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Sample records for single item scales

  1. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  2. Correlates of a Single-Item Indicator Versus a Multi-Item Scale of Outness About Same-Sex Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Noor, Syed W; Galos, Dylan L; Rosser, B R Simon

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated if a single-item indicator measured the degree to which people were open about their same-sex attraction ("out") as accurately as a multi-item scale. For the multi-item scale, we used the Outness Inventory, which includes three subscales: family, world, and religion. We examined correlations between the single- and multi-item measures; between the single-item indicator and the subscales of the multi-item scale; and between the measures and internalized homonegativity, social attitudes towards homosexuality, and depressive symptoms. In addition, we calculated Tjur's R (2) as a measure of predictive power of the single-item indicator, multi-item scale, and subscales of the multi-item scale in predicting two health-related outcomes: depressive symptoms and condomless anal sex with multiple partners. There was a strong correlation between the single- and multi-item measures (r = 0.73). Furthermore, there were strong correlations between the single-item indicator and each subscale of the multi-item scale: family (r = 0.70), world (r = 0.77), and religion (r = 0.50). In addition, the correlations between the single-item indicator and internalized homonegativity (r = -0.63), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = -0.38), and depression (r = -0.14) were higher than those between the multi-item scale and internalized homonegativity (r = -0.55), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = -0.21), and depression (r = -0.13). Contrary to the premise that multi-item measures are superior to single-item measures, our collective findings indicate that the single-item indicator of outness performs better than the multi-item scale of outness.

  3. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Konrath

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVES: The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS. Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies. METHODS: In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250, we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. RESULTS: The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults, intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression, and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior. The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. SIGNIFICANCE: The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  4. Single Item Inventory Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends a fundamental result about single-item inventory systems. This approach allows more general performance measures, demand processes and order policies, and leads to easier analysis and implementation, than prior research. We obtain closed form expressions for the

  5. Item analysis of single-peaked response data : the psychometric evaluation of bipolar measurement scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, Maaike Geertruida

    2011-01-01

    The thesis explains the fundamental difference between unipolar and bipolar measurement scales for psychological characteristics. We explore the use of correspondence analysis (CA), a technique that is similar to principal component analysis and is available in SAS and SPSS, to select items that

  6. Scaling: An Items Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ye; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    "Scaling" is the process of constructing a score scale that associates numbers or other ordered indicators with the performance of examinees. Scaling typically is conducted to aid users in interpreting test results. This module describes different types of raw scores and scale scores, illustrates how to incorporate various sources of…

  7. Utility and validity of a single-item visual analog scale for measuring dental anxiety in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukuttan, Devapriya; Vinayagavel, Mythreyi; Tadepalli, Anupama

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated whether a visual analog scale (VAS) was comparable to the multi-item Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) in assessing dental anxiety in clinical practice. In total, 200 consecutive patients aged 20-70 years who presented at the dental outpatient department of SRM Dental College, Chennai were enrolled. The test-retest value for the VAS was 0.968. The Spearman rank correlations between the VAS and MDAS items and total score were significant (P dental visit and the VAS also showed a strong correlation (r = 0.473, P dental phobia. The weighted kappa was 69% for agreement between MDAS and the VAS in identifying patients with and without dental anxiety at cut-offs of 13 and 4.75, respectively. The VAS was found to be a valid measure and was comparable to the multi-item MDAS.

  8. Evaluation of the single-item self-rating adherence scale for use in routine clinical care of people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, B J; Fredericksen, R J; Crane, P K; Safren, S A; Mugavero, M J; Willig, James H; Simoni, J M; Wilson, I B; Saag, M S; Kitahata, M M; Crane, H M

    2013-01-01

    The self-rating scale item (SRSI) is a single-item self-report adherence measure that uses adjectives in a 5-point Likert scale, from "very poor" to "excellent," to describe medication adherence over the past 4 weeks. This study investigated the SRSI in 2,399 HIV-infected patients in routine care at two outpatient primary HIV clinics. Correlations between the SRSI and four commonly used adherence items ranged from 0.37 to 0.64. Correlations of adherence barriers, such as depression and substance use, were comparable across all adherence items. General estimating equations suggested the SRSI is as good as or better than other adherence items (p's <0.001 vs. <0.001-0.99) at predicting adherence-related clinical outcomes, such as HIV viral load and CD4(+) cell count. These results and the SRSI's low patient burden suggest its routine use could be helpful for assessing adherence in clinical care and should be more widespread, particularly where more complex instruments may be impractical.

  9. The validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale in adolescents and a comparison with single-item life satisfaction measures: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Veljko

    2016-12-01

    The validity of the life satisfaction measures commonly used among adults has been rarely examined in adolescent samples. The present research had two main goals: (1) to evaluate the structural validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) among adolescents and to test measurement invariance across gender; (2) to compare the criterion and convergent validity of the SWLS and single-item life satisfaction measures among adolescents. Three samples of Serbian adolescents were recruited for the present research. Study 1 (N = 481, M age  = 17.01 years) examined the structure of the SWLS via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and evaluated measurement invariance of the SWLS across gender by a multi-group CFA. Study 2 (N = 283, M age  = 17.34 years) and Study 3 (N = 220, M age  = 16.73 years) compared the convergent validity of the SWLS and single-item life satisfaction measures. The results of Study 1 supported the original one-factor model of the SWLS among adolescents and provided evidence for strong measurement invariance of the SWLS across gender. The findings of Study 2 and Study 3 showed that the SWLS and single-item measures were equally valid and strongly associated (r = .734 in Study 2 and r = .668 in Study 3). No substantial differences in correlations with school success and well-being indicators were found between the SWLS and single-item measures. Our findings support the use of the SWLS among adolescents and indicate that single-item life satisfaction measures perform as well as the SWLS in adolescent samples.

  10. Concurrent Validity and Sensitivity to Change of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) Within an Elementary Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rhonda L; Eklund, Katie; Kilgus, Stephen P

    2017-06-12

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity, sensitivity to change, and teacher acceptability of Direct Behavior Rating single-item scales (DBR-SIS), a brief progress monitoring measure designed to assess student behavioral change in response to intervention. Twenty-four elementary teacher-student dyads implemented a daily report card intervention to promote positive student behavior during prespecified classroom activities. During both baseline and intervention, teachers completed DBR-SIS ratings of 2 target behaviors (i.e., Academic Engagement, Disruptive Behavior) whereas research assistants collected systematic direct observation (SDO) data in relation to the same behaviors. Five change metrics (i.e., absolute change, percent of change from baseline, improvement rate difference, Tau-U, and standardized mean difference; Gresham, 2005) were calculated for both DBR-SIS and SDO data, yielding estimates of the change in student behavior in response to intervention. Mean DBR-SIS scores were predominantly moderately to highly correlated with SDO data within both baseline and intervention, demonstrating evidence of the former's concurrent validity. DBR-SIS change metrics were also significantly correlated with SDO change metrics for both Disruptive Behavior and Academic Engagement, yielding evidence of the former's sensitivity to change. In addition, teacher Usage Rating Profile-Assessment (URP-A) ratings indicated they found DBR-SIS to be acceptable and usable. Implications for practice, study limitations, and areas of future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A Model-Free Diagnostic for Single-Peakedness of Item Responses Using Ordered Conditional Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Marike; De Rooij, Mark; Heiser, Willem J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we propose a model-free diagnostic for single-peakedness (unimodality) of item responses. Presuming a unidimensional unfolding scale and a given item ordering, we approximate item response functions of all items based on ordered conditional means (OCM). The proposed OCM methodology is based on Thurstone & Chave's (1929) "criterion…

  12. Which Single-Item Measures of Overactive Bladder Symptom Treatment Correlate Best With Patient Satisfaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Oelke, Matthias; Vogel, Monika; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: While complex symptom scales are important research tools, simpler, preferably single item scales may be more useful for routine clinical practise in the evaluation of patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). This study aimed to compare multiple single-item scales at baseline and after

  13. The Feasibility of Single-Item Measures for Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeremy S.; Turner, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers in a number of disciplines have examined the utility of single-item measures for both affective and cognitive constructs. While these authors have indicated that, under certain circumstances, the use of single-item measures is appropriate, there remains concern regarding the reliability and validity of single-item measures. This study…

  14. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale: Latent structure of 8-item and 4-item versions in Peruvian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Soto, Cesar; Salas Blas, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    This research intended to validate two brief scales of sensations seeking with Peruvian adolescents: the eight item scale (BSSS8; Hoyle, Stephenson, Palmgreen, Lorch, y Donohew, 2002) and the four item scale (BSSS4; Stephenson, Hoyle, Slater, y Palmgreen, 2003). Questionnaires were administered to 618 voluntary participants, with an average age of 13.6 years, from different levels of high school, state and private school in a district in the south of Lima. It analyzed the internal structure of both short versions using three models: a) unidimensional (M1), b) oblique or related dimensions (M2), and c) the bifactor model (M3). Results show that both instruments have a single dimension which best represents the variability of the items; a fact that can be explained both by the complexity of the concept and by the small number of items representing each factor, which is more noticeable in the BSSS4. Reliability is within levels found by previous studies: alpha: .745 = BSSS8 and BSSS4 =. 643; omega coefficient: .747 in BSSS8 and .651 in BSSS4. These are considered suitable for the type of instruments studied. Based on the correlation between the two instruments, it was found that there are satisfactory levels of equivalence between the BSSS8 and BSSS4. However, it is recommended that the BSSS4 is mainly used for research and for the purpose of describing populations.

  15. Vegetable parenting practices scale: Item response modeling analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We al...

  16. Item reduction and psychometric validation of the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and the Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Robert; Clark, Marci; Harness, Jane; Bonner, Nicola; Scott, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Rizer, Ronald; Yeh, Yating; Copley-Merriman, Kati

    2009-01-01

    Developed using focus groups, the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS) are patient-reported outcome measures of oily facial skin. The aim of this study was to finalize the item-scale structure of the instruments and perform psychometric validation in adults with self-reported oily facial skin. The OSSAS and OSIS were administered to 202 adult subjects with oily facial skin in the United States. A subgroup of 152 subjects returned, 4 to 10 days later, for test–retest reliability evaluation. Of the 202 participants, 72.8% were female; 64.4% had self-reported nonsevere acne. Item reduction resulted in a 14-item OSSAS with Sensation (five items), Tactile (four items) and Visual (four items) domains, a single blotting item, and an overall oiliness item. The OSIS was reduced to two three-item domains assessing Annoyance and Self-Image. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the final item-scale structures. The OSSAS and OSIS scales had acceptable item convergent validity (item-scale correlations >0.40) and floor and ceiling effects (skin severity (P skin (P skin), as assessments of self-reported oily facial skin severity and its emotional impact, respectively.

  17. Psychometric properties of three single-item pain scales in patients with rheumatoid arthritis seen during routine clinical care: a comparative perspective on construct validity, reproducibility and internal responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendlbeck, Melanie; Araujo, Elizabeth G; Schett, Georg; Englbrecht, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the construct validity, reproducibility (ie, retest reliability) and internal responsiveness to treatment change of common single-item scales measuring overall pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to investigate the corresponding effect of common pain-related comorbidities and medical consultation on these outcomes. 236 patients with RA completed a set of questionnaires including a visual analogue scale (VAS), a numerical rating scale (NRS) and a verbal rating scale (VRS) measuring overall pain before and immediately after routine medical consultation as well as 1 week after the patient's visit. Construct validity and retest reliability were evaluated using the Bravais-Pearson correlation while standardised response means (SRM) were calculated for evaluating internal responsiveness. Differences in the perception of pain were calculated using dependent samples t-tests. In the total sample, construct validity was good across all three time points (convergent validity of pain scales: rT1-T3=0.82-0.92, pscales with age: rage=0.01-0.16, p>0.05). In patients maintaining antirheumatic treatment, retest reliability of pain scales was confirmed for all scales and across time points (rVAS=0.82-0.95, rNRS=0.89-0.98, rVRS=0.80-0.90, pscales to a change in treatment was low across all scales (SRM=0.08-0.21). The VAS especially suggested a change in pain perception after medical consultation in patients maintaining therapy. The VAS, NRS and VRS are valid and retest reliable in an outpatient clinical practice setting. The low pain scales' internal responsiveness to treatment change is likely to be due to the short follow-up period. Patients with RA maintaining antirheumatic therapy seem to experience less pain after medical consultation.

  18. Cross-National Prevalence of Traditional Bullying, Traditional Victimization, Cyberbullying and Cyber-Victimization: Comparing Single-Item and Multiple-Item Approaches of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Takuya; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Many large-scale cross-national studies rely on a single-item measurement when comparing prevalence rates of traditional bullying, traditional victimization, cyberbullying, and cyber-victimization between countries. However, the reliability and validity of single-item measurement approaches are highly problematic and might be biased. Data from…

  19. A Comparison of the 27-Item and 12-Item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Yu, Lai Ngo Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The 27-item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) has become one of the most frequently used measures of Intolerance of Uncertainty. More recently, an abridged, 12-item version of the IUS has been developed. The current research used clinical (n = 50) and non-clinical (n = 56) samples to examine and compare the psychometric properties of both…

  20. Developing Multidimensional Likert Scales Using Item Factor Analysis: The Case of Four-Point Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asún, Rodrigo A.; Rdz-Navarro, Karina; Alvarado, Jesús M.

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the performance of two approaches in analysing four-point Likert rating scales with a factorial model: the classical factor analysis (FA) and the item factor analysis (IFA). For FA, maximum likelihood and weighted least squares estimations using Pearson correlation matrices among items are compared. For IFA, diagonally weighted…

  1. Assessing the Validity of Single-item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) - a more psychometrically established measure. Methods Two large samples from Washington (N=13,064) and Oregon (N=2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and a representative German sample (N=1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Results Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62 – 0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78 – 0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001 – 0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS were very small (average absolute difference = 0.015 −0.042). Conclusions Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use. PMID:24890827

  2. Assessing the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures: results from three large samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)-a more psychometrically established measure. Two large samples from Washington (N = 13,064) and Oregon (N = 2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and a representative German sample (N = 1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62-0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78-0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001-0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS was very small (average absolute difference = 0.015-0.042). Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use.

  3. Single item inventory models : A time- and event- averages approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends a fundamental result about single-item inventory systems. This approach allows more general performance measures, demand processes and order policies, and leads to easier analysis and implementation, than prior research. We obtain closed form expressions for the

  4. Face validity of the single work ability item

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jensen, Bjørn Søvsø; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the face validity of the self-reported single item work ability with objectively measured heart rate reserve (%HRR) among blue-collar workers. METHODS: We utilized data from 127 blue-collar workers (Female = 53; Male = 74) aged 18-65 years fro...

  5. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jim A C

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism) and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS) is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  6. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim A C Everett

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  7. Which single-item measures of overactive bladder symptom treatment correlate best with patient satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Martin C; Oelke, Matthias; Vogel, Monika; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H

    2011-04-01

    While complex symptom scales are important research tools, simpler, preferably single item scales may be more useful for routine clinical practise in the evaluation of patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). This study aimed to compare multiple single-item scales at baseline and after treatment with patient-reported overall rating of treatment efficacy. In a pre-planned secondary analysis of a previously reported observational study, 4,450 patients were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks open-label treatment with solifenacin. Apart from episode counting for classical OAB symptoms, the following single-item rating scales were applied: Indevus Urgency Severity Scale, Urgency Perception Scale, a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), quality of life question of the IPSS, and general health and bladder problem questions of the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ). At baseline OAB symptoms correlated at best moderately with each (r = 0.285-0.508) other or with any of the rating scales (r = 0.060-0.399). Pair-wise correlations between treatment-associated symptom or scale improvements tended to be tighter (r = 0.225-0.588). When compared to patient-reported efficacy, the VAS (r = 0.487) and the bladder problem question of the KHQ (r = 0.452) showed the tightest correlation, whereas all symptom and rating scale improvements exhibited poor correlation with patient-reported tolerability (r ≤ 0.283). The VAS and the bladder problem question of the KHQ show the greatest promise as single-item scales to assess problem intensity in OAB patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated memory test), participants studied single words and then took a memory test involving studied word and ne...

  9. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP10) scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Smolderen, Kim G E; van den Broek, Krista C

    2007-01-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with poor mental and physical health. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale retrospectively assesses Alienation (dysfunctional communication and intimacy) and Control (overprotection by parents), with an emphasis...... on deficiencies in empathic parenting. We examined the 2-factor structure of the RRP(10) and its relationship with adult depression....

  10. Professor-Student Rapport Scale: Six Items Predict Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Janie H.; Ryan, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapport between students and teachers leads to numerous positive student outcomes, including attitudes toward the teacher and course, student motivation, and perceived learning. The recent development of a Professor-Student Rapport scale offers assessment of this construct. However, a Cronbach's [alpha] of 0.96 indicated item redundancy, and the…

  11. Relationships between the Thurstone and Rasch Approaches to Item Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David

    1978-01-01

    When the logistic function is substituted for the normal, Thurstone's Case V specialization of the law of comparative judgment for paired comparison responses gives an identical equation for the estimation of item scale values, as does the Rasch formulation for direct responses. Comparisons are made. (Author/CTM)

  12. Utilizing Item Sampling Techniques To Scale Affective Reactions to Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursack, Bruce Allen

    Reported are the results of a study which investigated the possible utilization of item sampling techniques with Thurstone's Case V paired comparison method. The first objective involved the study of the scale and rank values of the stimuli and the frequency distribution of the responses. A paired comparison instrument consisting of mathematical…

  13. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PROMIS® Parent Proxy Report Scales: an item response theory analysis of the parent proxy report item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Thissen, David; Stucky, Brian D; Liu, Yang; Gorder, Hally; Irwin, Debra E; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Lai, Jin-Shei; Amtmann, Dagmar; DeWalt, Darren A

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to describe the item response theory (IRT) analysis of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)) pediatric parent proxy-report item banks and the measurement properties of the new PROMIS(®) Parent Proxy Report Scales for ages 8-17 years. Parent proxy-report items were written to parallel the pediatric self-report items. Test forms containing the items were completed by 1,548 parent-child pairs. CCFA and IRT analyses of scale dimensionality and item local dependence, and IRT analyses of differential item functioning were conducted. Parent proxy-report item banks were developed and IRT parameters are provided. The recommended unidimensional short forms for the PROMIS(®) Parent Proxy Report Scales are item sets that are subsets of the pediatric self-report short forms, setting aside items for which parent responses exhibit local dependence. Parent proxy-report demonstrated moderate to low agreement with pediatric self-report. The study provides initial calibrations of the PROMIS(®) parent proxy-report item banks and the creation of the PROMIS(®) Parent Proxy-Report Scales. It is anticipated that these new scales will have application for pediatric populations in which pediatric self-report is not feasible.

