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Sample records for single korean female

  1. Female visibility through Korean literature: Feminist theological critique

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    Eun Ok Jeong

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces Korean women’s experience as seen through the lense of social and cultural backgrounds, from the premodern through to the postmodern era. Korean literature is used as a source to investigate Korean women’s experiences and perspectives. By means of feminist critique this article explores men-centered influences in Korean literature. It aims to illustrate the importance of the issue of female visibility through Korean literature from a Korean woman’s perspective. Two texts are analyzed and critiqued: the first is the myth of Korean origin. The second is a story of Gasi Gogi (a thorny fish. The article is intended to stimulate debate on gender, voices, and authority from a feminist perspective, in order to transcend the more traditional interpretations.

  2. Demythologization of Female Smokers in Korean Films

    OpenAIRE

    Yoojin Chung

    2012-01-01

    Compare to western cultures, women who smoke in Korea are not tolerated. Korean people are prejudiced against women smoking. In spite of the relative prevalence of sexual equality in South Korea, women too often feel obliged to confine their smoking to only a few public spaces, such as designated smoking rooms, coffee shops or pubs. Korean Confucianism classifies people according to gender and social status. According to Confucian culture, cigarettes convey clear social meanings as well as re...

  3. Side-hairline Correction in Korean Female Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the proper modifications and usefulness of side-hairline correction surgery in Korean female patients depending on different zygomatic bone structures. Methods: Different zygomatic bone structures were classified according to their maximum transverse width among 310 cases of hairline correction surgery in Korean women. The widest transverse width was located on the anterior zygomatic malar area in type 1, on the mid-zygomatic arch in type 2, and on the posterior ...

  4. Development of the Reference Korean Female Voxel Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Yeom, Yoen Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is for development of the reference Korean female phantom, HDRK-Woman. The phantom was constructed by adjusting a Korean woman voxel phantom to the Reference Korean data. The Korean woman phantom had been developed based on the high-resolution color slice images obtained from an adult Korean female cadaver. There were a total of 39 organs including the 27 organs specified in ICRP 103 for effective dose calculation. The voxel resolution of the phantom was 1.967 X 1.967 X X 2.0619 mm 3 and the voxel array size is 261 X 109 X 825 in the x, y and z directions. Then, the voxel resolution was changed to 2.0351 X 2.0351 X 2.0747 mm 3 for adjustment of the height and total bone mass of the phantom to the Reference Korean data. Finally, the internal organs and tissue were adjusted using in-house software program developed for 3D volume adjustment of the organs and tissue. The effective dose values of HDRK phantoms were calculated for broad parallel photon beams using MCNPX Monte Carlo code and compared with those of ICRP phantoms.

  5. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

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    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  6. Side-hairline Correction in Korean Female Patients.

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    Park, Jae Hyun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the proper modifications and usefulness of side-hairline correction surgery in Korean female patients depending on different zygomatic bone structures. Different zygomatic bone structures were classified according to their maximum transverse width among 310 cases of hairline correction surgery in Korean women. The widest transverse width was located on the anterior zygomatic malar area in type 1, on the mid-zygomatic arch in type 2, and on the posterior zygomatic arch in type 3; there was no difference in the transverse width between the anterior and posterior zygomatic arch in type 4. Various modifications of side-hairline correction surgery were performed among the 310 cases according to the zygomatic bone classification. Among 310 patients, 74 had a type 1 zygomatic structure, 106 had type 2, 46 had type 3, and 50 had type 4. Thirty-four patients exhibited different left and right transverse widths: type 1 + 2 (n = 26), type 2 + 3 (n = 6), type 1 + 3 (n = 1), and type 3 + 4 (n = 1). Satisfactory results were obtained in all patients without noticeable side effects. A minor touch-up procedure was performed in 14 patients to achieve density reinforcement 10 months postoperatively, and all 14 patients expressed satisfaction with the results. In East Asian patients, both side-hairline correction surgery and zygoma reduction can be considered eligible treatment options for the purpose of midface slimming. Especially in patients with a type 3 zygomatic bone structure, side-hairline correction surgery may be more effective than zygoma reduction surgery for midface slimming.

  7. Construction of Korean female voxel phantom and its application to dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Ik

    2001-08-01

    A Korean female voxel phantom was constructed to overcome the limitations of anatomical description of the existing MRD-type mathematical anthropomorphic phantom and the example dose calculations were carried out for the radiation protection by using it. This whole body voxel phantom was based on the MRIs of the Korean adult female who falls into the reference Korean female group. The cross sectional human pictures from VHP of NLM was adopted for the modification and compensation of the missing MRIs of Korean adult female that include legs below upper thighs. From the gastrointestinal and respiratory organ which make obscure organ edges because of their continuing motion, the general anatomical knowledge were applied for the segmentation process. The Korean female whole body voxel phantom named in HYWOMAN is composed of 1,392,400 voxels that have width x length x height of 4mm x 4mm x 8mm for each with the total of 20 organs identified. With MDNP4B code the tissue equivalent doses were calculated for the four different energies of 0.4, 0.8, 2 and 8 MeV broad parallel gamma beam in AP, PA, LLAT and RLAT directions. The tissue equivalent doses were compared with those of ORNL adult female phantom under the same irradiation conditions. Despite of the small organ differences there could be found the considerable differences in tissue equivalent doses for some organs including thyroid, esophagus, kidneys and spleen. The cause of these discrepancies were proved to be the position of the organs in the phantom and the consequent shielding effects. With the methodology of this study, Korean reference male and female age-grouped voxel phantoms can be constructed and consequently the dosimetry system for typical Korean people is to be established

  8. Body Weight, Self-Esteem, and Depression in Korean Female Adolescents.

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    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Kyeha

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether body mass index (BMI) and perception of a body weight problem predict level of self esteem and depression in Korean female adolescents. Results showed that perception of a weight problem, but not BMI, contributed significantly to the prediction of level of self esteem and depression. (BF)

  9. Psychological features of North Korean female refugees on the MMPI-2: latent profile analysis.

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    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, Narae

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the heterogeneity in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2nd Edition (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) profiles of North Korean female refugee population (N = 2,163) using latent profile analysis (LPA). The North Korean female refugee sample arrived at Hanawon, South Korea's resettlement center for North Korean refugees in 2008 and 2009 and took the MMPI-2 as part of an initial psychological screen. The analysis, which included the T scores of the 6 validity scales and the 10 standard clinical scales, identified 4 classes with distinctive psychological features: Class 1 (nonclinical), Class 2 (demoralized), Class 3 (somatized), and Class 4 (detached). The 4 covariates entered into the model (age, education, affiliation with a religion, and the number of forced repatriations) impacted the likelihood of belonging to certain classes. As hypothesized, older age, fewer years of education, and more incidents of forced repatriation predicted higher proneness to psychopathology. However, contrary to our expectation, having a religious faith did not emerge as a salient protective factor. The current LPA results revealed distinct heterogeneous subgroups that previous research on the MMPI and MMPI-2 profiles of refugee populations overlooked with the assumption of a homogeneous sample. Clinical implications for the treatment of North Korean female refugees and the limitations of the study are discussed. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

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    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  11. Rosacea and its association with enteral microbiota in Korean females.

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    Nam, Jae-Hui; Yun, Yeojun; Kim, Han-Saem; Kim, Han-Na; Jung, Ho Joo; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kim, Won-Serk

    2018-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis affecting the face and eyes. An association between systemic comorbidities and rosacea has been reported, but the link to enteral microbiota is uncertain. We aimed to investigate the link between rosacea and enteral microbiota. A cross-sectional study was performed in a sample of Korean women who participated in a health check-up programme at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Health Screening Center between 23 June 2014 and 5 September 2014. The gut microbiome was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene and metagenome sequence analyses. A total of 12 rosacea patients and 251 controls were enrolled. We identified links between rosacea and several changes in gut microbiota: reduced abundance of Peptococcaceae family unknown genus, Methanobrevibacter (genus), Slackia (genus), Coprobacillus (genus), Citrobacter (genus), and Desulfovibrio (genus), and increased abundance of Acidaminococcus (genus), Megasphaera (genus), and Lactobacillales order unknown family unknown genus. A link between rosacea and enteral microbiota was observed in this metagenomic study. A large and elaborate study is needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Consumer Awareness and Preferences Related to Taurine-Containing Drinks in Korean Female High School Students.

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    Park, So Hyun; Lee, Seon Hwa; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate awareness, consumption patterns, and preferences related to intake experience of taurine-containing drinks (TCD) in Korean female high school students. Study subjects were 335 female high school students residing in Incheon, Korea. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. A total of 249 students (74.3%) consumed TCD while 86 students (25.7%) did not. In the TCD consumption group, 66.7% of consumers drank TCD once every 2 or 3 months while most consumers consumed it during the examination period (57.4%). Regarding the effects of TCD intake, 45.8% of students cited 'relieve sleepiness' while 41.8% showed 'no effect'. According to self-reported school records, there were significant differences in intake time of TCD, effects of TCD intake, and degree of interest in TCD (p caffeine-free TCD, caffeine was perceived as the most abundant ingredients in TCD by 77.1% of subjects, taurine by 16.1%, and vitamin by 4.8%. These results show most Korean female high school students consumed TCD in order to stay awake during the examination periods. Therefore, nutritional education is needed to correct Korean high school students' consumption of TCD.

  13. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms. (paper)

  14. Coronal Alignment of the Lower Limb and the Incidence of Constitutional Varus Knee in Korean Females

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    Song, Moo-Ho; Kang, Suk-Woong; Kim, Yeong-Joon; Park, Gyu-Taek; Pyeun, Yong-Seon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), it is important to restore neutral mechanical alignment. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the lower limb alignment is neutral in healthy Korean females and investigate the incidence of constitutional varus knees among them. Materials and Methods Weight-bearing full-leg standing radiographs were obtained from 118 healthy females between the ages of 20 to 39 years. One radiologist and two orthopaedic surgeons measured the hip-knee-ankle angle (HKAA), medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), and femoral anatomic mechanical angle (FAMA) on the radiographs and compared with the traditional gold standard HKAA of 0°, MPTA of 3° varus, and FAMA of 6°. Results The interobserver reliability of the three independent observers was high (pvarus alignment was 20.34%. Conclusions In Korean females, the mechanical axis of the lower limb was not neutral and the incidence of constitutional varus alignment was slightly higher than that in Western females. We believe that these findings should be taken into consideration in planning reconstructive surgery of the knee, such as TKA, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, and high tibial osteotomy. PMID:25750894

  15. Associations between symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and suicide in Korean female adolescents.

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    Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Eun-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and suicide in Korean female adolescents. It was hypothesized that the relationship between ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation would be mediated by the level of depressive symptoms. Seven hundred and eighty-eight high school girls completed the Conners/Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale: Short Form, Children's Depression Inventory, and Reynolds Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. Path analyses were conducted using the statistical program, AMOS version 4.0, to determine the best fitting model. The conduct, cognitive, and hyperactivity problems of the ADHD symptoms in each domain were associated positively with the depressive symptoms, with the depressive symptoms being associated with suicidal ideation. This initially proposed model represented an acceptable fit to the data (root mean square error of approximation, RMSEA=0.077; normed fit index, NFI=0.998; non-NFI, NNFI=0.990; comparative fit index, CFI=0.998). The inclusion of a direct path from the conduct problems of ADHD symptoms to suicidal ideation significantly improved the model fit (RMSEA=0, NFI=1, NNFI=1, CFI=1). The results of our study suggest that depressive symptoms partially mediate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation, and that the conduct problems of ADHD symptoms are associated with suicidal ideation both directly and indirectly via the depressive symptoms in Korean female adolescents. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Shift Work Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Young Female Korean Workers.

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    Yu, Kyoung Hwa; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Kim, Yun Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Jeong, Dong Wook; Ji, So Yeon

    2017-03-01

    Shift work is associated with health problems, including metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome in young workers. A total of 3,317 subjects aged 20-40 years enrolled in the 2011-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into shift and day workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study and calculated odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to examine the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 14.3% and 7.1% among male and female shift workers, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in female workers (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 5.70). Shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in young women. Timely efforts are necessary to manage metabolic syndrome in the workplace.

  17. Association between sleep duration and menstrual cycle irregularity in Korean female adolescents.

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    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2017-07-01

    The association between sleep and the menstrual cycle in the adolescent population has been scarcely studied. This study aimed to investigate the association between sleep duration and menstrual cycle irregularity among female adolescents using nationwide representative data from the South Korean population. This population-based, cross-sectional study used the data collected from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012, and the data from 801 female adolescents were analyzed. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of menstrual cycle irregularity in relation to sleep duration. Subjects with menstrual cycle irregularity accounted for 15% (N = 120). The mean sleep duration in subjects with menstrual cycle irregularity was significantly shorter than that in those without (p = 0.003). Menstrual cycle irregularity prevalence tended to decrease as sleep duration increased (p for trend = 0.004), which was significantly different based on sleep duration and presence of depressive mood (p = 0.011). Sleep duration ≤5 h per day was significantly associated with increased risk of menstrual cycle irregularity compared with that in the subjects whose sleep duration is ≥8 h per day even after adjusting for confounding variables. The odds ratios of menstrual cycle irregularity tended to increase for shorter sleep duration in all adjusted models. This study found a significant inverse association between sleep duration and menstrual cycle irregularity among Korean female adolescents. Increasing sleep duration is required to improve the reproductive health of female adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park CM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chul Min Park,1 Hye-Jin Seo,2 Young-Eun Jung,3 Moon-Doo Kim,3 Seong-Chul Hong,4 Won-Myong Bahk,5 Bo-Hyun Yoon,6 Min Hee Hur,7 Jae Min Song31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 2Department of Psychiatry, Yeonkang Hospital, Jeju, 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 5Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 6Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, 7School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaBackground: This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity.Methods: Eighty-four pregnant women were recruited to complete questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms, and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire.Results: Nineteen participants (22.6% had positive Mood Disorder Questionnaire scores, suggesting the presence of bipolarity, and were significantly more likely to score high on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Antenatal depression was associated with bad marital communication and marital dissatisfaction.Conclusion: These results suggest that spousal interactions play a significant role in antenatal depression, and pregnant women with bipolarity may be more depressed than those without bipolarity.Keywords: antenatal depression, bipolarity, pregnancy, Korea

  19. Breast Cancer Epidemiology of the Working-Age Female Population Reveals Significant Implications for the South Korean Economy.

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    Park, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Park, Won; Yu, Jonghan; Park, Yeon Hee

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the economic loss due to the diagnosis of breast cancer within the female South Korean working-age population. A population-based cost analysis was performed for cancer-related diagnoses between 1999 and 2014, using respective public government funded databases. Among the five most common cancers, breast cancer mortality was strongly associated with the growth in gross domestic product between 1999 and 2014 (R=0.98). In the female population, breast cancer represented the greatest productivity loss among all cancers, which was a consequence of the peak in the incidence of breast cancer during mid-working age in the working-age population, in addition to being the most common and fastest growing cancer among South Korean women. Our study shows that breast cancer not only represents a significant disease burden for individual patients, but also contributes a real, nonnegligible loss in productivity in the South Korean economy.

  20. Pharmacokinetic study of single and multiple oral administrations of 2 mg dienogest in healthy Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Donghoon; Lee, SeungHwan; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Park, Joong Shin; Shin, Sang-Goo; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2013-06-01

    The progestin dienogest was developed for oral contraception, endometriosis treatment and menopause management. Dienogest's pharmacokinetics have been primarily studied in Caucasian women. This study evaluated the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of dienogest in Korean women. Sixteen healthy Korean adult women received a single administration of 2 mg dienogest, followed by multiple once-daily administrations for 14 days. The single-dose administration and the final dose of the multiple administrations were each followed by blood sampling over 60 h. The mean (SD) maximum serum concentration after multiple doses of dienogest was slightly increased compared with that after a single dose [from 51.6 (9.6) to 56.6 (11.9) ng/mL], as was the area under the concentration-time curves (AUC)0-24h [from 503 (56.3) to 613 (90.7) ng ∙ h/mL]. The linearity factor calculated by AUCs of single and multiple doses is 1.00 ± 0.14, and the terminal half-life remained unchanged when single dosing and multiple dosing were compared. The present study described the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic profiles of dienogest in Korean women and showed linear pharmacokinetics of dienogest at steady state. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Breast functions perceived by Korean mothers: infant nutrition and female sexuality.

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    Ahn, Youngmee; Sohn, Min; Yoo, Eunkwang

    2010-04-01

    The descriptive cross-sectional study of 2,235 Korean postpartum women was conducted to explore (a) feeding types with related factors, (b) the perceived benefits of each feeding type, (c) the perceived sexuality-related barriers to breast-feeding, and (d) the perceived relative significance of breast functions. The most frequently utilized feeding type was breast-feeding only. The gender of infants, vaginal delivery, not being employed, having a nuclear family, previous breast-feeding experience, and previously receiving breast-feeding education were statistically significant factors of breast-feeding. Breast-feeding and mixed feeding mothers indicated that their feeding choices were based on nutritional benefits, convenience, and improving family relationships. Only breast-feeding mothers reported changes in breast shape as a perceived sexuality-related barrier to breast-feeding. All mothers reported that infant feeding was a more significant concern than female sexual functioning, but post hoc Schéffe revealed that the breast-feeding mothers appreciated infant feeding function more than female sexual functioning.

  2. Gender Differences in Communication Patterns of Females in Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined gender differences in communication patterns of females in single-sex and mixed-sex schools. The design of the study was an ex-post facto design. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. All the population of 218 senior secondary II female students was used for the study which ...

  3. An interaction between the norepinephrine transporter and monoamine oxidase A polymorphisms, and novelty-seeking personality traits in Korean females.

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    Lee, Boung-Chul; Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, So-Hee; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2008-01-01

    The personality traits associated with the noradrenergic system have not yet been clearly established. In the present study, we investigated the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), which are major components of the adrenergic system, to elucidate their relationship with personality. A total of 245 normal female Koreans (age 23.05+/-3.07 years, mean+/-SD) volunteered to take part in this study. They filled out a Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and were genotyped for the NET and MAOA-VNTR; the NET T-182C and MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms were checked. We found significant main effect of NET genotype on novelty seeking (NS) score (F=5.43, p=0.021) and significant interaction between the NET and MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms on NS score (F=11.06, p=0.001). However, there were no relationship between MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms and NS score, and no association with other temperamental dimensions and these two polymorphisms. Our findings suggest that this functional polymorphism in the noradrenergic gene is associated with novelty seeking in Korean females.

  4. Natures and incidences of each normal variations on I.V.P. series of 1000 Korean females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ok Ja; Chin, Soo Yil

    1980-01-01

    Each organ of body has many normal variation and/or abnormal developments from fetus to adult, especially urogenital system is very complex and markedly abnormal. The authors attempt to analyze the natures, incidences and differences of each normal variations based on I.V.P. series of 1000 Korean females and the review of literatures were carried out. The results are as follows: 1. The normal variations of urinary tracts are about 30 kinds as follows; Aphasia 0/1000 (0%), Hypoplasia 4/1000 (0.4%), Atrophic kidney 0/1000 (0%), Hyperplasia 0/1000 (0%), Hypertrophied kidney 0/1000 (0%), Supernumerary kidney 0/1000 (0%), Pelvic kidney 0/1000 (0%), Wandering kidney 7/1000 (7%), Horseshoe kidney 2/1000 (2%), Nephroptosis 6/1000 (0.6%), Malroated kidney 0/1000 (0%), Crossed ecotopic kidney 0/1000 (0%), Ureteral kingking 440/1000 (44.0%), Short ureter 3/1000 (0.3%), Long ureter 49/1000 (4.9%), Retrocaval ureter 0/1000 (0%), Retroiliac ureter 0/1000 (0%), Mega-ureter 0/1000 (0%), Aberrant vessel in ureter 79/1000 (7.9%), Congenital ureteral valves 0/1000 (0%), Anomalous ureteral orifices 0/1000 (0%), Double ureter 22/1000 (2.2%), Ureteral diverticulum 0/1000 (0%), Extrarenal pelvis 170/1000 (17.0%), Intrarenal pelvis 830/1000 (83.0%), Supernumerary pelvis 55/1000 (55%), Renal backflow 2/1000 0.2%), Multiple calyces 0/1000 (0.1%), Calyceal diverticulum 2/1000 (0.2%), Unilateral fused kidney 0/1000 (0%), Polar enlarged kidney 0/1000 (0%). 2. The order of incidence of common variations in Korean females are as follows: 1. Intrarenal pelvis 2. Ureteral kingking 3. Extrarenal pelvis 4. Aberrant vessel in ureter 5. Double pelvis 6. Long ureter 7. Double ureter 8. Wandering Kidney 9. Nephrotosis 10. Hypoplasia 11. Short ureter 12. Horseshoe kidney 13. Renal backflow 14. Calyceal diverticulum 15. Supernumerary calyces. 3. The most common variations in Korean females are intrarenal pelvis, extrarenal pelvis, aberrant vessel in ureters and most of them are acquired origin. Contrary

  5. Finger cold-induced vasodilation of older Korean female divers, haenyeo: effects of chronic cold exposure and aging

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    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Koh, Eunsook; Cha, Seongwon

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the local cold tolerance of older Korean female divers, haenyeo ( N = 22) in terms of cold acclimatization and ageing. As control groups, older non-diving females ( N = 25) and young females from a rural area ( N = 15) and an urban area ( N = 51) participated in this study. To evaluate local cold tolerance, finger cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) during finger immersion of 4 °C water was examined. As a result, older haenyeos showed greater minimum finger temperature and recovery finger temperature than older non-diving females ( P sensations as those of older non-diving females. Another novel finding was that young urban females showed more vulnerable responses to local cold in CIVD variables and subjective sensations when compared to older females, whereas young rural females had the most excellent cold tolerance in terms of maximum temperature and frequency of CIVD among the four groups ( P cold acclimatized features on the periphery even though they changed their cotton diving suits to wet suits in the early 1980s. However, cardiovascular responses and subjective sensations to cold reflect aging effects. In addition, we suggest that young people who have been adapted to highly insulated clothing and indoor heating systems in winter should be distinguished from young people who were exposed to less modern conveniences when compared to the aged in terms of cold tolerance.

  6. Gender Differences in Communication Patterns of Females in Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    103. Gender Differences in Communication Patterns of. Females in Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Schools in Nnewi. Education Zone. Nwosu, Eucharia Nchedo & Joachim C. Omeje ... and to assess how it differs from the same sex communication; and to ... Gender differences in communication are often the source of much.

  7. Suicide Attempts and Associated Factors in Male and Female Korean Adolescents A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females.

  8. Seropositivity among Korean Young Adults Approximately 2 Years after a Single-Dose Vaccination against Hepatitis A Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Jun Song

    Full Text Available We previously observed 80.7% seropositivity and a significant interaction between gender and hepatitis A virus (HAV vaccine type (Havrix vs. Epaxal on the seropositivity approximately 11 months after single-dose HAV vaccinations in Korean young adults. Our objective was to evaluate seropositivity approximately 2 years after a single-dose HAV vaccination and the influence of demographic characteristics on seropositivity, including the interaction between gender and vaccine type. Seronegative medical school students were randomly vaccinated with Havrix or Epaxal. Based on a total serum anti-HAV antibody titer cutoff of 20 IU/mL, 338 participants (76.0% of the 445 vaccinees were seropositive 20-25 months after a single-dose HAV vaccination. The seropositive rates were similar after vaccination with Havrix (77.0% and Epaxal (74.9%. Univariate analysis indicated that female (p = 0.052 and less obese (p < 0.001 participants had a higher seropositive rate, whereas other characteristics such as age, alcohol use, smoking history, vaccine type, and follow-up duration were not associated with seropositivity. Multivariate analysis indicated that women (p = 0.026 and participants with moderate alcohol use (p < 0.001 showed significantly higher seropositive rates than men and participants with no or low alcohol use, respectively. The seropositive rates after vaccination with Havrix and Epaxal were 70.9% and 67.5% in men and 87.7% and 91.3% in women, respectively (p for interaction = 0.304. Compared with the seropositive rate approximately 11 months after vaccination, the seropositive rate decreased substantially only in men in the Havrix group (11.0% points, and consequently, the interaction between gender and vaccine type disappeared while seropositivity remained high (87.7% and 91.3% in Havrix and Epaxal groups, respectively among women approximately 2 years after vaccination. Further studies are needed to assess whether the seropositive rate would be

  9. Different but Similar: Computer Use Patterns between Young Korean Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Keol; Meier, Ellen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to identify and describe new trends and gender differences in the use of computers and the Internet in South Korea. In this mixed-method study, both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used. Results indicated that both males and females used computers generally for four purposes: social networking, personal…

  10. A Window into South Korean Culture: Stress and Coping in Female High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGast, Tim S.; Foxx, Sejal Parikh; Flowers, Claudia; Rouse, Andrew Thomas; Decker, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase multicultural competence, professional counselors in the United States analyzed archival data from high school students from Seoul, South Korea. A sample of all female (N = 577) high school students responded to survey questions related to stress and coping. Results demonstrated statistical significance in levels of stress…

  11. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji-Yeon; You, Jeong-Soon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. Methods In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used...

  12. Allelic variants interaction of dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism correlate with personality traits in young Korean female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Hong-Seock; Kim, Yong-Ku; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Leen; Lee, Min Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa; Suh, Kwang-Yoon; Kim, Sangduk

    2003-04-01

    Polymorphism in exon III of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has been implicated to be associated with the human personality trait of novelty seeking (NS). For this study, we have investigated the possible association between 48-bp VNTR in exon III and -521 C/T SNP of the DRD4 and personality traits among young ( approximately 14 years of age) Korean female population. We found that the interaction between the two alleles of DRD4 polymorphism, 48-bp VNTR and -521 C/T, were significantly high on NS (F = 4.88, P = 0.029) and persistence (P) (F = 5.05, P = 0.027) personality scores, suggesting that the variants of DRD4 gene influence the NS and P (persistent) personality traits. When analyzed independently, however, the two different alleles of DRD4 polymorphisms, 48-bp VNTR and -521 C/T, there was no direct correlation with the personality traits. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in bone turnover-related genes in Koreans: ethnic differences in linkage disequilibrium and haplotype

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    Kim Tae-Ho

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is defined as the loss of bone mineral density that leads to bone fragility with aging. Population-based case-control studies have identified polymorphisms in many candidate genes that have been associated with bone mass maintenance or osteoporotic fracture. To investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with osteoporosis, we examined the genetic variation among Koreans by analyzing 81 genes according to their function in bone formation and resorption during bone remodeling. Methods We resequenced all the exons, splice junctions and promoter regions of candidate osteoporosis genes using 24 unrelated Korean individuals. Using the common SNPs from our study and the HapMap database, a statistical analysis of deviation in heterozygosity depicted. Results We identified 942 variants, including 888 SNPs, 43 insertion/deletion polymorphisms, and 11 microsatellite markers. Of the SNPs, 557 (63% had been previously identified and 331 (37% were newly discovered in the Korean population. When compared SNPs in the Korean population with those in HapMap database, 1% (or less of SNPs in the Japanese and Chinese subpopulations and 20% of those in Caucasian and African subpopulations were significantly differentiated from the Hardy-Weinberg expectations. In addition, an analysis of the genetic diversity showed that there were no significant differences among Korean, Han Chinese and Japanese populations, but African and Caucasian populations were significantly differentiated in selected genes. Nevertheless, in the detailed analysis of genetic properties, the LD and Haplotype block patterns among the five sub-populations were substantially different from one another. Conclusion Through the resequencing of 81 osteoporosis candidate genes, 118 unknown SNPs with a minor allele frequency (MAF > 0.05 were discovered in the Korean population. In addition, using the common SNPs between our study and HapMap, an

  14. Health behaviors of Korean female nursing students in relation to obesity and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Da-In; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Han, Kihye

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that young adults' dietary habits and health behaviors have significant effects on obesity and bone health. However, there is a lack of thorough understanding of the prevalence of unhealthy behaviors and potential relationships to obesity and osteoporosis among young females. This cross-sectional study examined dietary habits, health behaviors, anthropometric measurements, and bone mineral density of 160 female nursing students. A relatively large number of students had vitamin D (n = 104, 65%) and calcium (n = 84, 52.5%) deficiencies but displayed excessive cholesterol (n = 86, 53.8%) and sodium (n = 137, 85.6%) intakes. Unhealthy dietary and health habits such as nighttime snacking, coffee drinking, low milk drinking, and lack of exercise were also noted. Despite their knowledge on health, a large portion of nursing students displayed unhealthy dietary habits and health. Tailored strategies and education to narrow the gap between health behavioral knowledge and practice are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for infants and children for the evaluation of developmental delay in Korean infants and children: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Chung-Hyuk; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test (K-DST) for infants and children for developmental delay assessment. This study was based on retrospective studies of the results of the K-DST, Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES), Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, and extensive tests conducted in 209 of 1,403 patients, of whom 758 underwent the K-DST at the Korea University Guro Hospital between January 2015 and December 2016 and 645 were referred from local clinics between January 2015 and June 2016. Based on the K-DST results, the male children significantly more frequently required further or follow-up examination than the female children in most test sections, except for gross motor. The male children had notably lower mean scores than the female children. The PRES/SELSI results showed that when more further or follow-up evaluations were required in the K-DST communication section, significantly more problems in language delay or disorder emerged. When further or follow-up evaluation was required in the cognitive section in the CARS/M-CHAT, the possibility of autism increased significantly. A child tended to score low in the CARS test and show autism when further or follow-up evaluation was recommended in the K-DST. This study demonstrated the usefulness of the K-DST as a screening test early in the development of infants and children in Korea. Data of normal control groups should be examined to determine the accuracy of this investigation.

  16. Clinical significance of serum CA-125 in Korean females with ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, So Young; Lee, Jun Haeng; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Da-min; Min, Byung-Hoon; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2013-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic in Korea. Because tuberculous peritonitis is characterized by ascites, abdominal pain, abdominal mass and elevation of serum CA-125, it can be confused with ovarian malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of serum CA-125 level in the differential diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis and ovarian malignancy in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis-endemic area. The medical records of patients diagnosed with tuberculous peritonitis (n=48) or epithelial ovarian malignancy (n=370) at Samsung Medical Center from January 2000 to October 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Median serum CA-125 level in the epithelial ovarian cancer group was significantly higher than that in the tuberculous peritonitis group (p ≤ 0.01). Only one patient (2.1%) in the tuberculous peritonitis group had a serum CA-125 level over 2000 U/mL. However, 109 patients (29.5%) in the epithelial ovarian cancer group had a serum CA-125 level over 2000 U/mL. At the CA-125 ranges of 400 to 599 and 600 to 799, the proportions of those with tuberculous peritonitis were 24% and 21.9%, respectively. At a serum CA-125 level over 1000 U/mL, however, the proportion of tuberculous peritonitis was much lower (2.1%). Tuberculous peritonitis should be considered in the evaluation of female patients with ascites and high serum CA-125.

  17. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Tedizolid Phosphate After Single-dose Administration in Healthy Korean Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun; Kim, Anhye; Lee, SeungHwan; Choi, Sung-Hak; Lee, Dae Young; Song, Ji-Su; Lee, Howard; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2017-09-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a next-generation oxazolidinone prodrug that is transformed into the active moiety tedizolid. Its indication is acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although tedizolid phosphate has been marketed in Korea, no data on the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties or tolerability of tedizolid phosphate in Korean subjects are available. This study was designed to evaluate the PK properties, oral bioavailability, and tolerability with a single-dose oral and intravenous administration of tedizolid phosphate in healthy Korean male subjects. A block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose study was conducted in 3 groups (200, 400, and 600 mg; 10 subjects in each group). In the second part of the study, subjects from the 200-mg group received administration orally and intravenously (1-hour infusion) via 2-way crossover for the evaluation of absolute bioavailability. There was a 7-day washout period between treatments in the absolute bioavailability part of the study. Serial blood samples for PK analysis were collected for up to 72 hours. Tolerability was assessed by analysis of adverse events. Thirty healthy Korean subjects completed the study and were included in the PK and tolerability analyses. Tedizolid phosphate was rapidly converted into tedizolid. After a single oral dose, the T max of tedizolid was observed to be 1.5 to 2.5 hours, and the plasma concentration-time curve of tedizolid showed a 2-phase elimination pattern, with a half-life of ~11 hours. Dose-dependent increases were observed in the AUC last value (29,441-78,062 μg · h/L) and in the C max value ( 2679-6980 μg/L) with the administration of tedizolid phosphate 200 to 600 mg PO. The absolute bioavailability of tedizolid was 95.2% (90% CI, 92.7%-97.8%) in the 200-mg administration group. There were no serious adverse events or clinically significant changes in the

  18. Do female cancer patients display better survival rates compared with males? Analysis of the Korean National Registry data, 2005-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Won Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex differences have been reported in the prognosis of certain cancers. In this study, we investigated whether Korean females display better survival rates compared with male patients for solid tumor sites. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database from 599,288 adult patients diagnosed with solid cancers between 2005 and 2009. Patients were followed until December 2010. We applied a relative excess risk (RER model adjusting for year of follow-up, age at diagnosis, and stage at diagnosis. RESULTS: For all solid cancer sites combined, women displayed an 11% lower risk of death compared to men (RER 0.89; 95% CI 0.88-0.90 after adjusting for year of follow-up, age, stage, and case mix. Women showed significantly lower RERs for the following sites: head/neck, esophagus, small intestine, liver, nasal cavities, lung, bone/cartilages, melanoma of skin, soft tissue, brain and CNS, and thyroid. In contrast, women displayed a poorer prognosis than did men for colorectal, laryngeal, kidney and bladder cancer. However, the survival gaps between men and women narrowed by increase in age; female patients over 75 years of age displayed a 3% higher RER of death compared with males in this age group. CONCLUSIONS: Female cancer patients display an improved survival for the majority of solid tumor sites, even after adjustment for age and stage. Age at diagnosis was the major contributor to the women's survival advantage.

  19. International travel of Korean children and Dengue fever: A single institutional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Han; Kim, Yae Jean; Shin, Ji Hun; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe

    2010-06-01

    Dengue fever occurs in many popular tourist destinations and is increasingly imported by returning travelers in Korea. Since Korea is not an endemic country for dengue fever, pediatricians do not usually suspect dengue fever in febrile children even with typical presentation and exposure history. This study was performed to describe the international travel experiences and dengue fever in Korean children. Travel histories were collected based on questionnaires completed by all patients' guardians who visited the pediatric infectious diseases clinic at Samsung Medical Center from January 2008 to December 2008. For patients who were suspected of dengue fever, a serological test was performed. Five hundred and seventeen children visited the pediatric infectious diseases clinic for the first time during this period. About 30% of patients who responded to the questionnaire (101/339) had experienced international travel within the last 2 years. Four patients were diagnosed with dengue fever by serological test. Increasing numbers of Korean children visit dengue endemic areas and they may return home with dengue fever. Dengue fever should be suspected in patients who have a travel history to endemic areas.

  20. Studies on the reference Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.J.; Kim, J.B.; Kim, S.R.; Chung, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    For the purpose of prediction and protection of radiation effects on the Korean people, we have collected autoptic data from the National Institute of Scientific Investigation. The mass of organs and the size of brains measured is analysed for 1,921 Korean people. The results obtained are as follows; 1. The weight of the pancreas in the Reference Korean is 56.4g in male and 54.0g in female. 2. The weight of the lung in the Reference Korean is 1,204.4g in male and 957.4g in female. 3. The weight of the heart in the Reference Korean is 348.8g in male and 301.6g in female. 4. The weight of the liver in the Reference Korean is 1,863.9g in male and 1,610.0g in female. 5. The weight of the pancreas in the Reference Korean is 56.4g in male and 54.0g in female. 6. The weight of the spleen in the Reference Korean is 67.3g in male and 58.2gin female. 7. The anterposterior diameter, transverse diameter and vertical diameter of the brain in the Reference Korean are 17.6cm, 15.5cm and 8.6cm in male, respectively, and 17.7cm, 15.4cm and 8.2cm in female, respectively. (Author)

  1. Whole-body cold tolerance in older Korean female divers "haenyeo" during cold air exposure: effects of repetitive cold exposure and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhee; Kim, Siyeon; Kim, Do-Hee; Cha, Seongwon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chronic and repetitive diving in cold sea water on physiological responses to cold in older Korean female divers, Haenyeo, who have been exposed to cold water through breath-hold diving since their teens. Young and older females, who have no experience of swimming in cold sea water, were recruited as control groups: older haenyeos (N = 10, 70 ± 3 years of age), young non-diving females (N = 10, 23 ± 2 years), and older non-diving females (N = 6, 73 ± 4 years). For the test of cold exposure, all subjects were exposed to cold in an air temperature of 12 °C with 45% RH in a sitting position for 60 min. The changes in core temperature showed no significant differences between older haenyeos and the other two groups. The decreases in mean skin temperature were greater for older haenyeos than the other two groups (P < 0.01). Older haenyeos had significantly lower energy expenditure during cold exposure when compared to older non-diving females (P < 0.05). Heart rate was significantly lower in older haenyeos than that of young non-diving females (P < 0.05). Older haenyeos felt cooler at the face with lower face temperature when compared with older non-diving females. The results indicate that older haenyeos respond to cold through reducing heat loss from the skin rather than increasing metabolic rate. These responses are distinctive features from the cold defensive system of young or older non-diving females.

  2. The Effects of Single Gender Education on Sixth through Eighth Grade Female Student Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Deanna Sherrise

    Currently, students in the United States are educated in either single or mixed gender learning environments. An achievement gap between male and female students in the area of science indicates a need for instructional strategies and environments that will address these learning needs. Single gender classrooms are one possible solution as males and females have gender differences that may contribute to the way they learn. This quantitative, causal comparative study compared the differences in the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards science achievement scores of middle school females in single and mixed gender environments in a state in the Southeastern United States. Independent samples t tests, Chi-Square Tests, and two-way ANOVA analyses determined if group differences in science achievement existed between sixth through eighth grade female students in single and mixed gender classrooms. Results of the study revealed there was no significant difference in achievement scores between the two groups. The research findings provide the stakeholders with information that can potentially influence the implementation of single gender programs to improve the achievement of female students in middle grades science. Keywords: single gender, science, female students, education

  3. Cost-effectiveness of single versus double embryo transfer in IVF in relation to female age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loendersloot, Laura L.; Moolenaar, Lobke M.; van Wely, Madelon; Repping, Sjoerd; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Hompes, Peter G. A.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of single embryo transfer followed by an additional frozen thawed single embryo transfer, if more embryos are available, as compared to double embryo transfer in relation to female age. Study design: We used a decision tree model to evaluate the costs

  4. Things Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  5. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; You, Jeong-Soon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used for dietary assessment (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day). Average height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 161.3+/-0.5 cm, 55.3+/-1.0 kg and 21.2+/-0.4 kg/m2 for depression patients and those of control group were 161.4+/-0.7 cm, 53.1+/-0.8 kg and 20.3+/-0.2 kg/m2, respectively. Average dietary taurine intakes of depression patients and control group were 89.1 and 88.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between depression patients and control group. The average intakes of vitamin A (phabit score of depression patients (47.2) was significantly lower than that of control group (51.3) (phabit scores of "eating meals at regular times" (peating adequate amount of meals" (peating spicy foods" (peating protein foods such as meat, fish, eggs, beans more than 2 times a day" (pstress (pstress categories of depression patients were significantly higher than those of control group except faculty problem score. These results show that depression patients have poor dietary habits and unbalanced nutrition status. Also depression patients have higher life stress score.Therefore, continuous nutrition education and counselling for good dietary habits and balanced nutrition status are needed to prevent depression in Korean college students.

  6. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in Korean soils determined by single and sequential extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Kim, Dong-Jin; Ahn, Byung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of thallium in soils collected near suspected areas such as cement plants, active and closed mines, and smelters and to examine the extraction of thallium in the soils using 19 single chemical and sequential chemical extraction procedures. Thallium concentrations in soils near cement plants were distributed between 1.20 and 12.91 mg kg(-1). However, soils near mines and smelters contained relatively low thallium concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1.09 mg kg(-1). Thallium extractability with 19 single chemical extractants from selected soils near cement plants ranged from 0.10% to 8.20% of the total thallium concentration. In particular, 1.0 M NH4Cl, 1.0 M (NH4)2SO4, and 1.0 M CH3COONH4 extracted more thallium than other extractants. Sequential fractionation results of thallium from different soils such as industrially and artificially contaminated soils varied with the soil properties, especially soil pH and the duration of thallium contamination.

  7. Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System features of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma: a single-center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Won; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong Hyun; Baek, Jin Wook; Lee, Yoo Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Hye Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) features for distinguishing follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). From January 2013 to July 2016, 46 follicular neoplasms in 45 patients who underwent preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (US) and thyroid surgery were included. The US features of each thyroid nodule were retrospectively evaluated by a single radiologist using a picture archiving and communication system. The diagnostic indices of K-TIRADS for follicular neoplasms were calculated according to whether K-TIRADS category 4 lesions were excluded or classified as benign or malignant. Of the 46 follicular neoplasms (mean size, 3.1±1.6 cm), 37 were FTAs (mean size, 3.1±1.7 cm) and nine were FTCs (mean size, 3.0±1.5 cm). A statistically significant difference was found between FTAs and FTCs regarding the margin (P=0.035), while no significant differences were observed in the composition, echogenicity, shape, orientation, calcification, or vascularity of the lesions (P<0.05). The FTAs belonged to K-TIRADS categories 3 (n=22) and 4 (n=15), while the FTCs belonged to K-TIRADS categories 3 (n=4), 4 (n=4), and 5 (n=1). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of K-TIRADS categories between FTAs and FTCs (P=0.184).K-TIRADS features were not helpful for distinguishing FTA from FTC, although follicular neoplasms showed a high prevalence of K-TIRADS categories 3 and 4.

  8. Identification of the SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism for Fatty Acid Composition Associated with Beef Flavor-related FABP4 (Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 in Korean Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-yep Oh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between unsaturated fatty acids influencing beef flavor and four types of SNPs (c.280A>G, c.388G>A, c.408G>C and c.456A>G located at exon 2, 3 and 4 of the FABP4 gene, which is a fatty acid binding protein 4 in Korean cattle (n = 513. When analyzing the relationship between single genotype, fatty acids and carcass trait, individuals of GG, GG, CC and GG genotypes that are homozygotes, had a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and marbling scores than other genotypes (p<0.05. Then, haplotype block showed strong significant relationships not only with unsaturated fatty acids (54.73%, but also with marbling scores (5.82 in ht1×ht1 group (p<0.05. This ht1×ht1 group showed significant differences with unsaturated fatty acids and marbling scores that affected beef flavor in Korean cattle. Therefore, it can be inferred that the ht1×ht1 types might be valuable new markers for use in the improvement of Korean cattle.

  9. Pharmacokinetic comparison of controlled-release and immediate-release oral formulations of simvastatin in healthy Korean subjects: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, single- and multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Yoon Jung; Lim, Lay Ahyoung; Park, Kyung-Mi; Kwon, Bong-Ju; Woo, Jong Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Min Soo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Kyungsoo

    2010-01-01

    A controlled-release (CR) formulation of simvastatin was recently developed in Korea. The formulation is expected to yield a lower C(max) and similar AUC values compared with the immediate-release (IR) formulation. The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the new CR formulation and an IR formulation of simvastatin after single- and multiple-dose administration in healthy Korean subjects. This study was developed as part of a product development project at the request of the Korean regulatory agency. This was a randomized, open-label, parallelgroup, 2-part study. Eligible subjects were healthy male or female volunteers between the ages of 19 and 55 years and within 20% of their ideal weight. In part I, each subject received a single dose of the CR or IR formulation of simvastatin 40 mg orally (20 mg x 2 tablets) after fasting. In part II, each subject received the same dose of the CR or IR formulation for 8 consecutive days. Blood samples were obtained for 48 hours after the dose in part I and after the first and the last dose in part II. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for both simvastatin (the inactive prodrug) and simvastatin acid (the active moiety). An adverse event (AE) was defined as any unfavorable sign (including an abnormal laboratory finding) or symptom, regardless of whether it had a causal relationship with the study medication. Serious AEs were defined as any events that are considered life threatening, require hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization, cause persistent or significant disability or incapacity, or result in congenital abnormality, birth defect, or death. AEs were determined based on patient interviews and physical examinations. Twenty-four healthy subjects (17 men, 7 women; mean [SD] age, 29 [7] years; age range, 22-50 years) were enrolled in part I, and 29 subjects (17 men, 12 women; mean age, 33 [9] years; age range, 19-55 years) were enrolled in part II. For simvastatin acid, C

  10. Comparing anger, anger expression, life stress and social support between Korean female nursing and general university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2017-12-01

    To compare anger, anger expression, life stress and social support among female students at a nursing university and a general university and to examine factors affecting anger in each group. University students typically experience constant stress resulting from factors like academic requirements, personal relationships and career decisions; this tends to promote anger. Particularly, nursing students' anger can negatively affect the quality of care that they provide, and also their mental health. Therefore, anger management of nursing students is very important in the training and development of future nurses. Nursing education needs to confirm factors associated with anger of nursing students compared with general university students to develop specific intervention programs for decreasing their anger levels. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Participants were 286 female students (146 from a nursing university and 140 from a general university); they completed self-report surveys examining anger, anger expression, life stress and social support. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was done to identify factors affecting anger. Data were collected from 15 May-10 June 2016. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, we entered three anger expression factors, eight life stress factors and social support as explanatory variables; factors affecting anger among nursing students were anger-out and same-sex peer relationship stress. In general university students, anger-out, anger-control and anger-in were identified as factors affecting anger. Becoming proficient in beneficial anger expression techniques and reducing stress from same-sex peer relationships will reduce anger among female nursing students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Adaptation in South Korean Society of North Korean Elite Defectors

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    Levi Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the adaptation of North Korean elite defectors who fled from North Korea. Data used for the purpose of this article came from surveys of North Korean defectors conducted in the late 2000’s. Findings of the realized research indicate that the majority of senior defectors are experiencing less psychological and material issues when adjusting to society than regular North Korean defectors. The paper will proceed in three steps: explaining the notion of defectors, outlining their background, and focusing on their adaptation in South. Although defectors as a whole has emerged as of the most research group as a minority in South Korea, the so-called senior defectors have hardly been spotlighted. Basically North Korean senior defectors are supposed to strengthen the anti-Kim movement and legitimize the power of the South Korean government and the image of South Korea abroad. What has to be enlightened upon is the fact that North Korean senior defectors partially disagree with the integration policy of South Korean authorities. A major research question emerges: How are the experience of elite defectors localized in South Korea? How do their specific identities impact their opinion within the South Korean society? The aim of the article is also to categorize senior defectors and to provide in a single document a list of senior North Korea defectors based abroad. This kind of information is only available for Korean speaking readers. I wanted to make it accessible to the Englishspeaking community.

