of damming on the vegetation, particularly research focusing on protecting local biodiversity, maintaining the lake’s ecosystem services, controlling the spread of invasive species, and restoring degraded ecosystems.El estudio de la riqueza y la composición de especies vegetales de un humedal es esencial a la hora de estimar su importancia ecológica y sus servicios ecosistémicos, especialmente cuando éste está sujeto a perturbaciones humanas. El lago Poyang, situado en el curso medio del río Yangtsé (China central constituye la mayor superfície de agua dulce del país. Alberga una elevada biodiversidad y proporciona hábitats importantes para la flora y fauna locales. En la actualidad existen planes de construir una presa que mantendrá el volumen de agua del lago estable. Sin embargo, y hasta la fecha, apenas

  2. Alcohol consumption among students - a cross-sectional study at three largest universities in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use among university students is increasing in many countries. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate alcohol consumption and alcohol-related knowledge, attitudes and risky behaviors among Serbian university students. Methods. The cross-sectional study was carried out at the three state universities from January to June in the academic year 2009/2010 and included 2,285 students of both genders. The students filled out a questionnaire consisting of 70 questions with respect to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, their lifestyle habits, styles and attitudes, health assessment, as well as exposure to different risk factors. Results. It was found that 77.7% of students drank alcohol occasionally, 4.6% of them consumed it on a daily basis. Friedman’s test (p<0.001 showed that students prefer drinking beer to all other alcoholic beverages. Students in Belgrade and students of Technical faculties are undisputed champions when it comes to how often they drink six or more drinks on a single occasion. Older students in Serbia drink more and get drunk more frequently. Conclusion. A high percentage of Serbian students consume alcohol, and even though they have their first drink at an early age, they generally drink less than students in many other countries.

  3. STAR Formation Histories Across the Interacting Galaxy NGC 6872, the Largest-Known Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, RIchard G.; deMello, Duilia F.; Gadotti, DImitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; deOliveira, CLaudia Mendes; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    NGC6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 micrometer) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  4. Ownership, financing, and management strategies of the ten largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Hauser, Clarilee; Olney, Brian; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the ownership, financing, and management strategies of the 10 largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States, including the four largest chains purchased by private equity corporations. Descriptive data were collected from Internet searches, company reports, and other sources for the decade 1998-2008. Since 1998, the largest chains have made many changes in their ownership and structure, and some have converted from publicly traded companies to private ownership. This study shows the increasing complexity of corporate nursing home ownership and the lack of public information about ownership and financial status. The chains have used strategies to maximize shareholder and investor value that include increasing Medicare revenues, occupancy rates, and company diversification, establishing multiple layers of corporate ownership, developing real estate investment trusts, and creating limited liability companies. These strategies enhance shareholder and investor profits, reduce corporate taxes, and reduce liability risk. There is a need for greater transparency in ownership and financial reporting and for more government oversight of the largest for-profit chains, including those owned by private equity companies.

  5. Haven't We Been Here Before? Some Comments on Steve Coffman's Proposal for "Earth's Largest Library".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGervey, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the concept of Earth's Largest Library (ELL), a mega-virtual library based on the Amazon.com model. Topics include who will be included; privacy; censorship; scope of the collection; costs; legal aspects; collection development; personnel management; access; the concept of community; public service; lending policies; technical…

  6. Estimate of the largest Lyapunov characteristic exponent of a high dimensional atmospheric global circulation model: a sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrieri, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report the largest Lyapunov characteristic exponent of a high dimensional atmospheric global circulation model of intermediate complexity has been estimated numerically. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out by varying the equator-to-pole temperature difference, the space resolution and the value of some parameters employed by the model. Chaotic and non-chaotic regimes of circulation have been found. [it

  7. Estimating the recreational value of Pakistan's largest freshwater lake to support sustainable tourism management using a travel cost model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangan, T.; Brouwer, R.; Lohano, H.; Nagraj, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Keenjhar Lake, Pakistan's largest freshwater lake and an important Ramsar site, provides habitat for internationally important water birds. Annually, 385,000 people visit the lake. The lake is threatened by a variety of causes, including industrial and agricultural pollution. To support its

  8. The Determinants of Bank Internationalisation in Times of Financial Globalisation: Evidence from the World's Largest Banks (1980-2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, Gerarda; Mulder, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the determinants of bank internationalisation, of the world's largest banks from the period 1980–2007. The purpose of the article is twofold. First, we show how a mixed-methods research design, in which we combine a variables-based research with three case studies, can

  9. Pay less, take more: the myth of quality of life at the Brazil’s largest drugstore chain counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the role of cultural transformer that the brandoccupies in the contemporary and seeking to delineate the role played bymyth in this construction, we look at Pague Menos, the largest pharmacyretail network in the country, through a qualitative study based on Barthesiansemiology. Our results showed six myths, whose relationships reveal ametanarrative: the quality of life.

  10. VALUE RELEVANCE OF GROUP FINANCIAL STATEMENTS BASED ON ENTITY VERSUS PARENT COMPANY THEORY: EVIDENCE FROM THE LARGEST THREE EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Müller Victor-Octavian

    2012-01-01

    Financial statementsn#8217; main objective is to give information on the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of the reporting entity, which is useful to investors and other users in making economic decisions. In order to be useful, financial information needs to be relevant to the decision-making process of users in general, and investors in particular. Regarding consolidated financial statements, the accounting theory knows four perspectives (theories) on which ...

  11. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  12. Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation - the passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ödeen, Anders; Håstad, Olle; Alström, Per

    2011-10-24

    Interspecific variation in avian colour vision falls into two discrete classes: violet sensitive (VS) and ultraviolet sensitive (UVS). They are characterised by the spectral sensitivity of the most shortwave sensitive of the four single cones, the SWS1, which is seemingly under direct control of as little as one amino acid substitution in the cone opsin protein. Changes in spectral sensitivity of the SWS1 are ecologically important, as they affect the abilities of birds to accurately assess potential mates, find food and minimise visibility of social signals to predators. Still, available data have indicated that shifts between classes are rare, with only four to five independent acquisitions of UV sensitivity in avian evolution. We have classified a large sample of passeriform species as VS or UVS from genomic DNA and mapped the evolution of this character on a passerine phylogeny inferred from published molecular sequence data. Sequencing a small gene fragment has allowed us to trace the trait changing from one stable state to another through the radiation of the passeriform birds. Their ancestor is hypothesised to be UVS. In the subsequent radiation, colour vision changed between UVS and VS at least eight times. The phylogenetic distribution of SWS1 cone opsin types in Passeriformes reveals a much higher degree of complexity in avian colour vision evolution than what was previously indicated from the limited data available. Clades with variation in the colour vision system are nested among clades with a seemingly stable VS or UVS state, providing a rare opportunity to understand how an ecologically important trait under simple genetic control may co-evolve with, and be stabilised by, associated traits in a character complex.

  13. Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation - the passerines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håstad Olle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific variation in avian colour vision falls into two discrete classes: violet sensitive (VS and ultraviolet sensitive (UVS. They are characterised by the spectral sensitivity of the most shortwave sensitive of the four single cones, the SWS1, which is seemingly under direct control of as little as one amino acid substitution in the cone opsin protein. Changes in spectral sensitivity of the SWS1 are ecologically important, as they affect the abilities of birds to accurately assess potential mates, find food and minimise visibility of social signals to predators. Still, available data have indicated that shifts between classes are rare, with only four to five independent acquisitions of UV sensitivity in avian evolution. Results We have classified a large sample of passeriform species as VS or UVS from genomic DNA and mapped the evolution of this character on a passerine phylogeny inferred from published molecular sequence data. Sequencing a small gene fragment has allowed us to trace the trait changing from one stable state to another through the radiation of the passeriform birds. Their ancestor is hypothesised to be UVS. In the subsequent radiation, colour vision changed between UVS and VS at least eight times. Conclusions The phylogenetic distribution of SWS1 cone opsin types in Passeriformes reveals a much higher degree of complexity in avian colour vision evolution than what was previously indicated from the limited data available. Clades with variation in the colour vision system are nested among clades with a seemingly stable VS or UVS state, providing a rare opportunity to understand how an ecologically important trait under simple genetic control may co-evolve with, and be stabilised by, associated traits in a character complex.

  14. Cheetah paradigm revisited: MHC diversity in the world's largest free-ranging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Prieto, Aines; Wachter, Bettina; Sommer, Simone

    2011-04-01

    For more than two decades, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been considered a paradigm of disease vulnerability associated with low genetic diversity, particularly at the immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Cheetahs have been used as a classic example in numerous conservation genetics textbooks as well as in many related scientific publications. However, earlier studies used methods with low resolution to quantify MHC diversity and/or small sample sizes. Furthermore, high disease susceptibility was reported only for captive cheetahs, whereas free-ranging cheetahs show no signs of infectious diseases and a good general health status. We examined whether the diversity at MHC class I and class II-DRB loci in 149 Namibian cheetahs was higher than previously reported using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, cloning, and sequencing. MHC genes were examined at the genomic and transcriptomic levels. We detected ten MHC class I and four class II-DRB alleles, of which nine MHC class I and all class II-DRB alleles were expressed. Phylogenetic analyses and individual genotypes suggested that the alleles belong to four MHC class I and three class II-DRB putative loci. Evidence of positive selection was detected in both MHC loci. Our study indicated that the low number of MHC class I alleles previously observed in cheetahs was due to a smaller sample size examined. On the other hand, the low number of MHC class II-DRB alleles previously observed in cheetahs was further confirmed. Compared with other mammalian species including felids, cheetahs showed low levels of MHC diversity, but this does not seem to influence the immunocompetence of free-ranging cheetahs in Namibia and contradicts the previous conclusion that the cheetah is a paradigm species of disease vulnerability.

  15. Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2018-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by…

  16. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  17. Terrorist attacks in the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan: Profile of soft tissue and skeletal injuries from a single trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahid; Waheed, Shahan; Ali, Arif; Mumtaz, Narjis; Feroze, Asher; Noordin, Shahryar

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan has been hugely struck with massive bomb explosions (car and suicide bombs) resulting in multiple casualties in the past few years. The aim of this study is to present the patterns of skeletal and soft tissue injuries and to review the outcome of the victims who presented to our hospital. This is a retrospective chart review from January 2008 to December 2012. The medical record numbers of patients were obtained from the hospital Health Information and Management Sciences (HIMS) as per the ICD-9 coding. During the study period, more than 100 suicide and implanted bomb blast attacks took place in the public proceedings, government offices, residential areas and other places of the city. Altogether 262 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the patients was 31±14 years. The shrapnel inflicted wounds were present on to the upper limb in 24 patients and the lower limb in 50. Long bone fractures were the most common skeletal injuries. The fractures were complicated by penetrating fragments and nails which result in post operative infections and prolonged hospital stay.