  15. An Evaluation of an Indirect Method of Transforming Item Parameter Estimates from Item Response Theory to a Common Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Gary L.

    Using raw-to-scaled-score conversions derived from test-score equating to link item-parameter estimates from the one-parameter (Rasch) and three-parameter logistic models, this study evaluated an indirect method for converting item response theory estimates to a common scale. Data were taken from Petersen's Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scale…

  16. Mokken scale analysis : Between the Guttman scale and parametric item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schuur, Wijbrandt H.

    2003-01-01

    This article introduces a model of ordinal unidimensional measurement known as Mokken scale analysis. Mokken scaling is based on principles of Item Response Theory (IRT) that originated in the Guttman scale. I compare the Mokken model with both Classical Test Theory (reliability or factor analysis)

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Multiple-Choice Items in Science Technology and Society: Item Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vázquez Alonso

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The scarce attention to assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for Science-Technology-Society (STS education, due to the dialectic, tentative, value-laden, and controversial nature of most STS topics. To overcome the methodological pitfalls of the STS assessment instruments used in the past, an empirically developed instrument (VOSTS, Views on Science-Technology-Society have been suggested. Some methodological proposals, namely the multiple response models and the computing of a global attitudinal index, were suggested to improve the item implementation. The final step of these methodological proposals requires the categorization of STS statements. This paper describes the process of categorization through a scaling procedure ruled by a panel of experts, acting as judges, according to the body of knowledge from history, epistemology, and sociology of science. The statement categorization allows for the sound foundation of STS items, which is useful in educational assessment and science education research, and may also increase teachers’ self-confidence in the development of the STS curriculum for science classrooms.

  18. An item response theory analysis of the Olweus Bullying scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Kyrre; Olweus, Dan

    2015-01-01

    In the present article, we used IRT (graded response) modeling as a useful technology for a detailed and refined study of the psychometric properties of the various items of the Olweus Bullying scale and the scale itself. The sample consisted of a very large number of Norwegian 4th-10th grade students (n = 48 926). The IRT analyses revealed that the scale was essentially unidimensional and had excellent reliability in the upper ranges of the latent bullying tendency trait, as intended and desired. Gender DIF effects were identified with regard to girls' use of indirect bullying by social exclusion and boys' use of physical bullying by hitting and kicking but these effects were small and worked in opposite directions, having negligible effects at the scale level. Also scale scores adjusted for DIF effects differed very little from non-adjusted scores. In conclusion, the empirical data were well characterized by the chosen IRT model and the Olweus Bullying scale was considered well suited for the conduct of fair and reliable comparisons involving different gender-age groups. Information Aggr. Behav. 41:1-13, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Unfolding item response model using best-worst scaling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kazuya

    2015-02-01

    In attitude measurement and sensory tests, the unfolding model is typically used. In this model, response probability is formulated by the distance between the person and the stimulus. In this study, we proposed an unfolding item response model using best-worst scaling (BWU model), in which a person chooses the best and worst stimulus among repeatedly presented subsets of stimuli. We also formulated an unfolding model using best scaling (BU model), and compared the accuracy of estimates between the BU and BWU models. A simulation experiment showed that the BWU modell performed much better than the BU model in terms of bias and root mean square errors of estimates. With reference to Usami (2011), the proposed models were apllied to actual data to measure attitudes toward tardiness. Results indicated high similarity between stimuli estimates generated with the proposed models and those of Usami (2011).

  20. Item Response Theory Models for Wording Effects in Mixed-Format Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Hui-Fang; Jin, Kuan-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Many scales contain both positively and negatively worded items. Reverse recoding of negatively worded items might not be enough for them to function as positively worded items do. In this study, we commented on the drawbacks of existing approaches to wording effect in mixed-format scales and used bi-factor item response theory (IRT) models to…

  1. Single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are useful for assessing burnout in medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Colin P; Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2009-12-01

    Burnout has negative effects on work performance and patient care. The current standard for burnout assessment is the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), a well-validated instrument consisting of 22 items answered on a 7-point Likert scale. However, the length of the MBI can limit its utility in physician surveys. To evaluate the performance of two questions relative to the full MBI for measuring burnout. Cross-sectional data from 2,248 medical students, 333 internal medicine residents, 465 internal medicine faculty, and 7,905 practicing surgeons. The single questions with the highest factor loading on the emotional exhaustion (EE) ("I feel burned out from my work") and depersonalization (DP) ("I have become more callous toward people since I took this job") domains of burnout were evaluated in four large samples of medical students, internal medicine residents, internal medicine faculty, and practicing surgeons. Spearman correlations between the single EE question and the full EE domain score minus that question ranged from 0.76-0.83. Spearman correlations between the single DP question and the full DP domain score minus that question ranged from 0.61-0.72. Responses to the single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization stratified risk of high burnout in the relevant domain on the full MBI, with consistent patterns across the four sampled groups. Single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization provide meaningful information on burnout in medical professionals.

  2. Passive imputation and parcel summaries are both valid to handle missing items in studies with many multi-item scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhout, Iris; de Vet, Henrica Cw; de Boer, Michiel R; Twisk, Jos Wr; Heymans, Martijn W

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies showed that missing data in multi-item scales can best be handled by multiple imputation of item scores. However, when many scales are used, the number of items will become too large for the imputation model to reliably estimate imputations. A solution is to use passive imputation or a parcel summary score that combine and consequently reduce the number of variables in the imputation model. The performance of these methods was evaluated in a simulation study and illustrated in an example. Passive imputation, which updated scale scores from imputed items, and parcel summary scores that use the average over available item scores were compared to using all items simultaneously, imputing total scores of scales and complete-case analysis. Scale scores and coefficient estimates from linear regression were compared to "true" parameters on bias and precision. Passive imputation and using parcel summaries showed smaller bias and more precision than imputing total scores and complete-case analyses. Passive imputation or using parcel summary scores are valid missing data solutions in studies that include many multi-item scales.

  3. Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC) in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Serrano-Parra, María D; Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, Raquel; García-Campayo, Javier; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2011-08-05

    The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC) is an instrument for measuring resilience that has shown good psychometric properties in its original version in English. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in young adults and to verify whether it is structured in a single dimension as in the original English version. Cross-sectional observational study including 681 university students ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The number of latent factors in the 10 items of the scale was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify whether a single factor underlies the 10 items of the scale as in the original version in English. The convergent validity was analyzed by testing whether the mean of the scores of the mental component of SF-12 (MCS) and the quality of sleep as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (PSQI) were higher in subjects with better levels of resilience. The internal consistency of the 10-item CD-RISC was estimated using the Cronbach α test and test-retest reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient.The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.85 and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71. The mean MCS score and the level of quality of sleep in both men and women were significantly worse in subjects with lower resilience scores. The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC showed good psychometric properties in young adults and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring resilience. Our study confirmed that a single factor underlies the resilience construct, as was the case of the original scale in English.

  4. Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Campayo Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC is an instrument for measuring resilience that has shown good psychometric properties in its original version in English. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in young adults and to verify whether it is structured in a single dimension as in the original English version. Findings Cross-sectional observational study including 681 university students ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The number of latent factors in the 10 items of the scale was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify whether a single factor underlies the 10 items of the scale as in the original version in English. The convergent validity was analyzed by testing whether the mean of the scores of the mental component of SF-12 (MCS and the quality of sleep as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (PSQI were higher in subjects with better levels of resilience. The internal consistency of the 10-item CD-RISC was estimated using the Cronbach α test and test-retest reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.85 and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71. The mean MCS score and the level of quality of sleep in both men and women were significantly worse in subjects with lower resilience scores. Conclusions The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC showed good psychometric properties in young adults and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring resilience. Our study confirmed that a single factor underlies the resilience construct, as was the case of the original scale in English.

  5. Item-Level Psychometrics of the Glasgow Outcome Scale: Extended Structured Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ickpyo; Li, Chih-Ying; Velozo, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) structured interview captures critical components of activities and participation, including home, shopping, work, leisure, and family/friend relationships. Eighty-nine community dwelling adults with mild-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) were recruited (average = 2.7 year post injury). Nine items of the 19 items were used for the psychometrics analysis purpose. Factor analysis and item-level psychometrics were investigated using the Rasch partial-credit model. Although the principal components analysis of residuals suggests that a single measurement factor dominates the measure, the instrument did not meet the factor analysis criteria. Five items met the rating scale criteria. Eight items fit the Rasch model. The instrument demonstrated low person reliability (0.63), low person strata (2.07), and a slight ceiling effect. The GOSE demonstrated limitations in precisely measuring activities/participation for individuals after TBI. Future studies should examine the impact of the low precision of the GOSE on effect size. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. A scale purification procedure for evaluation of differential item functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, Muhammad Naveed; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Item bias or differential item functioning (DIF) has an important impact on the fairness of psychological and educational testing. In this paper, DIF is seen as a lack of fit to an item response (IRT) model. Inferences about the presence and importance of DIF require a process of so-called test

  7. The local reliability of the 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale: An item response theory (IRT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina; Pigliautile, Martina; Ercolani, Sara; Della Staffa, Manuela Conestabile; Longo, Annalisa; Boccardi, Virginia; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2017-05-01

    The 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) is a self-report screening instrument widely used. The current study aimed at providing evidence of the measurement precision of the GDS-15 applying Item Response Theory (IRT). The relative contribution of each item and the reliability of the whole scale in measuring the trait level around the cutoffs were investigated employing data collected from a sample consisting of 1344 old people (M=76.44years, SD=5.13; 58.7% women) involved in a large gerontological research project. The unidimensional two-parameter (2PL) logistic model was employed to item estimate location and slope parameters as well as the Test Information Function (TIF). Nine out of fifteen items were located around the cutoffs and the slopes showed that the majority of the items had substantial discrimination ability. The TIF peaked in correspondence of the cutoffs attesting the good local reliability of the scale. These findings support to the utility of the GDS-15 in detecting depression among older people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the “Short Five” personality inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; García Velázquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku; Walkowitz, Gari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item “Short Five” (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model) in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China), and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours), there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the full version

  9. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the "Short Five" personality inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenn Konstabel

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item "Short Five" (S5 by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China, and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours, there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the

  10. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the "Short Five" personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; García Velázquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku; Walkowitz, Gari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item "Short Five" (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model) in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China), and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours), there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the full version of

  11. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension : Single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Twisk, W.R.; Heymans, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP.

  12. A Comparison of Item-Level and Scale-Level Multiple Imputation for Questionnaire Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Amanda C.; West, Stephen G.; Enders, Craig K.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral science researchers routinely use scale scores that sum or average a set of questionnaire items to address their substantive questions. A researcher applying multiple imputation to incomplete questionnaire data can either impute the incomplete items prior to computing scale scores or impute the scale scores directly from other scale…

  13. Dependability of Two Scaling Approaches to Direct Behavior Rating Multi-Item Scales Assessing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the dependability of two scaling approaches for using a five-item Direct Behavior Rating multi-item scale to assess student disruptive behavior. A series of generalizability theory studies were used to compare a traditional frequency-based scaling approach with an approach wherein the informant compares a target student's…

  14. Differential item functioning in the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng; Liu, Yuanyuan; Teresi, Jeanne A; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G

    2017-08-01

    Test if differential item functioning due to gender, age, race/ethnicity, or education impacts Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale scores. Testing rating scales for differential item functioning is a core validation step. If differential item functioning exists, interpretation of item scores must consider secondary influences on dyskinesia ratings. Using Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale translation databases (N = 3,132), we tested uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning. We required confirmation by two independent methods and considered differential item functioning pertinent if McFadden pseudo R 2 magnitude statistics exceeded negligible ratings. No age, race/ethnicity, or education nonuniform differential item functioning was identified. Gender nonuniform differential item functioning occurred for 2 items, both with negligible magnitude. Gender, race, and education uniform differential item functioning was observed for multiple items, all with negligible magnitude. The Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale items effectively capture dyskinesia severity without pertinent gender, age, race/ ethnicity, or education influence. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Factorial and Item-Level Invariance of an Emotional Intelligence Scale across Groups of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuang; Kim, Do-Hong; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the factorial and item-level invariance of Wong and Law's emotional intelligence scale (WLEIS) in a sample of 375 international students in U.S. universities. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and differential item functioning (DIF) analysis were employed at the test and item level, respectively. International students from…

  16. Developing a Strategy for Using Technology-Enhanced Items in Large-Scale Standardized Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, William

    2017-01-01

    As large-scale standardized tests move from paper-based to computer-based delivery, opportunities arise for test developers to make use of items beyond traditional selected and constructed response types. Technology-enhanced items (TEIs) have the potential to provide advantages over conventional items, including broadening construct measurement,…

  17. A Multilevel Bayesian Item Response Theory Method for Scaling Socioeconomic Status in International Studies of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Henry

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a new method is presented and implemented for deriving a scale of socioeconomic status (SES) from international survey data using a multilevel Bayesian item response theory (IRT) model. The proposed model incorporates both international anchor items and nation-specific items and is able to (a) produce student family SES scores…

  18. Meta-analytic guidelines for evaluating single-item reliabilities of personality instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörrle, Matthias; Bekk, Magdalena

    2014-06-01

    Personality is an important predictor of various outcomes in many social science disciplines. However, when personality traits are not the principal focus of research, for example, in global comparative surveys, it is often not possible to assess them extensively. In this article, we first provide an overview of the advantages and challenges of single-item measures of personality, a rationale for their construction, and a summary of alternative ways of assessing their reliability. Second, using seven diverse samples (Ntotal = 4,263) we develop the SIMP-G, the German adaptation of the Single-Item Measures of Personality, an instrument assessing the Big Five with one item per trait, and evaluate its validity and reliability. Third, we integrate previous research and our data into a first meta-analysis of single-item reliabilities of personality measures, and provide researchers with guidelines and recommendations for the evaluation of single-item reliabilities. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Building an Evaluation Scale using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, John P; Wu, Hao; Yu, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of NLP methods requires testing against a previously vetted gold-standard test set and reporting standard metrics (accuracy/precision/recall/F1). The current assumption is that all items in a given test set are equal with regards to difficulty and discriminating power. We propose Item Response Theory (IRT) from psychometrics as an alternative means for gold-standard test-set generation and NLP system evaluation. IRT is able to describe characteristics of individual items - their difficulty and discriminating power - and can account for these characteristics in its estimation of human intelligence or ability for an NLP task. In this paper, we demonstrate IRT by generating a gold-standard test set for Recognizing Textual Entailment. By collecting a large number of human responses and fitting our IRT model, we show that our IRT model compares NLP systems with the performance in a human population and is able to provide more insight into system performance than standard evaluation metrics. We show that a high accuracy score does not always imply a high IRT score, which depends on the item characteristics and the response pattern.

  20. A single-item global job satisfaction measure is associated with quantitative blood immune indices in white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori; Irie, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Although a single-item job satisfaction measure has been shown to be reliable and inclusive as multiple-item scales in relation to health, studies including immunological data are few. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of single-item job and family life satisfaction based on its association with immune indices. A total of 189 white-collar employees (70% men) underwent a blood draw for the measurement of natural killer (NK), total T, and B cell counts as well as plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentrations and completed single-item job and family life satisfaction measures, respectively. The response options for satisfaction measures were 'dissatisfied' (coded 1) to 'satisfied' (coded 4). Spearman's partial correlations controlling for cofactors revealed that increased job satisfaction was positively associated with NK cells (rsp=0.201, p=0.007) and IgG (rsp=0.178, p=0.018), while family life satisfaction was unrelated to immune indices. Those who reported a combination of low job/low family life satisfaction had significantly lower NK and higher B cell counts than those with a high job/high family life satisfaction. Our study suggests that the single-item summary measure of job satisfaction, but not family life satisfaction, may be a valid tool to evaluate immune status in healthy white-collar employees.

  1. Geriatric Anxiety Scale: item response theory analysis, differential item functioning, and creation of a ten-item short form (GAS-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anne E; Segal, Daniel L; Gavett, Brandon; Marty, Meghan A; Yochim, Brian; June, Andrea; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2015-07-01

    The Geriatric Anxiety Scale (GAS; Segal et al. (Segal, D. L., June, A., Payne, M., Coolidge, F. L. and Yochim, B. (2010). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 709-714. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.002) is a self-report measure of anxiety that was designed to address unique issues associated with anxiety assessment in older adults. This study is the first to use item response theory (IRT) to examine the psychometric properties of a measure of anxiety in older adults. A large sample of older adults (n = 581; mean age = 72.32 years, SD = 7.64 years, range = 60 to 96 years; 64% women; 88% European American) completed the GAS. IRT properties were examined. The presence of differential item functioning (DIF) or measurement bias by age and sex was assessed, and a ten-item short form of the GAS (called the GAS-10) was created. All GAS items had discrimination parameters of 1.07 or greater. Items from the somatic subscale tended to have lower discrimination parameters than items on the cognitive or affective subscales. Two items were flagged for DIF, but the impact of the DIF was negligible. Women scored significantly higher than men on the GAS and its subscales. Participants in the young-old group (60 to 79 years old) scored significantly higher on the cognitive subscale than participants in the old-old group (80 years old and older). Results from the IRT analyses indicated that the GAS and GAS-10 have strong psychometric properties among older adults. We conclude by discussing implications and future research directions.