  12. Single-dose, randomized crossover comparisons of different-strength imatinib mesylate formulations in healthy Korean male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Park, Shin Jung; Kim, Chin; Park, Ji-Young

    2013-10-01

    Imatinib mesylate is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of 2 different strengths of the imatinib formulation containing 100 mg (reference) and 400 mg (test) to satisfy the regulatory requirement for marketing. A single-center, randomized, single-dose, open-label, 2-period, 2-sequence, comparative crossover study with a 14-day washout period was conducted in 30 healthy male volunteers. Plasma samples for the drug analysis were collected up to 72 hours after drug treatment. Participants received either the reference (4 tablets of 100-mg imatinib) or the test (1 tablet of 400-mg imatinib) formulation during the first period and the alternative formulation during the second period. The safety profiles and tolerability of the 2 formulations were also assessed based on physical examinations, laboratory tests, a 12-lead ECG, and vital signs. Thirty participants were initially enrolled; their mean (SD) age, height, weight, and body mass index were 24.9 (2.0) years (range, 23-30 years), 174 (5) cm (range, 164-185 cm), 69.9 (2.0) kg (range, 54.1-87.4 kg), and 23.0 (2.0) kg/m(2) (range, 18.5-26.9 kg/m(2)); 28 healthy participants completed both treatment periods. Two subjects did not complete the study because they withdrew consent for personal reasons. The observed mean (SD) Cmax, AUC0-last, and AUC0-∞ values for the reference formulation were 1792 (357) ng/mL, 28,485 (6274) ng · h/mL, and 29,079 (6371) ng · h/mL, respectively. Corresponding values for the test formulation were 1710 (312) ng/mL, 27,222 (4624) ng · h/mL , and 27,872 (4751) ng · h/mL. The geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) between the 2 formulations at the 400-mg dose of imatinib were 0.9579 (0.9054-1.0136) for Cmax, 0.9652 (0.9174-1.0155) for AUC0-last, and 0.9679 (0.9203-1.0179) for AUC0-∞, respectively. During the study period, 6 adverse events (3 for the reference and 3 for the test

  13. Do Factors Associated Self-rated Good Health and Their Influences Differ between Males and Females across Different Age Groups in Korean and Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Young; Short, Stephanie Doris

    2017-02-01

    This was a comparative study between Australia and Korea that investigated whether and to what extent factors related to self-rated good health (SRGH) differ by gender among age groups. This study was a secondary analysis of data that were collected in nationally representative, cross-sectional, and population-based surveys. We analyzed Australian and Korean participants > 20 years of age using 2011 data from the Australian National Nutritional Physical Activity Survey (n = 9,276) and the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (n = 5,915). Analyses were based on multiple logistic regression after controlling for covariates. Factors associated with SRGH and the extent of their influence differed by gender among age groups within each nation. Australian SRGH was associated with more factors than Korean SRGH, except in participants > 65 years old. Many differences among adults aged 20-44 years were observed, particularly with regard to the influence of socioeconomic factors. Living with a spouse only influenced SRGH in men 20-44 years old in both countries, negatively for Korean men and positively for Australian men. In this same age group, SRGH was positively influenced by employment and attainment of a higher education level in Australian men but not among Korean men; among women, income, but not education, affected SRGH in Korea, whereas in Australia, women were more influenced by education than by income. Lack of chronic disease had a strong influence on SRGH in both countries and was influential in all Australians and Koreans except those ≥ 65 years old. Broad features of society should be considered when discussing health and differences in associated factors and their influences. For focused public health interventions of population groups, it is also necessary to consider gender and age groups within social environments.

  14. Metoidioplasty as a single stage sex reassignment surgery in female transsexuals: Belgrade experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Stanojevic, Dusan; Bizic, Marta; Kojovic, Vladimir; Majstorovic, Marko; Vujovic, Svetlana; Milosevic, Alexandar; Korac, Gradimir; Perovic, Sava V

    2009-05-01

    Metoidioplasty represents one of the variants of phalloplasty in female transsexuals. Its main characteristic is that it is a one-stage procedure. It involves lengthening and straightening of hypertrophied clitoris to create a neophallus, urethral lengthening to enable voiding while standing, and scrotal reconstruction with insertion of testicle prostheses. Our aim is to describe our technique and highlight its advantages. Between September 2002 and April 2007, 82 female transsexuals, aged 18-54 years (mean age 31) underwent one-stage metoidioplasty. Clitoris is lengthened and straightened by division of clitoral ligaments and short urethral plate. Urethroplasty is done with combined buccal mucosa graft and genital skin flaps. Scrotum is created from labia majora in which two testicle prostheses are inserted. Simultaneously, female genitalia are removed. Patients' personal satisfaction about sensitivity and length of neophallus, possibility to void in standing position, real length of reconstructed urethra as well as complication rate comparing to other published data. The median follow-up was 32 months (range 14-69). The mean neophallic length was 5.7 cm (range 4-10). Voiding in standing position was reported in all patients, while dribbling and spraying were noticed in 23 cases and solved spontaneously. There were two urethral strictures and seven fistulas that required secondary minor revision. All patients reported preserved sensation and normal postoperative erection. Testicle prostheses rejection was not observed in any of the patients. Metoidioplasty is a single-stage and time-saving procedure. It could be an alternative to total phalloplasty in female transsexuals who do not wish to have sexual intercourse. Also, it represents a first step in cases where additional augmentation phalloplasty is required.

  15. Bioequivalence of a single 400-mg dose of imatinib 100-mg oral tablets and a 400-mg tablet in healthy adult Korean volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Won; Seong, Sook Jin; Park, Sung Min; Lee, Joomi; Gwon, Mi-Ri; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lim, Sung Mook; Lim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Woomi; Yang, Dong Heon; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2015-06-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM) is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A new once-daily 400-mg film-coated tablet of imatinib has been developed by a pharmaceutical company in Korea. The present study was designed to assess and compare the PK parameters, bioavailability, and bioequivalence of the new imatinib 400-mg formulation (test) versus the conventional 100-mg formulation (reference) administered as a single 400-mg dose in healthy adult male volunteers. This randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male volunteers. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive 400 mg of the test (one 400-mg tablet) or reference (four 100-mg tablets) formulation, followed by a 2-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Serial blood samples were collected at 0 (predose), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. Plasma imatinib concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the adjusted geometric mean ratios for Cmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞)ž were within the predetermined range of 0.80 - 1.25. In total, 35 subjects completed the study. No serious adverse event was reported during the study. The 90% CIs of the adjusted geometric mean ratios of the test formulation to the reference formulation for C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞)ž of imatinib were all within the bioequivalence criteria range of 0.8 - 1.25. The test formulation of imatinib met the Korean regulatory requirements for bioequivalence. Both imatinib formulations were well-tolerated in all subjects.

  16. K- Popping: Korean Women, K-Pop, and Fandom

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jungwon

    2017-01-01

    Korean popular music (hereafter K-pop) can be understood as an inclusive cultural phenomenon. K-pop fandom constitutes a sizeable portion of this phenomenon and is characteristic, to a large degree, of K-pop culture. However, female fans, especially in Korea, are frequently disdained in mainstream Korean culture, and their fandom has been undervalued and derided. Challenging this negative view of female fans, I autoethnographically examine Korean female K-pop fandom, based on my field researc...

  17. Behavioural differences between single scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos and females with dependent young when experimentally approached by humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sahlén

    Full Text Available Carnivore-human encounters that result in human injury present a conservation and management challenge and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions such incidents occur. Females with cubs are often involved when humans are injured by brown bears Ursus arctos. In Scandinavia, this is particularly true for unarmed recreational forest users. Our aim was to document behavioural differences between single bears and females with cubs in order to develop recommendations to minimize the risk of injuries to recreational forest users. We documented the reactions of GPS-collared females with cubs and single brown bears to experimental approaches by humans to 50 m from the bear on 42 and 108 occasions, respectively. The majority of females with cubs (95% and single bears (89% left when approached. Bears that left were passed at shorter distances and were in more open areas than those that stayed. Both groups had similar flight initiation distances, which were longer for bears that were active at the time of the disturbance. Females with cubs selected more open habitat than single bears, also for the new site they selected following disturbance. Females with cubs, particularly active females with cubs of the year, moved greater distances and spent more time active following the approach. Females with cubs and single bears were seen or heard in 26% and 14% of the approaches, respectively. None of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour during the approaches. Females with cubs selected more open habitat, perhaps predisposing them to encountering people that are not involved in hunting activities, which might be the primary explanation why females with cubs are most frequently involved when unarmed people are injured by bears in Scandinavia. To mitigate injury risks, one must consider factors that bring bears closer to human activity in the first place.

  18. Behavioural differences between single scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) and females with dependent young when experimentally approached by humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlén, Veronica; Ordiz, Andrés; Swenson, Jon E; Støen, Ole Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Carnivore-human encounters that result in human injury present a conservation and management challenge and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions such incidents occur. Females with cubs are often involved when humans are injured by brown bears Ursus arctos. In Scandinavia, this is particularly true for unarmed recreational forest users. Our aim was to document behavioural differences between single bears and females with cubs in order to develop recommendations to minimize the risk of injuries to recreational forest users. We documented the reactions of GPS-collared females with cubs and single brown bears to experimental approaches by humans to 50 m from the bear on 42 and 108 occasions, respectively. The majority of females with cubs (95%) and single bears (89%) left when approached. Bears that left were passed at shorter distances and were in more open areas than those that stayed. Both groups had similar flight initiation distances, which were longer for bears that were active at the time of the disturbance. Females with cubs selected more open habitat than single bears, also for the new site they selected following disturbance. Females with cubs, particularly active females with cubs of the year, moved greater distances and spent more time active following the approach. Females with cubs and single bears were seen or heard in 26% and 14% of the approaches, respectively. None of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour during the approaches. Females with cubs selected more open habitat, perhaps predisposing them to encountering people that are not involved in hunting activities, which might be the primary explanation why females with cubs are most frequently involved when unarmed people are injured by bears in Scandinavia. To mitigate injury risks, one must consider factors that bring bears closer to human activity in the first place.

  19. Outcome and treatment strategy in female lung cancer: a single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Smailyte, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the survival rate of female lung cancer treated at the Institute of Oncology of the Vilnius University, Lithuania during the period between 1996-2005. Materials and Methods: During the period between 1996-2005, 471 women diagnosed with lung cancer were treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology of the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University. Data on morphology, stage and treatment was collected from the medical records. All lung cancer cases by histology were classified in two groups: non-small cell lung cancer (includes squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and other less common types) and small cell lung cancer. The vital status of the study group was assessed as of December 31, 2007, by passive follow-up, using data from the population registry. It was found that 411 (87.3%) of the patients had died. Survival was estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median survival of female lung cancer diagnosed during 1996-2005 in Lithuania show to be 8.7 months (8.4 (95% CI 7.2-10.8) months with non-small cell lung cancer and 9.3 (95% CI 6.3-13.0) months with small-cell lung cancer). Survival was more than 20 months in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (stages I, II, IIIA). Non-small cell lung cancer survival in advanced stages was less than 7 months. Small-cell lung cancer patients median survival at limited and extended stages of the disease were 9.5 (95% CI 2.9-18.4) compared to 9.2 (95% CI 6.2-13.7) months. Non-small cell lung cancer patients most frequently were treated by surgery (27.0%), surgery and chemotherapy or radiotherapy (19.6%). Small cell lung cancer patient treatment included chemo and radiotherapy (27.0%), chemotherapy (19.0%), radiotherapy (17.5%), surgery (27.9%). Conclusions: The single center study of female lung cancer diagnosed during 1996-2005 in Lithuania show a significantly better chance of survival in resectable non-small cell lung cancer. Advanced stages of

  20. Application of the Western-based adjuvant online model to Korean colon cancer patients; a single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minkyu; Shin, Sang Joon; Kim, Geon Woo; Jung, Inkyung; Ahn, Joong Bae; Roh, Jae Kyung; Rha, Sun Young; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Tae Il

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvant Online (AOL) is web-accessible risk-assessment model that predicts the mortality and the benefits of adjuvant therapy. AOL has never been validated for Asian colon cancer patients. Using the Yonsei Tumor Registry database, patients who were treated within the Yonsei University Health System between 1990 and 2005 for T1-4, N0-2, and M0 colon cancer were included in the calculations for survival. Observed and predicted 5-year overall survival was compared for each patient. The median age of the study population of 1431 patients was 60 years (range, 15–87 years), and the median follow-up duration was 7.9 years (range, 0.06–19.8 years). The predicted 5-year overall survival rate (77.7%) and observed survival (79.5%) was not statistically different (95% Confidential interval, 76.3–81.5) in all patients. Predicted outcomes were within 95% confidential interval of observed survival in both stage II and III disease, including most demographic and pathologic subgroups. Moreover, AOL more accurately predicted OS for patients with stage II than stage III. AOL tended to offer reliable prediction for 5-year overall survival and could be used as a decision making tool for adjuvant treatment in Korean colon cancer patients whose prognosis is similar to other Asian patients

  1. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Results Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Conclusion Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens. PMID:27004204

  2. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009-2014: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee; Lee, Mee-Hwa

    2016-03-01

    To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens.

  3. Types and Dynamics of Gendered Space: A Case of Emirati Female Learners in a Single-Gender Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeer, Gergana

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with gendered spaces as they emerge from exploring Emirati female learners' spatiality in a single-gender context. By conducting ethnographic research and utilising Lefebvre's triad of perceived, conceived and lived space for the analysis and categorisation of students' spaces, three types of gendered spaces emerged:…

  4. New Ar/Ar single grain mineral ages from Korean orogenic belts with implications for the Triassic cooling and exhumation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Koenraad; Ruffet, Gilles; Han, Seokyoung

    2013-04-01

    The Korean peninsula is located in the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent where major late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic continental collision zones, like the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu Belt, merge with circum-Pacific subduction-accretion systems. Deciphering the tectonic evolution of Korea is thus crucial for the understanding of the amalgamation of East Asia. Classically, research in Korea has focused on the search for (ultra)high-pressure metamorphic rocks and their isotopic dating, most recently applying SHRIMP on Th- and U-bearing accessory minerals, in order to substantiate links with the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu Belt across the Yellow Sea in China. Instead of trying to date peak pressure conditions we focused on 40Ar/39Ar laser-probe step-heating dating of single grains of the fabric-forming minerals muscovite, biotite and amphibole, formed during retrograde recrystallisation and exhumation. This is a big advantage as their growth can be straightforwardly correlated to major phases of the tectono-metamorphic evolution of rocks. This approach helps to meet the major geochronological challenge of obtaining age estimates for the timing of specific tectono-metamorphic events in the Korean orogenic belts. The Korean peninsula comprises a number of Palaeoproterozoic high-grade gneiss terranes; only one of which has been affected by Permo-Triassic metamorphism: the Gyeonggi Massif. We concentrated on the uppermost Gyeonggi Massif and the overlying Imjingang Belt, to the North, and the ill-defined Hongseong zone to the West, both constituted by younger metamorphic rocks. Both belts contain rare lenses of mafic rocks with relics of high-pressure metamorphism. Hornblende from a corona-textured amphibolite from the lowermost part of the Imjingang Belt yielded a U-shaped age spectrum, the base of which is formed by four concordant steps with a weighted mean age of 242.8 ± 2.4 Ma (15% 39Ar release). Muscovites from strongly retrogressed and

  5. Training reduces catabolic and inflammatory response to a single practice in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2013-11-01

    We examined the effect of training on hormonal and inflammatory response to a single volleyball practice in elite adolescent players. Thirteen female, national team level, Israeli volleyball players (age 16.0 ± 1.4 years, Tanner stage 4-5) participated in the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after a typical 60 minutes of volleyball practice, before and after 7 weeks of training during the initial phase of the season. Training involved tactic and technical drills (20% of time), power and speed drills (25% of time), interval sessions (25% of time), endurance-type training (15% of time), and resistance training (15% of time). To achieve greater training responses, the study was performed during the early phase (first 7 weeks) of the volleyball season. Hormonal measurements included the anabolic hormones growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3, the catabolic hormone cortisol, the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the anti-inflammatory marker IL-1 receptor antagonist. Training led to a significant improvement of vertical jump, anaerobic properties (peak and mean power by the Wingate Anaerobic Test), and predicted VO2max (by the 20-m shuttle run). Volleyball practice, both before and after the training intervention, was associated with a significant increase of serum lactate, GH, and IL-6. Training resulted in a significantly reduced cortisol response ([INCREMENT]cortisol: 4.2 ± 13.7 vs. -4.4 ± 12.3 ng · ml, before and after training, respectively; p volleyball practice. The results suggest that along with the improvement of power and anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, training reduces the catabolic and inflammatory response to exercise.

  6. Psychological Challenges of Saudi Female International Students in Virginia: Single Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joyce G.

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabian female international students enrolled in a public university in Northern Virginia used either problem-focused coping or emotion-focused coping strategies to overcome psychological and social challenges. Sixteen Saudi females participated in this qualitative case study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain the opinions…

  7. Pharmacokinetics of a telmisartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study in healthy Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Dong Woo; Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Son, Hankil; Jang, Seong Bok; Seo, Jeong Min; Nam, Su Youn; Park, Kyungsoo

    2015-10-01

    As hypertension and dyslipidemia are frequent comorbidities, antihypertensive drugs and lipid-lowering agents are often prescribed together for their treatment. Telmisartan and rosuvastatin are widely used together to treat hypertension and dyslipidemia. A combination formulation of these two drugs would improve patient compliance due to ease of dosing. The purpose of this study was to assess bioequivalence of single-dose administration of a newly-developed fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet containing telmisartan/rosuvastatin 80/20 mg (test treatment) and coadministration of a telmisartan 80-mg tablet and a rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet (reference treatment) in healthy Korean male volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study enrolling healthy males aged 20 - 50 years with BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. Each subject received a single dose of the reference and test treatments with a 14-day washout period. Blood sampling was performed at prespecified intervals for up to 72 hours after dosing. Primary pharmacokinetic parameters were Cmax, AUClast, and AUC0-∞ of telmisartan, rosuvastatin, and N-desmethyl rosuvastatin. Bioequivalence was assessed by determining whether the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios (test treatment/reference treatment) of these parameters were within the standard range of 80% to 125%. Adverse events were monitored via regular interviews with the subjects and by physical examinations. 60 subjects were enrolled and 55 completed the study. The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios of Cmax, AUClast, and AUC00-∞ were 0.9262-1.1498, 0.9294-1.0313, and 0.9312-1.0320 for telmisartan, 0.9041-1.0428, 0.9262-1.0085, and 0.9307-1.0094 for rosuvastatin, and 0.8718-1.0022, 0.8901-0.9904, and 0.8872-0.9767 for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse events (AEs) (all of which were mild or moderate) between the reference and test

  8. Safety and immunogenicity of a single intramuscular dose of a tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy Korean adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Taegon; Chung, Yong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Choe, Yong-Kyung; Lee, Jongtae; Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    BR-TD-1001 was developed as a booster for the immunity maintenance of diphtheria and tetanus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of BR-TD-1001 (test vaccine) in comparison with placebo and an active comparator in healthy Korean adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active comparator, phase I clinical trial was conducted. Fifty subjects were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups in a ratio of 2:2:1, and were administered a single intramuscular dose of test vaccine, active comparator, or placebo, respectively. All subjects were monitored for 4 weeks after injection. The antibody titers of the patients 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination were compared with the baseline. The frequencies of all adverse events including adverse drug reactions in the test group were not statistically different from those of the other treatment groups (P = 0.4974, 0.3061). No serious adverse event occurred, and no subject was withdrawn from the study for safety. The seroprotection rates against both tetanus and diphtheria at 4 weeks after vaccination were over 0.95. For anti-tetanus antibody, the geometric mean titer in the test group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (P = 0.0364, 0.0033). The geometric mean titer of anti-diphtheria antibody in the test group was significantly higher than the value of the placebo (P = 0.0347) while it was not for the value of the active comparator (P = 0.8484). In conclusion, BR-TD-1001 was safe, well-tolerated, and showed sufficient immunogenicity as a booster for diphtheria and tetanus.

  9. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

  10. Clinical manifestations of autoimmune disease-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a Korean single-center, retrospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young-Woo; Yoon, Jae-Ho; Lee, Sung-Eun; Eom, Ki-Seong; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Hee-Je; Lee, Seok; Min, Chang-Ki; Lee, Jong Wook; Min, Woo-Sung; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-09-01

    Recently, large cohort studies regarding associations between autoimmune disease and lymphomas have been reported in a few Western countries. However, Asian data concerning autoimmune-related lymphomas are limited. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of patients with autoimmune disease-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in a single center in Korea. We analyzed the data from 11 patients with autoimmune-related NHL. Patients were categorized into two groups, those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and those with non-RA-related NHL. Then patients were re-categorized into a group with methotrexate (MTX) usage and a MTX non-usage group. Histological subtype, MTX duration, autoimmune disease duration, treatment modalities, and other data were collected and analyzed. Our study revealed that older RA patients have a greater likelihood of occurrence of NHL (p = 0.042). We confirmed that MTX duration and cumulative dose of MTX have no significant correlation with autoimmune disease and NHL (p = 0.073). In the management of autoimmune disease-related NHL, all patients were directly treated with systemic chemotherapy instead of employing a wait and watch approach. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in all autoimmune disease-related NHL were 100% and 87.5%, with no treatment-related mortality during the 2-year follow-up period of our study. Our study suggests that patients with RA-NHL are characterized by older age at onset compared to those with non-RA-NHL. Also considering of OS and PFS, intensive treatment strategy instead of delayed watchful managements may be required for autoimmune disease-related NHL including of old age group.

  11. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection as a Cause of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Young Female Population: A Single-center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Pei-Na; Xu, Chen; You, Wei; Wu, Zhi-Ming; Xie, Du-Jiang; Zhang, Hang; Pan, Chang; Ye, Fei

    2017-07-05

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a nonatherosclerotic but a rare and extremely dangerous clinical entity, it has a high prevalence in young female population with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The previous reports were restricted to other countries' population, but rare in China. Hence, this study aimed to focus on the characteristics of SCAD as a cause of young female AMI population in Jiangsu, China. This study enrolled young female AMI patients aged ≤50 years who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) and intracoronary imaging in our center between January 2013 and December 2016. Their clinical presentations, risk factors, and CAG characteristics were analyzed. A total of 60 young female AMI (SCAD in young female AMI population was 35% (21/60), the prevalence of coronary atherosclerostic heart disease was 65% (39/60). In the SCAD group, 43% (9/21) presented with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and the remainder presenting as STEMI. SCAD usually occurred in a single vessel (20/21, 95%), especially in left anterior descending artery (14/21, 67%). Eighteen patients (18/21, 86%) underwent conservative treatment, whereas the remaining three patients (3/21, 14%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Regarding the angiographic results of SCAD lesions, intramural hematoma was discriminated in 95% (20/21), and Type I imaging was observed in 5% (1/21), Type II was observed in 67% (14/21), and Type III was 29% (6/21). The average stenosis in the group was 76.9% ± 20.6%, and the mean lesion length was 36.6 ± 8.6 mm. SCAD has a high prevalence in young female AMI population in Jiangsu, China. Discriminating the cause of AMI in young female population is very important.

  12. Utility of a multiplex reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction assay (HemaVision in the evaluation of genetic abnormalities in Korean children with acute leukemia: a single institution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; In children with acute leukemia, bone marrow genetic abnormalities (GA have prognostic significance, and may be the basis for minimal residual disease monitoring. Since April 2007, we have used a multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction tool (HemaVision to detect of GA. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; In this study, we reviewed the results of HemaVision screening in 270 children with acute leukemia, newly diagnosed at The Catholic University of Korea from April 2007 to December 2011, and compared the results with those of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, and G-band karyotyping. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; Among the 270 children (153 males, 117 females, 187 acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 74 acute myeloid leukemia patients were identified. Overall, GA was detected in 230 patients (85.2%. HemaVision, FISH, and G-band karyotyping identified GA in 125 (46.3%, 126 (46.7%, and 215 patients (79.6%, respectively. TEL-AML1 (20.9%, 39/187 and AML1-ETO (27%, 20/74 were the most common GA in ALL and AML, respectively. Overall sensitivity of HemaVision was 98.4%, with false-negative results in 2 instances: 1 each for TEL-AML1 and MLL-AF4 . An aggregate of diseasesspecific FISH showed 100% sensitivity in detection of GA covered by HemaVision for actual probes utilized. G-band karyotype revealed GA other than those covered by HemaVison screening in 133 patients (49.3%. Except for hyperdiplody and hypodiploidy, recurrent GA as defined by the World Health Organizationthat were not screened by HemaVision, were absent in the karyotype. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; HemaVision, supported by an aggregate of FISH tests for important translocations, may allow for accurate diagnosis of GA in Korean children with acute leukemia.

  13. Outcomes for Female Students within a Summer Engineering Program: Single-Sex versus Coeducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Trina Lolita

    2017-01-01

    African American and Black women are twice as likely to enroll in higher education in comparison to Black men. However, when it comes to engineering degrees awarded in 2015, only 24% of the Black recipients were women. A potential solution may be to introduce engineering to pre-college Black female students through extracurricular program. Being…

  14. Sperm depletion: a cost for single mated females of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Sousa-Souto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to test if egg viability of polyandrous females was increased with increasing number of matings. Longevity and reproductive output of females of the predatory stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus that were allowed to mate for 0, 1, 2, 3 times or were in the continuous presence of the same male was evaluated. Polyandry resulted in diminished sperm depletion. Females that had mated three times or that were in continuous presence of a male produced more offspring than females that mated once or twice throughout their lifetime. There was a negative correlation of mating history on female longevity. Results indicated that remating, either with same male or with different males were crucial for maximization of the reproductive success of females.Entre os heterópteros, o declínio da concentração de esperma pode ser um fator limitante para o sucesso reprodutivo desses insetos. Acasalamentos múltiplos conferem um reabastecimento de esperma e podem permitir um aumento do valor adaptativo das fêmeas. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que a poliandria aumenta a viabilidade dos ovos. A longevidade de fêmeas de Podisus nigrispinus, bem como seus parâmetros reprodutivos em resposta a diferentes números de acasalamentos (0, 1, 2, 3 ou em coabitação com o mesmo macho foi avaliada. Esse percevejo vem sendo usado em programas de controle biológico de pragas em reflorestamentos de Eucalipto no Brasil. Apesar da diminuição no tempo de sobrevivência das fêmeas, acasalamentos múltiplos mantiveram a viabilidade dos ovos e o período reprodutivo das fêmeas, permitindo um maior número de descendentes produzidos. Tais resultados indicam que um número mínimo de três acasalamentos antes da primeira postura permite uma maximização do sucesso reprodutivo dessa espécie.

  15. Development of a single-nucleotide-polymorphism marker for specific authentication of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer new cultivar “G-1”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Uk Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The results from our study shows that this SNP-based approach to identify the G-1 cultivar will be a good way to distinguish accurately the G-1 cultivar and P. quinquefolius from other Korean ginseng cultivars using a SNP at 45S ribosomal DNA region.

  16. Development and evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire for Vietnamese female immigrants in Korea: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hye; Choi, Ha Ney; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Wha Young; Chung, Hye Won; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for Vietnamese female immigrants in Korea and to evaluate the validity of the FFQ. A total of 80 food items were selected in developing the FFQ according to consumption frequency, the contribution of energy and other nutrients, and the cooking methods based on one-day 24 hour recall (24HR) from 918 Vietnamese female immigrants between November 2006 and November 2007. The FFQ was validated by comparison with 24HR of 425 Vietnamese female immigrants between November 2008 and August 2009. The absolute nutrient intake calculated from the FFQ was higher than that estimated by 24HR for most nutrients. The correlation coefficients between 24HR and FFQ ranged from 0.10 (vitamin C) - 0.36 (energy) for crude intake, 0.05 (vitamin E) - 0.32 (calcium) for per 1000 kcal, and 0.08 (zinc) - 0.34 (calcium) for energy-adjusted, respectively. More than 70% of subjects were classified into the same or adjacent agreement groups for nutrients other than fiber, sodium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E, while less than 10% of subjects were classified into complete disagreement groups. We conclude that the FFQ appears to be an acceptable tool for estimating nutrient intake and dietary patterns of Vietnamese female immigrants in Korea. Future studies to validate the FFQ using various biomarkers or other dietary assessment methods are needed.

  17. Pastoral care and the agony of female singleness in the African christian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Baloyi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In our society the norm is thatevery adult should get married one day. This could imply thatunmarried people do not feel welcome either in the community or the church. They may feel neglected or even like outcasts. It is a pity that the church, which also finds itself within the community, is composed of people who still continue to havethe kind of attitude that excludes singles, even inside church circles. While churches run programmes that have a strong emphasis on marriage and family life, nothing is being doneto address singleness and its related problems. As a result, singles often regard themselves as unimportant and worthless. This article is aimed at un-covering the role of the church through its leadership (pastors in particular to assist and helpto redeem the damaged image and self-esteem that singles may have in their respective communities and churches. The article focuses on singles in the African church and society. It is crucial that a church programme of care and counselling be structured in order to minister to persons who are separated, divorced, widowed or never married for whatever reason.

  18. Exercise training and weight loss, not always a happy marriage: single blind exercise trials in females with diverse BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew; Fatahi, Fardin; Alabduljader, Kholoud; Jelleyman, Charlotte; Moore, Jonathan P; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    Individuals show high variability in body weight responses to exercise training. Expectations and motivation towards effects of exercise on body weight might influence eating behaviour and could conceal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted 2 single-blind exercise trials (4 weeks (study 1) and 8 weeks (study 2)) with concealed objectives and exclusion of individuals with weight loss intention. Circuit exercise training programs (3 times a week (45-90 min), intensity 50%-90% peak oxygen uptake for 4 and 8 weeks) were conducted. Thirty-four females finished the 4-week intervention and 36 females the 8-week intervention. Overweight/obese (OV/OB) and lean female participants' weight/body composition responses were assessed and fasting and postprandial appetite hormone levels (PYY, insulin, amylin, leptin, ghrelin) were measured before and after the intervention for understanding potential contribution to individuals' body weight response to exercise training (study 2). Exercise training in both studies did not lead to a significant reduction of weight/body mass index (BMI) in the participants' groups; however, lean participants gained muscle mass. Appetite hormones levels were significantly (p training did not lead to weight loss in female participants, while a considerable proportion of variance in body weight response to training could be explained by individuals' appetite hormone levels and BMI.

  19. Influence of spermatogenesis functional state on female sterility under single local x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikova, N.K.; Kudritskaya, O.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment which simulated conditions of radiation exposure in X ray studies of human beings was staged to see what was the contribution of the sex-related radiosensitivity to the biologic effect from local exposure of the pelvis region. Second-generation white mice were irradiated with doses of 7.34 to 360 R. It was found that with the dose increase, the number of sterile females also increased with a concomitant reduction in the number of live spermatozoa in the seman of males, which can be considered as evidence that these two processes are interrelated

  20. Rural Mid-Life Single Adult Families: Male/Female Similarities and Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingren, Herbert G.; And Others

    The study examined data from rural midlife singles concerning: (1) their socio-demographic characteristics; (2) their life satisfactions and happiness with their rural lifestyle; (3) their self-image and self-esteem; (4) their coping strategies; and (5) their social support systems. Subjects were 76 men and 149 women between the ages of 35 and 59…

  1. Consecutive analysis of mutation spectrum in the dystrophin gene of 507 Korean boys with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy in a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Anna; Seong, Moon-Woo; Lim, Byung Chan; Lee, Hwa Jeen; Byeon, Jung Hye; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Choi, Sun Ah; Wong, Ai-Lynn; Lee, Jeongho; Kim, Jon Soo; Ryu, Hye Won; Lee, Jin Sook; Kim, Hunmin; Hwang, Hee; Choi, Ji Eun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Young Seung; Hong, Ki Ho; Park, Seungman; Cho, Sung Im; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Hyunwoong; Seo, Soo Hyun; Park, Sung Sup; Chae, Jong Hee

    2017-05-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) are allelic X-linked recessive muscle diseases caused by mutations in the large and complex dystrophin gene. We analyzed the dystrophin gene in 507 Korean DMD/BMD patients by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification and direct sequencing. Overall, 117 different deletions, 48 duplications, and 90 pathogenic sequence variations, including 30 novel variations, were identified. Deletions and duplications accounted for 65.4% and 13.3% of Korean dystrophinopathy, respectively, suggesting that the incidence of large rearrangements in dystrophin is similar among different ethnic groups. We also detected sequence variations in >100 probands. The small variations were dispersed across the whole gene, and 12.3% were nonsense mutations. Precise genetic characterization in patients with DMD/BMD is timely and important for implementing nationwide registration systems and future molecular therapeutic trials in Korea and globally. Muscle Nerve 55: 727-734, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Landing mechanics during single hop for distance in females following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigsted, Stephanie M; Post, Eric G; Bell, David R

    2017-05-01

    To determine possible differences in single-hop kinematics and kinetics in females with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction compared to healthy controls. A second purpose was to make comparisons between the healthy and reconstructed limbs. Subjects were grouped based on surgical status (33 ACLR patients and 31 healthy controls). 3D motion capture synchronized with force plates was used to capture the landing phase of three successful trials of single hop for distance during a single data collection session. Peak values during the loading phase were analysed. Subjects additionally completed three successful trials of the triple hop for distance Tegner activity scale and International Knee Document Committee 2000 (IKDC). Controls demonstrated greater peak knee flexion and greater internal knee extension moment and hip extension moment than ACLR subjects. Within the ACLR group, the healthy limb exhibited greater peak knee flexion, hip flexion, hip extension moment, single hop and triple hops for distance and normalized quadriceps strength. Patients who undergo anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction land in a more extended posture when compared to healthy controls and compared to their healthy limb. III.

  4. Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, William F; Kimble, Matthew O; Campbell, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Petercă, Oana; Heller, Emily J

    2015-12-01

    Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Evaluating single-incision slings in female stress urinary incontinence: the usefulness of the CONSORT statement criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Stéphanie; Cour, Florence; Josephson, Anne; Vidart, Adrien; Botto, Henri; Lebret, Thierry; Bonan, Brigitte

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and applicability of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for journal articles reporting randomized, controlled trials evaluating single-incision slings in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. Original articles reporting randomized, controlled trials assessing single-incision slings in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence were searched for in the PubMed and Embase databases in 2011. Reporting quality was studied by 2 hospital pharmacists and 2 urologic surgeons. Primary outcome was the score out of 20 in the abstract CONSORT checklist. Secondary outcomes were the scores in the standard CONSORT checklist and the extension CONSORT additional items for trials assessing nonpharmacologic treatments. Among 135 articles retrieved, 8 met the inclusion criteria and were assessed. Abstract scores ranged from 4.7-14.1. Standard scores were >10.0 out of 20 for most articles; the extension scores did not exceed 5.0 out of 10. Four reported trials were not identified as randomized in the title. The interventions were incompletely reported. Four articles reported whether blinding was achieved but lack of blinding was never discussed as a potential source of bias. Few articles reported the operators and centers characteristics and their impact on statistical analysis. The combination of the 3 checklists was considered a useful guideline to enhance and assess the reporting quality of a surgical trial. Our results support the further use of CONSORT criteria as a basic standardized tool in all stages of clinical evaluation for any prosthetic device in female pelvic surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Korean Screen Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    new approaches to Korean popular culture beyond national borders and includes work on K-pop and Korean television drama. This book is a vital addition to existing scholarship on Korean popular culture, offering a unique view by providing an imaginary unification of the two Koreas negotiated through...

  7. Effect Of Single And Short-Term Aerobics On Selected Mental State Parametres In Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

  8. Single-island home range use by four female Peary caribou, Bathurst Island, Canadian High Arctic, 1993-94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal use of seasonal, and collectively, annual ranges by four female Peary caribou (Rangifer taran-dus pearyi was investigated using satellite telemetry. Knowledge of how caribou use space allows a better understanding of their demands on those ranges and enhances evaluation of associated environmental stressors. The study took place during an environmentally favorable caribou-year with high reproduction and calf survival and low (none detected 1+ yr-old mortality, 1 August 1993 to 31 July 1994, Bathurst Island, south-central Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canadian High Arctic. All four females exhibited a pattern of single-island seasonal, and collectively, annual range use. Estimates of the maximum area encompassed by each individual during the course of the annual-cycle varied from 1735 to 2844 km2 (mean±SE = 2284±250 km2. Although, there was 46% spatial overlap among individual ranges, temporal isolation resulted in the four individuals maintaining seasonal ranges distinctly separate from each other. This collective area encompassed 4970 km2 and equaled about 31% and 18% of Bathurst Island and the Bathurst Island complex, respectively. Individual wintering areas formed a relatively small portion of each individual's annual range (mean±SE=71±17 km2: 24 km2, 158 days of occupation, <1% of the annual area; 70 km2, 187 days, 4%; 95 km2, 200 days, 4%; and 94 km2, 172 days, 6%. Seasonal movements were greatest during pre-rut and pre-calving.

  9. The Impact of Single-Sex Education on Male and Female Gains in Mathematics and Reading at the Elementary Level in a Selected School in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The gender gap in achievement and the increasing awareness of differences between male and female cognitive development have ignited a growing interest in single-sex education. No Child Left Behind legislation and amendments to Title IX legislation have increased the number of schools in America offering single-sex education. This 2-year…

  10. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Hae Kyung Chung; Kyung Rhan Chung; Hung Ju Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Korea, there are many traditional foods that have developed along with the country's rich history. In addition, various food cultures have developed through agricultural traditions, ritual ceremonies, and the sharing of affection. Paintings, works of calligraphy, and music demonstrate some of these cultural characteristics of Korean foods. Further research and analysis of Korean food culture using these data sources is currently underway. Methods: This paper focuses on the c...

  11. North Korean Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    the old days there were several racist names for Koreans and songs with lyrics like ‘Koreans sound like pigs.’ Koreans think of the Japanese as...for unacceptable actions may do more harm than working around them. Some of these problems have come in more recent times, such as the incident in...not harm relationships with the other (Vorontsov 8). Consequently, Russia appears to be limiting itself in the amount of influence it can achieve

  12. Efficacy and safety of topical depigmenting agent in healthy human fair skin female volunteers: A single-arm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saurabh; Chew, Soon-Keong

    2017-11-28

    Skin hyperpigmentation is the darkening of skin due to the increased production of melanin in the body. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a botanical-based Rosa E pigmentation serum in healthy fair skin female volunteers with wrinkles, skin tone, and pigmentation. This was a single-arm, open label study conducted in healthy Indian females; 18 subjects aged 30-55, having fair Caucasian-like skin with at least 2 dark skin pigments with facial wrinkles diagnosed by dermatologist were selected. Rosa E pigmentation serum was applied twice a day for 84 days. Effect was evaluated by (i) instrumental technique (spectrophotometer ® 2600D), (ii) clinically by dermatologist regarding product efficacy (skin tone, antiwrinkle, pigmentation), and (iii) volunteers self-evaluation. The L* value of spectrophotometer reading represents lightness in the skin pigment. Reduction in the pigment was reported from day 14, with significant reductions observed till day 84 compared with baseline. Significant (P < .0001) skin pigmentation lightening was seen on day 14 (1.11) vastly improving on day 84 (1.94) based on photographic assessments. The significant reduction in skin pigment was 76.85%, Felix von Luschan skin color score was 30.24% (P < .0001) with a 7.38-fold reduction in skin tone and 57% reduction in facial wrinkles at day 84 from baseline. Rosa E pigmentation serum was found safe and effective in significant reduction in skin pigments, improvement of skin tone, and antiwrinkle properties instrumentally, clinically, and self-evaluation by volunteers. In these evaluations, best results were seen the longer the Rosa E was used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Radiological evaluation of G-I tract diverticulum in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Jun; Park, Joong Wha; Hong, In Soo; Kim, Myung Soon [Yeonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    We reviewed 887 cases of esophagogram, 8863 cases of UGI series, 174 cases of small bowel series and 1926 cases of double contrast barium enema performed at the department of Radiology, Wonju College of Medicine from Jan. 1982 to Dec. 1984 to analyzed diverticular disease pattern of the GI tract in Korean. The results were as follows: 1. Esophageal diverticular. The incidence was 3.27% and the sex ratio of male to female was 2.22:1 Age distribution was relatively even and most common in 5th decade. Most of them showed single in number, above 6mm sized and common in middle one third of both lateral side of esophagus. 2. Stomach diverticular. The incidence was 0.07% and the sex ratio of male to female was equal. Multiplicity was single in all cases. Most of them were above 11mm sized and common in gastric fundic area of greater curvature site of stomach. 3. Duodenal diverticular. The incidence was 1.51% and relatively even distribution in sex and age and common in after 5th decade. Most of them showed single in number, 11-30mm sized and common in medial margin of 2nd portion of duodenum. 4. Colonic diverticular. The incidence was 2.34% and predominant in male and common in 5th. and 6th. decade. Most of them showed single in number, below 5mm sized and common in right sided colon.

  14. Radiological evaluation of G-I tract diverticulum in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ki Jun; Park, Joong Wha; Hong, In Soo; Kim, Myung Soon

    1986-01-01

    We reviewed 887 cases of esophagogram, 8863 cases of UGI series, 174 cases of small bowel series and 1926 cases of double contrast barium enema performed at the department of Radiology, Wonju College of Medicine from Jan. 1982 to Dec. 1984 to analyzed diverticular disease pattern of the GI tract in Korean. The results were as follows: 1. Esophageal diverticular. The incidence was 3.27% and the sex ratio of male to female was 2.22:1 Age distribution was relatively even and most common in 5th decade. Most of them showed single in number, above 6mm sized and common in middle one third of both lateral side of esophagus. 2. Stomach diverticular. The incidence was 0.07% and the sex ratio of male to female was equal. Multiplicity was single in all cases. Most of them were above 11mm sized and common in gastric fundic area of greater curvature site of stomach. 3. Duodenal diverticular. The incidence was 1.51% and relatively even distribution in sex and age and common in after 5th decade. Most of them showed single in number, 11-30mm sized and common in medial margin of 2nd portion of duodenum. 4. Colonic diverticular. The incidence was 2.34% and predominant in male and common in 5th. and 6th. decade. Most of them showed single in number, below 5mm sized and common in right sided colon.

  15. Norms for the Korean version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyun, Young Don; Kim, Yun Joo

    2009-01-01

    The Korean Version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:K) was adapted and studied in order to determine Korean norms. In total, 271 subjects (175 males and 96 females) participated in the study. Comparisons are made between the Korean samples and previously published international samples. The normative data from the Korean sample on the HGSHS:K are generally congruent, including means and standard deviations, with data from international reference samples. However, the pass rate on the hallucination item on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, was significantly different from that of the American sample. Females showed higher overall scores than males.

  16. Colorectal cancer among Koreans living in South Korea versus California: incidence, mortality, and screening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, So Yeon; Crespi, Catherine M; Maxwell, Annette E

    2014-08-01

    This study compared trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates among Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California between 1999 and 2009, and examined CRC screening rates and socio-demographic correlates of CRC screening in the two Korean populations. Age-standardized CRC incidence and mortality rates of Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California for the years 1999-2009 were obtained from annual reports of cancer statistics and modeled using joinpoint regression. Using 2009 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the California Health Interview Survey, we estimated and compared CRC screening rates and test modalities. We used multiple logistic regression to examine socio-demographic correlates of completion of CRC screening according to the guidelines among the two Korean populations. CRC incidence and mortality rates among South Koreans increased during 1999-2009 but more slowly during the late 2000s. In California, CRC incidence increased among Korean American females but decreased among non-Hispanic whites. About 37% of South Koreans and 60% of Korean Americans reported completion of CRC screening according to guidelines in 2009. Among South Koreans, married status, higher income, and private health insurance were associated with CRC screening, adjusting for other factors. Among Korean Americans, having health insurance was associated with CRC screening. Despite almost identical CRC screening guidelines in South Korea and the USA and substantially higher screening rates among Korean Americans as compared to South Koreans, disparities remain in both populations with respect to CRC statistics. Thus, efforts to promote primary and secondary prevention of CRC in both Korean populations are critically important in both countries.

  17. Recent Research Trends in Korean Medicine Treatment of Diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Han-sung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyze the directions of Korean Medicine treatment of diabetes mellitus. Methods : We reviewed the 52 studies about diabetes mellitus which had been published from 2000 to 2007. We selected those studies from the search engine of the web site of five journals. Those were the Journal of Korean Oriental Medical Society, Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology, the Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society, Korean Journal of Oriental Internal Medicine and the Journal of Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Results : 1. The types of diabetes mellitus model in studies were the model used Alloxan(2cases, the model used Streptozotocin(41cases, NOD mice(1case, ob/ob mice(1case, db/db mice(5cases and rats fed highfat diet(2cases. 2. The types of method in studies were pharmacopuncture(8cases, herbal medcine(47case and both pharmacopuncture and herbal medcine(3cases. the types of materials in studies were single herb(24cases, multiple herbs(32cases and both single and multiple herbs(4cases. 3. The types of evaluation criteria in studies were glucose, pancreas, liver, kidney, serum lipid, oxidative stress, nervous system, vascular system and immunity. Conclusions : There have been reported many studies of diabetes mellitus in Korean Medicine. It requires to study further types of diabetes mellitus, kinds of herbs and complications of diabetes mellitus for Korean Medicine treatment of diabetes mellitus was covered the ground.

  18. The aesthetics of cuteness in Korean pop music

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ae Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aesthetic of ‘cuteness’ in South Korean popular music (known as K-pop) is a pivotal concept in Korean media and culture and is frequently used to describe performances by both male and female K-pop groups. Aegyo is a fundamental part of this aesthetic, also called ‘K-cute’, and it refers to the behaviour of ‘acting cute’ that denotes a particular coquettish style not only in K-pop but also in South Korean society in a broader sense.\\ud \\ud This thesis explores K-pop performance from the m...

  19. Pharmacokinetic comparison of sustained- and immediate-release oral formulations of cilostazol in healthy Korean subjects: a randomized, open-label, 3-part, sequential, 2-period, crossover, single-dose, food-effect, and multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwan; Lim, Lay Ahyoung; Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Yoon Jung; Chung, Jae Yong; Choi, Jong Rak; Kim, Kiyoon; Park, Jin Woo; Yoon, Hosang; Lee, Jaeyong; Park, Min Soo; Park, Kyungsoo

    2011-12-01

    A sustained-release (SR) formulation of cilostazol was recently developed in Korea and was expected to yield a lower C(max) and a similar AUC to the immediate-release (IR) formulation. The goal of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of a newly developed SR formulation and an IR formulation of cilostazol after single- and multiple-dose administration and to evaluate the influence of food in healthy Korean subjects. This study was developed as part of a product development project at the request of the Korean regulatory agency. This was a randomized, 3-part, sequential, open-label, 2-period crossover study. Each part consisted of different subjects between the ages of 19 and 55 years. In part 1, each subject received a single dose of SR (200 mg × 1 tablet, once daily) and IR (100 mg × 2 tablets, BID) formulations of cilostazol orally 7 days apart in a fasted state. In part 2, each subject received a single dose of the SR (200 mg × 1 tablet, once daily) formulation of cilostazol 7 days apart in a fasted and a fed state. In part 3, each subject received multiple doses of the 2 formulations for 8 consecutive days 21 days apart. Blood samples were taken for 72 hours after the dose. Cilostazol pharmacokinetics were determined for both the parent drug and its metabolites (OPC-13015 and OPC-13213). Adverse events were evaluated through interviews and physical examinations. Among the 92 enrolled subjects (66 men, 26 women; part 1, n = 26; part 2, n = 26; part 3, n = 40), 87 completed the study. In part 1, all the primary pharmacokinetic parameters satisfied the criterion for assumed bioequivalence both in cilostazol and its metabolites, yielding 90% CI ratios of 0.9624 to 1.2323, 0.8873 to 1.1208, and 0.8919 to 1.1283 for C(max) and 0.8370 to 1.0134, 0.8204 to 0.9807, and 0.8134 to 0.9699 for AUC(0-last) of cilostazol, OPC-13015, and OPC-13213, respectively. In part 2, food intake increased C(max) and AUC significantly (P food and 23 with a high

  20. The effect of single oral doses of duloxetine, reboxetine, and midodrine on the urethral pressure in healthy female subjects, using urethral pressure reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Niels; Cerneus, Dirk; Sawyer, William

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the effect on urethral pressure of reference drugs known to reduce stress urinary incontinence symptoms by different effect size and mechanisms of action on urethral musculature under four test conditions in healthy female subjects using urethral pressure reflectometry. METHODS......: Healthy females aged 18-55 years were recruited by advertising for this phase 1, single site, placebo-controlled, randomized, four-period, crossover study. The interventions were single oral doses of 10 mg Midodrine, 80 mg Duloxetine, 12 mg Reboxetine, and placebo. The endpoints were the opening urethral...... pressure measured in each period at four time points (predose and 2, 5.5, and 9 h after dosing). RESULTS: Twenty-nine females were enrolled; 25 randomized and 24 completed the study. The opening urethral pressure was higher in all measurements with filled bladder compared with empty bladder, and during...