  18. Implementation of the Enhanced Moderated Online Social Therapy (MOST+) Model Within a National Youth E-Mental Health Service (eheadspace): Protocol for a Single Group Pilot Study for Help-Seeking Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Simon; Gleeson, John; Leicester, Steven; Bendall, Sarah; D'Alfonso, Simon; Gilbertson, Tamsyn; Killackey, Eoin; Parker, Alexandra; Lederman, Reeva; Wadley, Greg; Santesteban-Echarri, Olga; Pryor, Ingrid; Mawren, Daveena; Ratheesh, Aswin; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario

    2018-02-22

    There is a substantial need for youth electronic mental health (e-mental health) services. In addressing this need, our team has developed a novel moderated online social therapy intervention called enhanced moderated online social therapy (MOST+). MOST+ integrates real-time, clinician-delivered Web chat counseling, interactive user-directed online therapy, expert and peer moderation, and private and secure peer-to-peer social networking. MOST+ has been designed to give young people immediate, 24-hour access to anonymous, evidence-based, and short-term mental health care. The primary aims of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of the intervention. Secondary aims were to assess prepost changes in key psychosocial outcomes and collect qualitative data for future intervention refinement. MOST+ will be embedded within eheadspace, an Australian youth e-mental health service, and will be evaluated via an uncontrolled single-group study. Approximately 250 help-seeking young people (16-25 years) will be progressively recruited to the intervention from the eheadspace home page over the first 4 weeks of an 8-week intervention period. All participants will have access to evidence-based therapeutic content and integrated Web chat counseling. Additional access to moderated peer-to-peer social networking will be granted to individuals for whom it is deemed safe and appropriate, through a three-tiered screening process. Participants will be enrolled in the MOST+ intervention for 1 week, with the option to renew their enrollment across the duration of the pilot. Participants will complete a survey at enrollment to assess psychological well-being and other mental health outcomes. Additional assessment will occur following account deactivation (ie, after participant has opted not to renew their enrollment, or at trial conclusion) and will include an online survey and telephone interview assessing psychological well-being and experience of

  19. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  20. Lung segment geometry study: simulation of largest possible tumours that fit into bronchopulmonary segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, S; Stöcker, C; Dicken, V; Kühl, H; Krass, S; Stamatis, G

    2012-03-01

    Segmental resection in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been well described and is considered to have similar survival rates as lobectomy but with increased rates of local tumour recurrence due to inadequate parenchymal margins. In consequence, today segmentectomy is only performed when the tumour is smaller than 2 cm. Three-dimensional reconstructions from 11 thin-slice CT scans of bronchopulmonary segments were generated, and virtual spherical tumours were placed over the segments, respecting all segmental borders. As a next step, virtual parenchymal safety margins of 2 cm and 3 cm were subtracted and the size of the remaining tumour calculated. The maximum tumour diameters with a 30-mm parenchymal safety margin ranged from 26.1 mm in right-sided segments 7 + 8 to 59.8 mm in the left apical segments 1-3. Using a three-dimensional reconstruction of lung CT scans, we demonstrated that segmentectomy or resection of segmental groups should be feasible with adequate margins, even for larger tumours in selected cases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Insights into the 1.59-Mbp largest plasmid of Azospirillum brasilense CBG497.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Cruz, Erika; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Rouy, Zoé; Barbe, Valérie; Valdés, María; Mavingui, Patrick

    2012-09-01

    The plant growth-promoting proteobacterium Azospirillum brasilense enhances growth of many economically important crops, such as wheat, maize, and rice. The sequencing and annotation of the 1.59-Mbp replicon of A. brasilense CBG497, a strain isolated from a maize rhizosphere grown on an alkaline soil in the northeast of Mexico, revealed a GC content of 68.7 % and the presence of 1,430 potential protein-encoding genes, 1,147 of them classified into clusters of orthologous groups categories, and 16 tRNA genes representing 11 tRNA species. The presence of sixty-two genes representatives of the minimal gene set and chromid core genes suggests its importance in bacterial survival. The phaAB → G operon, reported as involved in the bacterial adaptation to alkaline pH in the presence of K(+), was also found on this replicon and detected in several Azospirillum strains. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it was laterally acquired. We were not able to show its inference on the adaptation to basic pH, giving a hint about the presence of an alternative system for adaptation to alkaline pH.

  2. The Effect of Child-Centered Play Therapy on the Externalizing Behaviors of Low Income Male Preschoolers during Group Instructional Time and Center Time: A Single-Case Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Christa Brown

    2017-01-01

    Low income male preschoolers with externalizing behaviors have continued behavior issues throughout elementary school, middle school, high school, and into adulthood and create stress for their teachers. Because of this, it is important to detect externalizing behaviors early and implement an appropriate intervention. A single subject reversal…

  3. Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Munir

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC, located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats. Each month from April 2006 to April 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage random sampling scheme, in conjunction with participatory information from each selected farm. Furthermore, we also collected epithelium samples from animals with clinical disease, as well as mouth-swabs samples from those farms. In addition, we analysed a total of 180 serum samples randomly collecting 30 samples each month at the local slaughterhouse, from October 2006 to March 2007. Samples have been screened for FMDV by real-time RT-PCR and the partial or full 1D coding region of selected isolates has been sequenced. Serum samples have been analysed by applying serotype-specific antibody ELISA and non-structural proteins (NSP antibody ELISA. Results FMDV infection prevalence at aggregate level shows an endemic occurrence of FMDV in the colony, with peaks in August 2006, December 2006 and February 2007 to March 2007. A significant association of prevalence peaks to the rainy seasons, which includes the coldest time of the year and the muslimic Eid-festival, has been demonstrated. Participatory information indicated that 88% of all questioned farmers vaccinate their animals. Analysis of the serum samples showed high levels of antibodies for serotypes O, A, Asia 1 and C. The median endpoint-titre for all tested serotypes, except serotype C, in VNT titration is at a serum dilution of equal or above 1/100. All 180 serum samples collected have been tested for antibodies against the non-structural proteins and all but four have been found

  4. The development of online doctor reviews in China: an analysis of the largest online doctor review website in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haijing

    2015-06-01

    Since the time of Web 2.0, more and more consumers have used online doctor reviews to rate their doctors or to look for a doctor. This phenomenon has received health care researchers' attention worldwide, and many studies have been conducted on online doctor reviews in the United States and Europe. But no study has yet been done in China. Also, in China, without a mature primary care physician recommendation system, more and more Chinese consumers seek online doctor reviews to look for a good doctor for their health care concerns. This study sought to examine the online doctor review practice in China, including addressing the following questions: (1) How many doctors and specialty areas are available for online review? (2) How many online reviews are there on those doctors? (3) What specialty area doctors are more likely to be reviewed or receive more reviews? (4) Are those reviews positive or negative? This study explores an empirical dataset from Good Doctor website, haodf.com—the earliest and largest online doctor review and online health care community website in China—from 2006 to 2014, to examine the stated research questions by using descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, and multivariate linear regression. The dataset from the Good Doctor website contained 314,624 doctors across China and among them, 112,873 doctors received 731,543 quantitative reviews and 772,979 qualitative reviews as of April 11, 2014. On average, 37% of the doctors had been reviewed on the Good Doctor website. Gynecology-obstetrics-pediatrics doctors were most likely to be reviewed, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.497 (95% CI 1.461-1.535), and internal medicine doctors were less likely to be reviewed, with an OR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.921-0.960), relative to the combined small specialty areas. Both traditional Chinese medicine doctors and surgeons were more likely to be reviewed than the combined small specialty areas, with an OR of 1.483 (95% CI 1.442-1.525) and an OR of 1

  5. Group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, W R

    2010-01-01

    Here is a clear, well-organized coverage of the most standard theorems, including isomorphism theorems, transformations and subgroups, direct sums, abelian groups, and more. This undergraduate-level text features more than 500 exercises.

  6. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  7. Computer group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.; Black, I.; Heusler, A.; Hoeptner, G.; Krafft, F.; Lang, R.; Moellenkamp, R.; Mueller, W.; Mueller, W.F.; Schati, C.; Schmidt, A.; Schwind, D.; Weber, G.

    1983-01-01

    The computer groups has been reorganized to take charge for the general purpose computers DEC10 and VAX and the computer network (Dataswitch, DECnet, IBM - connections to GSI and IPP, preparation for Datex-P). (orig.)

  8. Group learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel, Ricardo; Noguira, Eloy Eros da Silva; Elkjær, Bente

    The article presents a study that aims at the apprehension of the group learning in a top management team composed by teachers in a Brazilian Waldorf school whose management is collective. After deciding to extend the school, they had problems recruiting teachers who were already trained based...... on the Steiner´s ideas, which created practical problems for conducting management activities. The research seeks to understand how that group of teachers collectively manage the school, facing the lack of resources, a significant heterogeneity in the relationships, and the conflicts and contradictions......, and they are interrelated to the group learning as the construction, maintenance and reconstruction of the intelligibility of practices. From this perspective, it can be said that learning is a practice and not an exceptional phenomenon. Building, maintaining and rebuilding the intelligibility is the group learning...

  9. Group technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs

  10. Insects, birds and lizards as pollinators of the largest-flowered Scrophularia of Europe and Macaronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Olivencia, Ana; Rodríguez-Riaño, Tomás; Pérez-Bote, José L; López, Josefa; Mayo, Carlos; Valtueña, Francisco J; Navarro-Pérez, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    It has traditionally been considered that the flowers of Scrophularia are mainly pollinated by wasps. We studied the pollination system of four species which stand out for their large and showy flowers: S. sambucifolia and S. grandiflora (endemics of the western Mediterranean region), S. trifoliata (an endemic of the Tyrrhenian islands) and S. calliantha (an endemic of the Canary Islands). Our principal aim was to test whether these species were pollinated by birds or showed a mixed pollination system between insects and birds. Censuses and captures of insects and birds were performed to obtain pollen load transported and deposited on the stigmas. Also, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the flowers and inflorescences was carried out. Flowers were visited by Hymenoptera and by passerine birds. The Canarian species was the most visited by birds, especially by Phylloscopus canariensis, and its flowers were also accessed by juveniles of the lizard Gallotia stehlini. The most important birds in the other three species were Sylvia melanocephala and S. atricapilla. The most important insect-functional groups in the mixed pollination system were: honey-bees and wasps in S. sambucifolia; bumble-bees and wasps in S. grandiflora; wasps in S. trifoliata; and a small bee in S. calliantha. The species studied show a mixed pollination system between insects and passerine birds. In S. calliantha there is, in addition, a third agent (juveniles of Gallotia stehlini). The participation of birds in this mixed pollination system presents varying degrees of importance because, while in S. calliantha they are the main pollinators, in the other species they interact to complement the insects which are the main pollinators. A review of different florae showed that the large showy floral morphotypes of Scrophularia are concentrated in the western and central Mediterranean region, Macaronesia and USA (New Mexico).