  2. Single-Item Measurement of Suicidal Behaviors: Validity and Consequences of Misclassification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Millner

    Full Text Available Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although research has made strides in better defining suicidal behaviors, there has been less focus on accurate measurement. Currently, the widespread use of self-report, single-item questions to assess suicide ideation, plans and attempts may contribute to measurement problems and misclassification. We examined the validity of single-item measurement and the potential for statistical errors. Over 1,500 participants completed an online survey containing single-item questions regarding a history of suicidal behaviors, followed by questions with more precise language, multiple response options and narrative responses to examine the validity of single-item questions. We also conducted simulations to test whether common statistical tests are robust against the degree of misclassification produced by the use of single-items. We found that 11.3% of participants that endorsed a single-item suicide attempt measure engaged in behavior that would not meet the standard definition of a suicide attempt. Similarly, 8.8% of those who endorsed a single-item measure of suicide ideation endorsed thoughts that would not meet standard definitions of suicide ideation. Statistical simulations revealed that this level of misclassification substantially decreases statistical power and increases the likelihood of false conclusions from statistical tests. Providing a wider range of response options for each item reduced the misclassification rate by approximately half. Overall, the use of single-item, self-report questions to assess the presence of suicidal behaviors leads to misclassification, increasing the likelihood of statistical decision errors. Improving the measurement of suicidal behaviors is critical to increase understanding and prevention of suicide.

  3. The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire very short scale: Psychometric properties and development of a one-item temperament scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little research has been conducted on the psychometrics of the very short scale (36 items) of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, and no one-item temperament scale has been tested for use in applied work. In this study, 237 United States caregivers completed a survey to define their child’s behav...

  4. Effect of personality item writing on psychometric properties of ideal-point and likert scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialin; Mead, Alan D

    2014-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate personality item-writing practices and their effect on the psychometric properties of personality items and scales. Personality items were developed based on ideal-point and dominance models, analyzed using the generalized graded unfolding model, and empirically classified as having an ideal-point or dominance form. Results suggested that writing dominance items were slightly easier (more successful) than writing ideal-point items, but this varied slightly by personality dimensions. Of 3 ideal-point item writing tactics, the "neutral" tactic was least successful; success writing "double-barreled" and "average" ideal-point items was comparable to that of dominance items. Three personality scales were then constructed using successful ideal-point and dominance items. Scales constructed using ideal-point items had substantially inferior psychometric properties, including lower score reliability, lower correlations with important criteria, and mixed test information results. However, lower predictive validity of ideal-point scale scores may be due to lower reliability of the scores. Practical and methodological implications were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Improving Measurement Efficiency of the Inner EAR Scale with Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Annika; Ho, Andrew D; Corrales, C Eduardo; Yueh, Bevan; Shin, Jennifer J

    2018-02-01

    Objectives (1) To assess the 11-item Inner Effectiveness of Auditory Rehabilitation (Inner EAR) instrument with item response theory (IRT). (2) To determine whether the underlying latent ability could also be accurately represented by a subset of the items for use in high-volume clinical scenarios. (3) To determine whether the Inner EAR instrument correlates with pure tone thresholds and word recognition scores. Design IRT evaluation of prospective cohort data. Setting Tertiary care academic ambulatory otolaryngology clinic. Subjects and Methods Modern psychometric methods, including factor analysis and IRT, were used to assess unidimensionality and item properties. Regression methods were used to assess prediction of word recognition and pure tone audiometry scores. Results The Inner EAR scale is unidimensional, and items varied in their location and information. Information parameter estimates ranged from 1.63 to 4.52, with higher values indicating more useful items. The IRT model provided a basis for identifying 2 sets of items with relatively lower information parameters. Item information functions demonstrated which items added insubstantial value over and above other items and were removed in stages, creating a 8- and 3-item Inner EAR scale for more efficient assessment. The 8-item version accurately reflected the underlying construct. All versions correlated moderately with word recognition scores and pure tone averages. Conclusion The 11-, 8-, and 3-item versions of the Inner EAR scale have strong psychometric properties, and there is correlational validity evidence for the observed scores. Modern psychometric methods can help streamline care delivery by maximizing relevant information per item administered.

  6. Scaling Attitude Items Constructed and Scored in the Likert Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David

    1978-01-01

    A generalization of the Rasch model is employed to quantify statements on a scale in the Thurstone tradition, as well as to measure a person's attitudes in the Likert tradition. An illustration of the technique is provided. (JKS)

  7. A proposal for a new Brazilian six-item version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Factor analysis of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS could result in a shorter and easier to handle screening tool. Therefore, the aim of this study was to check and compare the metrics of two different 6-item EPDS subscales. Methods: We administered the EPDS to a total of 3,891 women who had given birth between 1 and 3 months previously. We conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses and plotted receiver-operating characteristics (ROC curves to, respectively, determine construct validity, scale items' fit to the data, and ideal cutoff scores for the short versions. Results: A previously defined 6-item scale did not exhibit construct validity for our sample. Nevertheless, we used exploratory factor analysis to derive a new 6-item scale with very good construct validity. The area under the ROC curve of the new 6-item scale was 0.986 and the ideal cutoff score was ≥ 6. Conclusions: The new 6-item scale has adequate psychometric properties and similar ROC curve values to the10-item version and offers a means of reducing the cost and time taken to administer the instrument.

  8. Dependability and Treatment Sensitivity of Multi-Item Direct Behavior Rating Scales for Interpersonal Peer Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brian; Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Direct behavior rating (DBR) represents a feasible method for monitoring student behavior in the classroom; however, limited work to date has focused on the use of multi-item scales. The purposes of the study were to examine the (a) dependability of data obtained from a multi-item DBR designed to assess peer conflict and (b) treatment sensitivity…

  9. Should Global Items on Student Rating Scales Be Used for Summative Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the simplest indicators of teaching or course effectiveness is student ratings on one or more global items from the entire rating scale. That approach seems intuitively sound and easy to use. Global items have even been recommended by a few researchers to get a quick-read, at-a-glance summary for summative decisions about faculty. The…

  10. Bifactor and Item Response Theory Analyses of Interviewer Report Scales of Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reise, Steven P.; Ventura, Joseph; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Baade, Lyle E.; Gold, James M.; Green, Michael F.; Kern, Robert S.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Seidman, Larry J.; Bilder, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A psychometric analysis of 2 interview-based measures of cognitive deficits was conducted: the 21-item Clinical Global Impression of Cognition in Schizophrenia (CGI-CogS; Ventura et al., 2008), and the 20-item Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS; Keefe et al., 2006), which were administered on 2 occasions to a sample of people with…

  11. Measuring Teacher Educators' Researcherly Disposition: Item Development and Scale Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Hanne; Vanderlinde, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the development of a self-reported measurement instrument--The Teacher Educators' Researcherly Disposition Scale (TERDS)--to improve understanding of teacher educators' researcherly disposition. Teacher educators' researcherly disposition refers to the habit of mind to engage with research--both as consumers and producers--to…

  12. Chemical Transfer (Single Small-Scale) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Chemical Transfer Facility (CTF)  is the only U.S. single small-scale  facility, a single repository for the Army’s...

  13. Comparison of Item Response Theory and Thurstone Methods of Vertical Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burket, George R.; Yen, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    Using simulated data modeled after real tests, a Thurstone method (L. Thurstone, 1925 and later) and three-parameter item response theory were compared for vertical scaling. Neither procedure produced artificial scale shrinkage, and both produced modest scale expansion for one simulated condition. (SLD)

  14. Gender Effect According to Item Directionality on the Perceived Stress Scale for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitchel, W. Dent; Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is critical to rehabilitation practice and research, and self-reports are a commonly used form of assessment. This study examines a gender effect according to item wording on the "Perceived Stress Scale" for adults with multiple sclerosis. Past studies have demonstrated two-factor solutions on this scale and other scales measuring…

  15. Effects of Item Parameter Drift on Vertical Scaling with the Nonequivalent Groups with Anchor Test (NEAT) Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meng; Xin, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored the effects of drifting common items on vertical scaling within the higher order framework of item parameter drift (IPD). The results showed that if IPD occurred between a pair of test levels, the scaling performance started to deviate from the ideal state, as indicated by bias of scaling. When there were two items drifting…

  16. Stability of the Spanish version of the five-item Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Tapia, Giskar Alonso; Cogollo, Zuleima; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish test-retest reliability of a Spanish version of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity (Campo-Arias, Oviedo, & Cogollo, 2009) among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. A group of ninth grade students from two public schools in Colombia (N = 157) completed the five-item scale. Cronbach's alphas were .74 and .76 in the first and second administrations, respectively. Both Pearson's rho and intra-class correlation coefficient were .69. A Spanish translation of the 5-item scale had consistent stability over four weeks.

  17. A Comparison of Developmental Scales Based on Thurstone Methods and Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Valerie S. L.; Pommerich, Mary; Thissen, David

    1998-01-01

    Created a developmental scale for the North Carolina End-of-Grade Mathematics Tests using a subset of identical test forms administered to adjacent grade levels with Thurstone scaling and Item Response Theory methods. Discusses differences in patterns produced. (Author/SLD)

  18. Development and validation of an item response theory-based Social Responsiveness Scale short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Alexandra; Kuhfeld, Megan; Kasari, Connie; McCracken, James T

    2017-09-01

    Research and practice in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely on quantitative measures, such as the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), for characterization and diagnosis. Like many ASD diagnostic measures, SRS scores are influenced by factors unrelated to ASD core features. This study further interrogates the psychometric properties of the SRS using item response theory (IRT), and demonstrates a strategy to create a psychometrically sound short form by applying IRT results. Social Responsiveness Scale analyses were conducted on a large sample (N = 21,426) of youth from four ASD databases. Items were subjected to item factor analyses and evaluation of item bias by gender, age, expressive language level, behavior problems, and nonverbal IQ. Item selection based on item psychometric properties, DIF analyses, and substantive validity produced a reduced item SRS short form that was unidimensional in structure, highly reliable (α = .96), and free of gender, age, expressive language, behavior problems, and nonverbal IQ influence. The short form also showed strong relationships with established measures of autism symptom severity (ADOS, ADI-R, Vineland). Degree of association between all measures varied as a function of expressive language. Results identified specific SRS items that are more vulnerable to non-ASD-related traits. The resultant 16-item SRS short form may possess superior psychometric properties compared to the original scale and emerge as a more precise measure of ASD core symptom severity, facilitating research and practice. Future research using IRT is needed to further refine existing measures of autism symptomatology. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Multiple imputation of multiple multi-item scales when a full imputation model is infeasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumpton, Catrin O; Morris, Tim; Hughes, Dyfrig A; White, Ian R

    2016-01-26

    Missing data in a large scale survey presents major challenges. We focus on performing multiple imputation by chained equations when data contain multiple incomplete multi-item scales. Recent authors have proposed imputing such data at the level of the individual item, but this can lead to infeasibly large imputation models. We use data gathered from a large multinational survey, where analysis uses separate logistic regression models in each of nine country-specific data sets. In these data, applying multiple imputation by chained equations to the individual scale items is computationally infeasible. We propose an adaptation of multiple imputation by chained equations which imputes the individual scale items but reduces the number of variables in the imputation models by replacing most scale items with scale summary scores. We evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approach and compare it with a complete case analysis. We perform a simulation study to compare the proposed method with alternative approaches: we do this in a simplified setting to allow comparison with the full imputation model. For the case study, the proposed approach reduces the size of the prediction models from 134 predictors to a maximum of 72 and makes multiple imputation by chained equations computationally feasible. Distributions of imputed data are seen to be consistent with observed data. Results from the regression analysis with multiple imputation are similar to, but more precise than, results for complete case analysis; for the same regression models a 39% reduction in the standard error is observed. The simulation shows that our proposed method can perform comparably against the alternatives. By substantially reducing imputation model sizes, our adaptation makes multiple imputation feasible for large scale survey data with multiple multi-item scales. For the data considered, analysis of the multiply imputed data shows greater power and efficiency than complete case analysis. The

  20. Fully Polynomial Approximation Schemes for Single-Item Capacitated Economic Lot-Sizing Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.M. van Hoesel; A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractNP-hard cases of the single-item capacitated lot-sizing problem have been the topic of extensive research and continue to receive considerable attention. However, surprisingly few theoretical results have been published on approximation methods for these problems. To the best of our

  1. Psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the 12-item diabetes fatalism scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkarieh-Haraty, Ola; Egede, Leonard E; Abi Kharma, Joelle; Bassil, Maya

    2018-01-01

    There are widespread fatalistic beliefs in Arab countries, especially among individuals with diabetes. However, there is no tool to assess diabetes fatalism in this population. This study describes the processes used to create an Arabic version of the Diabetes Fatalism Scale (DFS) and examine its psychometric properties. A descriptive correlational design was used with a convenience sample of Lebanese adults (N = 274) with type 2 diabetes recruited from a major hospital in Beirut, Lebanon and by snowball sampling. The 12- item Diabetes Fatalism Scale- Arabic (12-item DFS-Ar) was back-translated from the original version, pilot tested on 22 adults with type 2 diabetes and then administered to 274 patients to assess the validity and reliability of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the hypothesized factor structure. Cronbach's alpha was used to test for reliability. CFA supported the existence of the three factor hypothesis of the original DFS scale. The five items measuring "emotional distress" loaded under Factor 1, the four items measuring "spiritual coping" loaded under factor 2 and the last three items measuring "perceived self-efficacy" of the original scale loaded under Factor 3 (p fatalism. Further testing with larger and non-Lebanese Arabic population is needed.

  2. A simulation study provided sample size guidance for differential item functioning (DIF) studies using short scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Neil W; Fayers, Peter M; Aaronson, Neil K; Bottomley, Andrew; de Graeff, Alexander; Groenvold, Mogens; Gundy, Chad; Koller, Michael; Petersen, Morten A; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2009-03-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are increasingly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments, which often include relatively short subscales. Computer simulations were used to explore how various factors including scale length affect analysis of DIF by ordinal logistic regression. Simulated data, representative of HRQoL scales with four-category items, were generated. The power and type I error rates of the DIF method were then investigated when, respectively, DIF was deliberately introduced and when no DIF was added. The sample size, scale length, floor effects (FEs) and significance level were varied. When there was no DIF, type I error rates were close to 5%. Detecting moderate uniform DIF in a two-item scale required a sample size of 300 per group for adequate (>80%) power. For longer scales, a sample size of 200 was adequate. Considerably larger sample sizes were required to detect nonuniform DIF, when there were extreme FEs or when a reduced type I error rate was required. The impact of the number of items in the scale was relatively small. Ordinal logistic regression successfully detects DIF for HRQoL instruments with short scales. Sample size guidelines are provided.

  3. Scoring based on item response theory did not alter the measurement ability of EORTC QLQ-C30 scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Groenvold, Mogens; Aaronson, Neil; Brenne, Elisabeth; Fayers, Peter; Nielsen, Julie Damgaard; Sprangers, Mirjam; Bjorner, Jakob B.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Most health-related quality-of-life questionnaires include multi-item scales. Scale scores are usually estimated as simple sums of the item scores. However, scoring procedures utilizing more information from the items might improve measurement abilities, and thereby reduce

  4. Pittsburgh and Epworth sleep scale items: accuracy of ratings across different reporting periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Joan E; Junghaenel, Doerte U; Schneider, Stefan; Pilosi, John J; Stone, Arthur A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the ecological validity of sleep experience reports across different lengths of reporting periods. The accuracy of item responses on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) across 3-, 7-, and 28-day reporting periods was examined in relation to electronic daily item ratings. Primary care clinic patients (N = 119) were recruited, and were not required to have sleep problems to participate. Analyses found few differences in item scores when electronic daily ratings were compared with recall ratings, regardless of the length of the reporting period. However, within-subjects analyses indicated low levels of accuracy in recall of sleep items for specific days in the last week. Thus, for the purpose of between-subject comparisons, patients generally can provide accurate recall of sleep experiences; studies requiring finer-grained analysis across time and within-subjects require daily diary methodology.

  5. REPAS, a summary rating scale for resistance to passive movement: item selection, reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Vuadens, P; Eickhof, Christel; Arnold, P; Van Kaick, Stefanie; Heise, Kirstin

    2008-01-01

    To establish: (i) item characteristics and item selection for the REPAS; (ii) internal consistency, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the final REPAS version and its subtests; (iii) the association between the REPAS and selected other clinical scales of impairment and activity limitation. Thirty-three neurological patients with central paresis. Two REPAS assessments with a one-week interval by two independent raters. Concurrent assessment of the Motricity Index, Box-and-Block test, Functional Ambulation Category, Timed walking, Barthel Index, Disability Rating Scale, Carer Burden Scale, and Hygiene Score. Twenty-six of 52 REPAS items fulfilled the item selection criteria. The final test version showed a high internal consistency, inter-rater and test-retest reliability (correlation coefficients: 0.87-0.97, no significant difference between raters or with test repetition). Reliability of the arm and leg subtests was substantial (correlation coefficients: arm subtest 0.63-0.98, leg subtest 0.56-0.96). REPAS scores were moderately associated with basic ADL competence and a carer's burden with arm or leg adductor spasticity. The REPAS, arm subtest scores, degree of arm paresis and gross manual dexterity showed a moderately high association. The Ashworth scale-based guidelines assured comparability of test administration and scoring. The REPAS is a reliable and valid summary rating scale for resistance to passive movement.

  6. The Australian Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale (RACES): item response theory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Kaine; Manderson, Lenore

    2016-03-17

    Racism and associated discrimination are pervasive and persistent challenges with multiple cumulative deleterious effects contributing to inequities in various health outcomes. Globally, research over the past decade has shown consistent associations between racism and negative health concerns. Such research confirms that race endures as one of the strongest predictors of poor health. Due to the lack of validated Australian measures of racist attitudes, RACES (Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale) was developed. Here, we examine RACES' psychometric properties, including the latent structure, utilising Item Response Theory (IRT). Unidimensional and Multidimensional Rating Scale Model (RSM) Rasch analyses were utilised with 296 Victorian primary school students and 182 adolescents and 220 adults from the Australian community. RACES was demonstrated to be a robust 24-item three-dimensional scale of Accepting Attitudes (12 items), Racist Attitudes (8 items), and Ethnocentric Attitudes (4 items). RSM Rasch analyses provide strong support for the instrument as a robust measure of racist attitudes in the Australian context, and for the overall factorial and construct validity of RACES across primary school children, adolescents, and adults. RACES provides a reliable and valid measure that can be utilised across the lifespan to evaluate attitudes towards all racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious groups. A core function of RACES is to assess the effectiveness of interventions to reduce community levels of racism and in turn inequities in health outcomes within Australia.