  1. Bioequivalence of two misoprostol tablets in healthy Chinese female volunteers: a single-dose, two-period, double crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Chen, R; Li, R; Wei, C-M; Yuan, G-Y; Liu, X-Y; Wang, B-J; Guo, R-C

    2012-01-01

    To assess the bioequivalence of a new generic formulation of misoprostol (CAS 59122-46-2) 0.2 mg tablets (test) and the available branded tablet (reference) for the requirement of state regulatory criteria and the marketing of the test product in China. A randomized-sequence, 2-period crossover study was conducted in 20 healthy Chinese female volunteers in the fasted state. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 0.083, 0.17, 0.25, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h after a single oral dose of 0.6 mg misoprostol test or reference, followed by a 7-day washout period. Misoprostol acid, the active metabolite of misoprostol, was determined by an HPLC-MS/MS method. Drug And Statistics 2.0 was used to calculate the pharmacokinetics parameters and assess bioequivalence of the 2 formulations. It was considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs of the mean ratios (test: reference) for Tmax, Cmax and AUC0-t were all within the range from 80% to 125%. Adverse events were monitored throughout the study based on clinical parameters and patient reports. The main pharmacokinetics parameters for the test and reference were as follows: t1/2 was (0.680 ± 0.371) h and (0.650 ± 0.264) h; Tmax was (0.415 ± 0.087) h and (0.399 ± 0.097) h; Cmax was (1.941 ± 0.417) ng/mL and (2.047 ± 0.397) ng/mL; AUC0-t was (1.535 ± 0.419) ng·h/mL and (1.652 ± 0.400)ng·h/mL, and the AUC0-∞ was (1.576 ± 0.465) ng·h/mL and (1.686 ± 0.396) ng·h/mL. The mean ratios (test: reference) for Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 95.3% ±13.2%, 92.65% ± 17.31%, and 93.61%±18.97%, respectively. No significant (p>0.05) differences in pharmacokinetic parameters were found between preparations, treatments and periods. This single-dose study in healthy Chinese fasted volunteers was shown that the misoprostol test and reference met the requirement of US and China regulatory criterion, and the test and reference were bioequivalent. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  3. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-01

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  4. Association Factors for CT Angiography Spot Sign and Hematoma Growth in Korean Patients with Acute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage : A Single-Center Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byung Hoo; Han, Young-Min; Jang, Kyung-Sool; Huh, Ryoong; Park, Young Sup

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to clarify the association factors and clinical significance of the CT angiography (CTA) spot sign and hematoma growth in Korean patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods We retrospectively collected the data of 287 consecutive patients presenting with acute ICH who arrived within 12 hours of ictus. Baseline clinical and radiological characteristics as well as the mortality rate within one month were assessed. A binary logistic regression was conducted to obtain association factors for the CTA spot sign and hematoma growth. Results We identified a CTA spot sign in 40 patients (13.9%) and hematoma growth in 78 patients (27.2%). An elapsed time to CT scan of less than 3 hours (OR, 5.14; 95% CI, 1.76-15.02; p=0.003) was associated with the spot sign. A CTA spot sign (OR, 5.70; 95% CI, 2.70-12.01; p40 IU (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.01-4.01; p=0.047), and an international normalized ratio ≥1.8 or warfarin medication (OR, 5.64; 95% CI, 1.29-24.57; p=0.021) were independent predictors for hematoma growth. Antiplatelet agent medication (OR, 4.92; 95% CI, 1.31-18.50; p=0.019) was significantly associated with hematoma growth within 6 hours of ictus. Conclusion As previous other populations, CTA spot sign was a strong predictor for hematoma growth especially in hyper-acute stage of ICH in Korea. Antithrombotics medication might also be associated with hyper-acute hematoma growth. In our population, elevated GPT was newly identified as a predictor for hematoma growth and its effect for hematoma growth is necessary to be confirmed through a further research. PMID:25371778

  5. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Kyung Chung

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Beyond the basic value of food in maximizing nutrients and energy, Korean food culture has developed distinctive cultural characteristics through more than 5,000 years of agricultural history. Although the genre paintings analyzed in this paper are limited to a certain era, this paper will serve as a milestone in providing direction for future studies.

  6. On Being There: Korean in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, John C.; Kawanishi, Yumiko

    1995-01-01

    Examines the experiences of ethnic Koreans and the Korean language in Japan since 1945, focusing on Japanese attitudes toward Koreans and the Korean language, provisions for Korean and bilingual education, and the increasing influence of Koreans in Japanese society. (18 references) (MDM)

  7. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of eletriptan hydrobromide in healthy Korean subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YK

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Yu Kyong Kim,1 Kwang-Hee Shin,2 Jeffrey Alderman,3 Kyung-Sang Yu,1 In-Jin Jang,1 SeungHwan Lee1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2College of Pharmacy, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; 3Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, USA Background: Migraine is one of the most common headache disorders that greatly affect the quality of life. Selective serotonin (5-HT receptor agonists such as triptamine-based drugs called triptans are used for treatment of migraine. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK and tolerability profiles of eletriptan hydrobromide (eletriptan HBr, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (also known as serotonin 1B/1D receptor agonist, in Koreans and compare the results to those observed in non-Koreans in a previously published study. Patients and methods: A randomized, open-label, single, and repeated-dose study was conducted in 16 healthy Korean male subjects using a four-treatment, four-period, and four-sequence crossover design (NCT01139515. The subjects received one of the following four treatments in each period: a single dose of 20, 40, 80 mg eletriptan HBr or a repeated oral dose of 40 mg 2 h apart. Blood samples were collected before and up to 26 h after dosing for quantification of plasma eletriptan concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem–mass spectrometry. The PK parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods. Ethnicity differences between Korean and non-Korean subjects were identified using geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals (CIs of dose-normalized maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and dose-normalized area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from 0 h to the last measurable concentration (AUC0–t. Results: After single-dose administration of eletriptan HBr to Korean subjects, the mean Cmax and AUC0–t increased

  8. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Brown Adipose Tissue in an 18F-FDG PET Study of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joon Yeun; Lim, Jung Sub; Park, Eun Young; Cho, A Ra; Kim, Byeong Il; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2010-01-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in Korean subjects using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET). Six thousand and five consecutive 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans of 5,115 patients (3,007 females and 2,108 males, mean age 53.5 years) were retrospectively reviewed. We characterized the nature of BAT, such as tis location, and we assessed the influence of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and temperature on BAT. The prevalence of BAT in Koreans in a single 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan in average conditions was 1.07%. The BAT detection rate was higher in females than males (1.32% vs 0.73%), and also with younger age (7.94% vs 0.73%), and lower BMI (BMI with BAT, 21.1 vs BMI without BAT, 23.15) and cold outdoor temperature (1.65% vs 0.49%). The most frequent location of BAT was the supraclavicular area (left, 0.91%; right, 0.88%) and ventral neck area (left, 0.62%; right, 0.63%). Conclusions The characteristics of BAT in Koreans are not different from those described for Caucasians. However, the low prevalence of BAT in our study might be related to some scan condition like ambient temperature, but further study is needed.

  9. Women in South Korean Politics: A Long Road to Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Heike Hermanns

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for the increase in female representation in South Korean politics in the early 21st century. It is not a direct outcome of Korea’s democratisation process but a result of attitudinal change as well as the efforts of women’s organisations. The Korean experience shows that female representation in parliaments is not the only way to influence politics and policies on women’s issues. This paper starts with a general discussion of democratic procedures that influen...

  10. Does gender impact on female doctors'experiences in the training and practice of surgery? A single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoetok, F; Van Wyk, J M; Madiba, T E

    2017-09-01

    Surgery has been identified as a male-dominated specialty in South Africa and abroad. This study explored how female registrars perceived the impact of gender on their training and practice of surgery. A self-administered questionnaire was used to explore whether females perceived any benefits to training in a male-dominated specialty, their choice of mentors and the challenges that they encountered during surgical training. Thirty-two female registrars participated in the study. The respondents were mainly South African (91%) and enrolled in seven surgical specialties. Twenty-seven (84%) respondents were satisfied with their training and skills development. Twenty-four (75%) respondents had a mentor from the department. Seventeen (53%) respondents perceived having received differential treatment due to their gender and 25 (78.2%) thought that the gender of their mentor did not impact on the quality of the guidance received in surgery. Challenges included physical threats to female respondents from patients and disrespect, emotional threats and defaming statements from male registrars. Additional challenges included time-constraints for family and academic work, poor work-life balance and being treated differently due to their gender. Seventeen (53%) respondents would consider teaching in the Department of Surgery. Generally, females had positive perceptions of their training in Surgery. They expressed concern about finding and maintaining a work-life balance. The gender of their mentor did not impact on the quality of the training but 'bullying' from male peers and selected supervisors occurred. Respondents will continue to recommend the specialty as a satisfying career to young female students.

  11. Whole genome sequencing of 35 individuals provides insights into the genetic architecture of Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqian; Meehan, Joe; Su, Zhenqiang; Ng, Hui Wen; Shu, Mao; Luo, Heng; Ge, Weigong; Perkins, Roger; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2014-01-01

    Due to a significant decline in the costs associated with next-generation sequencing, it has become possible to decipher the genetic architecture of a population by sequencing a large number of individuals to a deep coverage. The Korean Personal Genomes Project (KPGP) recently sequenced 35 Korean genomes at high coverage using the Illumina Hiseq platform and made the deep sequencing data publicly available, providing the scientific community opportunities to decipher the genetic architecture of the Korean population. In this study, we used two single nucleotide variant (SNV) calling pipelines: mapping the raw reads obtained from whole genome sequencing of 35 Korean individuals in KPGP using BWA and SOAP2 followed by SNV calling using SAMtools and SOAPsnp, respectively. The consensus SNVs obtained from the two SNV pipelines were used to represent the SNVs of the Korean population. We compared these SNVs to those from 17 other populations provided by the HapMap consortium and the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) and identified SNVs that were only present in the Korean population. We studied the mutation spectrum and analyzed the genes of non-synonymous SNVs only detected in the Korean population. We detected a total of 8,555,726 SNVs in the 35 Korean individuals and identified 1,213,613 SNVs detected in at least one Korean individual (SNV-1) and 12,640 in all of 35 Korean individuals (SNV-35) but not in 17 other populations. In contrast with the SNVs common to other populations in HapMap and 1KGP, the Korean only SNVs had high percentages of non-silent variants, emphasizing the unique roles of these Korean only SNVs in the Korean population. Specifically, we identified 8,361 non-synonymous Korean only SNVs, of which 58 SNVs existed in all 35 Korean individuals. The 5,754 genes of non-synonymous Korean only SNVs were highly enriched in some metabolic pathways. We found adhesion is the top disease term associated with SNV-1 and Nelson syndrome is the only disease term

  12. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  13. Self-Esteem in Hispanic Adolescent Females and Its Relation to Dual Parent Households and Single Mother Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Linda Marie Pettis

    2002-01-01

    The development of a sense of self in adolescence has been shown to be influenced by the perceived level of warmth of the mother. Additionally, the nature of the home environment has been found to relate to an adolescent's level of self-esteem (Buri, 1990; Field, Lang, Yando, and Bendell, 1993). Hispanic adolescent females and their mothers in…

  14. Measuring of the cerebellar volume of normal Koreans in their 20s and 40s using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Lee, Beob Yi; Lee, Bong Soo; Eom, Jin Sup; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-01-01

    This study purposed to measure the standard volume of the cerebellum of normal Koreans who were in their 20s and 40s, and we also wished to find out the difference in the volume of the cerebellum according to gender and age. This study collected MR brain images from 118 people in their 20s (males: 58, females: 60) and 100 people in their 40s (males: 41, females: 59), for a total of 218 people. For each of sagittal, coronal and axial sections, the cerebellar part of the images was segmented using automatic and manual methods, and the volume was then measured. In order to observe differences according to gender and age and also to observe the interactive effect between gender and age, a two-way ANOVA test was performed using gender (2 levels) and age (2 levels) as independent variables. The average volume of the cerebellum of Koreans in their 20s was 133.74 (cm 3 ) and that of Koreans in their 40s was 121.83 (cm 3 ). The average volume of the cerebellum of male Koreans in their 20s and 40s was 134.55 (cm 3 ) and that of female Koreans was 123.06 (cm 3 ). The volume of the cerebellum was significantly larger in Koreans in their 20s than those volumes of the cerebellum of Koreans in their 40s, and the cerebellum volumes in male Koreans were larger than those of the Korean females. Moreover, the reduction of the volume of the cerebellum with age was significantly larger in male Koreans than in the Korean females. According to the results of measuring the volume of the cerebellum for normal Koreans in their 20s and 40s, the volume was significantly different according to gender and age, and the reduction of the volume of the cerebellum with age was significantly larger in men than in women

  15. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of eletriptan hydrobromide in healthy Korean subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Kyong; Shin, Kwang-Hee; Alderman, Jeffrey; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, SeungHwan

    2018-01-01

    Background Migraine is one of the most common headache disorders that greatly affect the quality of life. Selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists such as triptamine-based drugs called triptans are used for treatment of migraine. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and tolerability profiles of eletriptan hydrobromide (eletriptan HBr), a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (also known as serotonin) 1B/1D receptor agonist, in Koreans and compare the results to those observed in non-Koreans in a previously published study. Patients and methods A randomized, open-label, single, and repeated-dose study was conducted in 16 healthy Korean male subjects using a four-treatment, four-period, and four-sequence crossover design (NCT01139515). The subjects received one of the following four treatments in each period: a single dose of 20, 40, 80 mg eletriptan HBr or a repeated oral dose of 40 mg 2 h apart. Blood samples were collected before and up to 26 h after dosing for quantification of plasma eletriptan concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem–mass spectrometry. The PK parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods. Ethnicity differences between Korean and non-Korean subjects were identified using geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of dose-normalized maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and dose-normalized area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from 0 h to the last measurable concentration (AUC0–t). Results After single-dose administration of eletriptan HBr to Korean subjects, the mean Cmax and AUC0–t increased linearly with dose. Comparable total systemic exposures were observed in the 2 h apart 40 mg repeated and single 80 mg dose. The geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) of the dose-normalized Cmax and AUC0–t of Korean subjects were similar to those of non-Korean subjects reported in the literature. The adverse events observed were transient and mild in severity. Conclusion

  16. Effects of menarcheal age on the anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors during single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kew-Wan; Lim, Bee-Oh

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between maturation and lower extremity biomechanics during landing in team sport athletes, we are presently uninformed of any research that examined the single-legged drop landing biomechanics of gymnasts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the menarcheal age on the lower extremity biomechanics during a single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts. Twenty-two female artistic elite gymnasts, between 9 and 36 years of age, participated in this study. The participants were divided into two groups pre- (n = 11) and post- (n = 11) menarche and asked to perform a single-legged drop landing on top of a 30 cm platform and land on a force plate. The statistical analysis consisted of the multivariate analysis with the level of significance set at p knee flexion angle and increase in their maximum knee abduction angle, maximum internal tibial rotation angle, maximum knee abduction moment, and hamstring-quadriceps muscle activity ratio compared with the pre-menarche group during the single-legged drop landing. The post-menarche group showed an increased noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk, due to their greater knee loads, compared with the pre-menarche group.

  17. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2014-04-01

    The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships between dietary patterns and body composition changes in Korean elderly aged 65 years or older. The study subjects (n = 1,435) were individuals who participated in the Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) in 2011. THERE WERE THREE DIETARY PATTERNS DERIVED BY CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN THIS STUDY: 'Traditional Korean' (37.49% of total population), 'Meat and Alcohol' (19.65%) and 'Westernized Korean' (42.86%). The (1) 'Traditional Korean' pattern was characterized by high consumptions of white rice and low protein, low fat, and low milk products, while (2) 'Westernized Korean' pattern ate a Korean-style diet base with various foods such as noodles, bread, eggs and milk, (3) 'Meat and Alcohol' pattern had high consumptions of meat and alcohol. In body composition changes, compared with the 'Traditional Korean' pattern, the 'Meat & alcohol' pattern was associated with a 50% increased risk of having elevated BMI (kg/m(2)), 'Westernized Korean' pattern was associated with a 74% increased abnormality of ASM/Wt (kg) by logistics analysis. Most of the Korean adult population continues to follow ether a traditional Korean having beneficial effects for successful aging. However, the 'Traditional Korean' pattern showed low protein intake (0.7 g/kg), calcium intake, and vitamin D intake as well as low of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM (kg)) among 3 groups. Considering the low ASM, consumption of protein, calcium and vitamin D should be increased for Korean elderly health body composition.

  18. Abdominal Hollowing Reduces Lateral Trunk Displacement During Single-Leg Squats in Healthy Females But Does Not Affect Peak Hip Abduction Angle or Knee Abductio Angle/Moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Lukas D; Archibald, Jessica; Lampert, Eve C; Srbely, John Z

    2017-07-17

    Females suffer 4-6 times more non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than males due to neuromuscular control deficits of the hip musculature leading to increases in hip adduction angle, knee abduction angle, and knee abduction moment during dynamic tasks such as single-leg squats. Lateral trunk displacement has been further related to ACL injury risk in females, leading to the incorporation of core strength/stability exercises in ACL preventative training programs. However, the direct mechanism relating lateral trunk displacement and lower limb ACL risk factors is not well established. To assess the relationship between lateral trunk displacement and lower limb measures of ACL injury risk by altering trunk control through abdominal activation techniques during single-leg squats in healthy females. Interventional Study Setting: Movement and Posture Laboratory Participants: 13 healthy females (21.3±0.88y, 1.68±0.07m, 58.27±5.46kg) Intervention: Trunk position and lower limb kinematics were recorded using an optoelectric motion capture system during single-leg squats under differing conditions of abdominal muscle activation (abdominal hollowing, abdominal bracing, control), confirmed via surface electromyography. Lateral trunk displacement, peak hip adduction angle, peak knee abduction angle/moment, and average muscle activity from bilateral internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae muscles. No differences were observed for peak lateral trunk displacement, peak hip adduction angle or peak knee abduction angle/moment. Abdominal hollowing and bracing elicited greater muscle activation than the control condition, and bracing was greater than hollowing in four of six muscles recorded. The lack of reduction in trunk, hip, and knee measures of ACL injury risk during abdominal hollowing and bracing suggests that these techniques alone may provide minimal benefit in ACL injury prevention training.

  19. Single-island home range use by four female Peary caribou, Bathurst Island, Canadian High Arctic, 1993-94

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Frank L.; Barry, Samuel J.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial and temporal use of seasonal, and collectively, annual ranges by four female Peary caribou (Rangifer taran-dus pearyi) was investigated using satellite telemetry. Knowledge of how caribou use space allows a better understanding of their demands on those ranges and enhances evaluation of associated environmental stressors. The study took place during an environmentally favorable caribou-year with high reproduction and calf survival and low (none detected) 1+ yr-old mortality, 1 August ...

  20. Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic properties of ticlopidine: an open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, single-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Hyung; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Lee, Yong-Oh; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Jang, In-Jin; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2010-02-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract is an herbal medicine used in the treatment of vascular disorders that may be coadministered with antiplatelet agents such as ticlopidine. Regulatory authorities requested evaluation of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between these entities, according to the drug-development guidance for fixed-dose combination formulations in Korea. This study was performed to evaluate the potential pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between ticlopidine and Ginkgo biloba extract. An open-label, randomized, 2-period, 2-treatment, 2-sequence, single-dose crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male volunteers. All volunteers were randomly assigned to a sequence group for the 2 treatments, which consisted of ticlopidine 250 mg alone and ticlopidine 250 mg with Ginkgo biloba extract 80 mg, separated by a 1-week washout period between the treatments. Bleeding time was determined just before dosing and at 5, 12, and 48 hours after dosing. Platelet aggregation was evaluated before dosing and at 4, 8, 26, and 48 hours after dosing. Blood samples (8 mL) from each of the volunteers were collected from an indwelling intravenous cannula inserted into a forearm vein before dosing and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after dosing. Ticlopidine concentrations were determined by a validated method using HPLC and ultraviolet detection. Adverse events were identified using general health-related questions, vital signs, physical examinations, ECGs, and laboratory tests. A total of 24 healthy men participated in the study (mean [SD] age, 24.1 [4.3] years; weight, 66.6 [7.4] kg; height, 174.7 [5.0] cm). The baseline corrected bleeding times were not significantly different between the ticlopidine-alone and ticlopidine/ Ginkgo biloba groups, and changes in platelet aggregation were not significantly different between the groups. Likewise, the pharmacokinetic parameters of ticlopidine were not significantly different

  1. Structural and developmental variability in the female gametophyte of Griffithella hookeriana, Polypleurum stylosum, and Zeylanidium lichenoides and its bearing on the occurrence of single fertilization in Podostemaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Anita; Mann, Neha; Mohan Ram, H Y

    2014-12-01

    Angiosperms are characterized by the phenomenon of double fertilization with Podostemaceae as an exception that appears to extend to the entire family. Our earlier work demonstrated the cause of failure of double fertilization and ascertained the occurrence of single fertilization in Dalzellia zeylanica (Tristichoideae, Podostemaceae). In continuation with this work, three more members, i.e., Griffithella hookeriana (Tul.) Warming, Polypleurum stylosum (Wight) Hall, and Zeylanidium lichenoides (Kurz) Engl. (Podostemoideae), have been investigated in the present work. We studied the ontogenetic development of female gametophyte and tracked the path of the two sperm cells from the time of their formation in the pollen tube through their entry into the synergid and gamete fusion. We report the occurrence of a remarkably reduced 3-nucleate, 3-celled mature female gametophyte consisting of an egg cell and two synergids in all the three genera. Interestingly, the central cell is formed during female gametophyte development, but exhibits a species-specific, limited life span, and eventually degenerates prior to the entry of the pollen tube into the synergid, resulting in a failure of double fertilization. Sperm dimorphism on the basis of fluorochrome stainability has been recorded in Z. lichenoides. Further, morphogenetic constraints on the part of male (sperm selection, functional reductionism) and female gametophyte (structural reductionism, inaccessibility of central cell) presumably ensure the failure of double fertilization in these species. Thus, loss of double fertilization in this family is likely a derived condition.

  2. Radiological consequences on the containment design types for Korean ALWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. H.; Lee, J. S.; Lim, W. S.; Lee, Y. J.

    2001-01-01

    The design goal of Korean ALWR Phase II Design is to improve safety and to reduce costs in comparison with existing plants. The design goal of Korean ALWR (III) is to optimize Korean ALWR (II) in regards to safety and cost. Therefore KEPRI(Korea Electric Power Research Institute) and KOPEC (Korea Power Engineering Company) evaluated and selected various items to optimize Korean ALWR (II). One of these items is to change the containment design from the double containment into the single containment with a reduced design basis leak rate of containment. The importance of containment, as a multiple-barrier to fission product release, is demonstrated through the accidents in TMI and Chernobyl. The containment is the final barrier to provent fission products from release to environment. In this paper, the radiological consequences of the containment design types were estimated

  3. Relationship between serum ferritin levels and sarcopenia in Korean females aged 60 years and older using the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3, 2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Kim

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been suggested that elevated serum ferritin is associated with several metabolic disorders. However, there is no reported study assessing any association between serum ferritin and sarcopenia despite the close relationship between sarcopenia and metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether serum ferritin was associated with sarcopenia in older Koreans. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data acquired in the second and third years (2008-9 of the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 952 men (mean age 69.0 years and 1,380 women (mean age 69.3 years aged 60 years and older completed a body composition study using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. MEASUREMENTS: Serum ferritin levels were measured. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal mass as a percentage of body weight that was less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults. RESULTS: Serum ferritin levels were lower in women than in men. Women with sarcopenia showed a higher level of serum ferritin than women without sarcopenia (men: without sarcopenia 115.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 134.4 ng/mL vs. women: without sarcopenia 70.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 85.4 ng/mL. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased as the tertile of serum ferritin increased. However, statistical significance was only seen in elderly women (1(st tertile 6.3%, 2(nd tertile 8.0%, 3(rd tertile 12.0%; p = 0.008. Without adjustment, compared with those in the lowest tertile of serum ferritin level, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio of 2.02 (95% confidence interval = 1.26-3.23 for sarcopenia in women. After adjusting for known risk factors, the OR for sarcopenia was 1.74 (95% CI = 1.02-2.97 in women. There was no statistically significant association between sarcopenia and serum ferritin tertiles in men. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum ferritin levels were

  4. A South Korean perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seo-Hang

    1992-01-01

    Recognizing the recent changes in international environment security structures suited for specific situations should be conceived. In order to achieve the way to regional security in North-East Asia the outstanding issue left over from the cold war, divided Korean peninsula, and other subregional disputes have to be solved. In building confidence between the two countries the recently adopted security related accords ('The Agreement on Reconciliation, Non-aggression and Exchange and Cooperation between the South and the North' and the 'Joint declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean peninsula') provide a framework for improvements of relations

  5. Study of gonadal hormones in Egyptian female children with sickle cell anemia in correlation with iron overload: Single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Adel A; El-Farargy, Mohamed S; Elrefaey, Shaymaa; Abo El-enein, Amany M

    2016-03-01

    Sickle cell disease is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production, hemolytic anemia, and intermittent occlusion of small blood vessels, leading to tissue ischemia, chronic organ damage, and organ dysfunction including endocrine organs. The aim of this work was to evaluate some gonadal hormones in female children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in correlation with iron overload. This study was conducted on 40 female children with SCA with a serum ferritin of > 1000ng/mL, who were attendants at the Hematology Unit, Pediatric Department, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt in the period from May 2012 to April 2014. Their ages ranged from 11 years to 15years and the mean age value was 12.63±1.36 years (Group I). Forty female children with SCA of matched age with no iron overload served as a control Group (Group II). For all patients in Groups I and II the following were performed/assessed: complete blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis, serum iron status, serum estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). There were significantly higher serum ferritin and serum iron levels and significantly lower total iron binding capacity, FSH, LH, and estrogen levels in Group I compared with Group II (mean serum ferritin was 2635.1±918.9 in Group I vs. 292.55±107.2 in Group II with a p value of .001; mean serum iron was 196.3±55.6 in Group I vs. 120±16.57 in Group II with a p value of .001 and mean serum total iron binding capacity was 247.3±28.6 in Group I vs. 327.8.7±21.96 in Group II with a p value of .001; mean FSH level was 1.36±0.22mIU/mL in Group I vs. 2.64±0.81mIU/mL in Group II with a p value of .021; mean LH level was 0.11±0.006mIU/mL in Group I vs. 1.78±1.12mIU/mL in Group II with a p value of .003; mean estrogen level was 21.45±10.23pg/mL in Group I vs. 42.36±15.44pg/mL in Group II with a p value of 0.001) with significant negative correlation between serum gonadal hormones and serum ferritin (r

  6. Internet Addiction and Psychiatric Symptoms among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Keum Seong; Hwang, Seon Young; Choi, Ja Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to identify the independent factors associated with intermittent addiction and addiction to the Internet and to examine the psychiatric symptoms in Korean adolescents when the demographic and Internet-related factors were controlled. Methods: Male and female students (N = 912) in the 7th-12th grades were…

  7. Toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in female DA/Han rats after a single i.v. and oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upmeier, A; Degen, G H; Diel, P; Michna, H; Bolt, H M

    2000-10-01

    Bisphenol A [BPA; 2,2-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propane] is a monomer used in the manufacture of resins with a wide range of applications, e.g. plastic coatings in the food packaging industry. BPA has been shown to have a weak oestrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Despite its low oestrogenic potency there is concern that, as a consequence of slow clearance, BPA might reach biologically significant levels in humans and animals exposed to environmental levels. To address this concern, we assessed the kinetic behaviour of BPA in female DA/Han rats. Groups of female rats received 10 mg BPA/kg body weight intravenously or 10 or 100 mg BPA/kg body weight orally (by gavage). Blood samples were collected at different time-points and plasma was prepared. Free BPA in the samples was isolated by fluid-fluid extraction. BPA was measured by GC-MS which allowed the reliable determination of BPA concentrations as low as approximately 10 ng/ml plasma. Immediately after i.v. administration, the BPA plasma concentration was in the range of about 15 microg/ml and decreased rapidly within the first hour (to 700 ng/ml). The levels declined further (100 ng/ml at 2 h), and after 24 h the analytical detection limit was reached. BPA was detected in plasma as early as 10 min after gavage administration, indicating rapid initial uptake from the gastrointestinal tract. Absorption of BPA was variable. In animals receiving 10 mg/kg, maximal plasma levels were reached after 1.5 h (31 ng/ ml) and 6 h (40 ng/ml). In animals receiving 100 mg/kg, plasma levels reached maxima around 30 min (150 ng/ml) and 3 h (134 ng/ml) after administration. After 48 h BPA was at or below the detection limit in both dose groups. Fluctuations in the BPA plasma concentrations over time point to the possibility of enterohepatic recirculation and protracted absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Using the area under the concentration-time curves (AUCs), low bioavailabilities of 16.4% and 5.6% were calculated for

  8. A study of the attitudes and academic achievement in biology of females in a single-sex school vs. a coeducational school in the Philadelphia Archdiocesan secondary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proach, John Ann

    2000-11-01

    There is proof that the educational system has conveyed unrealistic role expectations and has neglected to address the changing needs of girls. Children form attitudes about themselves and others based on the communications they get over time from parents, other adults, peers, and a variety of societal influences, including school. This study focused on two groups of tenth-grade high school, female, biology students in the Archdiocese of Philadelphia. The purpose was to compare attitude in science and academic achievement of females in a single-sex vs. a coeducational school. Data collection included three attitudinal surveys: Women in Science, Science Attitude Scale, and Perceptions of Science and Scientists, also the National Association of Biology Teachers/National Science Teachers High School Biology Examination Version B. administered as a pretest and posttest to measure academic achievement. These instruments were used to determine if the differences between attitudes and perceptions toward science and achievement in science were alike for females in a single-sex school and a coeducational school. The study also tested to see if females in a single-sex school would attain greater academic achievement in biology than girls in a coeducational school. The Chi-square statistic was used to analyze data in the three attitudinal surveys. The NABT/NSTA High School Biology Examination determined the students' initial and final competency levels in general biology. The mean science achievement of each of the two groups was tested for statistical significance using the t-test. In the two schools the t-test statistic showed significant difference between the pretest and a slight statistical difference on the posttest; the preferred analysis was an ANCOVA used to compare the posttest scores using the pretest as a covariate. The data implies that attitudes and perceptions are basically the same in both environments with minor differences. Results of these analyses suggest

  9. Comparative Analysis of Korean Television Dramas between 1977 and 1987: Changes of Themes and Lifestyles of Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Eung-Jun

    To examine how the contents of Korean television serial dramas have changed and to determine trends of their portrayals of male and female characters' lifestyles, a study analyzed Korean television dramas of 1977 and 1987. A sample of three channels' video--22 daily and 14 weekly episodes of 18 different television dramas during weekday prime time…

  10. Reactogenicity of Cervarix and Gardasil human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in a randomized single blind trial in healthy UK adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins-Coulter, Tao; Southern, Jo; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-06-03

    One hundred and ninety eight females aged 12-15 y were enrolled in an observer-blinded randomized trial to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the tetravalent HPV vaccine Gardasil® (group 2), in comparison to the bivalent HPV vaccine, Cervarix® (group 1), which was routinely offered in the national vaccination schedule at the time. Participants were blinded to treatment group until all 3 vaccinations had been given, while laboratory staff were masked during testing. For the majority of local and general reactions, recipients of both vaccines reported comparable frequencies. Local and systemic events were rarely of high severity, except for tenderness at the injection site which reached a severe level after at least one of the doses in 24% of the Cervarix® group and 7% of the Gardasil® group (p = 0.001 comparing groups). For most reactions, no dose response was recorded, except for swelling with higher reporting at dose 3 (17.7%) than dose 1 (3.1%) for Cervarix®. SAE reporting was low (n = 3) and considered unrelated to either vaccine. This paper supports the body of evidence that Gardasil® has an acceptable safety profile when compared with Cervarix® and other vaccines given in the national program.

  11. Improvements in kinematics, muscle activity and pain during functional tasks in females with patellofemoral pain following a single patterned electrical stimulation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaviano, Neal R; Huntsman, Stephanie; Dembeck, Ashley; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with patellofemoral pain present with altered hip muscle activation, faulty movement patterns, and pain during functional tasks. Examining new treatment options to address these impairments may better treat those with patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this study was to determine if patterned electrical stimulation to the lower extremity affects muscle activity, movement patterns, and pain following a single treatment. Fifteen females with patellofemoral pain were randomized to receive a single 15-minute treatment of either a patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation or a sham. Peak kinematics of the knee, hip, and trunk, electromyography and pain were examined pre and post-intervention during a single leg squat and lateral step-down task. Group means and pre/post reduced kinematic values were also plotted during the entire task with 90% confidence intervals to identify differences in movement strategies. No baseline differences were found in peak kinematics between groups. No pre to post-intervention differences in peak knee, hip and trunk kinematics were found, however differences were seen when the quality of movement across the entire tasks was assessed. The electrical stimulation group had improved knee flexion and hip abduction during the lateral step-down. A significant improvement in gluteus medius activation following patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation occurred during the step-down (P=0.039). Significant pain improvements were also seen in both the single leg squat (P=0.025) and lateral step-down (P=0.006). A single treatment of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation improved muscle activation, lower extremity kinematics during functional tasks, and pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Single- and Multiple-Day Dosing Studies to Investigate High-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Epelsiban and Its Metabolite, GSK2395448, in Healthy Female Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Kelly M; Enslin, Mary Beth; Gress, Angie; Amrine-Madsen, Heather; Cooper, Melisa

    2018-01-01

    Open-label single- and double-blind repeat-dose studies in healthy female volunteers were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety/tolerability of epelsiban total daily doses ranging from 600 to 900 mg. In 1 study (n = 12), epelsiban was dosed at 300 or 450 mg twice daily (every 12 hours) for a single day. In the repeat-dose double-blind study, epelsiban and placebo were administered to 31 subjects as 200 mg 3 times daily, 300 mg 3 times daily (TID), or 450 mg twice daily (BID) for 14 days. After both single and 14 daily repeat doses, the PK profiles for epelsiban and its metabolite, GSK2395448, remained linear at all administered doses. The exposures at a given total daily dose were also similar between BID and TID dosing regimens. Exposure (AUC 0-τ ), based on dosing intervals, for both epelsiban and GSK2395448 was similar. However, compared with morning dosing, C max was lower after evening dosing, possibly because of a food effect. The highest accumulation of epelsiban and GSK2395448 exposures (AUC 0-τ ) was approximately 34% for each after repeat dosing, consistent with the short half-life. At total daily doses of 600 and 900 mg, epelsiban was generally well tolerated, and there were no significant safety concerns identified. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Korean soft weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressburg, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper author deals with the development of nuclear weapons in the Korean People Democratic Republic (North Korea), which was crowned in October 2006 with the first successful underground detonation of nuclear charge. The North Korea so walked into the elite club and became de facto the nuclear great power. Nuclear disarmament negotiations with North Korea misfired. Relationships between the North Korea and the Republic of Korea as well as the China are discussed

  14. North Korean Policy Elites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    to negotiate the program away for a guarantee of security and sovereignty; 3) North Korean leaders will hedge on giving up the nuclear program by...il exposed politically. Thus, he would likely settle for a hedging or a cheating strategy, which leaves room for ambiguity and, therefore, creates...21, 2003, the Cheongdan Basic Food Factory producing soy sauce and soybean paste, opened on May 31, 2003, the Taedonggang Beer Brewery opened on

  15. Korean Affairs Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-05

    years, though the number of medal events will also increase by 73," he said. South Korean athletes in tennis and handball are showing great...bombs to repel the stone-throwing students. But the students continued the demonstration after withdrawing to the outskirts of the town. They sang...maximum-volumed speaker on their car, members of the embassy staff sprayed anti-fire powder over the car. The demonstrators responded by throwing a

  16. Korean Affairs Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-11

    Receives Message From Seychelles 153 Government Delegation Leaves for Malta 154 LSWY Delegations Back Home 154 Sierra Leone, DPRK Officials Meet 154...Mar 85 [Text] Pyongyang, 23 Mar (KCNA)—The South Korean military fascist clique de- cided to extend the terra for the effectuation of the "Defence...GOVERNMENT DELEGATION LEAVES FOR MALTA —Pyongyang, 23 Mar (KCNA)—A govern- ment delegation of our country headed by Minister of Post and Telecommunica

  17. ROC evaluation of SPECT myocardial lesion detectability with and without single iteration non-uniform Chang attenuation compensation using an anthropomorphic female phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC; Gilland, D.R.; Turkington, T.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Tsui, B.M.W.; Metz, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate lesion detectability with and without nonuniform attenuation compensation (AC) in myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in women using an anthropomorphic phantom and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) methodology. Breast attenuation causes artifacts in reconstructed images and may increase the difficulty of diagnosis of myocardial perfusion imaging in women. The null hypothesis tested using the ROC study was that nonuniform AC does not change the lesion detectability in myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in women. The authors used a filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm and Chang's single iteration method for AC. In conclusion, with the proposed myocardial defect model nuclear medicine physicians demonstrated no significant difference for the detection of the anterior wall defect; however, a greater accuracy for the detection of the inferior wall defect was observed without nonuniform AC than with it. Medical physicists did not demonstrate any statistically significant difference in defect detection accuracy with or without nonuniform AC in the female phantom

  18. Surgeon-tailored polypropylene mesh as a needleless single-incision sling versus TVT-O for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Fathy, Hesham; Hussein, Hussein A; Hussein, Eman A; Hassan, Sarah Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    To compare safety and efficacy of surgeon-tailored polypropylene mesh through needleless single-incision technique (STM) versus tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O) aiming to decrease cost of treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This is important in developing countries due to limited healthcare resources. A retrospective cohort study was done at Urology and Gynecology Departments (dual-center), Cairo University, from January 2011 to August 2013. STM was inserted in 72 females, while TVT-O was inserted in 48 females. Females evaluated by cough stress test, stress and urge incontinence quality of life questionnaire (SUIQQ), Q max and abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP) were included. Different factors were compared between both groups using paired t, Wilcoxon's signed rank, McNemar, Chi-square, Fisher's exact, independent t or Mann-Whitney tests. Age, parity, previous surgeries, ALPP, intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD), associated prolapse and associated prolapse repair were comparable in both groups. No significant difference was found between both groups in postoperative complications (except groin pain), cure, SUIQQ indices improvement and Q max decline. In total, 65 (90 %) cured, 6 (8 %) improved while failure was detected in one (1 %) patient in STM group, while 42 (87 %) cured, 4 (8 %) improved and failure was detected in two (4 %) patients in TVT-O group. Presence of ISD (p = 0.565), urgency (p = 0.496), UUI (p = 0.531), previous surgeries (p = 0.345), associated urogenital prolapse (p = 0.218) or associated prolapse repair (p = 0.592) did not lead to any significant difference in outcome between both groups. Cost of mesh decreased from US$500 (TVT-O) to US$10 (STM). Outcome of STM is comparable to TVT-O. Furthermore, STM is more economic.

  19. Effects of jump and balance training on knee kinematics and electromyography of female basketball athletes during a single limb drop landing: pre-post intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagano Yasuharu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some research studies have investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury prevention programs on knee kinematics during landing tasks; however the results were different among the studies. Even though tibial rotation is usually observed at the time of ACL injury, the effects of training programs for knee kinematics in the horizontal plane have not yet been analyzed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a jump and balance training program on knee kinematics including tibial rotation as well as on electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings in female athletes. Methods Eight female basketball athletes participated in the experiment. All subjects performed a single limb landing at three different times: the initial test, five weeks later, and one week after completing training. The jump and balance training program lasted for five weeks. Knee kinematics and simultaneous electromyography of the rectus femoris and Hamstrings before training were compared with those measured after completing the training program. Results After training, regarding the position of the knee at foot contact, the knee flexion angle for the Post-training trial (mean (SE: 24.4 (2.1 deg was significantly larger than that for the Pre-training trial (19.3 (2.5 deg (p Conclusions The jump and balance training program successfully increased knee flexion and hamstring activity of female athletes during landing, and has the possibility of producing partial effects to avoid the characteristic knee position observed in ACL injury, thereby preventing injury. However, the expected changes in frontal and transverse kinematics of the knee were not observed.

  20. Effects of jump and balance training on knee kinematics and electromyography of female basketball athletes during a single limb drop landing: pre-post intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yasuharu; Ida, Hirofumi; Akai, Masami; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2011-07-14

    Some research studies have investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs on knee kinematics during landing tasks; however the results were different among the studies. Even though tibial rotation is usually observed at the time of ACL injury, the effects of training programs for knee kinematics in the horizontal plane have not yet been analyzed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a jump and balance training program on knee kinematics including tibial rotation as well as on electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings in female athletes. Eight female basketball athletes participated in the experiment. All subjects performed a single limb landing at three different times: the initial test, five weeks later, and one week after completing training. The jump and balance training program lasted for five weeks. Knee kinematics and simultaneous electromyography of the rectus femoris and Hamstrings before training were compared with those measured after completing the training program. After training, regarding the position of the knee at foot contact, the knee flexion angle for the Post-training trial (mean (SE): 24.4 (2.1) deg) was significantly larger than that for the Pre-training trial (19.3 (2.5) deg) (p training trial (40.2 (1.9) deg) was significantly larger than that for the Pre-training trial (34.3 (2.5) deg) (p training. A significant increase was also found in the activity of the hamstrings 50 ms before foot contact (p jump and balance training program successfully increased knee flexion and hamstring activity of female athletes during landing, and has the possibility of producing partial effects to avoid the characteristic knee position observed in ACL injury, thereby preventing injury. However, the expected changes in frontal and transverse kinematics of the knee were not observed.

  1. The Effects of a Single Developmentally Entrained Pulse of Testosterone in Female Neonatal Mice on Reproductive and Metabolic Functions in Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyeran; Bhasin, Shalender; Guarneri, Tyler; Serra, Carlo; Schneider, Mary; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Guo, Wen; Fried, Susan K; Pencina, Karol; Jasuja, Ravi

    2015-10-01

    Early postnatal exposures to sex steroids have been well recognized to modulate predisposition to diseases of adulthood. There is a complex interplay between timing, duration and dose of endocrine exposures through environmental or dietary sources that may alter the sensitivity of target tissues to the exogenous stimuli. In this study, we determined the metabolic and reproductive programming effects of a single developmentally entrained pulse of testosterone (T) given to female mice in early postnatal period. CD-1 female mice pups were injected with either 5 μg of T enanthate (TE) or vehicle (control [CON] group) within 24 hours after birth and followed to adult age. A total of 66% of T-treated mice exhibited irregular cycling, anovulatory phenotype, and significantly higher ovarian weights than vehicle-treated mice. Longitudinal nuclear magnetic resonance measurements revealed that TE group had greater body weight, whole-body lean, and fat mass than the CON group. Adipose tissue cellularity analysis in TE group revealed a trend toward higher size and number than their littermate CONs. The brown adipose tissue of TE mice exhibited white fat infiltration with down-regulation of several markers, including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor, α-subunit-like effector A, bone morphogenetic protein 7 as well as brown adipose tissue differentiation-related transcription regulators. T-injected mice were also more insulin resistant than CON mice. These reproductive and metabolic reprogramming effects were not observed in animals exposed to TE at 3 and 6 weeks of age. Collectively, these data suggest that sustained reproductive and metabolic alterations may result in female mice from a transient exposure to T during a narrow postnatal developmental window.

  2. Teaching English Pronunciation to Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barbara

    This guide provides teachers of Korean children and adults with information on the problems Koreans encounter in learning to pronounce English. Principles of contrastive analysis and error analysis are used to give insight into these pronunciation problems. The first section dealing with problem sounds covers the following: (1) an explanation of…

  3. Relationship of social norms and self-efficacy with physical activity in Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    The study identified the physical activity distribution among a random sample of Korean adolescents and investigated relationship of selfefficacy and social norms with physical activity. Participants included 488 students enrolled in 7th to 12th grade (Male: 255, Female: 233, Mage = 15.13, SD = ± 1.56). Three Korean-version questionnaires were used to explore a possible association of self-efficacy and social norms with physical activity among adolescents. Crosstab analysis, correlation analy...

  4. Hockey Concussion Education Project, Part 1: Susceptibility-weighted imaging study in male and female ice hockey players over a single season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Karl G.; Pasternak, Ofer; Fredman, Eli; Preciado, Ronny I.; Koerte, Inga K.; Sasaki, Takeshi; Mayinger, Michael; Johnson, Andrew M.; Holmes, Jeffrey D.; Forwell, Lorie; Skopelja, Elaine N.; Shenton, Martha E.; Echlin, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Object Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is a commonly occurring sports-related injury, especially in contact sports such as hockey. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which are small, hypointense lesions on T2*-weighted images, can result from TBI. The authors use susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to automatically detect small hypointensities that may be subtle signs of chronic and acute damage due to both subconcussive and concussive injury. The goal was to investigate how the burden of these hypointensities change over time, over a playing season, and postconcussion, compared with subjects who did not suffer a medically observed and diagnosed concussion. Methods Images were obtained in 45 university-level adult male and female ice hockey players before and after a single Canadian Interuniversity Sports season. In addition, 11 subjects (5 men and 6 women) underwent imaging at 72 hours, 2 weeks, and 2 months after concussion. To identify subtle changes in brain tissue and potential CMBs, nonvessel clusters of hypointensities on SWI were automatically identified and a hypointensity burden index was calculated for all subjects at the beginning of the season (BOS) and the end of the season (EOS), in addition to postconcussion time points (where applicable). Results A statistically significant increase in the hypointensity burden, relative to the BOS, was observed for male subjects at the 2-week postconcussion time point. A smaller, nonsignificant rise in the burden for all female subjects was also observed within the same time period. The difference in hypointensity burden was also statistically significant for men with concussions between the 2-week time point and the BOS. There were no significant changes in burden for nonconcussed subjects of either sex between the BOS and EOS time points. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the burden between male and female subjects in the nonconcussed group at both the BOS and EOS time

  5. Effects of grafts of single anterior pituitary glands on the incidence and type of mammary neoplasm in neutron- or γ-irradiated Fischer female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Douple, E.B.; Sridharan, B.N.

    1976-01-01

    Three batches comprised of 48 young adult Fischer female rats each were subjected to total-body irradiation with 50 rads modified fission neutrons, or were given 600 rads 137 Cs γ-rays, or served as unirradiated controls. On the day following exposure, one-half of each batch was grafted with a single anterior pituitary gland beneath the left kidney capsule. The animals were observed for mammary neoplasia and all those that died during the experiment were autopsied. The experiment was terminated 538 +- 13 days after irradiation when all neutron-irradiated, pituitary-grafted animals had one or more mammary tumors. Only 2 of the 23 untreated rats that survived until termination of the experiment developed mammary fibroadenomas, and none had mammary carcinomas. The incidence of fibroadenomas was increased, and a single carcinoma was found in unirradiated rats with pituitary grafts. Irradiation alone caused an increase in the incidence of mammary fibroadenomas and the appearance of carcinomas. Fibroadenomas were markedly increased by the addition of pituitary grafts to irradiation. Carcinoma incidence was less markedly affected. The neutron dose of 50 rads was slightly more effective in inducing mammary neoplasms than the 600-rad dose of γ-rays

  6. The genetic polymorphisms of HER-2 and the risk of lung cancer in a Korean population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Uk Hyun; Han, Sle Gi Lo; Seo, Jae Hong; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jae Won; Lee, Hyo Jung; Ryu, Jeong Seon; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2008-01-01

    Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER-2; also known as erbB-2 or neu), a proto-oncogene of the receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily, has been associated with carcinogenesis and prognosis of human cancers, acting as a binding partner of other epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family in the activation of EGFR signaling. Amplification of the HER-2 gene has been reported in lung cancer, where it has been associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated whether the four polymorphisms (-3444C>T, -1985 G>T, I655A A>G and P1170A C>G) of the HER-2 gene are associated with the risk of lung cancer in Korean populations. The frequencies of 4 polymorphisms of the HER-2 gene were examined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism or the single-nucleotide polymorphism-identification technology assay in the 407 lung cancer patients and 407 healthy controls. The frequencies of the 4 polymorphisms were not significantly different between patient and control groups in overall subjects. However, in the subgroup analysis, the 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (-3444C>T, -1985G>T and P1170A C>G) showed statistically significant differences in the subgroups of females, non-smokers, and non-drinkers (p < 0.05). Additionally, we found the association between the risk of lung cancer and the polymorphisms of HER-2 gene in non-smoker subgroups with adenocarcinoma (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that the polymorphisms of the HER-2 gene are associated with an increased susceptibility to lung cancer in females, non-smokers and non-drinkers subgroups in the Korean population

  7. Unspoken Stories by North Korean and Korean-American Educators: A Trioethnography on South Korean Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shin Ji; Jung, Seoyoon; Lee, Kyungwha

    2018-01-01

    This paper articulates the challenges of the South Korean education system through a co-constructed narrative, employing duoethnographic methodology. The authors offer critical and contextualized perspectives on their personal and professional observations on the dysfunctional aspects of South Korean education including dehumanization and…

  8. Genome-wide analysis of the diversity and ancestry of Korean dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Hwan; Wijayananda, Hasini I; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Doo Ho; Kim, Jong Seok; Oh, Seok Il; Park, Eung Woo; Lee, Cheul Koo; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    There are various hypotheses on dog domestication based on archeological and genetic studies. Although many studies have been conducted on the origin of dogs, the existing literature about the ancestry, diversity, and population structure of Korean dogs is sparse. Therefore, this study is focused on the origin, diversity and population structure of Korean dogs. The study sample comprised four major categories, including non-dogs (coyotes and wolves), ancient, modern and Korean dogs. Selected samples were genotyped using an Illumina CanineHD array containing 173,662 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The genome-wide data were filtered using quality control parameters in PLINK 1.9. Only autosomal chromosomes were used for further analysis. The negative off-diagonal variance of the genetic relationship matrix analysis depicted, the variability of samples in each population. FIS (inbreeding rate within a population) values indicated, a low level of inbreeding within populations, and the patterns were in concordance with the results of Nei's genetic distance analysis. The lowest FST (inbreeding rate between populations) values among Korean and Chinese breeds, using a phylogenetic tree, multi-dimensional scaling, and a TreeMix likelihood tree showed Korean breeds are highly related to Chinese breeds. The Korean breeds possessed a unique and large diversity of admixtures compared with other breeds. The highest and lowest effective population sizes were observed in Korean Jindo Black (485) and Korean Donggyeong White (109), respectively. The historical effective population size of all Korean dogs showed declining trend from the past to present. It is important to take immediate action to protect the Korean dog population while conserving their diversity. Furthermore, this study suggests that Korean dogs have unique diversity and are one of the basal lineages of East Asian dogs, originating from China.