  11. Prokaryotic diversity in one of the largest hypersaline coastal lagoons in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementino, M M; Vieira, R P; Cardoso, A M; Nascimento, A P A; Silveira, C B; Riva, T C; Gonzalez, A S M; Paranhos, R; Albano, R M; Ventosa, A; Martins, O B

    2008-07-01

    Araruama Lagoon is an environment characterized by high salt concentrations. The low raining and high evaporation rates in this region favored the development of many salty ponds around the lagoon. In order to reveal the microbial composition of this system, we performed a 16S rRNA gene survey. Among archaea, most clones were related to uncultured environmental Euryarchaeota. In lagoon water, we found some clones related to Methanomicrobia and Methanothermococcus groups, while in the saline pond water members related to the genus Haloarcula were detected. Bacterial community was dominated by clones related to Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Synechococcus in lagoon water, while Salinibacter ruber relatives dominated in saline pond. We also detected the presence of Alpha-proteobacteria, Pseudomonas-like bacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Only representatives of the genus Ralstonia were cosmopolitan, being observed in both systems. The detection of a substantial number of clones related to uncultured archaea and bacteria suggest that the hypersaline waters of Araruama harbor a pool of novel prokaryotic phylotypes, distinct from those observed in other similar systems. We also observed clones related to halophilic genera of cyanobacteria that are specific for each habitat studied. Additionally, two bacterioplankton molecular markers with ecological relevance were analyzed, one is linked to nitrogen fixation (nifH) and the other is linked to carbon fixation by bacterial photosynthesis, the protochlorophyllide genes, revealing a specific genetic distribution in this ecosystem. This is the first study of the biogeography and community structure of microbial assemblages in Brazilian tropical hypersaline environments. This work is directed towards a better understanding of the free-living prokaryotic diversity adapted to life in hypersaline waters.

  12. Demography and viability of the largest population of greater one-horned rhinoceros in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Subedi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Megaherbivores are characterized by slow life history traits which when coupled with human exploitation makes them vulnerable to local extinctions. An understanding of key demographic parameters assists in guiding management interventions to ensure their recovery and persistence over the longer term. We monitored 110 (30 calves, 80 young and adults individually known greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis for seven years in Chitwan National Park, Nepal (2009–15. Using known fate model with staggered entry design in program MARK we estimated annual calf survival at 0.765 ± 0.026 SE and that of remaining older age groups between 0.96 and 0.985. Both genders exhibited a typical Type I survivorship curve. The population consisted of 62% adults, 13% sub-adults and 26% juveniles and calves (dependent animals. The adult sex ratio (female: male was 1.23 ± 0.09 SE and dependent: cow ratio was 0.636 ± 0.03 SE. Age at first calving was 7.91 years ± 0.31 SE. Shorter inter-calving intervals were observed for young adults compared to old adults. Overall inter-calving interval was 41.28 months ± 2.33 SE. Chitwan rhino population grew at a maximum realized rate of r = 0.051 ± 0.005 SE. PHVA results showed that low level continuous poaching increased extinction probability compared to high but intermittent poaching episodes. An increase in annual poaching of over six females and 12 males over the current average of 5.5 rhinos per year, coupled with habitat degradation, caused by the alien invasive Mikania micrantha resulted in high extinction risks. Annually upto 13 rhinos (8 males and 5 females from Chitwan can be used for reintroduction and supplementation of rhinoceros across their current and historic range.

  13. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  14. Possible Triggering of the Largest Deccan Traps Eruptions By the Chicxulub Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M. A.; Alvarez, W.; Self, S.; Karlstrom, L.; Renne, P. R.; Manga, M.; Sprain, C. J.; Smit, J.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Gibson, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    New constraints on the timing of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction and the Chicxulub impact, together with a particularly voluminous and apparently brief eruptive pulse toward the end of the "main-stage" eruptions of the Deccan continental flood basalt province, suggest that these three events may have occurred within less than about a hundred thousand years of each other. Partial melting induced by the Chicxulub event does not provide an energetically-plausible explanation for this coincidence, and both geochronologic and magnetic-polarity data show that Deccan volcanism was underway well before Chicxulub/K-Pg time. However, historical data document that eruptions from existing volcanic systems can be triggered by earthquakes. Seismic modeling of the ground motion due to the Chicxulub impact suggests that the impact could have generated seismic energy densities of order 0.1-1.0 J/m3 throughout the upper ~200 km of the Earth's mantle, sufficient to trigger volcanic eruptions worldwide based upon comparison with historical examples. Triggering may have been caused by a transient increase in the effective permeability of the existing deep magmatic system beneath the Deccan province, or mantle plume "head." It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that the Chicxulub impact might have triggered the enormous Poladpur, Ambenali, and Mahabaleshwar (Wai sub-group) lava flows that account for >70% of the Deccan Traps main-stage eruptions. This hypothesis is consistent with independent stratigraphic, geochronologic, geochemical, and tectonic constraints, which combine to indicate that at approximately Chicxulub/K-Pg time a huge pulse of mantle plume-derived magma passed through the crust with little interaction, and erupted to form the most extensive and voluminous lava flows known on Earth. High-precision radioisotopic dating of the main-phase Deccan flood basalt formations may be able either to confirm or reject this hypothesis, which in turn might help

  15. The largest Fresco in Europe on cooling tower of nuclear power station of Cruas Meysse in Ardeche, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mayo, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Station Cruas Meysse is on the most important communication way of France, in the Rhone Valley, between the Rhin and the Mediterranean Sea. In the South of the Rhone Valley, the Nuclear Power Plant is situated near the very important site of 'Tricastin', the largest nuclear area in France. Cruas Meysse has a very good integration to the economy, social, and cultural scheme ; that's why EDF and the Ardeche Department had enter into partnership to associate art and technology of our time, and offer a work for everybody - 'Le Verseau' is the largest fresco in Europe - It gives a gigantic signalling system to the Ardeche Department, because the Nuclear Power Station has a very interesting position, close the motor way A7, the National 7 road, and the way of high speed train (TGV) an another symbol of the high French technology

  16. Group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  17. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  18. Invasive fish species in the largest lakes of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England: the collective U.K. experience

    OpenAIRE

    Winfield, I.J.; Fletcher, J.M.; James, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    An invasive species is defined as an alien (or introduced or non-native) species whose establishment and spread threaten ecosystems, habitats or species with harm. Such threats to UK lake fish communities have long been appreciated and this review assembles case histories, including new data, from the largest lakes of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England to examine the hypothesis that at least some of these introductions have become invasive. Loch Lomond in Scotland has experienced s...

  19. Survival of Extremely Premature Infants at the Largest MOH Referral Hospital in UAE: Comparable Results to Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    YASEEN, Hakam; YASEEN, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the survival rate of extreme premature infants born between 2000 and 2008 at AL Qassimi hospital that is the largest Ministry of Health (MOH) referral hospital in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).Methods: This was an institutional review board approved retrospective study of the outcomes of pregnancies in women who were in labor and delivered between 23 and 25 weeks' completed gestation at Al Qassimi Hospital in the Emirate of Sharjah between January 1,2000 and De...

  20. Mapping Dynamics of Inundation Patterns of Two Largest River-Connected Lakes in China: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guiping Wu; Yuanbo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake are the two largest freshwater lakes in China. The lakes are located approximately 300 km apart on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and are differently connected through their respective tributary systems, which will lead to different river–lake water exchanges and discharges. Thus, differences in their morphological and hydrological conditions should induce individual lake spatio-temporal inundation patterns. Quantitative comparative analyses of the dynam...

  1. The largest forest fires in Portugal: the constraints of burned area size on the comprehension of fire severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, Fantina; Remelgado, Ruben; Martins, João; Carvalho, Salete

    2015-01-01

    Portugal is a European country with highest forest fires density and burned area. Since beginning of official forest fires database in 1980, an increase in number of fires and burned area as well as appearance of large and catastrophic fires have characterized fire activity in Portugal. In 1980s, the largest fires were just a little bit over 10,000 ha. However, in the beginning of 21st century several fires occurred with a burned area over 20,000 ha. Some of these events can be classified as mega-fires due to their ecological and socioeconomic severity. The present study aimed to discuss the characterization of large forest fires trend, in order to understand if the largest fires that occurred in Portugal were exceptional events or evidences of a new trend, and the constraints of fire size to characterize fire effects because, usually, it is assumed that larger the fire higher the damages. Using Portuguese forest fire database and satellite imagery, the present study showed that the largest fires could be seen at the same time as exceptional events and as evidence of a new fire regime. It highlighted the importance of size and patterns of unburned patches within fire perimeter as well as heterogeneity of fire ecological severity, usually not included in fire regime description, which are critical to fire management and research. The findings of this research can be used in forest risk reduction and suppression planning.

  2. Group representations

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1994-01-01

    This third volume can be roughly divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the investigation of various properties of projective characters. Special attention is drawn to spin representations and their character tables and to various correspondences for projective characters. Among other topics, projective Schur index and projective representations of abelian groups are covered. The last topic is investigated by introducing a symplectic geometry on finite abelian groups. The second part is devoted to Clifford theory for graded algebras and its application to the corresponding theory

  3. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an

  4. Time compression of soil erosion by the effect of largest daily event. A regional analysis of USLE database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Batalla, R.; Cerda, A.; de Luis, M.