  7. The Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana Scale: Further examination using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Huang, Wenjing; Dvorak, Robert D; Prince, Mark A; Hummer, Justin F

    2017-08-01

    Given recent state legislation legalizing marijuana for recreational purposes and majority popular opinion favoring these laws, we developed the Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana scale (PBSM) to identify strategies that may mitigate the harms related to marijuana use among those young people who choose to use the drug. In the current study, we expand on the initial exploratory study of the PBSM to further validate the measure with a large and geographically diverse sample (N = 2,117; 60% women, 30% non-White) of college students from 11 different universities across the United States. We sought to develop a psychometrically sound item bank for the PBSM and to create a short assessment form that minimizes respondent burden and time. Quantitative item analyses, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with item response theory (IRT) and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF), revealed an item bank of 36 items that was examined for unidimensionality and good content coverage, as well as a short form of 17 items that is free of bias in terms of gender (men vs. women), race (White vs. non-White), ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic), and recreational marijuana use legal status (state recreational marijuana was legal for 25.5% of participants). We also provide a scoring table for easy transformation from sum scores to IRT scale scores. The PBSM item bank and short form associated strongly and negatively with past month marijuana use and consequences. The measure may be useful to researchers and clinicians conducting intervention and prevention programs with young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Item response theory analysis applied to the Spanish version of the Personal Outcomes Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guàrdia-Olmos, J; Carbó-Carreté, M; Peró-Cebollero, M; Giné, C

    2017-11-01

    The study of measurements of quality of life (QoL) is one of the great challenges of modern psychology and psychometric approaches. This issue has greater importance when examining QoL in populations that were historically treated on the basis of their deficiency, and recently, the focus has shifted to what each person values and desires in their life, as in cases of people with intellectual disability (ID). Many studies of QoL scales applied in this area have attempted to improve the validity and reliability of their components by incorporating various sources of information to achieve consistency in the data obtained. The adaptation of the Personal Outcomes Scale (POS) in Spanish has shown excellent psychometric attributes, and its administration has three sources of information: self-assessment, practitioner and family. The study of possible congruence or incongruence of observed distributions of each item between sources is therefore essential to ensure a correct interpretation of the measure. The aim of this paper was to analyse the observed distribution of items and dimensions from the three Spanish POS information sources cited earlier, using the item response theory. We studied a sample of 529 people with ID and their respective practitioners and family member, and in each case, we analysed items and factors using Samejima's model of polytomic ordinal scales. The results indicated an important number of items with differential effects regarding sources, and in some cases, they indicated significant differences in the distribution of items, factors and sources of information. As a result of this analysis, we must affirm that the administration of the POS, considering three sources of information, was adequate overall, but a correct interpretation of the results requires that it obtain much more information to consider, as well as some specific items in specific dimensions. The overall ratings, if these comments are considered, could result in bias. © 2017

  9. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation with college women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M

    2013-01-01

    The 21-item Intuitive Eating Scale (IES; Tylka, 2006) measures individuals' tendency to follow their physical hunger and satiety cues when determining when, what, and how much to eat. While its scores have demonstrated reliability and validity with college women, the IES-2 was developed to improve upon the original version. Specifically, we added 17 positively scored items to the original IES items (which were predominantly negatively scored), integrated an additional component of intuitive eating (Body-Food Choice Congruence), and evaluated its psychometric properties with 1,405 women and 1,195 men across three studies. After we deleted 15 items (due to low item-factor loadings, high cross-loadings, and redundant content), the results supported the psychometric properties of the IES-2 with women and men. The final 23-item IES-2 contained 11 original items and 12 added items. Exploratory and second-order confirmatory factor analyses upheld its hypothesized 4-factor structure (its original 3 factors, plus Body-Food Choice Congruence) and a higher order factor. The IES-2 was largely invariant across sex, although negligible differences on 1 factor loading and 2 item intercepts were detected. Demonstrating validity, the IES-2 total scores and most IES-2 subscale scores were (a) positively related to body appreciation, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life; (b) inversely related to eating disorder symptomatology, poor interoceptive awareness, body surveillance, body shame, body mass index, and internalization of media appearance ideals; and (c) negligibly related to social desirability. IES-2 scores also garnered incremental validity by predicting psychological well-being above and beyond eating disorder symptomatology. The IES-2's applications for empirical research and clinical work are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Psychometric evaluation of the 10-item Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale-Gossop (SOWS-Gossop) in patients undergoing opioid detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Margaret K; Reinders, Stefan; Mannix, Sally; Gullo, Kristen; Gorodetzky, Charles W; Clinch, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)-Gossop is a 10-item questionnaire developed to evaluate opioid withdrawal symptom severity. The scale was derived from the original 32-item Opiate Withdrawal Scale in order to reduce redundancy while providing an equally sensitive measure of opioid withdrawal symptom severity appropriate for research and clinical practice. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and provide score interpretation guidelines for the SOWS-Gossop 10-item version. Blinded, pooled data from two trials assessing the efficacy of lofexidine hydrochloride in reducing withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing opioid detoxification were used to evaluate the quantitative psychometric properties and score interpretation of the SOWS-Gossop. Five hundred fifty-five (N=555) observations were available at baseline with numbers decreasing to n=213 at day 7. Mean (standard deviation) SOWS-Gossop scores were 10.4 (6.86) at baseline, 8.7 (6.49) on day 1, 10.5 (7.21) on day 2, and 3.1 (3.95) on day 7. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the SOWS-Gossop items loaded on a single factor consistent with a single total score. Intra-class correlations (95% confidence interval) were 0.78 (0.70-0.85) between baseline and day 1, 0.84 (0.79-0.89) between days 4 and 5, and 0.88 (0.83-0.91) between days 6 and 7, demonstrating good test-retest reliability. Mean SOWS-Gossop scores varied significantly (popioid withdrawal and has excellent psychometric properties. The SOWS-Gossop is an appropriate, precise, and sensitive measure to evaluate the symptoms of acute opioid withdrawal in research or clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Internal consistency of a five-item form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity among adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Cogollo, Zuleima

    2009-04-01

    The short form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity (L. J. Francis, 1992) is a 7-item Likert-type scale that shows high homogeneity among adolescents. The psychometric performance of a shorter version of this scale has not been explored. The authors aimed to determine the internal consistency of a 5-item form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity among 405 students from a school in Cartagena, Colombia. The authors computed the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 5 items with a greater corrected item-total punctuation correlation. The version without Items 2 and 7 showed internal consistency of .87. The 5-item version of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity exhibited higher internal consistency than did the 7-item version. Future researchers should corroborate this finding.

  12. Psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the 12-item diabetes fatalism scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Sukkarieh-Haraty

    Full Text Available There are widespread fatalistic beliefs in Arab countries, especially among individuals with diabetes. However, there is no tool to assess diabetes fatalism in this population. This study describes the processes used to create an Arabic version of the Diabetes Fatalism Scale (DFS and examine its psychometric properties.A descriptive correlational design was used with a convenience sample of Lebanese adults (N = 274 with type 2 diabetes recruited from a major hospital in Beirut, Lebanon and by snowball sampling. The 12- item Diabetes Fatalism Scale- Arabic (12-item DFS-Ar was back-translated from the original version, pilot tested on 22 adults with type 2 diabetes and then administered to 274 patients to assess the validity and reliability of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test the hypothesized factor structure. Cronbach's alpha was used to test for reliability.CFA supported the existence of the three factor hypothesis of the original DFS scale. The five items measuring "emotional distress" loaded under Factor 1, the four items measuring "spiritual coping" loaded under factor 2 and the last three items measuring "perceived self-efficacy" of the original scale loaded under Factor 3 (p <0.001 for all three subscales. Goodness of fit indices confirmed adequateness of the CFA model (CFI = 0.97, TLI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.067 and pclose = 0.05. The 12-item DFS-Ar showed good reliability (Cronbach's alpha of 0.86 and significantly predicted HbA1c (β = 0.20, p < 0.01. After adjusting for the demographic characteristics and the number of diabetes comorbid conditions, the 12-item DFS-Ar score was independently associated with HbA1c in a multivariable model (β = 0.16, p < 0.05.The 12-item DFS-Ar demonstrated good psychometric properties that are comparable to the original scale. It is a valid and reliable measure of diabetes fatalism. Further testing with larger and non-Lebanese Arabic population is needed.

  13. The Matching Criterion Purification for Differential Item Functioning Analyses in a Large-Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyeSun; Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the impact of matching criterion purification on the accuracy of differential item functioning (DIF) detection in large-scale assessments. The three matching approaches for DIF analyses (block-level matching, pooled booklet matching, and equated pooled booklet matching) were employed with the Mantel-Haenszel…

  14. Do Personality Scale Items Function Differently in People with High and Low IQ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiyavutti, Chakadee; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence differences might contribute to true differences in personality traits. It is also possible that intelligence might contribute to differences in understanding and interpreting personality items. Previous studies have not distinguished clearly between these possibilities. Before it can be accepted that scale score differences actually…

  15. The Long-Term Sustainability of Different Item Response Theory Scaling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lisa A.; Keller, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the accuracy of examinee classification into performance categories and the estimation of the theta parameter for several item response theory (IRT) scaling techniques when applied to six administrations of a test. Previous research has investigated only two administrations; however, many testing programs equate tests…

  16. A 6-item scale for overall, emotional and social loneliness: confirmatory tests on survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; van Tilburg, T.

    2006-01-01

    Loneliness is an indicator of social well-being and pertains to the feeling of missing an intimate relationship (emotional loneliness) or missing a wider social network (social loneliness). The 11-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale has proved to be a valid and reliable measurement instrument for

  17. A six-item scale for overall, emotional and social loneliness: Confirmatory tests on survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Gierveld, J.; van Tilburg, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Loneliness is an indicator of social well-being and pertains to the feeling of missing an intimate relationship (emotional loneliness) or missing a wider social network (social loneliness). The 11-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale has proved to be a valid and reliable measurement instrument for

  18. A 6-item scale for overall, emotional, and social loneliness: Confirmatory tests on survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Gierveld, J.; van Tilburg, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Loneliness is an indicator of social well-being and pertains to the feeling of missing an intimate relationship (emotional loneliness) or missing a wider social network (social loneliness). The 11-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale has proved to be a valid and reliable measurement instrument for

  19. A simulation study provided sample size guidance for differential item functioning (DIF) studies using short scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Neil W.; Fayers, Peter M.; Bottomley, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are increasingly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments, which often include relatively short subscales. Computer simulations were used to explore how various factors including scale length affect analysis of DIF by ordinal...

  20. A simulation study provided sample size guidance for differential item functioning (DIF) studies using short scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Neil W.; Fayers, Peter M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Bottomley, Andrew; de Graeff, Alexander; Groenvold, Mogens; Gundy, Chad; Koller, Michael; Petersen, Morten A.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are increasingly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments, which often include relatively short subscales. Computer simulations were used to explore how various factors including scale length affect analysis of DIF by

  1. A simulation study provided sample size guidance for differential item functioning (DIF) studies using short scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Neil W.; Fayers, Peter M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Bottomley, Andrew; de Graeff, Alexander; Groenvold, Mogens; Gundy, Chad; Koller, Michael; Petersen, Morten A.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    Objective: Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are increasingly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments, which often include relatively short subscales. Computer simulations were used to explore how various factors including scale length affect analysis of DIF by

  2. An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Community of Inquiry Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Barış Horzum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine validity and reliability of Community of Inquiry Scale commonly used in online learning by the means of Item Response Theory. For this purpose, Community of Inquiry Scale version 14 is applied on 1,499 students of a distance education center’s online learning programs at a Turkish state university via internet. The collected data is analyzed by using a statistical software package. Research data is analyzed in three aspects, which are checking model assumptions, checking model-data fit and item analysis. Item and test features of the scale are examined by the means of Graded Response Theory. In order to use this model of IRT, after testing the assumptions out of the data gathered from 1,499 participants, data model compliance was examined. Following the affirmative results gathered from the examinations, all data is analyzed by using GRM. As a result of the study, the Community of Inquiry Scale adapted to Turkish by Horzum (in press is found to be reliable and valid by the means of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory.

  3. Development and psychometric properties of the 12-item diabetes fatalism scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egede, Leonard E; Ellis, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Diabetes Fatalism Scale (DFS) in adults with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-five items were derived from focus groups, literature review, and expert opinion. The items were pilot tested on 20 adults with diabetes and then administered to 216 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes to assess the validity and reliability of the scale. Exploratory factor analysis (Principal Component Analysis with Varimax rotation) yielded a 12-item scale with three subscales. Pearson's correlation was used to test the DFS's association with diabetes self-care, HbA1c and quality of life. Multiple linear regression was used to assess association between the DFS and HbA1c controlling for demographics, comorbidity and insulin use. Cronbach's alpha for the 12-item DFS scale was 0.804 indicating internal consistency. The DFS is scored in such a way that higher scores represent greater diabetes fatalism. The DFS scores were not significantly correlated with age, years of education, or diabetes duration. Whites, men, those with government or no insurance, and those with 3+ comorbid conditions had significantly higher DFS scores. DFS was significantly correlated with self management understanding (r = -0.35, p fatalism. Diabetes fatalism is associated with self-care problems, poor glycemic control, and decreased quality of life.

  4. Effect of Items Direction (Positive or Negative) on the Reliability in Likert Scale. Paper-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Qasem, Mamun Ali Naji; Bhat, Mehraj Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to analyze the effect of items direction (positive or negative) on the Alpha Cronbach reliability coefficient and the Split Half reliability coefficient in Likert scale. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and sample of 510 undergraduate students were selected by used random sampling…

  5. Revision of the ICIDH Severity of Disabilities Scale by data linking and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Severity of Disabilities Scale (SDS) of the ICIDH reflects the degree to which an individual's ability to perform a certain activity is restricted. This paper describes the application of two models from item response theory (IRT), the graded response model and the partial credit model, in order

  6. Examination of the item structure of the Alberta infant motor scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pai-Jun M; Campbell, Suzann K

    2004-01-01

    The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) is a screening tool for identifying delayed motor development from birth to 18 months of age. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric structure of the AIMS, including the hierarchical scale of items and the precision for measuring infant ability at different ages. Ninety-seven infants with varying degrees of risk of developmental disability were recruited from three hospitals or from the community in the Chicago metropolitan area. Infants were tested on the AIMS at three, six, nine, and 12 months of age. The hierarchical structure and the range and distribution of item difficulty on the AIMS were analyzed using Rasch psychometric analysis. The Rasch analysis confirmed that items for each of the four testing positions (supine, prone, sitting, and standing) were arranged in increasing order of difficulty, but a ceiling effect was present. Gaps exist at six ability levels, indicating low precision of measurement for differentiating among infants after about nine months of age. The AIMS shows a ceiling effect, measures infant ability best from three to nine months of age, and has few items available for discriminating among infants after they pass the controlled lowering through standing item. Clinical impressions should be drawn with caution at ages when the precision of measurement is low.

  7. Mokken scale analysis of mental health and well-being questionnaire item responses: a non-parametric IRT method in empirical research for applied health researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stochl Jan

    2012-06-01

    confirmed that all 14 positively worded items of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS met criteria for the monotone homogeneity model but four items violated double monotonicity with respect to a single underlying dimension. Software availability and commands used to specify unidimensionality and reliability analysis and graphical displays for diagnosing monotone homogeneity and double monotonicity are discussed, with an emphasis on current implementations in freeware.

  8. Mokken scale analysis of mental health and well-being questionnaire item responses: a non-parametric IRT method in empirical research for applied health researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, Jan; Jones, Peter B; Croudace, Tim J

    2012-06-11

    Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) met criteria for the monotone homogeneity model but four items violated double monotonicity with respect to a single underlying dimension.Software availability and commands used to specify unidimensionality and reliability analysis and graphical displays for diagnosing monotone homogeneity and double monotonicity are discussed, with an emphasis on current implementations in freeware.