  9. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  10. Management of Sport Injuries with Korean Medicine: A Survey of Korean National Volleyball Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsop Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season. Six KM doctors completed a questionnaire that includes injury parameters: type, location, situation, and pain scores. We collected 166 injury cases from 94 Korean male and female national volleyball players. Knee (25.9%, low back (13.3%, elbow, and ankle (8.4% injuries were most common. Joint (41.6% and muscle (30.7% were major injured tissues. KM team medical doctors utilized acupuncture (40.4%, chuna manual therapy (16.0%, physical therapy (15.2%, taping (9.0%, and cupping (7.8% to treat volleyball injuries. Any types of medications were used infrequently. Additional physical and exercise therapy were preferred after receiving acupuncture (both 46.9%. This study presented the preliminary injury profile of Korean elite volleyball players. Injury and treatment parameters could be useful to build advanced KM model in sport medicine.

  11. Validation of the Korean coefficient for the modification of diet in renal disease study equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yun Jung; Cha, Ran-Hui; Lee, Seung Hwan; Yu, Kyung Sang; Kim, Satbyul Estella; Kim, Ho; Kim, Yon Su

    2016-03-01

    Race and ethnicity are important determinants when estimatingglomerular filtration rate (GFR). The Korean coefficients for the isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equations were developed in 2010. However, the coefficients have not been validated. The aim of this study was to validate the performance of the Korean coefficients for the IDMS MDRD Study equations. Equation development and validation were performed in separate groups (development group, n = 147 from 2008 to 2009; validation group, n = 125 from 2010 to 2012). We compared the performance of the original IDMS MDRD equations and modified equations with Korean coefficients. Performance was assessed by comparing correlation coefficients, bias, and accuracy between estimated GFR and measured GFR, with systemic inulin clearance using a single injection method. The Korean coefficients for the IDMS MDRD equations developed previously showed good performance in the validation group. The new Korean coefficients for the four- and six-variable IDMS MDRD equations using both the development and validation cohorts were 1.02046 and 0.97300, respectively. No significant difference was detected for the new Korean coefficients, in terms of estimating GFR, between the original and modified IDMS MDRD Study equations. The modified equations with Korean coefficients for the IDMS MDRD Study equations were not superior to the original equations for estimating GFR. Therefore, we recommend using the original IDMS MDRD Study equation without ethnic adjustment in the Korean population.

  12. Wnt Signaling-Related Osteokines and Transforming Growth Factors Before and After a Single Bout of Plyometric Exercise in Child and Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Jennifer; Nelson, Katlynne; Kurgan, Nigel; Falk, Bareket; Josse, Andrea; Klentrou, Panagiota

    2017-11-01

    This study examined resting levels of catabolic and anabolic osteokines related to Wnt signaling and their responses to a single bout of plyometric exercise in child and adolescent females. Fourteen premenarcheal girls [10.5 (1.8) y old] and 12 postmenarcheal adolescent girls [15.0 (1.0) y old] performed a plyometric exercise trial. One resting and 3 postexercise blood samples (5 min, 1 h, and 24 h postexercise) were analyzed for sclerostin, dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL), and transforming growth factors (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3). Premenarcheal girls had significantly higher resting sclerostin, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 than the postmenarcheal girls, with no significant time effect or group-by-time interaction. DKK-1 was higher in premenarcheal compared with postmenarcheal girls. There was an overall significant DKK-1 decrease from baseline to 1 h postexercise, which remained lower than baseline 24 h postexercise in both groups. There was neither a significant group effect nor group-by-time interaction in OPG, RANKL, and their ratio. RANKL decreased 5 min postexercise compared with baseline and remained significantly lower from baseline 24 h following the exercise. No changes were observed in OPG. OPG/RANKL ratio was significantly elevated compared with resting values 1 h postexercise. In young females, high-impact exercise induces an overall osteogenic effect through a transitory suppression of catabolic osteokines up to 24 h following exercise.

  13. The impact of living arrangements on quality of life among Korean elderly: findings from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyeong; Choi, Young; Park, Sohee; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Ju, Yeong Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the impact of different living arrangements on quality of life (QoL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. We used data from the first to fourth wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Using the first wave as a baseline, the data included 5050 individuals aged 60 years and older with at least one living child. QoL and HRQoL were measured using a visual analogue scale developed by the Korean Labor Institute that bears similarity to the EQ-VAS. Living arrangements were categorized based on household composition (single household, one-generation household, two-generation household, and three-generation household) and the marital status of a cohabiting adult child. A generalized estimating equation was used to examine the association between living arrangements and QoL/HRQoL. Compared to elderly individuals living in three-generation families with a married child, those in a single household (QoL: β = -2.67 [P = 0.001]; HRQoL: β = -2.24 [P = 0.007]), those living in a three-generation family with an unmarried adult child (QoL: β = -5.19 [P living in a two-generation family with an unmarried adult child (QoL: β = -2.88 [P living alone, but also for those living with an unmarried adult child; elderly persons who are female and part of the lowest equivalent household income group must receive particular attention.

  14. 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This book introduces the root of Korean physics, the dawning of Korean physics, foundation and childhood of Korean physics society, growth of Korean physics society, revival of Korean physics society, corporation Korean physics society, leap of Korean physics society and challenges towards future. It also deals with 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society according to committees, special interest groups, branches in cities and provinces, branches in universities, laboratories, society bureau, and commemoration business to celebrate 50th anniversary.

  15. Positive-Thinking and Life Satisfaction amongst Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Ji Young; Oh, Youn Hee; Oh, Kang Seob; Suh, Dong Woo; Shin, Young Chul; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The present study examined the positive-thinking and life satisfaction of the general Korean population. In particular, we examined the role of positive-thinking on participants' life satisfaction. Materials and Methods We conducted a telephone survey of 409 respondents (194 males, 215 females). The participants provided self-reports on their positive thinking, life satisfaction and demographic information. Results The results showed that age, education, occupation, and family income ...

  16. Expression patterns of sex-determination genes in single male and female embryos of two Bactrocera fruit fly species during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J L; Riegler, M; Frommer, M; Shearman, D C A

    2014-12-01

    In tephritids, the sex-determination pathway follows the sex-specific splicing of transformer (tra) mRNA, and the cooperation of tra and transformer-2 (tra-2) to effect the sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx), the genetic double-switch responsible for male or female somatic development. The Dominant Male Determiner (M) is the primary signal that controls this pathway. M, as yet uncharacterized, is Y-chromosome linked, expressed in the zygote and directly or indirectly diminishes active TRA protein in male embryos. Here we first demonstrated the high conservation of tra, tra-2 and dsx in two Australian tephritids, Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera jarvisi. We then used quantitative reverse transcription PCR on single, sexed embryos to examine expression of the key sex-determination genes during early embryogenesis. Individual embryos were sexed using molecular markers located on the B. jarvisi Y-chromosome that was also introgressed into a B. tryoni line. In B. jarvisi, sex-specific expression of tra transcripts occurred between 3 to 6 h after egg laying, and the dsx isoform was established by 7 h. These milestones were delayed in B. tryoni lines. The results provide a time frame for transcriptomic analyses to identify M and its direct targets, plus information on genes that may be targeted for the development of male-only lines for pest management. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. Storytelling in Korean Online Games

    OpenAIRE

    Bišková, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse storytelling in Korean online games, mainly represented by MMORPG genre. The first chapter introduces five essential Korean MMORPGs that will be subjected to the analyses throughout the thesis. Next chapters research storytelling in MMORPGs and its instruments, which are used to anchor the story inside the game. Main practical part then analyses mentioned online games and searches for motives based on Asian mythology, history and culture. For better co...

  18. Trace of Korean mechanical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This book reports 50 years of Korean mechanical engineers, which includes birth and history, remembrance and future of Korean society of mechanical engineers, current situation and development of mechanical industry such as national industry and 50 years of mechanical industry, track, airline industry, ship and marine engine, a precision instrument, cutting work, casting, welding, plastic working freeze and air handling nuclear power and textile machinery.

  19. Esophageal transit and in vivo disintegration of branded risedronate sodium tablets and two generic formulations of alendronic acid tablets: a single-center, single-blind, six-period crossover study in healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Alan C; Blackshaw, P Elaine; Hay, Peter D; Lawes, Simon C; Atherton, Clare T; Dansereau, Richard J; Wagner, Leigh K; Schnell, Dan J; Spiller, Robin C

    2008-05-01

    Delayed esophageal transit or disintegration of oral bisphosphonate tablets before they enter the stomach may be of concern with respect to iatrogenic complications among patients receiving longterm treatment. Different formulations of generic bisphosphonate tablets meeting regulatory requirements may have substantial differences in pharmaceutical attributes from the branded product that may result in different characteristics during esophageal transit. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and compare esophageal transit times and in vivo disintegration of 3 bisphosphonate formulations, one branded and the others generic, that are commercially available in Canada and the United Kingdom. This was a single-center, randomized, singleblind, 6-period crossover study in healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. Each subject received a single oral dose of a branded risedronate sodium 35-mg tablet and 2 generic formulations of alendronic acid 70-mg tablets (Novopharm Limited, Toronto, Canada, and Teva UK Limited, Morley, United Kingdom) in both the erect and semisupine (45 degrees ) positions. Although the products are labeled to be taken in the erect position, the semisupine position was included to simulate dosing in bedridden patients. Subjects took tablets with 30 mL of water in the morning after an overnight fast. The tablets were radiolabeled with technetium-99m ion-exchange resins to enable visualization and measurement of esophageal transit time and disintegration using a gamma camera. Dynamic scintigraphic images were obtained for a total of 10 minutes: 2 images per second for the first 30 seconds and 1 image every 15 seconds for 9.5 minutes. This was a mechanistic study and tolerability was not assessed. The study was conducted in 20 healthy white female subjects with a mean age of 62 years (range, 51-77 years). The effect of body position was statistically significant (P = 0.043), with the estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.74 indicating longer

  20. The effectiveness, safety, and economic evaluation of Korean medicine for unexplained infertile women: A multi-center, prospective, observational study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hyun; Jo, Junyoung; Kim, Dong-Il

    2017-12-01

    Infertility is a condition in which a woman has not been pregnant despite having had normal intercourse for 1 year. The number of unexplained infertile females is increasing because of late marriage customs, as well as environmental and lifestyle habits. In Korea, infertile females have been treated with Korean medicine (KM). However, these effects have not been objectively confirmed through clinical trials. Therefore, this study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of herbal medicine treatment in infertile patients and to demonstrate the economic feasibility through economical evaluation with assisted reproductive technology.This study is designed as a multicenter, single-arm clinical trial. All participants included will be from 3 Korean Medicine hospitals in Korea and will voluntarily sign an informed consent agreement. All recruited patients will conduct related surveys and tests, and be provided with treatment according to their menstrual cycle. Patients will take herbal medicines for 4 menstruation cycles and receive acupuncture and moxibustion treatment at 3 times (menstrual cycle day 3, 8, 14) during 4 menstruation cycles. They will also undergo an approximately 4 menstrual cycle treatment period, and 3 menstrual cycle observation period. If pregnant during the study, participants will take the herbal medicine for implantation for about 15 days. In this study, the primary outcome will be the clinical pregnancy rate, whereas the secondary outcome will include the implantation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, and live birth rate.Ultimately, this study will provide clinical data regarding the effectiveness and safety of KM treatment for females with unexplained infertility and important evidence for establishing standard KM treatments for unexplained infertility. Moreover, we will identify the most cost-effective way to treat unexplained infertility. Korean Clinical Trial Registry (CRIS), Republic of Korea: KCT0002235. Date: February 21, 2017

  1. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  2. Compliance with smoke-free policies in korean bars and restaurants in california: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Veronica L; Hofstetter, C Richard; Nichols, Jeanne F; Chambers, Christina D; Usita, Paula M; Norman, Gregory J; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-01-01

    Compliance with California's smoke-free restaurant and bar policies may be more a function of social contingencies and less a function of legal contingencies. The aims of this study were: 1) to report indications of compliance with smoke-free legislation in Korean bars and restaurants in California; 2) to examine the demographic, smoking status, and acculturation factors of who smoked indoors; and 3) to report social cues in opposition to smoking among a sample of Koreans in California. Data were collected by telephone surveys administered by bilingual interviewers between 2007-2009, and included California adults of Korean descent who visited a Korean bar or restaurant in a typical month (N=2,173, 55% female). 1% of restaurant-going participants smoked inside while 7% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean restaurant. Some 23% of bar-going participants smoked inside and 65% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean bar. Presence of ashtrays was related to indoor smoking in bars and restaurants. Among participants who observed smoking, a higher percentage observed someone ask a smoker to stop (17.6%) or gesture to a smoker (27.0%) inside Korean restaurants (N=169) than inside Korean bars (n=141, 17.0% observed verbal cue and 22.7% observed gesture). Participants who smoked inside were significantly younger and more acculturated than participants who did not. Less acculturated participants were significantly more to likely to be told to stop smoking. Ten years after implementation of ordinances, smoking appears to be common in Korean bars in California.

  3. Compliance with smoke-free policies in Korean bars and restaurants: A descriptive analysis in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Chambers, Christina D.; Usita, Paula M.; Norman, Gregory J.; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Compliance with California's smoke-free restaurant and bar policies may be more a function of social contingencies and less a function of legal contingencies. The aims of this study are: 1) to report indications of compliance with smoke-free legislation in Korean bars and restaurants in California; 2) to examine the demographic, smoking status, and acculturation factors of who smoked indoors; and 3) to report social cues in opposition to smoking among a sample of Koreans in California. Method Data were collected by telephone surveys administered by bilingual interviewers between 2007– 2009, and included California adults of Korean descent who visited a Korean bar or restaurant in a typical month (N=2,173, 55% female). Results 1% of restaurant-going participants smoked inside while 7% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean restaurant. 23% of bar-going participants smoked inside and 65% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean bar. Presence of ashtrays was related to indoor smoking in bars and restaurants. Among participants who observed smoking, a higher percentage observed someone ask a smoker to stop (17.6%) or gesture to a smoker (27.0%) inside Korean restaurants (N=169) than inside Korean bars (n=141, 17.0% observed verbal cue and 22.7% observed gesture). Participants who smoked inside were significantly younger and more acculturated than participants who did not. Less acculturated participants were significantly more to likely to be told to stop smoking. Conclusions Ten years after implementation of ordinances, smoking was common in Korean bars in California. PMID:25735336

  4. Freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum 299v increases iron absorption in young females-Double isotope sequential single-blind studies in menstruating women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hoppe

    Full Text Available The probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v has earlier been shown to increase iron absorption when added to foods. However, it is not known if the same probiotic strain in a freeze-dried format included in a capsule increases the iron absorption.The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that non-heme iron absorption from a light meal is promoted by a simultaneous intake of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v, DSM 9843.With a single blinded placebo controlled sequential design, iron absorption from a light breakfast meal administered with or without capsules containing 1010 cfu freeze-dried Lp299v was studied in healthy female volunteers of fertile age. The methodology used was a double isotope technique (59Fe and 55Fe. Two studies were performed using the same protocol.In study 1, the absorption of iron from a meal without Lp299v was found to be 17.4 ± 13.4%, and from an identical meal with Lp299v was found to be 22.4 ± 17.3% (mean ± SD. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.040, n = 14. In study 2, the absorption of iron from a meal without Lp299v was found to be 20.9 ± 13.1%, and from an identical meal with Lp299v found to be 24.5 ± 12.0% (mean ± SD, n = 28, which again was statistically significant (p = 0.003.Freeze-dried Lp299v enhances the absorption of iron when administered together with a meal with a high iron bioavailability.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02131870.

  5. Sex and the single (-eared) female: leg function, limb autotomy and mating history trade-offs in field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Philip W; Fleming, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    Both male and female field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) autotomize front (tympanal) limbs more slowly than hind limbs. Arguably, this pattern could reflect possible differences in the mechanism of limb autotomy. However, we demonstrate that, for females, limb autotomy is also dependent on their mating status: virgin females autotomize front legs significantly more slowly than mated females. This response suggests a central control for leg autotomy in these animals, and less readiness to autotomize a front leg, possibly because the tympanum is crucial for mate location. PMID:17148319

  6. Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbæk Pedersen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books in The Royal Library, Copenhagen and the National Museum of Denmark......Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books in The Royal Library, Copenhagen and the National Museum of Denmark...

  7. Korean safeguards experience and its perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, W.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Korean safeguards implementation. The Korean safeguards program has been influenced by a wide range of international and national developments. The Joint Declaration for Denuclearization in the Korean peninsula and the recent establishment of the technology Center for Nuclear Control are the most prominent factors to have a major impact on Korean safeguards. Their influences, as well as the general status of safeguards in Korea, are described

  8. Fine-scale map of encyclopedia of DNA elements regions in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon-Kyeong; Ke, Xiayi; Hong, Sungwoo; Jang, Hye-Yoon; Park, Kyunghee; Kim, Sook; Ahn, TaeJin; Lee, Yeun-Du; Song, Okryeol; Rho, Na-Young; Lee, Moon Sue; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Jaeheup; Kim, Young J; Yang, Jun-Mo; Song, Kyuyoung; Kimm, Kyuchan; Weir, Bruce; Cardon, Lon R; Lee, Jong-Eun; Hwang, Jung-Joo

    2006-09-01

    The International HapMap Project aims to generate detailed human genome variation maps by densely genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CEPH, Chinese, Japanese, and Yoruba samples. This will undoubtedly become an important facility for genetic studies of diseases and complex traits in the four populations. To address how the genetic information contained in such variation maps is transferable to other populations, the Korean government, industries, and academics have launched the Korean HapMap project to genotype high-density Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) regions in 90 Korean individuals. Here we show that the LD pattern, block structure, haplotype diversity, and recombination rate are highly concordant between Korean and the two HapMap Asian samples, particularly Japanese. The availability of information from both Chinese and Japanese samples helps to predict more accurately the possible performance of HapMap markers in Korean disease-gene studies. Tagging SNPs selected from the two HapMap Asian maps, especially the Japanese map, were shown to be very effective for Korean samples. These results demonstrate that the HapMap variation maps are robust in related populations and will serve as an important resource for the studies of the Korean population in particular.

  9. Korean Studies on Blood Stasis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongki Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stasis is one of the important pathological concepts in Korean medicine. We analyzed the Korean studies concerning blood stasis. We searched for articles in eight electronic databases from their inception to September, 2014. We included reviews, clinical studies, and preclinical studies that had studied blood stasis and excluded articles in which blood stasis was not mentioned or in which the original authors had not explained blood stasis. Of 211 total included studies, 19 were reviews, 52 were clinical studies, and 140 were preclinical articles. “Stagnant blood within the body” was the most frequently mentioned phrase of the traditional concept of blood stasis. Traumatic injury was the most frequently studied disease/condition in the clinical studies. In the preclinical studies, coagulopathy was studied most frequently, followed by hyperviscosity, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, neoplasm, ischemic brain injury, and atherosclerosis. Hyeolbuchukeo-tang and Angelicae Gigantis Radix were the most frequent formula and single herb, respectively, used in the blood stasis researches. The results showed that blood stasis was mainly recognized as disorder of circulation and many studies showed the effectiveness of activating blood circulating herbs for diseases and pathologies such as traumatic injury or coagulopathy. Further studies are needed in the pathologic mechanisms and various diseases of blood stasis.

  10. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the stud...

  11. First record of the subtropical leaf-footed bug, Paradasynus spinosus Hsiao (Hemiptera:Coreidae:Dasynini from the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junggon Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paradasynus spinosus Hsiao, 1963 (Hemiptera:Coreidae:Dasynini, with its higher taxon, the tribe Dasynini, and the genus Paradasynus, is reported from the Korean Peninsula for the first time. The morphological information such as diagnosis and description of male/female genitalia and biological note are presented with photographs and illustrations, and the possibility of its spread in Korea as an insect pest is discussed under climate change. Keywords: Coreidae, Dasynini, New record, The Korean Peninsula

  12. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo In [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Pil [Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Eun [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  13. Functional abdominal pain syndrome treated with Korean medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gue Son

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old female patient with chronic and stubborn abdominal pain had been hospitalized five times in three Western hospitals, but no effects were observed. No abnormalities were found in blood tests, gastrointestinal endoscopy, sonogram, and computed tomography of the abdomen, except mild paralytic ileus. The patient decided to rely on Korean medicine as an inpatient. She was diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome, and her symptom differentiation was the “Yang deficiency of spleen and kidney.” A herbal drug, Hwangikyeji-tang, along with moxibustion and acupuncture, was given to the patient. Abdominal pain and related symptoms were reduced radically within 16 days of treatment. This report shows a therapeutic potential of Korean medicine-based treatment for functional abdominal pain syndrome.

  14. Korean letter handwritten recognition using deep convolutional neural network on android platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamawati, S.; Rachmawati, D.; Lumanauw, G.; Rahmat, R. F.; Taqyuddin, R.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, popularity of Korean culture attracts many people to learn everything about Korea, particularly its language. To acquire Korean Language, every single learner needs to be able to understand Korean non-Latin character. A digital approach needs to be carried out in order to make Korean learning process easier. This study is done by using Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN). DCNN performs the recognition process on the image based on the model that has been trained such as Inception-v3 Model. Subsequently, re-training process using transfer learning technique with the trained and re-trained value of model is carried though in order to develop a new model with a better performance without any specific systemic errors. The testing accuracy of this research results in 86,9%.

  15. Common constraints limit Korean and English character recognition in peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingchen; Kwon, MiYoung; Legge, Gordon E

    2018-01-01

    The visual span refers to the number of adjacent characters that can be recognized in a single glance. It is viewed as a sensory bottleneck in reading for both normal and clinical populations. In peripheral vision, the visual span for English characters can be enlarged after training with a letter-recognition task. Here, we examined the transfer of training from Korean to English characters for a group of bilingual Korean native speakers. In the pre- and posttests, we measured visual spans for Korean characters and English letters. Training (1.5 hours × 4 days) consisted of repetitive visual-span measurements for Korean trigrams (strings of three characters). Our training enlarged the visual spans for Korean single characters and trigrams, and the benefit transferred to untrained English symbols. The improvement was largely due to a reduction of within-character and between-character crowding in Korean recognition, as well as between-letter crowding in English recognition. We also found a negative correlation between the size of the visual span and the average pattern complexity of the symbol set. Together, our results showed that the visual span is limited by common sensory (crowding) and physical (pattern complexity) factors regardless of the language script, providing evidence that the visual span reflects a universal bottleneck for text recognition.

  16. Factors associated with self-rated health among North Korean defectors residing in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-Ram; Yu, Shieun; Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae

    2014-09-26

    The number of North Korean refugees entering South Korea has increased recently. The health status of refugees is a significant factor in determining their success in resettlement; therefore, this study examined both the self-rated health status of North Korean defectors who have settled in South Korea and the factors associated with their self-rated health status. This study utilized data gained from face-to-face interviews with 500 North Korean defectors who arrived in South Korea in 2007. The interviews were structured and conducted by 'Yonsei University Research Team for North Korean defectors'. A stepwise multivariable linear regression was performed to determine the factors associated with their self-rated health status. North Korean defectors who were female, elderly, or had low annual household income, disability or chronic diseases reported lower health status. However, self-rated health status was higher among those who had settled in South Korea for 18 months or more, who were satisfied with government support or their current life, and who had experienced more traumatic events in North Korea. Government policies and refugee assistance programs should consider and reflect the factors relevant to the health status of North Korean defectors.

  17. An Analysis of Student Evaluations of Native and Non Native Korean Foreign Language Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Damron

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native teaching assistants and part-time teachers (both referred to as TAs in this article, students completed 632 evaluations of Ko-rean Language TAs from 2005 to 2008, and these evaluations were compiled for an analysis of variants (ANOVA. The evaluations were categorized into three groups of TAs: native Korean-speaking female, native Korean-speaking male, and non-native male; non-native females would have been included in the study, but there were not enough non-native female teachers to have a reliable sample. In an effort to encourage more self-examined teaching practices, this study addresses the greatest strengths and weaknesses of each group. Results revealed several significant differences between the ratings of the groups: native female TAs rated lowest overall, and non-native male TAs rated highest overall. The most prominent differences be-tween groups occurred in ratings of amount students learned, TAs’ preparedness, TAs’ active involvement in students’ learning, TAs’ enthusiasm, and TAs’ tardiness. This study reviews students’ written comments on the evaluations and proposes possible causes of these findings, concluding that differences in ratings are based on both teaching patterns associated with each group of TAs and student re-sponse bias that favors non-native male speakers. Teaching patterns include a tendency for native (Korean female TAs to teach using a lecture format and non-native male TAs to teach using a discussion format; for native TAs to have difficulty adapting to the language level of the students; and for a more visible enthusiasm for Korean culture held by non-native TAs. Causes for bias may include “other-ing” females and natives, TA selection procedures, and trends in evaluating TAs based on language level.

  18. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-12-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key PointsSouth Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA.Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents.To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity.

  19. Validation of the Korean Version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2: Psychometric Properties and Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Mi-Yeon; Jo, Hye-Hyeon; Jung, Young-Chul; Kim, Joon-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) in Korean patients with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to investigate cultural differences of EDI-2 between a Korean group and a North American standardization sample. Materials and Methods The Korean version of the EDI-2 was prepared after comprehensive clinical assessment of Korean patients with eating disorders (n=327) as well as female undergraduates (n=176). Results were compared between eating disorder subgroups (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified) and those of a North American standardization sample and healthy controls. Results The results showed that the Korean EDI-2 had adequate internal consistency (0.77-0.93) and discriminated well between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls on all subscales. Significant differences in EDI-2 subscale scores between the eating disorder groups and the healthy control group were observed; however, there was no discernible difference among the eating disorder subgroups. When compared with a North American standardization sample, the Korean control group showed significantly higher scores for drive for thinness and asceticism. When patient groups were compared, the Korean group showed significantly lower scores for perfectionism. Conclusion As expected, the results accurately reflected psychometric properties of the Korean version of EDI-2 for eating disorder patients in Korea. These findings also suggest that common characteristics for the eating disorder exist as a whole rather than with significant difference between each subgroup. In addition, significant differences between the Korean and the North American groups for both patients and controls also demonstrated specific cultural differences. PMID:23074108

  20. Development and Initial Validation of the Self-Directed Learning Inventory with Korean College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Han Na; Wang, Kenneth T.; Arterberry, Brooke J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Self-Directed Learning Inventory (SDLI) tailored to Korean college students, based on study evidences of differences in learning behavior across culture and educational level. With a sample of 605 female college students in Korea, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) results…

  1. Aesthetics of Korean foods: The symbol of Korean culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Kyung Chung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in transportation and communication have broken down critical barriers within the global economy, pushing us towards a more unified world. In keeping with this trend, processes of communication, transportation, and production are becoming increasingly standardized, mechanized, and automated. Yet as this global era of uniformity progresses, people and individuals will inevitably encounter identity confusion. Numerous individuals, ethnicities, nationalities, and countries around the world are working to counteract such identity confusion. As globalization progresses, groups and nationalities that fail to preserve their identities will dwindle and become absorbed by stronger entities. Therefore, many societies are investing great efforts into rediscovering and revamping their indigenous traditions, cultures, and customs. When travelers visit another country, one of the simplest avenues for them to experience the local culture is food. Unlike other cultural elements, many of which have become diluted because of globalization, native cuisines are still perceived as retaining the traditions, uniqueness, and diversity of individual cultures. It is more important than ever for people and countries to expand and preserve their respective cultural currencies. In this respect, taking a cultural approach to Korean cuisine is a fascinating and meaningful endeavor. In light of the recent publication of a few articles dealing with the symbolic significance and meaning behind Korean cuisine, an effort to compile a list of the distinctive cultural properties of Korean food seems vital. Furthermore, presenting the aesthetics of Korean food through a method that integrates science and culture is a very significant task. The authors of this paper firmly believe in its potential to advance the globalization of Korean food.

  2. Side-hairline Correction in Korean Female Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyun Park, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: In East Asian patients, both side-hairline correction surgery and zygoma reduction can be considered eligible treatment options for the purpose of midface slimming. Especially in patients with a type 3 zygomatic bone structure, side-hairline correction surgery may be more effective than zygoma reduction surgery for midface slimming.

  3. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  4. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  5. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  6. KoVariome: Korean National Standard Reference Variome database of whole genomes with comprehensive SNV, indel, CNV, and SV analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungeun; Weber, Jessica A; Jho, Sungwoong; Jang, Jinho; Jun, JeHoon; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hak-Min; Kim, Hyunho; Kim, Yumi; Chung, OkSung; Kim, Chang Geun; Lee, HyeJin; Kim, Byung Chul; Han, Kyudong; Koh, InSong; Chae, Kyun Shik; Lee, Semin; Edwards, Jeremy S; Bhak, Jong

    2018-04-04

    High-coverage whole-genome sequencing data of a single ethnicity can provide a useful catalogue of population-specific genetic variations, and provides a critical resource that can be used to more accurately identify pathogenic genetic variants. We report a comprehensive analysis of the Korean population, and present the Korean National Standard Reference Variome (KoVariome). As a part of the Korean Personal Genome Project (KPGP), we constructed the KoVariome database using 5.5 terabases of whole genome sequence data from 50 healthy Korean individuals in order to characterize the benign ethnicity-relevant genetic variation present in the Korean population. In total, KoVariome includes 12.7M single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), 1.7M short insertions and deletions (indels), 4K structural variations (SVs), and 3.6K copy number variations (CNVs). Among them, 2.4M (19%) SNVs and 0.4M (24%) indels were identified as novel. We also discovered selective enrichment of 3.8M SNVs and 0.5M indels in Korean individuals, which were used to filter out 1,271 coding-SNVs not originally removed from the 1,000 Genomes Project when prioritizing disease-causing variants. KoVariome health records were used to identify novel disease-causing variants in the Korean population, demonstrating the value of high-quality ethnic variation databases for the accurate interpretation of individual genomes and the precise characterization of genetic variations.

  7. A randomized, controlled trial comparing an innovative single incision sling with an established transobturator sling to treat female stress urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinoul, Piet; Vervest, Harry A. M.; den Boon, Jan; Venema, Pieter L.; Lakeman, Marielle M.; Milani, Alfredo L.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Mid urethral sling procedures have become the surgical treatment of choice for female stress urinary incontinence. Innovative modifications of mid urethral sling procedures were recently introduced with the claim of offering similar efficacy and decreased morbidity. We compared the efficacy and

  8. Effects of Language Background on Gaze Behavior: A Crosslinguistic Comparison Between Korean and German Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Florian; Lee, Donghoon; Ansorge, Ulrich; Choi, Soonja

    2017-01-01

    Languages differ in how they categorize spatial relations: While German differentiates between containment ( in ) and support ( auf ) with distinct spatial words-(a) den Kuli IN die Kappe stecken ("put pen in cap"); (b) die Kappe AUF den Kuli stecken ("put cap on pen")-Korean uses a single spatial word ( kkita ) collapsing (a) and (b) into one semantic category, particularly when the spatial enclosure is tight-fit. Korean uses a different word (i.e., netha ) for loose-fits (e.g., apple in bowl). We tested whether these differences influence the attention of the speaker. In a crosslinguistic study, we compared native German speakers with native Korean speakers. Participants rated the similarity of two successive video clips of several scenes where two objects were joined or nested (either in a tight or loose manner). The rating data show that Korean speakers base their rating of similarity more on tight- versus loose-fit, whereas German speakers base their rating more on containment versus support ( in vs. auf ). Throughout the experiment, we also measured the participants' eye movements. Korean speakers looked equally long at the moving Figure object and at the stationary Ground object, whereas German speakers were more biased to look at the Ground object. Additionally, Korean speakers also looked more at the region where the two objects touched than did German speakers. We discuss our data in the light of crosslinguistic semantics and the extent of their influence on spatial cognition and perception.

  9. Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Immigrant Korean Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ji-Young; Cha, Sunkyung; Moon, Hyunjung; Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Jang, Haeran

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of foreign-born nurses are working in the United States. Nurses' job satisfaction is a critical issue for quality patient care. The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of immigrant Korean nurses. We used a cross-sectional mailed survey design. A convenience sample (n = 105) of members of the Greater New York Korean Nurses Association currently working or had previously worked in the United States completed the questionnaires. We used hierarchical regression to test the effects of acculturation and life satisfaction on job satisfaction. Most participants were female (n = 98, 93.3%) aged 27 to 70 years (mean = 52.27 years, SD = 10.67). In the regression model, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived stress predicted job satisfaction (F = 5.127, p job satisfaction. U.S. nurses need to gain insight into factors influencing job satisfaction in Korean nurses to promote retention and quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. A qualitative study exploring factors associated with Pap test use among North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Soohyun; Chung, Yoonkyung

    2017-10-01

    Lack of medical care in North Korea and vulnerability to human trafficking during their migration increase risks of cervical cancer among North Korean refugees. To better understand factors influencing Pap test use, we conducted a qualitative study of eight North Korean refugees in South Korea. Individual barriers were limited knowledge, lack of perceived need for preventive services, and concerns about costs. Environmental facilitators included having female providers, receiving family support, and free screenings. Refugees' health outlook, including viewing cancers as fatal diseases, hindered seeking Pap tests. Multi-faceted approaches to address individual and environmental factors in promoting Pap tests are warranted.

  11. Studies on the establishment of maximum permissible exposure dose for reference Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.C.; Kim, C.B.; Chung, K.H.; Kim, S.L.; Kim, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to establish the Reference Korean and maximum permissible exposure dose of Reference Korean, for the first year a total of 9,758 males and 7,019 females were surveyed for the height, weight, a body surface area, and a total of 879 individuals of 180 households located in different 30 localities were analyzed for food consumption and a total of radioactive substances (β-ray) contained in food per capita per day. In this report the external and internal exposure dose were also estimated on the basis of data mostly published in other country as well as in Korea in part

  12. Women in South Korean Politics: A Long Road to Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Hermanns

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reasons for the increase in female representation in South Korean politics in the early 21st century. It is not a direct outcome of Korea’s democratisation process but a result of attitudinal change as well as the efforts of women’s organisations. The Korean experience shows that female representation in parliaments is not the only way to influence politics and policies on women’s issues. This paper starts with a general discussion of democratic procedures that influence female representation before looking at their application in South Korea. Coinciding with procedural changes, societal transformation paved the way for the advancement of women in the public sphere. Women’s organisations play an important role in promoting gender equality and women’s policies, especially since the late 1990s after they started to engage with the state. Their efforts included the introduction of quotas that allowed more women to enter formal elective politics, more than doubling the number of successful women in the 2004 parliamentary elections. Further steps are needed, however, to ensure sustainable and irreversible progress.

  13. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  14. Intimate Partner Violence Against Women Among North Korean Refugees: A Comparison With South Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Boyoung; Kim, Jae Yop; Ryu, Wonjung

    2017-04-01

    North Korean refugees in South Korea have been reported as at higher risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, few studies have examined risk factors of IPV among North Korean refugees. This study aimed to report the prevalence of IPV against women among North Korean refugees, and compared the risk factors of IPV against women between South Koreans and North Korean refugees in South Korea. Data from a nationwide survey about domestic violence in South Korea were used. The rate of IPV against women by North Korean refugees was 57.1%, which is considerably higher than that of South Koreans (9.9%). The regression analysis indicated that North Korean refugees perpetrated partner violence against women more frequently than South Koreans, even after controlling for socioeconomic factors. Child abuse victimization and witnessing IPV between parents were the main factors of IPV against women among South Koreans. On the other hand, stress and a tolerant attitude toward using violence were significantly associated with IPV against women among North Korean refugees. The findings suggested that stress management and education on reducing tolerance to violence should be provided to prevent IPV against women among North Korean refugees.

  15. Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

  16. Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of Musculoskeletal Pain in Korean Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Min, David; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of musculoskeletal pain (MSK) pain in Korean farmers using initial survey data of Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related MSK pain (FARM) study. Methods Farmers (534 females and 479 males; mean age 57.2?7.5 years) who owned or rented a farm and belonged to an agricultural cooperative unit were recruited. Presence of pain for each body part (neck, shoulder, arm/elbow, wrist/hand/finger, low back, leg/foot), and characteristics o...

  18. Operational Art Requirements in the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    the Korean War, these works primarily fall into three broad areas of scholarship: the American strategy concerning Korea and the Cold War...17 The Korean Peninsula’s borders are defined by the Yellow sea on the west, the Sea of Japan on the East, the Korea Strait in the south, and the...22 Summers, Korean War Almanac, 11. 23 Allan R. Millett, The War For Korea , 1945-1950: A House Burning (Lawrence

  19. Korean society of mechanical engineers 60 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    This book introduces 60 years of Korean society of mechanical engineers with birth, foundation, development process, change of enforcement regulation and articles of association, important data of this association, 60 years of parts, committee and branch, business of association like academic event, publication, technical development business, supporting research centers, bond Korean society of mechanical engineers and mechanical industry and development of related organizations, development for industrial fields and development direction of Korean society of mechanical engineers.

  20. A behavioral syndrome linking courtship behavior toward males and females predicts reproductive success from a single mating in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Logue; Sandeep Mishra; David McCaffrey; Deborah Ball; William H. Cade

    2009-01-01

    Suites of correlated behaviors, or "behavioral syndromes," have been shown to occur throughout the animal kingdom. Behavioral syndromes involving sexual selection are expected to have significant evolutionary ramifications, but few studies have linked behavioral syndromes to sexual selection. We measured the behavior of male hissing cockroaches (Gromphadorhina portentosa) during male--male competition, female choice, and 3 other ecologically relevant contexts and quantified between-context co...

  1. Understanding employment barriers among older Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Chi, Iris; Yi, Jaehee

    2015-06-01

    This study involved an in-depth exploration of the employment barriers of older Korean immigrants in Los Angeles. This qualitative study used data obtained from 6 focus groups and 5 individual interviews. Participants were 36 older Korean immigrants living in Los Angeles, aged 50 years and older, and either unemployed or employed in part-time or full-time work. A grounded theory analytical approach and constant comparison method were used. Ten major themes emerged as employment barriers for older Korean immigrants and were categorized as stereotype, human capital, and acculturation barriers. Ageism among employers specific to Korean culture, lack of English proficiency, separation from U.S. culture, marginalization from both Korean and U.S. cultures, and lack of social networks were important themes. In addition, older Korean immigrants experienced multiple interconnected barriers. The findings highlight the importance of using a multidimensional approach to explore employment barriers among older Korean immigrants who face multiple obstacles in finding jobs. Implications for local governments and Korean communities and potential services to support employment opportunities for older Korean immigrants are discussed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Deference in Korean Language and Farsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saffar Moghadam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to compare the concept of “deference” in Farsi and Korean. Data gathering happened in a two years study in South Korea, and Korean students in Korea and Iran were interviewed.Deference is a culturally-rooted universal concept. However, it appears differently in various languages. Persian and Korean, though from different linguistic families, have both applied signs and elements of deference and this is their common aspect. There are some aspects of historical, religious, and cultural similarities between Iranian and Korean societies which may account for this. Social hierarchy and Confuciusian rituals play an important role in the system of deference in Korean society. Deference construction used to be very complicated in the Korean language, but nowadays it is simple; as a result, the seven-level system of expressions is transformed into a four-level one, emphasizing formality, politeness, intimacy, and simplicity. No sentence in Korean could be expressed unless one of these deference signs are involved. Deference signs are usually verbal suffixes included in all Korean verbs. Furthermore, as in the Persian language, there are some special words in Korean which exclusively express deference.

  3. Organizational factors in Korean NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, D. J.; Kim, Y. I.; Jeong, C. H.; Kim, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Organizational factors are referred to as the factors that influence the achievement of a goal of an organization. Latent problems of an organization could contribute to causing human errors in such stages as design, operation and maintenance, and furthermore, leading to an severe accident. In order to evaluate an organization from the safety viewpoint, it is necessary to identify the organizational factors in a systematic fashion. In this paper, some efforts to identify the organizational factors in Korean NPPs are presented. The study was performed in the following steps: 1) Reviewing the definitions and range of the organizational factors used by the previous 13 researches, 2) Structuring the organizational factors by screening and collating factors, 3) Analysing the organizational factors that is considered to have contributed to the trip events based on the trip report of Korean NPPs, 4) Suggesting a more reliable taxonomy of organizational factors for event analysis by applying the Onion Structure Model to the selected factors

  4. Sexual dysfunction in female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional single-centre study among Turkish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Ercan; Durgun, Onur; Peynirci, Hande; Ersoy, Canan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of female sexual function and related factors in Turkish women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 93 female patients diagnosed with T2DM (age 48.0 ± 7.2 years (Mean ± SD) were included. Data on age, diabetes age, HbA1c level, educational level, diabetes treatment, diabetes-related complications, co-morbid disorders and concomitant medications were recorded, as were the scores obtained using a Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Sexual dysfunction was noted in 55.9% of patients including problems related to desire (60.2%), arousal (52.7%), lubrication (55.9%), orgasm (51.6%) and satisfaction (58.1%) as well as pain during sexual intercourse (54.8%). Total scores were correlated negatively to age (r= -0.329, p = 0.001) and duration of diabetes (r= -0.246, p = 0.018), while significantly higher in patients with than without hypertension (19.6 vs. 22.4, p = 0.012) and with than without insulin therapy (20.0 vs. 23.7, p = 0.050). Our findings indicate the adverse effects of T2DM on sexual function in 55.9% of women in all domains of sexual response cycle, although this seems to be associated with older age, longer duration of diabetes, insulin and antidepressant therapy, presence of hypertension as well as end-organ complications of neuropathy and coronary artery disease (CAD).

  5. Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

  6. Motoneuronal location of the external urethral and anal sphincters : A single and double labeling study in the male and female golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Sie, Judith A.M.L.; Holstege, Gerrit

    1997-01-01

    The location of external urethral (EUS) and anal sphincter (EAS) motoneurons was investigated in the golden hamster using the retrograde tracers horseradish peroxidase and cholera toxin B-subunit. Single and double labeling studies revealed that the motoneurons of the EUS and EAS were present in the

  7. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Ok Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST and suicidal attempts (SA with the level of physical activity (PA among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA, moderate PA (MPA, and low PA (LPA and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation.

  8. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M; Hoffman, Gary M; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2012-08-15

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1h. For metabolite identification by (19)F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 μmol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 μmol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 μmol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of the GnRH Analogs in the Form of Solution and Zn2+-Suspension After Single Subcutaneous Injection in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszka-Świtek, Aleksandra; Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Dec, Renata; Danch, Alojzy; Filipczyk, Łukasz; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard

    2017-04-01

    Although many synthetic gonadoliberin analogs have been developed, only a few of them, including buserelin, were introduced into clinical practice. Dalarelin, which differs from buserelin by just one aminoacid in the position 6 (D-Ala), is not widely used so far. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs are used to treat many different illnesses and are available in different forms like solution for injection, nasal spray, microspheres, etc. Unfortunately, none of the above drug formulations can release the hormones for 24 h. We assumed that classical suspension could solve this problem. Two sets of experiments were performed. In the first one, buserelin and dalarelin were injected into mature female rats in two forms: suspension, in which the analogs are bounded by Zn 2+ ions and solution. The pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability of the analogs were calculated, based on their concentration in the plasma measured by high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). In the second experiment, the hormones in two different forms were injected into superovulated immature female rats and then the concentration of Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and 17β-estradiol in the serum was measured by radioimmunological method. The Extent of Biological Availability (EBA), calculated on the base of AUC 0-∞ , showed that in the form of solution buserelin and dalarelin display, respectively, only 13 and 8 % of biological availability of their suspension counterparts. Comparing both analogs, the EBA of dalarelin was half (53 %) that of buserelin delivered in the form of solution and 83 % when they were delivered in the form of suspension. The injection of buserelin or dalarelin, in the form of solution or suspension, into superovulated female rats increased LH, FSH and estradiol concentration in the serum. However, after injection of the analogs in the form of suspension, the high concentration of LH and FSH in the serum persisted

  10. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M.; Hoffman, Gary M.; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1 h. For metabolite identification by 19 F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 μmol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 μmol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 μmol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. -- Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► No differences in metabolic pattern between pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. ► Rapid and similar metabolite

  11. A statistical of chest measurements in normal senile Korean -difference of senile changes in cardiovascular system-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Myung Hee; Yim, Oak Soon; Yoo, Seong Yul; Rhee, Chung Sik; Kim, Hee Seop

    1980-01-01

    Various methods and availabilities of chest measurements in normal Korean adults and children have been studied by many investigators, but that in senile Korean have not been reported yet. The authors have measured of cardiovascular system in 370 cases of Chest PA view of normal senile Korean checked at Ewha Womans University Hospital from April 1978 to April 1980 and compared with normal Korean adult for the evaluation of difference between them. The results were as follow: 1. In cardiac measurement; Mean value of transverse diameter of heart was 13.46cm in male and 13.06cm in female, cardiothoracic ratio was 0.48 in male and 0.52 in female, long diameter of heart was 14.76cm in male and 14.02cm in female, and broad diameter of heart was 11.67cm in male and 11.08cm in female. 2. In aortic measurements; Mean value of width of ascending aorta was 2.78cm in male and 2.76cm in female, width of aortic knob was 3.88cm in male and 3.73cm in female, incidence of aorta reached the lower border of clavicle was 29.38% in male and 37.11% in female, length of ascending aorta was 9.30cm in male and 8.48cm in female, ratio of length of ascending aorta and right atrium was 1.15 in male and 1.16 in female, and calcification in aortic knob was 13.46% in male and 18.87% in female. 3. In pulmonary vessels; Mean value of diameter of right descending pulmonary artery was 1.49cm in male and 1.45cm in female, right hilar vascular distance was 4.34cm in male and 4.12cm in female, and left hilar vascular distance was 5.16cm in male and 5.01cm in female. 4. The results of comparison revealed significant morphological differences of senile cardiovascular system from younger adult group and obtained effective statistical measurements

  12. Culture and the Korean Kindergarten Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Sook

    This paper examines the relationship between Korean culture and the historical development of its kindergarten (preschool) curriculum. After reviewing the values that were emphasized in traditional Korean society, focusing on ethics, loyalty and filial piety, propriety, and gender roles, the paper provides examples of how these values influences…

  13. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance,"…

  14. College Psychotherapy at a Korean University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Soo Eun; Choi, Mi Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In the online interview presented in this article, two Korean counselors offer comments to questions regarding issues faced at a Korean University. They reflected on their roles and some of the many topics faced that included: (1) student misunderstanding about counseling needs, and how counseling questionnaires and the counselor helps them; (2)…

  15. A Korean family with the Muenke syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jae Eun; Park, Dong Ha; Yoon, Soo Han

    2010-07-01

    The Muenke syndrome (MS) is characterized by unicoronal or bicoronal craniosynostosis, midfacial hypoplasia, ocular hypertelorism, and a variety of minor abnormalities associated with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. The birth prevalence is approximately one in 10,000 live births, accounting for 8-10% of patients with coronal synostosis. Although MS is a relatively common diagnosis in patients with craniosynostosis syndromes, with autosomal dominant inheritance, there has been no report of MS, in an affected Korean family with typical cephalo-facial morphology that has been confirmed by molecular studies. Here, we report a familial case of MS in a female patient with a Pro250Arg mutation in exon 7 (IgII-IGIII linker domain) of the FGFR3 gene. This patient had mild midfacial hypoplasia, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, a beak shaped nose, plagio-brachycephaly, and mild neurodevelopmental delay. The same mutation was confirmed in the patient's mother, two of the mother's sisters and the maternal grandfather. The severity of the cephalo-facial anomalies was variable among these family members.