    2009-04-01

    When Thornes and Brunsden wrote in 1977 "How often one hears the researcher (and no less the undergraduate) complain that after weeks of observation "nothing happened" only to learn that, the day after his departure, a flood caused unprecedent erosion and channel changes!" (Thornes and Brunsden, 1977, p. 57), they focussed on two different problems in geomorphological research: the effects of extreme events and the temporal compression of geomorphological processes. The time compression is one of the main characteristic of erosion processes. It means that an important amount of the total soil eroded is produced in very short temporal intervals, i.e. few events mostly related to extreme events. From magnitude-frequency analysis we know that few events, not necessarily extreme by magnitude, produce high amount of geomorphological work. Last but not least, extreme isolated events are a classical issue in geomorphology by their specific effects, and they are receiving permanent attention, increased at present because of scenarios of global change. Notwithstanding, the time compression of geomorphological processes could be focused not only on the analysis of extreme events and the traditional magnitude-frequency approach, but on new complementary approach based on the effects of largest events. The classical approach define extreme event as a rare event (identified by its magnitude and quantified by some deviation from central value), while we define largest events by the rank, whatever their magnitude. In a previous research on time compression of soil erosion, using USLE soil erosion database (Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., EGU 2007), we described a relationship between the total amount of daily erosive events recorded by plot and the percentage contribution to total soil erosion of n-largest aggregated daily events. Now we offer a further refined analysis comparing different agricultural regions in USA. To do that we have analyzed data from 594 erosion plots from USLE

  5. Profitability as a business goal: the multicriteria approach to the ranking of the five largest Croatian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja Vojvodić Rosenzweig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ranking of commercial banks is usually based on using a single criterion, the size of assets or income. A multicriteria approach allows a more complex analysis of their business efficiency. Objectives: This paper proposes the ranking of banks based on six financial criteria using a multicriteria approach implementing a goal programming model. The criteria are classified into three basic groups: profitability, credit risk and solvency. Methods/Approach: Business performance is evaluated using a score for each bank, calculated as the weighted sum of relative values of individual indicators. Results: In the process of solving the corresponding goal programming problem, the weights are calculated. It is assumed that the goal of each bank is the highest profitability. Because of the market competition among banks, the weights of indicators depend on the performance of each bank. This method is applied to the five biggest Croatian banks (ZABA, PBZ, ERSTE, RBA and HYPO. Conclusion: For the observed period (2010, the highest priority is given to profitability and then to credit risk. The ranking is achieved by using a multicriteria model.

  6. Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.

    1992-01-01

    In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.

  7. Access to Liver Transplantation in Different ABO-Blood Groups and "Exceptions Points" in a Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Allocation System: A Brazilian Single-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, R B; Waisberg, D R; Dias, A P M; Inoue, V B S; Arantes, R M; Haddad, L B P; Rocha-Santos, V; Pinheiro, R S N; Nacif, L S; D'Albuquerque, L A C

    2018-04-01

    In the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) system, patients with "MELD exceptions" points may have unfair privilege in the competition for liver grafts. Furthermore, organ distribution following identical ABO blood types may also result in unjust organ allocation. The aim of this study was to investigate access to liver transplantation in a tertiary Brazilian center, regarding "MELD exceptions" situations and among ABO-blood groups. A total of 465 adult patients on the liver waitlist from August 2015 to August 2016 were followed up until August 2017. Patients were divided into groups according to ABO-blood type and presence of "exceptions points." No differences in outcomes were observed among ABO-blood groups. However, patients from B and AB blood types spent less time on the list than patients from A and O groups (median, 46, 176, 415, and 401 days, respectively; P = .03). "Exceptions points" were granted for 141 patients (30.1%), hepatocellular carcinoma being the most common reason (52.4%). Patients with "exceptions points" showed higher transplantation rate, lower mortality on the list, and lower delta-MELD than non-exceptions patients (56.7% vs 19.1% [P blood types, despite shorter time on the waitlist for AB and B groups. The current MELD exception system provides advantages for candidates with "exception points," resulting in superior outcomes compared with those without exceptions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Singled out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Frank

    2004-03-01

    The increasing use of single use medical devices is being driven by a growing awareness of iatrogenic (from the Greek; caused by the doctor) and nosocomial infections. Public health perceptions relating to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, specifically variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B are high on the political agenda and a matter of concern to healthcare professionals.

  9. Evaluation of a liver micronucleus assay in young rats (IV): a study using a double-dosing/single-sampling method by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT)/Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS)-Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Hironao; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Izumi; Shimada, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Terashima, Yukari; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Oshida, Keiyu; Ohta, Ryo; Imamura, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Minowa, Shigenori; Maeda, Akihisa; Hayashi, Makoto

    2010-04-30

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate whether a liver micronucleus assay using four-week-old male F344 rats can be used to detect genotoxic rat hepatocarcinogens using double-dosing with a single-sampling 4 days after the second dose. The assay methods were thoroughly validated by the seven laboratories involved in the study. Seven chemicals, 2,4-diaminotoluene, diethyl nitrosamine, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, 2,4-dinitrotolunene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene and mitomycin C, known to produce positive responses in the single-dosing/triple-sampling method were selected for use in the present study, and each chemical was examined in two laboratories with the exception of 2,4-dinitrotolunene. Although several of the compounds were examined at lower doses for reasons of toxicity than in the single-dosing/triple-sampling method, all chemicals tested in the present study induced micronuclei in liver cells indicating a positive result. These findings suggest that the liver micronucleus assay can be used in young rats to detect genotoxic rat hepatocarcinogens using a double-dosing/single-sampling procedure. Further, the number of animals used in the liver micronucleus assay can be reduced by one-third to a half by using the double-dosing/single-sampling method. This reduction in animal numbers also has significant savings in time and resource for liver perfusion and hepatocyte isolation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  11. Group therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: In his review 'Genesis of Unified Gauge Theories' at the symposium in Honour of Abdus Salam (June, page 23), Tom Kibble of Imperial College, London, looked back to the physics events around Salam from 1959-67. He described how, in the early 1960s, people were pushing to enlarge the symmetry of strong interactions beyond the SU(2) of isospin and incorporate the additional strangeness quantum number. Kibble wrote - 'Salam had students working on every conceivable symmetry group. One of these was Yuval Ne'eman, who had the good fortune and/or prescience to work on SU(3). From that work, and of course from the independent work of Murray Gell- Mann, stemmed the Eightfold Way, with its triumphant vindication in the discovery of the omega-minus in 1964.' Yuval Ne'eman writes - 'I was the Defence Attaché at the Israeli Embassy in London and was admitted by Salam as a part-time graduate student when I arrived in 1958. I started research after resigning from the Embassy in May 1960. Salam suggested a problem: provide vector mesons with mass - the problem which was eventually solved by Higgs, Guralnik, Kibble,.... (as described by Kibble in his article). I explained to Salam that I had become interested in symmetry. Nobody at Imperial College at the time, other than Salam himself, was doing anything in groups, and attention further afield was focused on the rotation - SO(N) - groups. Reacting to my own half-baked schemes, Salam told me to forget about the rotation groups he taught us, and study group theory in depth, directing me to Eugene Dynkin's classification of Lie subalgebras, about which he had heard from Morton Hamermesh. I found Dynkin incomprehensible without first learning about Lie algebras from Henri Cartan's thesis, which luckily had been reproduced by Dynkin in his 1946 thesis, using his diagram method. From a copy of a translation of Dynkin's thesis which I found in the British Museum Library, I

  12. Sweden's largest Facebook study

    OpenAIRE

    Denti, Leif; Barbopoulus, Isak; Nilsson, Ida; Holmberg, Linda; Thulin, Magdalena; Wendeblad, Malin; Andén, Lisa; Davidsson, Emelie

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet has made it easier for people to socially interact than ever before. Today, the most popular channel is Facebook with over 845 million users world wide. In Sweden, the number of users amount to approximately half of the population. We had two aims with this study. First, we investigate which areas of Facebook usage that Swedish Facebook users consider more important vis-a-vis less important. We were also interested in how users convey their persona through t... m...

  13. Largest terrestrial electromagnetic pulsar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pardy, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 6 (2002), s. 1155-1163 ISSN 0020-7748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : source theory, spectral formula, synchrotron radiation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.655, year: 2002

  14. Ultrasonography-guided Fine-needle Aspiration for Solid Thyroid Nodules Less than 5 mm in the Largest Diameter: Comparison in Diagnostic Adequacy and Accuracy According to Nodule Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Hee; Kim, Dong Wook; Baek, Seung Hun [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study assessed the adequacy and accuracy of ultrasonography (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) of solid thyroid nodules, less than 5 mm in maximum diameter. From January to December 2009, US-FNA was performed for small solid thyroid nodules in 201 patients. Each thyroid nodule was classified into group A and B according to the largest diameter (1 mm {<=} group A < 3 mm and 3 mm {<=} group B < 5 mm). The adequacy and accuracy of US-FNA in two groups were compared using the histopathological results as a reference standard. Of the 227 thyroid nodules in 201 patients, the inadequacy of US-FNA in group A and B was 24.3% (18/74) and 13.1% (20/153), respectively, showing a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.0333, chi-square test). Eighty nodules were removed surgically in 72 patients, from which papillary thyroid carcinoma (n = 52), follicular thyroid carcinoma (n = 1), nodular hyperplasia (n = 26), and pseudonodule related to thyroiditis (n = 1) were confirmed. Based on the histopathological results of the 80 surgical nodules, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US-FNA in group A and B were 55.0% and 79.4%, 81.8% and 100%, 84.6% and 100%, 50% and 68.2%, and 64.5% and 85.7%, respectively. The adequacy and accuracy of US-FNA for solid thyroid nodules, {>=} 3 mm in the largest diameter, were higher than those of US-FNA for very small nodules, < 3 mm in the largest diameter

  15. World's largest DC flywheel generator for the toroidal field power supply of JAERI's JFT-2M Tokamak nuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Takashi; Nakanishi, Yuji; Horita, Tsuyoshi; Kawase, Chiharu; Oyabu, Isao; Kishimoto, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    Mitsubishi Electric has delivered the world's largest DC generator for the toroidal field coil power supply of the JFT-2M Tokamak at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The unit rotates at 225 or 460 rpm, providing a maximum rated output of 2,700 V, 19,000 A and 51.3 MW. The toroidal field is a DC field, so use of a DC generator permits a simpler design consuming less floor space than an AC drive system. The generator was manufactured following extensive studies on commutation, mechanical strength and insulation. (author)

  16. Does gender affect funding success at the peer-to-peer credit markets? Evidence from the largest German lending platform

    OpenAIRE

    Barasinska, Nataliya; Schäfer, Dorothea

    2010-01-01

    Studies of peer-to-peer lending in the USA find that female borrowers have better chances of getting funds than males. Is differential treatment of borrowers of different sexes a common feature of peer-to-peer lendingmarkets or is it subject to specific businessmodels, ways of fixing loan contracts and even national financial systems? We aim at answering this question by providing evidence on loan procurement at the largest German peer-to-peer lending platform Smava.de. Our results show that ...