  9. Concurrent validity of single-item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in burnout assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Colin P; Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Satele, Daniel V; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2012-11-01

    Burnout is a common problem among physicians and physicians-in-training. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is the gold standard for burnout assessment, but the length of this well-validated 22-item instrument can limit its feasibility for survey research. To evaluate the concurrent validity of two questions relative to the full MBI for measuring the association of burnout with published outcomes. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND MAIN MEASURES: The single questions "I feel burned out from my work" and "I have become more callous toward people since I took this job," representing the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization domains of burnout, respectively, were evaluated in published studies of medical students, internal medicine residents, and practicing surgeons. We compared predictive models for the association of each question, versus the full MBI, using longitudinal data on burnout and suicidality from 2006 and 2007 for 858 medical students at five United States medical schools, cross-sectional data on burnout and serious thoughts of dropping out of medical school from 2007 for 2222 medical students at seven United States medical schools, and cross-sectional data on burnout and unprofessional attitudes and behaviors from 2009 for 2566 medical students at seven United States medical schools. We also assessed results for longitudinal data on burnout and perceived major medical errors from 2003 to 2009 for 321 Mayo Clinic Rochester internal medicine residents and cross-sectional data on burnout and both perceived major medical errors and suicidality from 2008 for 7,905 respondents to a national survey of members of the American College of Surgeons. Point estimates of effect for models based on the single-item measures were uniformly consistent with those reported for models based on the full MBI. The single-item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization exhibited strong associations with each published outcome (all p ≤ 0.008). No conclusion regarding

  10. Using personality item characteristics to predict single-item reliability, retest reliability, and self-other agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Reinout Everhard; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri

    2016-01-01

    The use of reliability estimates is increasingly scrutinized as scholars become more aware that test–retest stability and self–other agreement provide a better approximation of the theoretical and practical usefulness of an instrument than its internal reliability. In this study, we investigate item

  11. The importance of rating scale design in the measurement of patient-reported outcomes using questionnaires or item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Jyoti; McAlinden, Colm; Gothwal, Vijaya K; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2012-06-26

    To investigate the effect of rating scale designs (question formats and response categories) on item difficulty calibrations and assess the impact that rating scale differences have on overall vision-related activity limitation (VRAL) scores. Sixteen existing patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) suitable for cataract assessment, with different rating scales, were self-administered by patients on a cataract surgery waiting list. A total of 226 VRAL items from these PROs in their native rating scales were included in an item bank and calibrated using Rasch analysis. Fifteen item/content areas (e.g., reading newspapers) appearing in at least three different PROs were identified. Within each content area, item calibrations were compared and their range calculated. Similarly, five PROs having at least three items in common with the Visual Function (VF-14) were compared in terms of average item measures. A total of 614 patients (mean age ± SD, 74.1 ± 9.4 years) participated. Items with the same content varied in their calibration by as much as two logits; "reading the small print" had the largest range (1.99 logits) followed by "watching TV" (1.60). Compared with the VF-14 (0.00 logits), the rating scale of the Visual Disability Assessment (1.13 logits) produced the most difficult items and the Cataract Symptom Scale (0.24 logits) produced the least difficult items. The VRAL item bank was suboptimally targeted to the ability level of the participants (2.00 logits). Rating scale designs have a significant effect on item calibrations. Therefore, constructing item banks from existing items in their native formats carries risks to face validity and transmission of problems inherent in existing instruments, such as poor targeting.

  12. Item Response Theory analysis of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; Edelen, Maria Orlando; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2015-06-01

    The Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) is composed of 12-symptoms of nicotine dependence. While it has demonstrated excellent reliability and validity, several psychometric properties have yet to be investigated. We aimed to determine (1) whether items functioned differently across demographic groups, (2) the likelihood that individual symptoms would be endorsed by smokers at different levels of diminished autonomy, and (3) the degree of information provided by each item and the reliability of the full AUTOS across the range of diminished autonomy. Data for this study come from two convenience samples of American adult current smokers (n=777; 69% female; 88% white; Mage=34 years, range: 18-78), of whom 66% were daily smokers (Mcigarettes/smoking day=10.1, range: AUTOS online as part of "a research study about the experiences people have when they smoke." After p value correction, items remained invariant across sex and minority status, while two items functioned differently according to age, with minimal impact on the total AUTOS score. Discriminative power of the items was high. The greatest amount of information is provided at just under one-half SD above the mean and the least at the extremes of diminished autonomy. The AUTOS maintains acceptable reliability (>0.70) across the range of diminished autonomy within which more than 95% of smokers' scores could be anticipated to fall. The AUTOS is a versatile and psychometrically sound instrument for measuring the loss of autonomy over tobacco use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A mathematical model for order splitting in a multiple supplier single-item inventory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; Rezapour, Shabnam

    2013-01-01

    The policy of simultaneously splitting replenishment orders among several suppliers has received considerable attention in the last few years and continues to attract the attention of researchers. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model which considers multiple-supplier single-item inventory...... systems. The item acquisition lead times of suppliers are random variables. Backorder is allowed and shortage cost is charged based on not only per unit in shortage but also per time unit. Continuous review (s,Q) policy has been assumed. When the inventory level depletes to a reorder level, the total......, procurement cost, inventory holding cost, and shortage cost, is minimized. We also conduct extensive numerical experiments to show the advantages of our model compared with the models in the literature. According to our extensive experiments, the model developed in this paper is the best model...

  14. A six-item scale for overall, emotional and social loneliness: Confirmatory tests on survey

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong-Gierveld, J.; van Tilburg, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Loneliness is an indicator of social well-being and pertains to the feeling of missing an intimate relationship (emotional loneliness) or missing a wider social network (social loneliness). The 11-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale has proved to be a valid and reliable measurement instrument for overall, emotional, and social loneliness, although its length has sometimes rendered it difficult to use in large surveys. In this study, the authors empirically tested a shortened version of the...

  15. A 6-item scale for overall, emotional, and social loneliness: Confirmatory tests on survey data

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong-Gierveld, J.; van Tilburg, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Loneliness is an indicator of social well-being and pertains to the feeling of missing an intimate relationship (emotional loneliness) or missing a wider social network (social loneliness). The 11-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale has proved to be a valid and reliable measurement instrument for overall, emotional, and social loneliness, although its length has sometimes rendered it difficult to use in large surveys. In this study, the authors empirically tested a shortened version of the...

  16. [Measuring workplace climate: reliability and validity of the 12-item Organizational Climate Scale (OCS-12)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Satoe; Haratani, Takashi; Toshima, Yutaka; Shima, Satoru; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Fukasawa, Kenji; Ohba, Sayo; Sato, Emi; Hirota, Yasuko

    2004-11-01

    In order to investigate the reliability and validity of the short version of the 30-item Organizational Climate Scale (OCS-30; Toshima and Matsuda, 1992, 1995), a self-administered questionnaire was conducted in a sample of 819 employees of two medium-sized private companies in Japan by using the OCS-30, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ), and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The OCS has two subscales, i.e., the Tradition Scale (TS) and the Organizational Environment Scale (OES). The organizational climate perceived by each worker can be grouped into four categories based on the subscale scores: low TS and high OES (Active), high TS and high OES (Governed), low TS and low OES (Disorganized), and high TS and low OES (Reluctant). Principal component analysis for the OCS-30 was submitted (varimax rotation, the number of factors = 2), and 6 items for each factor, with factor loadings greater than 0.50, were selected for the short version, which constituted the 12-item Organizational Climate Scale (OCS-12). Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients of the two subscales of the OCS-12 were acceptable; 0.63 for the TS and 0.71 for the OES. Both two subscales of the OCS-12 were significantly correlated with the GHQ-12 and many subscales of the GJSQ, which indicated the good constructive validity of the OCS-12. Among 4 types of organizational climate categorized by the OCS-12, the "Active" group showed the lowest job stress scores. It is suggested that the OCS-12 could be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing workers' perception of workplace climate.

  17. The development and validation of a novel outcome measure to quantify mobility in the dysvascular lower extremity amputee: the amputee single item mobility measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, Daniel C; Williams, Rhonda M; Turner, Aaron P; Czerniecki, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a novel patient-reported single-item mobility measure. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Four Veteran’s Administration Medical Centers. Subjects: Individuals undergoing their first major unilateral lower extremity amputation; 198 met inclusion criteria; of these, 113 (57%) enrolled. Interventions: None. Main measures: The Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure, a single item measure with scores ranging from 0 to 6, was developed by an expert panel, and concurrently administered with the Locomotor Capabilities Index-5 (LCI-5) and other outcome measures at six weeks, four months, and 12 months post-amputation. Criterion and construct validity, responsiveness, and floor/ceiling effects were evaluated. Responsiveness was assessed using the standardized response mean. Results: The overall mean 12-month Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure score was 3.39 ±1.4. Scores for transmetatarsal, transtibial, and transfemoral amputees were 4.2 (±1.3), 3.2 (±1.5), and 2.9 (±1.1), respectively. Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure scores demonstrated “large” and statistically significant correlations with the LCI-5 scores at six weeks (r = 0.72), four months (r = 0.81), and 12 months (r = 0.86). At four months and 12 months, the correlation between Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure scores and hours of prosthetic use were r = 0.69 and r = 0.66, respectively, and between Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure scores and Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales functional restriction scores were r = 0.45 and r = 0.67, respectively. Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure scores increased significantly from six weeks to 12 months post-amputation. Minimal floor/ceiling effects were demonstrated. Conclusions: In the unilateral dysvascular amputee, the Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure has strong criterion and construct validity, excellent

  18. Pattern analysis of total item score and item response of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Akutagawa, Maiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yutaka, Ono; Furukawa, Toshiaki A

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that total scores on depressive symptom measures in a general population approximate an exponential pattern except for the lower end of the distribution. Furthermore, we confirmed that the exponential pattern is present for the individual item responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). To confirm the reproducibility of such findings, we investigated the total score distribution and item responses of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) in a nationally representative study. Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), which comprises four subsamples: (1) a national random digit dialing (RDD) sample, (2) oversamples from five metropolitan areas, (3) siblings of individuals from the RDD sample, and (4) a national RDD sample of twin pairs. K6 items are scored using a 5-point scale: "none of the time," "a little of the time," "some of the time," "most of the time," and "all of the time." The pattern of total score distribution and item responses were analyzed using graphical analysis and exponential regression model. The total score distributions of the four subsamples exhibited an exponential pattern with similar rate parameters. The item responses of the K6 approximated a linear pattern from "a little of the time" to "all of the time" on log-normal scales, while "none of the time" response was not related to this exponential pattern. The total score distribution and item responses of the K6 showed exponential patterns, consistent with other depressive symptom scales.

  19. Examining the Psychometric Quality of Multiple-Choice Assessment Items using Mokken Scale Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A

    The concept of invariant measurement is typically associated with Rasch measurement theory (Engelhard, 2013). Concerned with the appropriateness of the parametric transformation upon which the Rasch model is based, Mokken (1971) proposed a nonparametric procedure for evaluating the quality of social science measurement that is theoretically and empirically related to the Rasch model. Mokken's nonparametric procedure can be used to evaluate the quality of dichotomous and polytomous items in terms of the requirements for invariant measurement. Despite these potential benefits, the use of Mokken scaling to examine the properties of multiple-choice (MC) items in education has not yet been fully explored. A nonparametric approach to evaluating MC items is promising in that this approach facilitates the evaluation of assessments in terms of invariant measurement without imposing potentially inappropriate transformations. Using Rasch-based indices of measurement quality as a frame of reference, data from an eighth-grade physical science assessment are used to illustrate and explore Mokken-based techniques for evaluating the quality of MC items. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  20. Assessment of Fatigue in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Psychometric Comparison of Single-item, Multiitem, and Multidimensional Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, M.A.H.; Klooster, P.M. ten; Bode, C.; Vonkeman, H.E.; Glas, C.A.; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.; Albada-Kuipers, I. van; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Laar, M.A. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychometric functioning of multidimensional disease-specific, multiitem generic, and single-item measures of fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and longitudinal item response theory (IRT) modeling were used to

  1. Assessment of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis: a psychometric comparison of single-item, multiitem, and multidimensional measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, Antonius H.; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Bode, Christina; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Jansen, Tim; van Albeda-Kuijpers, Iet; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychometric functioning of multidimensional disease-specific, multiitem generic, and single-item measures of fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and longitudinal item response theory (IRT) modeling were used to

  2. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) and Subsequent Bias in Group Comparisons using a Composite Measurement Scale: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Coste, Joel

    To determine the conditions in which the estimation of a difference between groups for a construct evaluated using a composite measurement scale is biased if the presence of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is not taken into account. Datasets were generated using the Partial Credit Model to simulate 642 realistic scenarios. The effect of seven factors on the bias on the estimated difference between groups was evaluated using ANOVA: sample size, true difference between groups, number of items in the scale, proportion of items showing DIF, DIF-size for these items, position of these items location parameters along the latent trait, and uniform/non-uniform DIF. For uniform DIF, only the DIF-size and the proportion of items showing DIF (and their interaction term) had meaningful effects. The effect of non-uniform DIF was negligible. The measurement bias resulting from DIF was quantified in various realistic conditions of composite measurement scale use.

  3. Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility in Gambling Industry: Multi-Items Stakeholder Based Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ming Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Macau gambling companies included Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR information in their annual reports and websites as a marketing tool. Responsible Gambling (RG had been a recurring issue in Macau’s chief executive report since 2007 and in many of the major gambling operators’ annual report. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement scale on CSR activities in Macau. Items on the measurement scale were based on qualitative research with data collected from employees in Macau’s gambling industry and academic literature. First and Second Order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used to verify the reliability and validity of the measurement scale. The results of this study were satisfactory and were supported by empirical evidence. This study provided recommendations to gambling stakeholders, including practitioners, government officers, customers and shareholders, and implications to promote CSR practice in Macau gambling industry.

  4. Normalizing Item-Based Collaborative Filter Using Context-Aware Scaled Baseline Predictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Item-based collaborative filter algorithms play an important role in modern commercial recommendation systems (RSs. To improve the recommendation performance, normalization is always used as a basic component for the predictor models. Among a lot of normalizing methods, subtracting the baseline predictor (BLP is the most popular one. However, the BLP uses a statistical constant without considering the context. We found that slightly scaling the different components of the BLP separately could dramatically improve the performance. This paper proposed some normalization methods based on the scaled baseline predictors according to different context information. The experimental results show that using context-aware scaled baseline predictor for normalization indeed gets better recommendation performance, including RMSE, MAE, precision, recall, and nDCG.

  5. 'Do you think you suffer from depression?' Reevaluating the use of a single item question for the screening of depression in older primary care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayalon, Liat; Goldfracht, Margalit; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    to existing depression screening tools. METHODS: A cross sectional sample of 153 older primary care patients. Participants completed several depression-screening measures (e.g. a single depression screen, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Major Depression Inventory, Visual Analogue Scale). Measures were......OBJECTIVES: The majority of older adults seek depression treatment in primary care. Despite impressive efforts to integrate depression treatment into primary care, depression often remains undetected. The overall goal of the present study was to compare a single item screening for depression......: An easy way to detect depression in older primary care patients would be asking the single question, 'do you think you suffer from depression?'...

  6. Validity of a single item food security questionnaire in Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Cao, Zhirong R; Egeland, Grace M

    2014-06-01

    Assess sensitivity and specificity of each of the 18 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) questionnaire items to determine whether a rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible in an Inuit population. Food insecurity prevalence was assessed by the 18-item USDA HFSSM in a randomized sample of Inuit households participating in the Inuit Health Survey and the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. Questions were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (+/2), and total percent accuracy for adult and child food insecurity (yes/no). Child food security items were evaluated for both surveys. For children, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when it was not possible to feed the children a healthy meal because there was not enough money?” had the best performance in both samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 97.3%, respectively, for the Inuit Health Survey, and 88.5% and 95.4% for the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. For adults, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when the food for you and your family just did not last and there was no money to buy more?” demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 93.4%. Rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible and may be a useful tool for health care and social service providers. However, as prevalence and severity of food insecurity change over time, rapid assessment techniques should not replace periodic screening by using the full USDA HFSSM questionnaire.

  7. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): Development and Validation of a 58-Item Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales, and construct validity was established by demonstrating that the DAS could discriminate groups based on parental hearing status, school background, and use of self-labels. Construct validity was further demonstrated through factorial analyses, and findings resulted in a final 58-item measure. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21263041

  8. The Consumer Motivation Scale: A detailed review of item generation, exploration, confirmation, and validation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Barbopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This data article offers a detailed description of analyses pertaining to the development of the Consumer Motivation Scale (CMS, from item generation and the extraction of factors, to confirmation of the factor structure and validation of the emergent dimensions. The established goal structure – consisting of the sub-goals Value for Money, Quality, Safety, Stimulation, Comfort, Ethics, and Social Acceptance – is shown to be related to a variety of consumption behaviors in different contexts and for different products, and should thereby prove useful in standard marketing research, as well as in the development of tailored marketing strategies, and the segmentation of consumer groups, settings, brands, and products.

  9. Fuzzy Decision-Making Approach in Geometric Programming for a Single Item EOQ Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisha Pattnaik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and methods: Fuzzy decision-making approach is allowed in geometric programming for a single item EOQ model with dynamic ordering cost and demand-dependent unit cost. The setup cost varies with the quantity produced/purchased and the modification of objective function with storage area in the presence of imprecisely estimated parameters are investigated.  It incorporates all concepts of a fuzzy arithmetic approach, the quantity ordered, and demand per unit compares both fuzzy geometric programming technique and other models for linear membership functions.  Results and conclusions: Investigation of the properties of an optimal solution allows developing an algorithm whose validity is illustrated through an example problem and the results discu ssed. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied with respect to changes in different parameter values.  

  10. Single-item measure for assessing quality of life in children with drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Lauryn; Widjaja, Elysa; Smith, Mary Lou

    2018-03-01

    The current study investigated the psychometric properties of a single-item quality of life (QOL) measure, the Global Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy question (G-QOLCE), in children with drug-resistant epilepsy. Data came from the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery on Health-Related Quality of Life Study (PESQOL), a multicenter prospective cohort study (n = 118) with observations collected at baseline and at 6 months of follow-up on children aged 4-18 years. QOL was measured with the QOLCE-76 and KIDSCREEN-27. The G-QOLCE was an overall QOL question derived from the QOLCE-76. Construct validity and reliability were assessed with Spearman's correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Responsiveness was examined through distribution-based and anchor-based methods. The G-QOLCE showed moderate (r ≥ 0.30) to strong (r ≥ 0.50) correlations with composite scores, and most subscales of the QOLCE-76 and KIDSCREEN-27 at baseline and 6-month follow-up. The G-QOLCE had moderate test-retest reliability (ICC range: 0.49-0.72) and was able to detect clinically important change in patients' QOL (standardized response mean: 0.38; probability of change: 0.65; Guyatt's responsiveness statistics: 0.62 and 0.78). Caregiver anxiety and family functioning contributed most strongly to G-QOLCE scores over time. Results offer promising preliminary evidence regarding the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the proposed single-item QOL measure. The G-QOLCE is a potentially useful tool that can be feasibly administered in a busy clinical setting to evaluate clinical status and impact of treatment outcomes in pediatric epilepsy.