  16. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  17. Health Information in Korean (한국어)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Korean) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Benefits of Exercise Starting an Exercise Program - 한국어 (Korean) ... 한국어 (Korean) PDF American Cancer Society Blood Sugar Fasting Blood Sugar Test - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health ...

  18. Early Initiation of Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and Sexual Intercourse Linked to Suicidal Ideation and Attempts: Findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle a...

  19. History of Korean gochu, gochujang, and kimchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Young Kwon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The gochu (Korean red pepper that goes into Korean traditional fermented foods such as kimchi (fermented cabbage and gochujang (spicy red pepper paste should have a mild spiciness and its Scoville heat unit (the unit that measures spiciness is <1,000. The kimchi and gochujang that are fermented only with Korean gochu can be eaten. Kimchi and gochujang cannot be prepared even with cheongyangkochu (Scoville heat unit is approximately 3,000, which is a hybrid of Korean gochu and Thai gochu. When these foods are prepared with other spicier gochu, such as Thai pepper, Southern Asian red pepper, Central American red pepper, or Mexico's aji (which is 500 times spicier than Korean gochu, they will be too spicy to consume. Biologically, Korean gochu is different from the red peppers of Central American countries (such as Mexico and Colombia, Indonesia, India, and Thailand. Therefore, the statement that the Central American red pepper came to Korea during the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592 is not true. We can refer to a research paper in the magazine “Nature” that Korea's gochu arrived at the Korean peninsula millions of years ago, having been spread by birds. It states that gochu has evolved for millions of years, therefore, we can infer that Korean gochu existed as a completely different variety. In addition, gochujang and kimchi can be made using gochu only, which proves that people in Korea cultivated gochu thousands of years ago and have been eating it since then. Furthermore, many old Korean documents support the fact that Koreans have been planting and harvesting gochu for the last 1,500 years.

  20. Dual matrilineal geographic distribution of Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated -11,377 G adiponectin allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jee-Hye; Min, Na Young; Park, Sang Kil; Gavaachimed, Lkhagvasuren; Ko, Young Jong; Han, Sung Hoon; Kim, Kyung Yong; Kim, Kijung; Lee, Kwang Ho; Park, Ae Ja

    2014-12-01

    The present study was performed to identify the susceptible single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the prediction of Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to clarify the matrilineal origin of Korean T2DM‑specific SNPs. Fourteen SNPs from the adiponectin (ADIPOQ), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 and glucokinase genes in the Korean population were analyzed. Only one SNP, ‑11,377 C/G on the ADIPOQ gene, was finally determined to be responsible for the incidence of Korean T2DM (P=0.028). The G‑T‑T‑A haplotype at positions ‑11,377, +45, +276 and +349 on the ADIPOQ gene was also associated with a high incidence of Korean T2DM (P=0.023). In addition, the susceptibility of Korean individuals to T2DM appears to be affected by their matrilineal origin. Of note, the group of Southern origin, consisting of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroups F and R, was predisposed to T2DM, whereas the group of Northern origin, consisting of haplogroups A and Y, was resistant to T2DM. This implied that the differential genetics between the two groups, which were formed from the initial peopling of the proto‑Korean population via Southern and Northern routes to the present time, may explain their differing susceptibility to T2DM. In conclusion, from Southern Asia Northward, a matrilineal origin of Korean individuals appears to be responsible for the prevalence of Korean T2DM caused by the ‑11,377 G allele.

  1. The Korean Study of Women's Health-Related Issues (K-Stori): Rationale and Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ha Na; Choi, Eunji; Seo, Da Hea; Suh, Mina; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Park, Boyoung; Park, Sohee; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Sue; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Ahn, Younjihin; Park, Hyun-Young; Choi, Kui Son; Rhee, Yumie

    2017-06-29

    Measures to address gender-specific health issues are essential due to fundamental, biological differences between the sexes. Studies have increasingly stressed the importance of customizing approaches directed at women's health issues according to stages in the female life cycle. In Korea, however, gender-specific studies on issues affecting Korean women in relation to stages in their life cycle are lacking. Accordingly, the Korean Study of Women's Health-Related Issues (K-Stori) was designed to investigate life cycle-specific health issues among women, covering health status, awareness, and risk perceptions. K-Stori was conducted as a nationwide cross-sectional survey targeting Korean women aged 14-79 years. Per each stage in the female life cycle (adolescence, childbearing age, pregnancy & postpartum, menopause, and older adult stage), 3000 women (total 15,000) were recruited by stratified multistage random sampling for geographic area based on the 2010 Resident Registration Population in Korea. Specialized questionnaires per each stage (total of five) were developed in consultation with multidisciplinary experts and by reflecting upon current interests into health among the general population of women in Korea. This survey was conducted from April 1 to June 31, 2016, at which time investigators from a professional research agency went door-to-door to recruit residents and conducted in-person interviews. The study's findings may help with elucidating health issues and unmet needs specific to each stage in the life cycle of Korean women that have yet to be identified in present surveys.

  2. Gender differences in the effect of obesity on chronic diseases among the elderly Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Chun, Heeran; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate gender differences of obesity on major chronic diseases in elderly Korean males and females. This study applied a cross sectional design using the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES). We selected 508 elderly males and 830 elderly females who were 60 or more years old. Obesity was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI) (≥ 25) or Waist Circumference (WC) (≥ 90 for men and ≥ 85 for women). We applied a surveylogistic regression to determine gender differences in relation to the effect of obesity on eleven major chronic diseases. Using WC, 46.2% of females were obese compared to 34.3% for males. Similarly, using BMI, 42.2% of females were obese compared to 31.7% for males. While obese males and females had similar profiles for developing metabolic syndrome components including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes (odds ratios [ORs] were 1.8-2.6 for males and 1.7-2.5 for females), obese elderly females had additional risks for arthritis and urinary incontinence (ORs 1.5-1.8 for females) as well as higher prevalence for these diseases. A clearer understanding of gender differences in relation to the association between obesity and chronic diseases would be helpful for reducing the social burden of chronic diseases in the elderly.

  3. A single bivalent efficiently inhibits cyclin B1 degradation and polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes indicating robust SAC during female meiosis I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC inhibits anaphase until microtubule-to-kinetochore attachments are formed, thus securing correct chromosome separation and preventing aneuploidy. Whereas in mitosis even a single unattached chromosome keeps the SAC active, the high incidence of aneuploidy related to maternal meiotic errors raises a concern about the lower efficiency of SAC in oocytes. Recently it was suggested that in mouse oocytes, contrary to somatic cells, not a single chromosome but a critical mass of chromosomes triggers efficient SAC pointing to the necessity of evaluating the robustness of SAC in oocytes. Two types of errors in chromosome segregation upon meiosis I related to SAC were envisaged: (1 SAC escape, when kinetochores emit SAC-activating signal unable to stop anaphase I; and (2 SAC deceive, when kinetochores do not emit the signal. Using micromanipulations and live imaging of the first polar body extrusion, as well as the dynamics of cyclin B1 degradation, here we show that in mouse oocytes a single bivalent keeps the SAC active. This is the first direct evaluation of SAC efficiency in mouse oocytes, which provides strong evidence that the robustness of SAC in mammalian oocytes is comparable to other cell types. Our data do not contradict the hypothesis of the critical mass of chromosomes necessary for SAC activation, but suggest that the same rule may govern SAC activity also in other cell types. We postulate that the innate susceptibility of oocytes to errors in chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division may not be caused by lower efficiency of SAC itself, but could be linked to high critical chromosome mass necessary to keep SAC active in oocyte of large size.

  4. Association between tryptophan hydroxylase 2 polymorphism and anger-related personality traits among young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaewon; Lee, Moon-Soo; Lee, So-Hee; Lee, Boung-Chul; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2010-08-01

    It has been suggested that the serotonergic systems are associated with anger and aggressive behaviors. We investigated the association between several single nucleotide polymorphisms in the serotonergic genes and anger-related personality traits. A total of 228 healthy female Korean women participated in this study. All subjects were assessed with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and were genotyped for 3 polymorphisms: serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) A218C, and TPH2 G-703T. The Anger Expression-Out (AX-Out) subscale scores of the STAXI differed significantly between the genotypes for the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism (F = 4.825, p = 0.009). G/G homozygous subjects scored significantly higher on the AX-Out subscale than those with the G/T genotype. However, no significant differences were observed in the relationships between the STAXI subscale scores of subjects with other polymorphisms. This study suggests that the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism might contribute to anger-related traits, especially to the expression of anger. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Comparing Judgements of Social, Behavioural, Emotional and School Adjustment Functioning for Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Stinnett, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    Social, emotional, behavioural and school adjustment functioning among Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American children was examined with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality (SRP) and the Parent Rating Scale (PRS). One hundred and twenty Korean, Korean-American and Caucasian-American children, ages…

  6. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body ima...

  7. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of PTC124, a nonaminoglycoside nonsense mutation suppressor, following single- and multiple-dose administration to healthy male and female adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirawat, Samit; Welch, Ellen M; Elfring, Gary L; Northcutt, Valerie J; Paushkin, Sergey; Hwang, Seongwoo; Leonard, Eileen M; Almstead, Neil G; Ju, William; Peltz, Stuart W; Miller, Langdon L

    2007-04-01

    Nonsense (premature stop codon) mutations are causative in 5% to 15% of patients with monogenetic inherited disorders. PTC124, a 284-Dalton 1,2,4-oxadiazole, promotes ribosomal readthrough of premature stop codons in mRNA and offers therapeutic potential for multiple genetic diseases. The authors conducted 2 phase I studies of PTC124 in 62 healthy adult volunteers. The initial, single-dose study evaluated doses of 3 to 200 mg/kg and assessed fed-fasting status on pharmacokinetics following a dose of 50 mg/kg. The subsequent multiple-dose study evaluated doses from 10 to 50 mg/kg/dose twice per day (bid) for up to 14 days. PTC124 administered orally as a liquid suspension was palatable and well tolerated through single doses of 100 mg/kg. At 150 and 200 mg/kg, PTC124 induced mild headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal events. With repeated doses through 50 mg/kg/dose bid, reversible transaminase elevations Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  8. Female Condom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P080002. Accessed Nov. 13, 2014. Female condom About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  9. Safety and effectiveness of a single and repeat intramuscular injection of a GnRH vaccine (GonaCon™) in adult female domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansandt, L M; Kutzler, M A; Fischer, A E; Morris, K N; Swanson, W F

    2017-04-01

    Sterilization is a key strategy to reduce the number of domestic cats entering and killed in shelters each year. However, surgical sterilization is expensive and labour-intensive and cannot fully address the 70 million free-roaming cats estimated to exist in the United States. GonaCon™ is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine originally developed for use as a wildlife immunocontraceptive. An earlier formulation was tested in domestic cats and found to be safe and effective for long-term contraception. However, the current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered formulation consists of a different antigen-carrier protein and increased antigen concentration and has never been tested in cats. A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term safety of a single GonaCon immunization, assess the consequences of vaccinated cats receiving an accidental second GonaCon injection and determine the humoral immune response to immunization. During Phase 1, cats in Group A (n = 3) received a single intramuscular injection of GonaCon and Group B (n = 3) received a single intramuscular injection of saline. During Phase 2, Group A received a second GonaCon injection and Group B received their initial GonaCon injection. All cats developed GnRH antibodies within 30 days of vaccine administration. The endpoint titre (1:1,024,000) was similar among all cats, and levels remained high throughout the duration of the study. Four cats developed a sterile, painless, self-limiting mass at the site of injection. The mean number of days to mass development was 110.3 (range, 18-249 days). In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests that the EPA-registered GonaCon formulation is safe for continued testing in domestic cats, an accidental revaccination should not increase the risk of a vaccine reaction and the EPA-registered formulation effectively elicits a strong humoral immune response. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field for pain caused by placement of initial orthodontic wire in female orthodontic patients: A preliminary single-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Gon; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Kyung-Hwa; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Cho, Jin-Woo; Chang, Na-Young; Bay, R Curtis; Chae, Jong-Moon

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this 2-arm parallel trial was to assess the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the reduction of pain caused by initial orthodontic tooth movement. Thirty-three female patients (mean age, 16.8 ± 3.8 years) who began orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances were examined. In the pilot study, male patients were less likely to use the PEMF device (epatchQ; Speed Dental, Seoul, Korea) and answer a survey consistently, so eligibility criteria were female patients who were periodontally and systemically healthy at the initiation of treatment and had no history of dental pain in the prior 2 weeks or who used no medications (anti-inflammatory or analgesic drugs) during the experiment period. Each patient had brackets bonded on the maxillary teeth, and a 0.014-in nickel-titanium archwire was tied with elastomeric rings. Their maxillary arches were randomly divided into left and right sides in a split-mouth design: a normal PEMF device (experimental group) was used on 1 side, and a PEMF device with an inversely inserted battery (placebo group) was used on the opposite side of the arch for 7 hours on 3 consecutive nights. A Google survey link was sent to the patients' mobile phones via text message, and they were instructed to record their current pain on the survey. The survey was sent a total of 6 times after insertion of the initial archwire at 0 (T0), 2 (T1), 6 (T2), 24 (T3), 48 (T4), and 72 (T5) hours. Patients recorded the degree of pain in resting and clenching states using a numeric rating scale (NRS) from 1 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain). PEMF devices were used after T2. Generalized linear mixed models, along with ancillary pairwise analyses, were used to model and evaluate the differences in pain reported over 72 hours. The NRS scores did not differ across the groups during the before-PEMF phase for resting (mean difference, -0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.73 to 0.59; P = 0.842) and clenching (mean difference, -0

  11. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  12. North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the

  13. North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yo Han; Lee, Won Jin; Kim, Yun Jeong; Cho, Myong Jin; Kim, Joo Hyung; Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hee Young; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon; Robinson, Courtland

    2012-03-08

    Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the same race and have the same

  14. North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS study: study design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs, and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1 demographic and migration information 2 disease history, 3 mental health, 4 health-related lifestyle, 5 female reproductive health, and 6 sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an

  15. Improved technical specifications for Korean NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, J. D.; Lee, D. H.; Seong, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    PWRs use Technical Specifications(Tech. Spec.) to ensure safe operation of the plant. Recently, many efforts were made to improve Tech. Spec. and as a result, Improved Standard Technical Specifications(ISTS) have been developed. Korean NPP technical specifications were converted to ISTS format. KAERI also provided supporting documents for technical specification conversion including mark-up's and description of changes. This paper describes and summarizes the results of implementation of ISTS for Korean NPP. The new Tech. Spec. will improve safety of Korean NPP

  16. Relationship among self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Yoon; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among -self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in Korean college students. The subjects were 239 college students (142 male and 97 female) residing in the Incheon, Korea. Self-reported fatigue score was determined using a questionnaire of "Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue Test." The average physical fatigue score (p ;students were significantly higher compared to male students. Average dietary taurine intake in male and female was 102.5 mg/day and 98.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant correlation between self-reported fatigue score and dietary taurine intake. However, there was significantly negative correlation between self-reported fatigue scores and dietary habits such as "eating meals at regular times" (p ;habit in Korean college students, and a further large-scale study is needed about relationship of self-reported fatigue and dietary taurine intake.

  17. [Historical study of the research of Korean Ginseng by Japanese and Korean doctors in eighteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liang, Yongxuan

    2015-07-01

    In the eighteenth Century, Korean envoys and Japanese doctors did a lot of conversation on Korean ginseng, the content of which were arranged as books later by Japanese. Through 5 collections of those books, it is found that the contents of those conversations are focused mainly on 3 aspects, viz., the name and the quality of the Korean ginseng, processing method and cultivation conditions. Those records not only reflect the condition of Japanese doctors truly and actually getting the knowledge of Korean ginseng, but also provide precious historical data to the research on the history of Japan and Korea medical communication in the Edo period.

  18. Sex differences in social cognitive factors and physical activity in Korean college students

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jin Yi; Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Eun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined sex differences in physical activity and social cognitive theory factors in Korean college students. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional survey of 688 college students (285 men and 403 women) in Korea was conducted using a self-reported questionnaire. [Results] There was a significant difference in the level of physical activity between male and female students. The significant predictors of physical activity for male students were physical activity goals, p...

  19. Blood Mercury and Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Koreans (KNHANES 2008-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyu-Nam; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Beomhee; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Blood mercury levels are associated with inflammation, and chronic low-grade inflammation is a cause of insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum mercury and insulin resistance. Materials and Methods Subjects from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were selected (n=29235) and the relevant data of 5388 subjects (2643 males and 2745 females) were analyzed cross-sectionally. Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insuli...

  20. Black and Korean: Racialized Development and the Korean American Subject in Korean/American Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehyun Lim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of the encounters and exchanges between Asian and black Americans in Sŏk-kyŏng Kang’s “Days and Dreams,” Heinz Insu Fenkl’s Memories of My Ghost Brother, and Chang-rae Lee’s A Gesture Life. While one popular mode of looking at Asian and black Americans relationally in the postwar era is to compare the success of Asian American assimilation to the failure of black Americans, Lim argues that such a mode of comparison cannot account for the ways in which Asian American racialization takes places within the global currents of militarism and migration. Against the popular view that attributes Asian American success to cultural difference, Lim relies on political scientist Claire Kim’s understanding of culture as something that is constructed in the process of racialization to explore how the above texts imagine the terms of comparative racialization between black and Asian Americans. The black-Korean encounters in these texts demand a heuristic of comparative racialization that goes beyond the discussion of the black-white binary as a national construct and seeks the reification and modification of this racial frame as it travels along the routes of US military and economic incursions in the Pacific. Lim suggests that the literary imagining of black-Korean encounters across the Pacific illustrates race and racialization as effects of a regime of economic development that is supported by military aggression.

  1. Estimating the burden of irritable bowel syndrome: analysis of a nationwide korean database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Youn Hee; Park, Joo Yeon; Jang, Bo Hyoung; Park, Sun-Young; Nam, Mi-Hee; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2014-04-30

    Management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) imposes a heavy economic burden. This study was to estimate the epidemio-logic features of IBS and to report the IBS burden for the first time in the Korean population. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Health Insurance (NHI) system database, which covers the entire pop-ulation of Korea. IBS was defined as diagnostic code -10 in adults with any outpatient clinic visits or hospitalization related to IBS. We excluded diseases that mimic IBS symptoms. A total of 2.42 million (58.2% female) individuals were identified as patients with IBS, yielding an age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of 5.1% in males and 6.9% in females. The prevalence of IBS increased proportionally with age, with higher medical costs in middle-aged patients. Outpatient clinics were visited by 98.6% of IBS patients, and 1.9% were treated upon admission. Of these patients, 87.6% were given a prescription. Co-morbidities that commonly accompanied IBS included upper gastro-intestinal (36.1%), respiratory (12.3%), musculoskeletal (8.0%) disease, somatoform (4.3%) and depression/anxiety disorders (3.1%). The NHI costs of IBS, which include the NHI covered cost and beneficiary copayment charges, were estimated to be 155 million USD, which accounts for 0.46% of the total NHI costs for the entire Korean population. According to the Korean national claims database, about 6% of the Korean population seeks medical care for IBS at least once per year. This high prevalence places a large economic burden on the Korean healthcare system, accounting for 0.46% of over-all national medical expenditure.

  2. Cognitive Function of Korean Neurosurgical Patients: Cross-sectional Study Using the Korean Version of the Mini-mental Status Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiha; Kim, Chi Heon; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Park, Chul-Kee; Chung, Chun Kee

    2012-03-01

    As interest in life quality and expectancy increases, cognitive dysfunction is becoming an important topic. Although there are many foreign articles on this topic, they require cultural interpretation to be applicable to Koreans. The purpose of this study was to assess cognitive function in Korean neurosurgical patients. We recruited 214 adult Korean patients with various cerebral pathologies and treatments from an outpatient clinic. The male-to-female ratio was 88:126, and their ages ranged from 28 to 81 years (mean: 57.9 years). The Korean version of the mini-mental status examination (K-MMSE) was adopted as an instrument for measuring cognitive function, and a score ≤23 was defined as cognitive dysfunction. K-MMSE scores were analyzed considering the patients' gender, age, time elapsed since treatments, pathology and treatment modality. A serial analysis was performed for 59 patients who completed the K-MMSE more than once. The mean K-MMSE score of 214 patients was 22.3, and 133 patients (62.1%) had a score ≤23. Cognitive dysfunction was common regardless of age, gender, pathology or treatment modality. Serial analysis revealed K-MMSE score improvement in 45 of 59 patients (76.3%). The mean time interval between two tests was 11.9 months, and the mean K-MMSE score improvement was 2.7, which was statistically significant (P = 0.000). However, many still had cognitive impairment. Most Korean neurosurgical patients showed cognitive dysfunction despite improvement after several months. Patients with trauma or ischemic disease were more vulnerable. More attention should be paid to neuropsychological complications such as cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Pharmacokinetic comparison study of a combination containing 500 mg of Naproxen and 20 mg of Esomeprazole: a randomized, single-dose, 2-way crossover, open-label study in healthy Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Gyu; Jeon, Ji-Young; Kwak, Seong-Shin; Kim, Hyunil; Jin, Changyun; Im, Yong-Jin; Kim, Eun-Young; Wang, Hye Min; Kim, Yunjeong; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Min-Gul

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been used for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects, but they carry a risk of major gastrointestinal damage. This risk can be greatly reduced by the coadministration of inhibitors of gastric acid secretion, such as proton pump inhibitors. This study was performed for the subsequent marketing of a combination drug that contained 500 mg of naproxen and 20 mg of esomeprazole in Korea. We evaluated the comparative bioavailability and tolerability of the test and reference formulations in healthy men. A total of 60 healthy men were enrolled in this single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study. During each period, men received a combination of 500 mg of naproxen and 20 mg of esomeprazole for test or reference, and between each period, there was a 1-week washout period. Blood samples were obtained 21 times throughout each period before dosing and 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after oral administration. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters, including Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Tmax, were measured, and all treatment-emergent adverse events and their associations with the study medications were recorded throughout the entire study. A total of 59 men completed the study. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of AEs between the 2 formulations. In addition, there were no serious or unexpected AEs during the study. Both formulations had very similar Cmax, AUC, and t½ values, but the Tmax of naproxen appeared earlier in the test formulation than in the reference formulation and that of esomeprazole appeared later in the test formulation than in the reference formulation. This study suggests that the test and reference formulations of a combination of 500 mg of naproxen and 20 mg of esomeprazole are bioequivalent in the extent of absorption and peak concentration

  4. The Korean nuclear ODA policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Min, Kim Yoo; Park, Young Il

    2012-01-01

    Korean nuclear Official Development Assistance (ODA) is established with support from institutes such as the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). KOICA's grant aid mainly made through the activities including IAEA's training program, and KAERI currently runs the inter-regional education and training cooperation called Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology(ANENT) which aimed to achieve the goal of encouraging web based education training network via cooperation with IAEA. Yet now these programs are focusing more on assisting nuclear infrastructure rather than highlighting nuclear education and training. This paper aims to, first, do a self-evaluation about the Korean ODA policy; second, to study the transition of the international nuclear atmosphere; and third, by apprehending the trend of the subjects of Korean nuclear ODA policy, to discuss the overall appropriate trajectory of Korean nuclear ODA

  5. Sustainment Stocks for the Korean Theater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St

    1998-01-01

    .... This study concludes that the Army intends to provide theater Class VII combat loss replacements, in the Korean theater, in the early stage of conflict or war from Army Pre-positioned Stocks-Sustainment 4 (APS-S 4...

  6. [The history of modern Korean pharmaceutical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Sumio

    2009-01-01

    During the Korean colonial days from 1910 to 1945, many Japanese pharmacists, druggists, apothecaries and pharmaceutical scientists worked in Korea. Although these fields belong to Japanese pharmaceutical history, there are very few papers about modern Korean pharmaceutical education written in Japanese. There is, however, a huge amount of general books written in Japanese which were published during Korean colonial days. These books are reprinted versions of originals, reprinted in Japan or Korea. It is possible to read these books at the Seoul National University Central Library, Medical Library, the History of Hospital Institute Library, the Central National Library in Seoul, the library in the Pusan Modern History Museum or the Pusan Municipal Library. While reading these books over four weeks in September 2008 in Seoul, information about modern Korean pharmaceutical education was obtained for this paper.

  7. The internationalization of the Korean radiological society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Young Goo; Kim, Kun Sang

    1995-01-01

    Toward the beginning of the twenty-first century, the world experiences the dramatic changes in politics, economics and culture, and it is evident that the Korean medical field will not be able to survive provided it doesn't prepare ourselves to adapt to those changes. The Korean Medical Society held a forum for the active operation of the medical society, inviting several leading affiliated societies, to meet the needs of the times. This review describes the summary of the presentation that the authors made on behalf of the Korean Radiological Society in the forum, including the organization, current status of academic activity, current status of international communication, and problems encountered in the internationalization of the Korean Radiological Society

  8. The Role of China in Korean Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Son, Dae

    2003-01-01

    ...) was the Republic of Korea (ROK)'s primary enemy state, and the United States became the ROK's only military alliance state, particularly due to their intervention in the Korean War in the Cold War era, the PRC, coupled...

  9. Female offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivienne de Vogel; Marijke Louppen

    2017-01-01

    Although girls and women represent only a minority of the forensic mental health and prison populations, studies worldwide suggest that there has been a steady increase in the number of females being convicted for committing offenses, especially violent offenses. In this chapter, an overview will

  10. Female sexual dysfunction in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and its association with serotonin 2A-1438 G/A single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiran, Ruziana; Sidi, Hatta; Mohamed, Zahurin; Mohd Nazree, Nur Elia; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Midin, Marhani; Das, Srijit; Mohamed Saini, Suriati

    2014-04-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known for their sexual side effects. Different SSRIs may affect different areas of sexual function at different rates. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), its clinical correlates, and association with 5HT2A (rs6311) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who were on SSRI therapy. This was a cross-sectional study on 95 female outpatients with MDD treated with SSRI. The patients were in remission as determined by Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Genomic DNA was isolated from buccal swabs and samples were processed using a real time polymerase chain reaction. The presence or absence of FSD as measured by the Malay Version of Female Sexual Function Index and 5HT2A-1438 G/A (rs6311) SNP. The overall prevalence of FSD was 32.6%. After controlling for age, number of children, education level, total monthly income, SSRI types, and SSRI dosing, being employed significantly enhanced FSD by 4.5 times (odds ratio [OR] = 4.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 20.30; P = 0.05). Those having marital problems were 6.7 times more likely to have FSD (OR = 6.67; 95% CI 1.57, 28.34). 5HT2A-1438 G/A (rs6311) SNP was not significantly associated with FSD. There was no significant association between FSD and the 5HT2A (rs6311) SNP in patients with MDD on SSRI therapy. Employment status and marital state were significantly associated with FSD among these patients. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. The Effect of Elevated CO2 and Increased Temperature on in Vitro Fertilization Success and Initial Embryonic Development of Single Male:Female Crosses of Broad-Cast Spawning Corals at Mid- and High-Latitude Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on the in vitro fertilization success and initial embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals using a single male:female cross of three different species from mid- and high-latitude locations: Lyudao, Taiwan (22° N and Kochi, Japan (32° N. Eggs were fertilized under ambient conditions (27 °C and 500 μatm CO2 and under conditions predicted for 2100 (IPCC worst case scenario, 31 °C and 1000 μatm CO2. Fertilization success, abnormal development and early developmental success were determined for each sample. Increased temperature had a more profound influence than elevated CO2. In most cases, near-future warming caused a significant drop in early developmental success as a result of decreased fertilization success and/or increased abnormal development. The embryonic development of the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the high-latitude location was more sensitive to the increased temperature (+4 °C than the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the mid-latitude location. The response to the elevated CO2 level was small and highly variable, ranging from positive to negative responses. These results suggest that global warming is a more significant and universal stressor than ocean acidification on the early embryonic development of corals from mid- and high-latitude locations.

  12. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  13. Background and Data Configuration Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Song, Young Duk; Park, Cheol-Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Cha, Bong Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers. Methods The NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI) provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI. Results Metabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining. Conclusion The NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform. PMID:25349827

  14. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p Korean subjects were less likely to see herbs as a form of cancer prevention (34 % Chinese, 20 % Korean, 35 % Vietnamese; p Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p < 0.0001). Important differences exist in knowledge, attitudes, and health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  15. Lack of Effects of a Single High-Fat Meal Enriched with Vegetable n-3 or a Combination of Vegetable and Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Intestinal Peptide Release and Adipokines in Healthy Female Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C W; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-01-01

    Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  16. Lack of effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids on intestinal peptide release and adipokines in healthy female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Naverud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  17. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa; Choi, Kyungran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ? 11.8 yrs [mean ? standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National...

  18. Operational Intelligence Failures of the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    other states, including China itself. “On 5 September, the United States Consul General in Hong Kong , James Wilkinson, sent a memo to (Secretary of State...Office mission was “to penetrate North Korean governmental, military, and industrial agencies.”49 The Korean Liaison Office submitted almost 1,200...Far East Command Liaison Group, Korea, was unable to fill that void. No human assets operated within Chinese occupied areas and movement corridors

  19. Inspection technology of Korean standard Reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doh, Euisoon

    2002-01-01

    This paper is for the inspection technology of Korean standard Reactor vessel. KPS performed Korean standard Reactor vessel inspection for a part of Yonggwang unit 5 and full inspection of Yonggwang unit 6 on November in 2001. Korean standard Reactor vessel is different from Westinghouse and Framatome plants in design and material. Understanding design, structure and material is very important to prepare and to perform Reactor vessel inspection. Korean standard Reactor vessel has 6 Stabilizer lugs, 6 Core stop lugs and one Flow Baffle around Lower head to Bottom head weld(G4). They make very difficult to perform scanning of G4 by transducers and to install Lower Platform of robot system. Korean standard Reactor vessel has 2 Outlet Nozzles, 4 Inlet Nozzles and small curvature of Inner Radius regions. That small curvature's Inner Radius region needs a special technology to perform the area more than 90% of whole examination volume. The most significant difference of Korean standard Reactor vessel is that it does not have Safe End region because both of Reactor vessel and main reactor coolant system piping are carbon steel. Therefore, the technology for this nozzle to piping weld is very unique to be compared with other Westinghouse or Framatome plants. Described above, the inspection technology of Korean standard Reactor Vessel is very different from other Reactor Vessel due to different internal structure and material. The company which performs this 10 years ISI in future will need much investigation of structure and material to succeed in Reactor vessel inspection of Korean standard plant

  20. Discrimination of synthesized English vowels by American and Korean listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byunggon

    2004-05-01

    This study explored the discrimination of synthesized English vowel pairs by 27 American and Korean, male and female listeners. The average formant values of nine monophthongs produced by ten American English male speakers were employed to synthesize the vowels. Then, subjects were instructed explicitly to respond to AX discrimination tasks in which the standard vowel was followed by another one with the increment or decrement of the original formant values. The highest and lowest formant values of the same vowel quality were collected and compared to examine patterns of vowel discrimination. Results showed that the American and Korean groups discriminated the vowel pairs almost identically and their center formant frequency values of the high and low boundary fell almost exactly on those of the standards. In addition, the acceptable range of the same vowel quality was similar among the language and gender groups. The acceptable thresholds of each vowel formed an oval to maintain perceptual contrast from adjacent vowels. Pedagogical implications of those findings are discussed.

  1. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Yeun; Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young

    2016-02-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls.

  2. Genetic and Clinical Characteristics of Korean Patients with Isolated Hypoparathyroidism: From the Korean Hypopara Registry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Eom, Young Sil; Choi, Byoungho; Yi, Hyon-Seung; Yu, Seung-Hee; Lee, Kiyoung; Jin, Hyun-Seok; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Jung, Tae Sik

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hypoparathyroidism (IH) shows heterogeneous phenotypes and can be caused by defects in a variety of genes. The goal of our study was to determine the clinical features and to analyze gene mutations in a large cohort of Korean patients with sporadic or familial IH. We recruited 23 patients. They showed a broad range of onset age and various values of biochemical data. Whole exome sequencing was performed on two affected cases and one unaffected individual in a family. All coding exons and exon-intron borders of GCMB, CASR, and prepro-PTH were sequenced using PCR-amplified DNA. In one family who underwent the whole exome sequencing analysis, approximately 300 single nucleotide changes emerged as candidates for genetic alteration. Among them, we identified a functional mutation in exon 2 of GCMB (C106R) in two affected cases. Besides, heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in the CASR gene were found in other subjects; D410E and P221L. We also found one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the prepro-PTH gene, five SNPs in the CASR gene, and four SNPs in the GCMB gene. The current study represents a variety of biochemical phenotypes in IH patients with the molecular genetic diagnosis of IH. PMID:24133354

  3. Validation of the student athletes' motivation towards sports and academics questionnaire to Korean student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunghee; Hong, Seungbun; Lee, Miyoung

    2015-08-01

    The current study had three aims: (1) to validate a Korean version of the Student Athletes' Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-Kr), (2) to examine South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement, and (3) to identify the relationship between athletic identity and their athletic and academic achievement. A total of 126 South Korean university student-athletes (41.4% males and 58.6% females; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.74) completed the SAMSAQ-Kr. To investigate the validity evidence of the SAMSAQ-Kr a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch model were employed. To examine the relationship between Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and SAMSAQ for Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. Findings indicated that the SAMSAQ-Kr showed a different model from other versions and revealed positive correlations between AIMS scores and athletic motivations. The current study highlighted that importance of considering socio-cultural context in developing questionnaire and contributed to help understand South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement.

  4. Validation of the student athletes’ motivation towards sports and academics questionnaire to Korean student-athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunghee; Hong, Seungbun; Lee, Miyoung

    2015-01-01

    The current study had three aims: (1) to validate a Korean version of the Student Athletes’ Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-Kr), (2) to examine South Korean university student-athletes’ motivation towards athletic and academic achievement, and (3) to identify the relationship between athletic identity and their athletic and academic achievement. A total of 126 South Korean university student-athletes (41.4% males and 58.6% females; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.74) completed the SAMSAQ-Kr. To investigate the validity evidence of the SAMSAQ-Kr a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch model were employed. To examine the relationship between Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and SAMSAQ for Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. Findings indicated that the SAMSAQ-Kr showed a different model from other versions and revealed positive correlations between AIMS scores and athletic motivations. The current study highlighted that importance of considering socio-cultural context in developing questionnaire and contributed to help understand South Korean university student-athletes’ motivation towards athletic and academic achievement. PMID:26331138

  5. Measurements of heel pad thickness in normal Koreans by ultrasound and conventional X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bong Lin; Kim, Yang Su; Kim, Kun Sang

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of heel pad thickness (HPT) has never been done by ultrasound in healthy Korean. To establish normal standard value of HPT in Koreans, 87 healthy volunteers were examined using 10MHZ high resolution ultrasound. As a control, measurement of HPT were done in 46 healthy volunteers on conventional X-ray. The results are as follows; 1. In ultrasonic measurement cases, the mean value of right HPT is 15.8 ± 1.9 mm and the mean value of left HPT is 15.4 ± 2.0mm. In X-ray measurement cases, the mean value of right HPT is 19.9 ± 2.17mm and the mean value of left HPT is 19.8 ± 2.28mm. 2. Maximum value of HPT is 20.8mm in ultrasonic measurement cases, 23mm in X-ray measurement cases. 3. The value of HPT is well correlated with weight, height both in ultrasound and in X-ray measurement (ρ < 0.05). Correlation between the value of HPT and age is not evident (correlation coefficients = -0.18, -0.15). There is no significant difference between left and right foot (ρ < 0.05), and male and female (ρ < 0.05). 4. The results can be considered that there is no significant difference in normal standard value of HPT between Koreans and white, and that upper limit of normal in Koreans is 23mm by conventional X-ray

  6. Estimated dietary isoflavone intake of Korean population based on National Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J -S.; Kwon, C -S.

    2001-07-01

    The dietary isoflavone intake of the Korean population was estimated based on data from the Korean National Nutrition Survey conducted in 1995, which included 3224 male and 3475 female subjects with a wide age range. Data on the isoflavone content of soybeans and their products were collected from a literature survey of Korean journals. This information was then screened based on the methodological validity, compared with values reported in international journals, and an average value adopted for each food. Thereafter, the total isoflavone intake per capita was estimated as 14.88 mg/d, which was attributed to genistein (7.32 mg), daidzein (5.81 mg), and glycitein (1.75 mg). Soybeans and three traditional soy foods (tofu, soybean paste, soybean sprouts) contributed to more than 94% of the total isoflavone intake of the Korean population. Slight differences in the isoflavone intake level and pattern were observed between the various residential areas. The rural and urban isoflavone intakes were estimated at 15.18 and 14.85 mg per capita, respectively. Rural residents were more dependent on soybeans than processed soy products for their isoflavone intake, while urban residents extracted more isoflavones from tofu, compared to their rural counterparts. The total isoflavone intake reported in this study may be underestimated, as other products containing soyflour and soy protein were not accounted for.

  7. Association between morningness and resilience in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Jin; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Cheol-Soon; Cha, Boseok; Lee, Yu Jin; Soh, Minah; Park, Jin Ah; Young, Park So; Song, Eun Hye

    2016-01-01

    Circadian typology and sleep quality may be essential factors associated with the promotion of resilience. However, previous studies investigating the association between circadian typology and resilience did not analyze the effects of sleep quality on resilience. Thus, the present study evaluated the association between circadian typology and resilience in Korean college students after controlling for sleep quality. Additionally, this study investigated several sleep-related variables, including sleep duration, social jetlag and sunlight exposure during the daytime, to examine the modifiable behavioral features of morningness and also investigated whether the findings regarding morningness-related modifiable habits were associated with resilience. This study included 1094 participants (947 males and 147 females) between 19 and 29 years of age (22.8 ± 1.9 years) who completed the 10-item Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), the Korean version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Korean version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a survey about social jetlag that determined misalignments between weekday and weekend times of awakening and activity duration under conditions of sunlight between 10:00 and 15:00. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that sleep duration, mean daily sunlight exposure between 10:00 and 15:00 and age were positive predictors of morningness, whereas social jetlag was a negative predictor of morningness. Of these morningness-related modifiable behavioral features, mean daily sunlight exposure between 10:00 and 15:00 significantly predicted greater resilience. An additional multiple linear regression analysis revealed that morningness was a positive predictor of resilience after controlling for age, sex, depression, anxiety and sleep quality. These results support the idea that morningness and better sleep quality are

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Adolescents Smoking: Difference Between Korean and Korean-Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoonBok E. Park, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the differences of smoking prevalence and risk factors between Korean-Chinese students and Korean students. The findings may help health educators and researchers to better understand adolescent smoking and risk factors cross culturally and aid in the development of more effective education programs, which could lead to preventing tobacco use among these populations.

  9. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  10. Discordance in Spirometric Interpretations Based on Korean and Non-Korean Reference Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Korean regression models for spirometric reference values are different from those of other ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to evaluate discordance in spirometric interpretations based on using Korean reference equations versus non-Korean reference equations. Methods Spirometry was performed on 825 Korean male workers from April 2009 to November 2011. The spirometric patterns and disease severity were evaluated using two Korean equations (Choi's and Lee's) and three equations for Caucasians (NHANES III, Morris's, and Knudson's), and the results of Choi's equation were compared with the non-Korean equations. The spirometric patterns were defined as normal, restrictive, and mild and moderate obstructive. Results The mean differences in the FEV1% and FVC% between the two Korean equations were 2.0 ± 1.3% and 3.5 ± 2.2%, respectively. Morris's equation had the greatest difference in the FEV1% from Choi's equation: 32.9 ± 8.5%. Knudson's equation had the greatest difference in the FVC% from Choi's equation: 10.5 ± 6.5%. Conclusions The two Korean equations shared similar characteristics of spirometric interpretation. The spirometric interpretations of Choi's equation were significantly different from those of Morris's equation and Knudson's equation. PMID:24472140

  11. Writing under wartime conditions : North and South Korean writers during the Korean war (1950-1953)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Jerôme Willem Andries de

    2015-01-01

    Writing under Wartime Conditions is a study into North and South Korean literature written during the Korean War. It depicts the views and activities of the authors on war and traces the historical and social circumstances under which the writers had to write their literature. The North and South

  12. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Related Factors in Korean Employees: The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Nam Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between general working conditions and depressive symptoms among Korean employees. The target population of the study was native employees nationwide who were at least 15 years old, and 50,032 such individuals were enrolled in the study. Depressive symptoms was assessed using the WHO-5 wellbeing index. Associations between general characteristics, job-related characteristics, work environment, and depressive symptoms were tested using chi-square tests, t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 39% (40.7% in males and 36.5% in females. Multiple regression analysis revealed that male subjects, older subjects, subjects with higher education status, subjects with lower monthly income, current smokers, and frequent drinkers were more likely to have depressive symptoms. In addition, longer weekly work hours, occupation type (skilled, unskilled, operative, or economic sector, shift work, working to tight deadlines, exposure to stress at work, and hazard exposure were associated with depressive symptoms. This representative study will be a guide to help manage depression among Korean employees. We expect that further research will identify additional causal relationships between general or specific working conditions and depression.

  13. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Related Factors in Korean Employees: The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Nam; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-04-14

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between general working conditions and depressive symptoms among Korean employees. The target population of the study was native employees nationwide who were at least 15 years old, and 50,032 such individuals were enrolled in the study. Depressive symptoms was assessed using the WHO-5 wellbeing index. Associations between general characteristics, job-related characteristics, work environment, and depressive symptoms were tested using chi-square tests, t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 39% (40.7% in males and 36.5% in females). Multiple regression analysis revealed that male subjects, older subjects, subjects with higher education status, subjects with lower monthly income, current smokers, and frequent drinkers were more likely to have depressive symptoms. In addition, longer weekly work hours, occupation type (skilled, unskilled, operative, or economic sector), shift work, working to tight deadlines, exposure to stress at work, and hazard exposure were associated with depressive symptoms. This representative study will be a guide to help manage depression among Korean employees. We expect that further research will identify additional causal relationships between general or specific working conditions and depression.

  14. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.

    1984-01-01

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  15. The intelligibility of Chinese-accented English to Korean and American students at a U.S. university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardman, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the intelligibility of Chinese and American graduate students to their Korean and American peers. A psycholinguistic word-recognition-in-noise study investigated the effects on intelligibility of speakers’ L1 and segmental pronunciation accuracy and how this varied...... by listeners’ L1 and word familiarity. Participants included 6 male graduate students (Chinese and American) as speakers and 36 male and female graduate students (Korean and American) as listeners. Since there was no speech corpus publicly available that would help answer the research questions, the researcher...... first compiled the Buckeye GTA Corpus, which includes L1 and L2 speech recordings of Chinese, Indian, Korean, and American university students. A series of logistic regression mixed-effects models revealed that speaker L1, listener L1, and listener word familiarity were significant predictors...

  16. Changes in metabolic syndrome of Korean children and adolescents in the period 1998 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S; Jang, H C; Park, K S; Lee, H K; Chung, H R; Joung, H J; Cho, S I

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and pattern of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents in the interval between the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) in 1998 and 2001. Two nationwide surveys (KNHANES) were conducted in Korea in 1998 and 2001. A stratified multistage probability sampling design was used to ensure representation of the entire Korean population. The National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III)-derived definition was used for the definition of metabolic syndrome. A total of 1763 (mean age+/-SD of 14.6+/-2.8 yr) and 1245 (14.1+/-2.8 yr) Korean children and adolescents in the age range 10-19 yr participated in the studies of 1998 and 2001, respectively. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in male children and adolescents increased significantly from 5.7% in 1998 to 9.0% in 2001. However, there was no increase in females (5.1% in 1998 and 4.9% in 2001). Of the 5 components of metabolic syndrome, low HDL-cholesterolemia showed the highest increase in males and females during the 3 yr. Hypertriglyceridemia increased next in both genders. In contrast, the proportion of female subjects meeting the fasting glucose criterion decreased over the same period. As dyslipidemia was the principal contributor to the increase in metabolic syndrome in Korean male children and adolescents during the 3 yr, a strategy of dietary pattern change and the encouragement of physical activity should be introduced to these groups at a national level.

  17. Korean kimchi: promoting healthy meals through cultural tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Hongu

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The availability and many varieties of kimchi exist in the US. Despite new trends and changes in the US, kimchi continues to be a significant important staple in many Korean and non-Korean families in the US.

  18. Relationship between positive mental health and appreciation in Korean individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2017-06-01

    Appreciation is a key component of subjective well-being and may contribute to positive mental health. Few studies have examined relationships between specific aspects of appreciation and the 3 dimensions of positive mental health, and thus, the aim of this study was to identify associations between aspects of appreciation and positive mental health. Appreciation and positive mental health were measured in 266 Korean university students (50% females) using the Appreciation Inventory and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. The results obtained showed that Have Focus significantly predicted Emotional Well-being; Have Focus and Loss/Adversity significantly predicted Social Well-being and Have Focus, Expression and Nature/Daily Life significantly predicted Psychological Well-being. The implications of results that might enable positive mental health to be enhanced are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Change in the height of Korean children and adolescents: analysis from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey II and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Na Yung; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Jae Hyun; Moon, Jin Soo; Lee, Chong Guk

    2015-09-01

    The mean adult height of Koreans has increased since nationwide anthropological measurements began in 1967. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in heights of Korean late adolescents and young adults within and between the Second and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES II and V). Koreans aged ≤22 years with available measurements of height were enrolled from the KNHANES surveys (KNHANES II: n=3,372 [1,732 males and 1,640 females]; KNHANES V: n=6,190 [3,198 males and 2,992 females]). Differences in the height of KNHANES respondents within and between surveys were evaluated according to age and sex. In KNHANES II, there was no significant difference in height between males aged 17-19 years and those aged 20-22 years (174.3±0.5 cm vs. 174.3±0.6 cm, P=0.995). Females aged 20-22 years were taller than those aged 17-19 years (159.8±0.4 cm vs. 161.0±0.4 cm, P=0.017). Females aged 17-19 years were significantly taller in KNHANES V than in KNHANES II (161.2±0.3 cm vs. 159.8±0.4 cm, P=0.004). Respondents aged 20-22 years were taller in KNHANES V than in KNHANES II, although not significantly so; the difference was 0.3±0.8 cm in males (P=0.721) and 0.5±0.6 cm in females (P=0.386). Koreans appear to continue growing even in their late adolescence and early twenties. Consequently, it may be necessary to expand the reference age ranges of the Korean growth chart. Additionally, a longitudinal growth survey is needed to determine growth patterns and secular trend in height among Koreans.

  20. Smartphone addiction risk and daytime sleepiness in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jee Eun; Choi, Soo An; Kim, Ki Tai; Yee, Jeong; Kim, Joo Hee; Seong, Jin Won; Seong, Jong Mi; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Kyung Eun; Gwak, Hye Sun

    2018-04-06

    Smartphone overuse can cause not only mobility problems in the wrists, fingers and neck but also interference with sleep habits. However, research on smartphone addiction and sleep disturbances is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate daytime sleepiness in association with smartphone addiction risk in Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional survey method was used in this study. The Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale was used to assess daytime sleepiness, and the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale index was used to evaluate the degree of risk for smartphone addiction. The analyses were performed in 1796 adolescents using smartphones, including 820 boys and 976 girls. The at-risk smartphone users made up 15.1% of boys and 23.9% of girls. Our multivariate analyses demonstrated that students who were female, consumed alcohol, had lower academic performance, did not feel refreshed in the morning and initiated sleep after 12 am were at a significantly higher risk of smartphone addiction. The at-risk smartphone user group was independently associated with the upper quartile Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale score in students with the following factors: Female gender, alcohol consumption, poor self-perceived health level, initiating sleep after 12 am, longer time taken to fall asleep and duration of night sleep less than 6 h. The quality of sleep in adolescence affects growth, emotional stability and learning skills. Therefore, the management of smartphone addiction seems to be essential for proper sleeping habits. There is a critical need to develop a means of preventing smartphone addiction on a social level. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Korean and American Science Teachers' Views of Evolution and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Nehm, Ross H.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a few international comparisons of the evolutionary beliefs of the general public, comparatively less research has focused on science teachers. Cross-cultural studies offer profitable opportunities for exploring the interactions among knowledge and belief variables in regard to evolution in different socio-cultural contexts. We investigated the evolutionary worldviews of pre-service science teachers from Asia (specifically South Korea), a region often excluded from international comparisons. We compared Korean and American science teachers': (1) understandings of evolution and the nature of science, and (2) acceptance of evolution in order to elucidate how knowledge and belief relationships are manifested in different cultural contexts. We found that Korean science teachers exhibited 'moderate' evolutionary acceptance levels comparable to or lower than American science teacher samples. Gender was significantly related to Korean teachers' evolution content knowledge and acceptance of evolution, with female Christian biology teachers displaying the lowest values on all measures. Korean science teachers' understandings of nature of science were significantly related to their acceptance and understanding of evolution; this relationship appears to transcend cultural boundaries. Our new data on Korean teachers, combined with studies from more than 20 other nations, expose the global nature of science teacher ambivalence or antipathy toward evolutionary knowledge.