  17. Fluctuations in the size of the largest projectile fragment produced in 1 GeV/nucleon Au + C collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P.; Elliott, J.B.; Gilkes, M.L.; Hauger, A.; Hirsch, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Large fluctuations in quantities such as density are characteristic of critical phenomena in the neighborhood of the critical point. Using the EOS apparatus at the Bevalac, we have performed an exclusive experiment in which the size of the largest projectile fragment produced in 1 GeV/nucleon Au+C collisions is studied as a function of the charged multiplicity of the event. A peak in the fluctuations is expected at the critical multiplicity. The data are compared to a percolation model and a statistical multifragmentation model

  18. Global CO_2-energy emissions in 2007. China becomes the largest emitter along with the United States - June 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    China becomes the largest emitter along with the United States. Contents: 1990-2007 evolution (key figures of Yearly average evolutions); Global CO_2-energy emissions in 2007: 27,3 GtCO_2; Global CO_2-energy emissions have increased by 3,2% in 2007, largely driven by China. Since 1990, China has more than doubled its CO_2-energy emissions, to reach the same emission level as the USA in 2007. Two very contrasting tendencies appear since 1990: stabilization of emissions in Annex B countries, boom in China and India. Since 1990, more than half of CO_2-energy emissions growth is (logically) due to coal. (authors)

  19. Therapeutic effects of coenzyme Q10 on dilated cardiomyopathy. Assessment by {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A multicenter trial in Osaka University Medical School Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Hori, Masatsugu [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate therapeutic effects of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), 15 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were investigated by {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The BMIPP defect score was determined semiquantitatively by using representative short and long axial SPECT images. Mean BMIPP defect score with CoQ10 treatment was significantly low, 7.7{+-}6.1 compared to 12.7{+-}7.4 without CoQ10 treatment. On the other hand, in 8 patients of dilated cardiomyopathy, % fractional shortening using echocardiography was not different before and after CoQ10 treatment. In conclusion, {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT was proved to be sensitive to evaluate the therapeutic effects of CoQ10, which improve myocardial mitochondrial function, in the cases of dilated cardiomyopathy. (author).

  20. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  1. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  2. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  3. SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST SAMPLE OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE AND CORRELATIONS WITH HOST-GALAXY SPECTRAL PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Rachel C.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao; Fischer, John A.; March, Marisa C.; Fischer, Johanna-Laina; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Smith, Mathew; Kessler, Rick; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Campbell, Heather; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HRs). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically classified or spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric host-galaxy properties from the SDSS-SNS data release such as host stellar mass and star formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6 σ significance of a nonzero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and host-galaxy gas-phase metallicity and specific star formation rate as they are reported in the literature. With our large data set, we examine correlations between HR and multiple host-galaxy properties simultaneously and find no evidence of a significant correlation. We also independently analyze our spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified SNe Ia and comment on the significance of similar combined data sets for future surveys.

  4. Molecular clouds in the Carina arm - the largest objects, associated regions of star formation, and the Carina arm in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabelsky, D.A.; Cohen, R.S.; Bronfman, L.; Thaddeus, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Columbia CO survey of the southern Galactic plane is used to identify giant molecular clouds and cloud complexes in the Vela-Carina-Centaurus section of the Galaxy. Twenty-seven giant molecular clouds between l = 270 and 300 deg are catalogued and their heliocentric distances given. In addition, 16 clouds at l greater than 300 deg beyond the solar circle extend the catalog to include the very distant portion of the Carina arm. The most massive clouds in the catalog trace the Carina arm over 23 kpc in the plane of the Galaxy. The average mass of these objects is 1.4 x 10 to the 6th solar, and their average spacing along the arm is 700 pc. The composite distribution projected onto the Galactic plane of the largest molecular clouds in the Carina arm and of similarly massive clouds in the first and second quadrants strongly suggests that the Carina and Sagittarius arms form a single spiral arm about 40 kpc in length wrapping two-thirds of the way around the Galaxy. Descriptions of each cloud, including identification of associated star-forming regions, are presented in an appendix. 76 references

  5. Single-port (OctoPort) assisted extracorporeal ovarian cystectomy for the treatment of large ovarian cysts: compare to conventional laparoscopy and laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gun Oh; Hong, Dae Gy; Lee, Yoon Soon

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate single-port assisted extracorporeal cystectomy for treatment of large ovarian cysts and to compare its surgical outcomes, complications, and cystic content spillage rates with those of conventional laparoscopy and laparotomy. Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University teaching hospital. Twenty-five patients who underwent single-port assisted extracorporeal cystectomy (group 1), 33 patients who underwent conventional laparoscopy (group 2), and 25 patients who underwent laparotomy (group 3). Surgical outcomes, complications, and spillage rates in group 1 were compared with those in groups 2 and 3. Patients characteristics and tumor histologic findings were similar in the 3 groups. The mean (SD) largest diameter of ovarian cysts was 11.4 (4.2) cm in group 1, 9.7 (2.3) cm in group 2, and 12.0 (3.4) cm in group 3. Operative time in groups 1 and 2 was similar at 69.3 (26.3) minutes vs 73.1 (36.3) minutes (p = .66); however, operative time in group 1 was shorter than in group 3, at 69.3 (26.3) minutes vs 87.5 (26.6) minutes (p =.02). Blood loss in group 1 was significantly lower than in groups 2 and 3, at 16.0 (19.4) mL vs 36.1 (20.7) mL (p < .001) and 16.0 (19.4) mL vs 42.2 (39.7) mL (p = .005). The spillage rate in group 1 was profoundly lower than in group 2, at 8.0% vs 69.7% (p < .001). Single-port assisted extracorporeal cystectomy offers an alternative to conventional laparoscopy and laparotomy for management of large ovarian cysts, with comparable surgical outcomes. Furthermore, cyst content spillage rate in single-port assisted extracorporeal cystectomy was remarkably lower than that in conventional laparoscopy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Distribution of the largest aftershocks in branching models of triggered seismicity: Theory of the universal Baath law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2005-01-01

    Using the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) branching model of triggered seismicity, we apply the formalism of generating probability functions to calculate exactly the average difference between the magnitude of a mainshock and the magnitude of its largest aftershock over all generations. This average magnitude difference is found empirically to be independent of the mainshock magnitude and equal to 1.2, a universal behavior known as Baath's law. Our theory shows that Baath's law holds only sufficiently close to the critical regime of the ETAS branching process. Allowing for error bars ±0.1 for Baath's constant value around 1.2, our exact analytical treatment of Baath's law provides new constraints on the productivity exponent α and the branching ratio n: 0.9 < or approx. α≤1 and 0.8 < or approx. n≤1. We propose a method for measuring α based on the predicted renormalization of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of the magnitudes of the largest aftershock. We also introduce the 'second Baath law for foreshocks': the probability that a main earthquake turns out to be the foreshock does not depend on its magnitude ρ

  7. The Process of Leadership and the Organizational Knowledge Management: the practicy of the largest industries of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Marciano Girardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2012v14n32p65 The aim of this article is to introduce the practices of leadership in the largest industries of Santa Catarina and their contribution to the Knowledge Management. The organization competitiveness is related to the people and to the capacity of the companies to improve the constant development of knowledge. Using the leadership, the managers and the People Management have created compromise and improved the results of the organizations. The adopted methodology followed the qualitative methodology, descriptive and applied research. There were interviewed the seven largest industries of the state of Santa Catarina, in number of collaborators. The data were analyzed by the technique of analysis of content. It has been observed that the leadership is present in the most of the studied companies, by the use of formal programs of development of leaders or of actions related to leadership. It is concluded that the companies have the focus in the people and in the knowledge, in bigger or smaller degree, but some of them are in phase of transition and revision of programs towards the development of their talents and of the Knowledge Management.

  8. Application of the largest Lyapunov exponent and non-linear fractal extrapolation algorithm to short-term load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianzhou; Jia Ruiling; Zhao Weigang; Wu Jie; Dong Yao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The maximal predictive step size is determined by the largest Lyapunov exponent. ► A proper forecasting step size is applied to load demand forecasting. ► The improved approach is validated by the actual load demand data. ► Non-linear fractal extrapolation method is compared with three forecasting models. ► Performance of the models is evaluated by three different error measures. - Abstract: Precise short-term load forecasting (STLF) plays a key role in unit commitment, maintenance and economic dispatch problems. Employing a subjective and arbitrary predictive step size is one of the most important factors causing the low forecasting accuracy. To solve this problem, the largest Lyapunov exponent is adopted to estimate the maximal predictive step size so that the step size in the forecasting is no more than this maximal one. In addition, in this paper a seldom used forecasting model, which is based on the non-linear fractal extrapolation (NLFE) algorithm, is considered to develop the accuracy of predictions. The suitability and superiority of the two solutions are illustrated through an application to real load forecasting using New South Wales electricity load data from the Australian National Electricity Market. Meanwhile, three forecasting models: the gray model, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average approach and the support vector machine method, which received high approval in STLF, are selected to compare with the NLFE algorithm. Comparison results also show that the NLFE model is outstanding, effective, practical and feasible.