  11. A Psychometric Analysis of the Italian Version of the eHealth Literacy Scale Using Item Response and Classical Test Theory Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviani, Nicola; Dima, Alexandra Lelia; Schulz, Peter Johannes

    2017-04-11

    The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) is a tool to assess consumers' comfort and skills in using information technologies for health. Although evidence exists of reliability and construct validity of the scale, less agreement exists on structural validity. The aim of this study was to validate the Italian version of the eHealth Literacy Scale (I-eHEALS) in a community sample with a focus on its structural validity, by applying psychometric techniques that account for item difficulty. Two Web-based surveys were conducted among a total of 296 people living in the Italian-speaking region of Switzerland (Ticino). After examining the latent variables underlying the observed variables of the Italian scale via principal component analysis (PCA), fit indices for two alternative models were calculated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The scale structure was examined via parametric and nonparametric item response theory (IRT) analyses accounting for differences between items regarding the proportion of answers indicating high ability. Convergent validity was assessed by correlations with theoretically related constructs. CFA showed a suboptimal model fit for both models. IRT analyses confirmed all items measure a single dimension as intended. Reliability and construct validity of the final scale were also confirmed. The contrasting results of factor analysis (FA) and IRT analyses highlight the importance of considering differences in item difficulty when examining health literacy scales. The findings support the reliability and validity of the translated scale and its use for assessing Italian-speaking consumers' eHealth literacy. ©Nicola Diviani, Alexandra Lelia Dima, Peter Johannes Schulz. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.04.2017.

  12. Dimensionality of the 9-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Gideon P; Henn, Carolina M

    2013-06-01

    Despite wide-spread use, questions remain about the dimensionality of the 9-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). Theoretical underpinnings of the UWES-9 point toward a hierarchical structure with a general factor and three group or primary factors: Dedication, Vigor, and Absorption. To date, researchers have failed to model the general factor, which contributes to the lack of consensus about the dimensionality of the scale. Bi-factor analysis was used to demonstrate the presence of a very strong general factor and, in comparison, two weak group factors. The results shed additional light on the meaning of the work engagement construct. The implications for research with the UWES-9 are discussed.

  13. Psychometric evaluation and normative data of the Swedish version of the 10-item perceived stress scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Maria; Nordin, Steven

    2013-12-01

    The perceived stress scale (PSS) has been translated to several languages and validated in many cultures. The longer 14-item version (PSS-14), has been translated to Swedish and validated for Swedish use. However, the Swedish version of the shorter 10-item version (PSS-10) has not been validated before. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Swedish version of the PSS-10 with regard to reliability and validity, and to provide normative data. Data from 3,406 individuals who took part in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden were used. The respondents constitute a random sample, aged 18 to 79 years, and stratified for age and sex. They responded to the Swedish version of the PSS-10 as well as to the hospital anxiety and depression scale, and the Shirom Melamed burnout questionnaire for assessment of construct validity. The results show that the PSS-10 provides approximately normally distributed data, has good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.84), and has good construct validity with anxiety (r = 0.68), depression (r = 0.57), and mental/physical exhaustion (r = 0.71). The favorable psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the PSS-10 suggest use of the instrument for assessing perceived stress in Swedish and similar populations. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  14. PROMIS Pediatric Peer Relationships Scale: development of a peer relationships item bank as part of social health measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewalt, Darren A; Thissen, David; Stucky, Brian D; Langer, Michelle M; Morgan Dewitt, Esi; Irwin, Debra E; Lai, Jin-Shei; Yeatts, Karin B; Gross, Heather E; Taylor, Olivia; Varni, James W

    2013-10-01

    This study's objective was to develop a measure of social health using item response theory as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). After candidate items were generated from review of prior literature, focus groups, expert input, and cognitive interviews, items were administered to youth aged 8-17 as part of the PROMIS pediatric large scale testing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess dimensionality and to identify instances of local dependence. Items that met the unidimensionality criteria were subsequently calibrated using Samejima's Graded Response Model. Differential item functioning was examined by gender and age. The sample included 3,048 youth who completed the questionnaire (51.8% female, 60% white, and 22.7% with chronic illness). The initial conceptualization of social function and sociability did not yield unidimensional item banks. Rather, factor analysis revealed dimensions contrasting peer relationships and adult relationships. The analysis also identified dimensions formed by responses to positively versus negatively worded items. The resulting 15-item bank measures quality of peer relationships and has strong psychometric characteristics as a full bank or an 8-item short form. The PROMIS pediatric peer relationships scale demonstrates good psychometric characteristics and addresses an important aspect of child health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Five-Item Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity: Construct and Nomological Validity and Internal Consistency among Colombian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Guillermo A.; Suescun, Jesus D.; Oviedo, Heidi C.; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish version of the five-item Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity is a refinement of the short version of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity. The scale is a good measurement for intrinsic religiosity. It has been applied previously among Colombian adolescent students. The internal consistency and construct and…

  16. A one-item question with a Likert or Visual Analog Scale adequately measured current anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Heather M; Barratt, Alexandra L; Butow, Phyllis N; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2007-04-01

    To determine whether a single question with a Likert Scale or a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) response adequately measures current anxiety. Consecutive English-speaking adult women attending a dedicated breast clinic in a major Australian city were invited to complete a demographic questionnaire, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and a single question with a five-point Likert Scale response and a VAS in random order. Only women who completed the STAI were included in analyses. Four hundred of 497 (80%) eligible women agreed to participate. Both measures were adequate predictors of the STAI score; correlation with STAI was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.82) for the VAS and 0.75 (95% CI 0.70-0.79) for the Likert Scale. However, 11% of women incorrectly completed the VAS limiting its usefulness. A single question with either a Likert Scale or VAS response may be an adequate replacement for the STAI. Both measures quickly and easily assess anxiety and may be useful for research purposes when researchers have very limited time or questionnaire space or need to reduce the burden on participants of completing many measures.

  17. Criterion validity of 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale in patients with asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Janežič

    Full Text Available The 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 is reliable and valid in patients with hypertension, but to our knowledge validity has not been established for patients with asthma. The aim of the study was to determine the criterion validity of the MMAS-8 in patients with asthma. In the cross-sectional study patients older than 12 year were recruited when dispensed asthma medications in community pharmacies. Criterion validity of the scale was assessed through associations with asthma control and quality of life. Asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Test (ACT and quality of life was evaluated by the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. A total of 208 patients (mean age 56 years, 59% female were included in the study. Almost all patients were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids (96%. Asthma was not controlled in 37% of the patients and 22% experienced at least one exacerbation requiring emergency room visit, hospitalization or treatment with oral corticosteroid therapy in the previous year. The 8-item MMAS was significantly associated with asthma control and quality of life. Patients who scored 8 points, 6 points and ≤6 points on the scale were considered to have high, medium and low adherence, respectively. High, medium and low adherence was found in 53%, 23% and 24% of the patients, respectively. As adherence improved from low to medium or from medium to high, the odds of asthma control increased by 1.7 times (OR 1.65, p = 0.027. Patients with high and medium adherence had SGRQ scores that were 6.1 and 5.3 points lower, respectively, compared with patients with low adherence. The MMAS-8 was found to be valid for assessing medication adherence and predicting health outcomes in patients with asthma.

  18. Criterion validity of 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale in patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janežič, Ana; Locatelli, Igor; Kos, Mitja

    2017-01-01

    The 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) is reliable and valid in patients with hypertension, but to our knowledge validity has not been established for patients with asthma. The aim of the study was to determine the criterion validity of the MMAS-8 in patients with asthma. In the cross-sectional study patients older than 12 year were recruited when dispensed asthma medications in community pharmacies. Criterion validity of the scale was assessed through associations with asthma control and quality of life. Asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and quality of life was evaluated by the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). A total of 208 patients (mean age 56 years, 59% female) were included in the study. Almost all patients were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids (96%). Asthma was not controlled in 37% of the patients and 22% experienced at least one exacerbation requiring emergency room visit, hospitalization or treatment with oral corticosteroid therapy in the previous year. The 8-item MMAS was significantly associated with asthma control and quality of life. Patients who scored 8 points, 6 points and ≤6 points on the scale were considered to have high, medium and low adherence, respectively. High, medium and low adherence was found in 53%, 23% and 24% of the patients, respectively. As adherence improved from low to medium or from medium to high, the odds of asthma control increased by 1.7 times (OR 1.65, p = 0.027). Patients with high and medium adherence had SGRQ scores that were 6.1 and 5.3 points lower, respectively, compared with patients with low adherence. The MMAS-8 was found to be valid for assessing medication adherence and predicting health outcomes in patients with asthma.

  19. Validity and usefulness of a single-item measure of patient-reported bother from side effects of cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Timothy P; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Mroczek, Daniel; O'Connor, Mary; Cella, David

    2018-03-01

    The improving efficacy of cancer treatment has resulted in an increasing array of treatment-related symptoms and associated burdens imposed on individuals undergoing aggressive treatment of their disease. Often, clinical trials compare therapies that have different types, and severities, of adverse effects. Whether rated by clinicians or patients themselves, it can be difficult to know which side effect profile is more disruptive or bothersome to patients. A simple summary index of bother can help to adjudicate the variability in adverse effects across treatments being compared with each other. Across 4 studies, a total of 5765 patients enrolled in cooperative group studies and industry-sponsored clinical trials were the subjects of the current study. Patients were diagnosed with a range of primary cancer sites, including bladder, brain, breast, colon/rectum, head/neck, hepatobiliary, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, and prostate as well as leukemia and lymphoma. All patients were administered the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General version (FACT-G). The single item "I am bothered by side effects of treatment" (GP5), rated on a 5-point Likert scale, is part of the FACT-G. To determine its validity as a useful summary measure from the patient perspective, it was correlated with individual and aggregated clinician-rated adverse events and patient reports of their general ability to enjoy life. Analyses of pharmaceutical trials demonstrated that mean GP5 scores ("I am bothered by side effects of treatment") significantly differed by maximum adverse event grade (PEffect sizes ranged from 0.13 to 0.46. Analyses of cooperative group trials demonstrated a significant correlation between GP5 and item GF3 ("I am able to enjoy life") in the predicted direction. The single FACT-G item "I am bothered by side effects of treatment" is significantly associated with clinician-reported adverse events and with patients' ability to enjoy their lives. It has promise as an

  20. Cross-cultural validation of a Chinese translation of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao; Ryder, Andrew G; Taylor, Graeme J; Bagby, R Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a Chinese translation of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20-C) and examine its reliability and factorial validity. The original English version of the TAS-20 was first translated into Chinese and then backtranslated and modified until cross-language equivalence was established. This version was then completed by 870 undergraduate students and 179 clinical patients in China. Internal reliability, retest reliability, and factorial validity were evaluated. The TAS-20-C showed adequate internal and retest reliability in both samples. Average TAS-20-C scores in Chinese samples were slightly higher than, but comparable to, TAS-20 scores in English-speaking Canadian samples; as well, scores were higher in the clinical sample than in the student sample. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis supported the 3-factor structure of the TAS-20 in both samples. The TAS-20-C is a promising instrument for reliable and valid measurement of alexithymia in China.

  1. The Effects of Donepezil on 15-Item Geriatric Depression Scale Structure in Patients with Alzheimer Disease

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    Youngsoon Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In Alzheimer disease (AD, depression is among the most common accompanying neuropsychiatric symptoms and has different clinical manifestations when compared with early-life depression. In patients with drug-naïve AD, we tried to explore the structure of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15 and the effect of donepezil on these substructures. Methods: GDS15, cognitive function, and activities of daily living function tests were administered to 412 patients with probable AD who had not been medicated before visiting the hospital. Using principal component analysis, three factors were identified. The patients with AD who received only donepezil were retrospectively analyzed and we compared the change of cognition and GDS15 subgroup after donepezil medication. Results: Our study identified three factors and revealed that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale. The Barthel index was significantly correlated with factor 1 (positively and factor 2 (negatively. The Korean version of the MMSE (K-MMSE was significantly correlated with factor 2 and factor 3. Compared to the baseline state, K-MMSE and GDS15 showed significant improvement after taking donepezil. Among GDS15 subgroups, factor 2 and factor 3 showed significant improvement after donepezil treatment. Conclusions: These results suggest that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale and donepezil differentially affects the GDS15 subgroup in AD.

  2. The Effects of Donepezil on 15-Item Geriatric Depression Scale Structure in Patients with Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Youngsoon; Kwak, Yong Tae

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer disease (AD), depression is among the most common accompanying neuropsychiatric symptoms and has different clinical manifestations when compared with early-life depression. In patients with drug-naïve AD, we tried to explore the structure of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15) and the effect of donepezil on these substructures. GDS15, cognitive function, and activities of daily living function tests were administered to 412 patients with probable AD who had not been medicated before visiting the hospital. Using principal component analysis, three factors were identified. The patients with AD who received only donepezil were retrospectively analyzed and we compared the change of cognition and GDS15 subgroup after donepezil medication. Our study identified three factors and revealed that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale. The Barthel index was significantly correlated with factor 1 (positively) and factor 2 (negatively). The Korean version of the MMSE (K-MMSE) was significantly correlated with factor 2 and factor 3. Compared to the baseline state, K-MMSE and GDS15 showed significant improvement after taking donepezil. Among GDS15 subgroups, factor 2 and factor 3 showed significant improvement after donepezil treatment. These results suggest that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale and donepezil differentially affects the GDS15 subgroup in AD.

  3. Psychometric validation of the Persian nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short Form: Does gender and hours spent online gaming affect the interpretations of item descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Chung-Ying; Årestedt, Kristofer; Griffiths, Mark D.; Broström, Anders; Pakpour, Amir H.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short Form (IGDS-SF9) is brief and effective to evaluate Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) severity. Although its scores show promising psychometric properties, less is known about whether different groups of gamers interpret the items similarly. This study aimed to verify the construct validity of the Persian IGDS-SF9 and examine the scores in relation to gender and hours spent online gaming among 2,363 Iranian adolescents. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were used to examine the construct validity of the IGDS-SF9. The effects of gender and time spent online gaming per week were investigated by multigroup CFA and Rasch differential item functioning (DIF). Results The unidimensionality of the IGDS-SF9 was supported in both CFA and Rasch. However, Item 4 (fail to control or cease gaming activities) displayed DIF (DIF contrast = 0.55) slightly over the recommended cutoff in Rasch but was invariant in multigroup CFA across gender. Items 4 (DIF contrast = −0.67) and 9 (jeopardize or lose an important thing because of gaming activity; DIF contrast = 0.61) displayed DIF in Rasch and were non-invariant in multigroup CFA across time spent online gaming. Conclusions Given the Persian IGDS-SF9 was unidimensional, it is concluded that the instrument can be used to assess IGD severity. However, users of the instrument are cautioned concerning the comparisons of the sum scores of the IGDS-SF9 across gender and across adolescents spending different amounts of time online gaming. PMID:28571474

  4. Psychometric validation of the Persian nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short Form: Does gender and hours spent online gaming affect the interpretations of item descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Chung-Ying; Årestedt, Kristofer; Griffiths, Mark D; Broström, Anders; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims The nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short Form (IGDS-SF9) is brief and effective to evaluate Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) severity. Although its scores show promising psychometric properties, less is known about whether different groups of gamers interpret the items similarly. This study aimed to verify the construct validity of the Persian IGDS-SF9 and examine the scores in relation to gender and hours spent online gaming among 2,363 Iranian adolescents. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were used to examine the construct validity of the IGDS-SF9. The effects of gender and time spent online gaming per week were investigated by multigroup CFA and Rasch differential item functioning (DIF). Results The unidimensionality of the IGDS-SF9 was supported in both CFA and Rasch. However, Item 4 (fail to control or cease gaming activities) displayed DIF (DIF contrast = 0.55) slightly over the recommended cutoff in Rasch but was invariant in multigroup CFA across gender. Items 4 (DIF contrast = -0.67) and 9 (jeopardize or lose an important thing because of gaming activity; DIF contrast = 0.61) displayed DIF in Rasch and were non-invariant in multigroup CFA across time spent online gaming. Conclusions Given the Persian IGDS-SF9 was unidimensional, it is concluded that the instrument can be used to assess IGD severity. However, users of the instrument are cautioned concerning the comparisons of the sum scores of the IGDS-SF9 across gender and across adolescents spending different amounts of time online gaming.

  5. The European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour scale revised into a nine-item scale (EHFScB-9): a reliable and valid international instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Arestedt, Kristofer Franzén; Mårtensson, Jan; Dracup, Kathleen; Strömberg, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Improved self-care is the goal of many heart failure (HF) management programmes. The 12-item European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale (EHFScB scale) was developed and tested to measure patient self-care behaviours. It is now available in 14 languages. The aim of this study was to further determine reliability and validity of the EHFScB scale. Data from 2592 HF patients (mean age 73 years, 63% male) from six countries were analysed. Internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's alpha. Validity was established by (1) interviews with HF experts and with HF patients; (2) item analysis; (3) confirmatory factor analysis; and (4) analysing the relationship between the EHFScB scale and scales measuring quality of life and adherence. Internal consistency of the 12-item scale was 0.77 (0.71-0.85). After factor analyses and critical evaluation of both psychometric properties and content of separate items, a nine-item version was further evaluated. The reliability estimates for the total nine-item scale (EHFScB-9) was satisfactory (0.80) and Cronbach's alpha varied between 0.68 and 0.87 in the different countries. One reliable subscale was defined (consulting behaviour) with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.85. The EHFScB-9 measures a different construct than quality of life (r = 0.18) and adherence (r = 0.37). The 12-item EHFScB scale was revised into the nine-item EHFScB-9, which can be used as an internally consistent and valid instrument to measure HF-related self-care behaviour.