  2. Eating habits, obesity related behaviors, and effects of Danhak exercise in elderly Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Jong Hyun; Shin, Dong Joo; Choi, Dal Woong; Park, Soo Jin; Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Young Soon

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate obesity-related dietary behaviors and to determine long-term exercise effects on obesity and blood lipid profiles in elderly Korean subjects. A total of 120 subjects, aged 60-75 yr, were recruited, and obesity-related dietary behaviors were determined. An exercise intervention was conducted with 35 qualified elderly females for 6 months, and body composition and blood lipids were measured 6 times at 4 week intervals. At baseline, mean BMI (kg/m(2)) was 24.8 for males and 23.1 for females. The females had better eating habits than the males and were more concerned with reading nutrition labels on food products (P stress-relief (18.9%), and depression (13.2%). In conclusion, elderly females had better eating habits and were more concerned with nutrition information and healthy diets compared to elderly males. However, misperceptions of weight and obesity-related stress tended to be very high in females who were overweight and obese, which can be a barrier to maintain normal weight. Long-term Danhak practice, a traditional Korean exercise, was effective at reducing body fat (%) and abdominal obesity, and improved lipid profiles, self-confidence, and stress.

  3. Korean American males' interracial contact experiences during serious leisure activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    KangJae Jerry Lee; David. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated serious leisure among Korean Americans and examined the ways in which Koreans' marginalized status impact their pursuit of serious leisure and participation patterns in the context of recreational sports. Face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 Korean basketball players and 4 soccer players.

  4. Korean Cultural Influences on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsalus, Ae-Jung Chang; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of Korean culture on the results of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) by comparing profiles of 147 Korean and 132 American college students. Results indicate that MCMI-III personality profile differences exist between Korean and American college students. Discusses implications for mental health…

  5. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  6. Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

  7. 75 FR 45035 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Part III The President Proclamation 8543--National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2010... Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... servicemembers who fought and died for freedom and democracy in the Korean War. This year marks the 60th...

  8. Aestheticized politics : the workings of North Korean art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation is a study of North Korean art as a site where politics, history, and culture meet. Art in North Korea fulfills a clear purpose. This is most apparent in the depiction of historical themes in North Korean art. History serves the political legitimization of the North Korean state and

  9. 77 FR 45477 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... served in the Korean War, and we pay lasting tribute to the brave men and women who gave their lives for... reflect. Now and forever, let us keep faith with our Korean War veterans by upholding the ideals they...

  10. Pedagogical Significance of Morphological Awareness in Korean and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Young Ok; Jung, Chae Kwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether Korean children understand the internal structure of compound words in Korean and English and whether there is a relationship between their performance in tasks that measure their understanding of the morphological structure of compounds in Korean and English. This study also examined the effects of gender, grade,…

  11. Initial Report of the Korean Organ Transplant Registry (KOTRY): Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Young; Jeon, Eun Seok; Kang, Seok Min; Kim, Jae Joong

    2017-11-01

    The Korean Organ Transplant Registry (KOTRY), which was the first national transplant registry in Korea, was founded by the Korean Society for Transplantation and the Korean Center for Disease Control in 2014. Here, we present the initial report of the Korean Heart Transplant Registry. A total of 183 heart transplantation (HTPL) patients performed at 4 nationally representative hospitals were collected from April 2014 to December 2015. We analyzed donor and recipient characteristics, treatment patterns, and immediate post-transplantation outcomes. One hundred and eighty-three patients were enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 50.5±13.5 years. The mean age of the male recipients was 4 years greater than that of the female recipients (51.7±13.3 years vs. 47.9±13.7 years, pheart recipients (37.6±10.1 years). Dilated cardiomyopathy was the predominant cause (69%) of heart failure in recipients, followed by ischemic heart diseases (14%) and valvular heart disease (4%). Rejection episodes were most frequent in the 1-6-month period after transplantation (48%), and rarely required intensive treatment. Infection episodes were most frequent transplantation (66%) and bacterial and viral infections were equally reported. The 1-year survival rate was 91.6% and most mortality cases occurred during the perioperative period within 1 month after transplantation. With the establishment of the KOTRY in 2014, it is now possible to present nationwide epidemiological data for HTPL in Korea for the first time. The KOTRY is the first national HTPL registry in Korea, and will continue until 2023. Copyright © 2017. The Korean Society of Cardiology

  12. Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

    2008-09-01

    American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain.

  13. The Formation of the South Korean Identity through National Curriculum in the South Korean Historical Context: Conflicts and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to…

  14. Whole-Genome Analyses of Korean Native and Holstein Cattle Breeds by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, Paul; Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeon, Heoyn-Jeong; Miller, Stephen P.; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Jeong-Koo; Yang, Bokyoung; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Han, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Jeong, Dongkee; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Sung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea—Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein—using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions–deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding. PMID:24992012

  15. The relationship between religion and mental disorders in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Ik; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng-Je

    2012-03-01

    The question of whether religion has beneficial or detrimental effects on the mental well-being of the adult individual is debatable. Because most Korean citizens are free to select their own religion, there is a higher proportion of non-believers than believers among the Korean population. The aim of this research was to investigate the association between spiritual values and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition mental disorders in Korea across all types of belief systems, including Koreans not affiliated with a particular religion. The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 was used to interview 6,275 people across South Korea in 2001. While controlling for age and sex, we used logistic regression to analyze the relationship between mental disorders (both current and past) and the types of religion and spiritual values. Strong spiritual values were positively associated with increased rates of current depressive disorder and decreased rates of current alcohol use disorder. Using "atheist" as the reference category, Catholics had higher lifetime odds of single episodes of depression whilst Protestants had higher lifetime odds of anxiety disorder and lower lifetime odds of alcohol use disorders. The results of this study suggest that depressive episodes often lead to a search for spirituality and that religion may be helpful in overcoming depression or becoming less vulnerable to relapsing. The associations between religion, spiritual values, and mental health have not been fully elucidated and warrant further exploration.

  16. Tracheal measurement by computed tomography in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deock Hee; Oh, Yeon Hee; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1988-01-01

    The knowledge of normal tracheal morphology is helpful during endotracheal intubation for anesthesia as well as detecting tracheal and paratracheal disorders. Tracheal measurement by simple X-ray is not accurate due to image imagnification and overlapping of the shoulders in the lateral projection. CT, however, is highly accurate to measure the normal tracheal morphology and paratracheal anatomy. The study was undertaken to obtain standard values of normal Korean tracheae. Healthy cases of 50 males and 50 females who had no neck and mediastinal pathology or respiratory difficult were selected. The trachea was measured by CT. The results were as follows: 1. Tracheal lengths were 126.1mm (SD 11.6) in males and 116.0mm (SD 8.4) in females. 2. AP diameters of trachea were 18.9mm (SD 2.1) in males and 15.5mm (SD 1.3) in females. The transverse diameters were 17.7mm (SD 1.9) in males and 15.3mm (SD 1.2) in females. 3. Tracheal cross-sectional areas were 288mm 2 (SD 54) in males and 204mm 2 (SD 31) in females. Mean cross-sectional area of level 4 was greater in 16.6% than that of level 1. 4. Tracheal cross-sectional areas and diameters were dependent on sex but not on weight and height. And cross-sectional areas and AP diameters were positively correlated with age in male. 5. The shape of the trachea showed that the ovoid shape was most common at the level 1, the C-shape was most common at the level 2 and 3, horizontal oval or D-shape were more common at the level 4.

  17. The Korean threat steps up a notch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicheportiche, Romain; Thouverez, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    As North Korea announced a successful test for its first hydrogen nuclear bomb, the author first recalls the origins of the Korean conflict, and then presents the North Korean nuclear weapon programme as a result of a sense of insecurity for the North Korean regime, notably after the collapse of USSR. The nuclear weapon then became a priority and the programme has been rather quickly developed, probably with the help of the father of the Pakistani bomb. A first and second plutonium-based bombs have been tested, and then an enriched uranium-based bomb, and lastly, in January 2016, a hydrogen bomb. Doubts about this achievement are evoked. Then, the author proposes a brief overview of negotiations with the USA, and outlines the problematic behaviour of North Korea regarding the regional situation in an evolving context: a stronger Chinese economy, change in China's position towards North Korea, and Japan re-militarization

  18. Dental caries prevalence of medieval Korean people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sun Sook; Baek, Kyung-won; Shin, Myung Ho; Kim, Jaehyup; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Sang Jun; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2010-07-01

    Prevalence and distribution of dental caries in medieval Korean society were evaluated. Two thousand and nine hundred teeth samples of 126 individuals collected from 16th to 18th century Korean tombs. Preservation status of sample was good. The prevalence of ante- and postmortem tooth loss was 4.4% and 14.2%, respectively. The total caries prevalence was 3.9%. The tooth surface most frequently affected by dental caries was occlusal (4.5%), followed by approximal (2.1%), buccal (1.5%), and lingual (1.1%) surfaces. The prevalence of dental caries in Joseon Dynasty skeleton collection was lower than have been found in other collections of similar chronology. The low consumption of refined sugar in medieval Korean society might be a possible explanation, though the technical limitations inherent in such comparison studies preclude definitive conclusions. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A case of chronic fatigue syndrome improved by traditional Korean medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gue Son

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is unknown and no conventional medicine therapies are available. This report presents a clinical case of a patient suffering from CFS who was cured by traditional Korean medicine. A 33-year-old female patient had to take time off work because of terrible fatigue symptoms that did not respond to conventional treatments. Her disorder was significantly reduced by herbal medicine, acupuncture, and moxibustion. Changes in fatigue severity were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS and a numerical rating scale (NRS. NRS and VAS scores decreased from 70 and 8.1 to 37 and 3.7, respectively, during 3 months. This case reveals the therapeutic potential of traditional Korean medicine for CFS and fatigue-associated disorders.

  20. Genetic mutation in Korean patients of sudden cardiac arrest as a surrogating marker of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myoung Kyun; Ki, Chang-Seok; Park, Seung-Jung; Huh, June; Kim, June Soo; On, Young Keun

    2013-07-01

    Mutation or common intronic variants in cardiac ion channel genes have been suggested to be associated with sudden cardiac death caused by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia. This study aimed to find mutations in cardiac ion channel genes of Korean sudden cardiac arrest patients with structurally normal heart and to verify association between common genetic variation in cardiac ion channel and sudden cardiac arrest by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia in Koreans. Study participants were Korean survivors of sudden cardiac arrest caused by idiopathic ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. All coding exons of the SCN5A, KCNQ1, and KCNH2 genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Fifteen survivors of sudden cardiac arrest were included. Three male patients had mutations in SCN5A gene and none in KCNQ1 and KCNH2 genes. Intronic variant (rs2283222) in KCNQ1 gene showed significant association with sudden cardiac arrest (OR 4.05). Four male sudden cardiac arrest survivors had intronic variant (rs11720524) in SCN5A gene. None of female survivors of sudden cardiac arrest had SCN5A gene mutations despite similar frequencies of intronic variants between males and females in 55 normal controls. Common intronic variant in KCNQ1 gene is associated with sudden cardiac arrest caused by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia in Koreans.

  1. The effects of secondhand smoke on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmoking Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woong Jun; Song, June Seok; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Smoking is widely acknowledged as the single most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the risk of COPD in nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the association of secondhand smoke exposure with COPD prevalence in nonsmokers who reported never smoking. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conduct...

  2. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Treatment by a Korean Neurosurgeon: The Changing Role for Neurosurgeons

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Woong-Beom; Park, Young-Seop; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Yongjung J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiographic/clinical outcomes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated by a Korean neurosurgeon. Methods Ten AIS patients were treated by a single neurosurgeon between January 2011 and September 2013 utilizing segmental instrumentation with pedicle screws. Basic demographic information, curve pattern by Lenke classification, number of levels treated, amount of correction achieved, radiographic/clinical outcomes [by Scolisis...

  3. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships ...

  4. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju

    1999-03-01

    Historical earthquake data of the Korean Peninsula which are very important is evaluating seismicity and seismic hazard of the peninsula were collected and analyzed by seismologist and historian. A preliminary catalog of Korean historical earthquake data translated in English was made. Felt places of 528 events felt at more than 2 places were indicated on maps and MMI III isoseismal were drawn for 52 events of MMI≥VII. Epicenters and intensities of these MMI≥VII events were estimated from these isoseismal maps

  5. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju [The Reaearch Institute of Basic Sciences, Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    In order to systematically collect and analyze the historical earthquake data of the Korean peninsula which are very important in analyzing the seismicity and seismic risk of the peninsula by seismologist and historian, extensive governmental and private historical documents are investigated and relative reliabilities of these documents are examined. This research unearthed about 70 new earthquake records and revealed the change in the cultural, political and social effects of earthquakes with time in Korea. Also, the results of the vibration test of the Korean traditional wooden house are obtained in order to better estimate intensities of the historical earthquakes.

  6. [A study on Korean concepts of relaxation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J S

    1992-01-01

    Relaxation technique is an independent nursing intervention used in various stressful situations. The concept of relaxation must be explored for the meaning given by the people in their traditional thought and philosophy. Korean relaxation technique, wanting to become culturally acceptable and effective, is learning to recognize and develop Korean concepts, experiences, and musics of relaxation. This study was aimed at discovering Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and contributing the development of the relaxation technique for Korean people. The subjects were 59 nursing students, 39 hospitalized patients, 61 housewives, 21 rural residents and 16 researchers. Data were collected from September 4th to October 24th, 1991 by interviews or questionnaires. The data analysis was done by qualitative research method, and validity assured by conformation of the concept and category by 2 nursing scientists who had written a Master's thesis on the relaxation technique. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1. The meaning of the relaxation concept; From 298 statements, 107 concepts were extracted and then 5 categories "Physical domain", "Psychological domain", "Complex domain", "Situation", and "environment" were organized. 'Don't have discomforts, 'don't have muscle tension', 'don't have energy (him in Korean)', 'don't have activities' subcategories were included in "Physical domain". 'Don't have anxiety', 'feel good', 'emotional stability', 'don't have wordly thoughts', 'feel one's brain muddled', 'loss of desire' subcategories were included in "physical domain" 'Comfort body and mind', 'don't have tension of body and mind', 'be sagged' 'liveliness of thoughts' subcategories were included in "Complex domain". 'Rest', 'sleep', 'others' subcategories were included in "Situation domain". And 'quite environment' & 'comfortable environment' subcategories were included in "Environmental domain". 2. The experiences of the relaxation; From 151

  7. A STUDY ON THE KOREAN IONOSPHERIC VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hee Bae

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The ionosphere in accordance with solar activity can affect the transmission of radio waves. The effect of the ionosphere on the radio wave propagation are scattering of radio waves, attenuation, angle error, ranging error, and time delay. The present study is based on the Korean ionospheirc data obtained at the AnYang Radio Research Laboratory from January 1985 through October 1989. The data are analyzed to show the daily and the annual variations of the ionosphere. The data are also used to simulate the density distribution of the Korean ionosphere following the Chapman law.

  8. Brow archetype preferred by Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal. Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, χ2). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0.541), or monthly income (P = 0.1696, χ2). The result of this study might be useful in facial

  9. Work Sectors with High Risk for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsun Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify work sectors with high risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs in Korean men and women. Methods: We analyzed nationwide data to identify ergonomic risk factors in Korean employees. In particular, we analyzed data on exposure to five ergonomic risk factors (painful/tiring postures, lifting/moving heavy materials, standing/walking, repetitive hand/arm movements, and hand/arm vibration according to employment sector, sex, and age, using the 2014 Fourth Korean Working Conditions Survey. We also used workers' compensation data on work-related MSDs in 2010, which is available by sex. Results: The different work sectors had different gender distributions. “Manufacturing” (27.7% and “construction” (11.3% were dominated by males, whereas “human health and social work activities” (12.4%, “hotel and restaurants” (11.7%, and “education” (10.4% were dominated by females. However, “wholesale and retail trade” and “public administration and defense” employed large numbers of males and females. Furthermore, the work sectors with a greater proportion of work-related MSDs and with multiple ergonomic risk factors were different for men and women. For men, “construction” and “manufacturing” had the highest risk for work-related MSDs; for women, “hotel and restaurants” had the highest risk for work-related MSDs. Conclusion: Ergonomic interventions for workers should consider gender and should focus on work sectors with high risk for MSDs, with multiple ergonomic risk factors, and with the largest number of workers. Keywords: ergonomic, risk factor, Korean workers, musculoskeletal disorder

  10. A Sketch of Language History in the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies. PMID:26024377

  11. Koreans in Japan: A minority's Changing Relationship with Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kaori H.

    2004-03-01

    Koreans form the largest ethnic minority group in Japan. The present study explores the situation of Korean pupils in Japanese schools by analyzing recent changes in four areas:(1) governmental and school-level policies, (2) school-level programs targeted at Korean children, (3) Korean pupils' academic achievements and (4) their micro-level encounter with schooling. It shows that Japanese schools are now more willing to accommodate special needs of Koreans in mainstream schooling and that Korean students experience schooling more positively than was the case in their parents' generation. The study argues that their relationship with Japanese schools has undergone a significant transformation at least partially because of such changes, even as the shifting nature of the relationship has a long-term influence on Koreans' beliefs about schools. Central government policies are seen as having adjusted in reply to existing school practices, themselves representing a response to classroom reality and local civil movements.

  12. Liberation psychological implications for pastoral care of Korean military wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bocheol

    2010-01-01

    Native Korean women frequently suffer poverty, sexual violence, and Confucian gender discrimination. Once in America Korean military wives also experience racial and sexual oppression, intercultural familial conflicts and violence, and identity crisis and lead to feelings of isolation and non-belonging, a sense of anomie. Korean American pastors tend to understate and oversimplify the complexity of psychological and spiritual suffering of Korean military wives and overemphasize individual faith development as a solution. Liberation psychology evolved from an awareness of similar dehumanizing realities. The context-based perspective of liberation psychology offers a model to interpret and assist in the psychological and spiritual healing of Korean military wives. The healing power of conscientization offered in Liberation psychology for oppressed individuals encourages self-awakening suggesting it as an ideal interventional model to help Korean military wives and would be a useful approach for Korean American pastors.

  13. Comparing the Ethnic Identity and Well-Being of Adopted Korean Americans with Immigrant/U.S.-Born Korean Americans and Korean International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard M; Yun, Andrea Bora; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Nelson, Kim Park

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the ethnic identity and well-being of Korean Americans who were adopted internationally with immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans and Korean international students, as well as the relationship between ethnic identity and well-being for each group. One-hundred and seven college students completed measures of ethnic identity and subjective well-being. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans had higher ethnic identity scores than the other two groups. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans also had higher positive affect scores than international students. Ethnic identity was positively correlated with positive affect for all three groups (r's = .27 - .34), but was negatively correlated with negative affect for international students (r = -.44). Overall, the results suggest that ethnic identity, although slightly lower than non-adopted peers, is relevant to the well-being of adopted Korean American college students.

  14. The timing of tooth eruption and root development of permanent canine and premolars in Korean children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Shin; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the timing and sequence of eruption of permanent canine and premolars, and to evaluate tooth calcification stage on emergence in Korean children. The sample was comprised of 1,266 children (male 720, female 546) aged from 7-13 years. Tooth eruption and calcification stages were determined through oral and panoramic radiographic examination, respectively. Probit analysis was used to calculate the timing of tooth eruption and tooth calcification stage from these cross-sectional data. In both males and females, eruption occurred around the time when one third of tooth root or more was formed. The sequence was as follows: first premolar, canine, and second premolar in maxilla, and canine, first premolar and second premolar in mandible. Tooth eruption occurred earlier in girls compared with boys, averaging 0.63 years. Eruption sequence is identical in males and females with a trend for females to erupt earlier than males. Tooth eruption becomes earlier over the past decades in Korean children.

  15. [Dentistry in Korean during the Japanese occupation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Eu

    2004-12-01

    The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893, and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in September, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians (yipchisa) without limit and controlled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed.) Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulations for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentists Suk-Tae Ham was register No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some Korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan, it was was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. It was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. The Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only) to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche' -- 'Japan and Korea and one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese controlled

  16. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  17. Construction and application of a Korean reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acids of human leukocyte antigen genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus are strongly associated with disease susceptibility and prognosis for many diseases, including many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we developed a Korean HLA reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acid residues of several HLA genes. An HLA reference panel has potential for use in identifying and fine-mapping disease associations with the MHC locus in East Asian populations, including Koreans. A total of 413 unrelated Korean subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the MHC locus and six HLA genes, including HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1. The HLA reference panel was constructed by phasing the 5,858 MHC SNPs, 233 classical HLA alleles, and 1,387 amino acid residue markers from 1,025 amino acid positions as binary variables. The imputation accuracy of the HLA reference panel was assessed by measuring concordance rates between imputed and genotyped alleles of the HLA genes from a subset of the study subjects and East Asian HapMap individuals. Average concordance rates were 95.6% and 91.1% at 2-digit and 4-digit allele resolutions, respectively. The imputation accuracy was minimally affected by SNP density of a test dataset for imputation. In conclusion, the Korean HLA reference panel we developed was highly suitable for imputing HLA alleles and amino acids from MHC SNPs in East Asians, including Koreans.

  18. Construction and application of a Korean reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acids of human leukocyte antigen genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangwoo Kim

    Full Text Available Genetic variations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC locus are strongly associated with disease susceptibility and prognosis for many diseases, including many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we developed a Korean HLA reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acid residues of several HLA genes. An HLA reference panel has potential for use in identifying and fine-mapping disease associations with the MHC locus in East Asian populations, including Koreans. A total of 413 unrelated Korean subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at the MHC locus and six HLA genes, including HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1. The HLA reference panel was constructed by phasing the 5,858 MHC SNPs, 233 classical HLA alleles, and 1,387 amino acid residue markers from 1,025 amino acid positions as binary variables. The imputation accuracy of the HLA reference panel was assessed by measuring concordance rates between imputed and genotyped alleles of the HLA genes from a subset of the study subjects and East Asian HapMap individuals. Average concordance rates were 95.6% and 91.1% at 2-digit and 4-digit allele resolutions, respectively. The imputation accuracy was minimally affected by SNP density of a test dataset for imputation. In conclusion, the Korean HLA reference panel we developed was highly suitable for imputing HLA alleles and amino acids from MHC SNPs in East Asians, including Koreans.

  19. Energy intake from commercially-prepared meals by food source in Korean adults: Analysis of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health promotion policies and programs. PMID:28386389

  20. The Acculturation of Parenting Cognitions: A Comparison of South Korean, Korean Immigrant, and European American Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Linda R.; Kwak, Keumjoo; Putnick, Diane L.; Chung, Hyun Jin; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    A three-culture comparison – native South Korean, Korean immigrants to the United States, and native European American mothers – of two types of parenting cognitions – attributions and self-perceptions – was undertaken to explore cultural contributions to parenting cognitions and their adaptability among immigrant mothers. Attributions and self-perceptions of parenting were chosen because they influence parenting behavior and children’s development and vary cross-culturally. One hundred seven...

  1. Threat, prejudice and stereotyping in the context of Japanese, North Korean, and South Korean intergroup relations.

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Chris; Abrams, Dominic; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.; Christian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Integrated threat theory, realistic conflict theory, and group justification (based on social\\ud identity theory) were evaluated in the international context of Japanese prejudice toward North\\ud Korea and South Korea. Military threat emerged as an important addition to the four threats\\ud outlined by integrated threat theory. Three perceived North Korean threats (realistic [domestic]\\ud threat; intergroup anxiety; military threat) predicted prejudice toward North Korea. North\\ud Korean preju...

  2. Small Screen, Big Tourism: The Role of Popular Korean Television Dramas in South Korean Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Philip; Kim, S.; Robinson, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines a popular cultural phenomenon originating in Korea which has assumed significance across Asia and beyond. This ‘Korean wave’ or Hallyu includes the circulation and consumption of Korean popular television dramas. An exploratory case study approach is presented to provide insights on the relationships between this phenomenon and patterns of tourism in Korea related to the wider concept of screen-tourism. The paper addresses the relative lack of attention to television progr...

  3. Development of discrimination SNP markers for Hanwoo (Korean native cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, H S; Kim, L H; Namgoong, S; Shin, H D

    2013-07-01

    In the Korean meat market, the native cattle, Hanwoo beef, are preferred over imported beef and domestic Holstein beef despite its relatively high price. In order to hold the beef industry accountable and support consumers' right to know, correct beef-origin labeling is required. For this purpose, we developed 90 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to discriminate between Hanwoo and other breeds including Holstein using 1602 cattle DNAs. The probability of discrimination was found to be 100% in a subsequent validation set consisting of 632 DNAs. Our study suggests that improved beef-origin discrimination can be achieved by using a combined genetic model that takes into account small genetic differences among a large number of markers. These markers could be useful for discriminating between Hanwoo and imported breeds including domestic Holsteins, and would contribute to the prevention of falsified beef origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The SIMS trial: adjustable anchored single-incision mini-slings versus standard tension-free midurethral slings in the surgical management of female stress urinary incontinence. A study protocol for a pragmatic, multicentre, non-inferiority randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed; MacLennan, Graeme; Kilonzo, Mary; Assassa, R Phil; McCormick, Kirsty; Davidson, Tracey; McDonald, Alison; N’Dow, James; Wardle, Judith; Norrie, John

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Single-incision mini-slings (SIMS) represent the third generation of midurethral slings. They have been developed with the aim of offering a true ambulatory procedure for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with reduced morbidity and earlier recovery while maintaining similar efficacy to standard midurethral slings (SMUS). The aim of this study is to determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adjustable anchored SIMS compared with tension-free SMUS in the surgical management of female SUI, with 3-year follow-up. Methods and analysis A pragmatic, multicentre, non-inferiority randomised controlled trial. Primary outcome measure The primary outcome measure is the patient-reported success rate measured by the Patient Global Impression of Improvement at 12 months. The primary economic outcome will be incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures The secondary outcomes measures include adverse events, objective success rates, impact on other lower urinary tract symptoms, health-related quality of life profile and sexual function, and reoperation rates for SUI. Secondary economic outcomes include National Health Service and patient primary and secondary care resource use and costs, incremental cost-effectiveness and incremental net benefit. Statistical analysis The statistical analysis of the primary outcome will be by intention-to-treat and also a per-protocol analysis. Results will be displayed as estimates and 95% CIs. CIs around observed differences will then be compared with the prespecified non-inferiority margin. Secondary outcomes will be analysed similarly. Ethics and dissemination The North of Scotland Research Ethics Committee has approved this study (13/NS/0143). The dissemination plans include HTA monograph, presentation at international scientific meetings and publications in high-impact, open-access journals. The results will be included in the updates of the National

  5. The Acculturation of Parenting Cognitions: A Comparison of South Korean, Korean Immigrant, and European American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Linda R; Kwak, Keumjoo; Putnick, Diane L; Chung, Hyun Jin; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-10-01

    A three-culture comparison - native South Korean, Korean immigrants to the United States, and native European American mothers - of two types of parenting cognitions - attributions and self-perceptions - was undertaken to explore cultural contributions to parenting cognitions and their adaptability among immigrant mothers. Attributions and self-perceptions of parenting were chosen because they influence parenting behavior and children's development and vary cross-culturally. One hundred seventy-nine mothers of 20-month-old children participated: 73 South Korean, 50 Korean immigrant, and 56 European American. Korean mothers differed from European American mothers on four of the five types of attributions studied and on all four self-perceptions of parenting, and these differences were largely consistent with the distinct cultural values of South Korea and the United States. Generally, Korean immigrant mothers' attributions for parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in the United States, whereas their self-perceptions of parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in South Korea. This study provides insight into similarities and differences in cultural models of parenting, and information about the acculturation of parenting cognitions among immigrants from South Korea.

  6. Differences in depressive symptoms between Korean and American outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms.

  7. Gambling problems and comorbidity with alcohol use disorders in Chinese-, Korean-, and White-American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Wall, Tamara L

    2016-04-01

    This study examined gambling behaviors and the relationship between gambling problems and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among Chinese-, Korean-, and White-American college students. Participants were 678 (179 Chinese, 194 Korean, and 305 White; 50% female) 21-26 year-old (M = 22.0 ± 1.36) students attending one university in California. The South Oaks Gambling Screen was administered to assess gambling behavior and the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism was administered to diagnose lifetime AUDs. Chi-squares and multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to test our hypotheses. Rates of lifetime ever gambling and weekly gambling were similar across the three ethnic groups, but participation in five types of gambling behavior differed. Chinese had the highest rates of gambling problems followed by Koreans and then Whites. Univariate odds ratios determined being Chinese or Korean, being male, and having an AUD were risk factors for gambling problems. When stratified by gender and ethnicity, having an AUD was not related to gambling problems in women, but was strongly associated with gambling problems in Chinese and White men and modestly associated in Korean men. This was true despite low rates of AUDs in Chinese men. Gambling problems were strongly comorbid with AUDs in Chinese- and White-American men, and moderately comorbid in Korean-American men. No relationship of AUD with gambling problems was found in women. The results highlight the importance of assessing disaggregated Asian-American subgroups with respect to addictive behaviors and their comorbidity. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  9. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  10. Current Trends in Korean Adolescents’ Social Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jongho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the research presented we investigated the features of Korean adolescents’ social purpose as compared with other life goals in terms of different aspects of psychological well-being (study 1. We also examine the perceptions of high achieving Korean adolescents on social purpose and factors affecting it (study 2.The results of study 1 showed that the pursuit of social purpose significantly predicted psychological well-being compared to the other two life goals. Results of study 2 showed Korean adolescents value and pursue social purpose as a life goal. They explicitly accepted their social responsibility to serve their country in line with idyllic Confucianism values and Collectivistic roles. However, further analysis revealed that they had implicitly pursued individualistic desires of materialistic wealth and fame in parallel with their explicit social purpose. Implications of the results are discussed from the socio-cultural perspective on social purpose in regards to how to understand the features of social purpose that Korean adolescents have and how to foster its development.

  11. Japanese and South Korean Environmental Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Tonami, Aki

    to resources. Aki Tonami, researcher at the Nordic Institute for Asian Studies and Anders Riel Müller of the Danish Institute for International Studies seek to nuance the discussion and demystify Japanese and Korean environmental aid. Through a historical analysis of the historical trajectories...

  12. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  13. The affecting factors of breast anthropometry in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa Jin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Min-Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Breast anthropometric morphology affects various factors with diverse physiognomy, making accurate measurements very difficult. The aim of this study was to measure the female breast using anthropometry and to use this method on normal subjects to examine breast asymmetry and consider the influence of age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), parity, delivery mode, and breastfeeding in premenopausal Korean women. In total, 17 parameters of breast were measured with participants in a standing position. Breast volume was also assessed. The mean values of the right and left breast volumes were calculated as 386.0±342.5 mL and 393.3±347.2 mL, respectively. With aging, the height of women decreased, but the weight, BMI, upper chest, middle chest, lower chest, waist, and hip widths, nipple-nipple length, and ptosis increased with statistical significance. No asymmetric differences were observed between each breast, except for nipple-inframammary fold length in 20-30-year-old women and upper arm length in 41-50-year-old women. In our study, the breast volume increased with age as a result of weight gain, but the delivery mode and breastfeeding did not affect anthropometric breast measurements. In conclusion, age, weight, and BMI are important factors in determining breast anthropometry in our study. The results of the present study will help in the comparison of the anthropometric breast values of Korean women with those of women in other countries and may also be useful in the understanding of breast physiologic change-related obstetrical factors and epidemiologic factors.

  14. CT quantification of lung and airways in normal Korean subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Soo; Lee, Jeong Eun; Shin, Hye Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Gong Yong; Li, Yuan Zhe [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To measure and compare the quantitative parameters of the lungs and airways in Korean never-smokers and current or former smokers (“ever-smokers”). Never-smokers (n = 119) and ever-smokers (n = 45) who had normal spirometry and visually normal chest computed tomography (CT) results were retrospectively enrolled in this study. For quantitative CT analyses, the low attenuation area (LAA) of LAA{sub I-950}, LAA{sub E-856}, CT attenuation value at the 15th percentile, mean lung attenuation (MLA), bronchial wall thickness of inner perimeter of a 10 mm diameter airway (Pi10), total lung capacity (TLC{sub CT}), and functional residual capacity (FRC{sub CT}) were calculated based on inspiratory and expiratory CT images. To compare the results between groups according to age, sex, and smoking history, independent t test, one way ANOVA, correlation test, and simple and multiple regression analyses were performed. The values of attenuation parameters and volume on inspiratory and expiratory quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were significantly different between males and females (p < 0.001). The MLA and the 15th percentile value on inspiratory QCT were significantly lower in the ever-smoker group than in the never-smoker group (p < 0.05). On expiratory QCT, all lung attenuation parameters were significantly different according to the age range (p < 0.05). Pi10 in ever-smokers was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (r = −0.455, p = 0.003). In simple and multivariate regression analyses, TLC{sub CT}, FRC{sub CT}, and age showed significant associations with lung attenuation (p < 0.05), and only TLC{sub CT} was significantly associated with inspiratory Pi10. In Korean subjects with normal spirometry and visually normal chest CT, there may be significant differences in QCT parameters according to sex, age, and smoking history.

  15. CT quantification of lung and airways in normal Korean subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Soo; Lee, Jeong Eun; Shin, Hye Soo; Jin, Gong Yong; Li, Yuan Zhe

    2017-01-01

    To measure and compare the quantitative parameters of the lungs and airways in Korean never-smokers and current or former smokers (“ever-smokers”). Never-smokers (n = 119) and ever-smokers (n = 45) who had normal spirometry and visually normal chest computed tomography (CT) results were retrospectively enrolled in this study. For quantitative CT analyses, the low attenuation area (LAA) of LAA I-950 , LAA E-856 , CT attenuation value at the 15th percentile, mean lung attenuation (MLA), bronchial wall thickness of inner perimeter of a 10 mm diameter airway (Pi10), total lung capacity (TLC CT ), and functional residual capacity (FRC CT ) were calculated based on inspiratory and expiratory CT images. To compare the results between groups according to age, sex, and smoking history, independent t test, one way ANOVA, correlation test, and simple and multiple regression analyses were performed. The values of attenuation parameters and volume on inspiratory and expiratory quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were significantly different between males and females (p < 0.001). The MLA and the 15th percentile value on inspiratory QCT were significantly lower in the ever-smoker group than in the never-smoker group (p < 0.05). On expiratory QCT, all lung attenuation parameters were significantly different according to the age range (p < 0.05). Pi10 in ever-smokers was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (r = −0.455, p = 0.003). In simple and multivariate regression analyses, TLC CT , FRC CT , and age showed significant associations with lung attenuation (p < 0.05), and only TLC CT was significantly associated with inspiratory Pi10. In Korean subjects with normal spirometry and visually normal chest CT, there may be significant differences in QCT parameters according to sex, age, and smoking history

  16. A lateral cephalometric study of pharyngeal cavity in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rae

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the size of pharyngeal cavity and sexual differences between Korean adult mal e and female by introducing linear analysis of the lateral cephalogram. The radiograms were composed of 46 adult male aged 24.64 and 52 adult female aged 22.74 respectively. In order to study and measure the pharyngeal area, the following skeletal landmarks were selected: S,N,A,Ptm, B,H,H', M ,S-N, FH and CV, and the angle CV-FH was measured to provide a factor for correction of error resulting from improper he ad positioning of subjects, especially in the relative positions of A and H, while radiography. All points to be measured were projected at right angles to the Frankfort plane. For the purpose of measuring the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngeal cavity the distances were measured in A-Ptm, A-S, S-Ptm and CV-H, and vertical measurements were made in SN-A, SN-PNS, SN-H' and M-H. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The pharyngeal cavity is broader in the vertical than in the anteroposterior diameter in both sex and the maximum sexual differences were showed in the distances between SN and H', and minimal sexual differences in the distances between S and Ptm. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngea l cavity, but the distances between A and S, between CV and H showed significant sexual differences when evaluated statistically. 3. All of the measurements were larger in male than in female in vertical dimensions of pharyngeal cavity, and there were statistical significances of sexual differences in all variables.

  17. A Roentgenocephalometric Study for the Acceptable Profile in Korean Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, You Dong; Lee, Sang Rae

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to analyze the hard and soft tissue profile and comparison of the both sexes in Korean adults using roentgenocephalometry. The subjects were 122 males and 116 females from 18 to 22 years of age selected on the basis of their excellent occlusion and harmonious profile. It was an investigation about the interrelationships in the angles which consisted of Frankfort horizontal plane (FH plane), Sella Nasion plane (SN plane), Nasal floor plane (NF plane) and Mandibular plane (Md plane) as reference planes, and of the axial inclinations of the upper anterior tooth to Nasal floor plane (NF Plane) and of the lower anterior tooth to Mandibular plane (Md Plane). Among the 14 categories established on the soft tissue landmarks, the 6 categories were studied for the relationship to Frankfort horizontal plane (FH Plane), and the 8 categories were studied for the soft tissue contour. The results were as follows: 1. Among 8 measured angles in the hard tissue, the angle of FH-Md, NF-Md and N-Md were greater in females than in males. 2. The axial inclinations of the anterior teeth to NF Plane and Md plane were slightly greater in males than in females. 3. Among 14 measured angles in the soft tissue, the angles of G-Sn-P and E-Pog-Sn were greater in males, and FH-G-Sn, G·Sn-Sn·Pog and Pog-Sn-P were greater in females. 4. In males, the variability of measured values in both lips region were high.

  18. Self-Concept and Coping Skills of Female Early Adolescents in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyung Mi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies and self-concept of Korean female early adolescents. These adolescents (n = 351) were enrolled in a middle school in Seoul. The subjects completed the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale and Coping Responses Inventory questionnaires. The subjects exhibited the greatest…

  19. Characteristics of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission Occurring in Korean Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng is the most popular herb for medical purpose in Korea. Recently, viral diseases from Korean ginseng showing various degrees of severe mottling, variegation and mosaic symptoms have caused quantity losses of Korean ginseng in a large number of farms. Watermelon mosaic virus (named WMVgin was identified as a causal agent for the disease of Korean ginseng. Interestingly, WMV-gin failed to infect both Korean ginseng plant and susceptible host species including cucurbitaceous plants by mechanical inoculation. However, WMV-gin could successfully infect Korean ginseng by transmission of two aphid species (Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. It is likely that transmission of WMV-gin was done by both the aphid species during feeding behavior of the two aphid species on Korean ginseng, though the aphids dislike feeding in Korea ginseng. Similarly, a strain of WMV (WMV-wm isolated from watermelon was transmitted successfully to Korean ginseng plant by the two aphid species, but not by mechanical inoculations. Transmission assays using M. persicae and A. gossypii clearly showed both WMV-gin and WMV-wm were not transmitted from infected Korean ginseng plant to cucurbit species that are good host species for WMV. These results suggest WMV disease occurring in Korean ginseng plant can be controlled by ecological approaches.

  20. Normal weight obesity in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Song, Ki-Ho; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong-Moon

    2014-02-01

    A better way to define obesity is in terms of the percentage of body fat (BF). Subjects with normal weight, but excess BF are vulnerable to cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of subjects having normal weight obesity (NWO) using optimal cut-offs of the BF percentage reflecting risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean adults. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the Korean population conducted in 2009-2010. We surveyed 5313 men and 6904 women aged 20 years or older. We investigated the relations between the BF percentage (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and obesity-related risk factors for CVD (diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia) in Korean adults. NWO was defined as the combination of a normal body mass index (BMI; 18·5-22·9 kg/m(2) in Asian subjects) and BF percentages above the determined cut-off values. There were strong and graded associations of increasing BF percentages with the prevalence of CVD risk factors. The first cut-off values (defined as being overweight) in men and women were 20·6% and 33·4% BF, respectively, and the second cut-off values (defined as obesity) were 25·7% and 36·0% BF. Thirty-two per cent of normal weight adults had BF percentages greater than or equal to the overweight or obesity cut-offs (NWO). Subjects with NWO had a lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass, a more atherogenic lipid profile and greater insulin resistance. Obesity can be defined as 26% BF or greater in Korean men and 36% BF or greater in Korean women. There was a high prevalence of clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities among subjects with NWO. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks increases the risk of hyperuricemia in Korean population: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jisuk; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Park, Pil Sook; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2014-04-01

    The clinical implication of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on the risk of hyperuricemia has increased, especially in Western population studies. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks made from oranges and apples and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. A total of 9400 subjects were enrolled in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study, and a cross-sectional analysis was performed. Five quintiles (Q1-Q5) according to consumption of soft drinks and other fruit/fruit juices were classified and then categorized into three groups (Q1-Q3, Q4, and Q5) to assess the risk of hyperuricemia. Information on dietary intake was collected by well-trained interviewers using validated food frequency questionnaires. Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (Q5) increased the risk of hyperuricemia in males (adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.71) with a linear trend (p for trend = 0.01) and in females (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03-1.90) with no linear trend (p for trend = 0.09), compared to lower consumption (Q1-Q3). However, there were no significant differences of serum uric acid level according to the three categories of soft drink consumption, Q1-Q3, Q3, and Q5, in males (p = 0.21) or in females (p = 0.16), whereas all subjects showed statistical significance of serum uric acid level within the categories (p Korean population, showing a differential linear trend for hyperuricemia according to gender. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. (un)Recognized Discrimination: : A Study of Sexual Harassment and the Disparity between Law and Practice in the South Korean Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Tho, Ragnhild Finne

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the last four decades, the active participation of South Korean women in the country’s economy has increased steadily. This has been followed by the enactment of several legal acts aimed to protect female workers from discrimination at the workplace. As this study will show, there exists a great disparity between the level of legal protection against sexual harassment and the actual practice of it in the workplace. While approximately 50 to 80 percent of female workers are...

  3. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression in Korean American Elderly: Findings from the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyong T; Kim, Kim B; Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Nguyen, Tam; Lee, Hochang B

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence and identify the predictors of depression among community-dwelling Korean American elderly (KAE). A cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey using a two-step sampling strategy to obtain a representative community sample. The authors recruited study participants at religious, service, and business establishments in the KA community (26 churches, 6 senior centers, 2 medical daycare centers, 1 supermarket). Community-dwelling first-generation KAE (N = 1,118; mean age ± SD: 70.5 ± 7.0 years; female: 67.2%). Trained bilingual nurses and community health workers interviewed participants face-to-face for demographic information, chronic conditions, and depression using the Korean versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9K). 30.3% of KAEs were classified as having either mild (PHQ-9K score 5-9; N = 218, 19.5%) or clinical depression (PHQ-9K score ≥10; N = 120, 10.8%), respectively. One of seven KAE (N = 164, 14.7%) endorsed thoughts of death or self-injury, but only 63 (5.7%) reported utilizing mental health services. The authors also identified several predictors of depression, including living arrangement (living alone versus living with family/spouse); having chronic conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, digestive disorders, or chronic bronchitis; years of education; and cognitive impairment. The authors' findings reveal a high prevalence of depression among KAE and a low level of mental health service utilization. Because there are urgent needs for culturally and contextually relevant interventions, the authors also discuss the feasibility of community-based interventions to reduce the burden of depression, which should be incorporated into a management system for multiple chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (pdietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (pdietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi. PMID:24471093

  5. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-12-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (pdietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (pdietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi.

  6. A study of the normal interpedicular distance of the spine in Korean teenagers (Estimation of normal range by roentgenographic measurement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Uk

    1979-01-01

    The radiological measurement of the interpedicular disease using a routine antero-posterior view of the spine gives important clinical criteria in evaluation of the intraspinal tumor and stenosis of the spinal canal, and aids for diagnosis of the lesions. In 1934 Elsberg and Dyke reported values of interpedicular distance as determined on roentgenograms for spine of white adult, and in 1968 Song prepared normal values of interpedicular distance for Korean adult. The present investigation was undertaken to provide normal interpedicular distance of Korean teenagers. The author observed the antero-posterior films of the spine of 200 normal teenagers which were composed of 100 male and 100 female. The normal values of the interpedicular distance of Korean teenagers were obtained, as well as 90% tolerance range for clinical use. In this statistical analysis, there were noted significant differences between male and female, and each age groups. It was observed that average male measurement were consistently larger than female by about 1 mm and the growth of the spinal canal appeared to be continued.

  7. Clinical implications of age and sex in the prevalence of periodontitis in Korean adults with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungdo; Park, Jun-Beom

    2018-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the risk factors for periodontitis in Korean adults with diabetes. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the Korean population, conducted between January 2012 and December 2014 were used in the investigation. The presence of periodontitis in participants with diabetes in association with demographic variables and the anthropometric characteristics of the participants was investigated. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between periodontitis and age, sex, diabetic control and duration of diabetes, following adjustment for confounding factors. The odds ratio of periodontitis was higher in individuals ≥65 years old compared with individuals periodontitis was significantly higher in males compared with females (1.774). The number of patients with moderate and severe periodontitis differed significantly between different age groups. The present study revealed that age, sex and oral health behavior are risk indicators for periodontitis in patients with diabetes. The present study suggests that that an increased age, being male and engaging in poor oral health behavior increases the risk of periodontitis in participants with diabetes. PMID:29556264

  8. Morphometric Evaluation of Korean Femurs by Geometric Computation: Comparisons of the Sex and the Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Jung Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured 28 parameters of 202 femurs from Koreans by an automated geometric computation program using 3D models generated from computed tomography images. The measurement parameters were selected with reference to physical and forensic anthropology studies as well as orthopedic implant design studies. All measurements were calculated using 3D reconstructions on a computer using scientific computation language. We also analyzed sex and population differences by comparison with data from previous studies. Most parameters were larger in males than in females. The height, head diameter, head center offset, and chord length of the diaphysis, most parameters in the distal femur, and the isthmic width of the medullary canal were smaller in Koreans than in other populations. However, the neck-shaft angle, subtense, and width of the intercondylar notch in the distal femur were larger than those in other populations. The results of this study will be useful as a reference for physical and forensic anthropology as well as the design of medical devices suitable for Koreans.

  9. Refractive errors in a rural Korean adult population: the Namil Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Y C; Kim, J M; Park, K H; Kim, C Y; Kim, T-W

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of refractive errors, including myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia, in rural adult Koreans. Methods We identified 2027 residents aged 40 years or older in Namil-myeon, a rural town in central South Korea. Of 1928 eligible residents, 1532 subjects (79.5%) participated. Each subject underwent screening examinations including autorefractometry, corneal curvature measurement, and best-corrected visual acuity. Results Data from 1215 phakic right eyes were analyzed. The prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent (SE) +0.5 D) was 41.8% (95% CI: 38.9−44.4%), of astigmatism (cylinder 1.0 D) was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.9−15.8%). Myopia prevalence decreased with age and tended to transition into hyperopia with age up to 60−69 years. In subjects older than this, the trend in SE refractive errors reversed with age. The prevalence of astigmatism and anisometropia increased consistently with age. The refractive status was not significantly different between males and females. Conclusions The prevalence of myopia and hyperopia in rural adult Koreans was similar to that of rural Chinese. The prevalence of high myopia was lower in this Korean sample than in other East Asian populations, and astigmatism was the most frequently occurring refractive error. PMID:24037232

  10. Reliability and Validity of Korean Version of Apraxia Screen of TULIA (K-AST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Yang, You-Na; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jin-Youn; Jeong, Eunhwa; Kim, Bo-Ram; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of Korean version of AST (K-AST) as a bedside screening test of apraxia in patients with stroke for early and reliable detection. AST was translated into Korean, and the translated version received authorization from the author of AST. The performances of K-AST in 26 patients (21 males, 5 females; mean age 65.42±17.31 years) with stroke (23 ischemic, 3 hemorrhagic) were videotaped. To test the reliability and validity of K-AST, the recorded performances were assessed by two physiatrists and two occupational therapists twice at a 1-week interval. The patient performances at admission in Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), self-care and transfer categories of Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and motor praxis area of Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment, the second edition (LOTCA-II) were also evaluated. Scores of motor praxis area of LOTCA-II was used to assess the validity of K-AST. Inter-rater reliabilities were 0.983 (papraxia.