  9. Pharmacokinetic comparison of controlled-release and immediate-release oral formulations of simvastatin in healthy Korean subjects: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, single- and multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Yoon Jung; Lim, Lay Ahyoung; Park, Kyung-Mi; Kwon, Bong-Ju; Woo, Jong Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Min Soo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Kyungsoo

    2010-01-01

    A controlled-release (CR) formulation of simvastatin was recently developed in Korea. The formulation is expected to yield a lower C(max) and similar AUC values compared with the immediate-release (IR) formulation. The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the new CR formulation and an IR formulation of simvastatin after single- and multiple-dose administration in healthy Korean subjects. This study was developed as part of a product development project at the request of the Korean regulatory agency. This was a randomized, open-label, parallelgroup, 2-part study. Eligible subjects were healthy male or female volunteers between the ages of 19 and 55 years and within 20% of their ideal weight. In part I, each subject received a single dose of the CR or IR formulation of simvastatin 40 mg orally (20 mg x 2 tablets) after fasting. In part II, each subject received the same dose of the CR or IR formulation for 8 consecutive days. Blood samples were obtained for 48 hours after the dose in part I and after the first and the last dose in part II. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for both simvastatin (the inactive prodrug) and simvastatin acid (the active moiety). An adverse event (AE) was defined as any unfavorable sign (including an abnormal laboratory finding) or symptom, regardless of whether it had a causal relationship with the study medication. Serious AEs were defined as any events that are considered life threatening, require hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization, cause persistent or significant disability or incapacity, or result in congenital abnormality, birth defect, or death. AEs were determined based on patient interviews and physical examinations. Twenty-four healthy subjects (17 men, 7 women; mean [SD] age, 29 [7] years; age range, 22-50 years) were enrolled in part I, and 29 subjects (17 men, 12 women; mean age, 33 [9] years; age range, 19-55 years) were enrolled in part II. For simvastatin acid, C

  10. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W.; Dancey, Janet E.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Horvath, L. Elise; Perez, Edith A.; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M.; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a long-standing history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the U.S. based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the U.S., and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the U.S. or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the U.S. and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to U.S. policies that restrict drug distribution outside the U.S. This manuscript serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  12. Evaluation of group versus individual physiotherapy following lower limb intra-muscular Botulinum Toxin-Type A injections for ambulant children with cerebral palsy: A single-blind randomized comparison trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rachel E; Johnston, Leanne M; Sakzewski, Leanne; Kentish, Megan J; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate efficacy of group (GRP) versus individual (IND) physiotherapy rehabilitation following lower limb intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-Type A (BoNT-A) for ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP). Following lower limb BoNT-A injections, 34 children were randomly allocated to GRP (n=17; mean age 7y8m SD 2.0; 13 males; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) I=5, II=8, III=4) or IND physiotherapy (n=17; mean age 8y7m SD 2.0; 11 males; GMFCS I=9, II=5, III=3). Primary outcomes were the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS) assessed at baseline, 10 and 26 weeks post intervention. There were no baseline differences between groups. GRP intervention had greater, but not clinically meaningful, improvement in COPM satisfaction (estimated mean difference EMD 1.7, 95% CI 0.4-3.1; pphysiotherapy (either GRP or IND) with an additional indirect dose (median 16 episodes) of individualized home programme activities following lower limb BoNT-A injections, however, was inadequate to drive clinically meaningful changes in lower limb motor outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  14. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  15. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  16. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two phase. 11. meeting of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) Working Group. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Working Material includes the papers presented at the International Meeting 'Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two-phase', which was held 5-9 July 2004 at the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky, in Obninsk near Moscow. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss new results obtained in the field of liquid metal coolant and to recommend the lines of further general physics and applied investigations, with the purpose of validating existing and codes under development for liquid metal cooled advanced and new generation nuclear reactors. Most of the contributions present results of experimental and numerical investigations into velocity, temperature and heat transfer in fuel subassemblies of fast reactors cooled by sodium or lead. In the frame of the meeting a benchmark problem devoted to heat transfer in the model subassembly of the fast reactor BREST-OD-300 was proposed. Experts from 5 countries (Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Republic of Korea, and Russia) took part in this benchmark exercise. The results of the benchmark calculations are summarized in the Working Material. The results of hydrodynamic studies of pressure head chambers and collector systems of liquid metal cooled reactors are presented in a number of papers. Also attention was given to the generalization of experimental data on hydraulic losses in the pipelines in case of mutual influence of local pressure drops, and to the modeling of natural convection in the fuel subassemblies and circuits with liquid metal cooling. Special emphasis at the meeting was placed on thermal hydraulics issues related to the development and design of target systems, such as heat removal in the target unit of the cascade subcritical reactor cooled by liquid salt; the target complex MK-1 for accelerator driven systems cooled by eutectic lead-bismuth alloy; and the test

  17. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two phase. 11. meeting of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) Working Group. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Working Material includes the papers presented at the International Meeting 'Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two-phase', which was held 5-9 July 2004 at the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky, in Obninsk near Moscow. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss new results obtained in the field of liquid metal coolant and to recommend the lines of further general physics and applied investigations, with the purpose of validating existing and codes under development for liquid metal cooled advanced and new generation nuclear reactors. Most of the contributions present results of experimental and numerical investigations into velocity, temperature and heat transfer in fuel subassemblies of fast reactors cooled by sodium or lead. In the frame of the meeting a benchmark problem devoted to heat transfer in the model subassembly of the fast reactor BREST-OD-300 was proposed. Experts from 5 countries (Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Republic of Korea, and Russia) took part in this benchmark exercise. The results of the benchmark calculations are summarized in the Working Material. The results of hydrodynamic studies of pressure head chambers and collector systems of liquid metal cooled reactors are presented in a number of papers. Also attention was given to the generalization of experimental data on hydraulic losses in the pipelines in case of mutual influence of local pressure drops, and to the modeling of natural convection in the fuel subassemblies and circuits with liquid metal cooling. Special emphasis at the meeting was placed on thermal hydraulics issues related to the development and design of target systems, such as heat removal in the target unit of the cascade subcritical reactor cooled by liquid salt; the target complex MK-1 for accelerator driven systems cooled by eutectic lead-bismuth alloy; and the test

  18. Protocol of a single group prospective observational study on the diagnostic value of 3T susceptibility weighted MRI of nigrosome-1 in patients with parkinsonian symptoms: the N3iPD study (nigrosomal iron imaging in Parkinson's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan T; Xing, Yue; Naidu, Saadnah; Birchall, Jim; Skelly, Rob; Perkins, Alan; Evans, Jonathan; Sare, Gill; Martin-Bastida, Antonio; Bajaj, Nin; Gowland, Penny; Piccini, Paola; Auer, Dorothee P

    2017-12-14

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder in the elderly and is characterised clinically by bradykinesia, tremor and rigidity. Diagnosing Parkinson's can be difficult especially in the early stages. High-resolution nigrosome MRI offers promising diagnostic accuracy of patients with established clinical symptoms; however, it is unclear whether this may help to establish the diagnosis in the early stages of PD, when there is diagnostic uncertainty. In this scenario, a single photon emission CT scan using a radioactive dopamine transporter ligand can help to establish the diagnosis, or clinical follow-up may eventually clarify the diagnosis. A non-invasive, cost-effective diagnostic test that could replace this would be desirable. We therefore aim to prospectively test whether nigrosome MRI is as useful as DaTSCAN to establish the correct diagnosis in people with minor or unclear symptoms suspicious for PD. In a prospective study we will recruit 145 patients with unclear symptoms possibly caused by Parkinson's from three movement disorder centres in the UK to take part in the study. We will record the Movement Disorder Society - Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and participants will undergo DaTSCAN and high-resolution susceptibility weighted MRI at a field strength of 3T. DaTSCANs will be assessed visually and semiquantitatively; MRI scans will be visually assessed for signal loss in nigrosome-1 by blinded investigators. We will compare how the diagnosis suggested by MRI compares with the diagnosis based on DaTSCAN and will also validate the diagnosis based on the two tests with a clinical examination performed at least 1 year after the initial presentation as a surrogate gold standard diagnostic test. The local ethics commission (Health Research Authority East Midlands - Derby Research Ethics Committee) has approved this study (REC ref.: 16/EM/0229). The study is being carried out under the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (64

  19. Assessment of bioaerosol contamination (bacteria and fungi) in the largest urban wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Sadegh; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nabavi, Samira; Faridi, Sasan; Dehghani, Asghar; Hoseini, Mohammad; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Mokamel, Adel; Kashani, Homa; Yarali, Navid; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-10-01

    Bioaerosol concentration was measured in wastewater treatment units in south of Tehran, the largest wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East. Active sampling was carried out around four operational units and a point as background. The results showed that the aeration tank with an average of 1016 CFU/m(3) in winter and 1973 CFU/m(3) in summer had the greatest effect on emission of bacterial bioaerosols. In addition, primary treatment had the highest impact on fungal emission. Among the bacteria, Micrococcus spp. showed the widest emission in the winter, and Bacillus spp. was dominant in summer. Furthermore, fungi such as Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were the dominant types in the seasons. Overall, significant relationship was observed between meteorological parameters and the concentration of bacterial and fungal aerosols.

  20. Spatial Air Index Based on Largest Empty Rectangles for Non-Flat Wireless Broadcast in Pervasive Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hong Shen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In pervasive computing, location-based services (LBSs are valuable for mobile clients based on their current locations. LBSs use spatial window queries to enable useful applications for mobile clients. Based on skewed access patterns of mobile clients, non-flat wireless broadcast has been shown to efficiently disseminate spatial objects to mobile clients. In this paper, we consider a scenario in which spatial objects are broadcast to mobile clients over a wireless channel in a non-flat broadcast manner to process window queries. For such a scenario, we propose an efficient spatial air index method to handle window query access in non-flat wireless broadcast environments. The concept of largest empty rectangles is used to avoid unnecessary examination of the broadcast content, thus reducing the processing time for window queries. Simulation results show that the proposed spatial air index method outperforms the existing methods under various settings.

  1. An Examination of Strategic Philanthropy and CSR Communication Patterns among the World’s Twenty-One Largest Oil Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brad Gatlin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fortune Magazine’s 2012 list of 100 largest companies included 21 oil companies. This paper seeks to discern patterns of those 21 companies’ philanthropic efforts and communication thereof. Specifically, the paper will consider issues such as ownership (all companies were either publicly-traded or state-owned, the economic development of the home country, and the citizens’ expectations of corporate citizens. The philanthropic efforts of all 21 companies are discussed in the context of Porter and Kramer’s (2001 framework of the competitive context It is concluded that the oil industry is particularly well-suited to affect factor and, to a lesser extent, demand conditions, through philanthropic efforts. A model for classifying the philanthropic based on ownership and country conditions is proposed, and suggestions for further research are made.

  2. The Curse of the Gold: Discourses Surrounding the Project of the Largest Pit-mine in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Egresi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, a Canadian company started geological explorations in the Rosia Montana area in the Romanian Carpathians. Two years later it formed a joint-venture with a Romanian state company to exploit what is believed to be Europe´s largest gold reserves. However, as of June 2011 extraction has not started yet and it may never start due to the opposition of numerous NGO´s that have pointed out the environmental, social and economic unsustainability of this mining project. This situation is highly unusual for a country that is hungry for foreign investment especially since up until very recently the state had supported any project promising to revitalize its mining sector. This paper will investigate the changes in the discourses surrounding this mining project taking into consideration the effects of globalization and the effects of Romania´s EU membership after 2007.