  6. Working Memory for Sequences of Temporal Durations Reveals a Volatile Single-Item Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Husain, Masud

    2016-01-01

    When a sequence is held in working memory, different items are retained with differing fidelity. Here we ask whether a sequence of brief time intervals that must be remembered show recency effects, similar to those observed in verbal and visuospatial working memory. It has been suggested that prioritizing some items over others can be accounted for by a "focus of attention," maintaining some items in a privileged state. We therefore also investigated whether such benefits are vulnerable to disruption by attention or expectation. Participants listened to sequences of one to five tones, of varying durations (200 ms to 2 s). Subsequently, the length of one of the tones in the sequence had to be reproduced by holding a key. The discrepancy between the reproduced and actual durations quantified the fidelity of memory for auditory durations. Recall precision decreased with the number of items that had to be remembered, and was better for the first and last items of sequences, in line with set-size and serial position effects seen in other modalities. To test whether attentional filtering demands might impair performance, an irrelevant variation in pitch was introduced in some blocks of trials. In those blocks, memory precision was worse for sequences that consisted of only one item, i.e., the smallest memory set-size. Thus, when irrelevant information was present, the benefit of having only one item in memory is attenuated. Finally we examined whether expectation could interfere with memory. On half the trials, the number of items in the upcoming sequence was cued. When the number of items was known in advance, performance was paradoxically worse when the sequence consisted of only one item. Thus the benefit of having only one item to remember is stronger when it is unexpectedly the only item. Our results suggest that similar mechanisms are used to hold auditory time durations in working memory, as for visual or verbal stimuli. Further, solitary items were remembered

  7. Working memory for sequences of temporal durations reveals a volatile single-item store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay G Manohar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available When a sequence is held in working memory, different items are retained with differing fidelity. Here we ask whether a sequence of brief time intervals that must be remembered show recency effects, similar to those observed in verbal and visuospatial working memory. It has been suggested that prioritising some items over others can be accounted for by a focus of attention, maintaining some items in a privileged state. We therefore also investigated whether such benefits are vulnerable to disruption by attention or expectation. Participants listened to sequences of one to five tones, of varying durations (200ms to 2s. Subsequently, the length of one of the tones in the sequence had to be reproduced by holding a key. The discrepancy between the reproduced and actual durations quantified the fidelity of memory for auditory durations. Recall precision decreased with the number of items that had to be remembered, and was better for the first and last items of sequences, in line with set-size and serial position effects seen in other modalities. To test whether attentional filtering demands might impair performance, an irrelevant variation in pitch was introduced in some blocks of trials. In those blocks, memory precision was worse for sequences that consisted of only one item, i.e. the smallest memory set size. Thus, when irrelevant information was present, the benefit of having only one item in memory is attenuated. Finally we examined whether expectation could interfere with memory. On half the trials, the number of items in the upcoming sequence was cued. When the number of items was known in advance, performance was paradoxically worse when the sequence consisted of only one item. Thus the benefit of having only one item to remember is stronger when it is unexpectedly the only item. Our results suggest that similar mechanisms are used to hold auditory time durations in working memory, as for visual or verbal stimuli. Further, solitary items were

  8. Examining the Process of Responding to Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values Items: Should Ideal Point Scoring Methods Be Considered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ying; Zhang, Minqiang; Locke, Kenneth D; Li, Guangming; Li, Zonglong

    2016-01-01

    The Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV) is a 64-item self-report measure of goals from each octant of the interpersonal circumplex. We used item response theory methods to compare whether dominance models or ideal point models best described how people respond to CSIV items. Specifically, we fit a polytomous dominance model called the generalized partial credit model and an ideal point model of similar complexity called the generalized graded unfolding model to the responses of 1,893 college students. The results of both graphical comparisons of item characteristic curves and statistical comparisons of model fit suggested that an ideal point model best describes the process of responding to CSIV items. The different models produced different rank orderings of high-scoring respondents, but overall the models did not differ in their prediction of criterion variables (agentic and communal interpersonal traits and implicit motives).

  9. Inverted items and validity: A psychobiological evaluation of two measures of psychological resources and one depression scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Oskar; Garvin, Peter; Andersson, Gerhard; Jonasson, Lena; Kristenson, Margareta

    2018-01-01

    Psychological resources and risk factors influence risk of coronary heart disease. We evaluated whether inverted items in the Self-esteem, Mastery, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scales compromise validity in the context of coronary heart disease. In a population-based sample, validity was investigated by calculating correlations with other scales (n = 1004) and interleukin-6 (n = 374), and by analyzing the relationship with 8-year coronary heart disease risk (n = 1000). Negative items did not affect the validity of the resource scales. In contrast, positive items from Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression showed no significant relationships with biological variables. However, they had no major impact on the validity of the original scale. PMID:29479456

  10. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  11. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of resilience scale specific to cancer: an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Liang, Mu Zi; Zhang, Hao Wei; Li, Peng Fei; Ouyang, Xue Ren; Yu, Yuan Liang; Liu, Mei Ling; Qiu, Hong Zhong

    2018-03-22

    Classic theory test has been used to develop and validate the 25-item Resilience Scale Specific to Cancer (RS-SC) in Chinese patients with cancer. This study was designed to provide additional information about the discriminative value of the individual items tested with an item response theory analysis. A two-parameter graded response model was performed to examine whether any of the items of the RS-SC exhibited problems with the ordering and steps of thresholds, as well as the ability of items to discriminate patients with different resilience levels using item characteristic curves. A sample of 214 Chinese patients with cancer diagnosis was analyzed. The established three-dimension structure of the RS-SC was confirmed. Several items showed problematic thresholds or discrimination ability and require further revision. Some problematic items should be refined and a short-form of RS-SC maybe feasible in clinical settings in order to reduce burden on patients. However, the generalizability of these findings warrants further investigations.

  12. Differential Item Functioning of the Psychological Domain of the Menopause Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela-Buelvas, Katherin; Oviedo, Heidi C.; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quality of life could be quantified with the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), which evaluates the severity of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in menopause. However, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis has not been applied previously. Objective. To establish the DIF of the psychological domain of the MRS in Colombian women. Methods. 4,009 women aged between 40 and 59 years, who participated in the CAVIMEC (Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia y Etnias Colombianas) project, were included. Average age was 49.0 ± 5.9 years. Women were classified in mestizo, Afro-Colombian, and indigenous. The results were presented as averages and standard deviation (X ± SD). A p value <0.001 was considered statistically significant. Results. In mestizo women, the highest X ± SD were obtained in physical and mental exhaustion (PME) (0.86 ± 0.93) and the lowest ones in anxiety (0.44 ± 0.79). In Afro-Colombian women, an average score of 0.99 ± 1.07 for PME and 0.63 ± 0.88 for anxiety was gotten. Indigenous women obtained an increased average score for PME (1.33 ± 0.93). The lowest score was evidenced in depressive mood (0.50 ± 0.81), which is different from other Colombian women (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The psychological items of the MRS show differential functioning according to the ethnic group, which may induce systematic error in the measurement of the construct. PMID:27847825

  13. Differential Item Functioning of the Psychological Domain of the Menopause Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa-Castro, Alvaro; Portela-Buelvas, Katherin; Oviedo, Heidi C; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quality of life could be quantified with the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), which evaluates the severity of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in menopause. However, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis has not been applied previously. Objective . To establish the DIF of the psychological domain of the MRS in Colombian women. Methods . 4,009 women aged between 40 and 59 years, who participated in the CAVIMEC (Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia y Etnias Colombianas) project, were included. Average age was 49.0 ± 5.9 years. Women were classified in mestizo, Afro-Colombian, and indigenous. The results were presented as averages and standard deviation ( X ± SD). A p value <0.001 was considered statistically significant. Results . In mestizo women, the highest X ± SD were obtained in physical and mental exhaustion (PME) (0.86 ± 0.93) and the lowest ones in anxiety (0.44 ± 0.79). In Afro-Colombian women, an average score of 0.99 ± 1.07 for PME and 0.63 ± 0.88 for anxiety was gotten. Indigenous women obtained an increased average score for PME (1.33 ± 0.93). The lowest score was evidenced in depressive mood (0.50 ± 0.81), which is different from other Colombian women ( p < 0.001). Conclusions . The psychological items of the MRS show differential functioning according to the ethnic group, which may induce systematic error in the measurement of the construct.

  14. Combining item response theory and diagnostic classification models: a psychometric model for scaling ability and diagnosing misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Laine; Templin, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    Traditional testing procedures typically utilize unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models to provide a single, continuous estimate of a student's overall ability. Advances in psychometrics have focused on measuring multiple dimensions of ability to provide more detailed feedback for students, teachers, and other stakeholders. Diagnostic classification models (DCMs) provide multidimensional feedback by using categorical latent variables that represent distinct skills underlying a test that students may or may not have mastered. The Scaling Individuals and Classifying Misconceptions (SICM) model is presented as a combination of a unidimensional IRT model and a DCM where the categorical latent variables represent misconceptions instead of skills. In addition to an estimate of ability along a latent continuum, the SICM model provides multidimensional, diagnostic feedback in the form of statistical estimates of probabilities that students have certain misconceptions. Through an empirical data analysis, we show how this additional feedback can be used by stakeholders to tailor instruction for students' needs. We also provide results from a simulation study that demonstrate that the SICM MCMC estimation algorithm yields reasonably accurate estimates under large-scale testing conditions.

  15. Robustness of two single-item self-esteem measures: cross-validation with a measure of stigma in a sample of psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    Robins' Single-item Self-esteem Inventory was compared with a single item from the Coopersmith Self-esteem. Although a new scoring format was used, there was good evidence of cross-validation in 83 current and former psychiatric patients who completed Harvey's adapted measure of stigma felt and experienced by users of mental health services. Scores on the two single-item self-esteem measures correlated .76 (p self-esteem in users of mental health services.

  16. Structural validity of a 16-item abridged version of the Cervantes Health-Related Quality of Life scale for menopause: the Cervantes Short-Form Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Pluvio J; Borrego, Rafael Sánchez; Palacios, Santiago; Ruiz, Miguel A; Rejas, Javier

    2015-03-01

    The Cervantes Scale is a specific health-related quality of life questionnaire that was originally developed in Spanish to be used in Spain for women through and beyond menopause. It contains 31 items and is time-consuming. The aim of this study was to produce an abridged version with the same dimensional structure and with similar psychometric properties. A representative sample of 516 postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 57 [4.31] y) seen in outpatient gynecology clinics and extracted from an observational cross-sectional study was used. Item analysis, internal consistency reliability, item-total and item-dimension correlations, and item correlation with the 12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey Version 2.0 were studied. Dimensional and full-model confirmatory factor analyses were used to check structure stability. A threefold cross-validation method was used to obtain stable estimates by means of multigroup analysis. The scale was reduced to a 16-item version, the Cervantes Short-Form Scale, containing four main dimensions (Menopause and Health, Psychological, Sexuality, and Couple Relations), with the first dimension composed of three subdimensions (Vasomotor Symptoms, Health, and Aging). Goodness-of-fit statistics were better than those of the extended version (χ(2)/df = 2.493; adjusted goodness-of-fit index, 0.802; parsimony comparative fit index, 0.749; root mean standard error of approximation, 0.054). Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's α = 0.880). Correlations between the extended and the reduced dimensions were high and significant in all cases (P < 0.001; r values ranged from 0.90 for Sexuality to 0.969 for Vasomotor Symptoms). The Cervantes Scale can be reduced to a 16-item abridged version (Cervantes Short-Form Scale) that maintains the original dimensional structure and psychometric properties. At 51% of the original length, this version can be administered faster, making it especially suitable for routine medical practice.

  17. Reliability and validity of the Italian version of the 14-item Resilience Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callegari C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Camilla Callegari,1 Lorenza Bertù,2 Melissa Lucano,1 Marta Ielmini,1 Elena Braggio,1 Simone Vender1 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine – Psychiatric Division, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Centre for Research EPIMED – Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy Background: In recent years resilience has gained clinical relevance in sociological, psychological, and medical disciplines, and a lot of scales measuring resilience have been developed and have been utilized in the western countries. The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14, by describing its validity and reliability. As agreed with the authors of the original English version of the RS-14, it was translated into Italian. Then the standard procedure for back-translation was followed. Methods: In total, 150 participants among the nursing and professional education students of the University of Insubria of Varese and health workers of the “ASST dei Sette Laghi-Ospedale di Circolo” of Varese were enrolled. The responses to the questionnaires were collected only from the students and the health workers between the ages of 18 and 65 years who gave their consent to participate in the study from April to September 2015. A subsample of 26 students and health workers was retested on the RS-14, 5 weeks after the first assessment. The questionnaires were handed out to 214 people, and 150 sets of questionnaires (70% were returned, of which eight were subsequently removed because >60% of the answers were missing. In order to ensure anonymity, every completed questionnaire was identified only via a code. Results: No significant differences were found between the mean values of the resilience scores between women (76.1 and men (76.3, with unpaired t-test = –0.08 and P=0.93. Similarly, no difference between resilience scores were found between

  18. Defining the minimal detectable change in scores on the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Joyce, Cara; Holt, Elizabeth; He, Jiang; Morisky, Donald; Webber, Larry S; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2011-05-01

    Self-report scales are used to assess medication adherence. Data on how to discriminate change in self-reported adherence over time from random variability are limited. To determine the minimal detectable change for scores on the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). The MMAS-8 was administered twice, using a standard telephone script, with administration separated by 14-22 days, to 210 participants taking antihypertensive medication in the CoSMO (Cohort Study of Medication Adherence among Older Adults). MMAS-8 scores were calculated and participants were grouped into previously defined categories (<6, 6 to <8, and 8 for low, medium, and high adherence). The mean (SD) age of participants was 78.1 (5.8) years, 43.8% were black, and 68.1% were women. Overall, 8.1% (17/210), 16.2% (34/210), and 51.0% (107/210) of participants had low, medium, and high MMAS-8 scores, respectively, at both survey administrations (overall agreement 75.2%; 158/210). The weighted κ statistic was 0.63 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.72). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.78. The within-person standard error of the mean for change in MMAS-8 scores was 0.81, which equated to a minimal detectable change of 1.98 points. Only 4.3% (9/210) of the participants had a change in MMAS-8 of 2 or more points between survey administrations. Within-person changes in MMAS-8 scores of 2 or more points over time may represent a real change in antihypertensive medication adherence.

  19. The European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour scale revised into a nine-item scale (EHFScB-9) : a reliable and valid international instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Arestedt, Kristofer Franzen; Martensson, Jan; Dracup, Kathleen; Stromberg, Anna

    Aims Improved self-care is the goat of many heart failure (HF) management programmes. The 12-item European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale (EHFScB scale) was developed and tested to measure patient self-care behaviours. It is now available in 14 languages. The aim of this study was to

  20. MMPI-2 Clinical Scales and 2-Point Code Types: Impact of Varying Levels of Omitted Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David T. R.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The impact of varying levels of item omissions on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) two-point code types was studied with MMPI-2 results from 100 psychological outpatients. Results suggest that defined code types are relatively robust for up to 30 omitted items. (SLD)

  1. 'Do you think you suffer from depression?' Reevaluating the use of a single item question for the screening of depression in older primary care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayalon, Liat; Goldfracht, Margalit; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    to existing depression screening tools. METHODS: A cross sectional sample of 153 older primary care patients. Participants completed several depression-screening measures (e.g. a single depression screen, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Major Depression Inventory, Visual Analogue Scale). Measures were...... evaluated against a depression diagnosis made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. RESULTS: Overall, 3.9% of the sample was diagnosed with depression. The most notable finding was that the single-item question, 'do you think you suffer from depression?' had as good or better sensitivity (83......: An easy way to detect depression in older primary care patients would be asking the single question, 'do you think you suffer from depression?'...

  2. The profile of selected samples of Croatian athletes based on the items of sport jealousy scale (SJS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of jealousy in sport, as a negative emotional reaction, accompanied by thoughts of inadequacy when compared to others, is the issue of this article. This study had a purpose to define the characteristic profiles of the Croatian athletes, based on single items of Sport Jealousy Scale (SJS II, labeled by several variables: gender, type of sport, age group. Purposive sample of 73 athletes competing at Croatian championships in different sports (football, bowling, volleyball and handball were examined with Croatian version of SJS-II. Three clusters obtained are similarly balanced, according to the number of cases in each cluster. The most simply explained, clusters clearly differentiate the most jealous, moderately jealous and slightly/low jealous athletes. Among the features of the athletes in each cluster, in the most jealous (first cluster are the athletes from team sports, women and older athletes. Females, bowling athletes, athletes from individual (coactive sports and the youngest athletes are the least jealous (grouped in third cluster.

  3. Assessment of English-French differential item functioning of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) in systemic sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jewett, L.R.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Hudson, M.; Baron, M.; Thombs, B.D.

    2017-01-01

    The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) has been used to assess body image distress among people with the rare and disfiguring disease systemic sclerosis (SSc); however, it has not been validated across different languages groups. The objective was to examine differential item functioning of

  4. Analysis of the Gender Variable in the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire--Revised Scales Using Differential Item Functioning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorial, Sergio; Navas, Maria J.

    2007-01-01

    Studies in the field of personality have systematically found gender differences in two of the three dimensions of the Eysenck model: neuroticism and psychoticism. This study aims to analyze these differences in the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire--Revised (EPQ-R) scales using differential item functioning (DIF) techniques to determine whether…

  5. The Divergent Meanings of Life Satisfaction: Item Response Modeling of the Satisfaction with Life Scale in Greenland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitterso, Joar; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Diener, Ed

    2005-01-01

    Cultural differences in response to the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) items is investigated. Data were fit to a mixed Rasch model in order to identify latent classes of participants in a combined sample of Norwegians (N = 461) and Greenlanders (N = 180). Initial analyses showed no mean difference in life satisfaction between the two…

  6. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 12-Item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale among Blacks and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale is one of the most widely used tools to measure depressive symptoms in epidemiological studies. Given the importance of cross-racial measurement equivalence of the CES-D scale for research, we performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the 12-item CES-D in a nationally representative sample of Black and White adults in the United States. We used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. A total number of 3570 Blacks (African-Americans) and 891 non-Hispanic Whites were included in the present study. CFA was carried out on the 12-item CES-D scale using multi-group structural equation modeling. For both Blacks and Whites, the best fitting model was found to be the 3-factor model, indicating invariance of factor structure between Blacks and Whites. A statistically different fit of the models with and without constraints indicated lack of invariance of factor loadings between Blacks and Whites. Some of the positive (i.e., " as good " and " hopeful ") and interpersonal (i.e., " people were unfriendly ") items showed poor loadings, even in the 3-factor solution that allowed separate domains for positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems. Despite the good fit of our final model, more items (i.e., " as good ," " hopeful ," " keeping mind ," and " everything effort ") had poorer loadings in Blacks than Whites (i.e., " as good "). There is invariance in factor structure but lack of invariance in factor/item loadings between Blacks and Whites. These findings have implications for cross-racial studies of depressive symptoms using CES-D scale among Blacks and Whites. Further research is warranted to scrutinize the role of socioeconomics and culture in explaining the lack of invariance of the CES-D scale between Blacks and Whites.