  11. Correlation between depressive symptoms and subjective mastication ability and ability to pronunciation among Korean elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The present study examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective chewing and pronunciation ability in Korean seniors. Our goal is to provide the data required to develop appropriate oral health interventions programs for seniors. METHODS The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D is widely used depressive symptoms assessment. A Korean version was used for the 2009 Community Health Survey, which was consulted to extract the present study’s participants comprising 50,694 Korean seniors (males, 20,582; females, 30,112 aged ≥65 years. Those with a CES-D score ≥16 were rated ‘depressed.’ SAS version 9.3 was used for the data analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms increased as the participants socioeconomic status decreased, number of health issues increased, health behavior worsened, and chewing and pronunciation discomfort increased. Males with chewing difficulties were found to have 1.45 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29 to 1.63 greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without, while males with pronunciation discomfort were found to have 1.97 times greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without (95% CI, 1.76 to 2.20. Females with chewing difficulty were found to have 1.50 times (95% CI, 1.39 to 1.61 greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without, and females with pronunciation discomfort were found to have 1.55 times greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without (95% CI, 1.44 to 1.67. CONCLUSIONS Intervention programs designed to help with oral health management and alleviate depressive symptoms in seniors are urgently needed. As the prevalence of depressive symptoms may vary geographically, research examining potential variance at city, district, and town levels would be beneficial.

  12. THE IMAGE OF A WOMAN IN THE KOREAN DRAMA MY PRINCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Siswanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Korean dramas have been a favorite television program in many countries because they are commonly relaxing and cheerful and show in-fashion lifestyles. Presenting universal themes like love and family, K-dramas show deep yet subtle emotions. Many K-dramas focus on the female characters, allowing the story to be told from a female point of view, although that does not mean that the women are portrayed as powerful as or equal to their male counterparts. This paper analyzes My Princess (2011, a drama about Lee Seol, a college student, who is in fact the great-granddaughter of the Joseon Dynasty's last Emperor. She undergoes difficult changes in her life to fulfill her role as a princess. Yet, in the end she leaves her position as a princess to be with the man she loves. From a feminist perspective, the analysis is conducted to discover the image of a woman in the drama. In particular, the paper describes the image in connection with Yu’s ideas that while the female characters in Korean film are described as cheerful, confident, and proactive, as well as having more access to public areas and being more equal to men, they still fall into their “traditional roles as victims of the patriarchal order and comfort objects for men” (n.d. p. 267. The findings indicate that the woman is portrayed as a naïve, less sophisticated person who is weaker or less significant than man.

  13. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for the Diagnosis of Abdominal Obesity in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Sook Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females. We analyzed the data from two large cohorts using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the incidences of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarct, angina, coronary artery disease, and multiple metabolic risk factors as outcome variables. Optimal WC cutoff points for Koreans were 85 cm in males and 80 cm in females. However, considering the prevalence of abdominal obesity and the health costs for its prevention and management, 90 cm in males and 85 cm in females are probably more appropriate thresholds for abdominal obesity. These values may be modified once better research is performed through prospective studies using representative populations, common health outcomes, and proper analytical approaches.

  14. Present and future of Korean nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, K-H

    2014-01-01

    'Full text:' The Korean nuclear power industry has devoted itself to technological development and self-reliance over the last 30 years since Kori unit 1, the first nuclear power plant commenced its commercial operation in 1978. As a result of such efforts and accumulated experiences, the Korean nuclear power industry has developed the OPR 1000 and APR 1400 units and is almost completing the development of the APR+ as a 1,500MW class reactor with its own technologies of design and manufacturing. Also, the Korean nuclear power industry has been able to build a strong supply chain from engineering, manufacturing, construction, and fuel supply, to operation and maintenance. At present, Korea is operating 23 commercial power reactors with a total installed capacity of 20,716 MW, accounting for 25 percent of the installed capacity and one third of the nation's total electricity generation. Also, the share of nuclear power generation capacity will be 29 percent by 2035 in the Long Term Energy Development Plan and 43 GW of nuclear energy capacity will be needed. Thanks to nuclear power generation as an essential driving force, Korea has been able to supply cheap and stable electricity. However, amid the growing public concerns about nuclear safety after the Fukushima accident, the Korean government and related organizations are exerting its utmost effort in all areas, for example, enhancing nuclear safety and safety culture, carrying out management innovation, and communicating with the public in order to enhance transparency. Also, the Korean government launched the Public Engagement Commission on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management in 2013, which is tasked to initiate public consultation & discussion and submit recommendation to government after in-depth review and analysis on SNF management options by the end of 2014. Nuclear power has become very essential part of national economy in Korea because Korea has virtually no indigenous energy resources and relies on

  15. Gender Differences in Sleep Disturbance among Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Shan-Ai; Li, Yong-Chun; Li, Wen-Jie; Li, Yan; Jeong, Jin-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an important component in our lives as it is necessary throughout one?s entire life span. This study was conducted to elucidate whether there are gender differences in sleep quality and what factors can affect sleep quality in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. A total of 382 subjects (175 males and 207 females) were recruited among elderly aged 45 or over who participated in the 2010 Hallym Aging Study (HAS). They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioecono...

  16. Domestic violence and South Korean women: the cultural context and alternative experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bitna; Titterington, Victoria B; Kim, Yeonghee; Wells, William

    2010-01-01

    The present research contributes to the growing body of cross-cultural research on domestic violence. This is accomplished by answering the question of how severity of intimate partner abuse varies for (1) women incarcerated for the homicides of their male partners (2) abused women who sought domestic violence shelter, short of killing their intimate assailants, and (3) a group of South Korean females outside of domestic violence shelters or prison. The article concludes with a discussion of potential policy implications of the findings as well as promising directions for future research.

  17. Molecular Analysis of HLA Class ll-Associated Susceptibility to Neuroinflammatory Diseases in Korean Children

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Hyun Hee; Kwon, Soon Hak; Kim, Chang Woo; Choe, Byung Ho; Ko, Cheol Woo; Jung, Hee Du; Suh, Jang Soo; Lee, Jun Hwa

    2004-01-01

    The work was done to study immunogenetic peculiarities of neuroinflammatory diseases among Korean children. A total of 13 children with neuroinflammatory diseases (8 males and 5 females; mean age 4.6?2.6 yr) were consecutively recruited. Genomic typing was performed on their HLA DRB/HLA DQB genes using PCR-SSOP/SSP techniques with gel immunoelectrophoresis. The frequencies of HLA-DR1*15 in children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (31%) and DQB1*06 in other neuroinflammatory d...

  18. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Jeong A; Na, Jin Oh; Yang, Dong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology. PMID:25469139

  19. 2014 Korean guidelines for appropriate utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: A joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yeon Yee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Choi, Eui Young

    2015-01-01

    The use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is increasing for the assessment of certain cardiovascular diseases, due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there has been no guideline for the use of CMR in Korean people. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates, and patients to improve the overall performances in medical system. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines, we hope to contribute to the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  20. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Jeong A; Na, Jin Oh; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Eui-Young

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

  1. Comparisons between Japanese and Korean Learners of German

    OpenAIRE

    吉満, たか子

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on differences and similarities between Japanese and Korean learners of German at a summer course of the University of Hamburg. A survey was conducted with the intention of gaining insights into the profiles, motivation, and difficulties which Japanese and Koreans possess when learning German and language-learning strategies. A questionnaire was administered to 15 Japanese students and 14 Korean students who participated in the summer course held at the University of ...

  2. Siwonhan-mat: The third taste of Korean foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Ah Kang

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Siwonhan-mat is a unique sensation found in Korean food. Understanding siwonhan-mat is a key to learning about Korean food and its food culture. Therefore, this paper serves an important role in understanding Korean food. Siwonhan-mat is often mistranslated using words to describe temperature, such as cool. This misinterpretation has resulted in confusion over the original meaning of siwonhan-mat and contributed to the incorrect usage of the word.

  3. Language of the Heart: Korean Adoptee Identity and Disorientation

    OpenAIRE

    Sooja, John K.

    2017-01-01

    Language of the Heart explores Korean adoptee identity, adoptive family dynamics, mythologies of blood, and the negotiations of kinship and racial difference within transnational and transracial adoption criticism and popular texts. I argue for a Korean adoptee identity that does not condemn the adoptee to victimhood and inauthentic selfhood. The transnational and transracial adoption critical canon offers little agency or futurity for the Korean adoptee—often generously designated as the “mo...

  4. North Korean Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Korean diplomats.15 Counterfeiting of foreign currency is apparently a phenomenon that is not new to the government of North Korea . Seoul’s War... Korean National Intelligence Service (NIS) Report to the effect that North Korea forges and circulates U.S. $100 banknotes worth $15 million a year...Subsequent reports to the South Korean National Assembly in the same year and in 1999 are cited in the media as stating that North Korea operates

  5. South Korean historical drama : gender, nation and the heritage industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Yun Mi

    2011-01-01

    Electronic version excludes material for which permission has not been granted by the rights holder From the dynamic landscape of contemporary South Korean cinema, one trend that stands out is the palpable revival of the historical drama (known as the ‘sageuk’ in Korean). Since the early 2000s, expensive, visually striking, and successful costumed pieces have been showcased to the audience. Now rivalling the other mainstream genres such as gangster action, romantic comedy, and the Korean b...

  6. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  7. Rate of humidifier and humidifier disinfectant usage in Korean children: A nationwide epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jisun; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Eun; Choi, Yean Jung; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Jung Lym; Lee, Ye Jin; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2017-05-01

    In South Korea, a cluster of humidifier disinfectant-induced lung injury (HDLI) cases developed between 2006 and 2011. There are no existing reports regarding the rate of humidifier disinfectant (HD) usage in the general population of Korean children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of humidifier and HD usage in the general population of Korean children. This is a general population-based birth cohort multicenter study, Panel Study of Korean Children (PSKC) from 2008, a humidifier and HD-related questionnaire administered to 1577 subjects (809 male, 768 female) in 2015 (n=1577). The questionnaire consisted of four categories (humidifier usage, HD usage, exposure duration, and type of HD brands). A total of 75.6% (1192/1577) had used a humidifier, and the rate of HD usage was found to be 31.1% (409/1316). Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), used as a disinfectant, was found to have the highest usage rate (62.0%). HD was used for less than 3 months of the entire lifetime of most of the subjects. In conclusion, approximately 30% of young Korean children were exposed to HD. PHMG-containing HD was the most commonly used. These results suggest that a nationwide epidemiologic investigation is needed urgently, and children exposed to HD should be investigated regarding their status of lung injury, including a pulmonary function test. Moreover, a long-term follow-up period may be required to evaluate HD usage-associated lung injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The radiographic estimation of the kidney in normal Korean children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myung Gwon; Kim, Byung Soo

    1983-01-01

    The radiographic measurement of the renal size and position provide important information of diseases of the kidney and the adjacent organs. The author analyzed the 213 cases of intravenous pyelography of normal Korean children from 0 to 18 years of age (135 males and 78 females) and measured the following points; the length of the kidney, the width of the kidney, the level of both hila, and the ratio of the kidney length to the total height of upper 4 lumbar vertebral bodies plus intervertebral discs. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Above 4 years of age, the annual increase rate of the kidney length was 0.31 cm, and that of the height of lumbar vertebrae was 0.44 cm in male and 0.55 cm in female; the height of lumbar vertebrae grew more rapidly than the kidney length. 2. The age group of the most rapid growth in the length and the width of the kidney was 16 to 18 years of age in male, and 13 to 15 years of age in female, and that of the most delayed growth was 4 to 6 years of age in both sexes. 3. The size of the left kidney was usually larger than that of the right. But, the right kidney was larger than the left in 20% of the cases. 4. The right hilum was usually lower than that of the left. In the 12% of the cases, however, the right hilum was higher in position than the left. 5. The width of the kidney in most children corresponded to the 45 to 60% of the kidney length. 6. The kidney size in age group between 16 and 18 years was within the range of that of normal adults. 7. The ratio of the kidney length to the height of upper 4 lumbar vertebral bodies plus intervertebral

  9. Vasomotor symptoms and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ki-Jin; Park, Hyun-Tae; Kim, Yong Jin; Yi, Kyong Wook; Shin, Jung Ho; Hur, Jun Young; Kim, Tak

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relationships between vasomotor symptoms (VMS), bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1390 postmenopausal Korean women aged 45-65 years who attended a routine health check-up at a single institution. Their results on the Menopause Rating Scale were used to assess VMS, and moderate, severe, and very severe VMS were combined into moderate-to-severe VMS. The relationships of VMS with BMD and osteoporosis in the lumbar spine and femoral neck bone were analyzed by multivariate regression analyses. The mean age of all participants was 54.63 ± 4.78 years. Four hundred seventy-one (33.9%) women reported mild VMS and 344 (24.7%) reported moderate-to-severe VMS. Osteoporosis was newly diagnosed in 156 (11.2%) women. BMD levels were not significantly different among the no/mild/moderate-to-severe VMS groups, despite the significant differences in the prevalence of osteoporosis in the femoral neck bone. Women with mild VMS and those with moderate-to-severe VMS had a lower BMD than women without VMS after adjustment for age, years since menopause, years of reproductive age, BMI, insulin resistance, smoking, alcohol, steroids use, exercise, previous fracture and parental history of hip fracture. And moderate-to-severe VMS was significantly associated with the risk of osteoporosis in the femoral neck bone (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.41-6.26) and in the lumbar spine (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.09-3.40). VMS are associated with decreased BMD, and moderate-to-severe VMS in particular are independently associated with the risk of osteoporosis in otherwise healthy postmenopausal Korean women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CHA2DS2-VASc Score (Congestive Heart Failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 [Doubled], Diabetes Mellitus, Prior Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack [Doubled], Vascular Disease, Age 65-74, Female) for Stroke in Asian Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Korean Nationwide Sample Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yang, Pil-Sung; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Kim, Jong-Youn; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-06-01

    The CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc stroke score (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 (doubled), diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (doubled), vascular disease, age 65-74, female) is used in most guidelines for risk stratification in atrial fibrillation (AF), but most data for this score have been derived in Western populations. Ethnic differences in stroke risk may be present. Our objective was to investigate risk factors for stroke in AF and application of the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score in an Asian AF population from Korea. A total of 5855 oral anticoagulant-naive nonvalvular AF patients aged ≥20 years were enrolled from Korea National Health Insurance Service Sample cohort from 2002 to 2008 and were followed up until December 2013. The incidence rates (per 100 person-years) of ischemic stroke were 3.32 in the total population, being 0.23 in low-risk (CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score 0 [male] or 1 [female]) and 4.59 in high-risk patients (CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc ≥2). Incidence rates of ischemic stroke or the composite thromboembolism end point showed a clear increase with increasing CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score. On multivariable analysis, significant associations between CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc risk factors and ischemic stroke were observed; however, the significance of vascular disease or diabetes mellitus was attenuated after multivariate adjustment, and female sex (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.84) had a lower risk of ischemic stroke than males. Patients who were categorized as low risk consistently had an event rate Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Two Golden Ages of Korean Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Y. Jeong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The two books by Steven Chung and Young-a Park that I discuss in this essay signal the growth of Korean studies by simply beginning in medias res. That is, unlike many books that came before them, they offer no lengthy exposition to set things up, to declare and justify the need for the study at hand. These new books also reflect the recent scholarly trend of reaching beyond the established area studies or Korean studies models to present studies that are interdisciplinary and transnational in scope. Park’s Unexpected Alliances is a narrative at once of South Korea’s transition to a (truly civil society, of its artistic struggle for independence and integrity, of the individual’s negotiations with the state, and of feminist awakenings in unlikely circumstances. Chung’s Split Screen Korea, which I will discuss first, is similarly expansive in scope...

  12. Strategy. North-Korean nuclear: endgame?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirandol, Guylain de

    2017-01-01

    As North Korea performed new ballistic missile tests in February 2017, and thus violated UN resolutions, this article proposes an overview of the evolutions from nuclear sanctions to economic sanctions. Initially, UN sanctions aimed at struggling against nuclear programmes and proliferation through embargo on arms and materials. After a nuclear test in 2016, South Korea withdrew from a North Korean industrial complex. International sanctions now aim at economically isolating North Korea, at increasing its trade deficit, and at reducing the sending of currencies by North-Korean expatriates. The author notices that these sanctions do not alter manufacturing activities, and that North Korea thus keeps on developing and being integrated into the international division of labour. The last part briefly discusses how North Korea could be able to get around sanctions

  13. Depression in non-Korean women residing in South Korea following marriage to Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the roles of acculturative stress, life satisfaction, and language literacy in depression in non-Korean women residing in South Korea following marriage to Korean men. A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire. A total of 173 women were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. The relation between acculturation, depression, language literacy, life satisfaction and socio-demographic variables and the predictors of depression among participants were analyzed. The analysis included descriptive statistics and hierarchical multiple regression. Of the participants, 9.2% had depression, which was almost twice the rate of depression found in the general Korean population. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, acculturative stress (beta=-.325, PKorea. Implications for practice and research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence estimation of leukemia among Koreans.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Y. O.; Koo, H. H.; Park, B. J.; Yoo, K. Y.; Lee, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of leukemia among Koreans. Medical records were studied of patients with diagnoses of either ICD-9 038 (septicemia), or 204-208 (leukemias), or 284 (aplastic anemia), or 289 (other diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs) in the claims sent in by medical care institutions throughout the country to the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC) during the period from January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1987. These records were abs...

  15. Incidence estimation of stomach cancer among Koreans.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Y. O.; Park, B. J.; Yoo, K. Y.; Kim, N. K.; Heo, D. S.; Lee, J. K.; Ahn, H. S.; Kang, D. H.; Kim, H.; Lee, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    A series of incidence estimation studies of cancers among Koreans through a nationwide survey has been undertaken by authors since 1988. The medical records were studied of inpatients with diagnoses of either ICD-9 151 (malignant neoplasm of the stomach), or 197 (secondary malignant neoplasm of the respiratory and digestive systems), or 211 (benign neoplasm of other parts of the digestive system) in claims sent in by medical care institutions throughout the country to the Korea Medical Insura...

  16. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Uk Chae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%. NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also.

  17. Disciplinary Images of “Korean-Ness”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Moon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to generate complicated conversations about identity and culture with an examination of various panoptic technologies, including separation, invisibility, control, and productivity. Drawn from Foucault’s panopticism, the author examines how discipline operates as a controlling power in several Korean institutions of schools, the seminary, and the military. This autobiographical self-reflexive research explores disciplinary images of “Korean-ness,” which has been discursively and materially constructed and embodied via panoptic technologies. These counter-narratives do not support for the advancement of the universalized version of the “Korean” identity. Rather, the author theorizes Korean identity as discursive practices in modern power structures, while dealing with the “political ‘double bind’” of (a individualization through instruments of discipline and (b the reinforcement of Confucian ideal of proper human relationships. This article provides educators with a lens to examine the ways in which disciplinary power/knowledge operates to control students’ ways of thinking, behaving, and living, in relation to “self,” “others,” and institutions. By opening possibilities to examine cultural identity beyond discovering “true” self, the author emphasizes the analyses of power in its examination of cultural sameness/difference in multicultural curriculum studies.

  18. Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Population genetic structure and natural selection of apical membrane antigen-1 in Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jinyoung; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ju, Hye-Lim; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2015-11-16

    Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) is a leading candidate antigen for blood stage malaria vaccine. However, antigenic variation is a major obstacle in the development of an effective vaccine based on this antigen. In this study, the genetic structure and the effect of natural selection of PvAMA-1 among Korean P. vivax isolates were analysed. Blood samples were collected from 66 Korean patients with vivax malaria. The entire PvAMA-1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a TA cloning vector. The PvAMA-1 sequence of each isolate was sequenced and the polymorphic characteristics and effect of natural selection were analysed using the DNASTAR, MEGA4, and DnaSP programs. Thirty haplotypes of PvAMA-1, which were further classified into seven different clusters, were identified in the 66 Korean P. vivax isolates. Domain II was highly conserved among the sequences, but substantial nucleotide diversity was observed in domains I and III. The difference between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggested that the gene has evolved under natural selection. No strong evidence indicating balancing or positive selection on PvAMA-1 was identified. Recombination may also play a role in the resulting genetic diversity of PvAMA-1. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of nucleotide diversity across the entire PvAMA-1 gene using a single population sample from Korea. Korean PvAMA-1 had limited genetic diversity compared to PvAMA-1 in global isolates. The overall pattern of genetic polymorphism of Korean PvAMA-1 differed from other global isolates and novel amino acid changes were also identified in Korean PvAMA-1. Evidences for natural selection and recombination event were observed, which is likely to play an important role in generating genetic diversity across the PvAMA-1. These results provide useful information for the understanding the population structure of P. vivax circulating in Korea and have important

  20. Language-specific dysgraphia in Korean stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Hye; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, HyangHee

    2010-12-01

    We investigated how changes in the writing of 14 Korean stroke patients reflect the unique features of the Korean writing system. The Korean writing system, Han-geul, has both linguistic and visuospatial/constructive characteristics. In the visuospatial construction of a syllable, the component consonant(s) and vowel(s) must be arranged from top-to-bottom and/or left-to-right within the form of a square. This syllabic organization, unique to Korean writing, may distinguish dysgraphia in Korean patients from the disorder in other languages, and reveal the effects of stroke on visuospatial/constructive abilities. We compared 2 groups of patients affected by stroke, 1 group with left hemisphere (LH) lesions and the other with right hemisphere (RH) lesions. We instructed them to write from a dictation of 90 monosyllabic stimuli, each presented with a real word cue. Patients had to repeat a target syllable and a word cue, and then to write the target syllable only. Patients with LH and RH lesions produced qualitatively different error patterns. While the LH lesion group produced primarily linguistic errors, visuospatial/constructive errors predominated in the group with RH lesions. With regard to language-specific features, these Korean patients with RH lesions produced diverse visuospatial/constructive errors not commonly observed in dysgraphia of the English language. Language-specific writing errors by Korean stroke patients reflect the unique characteristics of Korean writing, which include the arrangement of strokes and graphemes within a square syllabic form by dimensional and spatial rules. These findings support the notion that the Korean writing system possesses a language-specific nature with both linguistic and visuospatial/constructive processes. Distinctive patterns of dysgraphia in the Korean language also suggest interactivity between linguistic and visuospatial/constructive levels of processing. This study is noteworthy for its systematic description of

  1. Stress and premenstrual symptoms among Korean women studying in the U.S. and South Korea: A longitudinal web-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yaelim; Im, Eun-Ok

    2017-07-01

    Premenstrual symptoms have been reported to be highly correlated with levels of perceived stress; however, the magnitude of the relationship remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships among perceived stress, acculturative stress, and premenstrual symptoms. The study used a 10-week longitudinal web-based design. A total of 98 female Korean international students studying in the U.S. and 89 Korean domestic students studying in South Korea were recruited using convenience sampling. Data collection was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015. The participants completed 10 weekly web-based surveys. Data were analyzed through descriptive analyses, linear multivariable mixed model regressions, t-tests, and hierarchical multiple regressions. The levels of both perceived stress and menstrual-related symptoms were higher during the premenstrual phase in Korean international students than in domestic students (p Korean international students, perceived stress (β = 0.30; p Korean domestic students, a history of sexual abuse was the strongest related factor (β = -0.28; p < .001). Because stress is a potentially modifiable factor, understanding its relationship to premenstrual symptoms can contribute to relieving these symptoms.

  2. Cardiovascular disease risk factors associated with depression among Korean adults with coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Eun Sun

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the cardiovascular risk factors associated with depression among Korean adults with coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBVD). A total of 487 coronary artery disease and 434 cerebrovascular disease subjects from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed according to sex using multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of depression was 21.7% in those with CAD and 25.5% in those with CBVD. The associated risk factors for depression were female sex (odds ratio [OR] 15.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.44-102.03, P = 0.004), less education (OR 7.09 and 10.36, 95% CI, 1.24-40.75, 1.86-57.70 for an elementary and middle school education, respectively), and hypertension (OR 5.35; 95% CI, 1.48-19.40) in those with CAD and were female sex (OR 4.06, 95% CI, 1.12-14.76) and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.31, 95% CI, 1.36-8.05) in CBVD. These significant associations remained in males, but not in females in those with both CAD and CBVD. This study found the associations between hypertension and depression in those with CAD and diabetes mellitus and depression in those with CBVD in males, but not in females. Further studies are needed to explore the associated psychosocial factors of depression in those with different CAD kinds in females. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Clinical Experiences of Korean Medicine Treatment against Urinary Bladder Cancer in General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeyeol Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary bladder cancer (UBC is one of the most common cancers, with 1 out of every 26 men and 1 out of every 80 women worldwide developing the disease during their lifetime. Moreover, it is a disease that predominantly affects the elderly and is becoming a major health problem as the elderly population continues to rapidly increase. In spite of the rapid development of medical science, the 5-year survival rate has remained around 75% since the 1990s, and the FDA has approved no new drugs for UBC over the last 10 years. In addition, most patients experience frequent recurrence and poor quality of life after diagnosis. Therefore, in order to solve unmet needs by alternative methods, we present our clinical cases of UBC where we observed outstanding results including regression and recurrence prevention exclusively through Traditional Korean Medicine such as (1 herbal therapy, (2 acupuncture, (3 pharmacopuncture and needle-embedding therapy, (4 moxibustion, and (5 cupping therapy. From our experience, it appears that multimodal strategies for synergistic efficiency are more effective than single Korean Medicine treatment. We hope this will encourage investigation of the efficacy of Korean Medicine treatment in clinical trials for UBC patients.

  4. Social Cognitive Theory and Physical Activity Among Korean Male High-School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung Gun; Park, Seiyeong; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Ji-Won

    2018-02-01

    The most critical step in developing and implementing effective physical activity interventions is to understand the determinants and correlates of physical activity, and it is strongly suggested that such effort should be based on theories. The purpose of this study is to test the direct, indirect, and total effect of social cognitive theory constructs on physical activity among Korean male high-school students. Three-hundred and forty-one 10th-grade male students were recruited from a private single-sex high school located in Seoul, South Korea. Structural equation modeling was used to test the expected relationships among the latent variables. The proposed model accounted for 42% of the variance in physical activity. Self-efficacy had the strongest total effect on physical activity. Self-efficacy for being physically active was positively associated with physical activity ( p social cognitive theory is a useful framework to understand physical activity among Korean male adolescents. Physical activity interventions targeting Korean male high-school students should focus on the major sources of efficacy.

  5. An integrative taxonomy on the locally endangered species of the Korean Scarabaeus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taeman; Kim, Jin Ill; Yi, Dae-Am; Jeong, Jongchel; An, Seung Lak; Park, In Gyun; Park, Haechul

    2016-07-22

    The ball-rolling dung beetles of the genus Scarabaeus are very ecologically important for the recycling of feces of large herbivores and the related nature management. There has been a significant decline, however, in the numbers of many species at the population and individual levels. S. typhon is currently thought to be the sole member of Scarabaeus distributed in Korea; however, that species underwent serious local extinctions in the 1970s. Before planning a full-scale species recovery, it is important to have an understanding of the exact species diversity and genetic structures of the focal species. We therefore attempted an integrative taxonomy focused on the Korean population of S. typhon and also on S. pius and S. sacer, which were once thought to be distributed in Korea, using both morphological and molecular approaches. The results of both approaches reveal the Korean species of Scarabaeus to be S. typhon and S. pius. In particular, our molecular results inferred from cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genetic analysis show that S. typhon should be considered a single species despite having various haplotypes throughout its wide geographical range from Europe to Korea. We identified two distinct lineages of S. pius (groups A and B) across a wide distributional range. We conclude that the Korean specimens of S. pius belong to group A and that S. pius is new to Korea under the current taxonomic treatment.

  6. Risk Factors for Smartphone Addiction in Korean Adolescents: Smartphone Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Kim, Jun Won; Choi, Tae Young

    2017-10-01

    With widespread use of the smartphone, clinical evidence for smartphone addiction remains unclear. Against this background, we analyzed the effect of smartphone use patterns on smartphone addiction in Korean adolescents. A total of 370 middle school students participated. The severity of smartphone addiction was measured through clinical interviews and the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. As a result, 50 (13.5%) were in the smartphone addiction group and 320 (86.5%) were in the healthy group. To investigate the effect of smartphone use patterns on smartphone addiction, we performed self-report questionnaires that assessed the following items: smartphone functions mostly used, purpose of use, problematic use, and parental attitude regarding smartphone use. For smartphone functions mostly used, the addiction group showed significantly higher scores in "Online chat." For the purpose of use, the addiction group showed significantly higher "habitual use," "pleasure," "communication," "games," "stress relief," "ubiquitous trait," and "not to be left out." For problematic use, the addiction group showed significantly higher scores on "preoccupation," "tolerance," "lack of control," "withdrawal," "mood modification," "conflict," "lies," "excessive use," and "loss of interest." For parental attitude regarding children's smartphone use, the addiction group showed significantly higher scores in "parental punishment." Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that "female," "use for learning," "use for ubiquitous trait," "preoccupation," and "conflict" were significantly correlated with smartphone addiction. This study demonstrated that the risk factors for smartphone addiction were being female, preoccupation, conflict, and use for ubiquitous trait; the protective factor was use for learning. Future studies will be required to reveal the additional clinical evidence of the disease entity for smartphone addiction. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  7. [Sexual behavior and associated factors among Korean junior high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyuyoung; Song, Seunghun

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose was to identify the sexual behavior and associated factors of Korean junior high school students. Raw data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey were used. Among the data from 72,435 students, 36,530 junior high school students were analyzed. Complex sample frequency analysis and complex sample chi-square were used to identify the condition of sexual behavior, and complex sample logistic regression was used to examine the factors related to sexual behavior. Among the students, 3.8% responded that they had experienced sexual intercourse, and the prevalence of sexual intercourse was higher among male students (5.0%) compared to female students (2.5%). Among male students, those who had the following were more likely to have had sexual intercourse: perceived high economic status, living with a relative, experience with a partti-me job, a foreign father, experience with smoking and drinking during the past month, experience with drug use, and depression during the past 12 months. Among the female students who were more likely to have had sexual intercourse, the following were ascertained: higher grades, perceived high economic status, living with a relative or in childcare facilities, experience with a part-time job, a foreign father or mother, experience with smoking and drinking during the past month, and experience with drug use. The results suggest that it is important to develop a comprehensive approach program not only focused on sexual behavior but also including mental health or other health behaviors to effectively reduce the likelihood of sexual intercourse among Korean junior high school students.

  8. The influence of korean nurses' immigration into Germany on the nursing culture and policy of the countries: a transnational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Na Hye

    2013-04-01

    While many studies have addressed the Korean nurse immigration to Germany in 1960s-70s in terms of the nurses' personal histories from a national perspective, few studies have pointed to its transnational impact on the medical field. Given this gap, the paper discusses its significance in the medical history through examining the nursing culture and policy changes made in both countries initiated by the immigration of the qualified Korean nurses. For this end, the paper first discusses differences between Korea and Germany in the nursing culture and professional standards at the time of the nurse immigration. The study then examines the transnational changes in the two nations in the nursing professional culture and related policies including nurse education and qualification process. More specifically, the paper argues that the Korean female nurses not only supplied labor in need but also contributed to the medical policy changes in Germany. The prevalent stereotype of nursing as a non-professional field in the German society begin to change while experiencing professionally qualified Asian immigrant nurses and practiced treatments that had been conduced by German doctors by then. This observation actually leads to the policy level reforms in nursing education and qualification process to meet the need of high-quality nurses when the labor immigration was stopped in mid-1970s. The paper also points out that the influence of the nurse immigration on the Korean society is not merely economic; it brought the policy level reforms in nurse education and qualification as well. The immigration, resulting in a lack of nurses in the Korean society, triggered two main responses: the expansion of the existing nurse education system and the establishment of a new system called "nursing assistant."

  9. Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation by Employment Status among Korean Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, N.M.; Lee, J.E.; Bai, Y.; Achterberg, T. van; Hyun, T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the factors associated with initiation and continuation of breastfeeding among Korean women in relation to their employment status. METHODS: Data were collected using a web-based self-administered questionnaire from 1,031 Korean mothers living in

  10. Multivocal Post-Diasporic Selves: Entangled in Korean Dramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Julie

    2012-01-01

    I interrogate my personal diaries documenting my life in New York, Beijing, Tokyo, and Sydney over a 20-year period. Taking bearings from Bakhtinian thoughts, I explore the emergence of my post-diasporic identity as a second generation Korean American through watching South Korean dramas. By conversing with journals kept over a 20-year period, I…

  11. Korean and American Teachers' Praising Styles and Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jungsub

    2016-01-01

    Praising is a crucial part of teaching performance that greatly impacts student performance and self-esteem. South Korean teachers are traditionally known to possess authoritarian attributes, whereas U.S. teachers have contradictory beliefs in terms of why and how to use praise. We used Q methodology among 16 American and 22 Korean teachers to…

  12. Studies on Korean in Community Schools. Technical Report #22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Jae, Ed.; Cho, Sookeun, Ed.; Lee, Miseon, Ed.; Song, Min Sun, Ed.; O'Grady, William, Ed.

    The papers in this volume, all written in Korean, focus on language teaching and learning in Korean community schools. Drawing on innovative experimental work and research in linguistics, education, and psychology, the contributors address issues of importance to teachers, administrators, and parents. Topics covered include: childhood…

  13. Does siwonhan-mat represent delicious in Korean foods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Ja Jang

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Balancing kan is a determining factor of siwonhan-mat in Korean cuisine. Particularly, a strong association between siwonhan-mat and deliciousness was found in kuk and tang, suggesting the importance of siwonhan-mat in experiencing the best flavor in Korean food.

  14. The early Korean Protestant Churches' impact on Korea's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the significant influence of the early Korean Protestant churches in general and the Korean Presbyterian Church in particular on the early phases of Korea's democratisation. Firstly, the Western Protestant mission works in general were visibly conducive for dissemination and cultivation of egalitarian ...

  15. Challenges and opportunities for korean missionaries in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the history of missions in Korea as well as the challenges and opportunities for Korean missionaries in Southern Africa. The most signifi cant problems encountered by Korean missionaries include understanding local context, language and culture acquisition, and meeting the expectations of local ...

  16. Fermentation characteristics of Korean pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lactic acid bacterial strain showing fast growth and high acid production when cultured in Korean pear puree was isolated from Kimchi. This strain was analyzed by using the API 50 CHL kit and 16S rRNA sequencing and was thus identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides 51-3. Korean pear puree was fermented with the ...

  17. Cultural Validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Korean Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyojung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Ji Hee; Lee, Sang Min

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of the MBI-SS in Korean students. Specifically, we investigated whether the original three-factor structure of the MBI-SS was appropriate for use with Korean students. In addition, by running multi-group structural equation model analyses with factorial invariance tests simultaneously…

  18. Virtues and Well-Being of Korean Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Young; Lim, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although much emphasis has been paid to stress and burnout among special education teachers, little attention has been paid to their well-being. This study aimed to examine relations between virtues and well-being among Korean special education teachers. Virtues and well-being of 115 Korean special education teachers were assessed using the…

  19. Filial Piety and Intergenerational Relationship in Korean Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Chung; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines the changing nature of socioeconomic conditions for Korean immigrants which strain their intergenerational relationships in the United States. Contends as the family-kinship system of Korean immigrants changes toward conjugal family their traditional expectation of filial piety should be modified. Discusses problems in fulfilling…

  20. A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

  1. Written Corrective Feedback: The Perception of Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bohyon

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of Korean EFL learners toward feedback types on their written errors. The survey was administered using an adopted questionnaire from previous studies (Ishii 2011; Leki, 1991). This further allows a comparison of Korean EFL learners' attitudes with the responses to an identical questionnaire by Japanese EFL…

  2. Deconstruction of Cultural Dominance in Korean EFL Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Heejin

    2013-01-01

    This article examines patterns of cultural representations embedded in Korean EFL textbooks, using a content analysis to investigate how different cultures are reflected in textbooks and whether or not cultural biases are present. In the revised Korean national English curriculum that has been implemented since 2009, English is viewed as a…

  3. Fermentation characteristics of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... A lactic acid bacterial strain showing fast growth and high acid production when cultured in Korean pear puree was isolated from Kimchi. This strain was analyzed by using the API 50 CHL kit and 16S. rRNA sequencing and was thus identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides 51-3. Korean pear puree was.

  4. History and theology of Korean pentecostalism: Sunbogeum (pure gospel) Pentecostalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Ig-Jin

    2003-01-01

    The object of this study is to investigate the context and texture of Korean Pentecostalism - Sunbogeum (pure Gospel) Pentecostalism. This study shows that Sunbogeum Pentecostalism is the complex product of four factors: first, Korean religio-social circumstances; second, the doctrine of classical

  5. Japanese and Korean Kindergartners' Perspectives of Play Using Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-­Taylor, Satomi; Ro, Yeonsun; Han, Jihee; Ito, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine Japanese and Korean kindergarteners' perspectives by asking them to photograph play and explain why their photos represent play (photo elicitation interviews). The participants consisted of 50 kindergarteners on Japan's main island and 50 kindergarteners in South Korea. Japanese and Korean kindergartners…

  6. COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVITY OF KOREAN MANUFACTURING, 1967-1987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PILAT, D

    This paper compares productivity levels in South Korean manufacturing with those in the USA, for 13 manufacturing branches. The comparison is based on specific industry of origin purchasing power parities. Value added per hour worked in Korean manufacturing rose from only 4.5 percent of the US level

  7. Korean Gifted Education: Domain-Specific Developmental Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seokhee; Suh, Yewon

    2016-01-01

    The current Korean gifted education system is designed to help gifted children have a balance between excellence and emotional and social wellbeing. In this article, the current status of Korean gifted education is presented, reflecting on the history, purpose, theoretical foundation, infrastructure, and state of art of gifted education with…

  8. Korean Percussion Ensemble ("Samulnori") in the General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangmi; Yoo, Hyesoo

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces "samulnori" (Korean percussion ensemble), its cultural background, and instructional methods as parts of a classroom approach to teaching upper-level general music. We introduce five of eight sections from "youngnam nong-ak" (a style of samulnori) as a repertoire for teaching Korean percussion music to…

  9. Prevalence and Characteristics of Musculoskeletal Pain in Korean Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, David; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-Won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of musculoskeletal pain (MSK) pain in Korean farmers using initial survey data of Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related MSK pain (FARM) study. Farmers (534 females and 479 males; mean age 57.2±7.5 years) who owned or rented a farm and belonged to an agricultural cooperative unit were recruited. Presence of pain for each body part (neck, shoulder, arm/elbow, wrist/hand/finger, low back, leg/foot), and characteristics of MSK pain (prevalence, location, duration, severity, and frequency) during the last year was assessed. Additionally, demographic data such as farming duration, history of prior injury, and workload (low, moderate, somewhat hard, or hard) were collected using structured questionnaires. Almost all subjects (n=925; 91.3%) complained of pain in more than one body part. The frequency order was low back (63.8%), leg/foot (43.3%), shoulder (42.9%), wrist/hand/finger (26.6%), arm/elbow (25.3%), and neck (21.8%). Low back pain was more frequent in those with over 30 years of farming experience (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.81). MSK pain was related to history of prior injury (OR, 2.18-5.24; pfarmers experience MSK pain; furthermore, there is a significant association between pain, history of prior injury, and workload, suggestive of the necessity of coping and preventive strategies to reduce injury or workload.

  10. Addictive internet use among Korean adolescents: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S V; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    A psychological disorder called 'Internet addiction' has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13-18 year olds) from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level) nested within schools (2nd level) to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use.

  11. Addictive internet use among Korean adolescents: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Heo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A psychological disorder called 'Internet addiction' has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13-18 year olds from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level nested within schools (2nd level to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use.

  12. Positive-thinking and life satisfaction amongst Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Young; Oh, Youn Hee; Oh, Kang Seob; Suh, Dong Woo; Shin, Young Chul; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2007-06-30

    The present study examined the positive-thinking and life satisfaction of the general Korean population. In particular, we examined the role of positive-thinking on participants' life satisfaction. We conducted a telephone survey of 409 respondents (194 males, 215 females). The participants provided self-reports on their positive thinking, life satisfaction and demographic information. The results showed that age, education, occupation, and family income had an influence on positive- thinking as well as life satisfaction in Korea. Specifically, younger respondents and persons with high incomes or higher education degrees were more likely to have higher positive scores and thus higher life satisfaction scores. However, after controlling for the demographic variables, positive thinking significantly affected life satisfaction(R(2) Change=0.170, F= 88.56, p positive thinking may indeed play a significant role in life satisfaction. Therefore, positive thinking would offer important direction for the growth of life satisfaction and interventions aiming to remediate the effects of demographic variables on life satisfaction.

  13. Quantification of brain images using Korean standard templates and structural and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong

    2004-01-01

    Population based structural and functional maps of the brain provide effective tools for the analysis and interpretation of complex and individually variable brain data. Brain MRI and PET standard templates and statistical probabilistic maps based on image data of Korean normal volunteers have been developed and probabilistic maps based on cytoarchitectonic data have been introduced. A quantification method using these data was developed for the objective assessment of regional intensity in the brain images. Age, gender and ethnic specific anatomical and functional brain templates based on MR and PET images of Korean normal volunteers were developed. Korean structural probabilistic maps for 89 brain regions and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps for 13 Brodmann areas were transformed onto the standard templates. Brain FDG PET and SPGR MR images of normal volunteers were spatially normalized onto the template of each modality and gender. Regional uptake of radiotracers in PET and gray matter concentration in MR images were then quantified by averaging (or summing) regional intensities weighted using the probabilistic maps of brain regions. Regionally specific effects of aging on glucose metabolism in cingulate cortex were also examined. Quantification program could generate quantification results for single spatially normalized images per 20 seconds. Glucose metabolism change in cingulate gyrus was regionally specific: ratios of glucose metabolism in the rostral anterior cingulate vs. posterior cingulate and the caudal anterior cingulate vs. posterior cingulate were significantly decreased as the age increased. 'Rostral anterior' / 'posterior' was decreased by 3.1% per decade of age (p -11 , r=0.81) and 'caudal anterior' / 'posterior' was decreased by 1.7% (p -8 , r=0.72). Ethnic specific standard templates and probabilistic maps and quantification program developed in this study will be useful for the analysis of brain image of Korean people since the difference

  14. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  15. Polymorphic patterns of the merozoite surface protein-3β in Korean isolates of Plasmodium vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Ju, Hye-Lim; Cho, Pyo Yun; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2014-03-17

    The merozoite surface protein-3β of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP-3β) is one of the candidate antigens for blood stage malaria vaccine development. The polymorphisms in PvMSP-3β have been reported in certain P. vivax isolates. However, the diversity of PvMSP-3β throughout its global distribution has not been well understood. In this study, the genetic diversity and the effects of natural selection in PvMSP-3β among P. vivax Korean isolates were analysed. Blood samples were collected from 95 patients with vivax malaria in Korea. The region flanking full-length PvMSP-3β was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a TA cloning vector. The PvMSP-3β sequence of each isolate was determined and the polymorphic characteristics and effects of natural selection were analysed using the DNASTAR, MEGA4, and DnaSP programs. Five different subtypes of PvMSP-3β were identified based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, and deletions. Although a high level of sequence diversity was observed in the PvMSP-3β gene, the coiled-coil tertiary structure of the PvMSP-3β protein was well conserved in all of the sequences. The PvMSP-3β of Korean isolates is under natural selection. DNA polymerase slippage and intragenic recombination likely contributed to PvMSP-3β diversity in Korean P. vivax isolates. The PvMSP-3β of Korean P. vivax isolates displayed polymorphisms, with SNPs, insertions and deletions scattered throughout of the gene. These results of parasite heterogeneity are relevant to the development of a PvMSP-3β based vaccine against P. vivax and the implementation of malaria control programmes in Korea.

  16. Co-authorship patterns and networks of Korean radiation oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinhyun; Kang, Jin Oh; Park, Seo Hyun; Kim, Sang Ki

    2011-09-01

    This research aimed to analyze the patterns of co-authorship network among the Korean radiation oncologists and to identify attributing factors for the formation of networks. A total of 1,447 articles including contents of 'Radiation Oncology' and 'Therapeutic Radiology' were searched from the KoreaMed database. The co-authorship was assorted by the author's full name, affiliation and specialties. UCINET 6.0 was used to figure out the author's network centrality and the cluster analysis, and KeyPlayer 1.44 program was used to get a result of key player index. Sociogram was analyzed with the Netdraw 2.090. The statistical comparison was performed by a t-test and ANOVA using SPSS 16.0 with p-value articles written by a radiation oncologist as the first author was 1,025 out of 1,447. The pattern of co-authorship was classified into five groups. For articles of which the first author was a radiation oncologist, the number of single-author articles (type-A) was 81; single-institution articles (type-B) was 687; and multiple-author articles (type-C) was 257. For the articles which radiation oncologists participated in as a co-author, the number of single-institution articles (type-D) was 280 while multiple-institution articles (type-E) were 142. There were 8,895 authors from 1,366 co-authored articles, thus the average number of authors per article was 6.51. It was 5.73 for type-B, 6.44 for type-C, 7.90 for type-D, and 7.67 for type-E (p = 0.000) in the average number of authors per article. The number of authors for articles from the hospitals published more than 100 articles was 7.23 while form others was 5.94 (p = 0.005). Its number was 5.94 and 7.16 for the articles published before and after 2001 (p = 0.000). The articles written by a radiation oncologist as the first author had 5.92 authors while others for 7.82 (p = 0.025). Its number was 5.57 and 7.71 for the Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and others (p = 0.000), respectively

  17. Participation Patterns of Korean Adolescents in School-Based Career Exploration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Hill, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in the school-based career exploration activities of Korean high school students were examined. Data represented 5,227 Korean adolescents in Grade 11 contained in the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005, a nationally representative longitudinal database administered by the Korean Educational Development Institute. Latent class…

  18. Korean-English Dual Language Immersion: Perspectives of Students, Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Sook; Jeong, Eunsook

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of Korean-American students, parents and teachers in a newly instituted 50/50 Korean-English dual language immersion programme, where the majority of the students are of Korean descent. Based on home and school observations, as well as interviews with six Korean-American students and their parents…

  19. Teaching Korean Rhythms in Music Class through Improvisation, Composition, and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyesoo; Kang, Sangmi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the characteristics of Korean rhythmic patterns and provide effective ways to teach Korean rhythms based on the theoretical and pedagogical approaches derived from 5,000 years of Korean musical tradition. First, we have provided the fundamental principles of Korean rhythms that represent the culture from…

  20. "My Heart Beats in Two Places": Immigration Stories in Korean-American Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Joanne H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of immigration on Korean children through a content and literary analysis of 14 children's picture books. A majority of published children's literature dealing with the subject of Korean Americans or Korean immigration contains culturally specific themes common to the Korean immigration experience. These…

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factor of Neck Pain in Elderly Korean Community Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyeong Min; Cho, Nam H.; Lim, Seung Hun

    2013-01-01

    Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact. PMID:23678258

  2. Prevalence and changes in chronic diseases among South Korean farmers: 1998 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Eun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have suggested a unique pattern of disease among farmers in Western countries, but limited information is available about the magnitude of disease prevalence and their changes over time in Asian farmers. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and changes in chronic diseases among farmers with those of other occupational groups in South Korea. Methods Using data from three consecutive cross-sectional national surveys: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998 (n = 39,060, 2001 (n = 37,769, and 2005 (n = 34,145, we calculated age and gender-standardized prevalence of chronic diseases by the direct method and compared the prevalence changes from 1998 to 2005. Results Female farmers had significantly higher chronic disease prevalence than other occupational groups in all three surveys. Arthritis was the most prevalent chronic disease among farmers for both men and women. Compared with other populations, farmers demonstrated a higher prevalence of arthritis and intervertebral disc disorders. Farmers showed higher prevalence changes for intervertebral disc disorders than other occupational workers. Conclusion Our findings support that South Korean farmers have a distinct pattern of diseases prevalence from other populations. More detailed studies investigating the risk of musculoskeletal diseases and intensive intervention efforts to reduce the prevalence these diseases, particularly among female farmers, are required.