  3. Causes and Consequences of Ownership Concentration among Europe´s Largest Companies: Economic and Systemic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben; Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    The paper examines causes and effects of ownership concentration among the largest companies in 12 European countries. As a reference point the paper takes a seminal empirical study on US data by Demsetz and Lehn (1985) and examines to what extent their model is applicable in European countries....... The findings indicate that both general economic effects and system effects are significant. Ownership concentration is found to decrease with firm size and to increase with earnings volatility. But in support of the system theories advocated by Roe (1991), Laporta et al. (1996) and Shleifer and Vishny (1997......) nationality is also found to have a significant effect which is partly attributable to institutional differences between nations such as stock market size and the frequency of large banks. Finally, in line with Demsetz and Lehn (1985), ownership concentration is found to have an insignificant effect...

  4. 3D Centrifuge Modeling of the Effect of Twin Tunneling to an Existing Pile Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Soomr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In densely built urban areas, it is inevitable that tunnels will be constructed near existing pile groups. The bearing capacity of a pile group depends on shear stress along the soil-pile interface and normal stress underneath the pile toe while the two would be adversely affected by the unloading process of tunneling. Although extensive studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of tunnel construction on existing single piles, the influence of twin tunnel advancement on an existing pile group is merely reported in the literature. In this study, a series of three-dimensional centrifuge tests were carried out to investigate the response of an existing pile group under working load subjected to twin tunneling at various locations in dry Toyoura sand. In each twin tunneling test, the first tunnel is constructed near the mid-depth of the pile shaft, while the second tunnel is subsequently constructed either next to, below or right underneath the pile toe (Tests G_ST, G_SB and G_SU, respectively. Among the three tests, the 2nd tunnel excavated near the pile toe (Test G_ST results in the smallest settlement but the largest transverse tilting (0.2% of pile group. Significant bending moment was induced at the pile head (1.4 times of its bending moment capacity due to the 2nd tunnel T. On the contrary, tunneling right underneath the toe of pile (i.e., Test G_SU results in the smallest tilting but largest settlement of the pile group (4.6% of pile diameter and incremental mobilisation of shaft resistance (13%. Due to stress release by the twin tunneling, the axial force taken by the front piles close to tunnels was reduced and partially transferred to the rear piles. This load transfer can increase the axial force in rear piles by 24%.

  5. How does Australia's largest dolphin-watching industry affect the behaviour of a small and resident population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenreuter, Andre; Möller, Luciana; Harcourt, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The small, genetically distinct population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), is the target of the largest dolphin-watching industry in Australia and is located within the Port Stephens - Great Lakes Marine Park that was created in 2005. The effects of this industry have been identified as of significant management importance by the Marine Parks Authority NSW. Accordingly, the impact of commercial dolphin-watching boats was investigated from boat-based surveys from August 2008 to August 2009. Presence of dolphin-watching boats altered both the dolphins' behavioural states and activity budgets. Dolphins spent 66.5% less time feeding and 44.2% less time socialising, spent four times more milling, and were never observed to rest in the presence of dolphin-watching boats. Moreover, dolphin groups were more cohesive during dolphin-watching boat encounters and dolphins tended to avoid tour boats. These effects were exacerbated as the number of boats increased and the distance from boats decreased. The rate of approach was high with boats approaching each dolphin group three times per day in winter and six times in summer. Moreover, groups of dolphins with newborns were approached closer than state regulated minimum approach distances in nine out of ten encounters. Globally, dolphin-watching industries frequent small resident groups of coastal dolphins and effects are likely to be similar. We suggest that existing controls are inadequate and that these together with additional regulations be enforced by a regular presence of authorities. We suggest no more than one dolphin-watching boat within 50 m of a group of dolphins, or 100 m if calves are present. Operating times of dolphin-watching boats should be restricted in numbers after 1 pm, i.e., during preferred foraging times for dolphins. Additionally, exclusion zones should be considered to reduce pressure on dolphins undertaking critical activities such as

  6. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Pelargonium xhortorum: Or ganization and evolution of the largest and most highlyrearranged chloroplast genome of land plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumley, Timothy W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Mower, Jeffrey P.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Calie, Patrick J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen,Robert K.

    2006-01-20

    The chloroplast genome of Pelargonium e hortorum has beencompletely sequenced. It maps as a circular molecule of 217,942 bp, andis both the largest and most rearranged land plant chloroplast genome yetsequenced. It features two copies of a greatly expanded inverted repeat(IR) of 75,741 bp each, and consequently diminished single copy regionsof 59,710 bp and 6,750 bp. It also contains two different associations ofrepeated elements that contribute about 10 percent to the overall sizeand account for the majority of repeats found in the genome. Theyrepresent hotspots for rearrangements and gene duplications and include alarge number of pseudogenes. We propose simple models that account forthe major rearrangements with a minimum of eight IR boundary changes and12 inversions in addition to a several insertions of duplicated sequence.The major processes at work (duplication, IR expansion, and inversion)have disrupted at least one and possibly two or three transcriptionaloperons, and the genes involved in these disruptions form the core of thetwo major repeat associations. Despite the vast increase in size andcomplexity of the genome, the gene content is similar to that of otherangiosperms, with the exceptions of a large number of pseudogenes as partof the repeat associations, the recognition of two open reading frames(ORF56 and ORF42) in the trnA intron with similarities to previouslyidentified mitochondrial products (ACRS and pvs-trnA), the loss of accDand trnT-GGU, and in particular, the lack of a recognizably functionalrpoA. One or all of three similar open reading frames may possibly encodethe latter, however.

  7. Group leaders optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskin, Anmer; Kais, Sabre

    2011-03-01

    We present a new global optimization algorithm in which the influence of the leaders in social groups is used as an inspiration for the evolutionary technique which is designed into a group architecture. To demonstrate the efficiency of the method, a standard suite of single and multi-dimensional optimization functions along with the energies and the geometric structures of Lennard-Jones clusters are given as well as the application of the algorithm on quantum circuit design problems. We show that as an improvement over previous methods, the algorithm scales as N 2.5 for the Lennard-Jones clusters of N-particles. In addition, an efficient circuit design is shown for a two-qubit Grover search algorithm which is a quantum algorithm providing quadratic speedup over the classical counterpart.

  8. City-ecological perspectives of the development of high urbanized multifunctional centers of the largest Russian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnikov Sergey Anatol’evich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some results of the author’s dissertation research dedicated to formation of an architectural typology of high urbanized multifunctional units of urban structure of the largest cities (further HUMUUS as centers of social activity, which include buildings, constructions, transportation equipment and open spaces, where human flows transpose, start and end with the purpose of bringing into this space a concentrated maximum of goods, services and information with minimum time expenditures. This article draws attention to the development analysis of the structure-forming functions of HUMUUS and their town planning and environmental impact on the surrounding area. The study of planning structures of the largest Russian cities (Samara, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod made it possible to identify a number of main objects, in which structure-forming functions of HUMUUS are materialized: railroad complex (historically formed, developed, dominated, system-wide road junction, transport interchange hub (providing intraurban messages, public office and business centers, leisure and entertainment centers, shopping centers. Basing on researches of Russian and foreign experience, it is possible to predict with full confidence the following trends and streams of environmental and urban development of HUMUUS in the near-term perspective: Strengthening of the environmental and urban frame by network evolution of HUMUUS; Inclusion of green areas of HUMUUS in the system of citywide green areas; Increment of the interest of the investors to the public road junction for the purpose of reorganization of them to full HUMUUS with all characteristics of high-urbanized and environmental and urban reorganization (separation of traffic and pedestrian flows, maximum capacity, multiple-level system, multifunctional, increase in landscaped green space, reconstruction of engineering systems and communications, the use of modern ecological building designs and

  9. Diversity of the Germination Apparatus in Clostridium botulinum Groups I, II, III and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Brunt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum is a highly dangerous pathogen that forms very resistant endospores that are ubiquitous in the environment, and which, under favourable conditions germinate to produce vegetative cells that multiply and form the exceptionally potent botulinum neurotoxin. To improve the control of botulinum neurotoxin-forming clostridia, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in spore germination. Here we present models for spore germination in C. botulinum based on comparative genomics analyses, with C. botulinum Groups I and III sharing similar pathways, which differ from those proposed for C. botulinum Groups II and IV. All spores germinate in response to amino acids interacting with a germinant receptor, with four types of germinant receptor identified (encoded by various combinations of gerA, gerB and gerC genes (gerX. There are three gene clusters with an ABC-like configuration; ABC gerX1, ABABCB gerX2 and ACxBBB gerX4, and a single CA-B gerX3 gene cluster. Subtypes have been identified for most germinant receptors types, and the individual GerX subunits of each cluster show similar grouping in phylogenetic trees. C. botulinum Group I contained the largest variety of gerX subtypes, with three gerX1, three gerX2 and one gerX3 subtypes, while C. botulinum Group III contained two gerX1 types and one gerX4. C. botulinum Groups II and IV contained a single germinant receptor, gerX3 and gerX1, respectively. It is likely that all four C. botulinum Groups include a SpoVA channel involved in DPA release. The cortex lytic enzymes present in C. botulinum Groups I and III appear to be CwlJ and SleB, while in C. botulinum Groups II and IV, SleC appears to be important.

  10. Together We Can: Assessing the Impact of Women's Action Groups ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will evaluate the impact of India's Mahila Samakhya (MS), the world's largest ... light on the role of women's action groups in catalyzing social and economic change. ... The data will include variables related to labour market outcomes, gender ... L'union fait la force : Étudier les répercussions des groupes d'action ...

  11. An estimation of the capacity to produce hydrogen by wasted hydroelectric energy for the three largest Brazilian hydroelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilha, Janine C.; Trindade, Leticia G. da; Souza, Roberto F. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry], Email: janine@iq.ufrgs.br; Miguel, Marcelo [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of water wasted in hydroelectric plants as normalization dam excess, which constitute a hydrodynamic potential useful to generate electric energy which can be subsequently used to produce hydrogen and its subsequent consumption in fuel cells has been considered as an alternative for hydraulic energy-rich countries like Brazil. The case is examined in which all the water wasted in the hydroelectric plants, spilled by dam gates to maintain acceptable water levels, from the 3 largest Brazilian hydroelectric plants was used to produce hydrogen. During the year of 2008, the electric energy produced from this utilization would have been equivalent to 52.8 TWh, an amount that corresponds to an increase of ca. 15% of the total electric energy produced in the country. Furthermore, if this amount of hydrogen was used in the replacement of internal combustion vehicles by fuel cells, this would have prevented the production of 2.26 x 10{sup 7} ton of Co{sub 2} per year. This plan would also significantly decrease production and release of greenhouse gases. (author)

  12. Community structure and decadal changes in macrozoobenthic assemblages in Lake Poyang, the largest freshwater lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Y. J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Poyang is the largest freshwater lake in China and contains unique and diverse biota within the Yangtze floodplain ecosystem. However, knowledge of its macrozoobenthic assemblages remains inadequate. To characterize the current community structure of these assemblages and to portray their decadal changes, quarterly investigations were conducted at 15 sites from February to November 2012. A total of 42 taxa were recorded, and Corbicula fluminea, Limnoperna fortunei, Gammaridae sp., Nephtys polybranchia, Polypedilum scalaenum and Branchiura sowerbyi were found to dominate the community in terms of abundance. The bivalves Corbicula fluminea, Lamprotula rochechouarti, Arconaia lanceolata and Lamprotula caveata dominated the community in biomass due to their large body size. The mean abundance of the total macrozoobenthos varied from 48 to 920 ind·m-2, the mean biomass ranged from 28 to 428 g·m-2. The substrate type affected strongly the abundance, biomass, and diversity of the macrozoobenthos, with muddy sand substrates showing the highest values. Compared with historical data, remarkable changes were observed in the abundance of macrozoobenthos and the identity of the dominant species. The mean total abundance decreased from 724 ind·m-2 in 1992 to 228 ind·m-2 in 2012. The dominant species have shifted dramatically. Large unionids were dominant before 1998, whereas pollution-tolerant species (e.g., Branchiura sowerbyi increased in dominance after 2008. Our findings should have implications for the conservation of the benthic biodiversity of this large Yangtze-connected lake.

  13. Significant human impact on the flux and δ(34)S of sulfate from the largest river in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Bryan A; Bao, Huiming

    2015-04-21

    Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO4(2-)) flux and sulfur stable isotope composition (δ(34)S) yield information on the sources and processes affecting sulfur cycling on different spatial and temporal scales. However, because pristine preindustrial natural baselines of riverine SO4(2-) flux and δ(34)S cannot be directly measured, anthropogenic impact remains largely unconstrained. Here we quantify natural and anthropogenic SO4(2-) flux and δ(34)S for North America's largest river, the Mississippi, by means of an exhaustive source compilation and multiyear monitoring. Our data and analysis show that, since before industrialization to the present, Mississippi River SO4(2-) has increased in flux from 7.0 to 27.8 Tg SO4(2-) yr(-1), and in mean δ(34)S from -5.0‰, within 95% confidence limits of -14.8‰ to 4.1‰ (assuming normal distribution for mixing model input parameters), to -2.7 ± 1.6‰, reflecting an impressive footprint of bedrocks particular to this river basin and human activities. Our first-order modern Mississippi River sulfate partition is 25 ± 6% natural and 75% ± 6% anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, anthropogenic coal usage is implicated as the dominant source of modern Mississippi River sulfate, with an estimated 47 ± 5% and 13% of total Mississippi River sulfate due to coal mining and burning, respectively.

  14. BEHAVIOR OF THE TEN LARGEST BRAZILIAN BANKS DURING THE SUBPRIME CRISIS: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON FINANCIAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Maria Pio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the behavior of the ten largest Brazilian banks between June 2008 and September 2009, based on the analysis of financial indicators. Therefore, 16 three-monthly indices were calculated, extracted from financial statement information, which characterizes a documentary research. The indices were separated in five categories: liquidity, capital, profitability, income and market. The obtained results appointed that most financial institutions in the sample were able to manage their resources so as to gain conditions to maintain credit initially. Then, as from the first term of 2009, driven by public banks, they increased their credit operations. In addition, most banks revealed an anti-cyclical trend to encourage productive activities, preferably activities with higher liquidity levels, to the detriment of profitability, which reveals a more conservative attitude. Finally, it was verified that government initiatives, the Brazilian economic balance and the resources the banks offered helped to produce an environment to reactivate business activities during the most acute period of the subprime crisis.

  15. A look at one of the world`s largest apron feeder drives - Alberta Oil Sands Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, O. [Hagglunds Drives Canada Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Various types of equipment to transport tar sands to processing plants are discussed, with special attention to the advantages of hydraulic direct drives over conventional electro-mechanical drives. A hydraulic direct drive such as the Hagglund Drive has exceptional starting torque capacity due to the high torque capability of the hydraulic motor. As such, it can be particularly useful in applications where shock loads occur with some frequency, or where many starts and stops are needed. Application of the Hagglund drive to power one of the world`s largest apron feeders in the Alberta Oil Sands is described as an illustration of the exceptional reliability, productivity and performance of this equipment. It has about one five-hundredth of the inertia of an equivalent high speed drive with gear reducer, a feature which is particularly significant in the case of feeders which are known to suffer much downtime due to chain related problems. These types of drives have also been used to great advantage in the process industries like pulp and paper, chemical, rubber and plastics, recycling and steel. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  16. A look at one of the world's largest apron feeder drives - Alberta Oil Sands Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, O. (Hagglunds Drives Canada Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1999-01-01

    Various types of equipment to transport tar sands to processing plants are discussed, with special attention to the advantages of hydraulic direct drives over conventional electro-mechanical drives. A hydraulic direct drive such as the Hagglund Drive has exceptional starting torque capacity due to the high torque capability of the hydraulic motor. As such, it can be particularly useful in applications where shock loads occur with some frequency, or where many starts and stops are needed. Application of the Hagglund drive to power one of the world's largest apron feeders in the Alberta Oil Sands is described as an illustration of the exceptional reliability, productivity and performance of this equipment. It has about one five-hundredth of the inertia of an equivalent high speed drive with gear reducer, a feature which is particularly significant in the case of feeders which are known to suffer much downtime due to chain related problems. These types of drives have also been used to great advantage in the process industries like pulp and paper, chemical, rubber and plastics, recycling and steel. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  17. Swimming strategy and body plan of the world’s largest fish: implications for foraging efficiency and thermoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eMeekan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest animals in the oceans eat prey that are orders of magnitude smaller than themselves, implying strong selection for cost-effective foraging to meet their energy demands. Whale sharks (Rhincodon typus may be especially challenged by warm seas that elevate their metabolism and contain sparse prey resources. Using a combination of biologging and satellite tagging, we show that whale sharks use four strategies to save energy and improve foraging efficiency: 1 fixed, low power swimming, 2 constant low speed swimming, 3 gliding and 4 asymmetrical diving. These strategies increase foraging efficiency by 22 – 32% relative to swimming horizontally and resolve the energy-budget paradox of whale sharks. However, sharks in the open ocean must access food resources that reside in relatively cold waters (up to 20oC cooler than the surface at depths of 250-500 m during the daytime, where long, slow gliding descents, continuous ram ventilation of the gills and filter-feeding could rapidly cool the circulating blood and body tissues. We suggest that whale sharks may overcome this problem through their large size and a specialized body plan that isolates highly vascularized red muscle on the dorsal surface, allowing heat to be retained near the centre of the body within a massive core of white muscle. This could allow a warm-adapted species to maintain enhanced function of organs and sensory systems while exploiting food resources in deep, cool water.

  18. Largest global shark biomass found in the northern Galápagos Islands of Darwin and Wolf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo Salinas de León

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Overfishing has dramatically depleted sharks and other large predatory fishes worldwide except for a few remote and/or well-protected areas. The islands of Darwin and Wolf in the far north of the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR are known for their large shark abundance, making them a global scuba diving and conservation hotspot. Here we report quantitative estimates of fish abundance at Darwin and Wolf over two consecutive years using stereo-video surveys, which reveal the largest reef fish biomass ever reported (17.5 t ${\\mathrm{ha}}^{-1}$ ha − 1 on average, consisting largely of sharks. Despite this, the abundance of reef fishes around the GMR, such as groupers, has been severely reduced because of unsustainable fishing practices. Although Darwin and Wolf are within the GMR, they were not fully protected from fishing until March 2016. Given the ecological value and the economic importance of Darwin and Wolf for the dive tourism industry, the current protection should ensure the long-term conservation of this hotspot of unique global value.

  19. Assessment of microcystins in lake water and fish (Mugilidae, Liza sp.) in the largest Spanish coastal lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Susana; Fernández, Francisca; Ouahid, Youness; Barón-Sola, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria dominance and cyanotoxin production can become major threats to humans and aquatic life, especially in warm shallow lakes, which are often dominated by cyanobacteria. This study investigates the occurrence and distribution of microcystins (MCYST) in water, cell-bound and in the tissues of the commercial mugilid Liza sp. in the largest, coastal, Spanish Mediterranean lake (Albufera of Valencia). This is the first report concerning microcystin accumulation in tissues of mugilid fish species. Considerable amounts of microcystins were found in the water and seston, which correlated with development of Microcystis aeruginosa populations in the lake. The MCYST concentrations found in Lake Albufera (mean 1.7 and 17 μg/L and maximum 16 and 120 μg/L in water and seston, respectively) exceeded by one to two orders of magnitude the guideline levels proposed by the World Health Organization and were higher than that reported in other lakes of the Mediterranean zone. The presence of MCYST was found in all the fishes studied and accumulated differently among tissues of the commercial species Liza sp. Toxin accumulation in fish tissues showed that although the target organ for MCYST was the liver, high concentrations of microcystins were also found in other analysed tissues (liver>intestine>gills>muscle). Human tolerable daily intake for microcystins is assessed relative to the WHO guidelines, and potential toxicological risks for humans, wildlife and related ecosystems of the lake are discussed.

  20. Transit profiles: The thirty largest agencies for the 1990 Section 15 report year. Rept. for Jan-Dec 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futrell, M.; Black, T.N.

    1991-11-01

    The report summarizes the financial and operating data submitted to the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) by the nation's public transit operators, pursuant to Section 15 of the Urban Mass Transportation (UMT) Act of 1964, as amended. These data represent a portion of the 1990 Annual Report and consist of transit profiles for the 30 largest agencies based on operating expenses for the 1990 report year. Each profile consists of data reporting general, summary, modal, performance and trend indicators about a particular transit system for the 1990 report year. The unaggregated data can be found in the 1990 Section 15 Annual Report Data Tables, for the 1990 Section 15 Report Year. Rather than requiring the user to assemble data from numerous tables, the Transit Profile provides the user with a comprehensive overview in graphic and summary format of an individual transit agency's financial and operating statistics for the 1990 Section 15 report year with summaries of key data items for prior years. All data in the report are for transit system fiscal years ending on or between January 1 and December 31, 1990