  3. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in a Community-Based Elderly Cohort: the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Mi Hyun; Lim, Jae-young

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia and evaluated the association of dysphagia and activities of daily living in a geriatric population residing in an independent-living facility in Korea. Korean men and women 65-yr and older living in a single, typical South Korean city (n=415) were enrolled in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging study. Dysphagia was assessed using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment. Data were collected on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), and medical history and laboratory. The overall prevalence of dysphagia in the random sample was 33.7% (95% CI, 29.1-38.4), including 39.5% in men and 28.4% in women. The identified risk factors for dysphagia were men (OR, 3.6, P=0.023), history of stroke (OR, 2.7, P=0.042) and presence of major depressive disorder (OR, 3.0, P=0.022). Dysphagia was associated with impairment in IADL domains of preparing meals and taking medicine (P=0.013 and P=0.007, respectively). This is the first published report of the prevalence of dysphagia in older community-dwelling Koreans. Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly people that limits some IADL domains. PMID:24133362

  4. Reactor Physics Experiments by Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly Program (KUGSiKUCA Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Unesaki, Hironobu; Ichihara, Chihiro; Shiroya, Seiji; Whang, Joo Ho; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The Reactor Laboratory Course for Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUGSiKUCA) program has been launched from 2003, as one of international collaboration programs of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI). This program was suggested by Department of Nuclear Engineering, College of Advanced Technology, Kyunghee University (KHU), and was adopted by Ministry of Science and Technology of Korean Government as one of among Nuclear Human Resources Education and Training Programs. On the basis of her suggestion for KURRI, memorandum for academic corporation and exchange between KHU and KURRI was concluded on July 2003. The program has been based on the background that it is extremely difficult for any single university in Korea to have her own research or training reactor. Up to this 2006, total number of 61 Korean under-graduate school students, who have majored in nuclear engineering of Kyunghee University, Hanyang University, Seoul National University, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Chosun University and Cheju National University in all over the Korea, has taken part in this program. In all the period, two professors and one teaching assistant on the Korean side led the students and helped their successful experiments, reports and discussions. Due to their effort, the program has succeeded in giving an effective and unique course, taking advantage of their collaboration

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis YJ11-1-4, a Strain with Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity, Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Chun, Byung-Hee; Jeon, Hye Hee; Kim, Yeon Bee; Lee, Se Hee

    2017-11-30

    Bacillus velezensis YJ11-1-4 is a strain that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against various pathogens. It was isolated from doenjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste. The genome comprises a single circular chromosome of 4,006,637 bp with 46.42% G+C content without plasmids. Copyright © 2017 Lee et al.

  6. The Influences of Immigration on Health Information Seeking Behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-01-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking behaviors.…

  7. A path analysis of stress and premenstrual symptoms in Korean international and Korean domestic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yaelim; Im, Eun-Ok

    2016-12-01

    To identify the relationships between perceived stress, acculturative stress and premenstrual symptoms, among other associated factors (e.g. depressive symptoms, coping self-efficacy, perceived social support) of premenstrual symptoms suggested in the literature by testing the conceptual framework of the 'Stress and Premenstrual Experience Model: Women in Cultural Transition'. Level of perceived stress has been cited as a major influencing factor for women's premenstrual symptoms; however, how these two elements are related, including possible mediators and moderators, remains unclear. A longitudinal causal-comparative web-based study design. Data collection occurred between November, 2014 - February, 2015. The convenience sampling method was used to recruit 98 Korean international students and 89 Korean domestic students. Weekly surveys were conducted for 10 weeks to capture women's levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress and premenstrual symptoms from two menstrual cycles. The survey data collected during the premenstrual phase was analysed using path analyses. The hypothesized pathways based on the conceptual model were partially supported in the study. Depressive symptoms were a partial mediator between perceived stress and premenstrual symptoms and between acculturative stress and symptoms in Korean international students. The perceived social support was a moderator between perceived stress and premenstrual symptoms in Korean domestic students. This study proposes a revised conceptual model that will contribute to the understanding of stress and premenstrual symptom severity in women in the acculturation process and concludes with suggestions and implications for future nursing practice and research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Being a Korean Studying Koreans in an American School: Reflections on Culture, Power, and Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Minjung

    2012-01-01

    Recent debates on situated knowledge highlight the issue of the researcher's position in the research process, challenging the traditional assumption of the insider/outsider dichotomy. Drawing on my fieldwork among Korean immigrant parents in an American school, I describe my shifting positions in negotiation and scrutinize the ways my reflexivity…

  9. "No One Speaks Korean at School!": Ideological Discourses on Languages in a Korean Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kwangok

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how a Korean family with temporary immigrant status in the United States employed ideological discourses on languages to make sense of their experiences. The parents initially accepted but later rejected ideologies on children's learning of English. English-as-a-legitimate-language ideology in the United States and…

  10. Gender equity and equality on Korean student scientists: A life history narrative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Changsoo

    Much research, including that by Koreans (e.g., Mo, 1999), agrees on two major points relating to the inequitable and unequal condition of women in the scientific community: (1) the fact that the under-representation of women in the scientific community has been taken for granted for years (e.g., Rathgeber, 1998), and (2) documenting women's lives has been largely excluded in women's studies (e.g., Sutton, 1998). The basis for the design of this study relates to the aforementioned observations. This study addresses two major research questions: how do social stereotypes exist in terms of gender equity and equality in the South Korean scientific and educational fields, and how do these stereotypes influence women and men's socializations, in terms of gender equity and equality, in the South Korean scientific and educational fields? To investigate the research questions, this qualitative study utilizes a life history narrative approach in examining various theoretical perspectives, such as critical theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. Through the participants' perceptions and experiences in the scientific community and in South Korean society, this study fords gendered stereotypes, practices, and socializations in school, family, and the scientific community. These findings demonstrate asymmetric gendered structures in South Korea. Moreover, with the comparison among male and female participants, this study shows how they perceive and experience differently in school, family, and the scientific community. This study attempts to understand the South Korean scientific community as represented by four student scientists through social structures. Education appears to function significantly as an hegemonic power in conveying legitimating ideologies. This process reproduces man-centered social structures, especially in the scientific community. This suggests that to emancipate women's under-representations in the scientific community, educational administrators

  11. Colorectal cancer beliefs, knowledge, and screening among Filipino, Hmong, and Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Mi T; Jeong, Matthew B; Nguyen, Vickie V; Sharp, Michael T; Yu, Edgar P; Yu, Filmer; Tong, Elisa K; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Cuaresma, Charlene F; Sy, Angela U; Tsoh, Janice Y; Gildengorin, Ginny L; Stewart, Susan L; Nguyen, Tung T

    2018-04-01

    To the authors' knowledge, there are few studies to date regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) beliefs, knowledge, and screening among multiple Asian American populations, who are reported to have lower CRC screening rates compared with white individuals. The current study was performed to assess knowledge and beliefs regarding the causes of CRC, its prevention, and factors associated with CRC screening among 3 Asian American groups. The authors conducted an in-language survey with Filipino (Honolulu, Hawaii), Hmong (Sacramento, California), and Korean (Los Angeles, California) Americans aged 50 to 75 years who were sampled through social networks. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with CRC screening. The sample of 981 participants was 78.3% female and 73.8% reported limited proficiency in English. Few of the participants were aware that age (17.7%) or family history (36.3%) were risk factors for CRC; 6.2% believed fate caused CRC. Only 46.4% of participants knew that screening prevented CRC (74.3% of Filipino, 10.6% of Hmong, and 55.8% of Korean participants; PFilipino, 72.0% of Hmong, and 51.4% of Korean participants; PFilipino, 43.8% of Hmong, and 41.4% of Korean participants; PFilipino), having a family history of CRC, having health insurance or a regular source of health care, and knowing that a fatty diet caused CRC. Believing that fate caused CRC and that praying prevented it were found to be negatively associated with ever screening. Factors associated with being up to date for CRC screening included being born in the United States, having a family history of CRC, and having access to health care. Knowledge regarding the causes of CRC and its prevention among Filipino, Hmong, and Korean individuals is low. However, health care access, not knowledge or beliefs, was found to be a key determinant of CRC screening. Cancer 2018;124:1552-9. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  12. Korean ESL Parents' Perspectives and Maintenance of Mother Tongue: A Case Study of Two Korean Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaeseok

    2017-01-01

    This case study explores the language attitudes and perceptions of Korean parents, with regard to their children's native language maintenance and ESL education in the US. The primary focuses are on (1) what aspects are held by Korean parents toward the maintenance of the native language in the US, and (2) how these perspectives operate in their…

  13. Cigarette smoking among Korean international college students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Toben F; Lohrmann, David K

    2013-01-01

    This study explored (1) the prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean international college students in the United States, (2) differences in smoking between on- and off-campus living arrangements, and (3) predictors of an increase in smoking over time in the United States An online survey was completed by 1,201 students at 52 4-year US universities (34% response rate). The overall smoking prevalence was 43.5%. The smoking rate (29.0%) of female students was higher than that (4%) of female college students in South Korea. Sex, living place, living situation, length of stay as a student in the United States, home smoking rules, campus-wide tobacco-free policies, and levels of acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression were significantly associated with an increase in smoking (p students on US college campuses, targeted prevention efforts for these students may be warranted.

  14. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Cardiovascular Risks in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-blind Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree; Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Na, Ha-Young; Kim, Hong-Bae; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on metabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, and arterial stiffness in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center study in 60 subjects who were not taking drugs that could affect metabolic and vascular functions. Subjects were randomized into either a KRG (4.5 g/d) group or a placebo group for a 12-week study. We collected anthr...

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM in healthy Korean adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoan Jong Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107 against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  16. Adiponectin gene SNP 276G ? T, nutrient intakes, and cardiovascular disease risk in Korean type 2 DM patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, So Young; Ryu, Han Kyoung; Park, Hee Jung; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Wha Young

    2007-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in adiponectin gene has been associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was performed to investigate the association of SNP 276G?T at adiponectin gene with CVD risk factors in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The subjects were 351 type 2 DM patients visited a DM clinic in Seoul, and the patients with known CVD were excluded. The adiponectin SNP 276G?T was analyzed and dietary intakes were assess...

  17. [A Validation Study of the Korean Version of the Jefferson Empathy Scale for Health Professionals for Korean Nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hye Ran; Bang, Kyung Sook

    2016-04-01

    To validate the Korean Version of the Jefferson Empathy Scale for Health professionals (K-JSE-HP) in a sample of Korean nurses. Internal consistency reliability, construct and criterion validity were calculated using SPSS (22.0) and AMOS (22.0). Data were collected from 253 nurses (230 women, 23 men) working at one university hospital in Seoul, South Korea. The Korean version of JSE-HP showed reliable internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha for the total scale of .89, and .74~.84 for subscales. The model of three subscales for the K-JSE-HP was validated by confirmatory factor analysis (χ²=864.60, Q=6.55, pKorean JSE-HP shows satisfactory construct and criterion validity and reliability. It is a useful tool to measure Korean nurses' empathy.

  18. The New Way of Beauty Experience From Korean Wave as Vocational Guidance in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbayani, Siti; Annuraini, A

    2017-01-01

    Korean Wave called Hallyu is the most phenomenal global culture that spread around the world as well as Indonesia. Along with Hallyu syndrome, plastic surgery began to be known by the Korean fans in Indonesia. Participation of the media, in particular, information technology became an important key by the Korean wave invasion. Korean idol who is so pretty and charming make Korean fans want to emulate his idol. This study aims to discuss how the views of Indonesian young women within decision ...

  19. Korean Conflict, 1950-1953, A Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-12

    University ~erly Review 6:2:86:92 Summer󈧹. 6:2:86 Revieva the tactical air control system employed in Korea and the new problema which have...military, diplomatic, social , economic, and cultural strands are interwoven in this narrative history of Korea. 5U ii»u^j^a»M«cj».^«.v^yM;MteM>J...DS Voorhees, r:rc Melvin B. Korean Tales. Nev York, Simon and 9lB Schuster, 1952. v6 A first-band account of the spirit, the problema , the

  20. Current smoking and secondhand smoke exposure and depression among Korean adolescents: analysis of a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Jae

    2014-02-06

    To examine the association between cigarette smoke exposure and depression among Korean adolescents using the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS). Cross-sectional study. A nationally representative sample of middle and high school students across South Korea. 75 643 eligible participants across the country. Current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression. Data were analysed from a nationally representative survey of 75 643 participants (37 873 men and 37 770 women). Data were gathered on extensive information including current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression in adolescence. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression in Korean adolescents. Among those who had never smoked, secondhand smoke exposure was positively associated with depression in male and female adolescents in a dose-response relation (OR 1.27, OR 1.52 in males; OR 1.25, OR 1.72 in females). Similar associations were observed among currently smoking men and women in a dose-response manner (OR 1.29, OR 1.55 in males; OR 1.22, OR 1.41 in females). These significant trends were consistently observed even after adjustments. We suggested that current smoking and secondhand smoke exposure were positively associated with depression in male and female adolescents. Efforts to encourage no smoking and no secondhand smoke exposure will be established for adolescents.

  1. Stigma of mental illnesses as perceived by north korean defectors living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Won-Hyoung; Choi, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Song, In-Gyu; Bae, Jae-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to provide the information of the stigmas of mental illness such as psychosis, alcoholism, attempt suicide, and depression among North Korean defectors. We examined stigma for the mental illnesses of 639 North Korean defectors aged 19 to 65 years who live in the Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees. The stigmas of mental illnesses were assessed using the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale We directly compared the stigma level between North Korean defectors and the general population of South Korea. North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Perceived stigma associated with attempted suicide was similar for North Korean defectors and South Koreans. Only marital status in sociodemographic variables had associations with higher perceived stigma of psychosis, alcoholism, and depression in the North Korean defectors. North Korean defectors, who spent more than one year in transit country, had associations with lower perceived stigma of psychosis and alcoholism. North Korean defectors, who had the experience of compulsory repatriation to North Korea or North Korean family in South Korea, had an association with higher perceived stigma of depression. North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Further studies are needed to document serial changes in stigmas for mental illnesses associated with the receipt of education at the Settlement Support Center for North Korean defectors.

  2. Heritage Language Proficiency in Relation to Attitudes, Motivation, and Age at Immigration: A Case of Korean-Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Min Jung

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated Korean heritage speakers' Korean language proficiency (i.e. morphosyntax, collocation, and lexicon) in relation to their attitudes, motivation, and age at immigration (AI). Seventy-six adult Korean-Australians with Korean literacy participated. Overall, participants showed high levels of Korean proficiency in all three…

  3. Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, T

    2015-02-01

    Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers.

  5. Smoking topography in Korean American and white men: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M

    2015-06-01

    This is the first study of Korean Americans' smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 h. Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking with greater puff flows and shorter interpuff intervals than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day.

  6. High-density genotyping of immune loci in Koreans and Europeans identifies eight new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jun, Jae-Bum; Yoo, Dae Hyun; Kang, Young Mo; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Suh, Chang-Hee; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Jisoo; Chung, Won Tae; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Nath, Swapan K; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Kremer, Joel M; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Okada, Yukinori; Diogo, Dorothée; Liao, Katherine P; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Worthington, Jane; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Plenge, Robert M; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    A highly polygenic aetiology and high degree of allele-sharing between ancestries have been well elucidated in genetic studies of rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, the high-density genotyping array Immunochip for immune disease loci identified 14 new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci among individuals of European ancestry. Here, we aimed to identify new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci using Korean-specific Immunochip data. We analysed Korean rheumatoid arthritis case-control samples using the Immunochip and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) array to search for new risk alleles of rheumatoid arthritis with anticitrullinated peptide antibodies. To increase power, we performed a meta-analysis of Korean data with previously published European Immunochip and GWAS data for a total sample size of 9299 Korean and 45,790 European case-control samples. We identified eight new rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci (TNFSF4, LBH, EOMES, ETS1-FLI1, COG6, RAD51B, UBASH3A and SYNGR1) that passed a genome-wide significance threshold (p<5×10(-8)), with evidence for three independent risk alleles at 1q25/TNFSF4. The risk alleles from the seven new loci except for the TNFSF4 locus (monomorphic in Koreans), together with risk alleles from previously established RA risk loci, exhibited a high correlation of effect sizes between ancestries. Further, we refined the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represent potentially causal variants through a trans-ethnic comparison of densely genotyped SNPs. This study demonstrates the advantage of dense-mapping and trans-ancestral analysis for identification of potentially causal SNPs. In addition, our findings support the importance of T cells in the pathogenesis and the fact of frequent overlap of risk loci among diverse autoimmune diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Estimated dietary isoflavone intake among Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-June; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2007-01-01

    This study estimated the isoflavone intake level in Koreans using Food Frequency Questionnaire and analyzed related variables. The results showed that the average daily intake of isoflavone in adults was shown as 23.1 mg. The isoflavone intake level at 50 percentile was 16.9 mg (0~190 mg), and 10% of adults took almost 50 mg of isoflavone a day and 10% took about 5 mg a day. The major food sources for isoflavone in Koreans were in the order of soybean, soybean paste, soy milk, soybean curd (tofu), and bean sprouts; the intake was different depending on age, educational background, occupation, economic standard, and family type. The result showed higher isoflavone intake levels in the group over 30 years old and the highest isoflavone intake in subjects working in farming/fishery, followed by housemakers. According to the differences by families the families with elderly members showed 50% higher isoflavone intake than young families with friends or siblings. Depending on related ecological variables, therefore, various nutrition education programs should be developed for a variety of intakes of soybean foods, along with easy and simple cooking methods as parts of continuous research.

  8. The strategic targeting of females by transnational tobacco companies in South Korea following trade liberalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Carpenter, Carrie; Challa, Chaitanya; Lee, Sungkyu; Connolly, Gregory N; Koh, Howard K

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1988 South Korea opened its cigarette market to foreign companies under the threat of US trade sanctions. Despite strong social stigma against female smoking in South Korea, and restrictions on tobacco marketing to women and children, smoking rates among young Korean females increased from 1.6% in 1988 to 13% in 1998. Previous analyses describe how Asian countries have been targeted by transnational tobacco companies for new markets, with Asian females offering substantial future growth potential. An understanding of the strategies used by TTCs to increase smoking among Korean females is critical to public health efforts to adopt a stronger gender perspective in implementing the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods Internal documents of transnational tobacco corporations were systematically searched using keywords focused on the targeting of the female market since market liberalisation in 1988. Industry documents were analysed alongside primary and secondary data on the tobacco industry in South Korea. Results TTCs have targeted Korean females since the late 1980s, conducting market research to understand consumer preferences, cultural characteristics and social changes affecting women and girls. Brands designed to appeal to females have focused on "slim" and "superslim" cigarettes, "light" and "mild" claims, and marketing which appeals to the growing numbers of young women entering the labour force. Strategies for overcoming legal restrictions on marketing to women and children have included the use of company rather than brand names, retail distribution at venues frequented by females, trademark diversification and sponsorship. Conclusion Given the high male smoking rates in South Korea, tobacco control efforts have given limited attention to girls and women. The limited data available on female smoking behaviour suggests that, despite legal restrictions and social stigma, smoking among females has increased since market opening

  9. The strategic targeting of females by transnational tobacco companies in South Korea following trade liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1988 South Korea opened its cigarette market to foreign companies under the threat of US trade sanctions. Despite strong social stigma against female smoking in South Korea, and restrictions on tobacco marketing to women and children, smoking rates among young Korean females increased from 1.6% in 1988 to 13% in 1998. Previous analyses describe how Asian countries have been targeted by transnational tobacco companies for new markets, with Asian females offering substantial future growth potential. An understanding of the strategies used by TTCs to increase smoking among Korean females is critical to public health efforts to adopt a stronger gender perspective in implementing the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods Internal documents of transnational tobacco corporations were systematically searched using keywords focused on the targeting of the female market since market liberalisation in 1988. Industry documents were analysed alongside primary and secondary data on the tobacco industry in South Korea. Results TTCs have targeted Korean females since the late 1980s, conducting market research to understand consumer preferences, cultural characteristics and social changes affecting women and girls. Brands designed to appeal to females have focused on "slim" and "superslim" cigarettes, "light" and "mild" claims, and marketing which appeals to the growing numbers of young women entering the labour force. Strategies for overcoming legal restrictions on marketing to women and children have included the use of company rather than brand names, retail distribution at venues frequented by females, trademark diversification and sponsorship. Conclusion Given the high male smoking rates in South Korea, tobacco control efforts have given limited attention to girls and women. The limited data available on female smoking behaviour suggests that, despite legal restrictions and social stigma, smoking among females has increased

  10. Predictors of suicidal ideation in Korean American older adults: analysis of the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Peter J; Kim, Kim B; Lee-Tauler, Su Yeon; Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Miyong T; Lee, Hochang B

    2017-12-01

    Our aim is to investigate the prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideation among Korean American older adults and assess the self-rated mental health of Korean American older adults with suicidal ideation with or without depressive syndrome. The Memory and Aging Study of Koreans is a cross-sectional, epidemiologic study of a community-representative sample of Korean American older adults (N = 1116) residing in the Baltimore-Washington area. Participants were interviewed using the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9K). In addition, demographic information, self-rated mental health, and self-rated physical health status were obtained. In this study, 14.7% of Korean American older adults reported suicidal ideation. Predictors of suicidal ideation included living alone, major or minor depressive syndrome (diagnosed by the PHQ-9K), shorter duration of residency in the USA, and poorer self-rated mental health status. Of those who reported suicidal ideation, 64% did not have minor or major depressive syndrome. However, their self-rated mental health was as poor as that of those with major or minor depressive syndrome but without suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation without depressive syndromes was common among Korean American older adults. For this group of elders with poor self-rated mental health, future studies should look to improving early detection of suicide risks and developing feasible suicide prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Females Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fertility Treatments for Females Once a woman is diagnosed ... The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose ...

  12. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medically as female sexual dysfunction. Many women experience problems with sexual function at some point. Female sexual dysfunction can occur at any stage of life. It can be lifelong or be acquired later in life. It can ...

  13. Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.). Health complications of female genital mutilation Who ... female genital mutilation You are here: Media centre Fact sheets Quick Links Sitemap Home Health topics Data ...

  14. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9{+-}7.1 years)) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans.

  15. The association between mental health problems and menstrual cycle irregularity among adolescent Korean girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi; Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun

    2017-03-01

    Menstrual cycle irregularity is common among adolescents and can induce mental health problems such as stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. We examined the association between mental health problems and menstrual cycle irregularity among adolescent Korean girls. This population-based cross-sectional study was on 808 female adolescents (12-18 years of age) participating in the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Psychological stress, depressive mood, suicidal ideations, suicide attempts, and psychological counseling were assessed through questionnaires and surveys, and hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. The risk of menstrual cycle irregularity tended to increase, as the number of mental health problems increased (P for trend=0.016). High stress levels, depressive mood, and psychological counseling were associated with increased risks of menstrual cycle irregularity (odd ratio [95% confidence interval]=1.88 [1.1-3.21], 2.01 [1.01-4.03], and 2.92 [1.16-7.34], respectively) even after adjusting for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, hemoglobin level, monthly household income, weight loss attempts, age at menarche, and sleep duration. Suicidal ideation was not significantly associated with menstrual cycle irregularity. Menstrual irregularity was evaluated based solely on subjects' self-reports, which are subject to their subjective perceptions and appraisal. Cross-sectional design and retrospective data could not draw causal relationship. Positive associations were observed between mental health problems and menstrual cycle irregularity among adolescent Korean girls. More attention should be paid towards mental health, to improve menstrual cycle regularity and help prevent related chronic diseases later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9±7.1 years) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans

  17. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  18. Trading Faces: the ‘Korean Look’ and Medical Nationalism in South Korean Cosmetic Surgery Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Holliday, R; Cheung, O; Cho, J; Bell, DJ

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the growing phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism through a focus on the development of this industry in South Korea. Unlike many discussions of this topic, the paper decentres dominant narratives based on west-goes-east or north-goes-south journeys. Instead, we look at regional flows by exploring the experiences of Chinese patients travelling to South Korea in search of facial cosmetic surgery – procedures often referred to as the ‘Korean Look’ and associated with expor...

  19. Cancer Incidence in Korean Vietnam Veterans During 1992-2003: The Korean Veterans Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Sang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Vietnam experience including exposure to military herbicides and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam War veterans. Methods The cancer cases of 185 265 Vietnam veterans from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 2003 were confirmed from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database. The age-adjusted incidence and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using the male population during 1992 to 2003 as a standard po...

  20. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  1. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  2. Obesity and Hyperglycemia in Korean Men with Klinefelter Syndrome: The Korean Endocrine Society Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Jin Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity in Korean men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS and the associated risk factors for obesity and hyperglycemia.MethodsData were collected retrospectively from medical records from 11 university hospitals in Korea between 1994 and 2014. Subjects aged ≥18 years with newly diagnosed KS were enrolled. The following parameters were recorded at baseline before treatment: chief complaint, height, weight, fasting glucose level, lipid panel, blood pressure, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, karyotyping patterns, and history of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia.ResultsData were analyzed from 376 of 544 initially enrolled patients. The rate of the 47 XXY chromosomal pattern was 94.1%. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 in Korean men with KS was 42.6%. The testosterone level was an independent risk factor for obesity and hyperglycemia.ConclusionObesity is common in Korean men with KS. Hypogonadism in patients with KS was associated with obesity and hyperglycemia.

  3. Development of a Korean reference HLW disposal system under the Korean representative geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Jongwon

    2007-01-01

    The development of a Korean Reference disposal System for the spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors is outlined in this paper. Around 36,000 tU of spent fuels are being projected based on the lifetimes of 28 nuclear power reactors in Korea. Since the site for the geological disposal has not yet been decided, a hypothetical site with representative Korean geologic conditions is proposed for the conceptual design of the repository. The disposal rates of the spent fuels are determined according to the total operation time of 55 years. The canisters are optimized by considering natural Korean conditions, and the buffer is designed with domestic Ca-bentonite. The depth of the repository is determined to be 500 m below the ground's surface. The canister separation distances are determined through a thermal analysis. The main features of the repository are presented from the layout to the closure. A computer program has been developed to calculate and analyze the volume and the area of the disposal system to help in the cost analysis. The final output of the design is presented as a unit disposal cost, US $315 /kgU. (authors)

  4. Blacks against Korean Merchants: An Interpretation of Contributory Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. Hugh

    1990-01-01

    Examines the 1990 boycott of Korean-owned food stores in Brooklyn by African Americans. Provides background on ethnic conflicts in America, especially those involving Asian Americans. Calls for increased racial and cultural sensitivity in communities and schools. (DM)

  5. Forest Policy and Law for Sustainability within the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sun Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, sustainable forest management (SFM has emerged as a paradigm of forest management on global, regional and national levels. In developing countries, avoiding deforestation is a preliminary step towards SFM. The Korean peninsula experienced severe deforestation and forest degradation after the Korean War (1950–1953. In the 1970s and 1980s, South Korea achieved forest restoration through the National Greening Program. In contrast, North Korea failed to restore forests in spite of continuous trials with forest restoration plans. In North Korea, deforestation has accelerated since the mid-1980s. Deforestation and forest degradation in North Korea threatens stability throughout the Korean peninsula. This study focuses on comparing the forest policy and laws of South Korea and North Korea and suggesting forest policy that promotes sustainability in the Korean peninsula. The research findings can provide developing countries with significant information on forest policy and laws to avoid deforestation and forest degradation and move towards sustainability.

  6. Intragroup Socialization for Adult Korean Adoptees: A Multigroup Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J. Langrehr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to test a model of socialization among a sample of adult Korean adoptees. Based on the tenants of homophily and social identity theory, it was hypothesized that participants’ early racial and ethnic socialization experiences would account for their current intragroup friendships as adults, and that this relationship would be mediated by early intragroup contact and moderated by early ethnic identity status. The two ethnic and racial socialization variables (i.e., ethnic heritage activities and racial in-exposure significantly accounted for participants’ relationships with other Korean adoptees and nonadopted Koreans, and the effects were partially explained by early intragroup contact. Results of multigroup testing indicated the proposed socialization model was non-invariant across groups, such that the effects of ethnic heritage activities on intragroup contact and the effect of racial in-exposure on friendships with Korean adoptees were significantly different based on early ethnic identity status.

  7. Design and Methods of the Korean Organ Transplantation Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Yang, MD, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. KOTRY, as a systematic Korean transplant cohort, is expected to provide important information on Asian organ transplantation. The processes used to establish KOTRY provide a good model for launching new nationwide transplant cohort studies.

  8. Empowerment of Korean women from a postmodern Practical Theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ok Jeong

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to discuss the situation of Korean women from political, social, cultural and religious perspectives in a postmodern context. Postmodernity implies a denial of the “absolute”, including “absolute power” of men over women. Heideggerian thinking rejects the modernistic privileged status of the Cartesian subject. In this article postmodern anti-foundational, anti-totalizing, and demystifying cate-gories are used to critique patriarchy in Korean society and literature in order to analyze social movements and cultural-religious values in Korea. It discusses a representation of sexual difference and values by means of feminist literary criticism. The article consists of a reflection on the relationship between theory and praxis in feminist Practical Theology, Korean women’s experience, the epistemology of post-modernity, and the empowerment of Korean women.

  9. Relationship between Organizational Culture and Workplace Bullying among Korean Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuseon An, MS, RN

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that the types of nursing organizational culture are related to workplace bullying in Korean nurses. Further research is needed to develop interventions that can foster relation-oriented cultures to prevent workplace bullying in nurses.

  10. Foreign Assistance: North Korean Constraints Limit Food Aid Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    .... However, the North Korean government has not allowed the World Food Program to fully implement its procedures and, as a result, it cannot be sure that the food aid is being shipped, stored, or used as planned...

  11. Nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia: South Korean perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo-Hang Lee

    1995-01-01

    Under new circumstances, that is after the end of the Cold War, the current security situation in Northeast Asia and Korean peninsula is reviewed. The South Korean Non-proliferation policy and its strong commitment to the NPT is embodied in the following: treaty commitments; government officials' statements; presidential declarations; North/South joint declarations; and domestic laws and regulations.Korea has made efforts towards denuclearisation of Korean peninsula. Its nuclear policy is based on peaceful uses of nuclear energy and on maintaining a strong commitment to the NPT. The ultimate goal of its policy is to deter North Korea from developing nuclear weapons and thus secure a nuclear-free Korean peninsula. This could lay foundation for the ultimate creation of region-wide nuclear-free zone in Northeast Asia

  12. North Korean Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildreth, Steven A

    2007-01-01

    ... so. The Administration will ask the 110th Congress to fund a National Missile Defense (NMD) site in Europe, which some analysts argue is needed because of the threat of North Korean ballistic missiles to Europe...

  13. A Satellite Based Fog Study of the Korean Peninsula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, David K

    2007-01-01

    Fog has always been a difficult phenomenon to forecast. Its unpredictable nature and propensity to quickly decrease visibilities have had adverse effects on military operations for many years across the Korean peninsula...

  14. North Korean Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael F; Nanto, Dick K

    2006-01-01

    .... Although Pyongyang denies complicity in any counterfeiting operation, at least $45 million in such supernotes of North Korean origin have been detected in circulation, and estimates are that the country earns from $15...

  15. Theories and Messages in South Korean Antismoking Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jin Hong; Aikat, Debashis Deb; Jung, Eun Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated antismoking advertisements in South Korean television by drawing upon a Health Communication article by Cohen, Shumate, and Gold (2007) and on Gold, Cohen, and Shumate's (2008) typology. This study examined the theories and messages in South Korean antismoking advertisements. First, South Korean antismoking advertisements primarily targeted adults. In addition, the advertisements for adults normally used statistical evidence, whereas those for adolescents often used testimonial evidence. In terms of the type of performance, narration was often used in advertisements for both adults and adolescents. Second, the most prevalent persuasive health message used social norms, whereas the most prevalent affective appeal used fear appeals. Third, antismoking advertisements in South Korea mentioned more benefits of not smoking than barriers to not smoking. This study also identified the message difference in the U.S. and South Korean antismoking advertisements.

  16. Construct Equivalence and Latent Means Analysis of Health Behaviors Between Male and Female Middle School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeong Mo; Han, Ae Kyung; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct equivalence of the five general factors (subjective health, eating habits, physical activities, sedentary lifestyle, and sleeping behaviors) and to compare the latent means between male and female middle school students in Incheon, Korea. Methods: The 2008 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey data was used for analysis. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test whether the scale has configural, metric, and...

  17. Assessment of meat quality properties and development of a palatability prediction model for Korean Hanwoo steer beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S H; Kim, J; Park, B Y; Seong, P N; Kang, G H; Kim, J H; Jung, S G; Im, S K; Kim, D H

    2010-09-01

    Effects of the Korean carcass-grading system on carcass traits and meat quality parameters for the longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were investigated for Hanwoo steer beef. High quality grade beef cuts had significantly higher intramuscular fat content than those of low quality grade beef cuts. To establish a guaranteed system of eating quality for Hanwoo steer beef, a palatability prediction model was developed. The model development approach used canonical discriminant analysis and multivariate regression to assess effects of muscle type, cooking method, and aging treatment on Hanwoo beef quality grade. The palatability prediction model can provide Korean consumers with detailed information about expected eating quality for an individual cut, as well as provide critical information to the industry for maintaining high-quality beef production. The model is a significant advance in grading compared with the traditional carcass grading system, which applies a single quality grade to an entire carcass.

  18. A new record of the Axiid shrimp Balssaxius habereri (Balss, 1913 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidea in Korean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Nyun Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Balssaxius habereri (Balss, 1903 has been newly reported in Korean waters. This species was previously known from the Pacific coast of northern Japan, Korea Strait, Yellow Sea, and Japanese coast of the East Sea. Specimens were collected from western Jeju Island using otter trawls at depths of 65–85 m. Regarding Korean axiid shrimps, a single species, Boasaxius princeps (Boas, 1880, previously known as Axiopsis princeps in Korea, has been recorded. B. habereri is easily distinguished from B. princeps as it does not have tufts of setae on its body and males do not have the first pleopod. Morphological descriptions and color photos of the specimens are provided.

  19. Emergence of the Korean popular culture in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Thao Emilie

    2012-01-01

    South Korea has long been influenced culturally by several countries such as China, Japan and the United States. However, in about 20 years, the country has become a powerhouse of popular culture especially in Asia. It is now one of the most influential in the world and gain popularity in Europe and Americas. At the same time, the entertainment industry of the nation has also emerged. Referred as Hallyu in Korean, the Korean Wave concerns mainly music, movies and television serial dramas. It ...

  20. Korean kimchi: promoting healthy meals through cultural tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuko Hongu; Angela S. Kim; Asuka Suzuki; Hope Wilson; Karen C. Tsui; Sunmin Park

    2017-01-01

    Background: Kimchi, a spicy traditional Korean side dish, is made with a variety of fermented vegetables, such as Napa cabbage (baechu), hot red pepper, garlic, ginger, and other spices. Throughout generations for thousands of years, kimchi has been served daily at virtually all meals in Korean households. It gives the flavors of garlic, ginger, scallions, and chili. Kimchi is an ingredient with many culinary benefits as it is commonly added to soups, noodles, and rice dishes. In addition to ...

  1. Response of Korean pine's functional traits to geography and climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Dong

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the characteristics of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis functional trait responses to geographic and climatic factors in the eastern region of Northeast China (41°-48°N and the linear relationships among Korean pine functional traits, to explore this species' adaptability and ecological regulation strategies under different environmental conditions. Korean pine samples were collected from eight sites located at different latitudes, and the following factors were determined for each site: geographic factors-latitude, longitude, and altitude; temperature factors-mean annual temperature (MAT, growth season mean temperature (GST, and mean temperature of the coldest month (MTCM; and moisture factors-annual precipitation (AP, growth season precipitation (GSP, and potential evapotranspiration (PET. The Korean pine functional traits examined were specific leaf area (SLA, leaf thickness (LT, leaf dry matter content (LDMC, specific root length (SRL, leaf nitrogen content (LNC, leaf phosphorus content (LPC, root nitrogen content (RNC, and root phosphorus content (RPC. The results showed that Korean pine functional traits were significantly correlated to latitude, altitude, GST, MTCM, AP, GSP, and PET. Among the Korean pine functional traits, SLA showed significant linear relationships with LT, LDMC, LNC, LPC, and RPC, and LT showed significant linear relationships with LDMC, SRL, LNC, LPC, RNC, and RPC; the linear relationships between LNC, LPC, RNC, and RPC were also significant. In conclusion, Korean pine functional trait responses to latitude resulted in its adaptation to geographic and climatic factors. The main limiting factors were precipitation and evapotranspiration, followed by altitude, latitude, GST, and MTCM. The impacts of longitude and MAT were not obvious. Changes in precipitation and temperature were most responsible for the close correlation among Korean pine functional traits, reflecting its adaption to habitat

  2. Smoking Topography in Korean American and White Men: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This is the first study of Korean Americans’ smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. population. Methods Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 hours. Results Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p < 0.001) and have lower Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scores (p = 0.04). Koreans smoked fewer cigarettes with the device (p = 0.01) than Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p < 0.001) than Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking more frequently with greater puff flows than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day. PMID:24068611

  3. International adoption: a case review of Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W J

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the controversial transracial adoption of African American children by Caucasian families in the U.S., international, transracial adoption of Asian children has not received much scientific or societal attention. There has been a steady increase in this unnoticed minority group, made up largely of Korean children. This paper reviews the developmental characteristics of post-adoption adjustments among Korean adoptees and discusses the dynamics of their positive adjustments. Sociopolitical issues of international adoptions are also addressed.

  4. Abuse of Modernity: The Korean Medical Journal and Colonial Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Caprio

    2014-01-01

    Medical researcher Kubo Takeshi’s contributions to professional publications, such as Chōsen igakkai zasshi (The Korean medical journal), and more popular magazines, such as Chōsen oyobi Manshū (Korea and Manchuria), reflected many of the prejudicial attitudes that Japanese held toward Koreans during the first decade of colonial rule. His scholarship was based on biological determinist thinking, an approach developed by eighteenth-century European medical researchers to establish race, class,...

  5. Acceleration and Information: Managing South Korean Online Gaming Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Rea, Stephen Campbell

    2015-01-01

    This ethnography explores the practical experiences and institutional entanglements of online games, gaming, and gamers in contemporary South Korean culture and society. Korean online gaming culture is encountered at numerous sites and scales of experience, from the virtual worlds of online games, to the offline spaces where gaming happens, to societal practices and discourses around the management of online gaming and gamers backed by competing institutional interests. Online gaming is conte...

  6. Korean risk assessment model for breast cancer risk prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung Park

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We evaluated the performance of the Gail model for a Korean population and developed a Korean breast cancer risk assessment tool (KoBCRAT based upon equations developed for the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk. METHODS: Using 3,789 sets of cases and controls, risk factors for breast cancer among Koreans were identified. Individual probabilities were projected using Gail's equations and Korean hazard data. We compared the 5-year and lifetime risk produced using the modified Gail model which applied Korean incidence and mortality data and the parameter estimators from the original Gail model with those produced using the KoBCRAT. We validated the KoBCRAT based on the expected/observed breast cancer incidence and area under the curve (AUC using two Korean cohorts: the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC and National Cancer Center (NCC cohort. RESULTS: The major risk factors under the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise, while those at and over the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at menopause, pregnancy experience, body mass index, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise. The modified Gail model produced lower 5-year risk for the cases than for the controls (p = 0.017, while the KoBCRAT produced higher 5-year and lifetime risk for the cases than for the controls (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively. The observed incidence of breast cancer in the two cohorts was similar to the expected incidence from the KoBCRAT (KMCC, p = 0.880; NCC, p = 0.878. The AUC using the KoBCRAT was 0.61 for the KMCC and 0.89 for the NCC cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the KoBCRAT is a better tool for predicting the risk of breast cancer in Korean women, especially urban women.

  7. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Obesity in Korean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-01-01

    Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80–90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnai...

  8. Coffee Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Premenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Methods Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measu...

  9. Cost effectiveness methodology for evaluating Korean international communication system alternatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Tae Kyun.

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Cost and Effectiveness models are developed by using of cost-effectiveness technique for fiber optic cable and satellite communication media. The models are applied to the Korean international communication problem. Alternative selection is required since the two medias different in cost and effectiveness. The major difficulties encountered were data gathering and measuring the effectiveness of the Korean international ...

  10. Effects of Complementary Combination Therapy of Korean Red Ginseng and Antiviral Agents in Chronic Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hwa; Yang, Keum-Jin; Lee, Dong-Soo

    2016-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis B management is commonly targeted at reducing viral replication. However, the currently available antiviral therapies are associated with some problems, including resistance and numerous adverse effects. Ginseng has been reported to be effective for treating viral infections such as influenza and human immunodeficiency virus. However, there are currently few studies on the effects of ginseng in chronic hepatitis B. Thus, this study investigated the effects of ginseng together with antiviral agents in chronic hepatitis B. This was a prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial, and single-center study. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled. The control group (n = 19) was administered antiviral agents alone. The experimental group (n = 19) was administered antiviral agents along with Korean Red Ginseng powder capsules (each dose is 1 gram (two capsules), a one-day dose is 3 grams). The baseline characteristics did not differ between the two groups. Differences in several non-invasive fibrosis serologic markers (type IV collagen, hyaluronic acid, transforming growth factor-β) and in the hepatitis B virus DNA levels were compared between the groups. The non-invasive fibrosis serologic markers were further decreased in the experimental group, with significant differences after treatment observed for hyaluronic acid (p = 0.032) and transforming growth factor-β (p = 0.008), but not for type IV collagen (p = 0.174). This study suggests the possibility of Korean Red Ginseng as a complementary therapy for chronic hepatitis B.

  11. The female condom: controlled by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The polyurethane female condom is stronger than the latex male condom. Thus, the single-use female condom is less likely to break and has a longer shelf life than the single-use male condom. The ring at the closed end of the condom helps women insert the condom and secures the condom inside the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina and protects the labia and the base of the penis. Female condom use reduces the likelihood of transmission of infectious diseases. The female condom is as effective at preventing pregnancy as the male condom and the diaphragm. Its life-table pregnancy rate in a multicenter clinical trial in the US and Latin America was 15.1% (12.4% in US and 22.% in Latin America). The 6-month failure rate during perfect use was 4.3%. In laboratory studies, no sexually transmitted organism, including HIV, penetrated the female condom. In a human use study, 14% of controls and 14.7% of non-perfect users were reinfected with trichomonas while none of the perfect users were reinfected. Advantages of the female condom follow: allows for greater sensitivity and greater protection than the male condom, is controlled by the female, can be used with any lubricant (even oil-based lubricants), and can be inserted well before intercourse. Disadvantages include cost (5 times costlier than the male condom), unsightly coverage of female genitalia, noisy during use, and breakage (although breakage rates were lower than for latex condoms: 1% vs. 2-5%). Method acceptability studies among various populations show that the inner rings and movement of the female condom during use were the most common complaints. Many women liked the female condom and would recommend it to others. Only a few women complained about insertion problems, yet it took some women at least two tries to insert the female condom.

  12. Does Gender Matter in Explaining Delinquency and Suicidal Thoughts? An Examination of General Strain Theory in South Korean Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2017-06-01

    This study attempts to explore the potential extension of general strain theory (GST) by applying the hypotheses proposed by Broidy and Agnew to a sample of South Korean youths. Specifically, this study examines whether particular forms of strain and stressors have differential effects across genders on various deviant outcomes, delinquency, and suicidal thoughts. Multiple regression analyses using longitudinal data of 3,125 South Korean youths revealed mixed support for the GST proposition. Females experienced a higher level of both anger and depression than males. However, the experience of negative emotions is partly gendered in general. This study also found that different negative emotions and strain/stress factors are important and demonstrate gendered pathways in the case of delinquency. However, it also revealed that similar types of strains and stressors and negative emotions were significant and positive for suicidal thoughts for both males and females. Furthermore, a model examining the impacts of conditioning variables on suicidal thoughts highlighted that depression is particularly important in females. These findings indicate that various types of deviant outcomes and strain-stressors provide a fuller understanding of both similarities and differences by gender.

  13. Does Single Motherhood Hurt Infant Health among Young Mothers?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Albert Young-Il; Lee, Jungmin

    2017-01-01

    Does single motherhood adversely affect infant health? This question is not easy to answer because of the endogeneity of coresidence during pregnancy. In this paper, we exploit quasi-natural variation in single motherhood from the moment of conception to that of birth arising from marriageable age restrictions and the reform of the laws in Korea. The Korean birth certificate dataset is unique in that it allows us to distinguish coresidence and legal marital status and further to identify the ...

  14. Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Lee

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever and human capitalization in South Korean higher education are analyzed from a comparative viewpoint. The study evaluates the effects and problems of education fever this country’s current higher education, and it concludes that Koreans’ educational fever has been a core factor by which to achieve the development of the national economy as well as the rapid expansion of higher education.

  15. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Hong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risktaking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues.

  16. Healing thyself: a Korean shaman's afflictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, L

    1988-01-01

    Accounts of shamans' lives have typically emphasized the shaman's experience of a divine 'calling' and subsequent initiation as the key incidents around which other biographical, psychological, and cultural information may be organized and appreciated. Scholars have thus emphasized those aspects of the shaman's experience which set the shaman apart from other members of her or his society and at the same time, render the shaman comparable to other shamans in other places far removed in time and space. This paper takes a different approach, describing a series of ordinary misfortunes that befell a Korean mansin several years after her initiation, the interpretations she and her colleagues placed upon these events, the advice she received, and the healing strategies she subsequently followed. This discussion reveals those aspects of the shaman's experience that render her more, rather than less, like those she treats and suggests a process whereby the shared reality of shaman and client is realized in lived experiences, rituals, and conversations.

  17. Concept of Korean reliability qualification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Eui

    2008-01-01

    It has been passed eight years since Reliability Assessment Centers of 18 fields including machinery and electronic field were established in 2000 to enhance the reliability of components and materials which are foundation of domestic industry. When Reliability Assessment Center were established in 2000, many questions and issues have been headed. Those questions and issues were how reliability and quality are different, how the reliability measurement can be expressed, how the reliability requirements can be made, how the reliability of components can be tested and evaluated and etc. Currently it is the state that the controversy and improvement methods about reliability qualification, no failure test and one failure acceptance test were issued. This paper investigates the problems toward test and evaluation methods to certificate R-Mark and presents the direction of Korean Reliability Certification System

  18. The Austrialian National Chinese Japanese Korean Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Providing access to Asian-language materials has always been a problem for libraries. There are particular difficulties in acquiring Asian materials, in cataloguing them and providing access, and in incorporating them in library systems. There is, however, an urgent and growing need for access to Asian materials. Part of the response of the Australian library community to the difficulties and to the increasing need has been the Australian National CJK (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) Project. The CJK Project is a co-operative project involving seven Australian universities and the National Library of Australia. Membership is expected to grow to include other Australian research libraries, some public research libraries and some overseas libraries.

  19. Japanese and South Korean Environmental Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Tonami, Aki

    Japan and South Korea have become increasingly important environmental aid donors, but many observers in the West argue that the two countries are heavily focused on technology and infrastructure development and that they too narrowly pursue economic self-interest such as trade and access...... to resources. Aki Tonami, researcher at the Nordic Institute for Asian Studies and Anders Riel Müller of the Danish Institute for International Studies seek to nuance the discussion and demystify Japanese and Korean environmental aid. Through a historical analysis of the historical trajectories...... of environmental aid of both countries, the researchers conclude that self-interest is not the only motivation. Instead, environmental aid policies maneuver between various forces such as the norms of the global aid community, the countries’ own experience dealing with environmental effects of rapid...

  20. Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Korean Expert Panel Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jung Min; Park, Duk Woo; Hong, Sung Jin; Ahn, Young Keun; Hahn, Joo Yong; Kim, Won Jang; Hong, Soon Jun; Nam, Chang Wook; Kang, Do Yoon; Lee, Seung Yul; Chun, Woo Jung; Heo, Jung Ho; Cho, Deok Kyu; Kim, Jin Won; Her, Sung Ho; Kim, Sang Wook; Yoo, Sang Yong; Hong, Myeong Ki; Tahk, Seung Jea; Kim, Kee Sik; Kim, Moo Hyun; Jang, Yangsoo; Park, Seung Jung

    2017-11-01

    Bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BRS) is an innovative device that provides structural support and drug release to prevent early recoil or restenosis, and then degrades into nontoxic compounds to avoid late complications related with metallic drug-eluting stents (DESs). BRS has several putative advantages. However, recent randomized trials and registry studies raised clinical concerns about the safety and efficacy of first generation BRS. In addition, the general guidance for the optimal practice with BRS has not been suggested due to limited long-term clinical data in Korea. To address the safety and efficacy of BRS, we reviewed the clinical evidence of BRS implantation, and suggested the appropriate criteria for patient and lesion selection, scaffold implantation technique, and management. Copyright © 2017. The Korean Society of Cardiology.