  8. Evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in screening stroke patients for symptoms: Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayis, Salma A; Ayerbe, Luis; Ashworth, Mark; DA Wolfe, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Variations have been reported in the number of underlying constructs and choice of thresholds that determine caseness of anxiety and /or depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). This study examined the properties of each item of HADS as perceived by stroke patients, and assessed the information these items convey about anxiety and depression between 3 months to 5 years after stroke. The study included 1443 stroke patients from the South London Stroke Register (SLSR). The dimensionality of HADS was examined using factor analysis methods, and items' properties up to 5 years after stroke were tested using Item Response Theory (IRT) methods, including graded response models (GRMs). The presence of two dimensions of HADS (anxiety and depression) for stroke patients was confirmed. Items that accurately inferred about the severity of anxiety and depression, and offered good discrimination of caseness were identified as "I can laugh and see the funny side of things" (Q4) and "I get sudden feelings of panic" (Q13), discrimination 2.44 (se = 0.26), and 3.34 (se = 0.35), respectively. Items that shared properties, hence replicate inference were: "I get a sort of frightened feeling as if something awful is about to happen" (Q3), "I get a sort of frightened feeling like butterflies in my stomach" (Q6), and "Worrying thoughts go through my mind" (Q9). Item properties were maintained over time. Approximately 20% of patients were lost to follow up. A more concise selection of items based on their properties, would provide a precise approach for screening patients and for an optimal allocation of patients into clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Discrepancies in Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD items between residents and caregivers, and the CSDD's factor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran N

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Robert van Reekum2,3 1Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: This validation study aims to examine Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD items in terms of the agreement found between residents and caregivers, and also to compare alternative models of the Thai version of the CSDD. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 84 elderly residents (46 women, 38 men, age range 60–94 years in a long-term residential home setting in Thailand between March and June 2011. The selected residents went through a comprehensive geriatric assessment that included use of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and CSDD instruments. Intraclass correlation (ICC was calculated in order to establish the level of agreement between the residents and caregivers, in light of the residents' cognitive status. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was adopted to evaluate the alternative CSDD models. Results: The CSDD yielded a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87 and moderate agreement between residents and caregivers (ICC = 0.55; however, it was stronger in cognitively impaired subjects (ICC = 0.71. CFA revealed that there was no difference between the four-factor model, in which factors A (mood-related signs and E (ideational disturbance were collapsed into a single factor, and the five-factor model as per the original theoretical construct. Both models were found to be similar, and displayed a poor fit. Conclusion: The CSDD demonstrated a moderate level of interrater agreement between residents and caregivers, and was more reliable when used with cognitively impaired residents. CFA indicated a poorly fitting model in this sample. Keywords: Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD, factor structure

  10. Item response modeling: a psychometric assessment of the children's fruit, vegetable, water, and physical activity self-efficacy scales among Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C

    2017-09-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of four self-efficacy scales (i.e., self-efficacy for fruit (FSE), vegetable (VSE), and water (WSE) intakes, and physical activity (PASE)) and to investigate their differences in item functioning across sex, age, and body weight status groups using item response modeling (IRM) and differential item functioning (DIF). Four self-efficacy scales were administrated to 763 Hong Kong Chinese children (55.2% boys) aged 8-13 years. Classical test theory (CTT) was used to examine the reliability and factorial validity of scales. IRM was conducted and DIF analyses were performed to assess the characteristics of item parameter estimates on the basis of children's sex, age and body weight status. All self-efficacy scales demonstrated adequate to excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.79-0.91). One FSE misfit item and one PASE misfit item were detected. Small DIF were found for all the scale items across children's age groups. Items with medium to large DIF were detected in different sex and body weight status groups, which will require modification. A Wright map revealed that items covered the range of the distribution of participants' self-efficacy for each scale except VSE. Several self-efficacy scales' items functioned differently by children's sex and body weight status. Additional research is required to modify the four self-efficacy scales to minimize these moderating influences for application.

  11. Creating a brief rating scale for the assessment of learning disabilities using reliability and true score estimates of the scale's items based on the Rasch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios; Padeliadu, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to provide the means to create brief versions of instruments that can aid the diagnosis and classification of students with learning disabilities and comorbid disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). A sample of 1,108 students with and without a diagnosis of learning disabilities took part in study 1. Using information from modern theory methods (i.e., the Rasch model), a scale was created that included fewer than one third of the original battery items designed to assess reading skills. This best item synthesis was then evaluated for its predictive and criterion validity with a valid external reading battery (study 2). Using a sample of 232 students with and without learning disabilities, results indicated that the brief version of the scale was equally effective as the original scale in predicting reading achievement. Analysis of the content of the brief scale indicated that the best item synthesis involved items from cognition, motivation, strategy use, and advanced reading skills. It is suggested that multiple psychometric criteria be employed in evaluating the psychometric adequacy of scales used for the assessment and identification of learning disabilities and comorbid disorders.

  12. Summarizing activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses living in the community: a measurement study of scales using supplemented interRAI items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Charles D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To test the validity and reliability of scales intended to measure activity limitations faced by children with chronic illnesses living in the community. The scales were based on information provided by caregivers to service program personnel almost exclusively trained as social workers. The items used to measure activity limitations were interRAI items supplemented so that they were more applicable to activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses. In addition, these analyses may shed light on the possibility of gathering functional information that can span the life course as well as spanning different care settings. Methods Analyses included testing the internal consistency, predictive, concurrent, discriminant and construct validity of two activity limitation scales. The scales were developed using assessment data gathered in the United States of America (USA from over 2,700 assessments of children aged 4 to 20 receiving Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT services, specifically Personal Care Services to assist children in overcoming activity limitations. The Medicaid program in the USA pays for health care services provided to children in low-income households. Data were collected in a single, large state in the southwestern USA in late 2008 and early 2009. A similar sample of children was assessed in 2010, and the analyses were replicated using this sample. Results The two scales exhibited excellent internal consistency. Evidence on the concurrent, predictive, discriminant, and construct validity of the proposed scales was strong. Quite importantly, scale scores were not correlated with (confounded with a child's developmental stage or age. The results for these scales and items were consistent across the two independent samples. Conclusions Unpaid caregivers, usually parents, can provide assessors lacking either medical or nursing training with reliable and valid information

  13. Summarizing activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses living in the community: a measurement study of scales using supplemented interRAI items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Charles D; Patnaik, Ashweeta; Moudouni, Darcy K; Naiser, Emily; Dyer, James A; Hawes, Catherine; Fournier, Constance J; Miller, Thomas R; Elliott, Timothy R

    2012-01-23

    To test the validity and reliability of scales intended to measure activity limitations faced by children with chronic illnesses living in the community. The scales were based on information provided by caregivers to service program personnel almost exclusively trained as social workers. The items used to measure activity limitations were interRAI items supplemented so that they were more applicable to activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses. In addition, these analyses may shed light on the possibility of gathering functional information that can span the life course as well as spanning different care settings. Analyses included testing the internal consistency, predictive, concurrent, discriminant and construct validity of two activity limitation scales. The scales were developed using assessment data gathered in the United States of America (USA) from over 2,700 assessments of children aged 4 to 20 receiving Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) services, specifically Personal Care Services to assist children in overcoming activity limitations. The Medicaid program in the USA pays for health care services provided to children in low-income households. Data were collected in a single, large state in the southwestern USA in late 2008 and early 2009. A similar sample of children was assessed in 2010, and the analyses were replicated using this sample. The two scales exhibited excellent internal consistency. Evidence on the concurrent, predictive, discriminant, and construct validity of the proposed scales was strong. Quite importantly, scale scores were not correlated with (confounded with) a child's developmental stage or age. The results for these scales and items were consistent across the two independent samples. Unpaid caregivers, usually parents, can provide assessors lacking either medical or nursing training with reliable and valid information on the activity limitations of children. One can summarize these

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 12- Item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D among Blacks and Whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale is one of the most widely used tools to measure depressive symptoms in epidemiological studies. Given the importance of cross-racial measurement equivalence of CES-D scale for research, we performed confirmatory factor analysis of 12 - item CES-D in a nationally representative sample of Black and White adults in the United States.Methods: We used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001-2003. A total number of 3,570 Blacks (African Americans and 891 non-Hispanic Whites were included in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out on the 12-item CES-D scale using multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM.Results: For both Blacks and Whites, best fitting model was found to be the 3-factor model, indicating invariance of factor structure between Blacks and Whites. Statistically different fit of the models with and without constraints indicated lack of invariance of factor loadings between Blacks and Whites. Some of the positive (i.e. as good, and hopeful and interpersonal (i.e. people were unfriendly items showed poor loadings, even in the 3- factor solution that allowed separate domains for positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems. Despite the good fit of our final model, more items (i.e. as good, hopeful, keeping mind, and everything effort had poor loadings in Blacks than Whites (i.e. as good.Conclusion: There is invariance in factor structure but lack of invariance in factor/item loadings among Blacks and Whites. These findings have implications for cross-racial studies of depressive symptoms using CES-D among Blacks and Whites. Further research is warranted to scrutinize the role of socio-economics and culture in explaining lack of invariance of CES-D scale between Blacks and Whites.

  15. Measuring Alexithymia via Trait Approach-I: A Alexithymia Scale Item Selection and Formation of Factor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Arkun; Saltukoğlu, Gaye; Alioğlu, Seda; Çimen, Sümeyye; Güven, Hülya; Ay, Çağla Ebru

    2017-09-01

    It is not clear in the literature whether available instruments are sufficient to measure alexithymia because of its theoretical structure. Moreover, it has been reported that several measuring instruments are needed to measure this construct, and all the instruments have different error sources. The old and the new forms of Toronto Alexithymia Scale are the only instruments available in Turkish. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop a new scale to measure alexithymia, selecting items and constructing the factor structure. A total of 1117 patients aged from 19 to 82 years (mean = 35.05 years) were included. A 100-item pool was prepared and applied to 628 women and 489 men. Data were analyzed using Explanatory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and Item Response Theory and 28 items were selected. The new form of 28 items was applied to 415 university students, including 271 women and 144 men aged from 18 to 30 (mean=21.44). The results of Explanatory Factor Analysis revealed a five-factor construct of "Solving and Expressing Affective Experiences," "External Locused Cognitive Style," "Tendency to Somatize Affections," "Imaginary Life and Visualization," and "Acting Impulsively," along with a two-factor construct representing the "Affective" and "Cognitive" components. All the components of the construct showed good model fit and high internal consistency. The new form was tested in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity using Toronto Alexithymia Scale as criteria and discriminative validity using Five-Factor Personality Inventory Short Form. The results showed that the new scale met the basic psychometric requirements. Results have been discussed in line with related studies.

  16. Item bias detection in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale using structural equation modeling: comparison with other item bias detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdam, M.G.E.; Oort, F.J.; Sprangers, M.A.G.

    Purpose Comparison of patient-reported outcomes may be invalidated by the occurrence of item bias, also known as differential item functioning. We show two ways of using structural equation modeling (SEM) to detect item bias: (1) multigroup SEM, which enables the detection of both uniform and

  17. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  18. Assessing the Straightforwardly-Worded Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale for Differential Item Functioning Across Gender and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpole, Jared K; Levinson, Cheri A; Woods, Carol M; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Weeks, Justin W; Brown, Patrick J; Heimberg, Richard G; Menatti, Andrew R; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin; Liebowitz, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE; Leary Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , 9, 371-375, 1983) assesses fear and worry about receiving negative evaluation from others. Rodebaugh et al. Psychological Assessment, 16 , 169-181, (2004) found that the BFNE is composed of a reverse-worded factor (BFNE-R) and straightforwardly-worded factor (BFNE-S). Further, they found the BFNE-S to have better psychometric properties and provide more information than the BFNE-R. Currently there is a lack of research regarding the measurement invariance of the BFNE-S across gender and ethnicity with respect to item thresholds. The present study uses item response theory (IRT) to test the BFNE-S for differential item functioning (DIF) related to gender and ethnicity (White, Asian, and Black). Six data sets consisting of clinical, community, and undergraduate participants were utilized ( N =2,109). The factor structure of the BFNE-S was confirmed using categorical confirmatory factor analysis, IRT model assumptions were tested, and the BFNE-S was evaluated for DIF. Item nine demonstrated significant non-uniform DIF between White and Black participants. No other items showed significant uniform or non-uniform DIF across gender or ethnicity. Results suggest the BFNE-S can be used reliably with men and women and Asian and White participants. More research is needed to understand the implications of using the BFNE-S with Black participants.

  19. Brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Straightforward Items (BFNE-S): psychometric properties in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, María José Gallego

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Straightforward Items (BFNE-S) in a non-clinical Spanish population. Rodebaugh et al. (2004) recommend the use of this scale composed of 8 straightforwardly-worded items, instead of the 12-item version of the BFNE. The sample consisted of 542 undergraduate students, 71.3% of whom were women and 28.7% were men; the mean age was 21.71 (4.78) years. Exploratory factor analysis produced one factor which accounted for 51.28% of variance. The internal consistency of the scale was alpha = .89. The BFNE-S correlated with the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (r = .44), the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker Modified (r = .44), the Public Speaking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (r = -.38) and both subscales of the Self-Statements during Public Speaking (SSPS-P r = -.22; SSPS-N r = .53). ANOVAs revealed significant differences in the BFNE-S amongst a non-clinical population, persons suffering from specific social phobia, non-generalized social phobia and generalized social phobia.

  20. Scaling Beyond Moore: Single Electron Transistor and Single Atom Transistor Integration on CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande , Veeresh

    2012-01-01

    Continuous scaling of MOSFET dimensions has led us to the era of nanoelectronics. Multigate FET (MuGFET) architecture with 'nanowire channel'is being considered as one feasible enabler of MOSFET scaling to end-of-roadmap. Alongside classical CMOS or Moore's law scaling, many novel device proposals exploiting nanoscale phenomena have been made. Single Electron Transistor (SET), with its unique 'Coulomb Blockade' phenomena, and Single Atom Transistor (SAT), as an ultimately scaled transistor, a...

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish consensus version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Anita; Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya; Nielsen, Kent Jacob

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to (i) cross-culturally adapt a Danish consensus version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and (ii) evaluate its psychometric properties in terms of agreement, reliability, validity, responsiveness, and interpretability among patients...... of the PSS-10 appears to be feasible for use in clinical research settings and has good psychometric properties in terms of agreement, reliability, validity, responsiveness, and interpretability....

  2. Test–retest reliability of Antonovsky’s 13-item sense of coherence scale in patients with handrelated disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Ørts; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Cederlund, Ragnhild

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report on the distribution and test-retest reliability of Antonovsky’s 13-item Sense of Coherence (SOC-13) Scale in patients with hand-related disorders (HRD). Links between the SOC-13 score and factors such as age, number of days between date of injury and start of rehabilitation, ge...... to be a powerful tool to measure the ICF component personal factors, which could have an impact on patients’ rehabilitation outcomes....

  3. The scale dependence of single-nucleon shell structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somà, V., E-mail: vittorio.soma@cea.fr [Centre de Saclay, IRFU/Service de Physique Nucléaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Duguet, T. [Centre de Saclay, IRFU/Service de Physique Nucléaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); Hergert, H. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Holt, J. D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    We address the scale dependence of (effective) single-particle energies, non-observable quantities that are commonly used for interpreting nuclear structure observables measured in experiments and computed in many-body theories. We first demonstrate their scale dependence on a formal level, making them intrinsically theoretical objects, before illustrating this point via ab initio calculations in the oxygen isotopes. Finally, we consider a modified definition of effective single-particle energy and investigate its running properties.

  4. Social Support Scale (MOS-SSS: Analysis of the Psychometric Properties via Item Response Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sacramento Zanini

    Full Text Available Abstract The study on social relationships that influence health, as well as the development of reliable measures to assess this construct has been highlighted in the academic literature. The aim of this study was to estimate new evidence of validity based on the internal structure and reliability of the MOS-SSS, as well as the parameters of items and participants by Item response theory. The sample consisted of 998 people (age: M = 27.18, SD = 9.90, 65.1% women from different sampling strata. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA revealed better goodness of fit of the four-factor model when compared to factor structures shown in other Brazilian studies. The multigroup CFA demonstrated invariance of the factor model when comparing the different sampling strata. The partial credit model indicated items with mean difficulty and appropriate adjustments indices (infit/outfit and desirable reliability for the factors. The analysis of the maps indicated the tool's strengths and limitations to assess the construct.

  5. The application of item response theory in developing and validating a shortened version of the Emirate Marital Satisfaction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodeen, Hamzeh; Al-Darmaki, Fatima

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of generating a shorter version of the Emirati Marital Satisfaction Scale (EMSS) using item response theory (IRT)-based methodology. The EMSS is the first national scale used to provide an understanding of the family function and level of marital satisfaction within the cultural context of the United Arab Emirates. A sample of 1,049 Emirati married individuals from different ages, genders, places of residence, and monthly incomes participated in this study. The IRT was calibrated using X-Calibre 4.2 and the graded response model. The analysis was developed on the basis of a short form of the EMSS (7 items), which constitutes a promising alternative to the original scale for practitioners and researchers. This short version is reliable, valid, and it gives results very similar to the original scale. The results of this study confirmed the usefulness of IRT-based methodology for developing psychological and counseling scales. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Assessment of English-French differential item functioning of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Lisa R; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D

    2017-09-01

    The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) has been used to assess body image distress among people with the rare and disfiguring disease systemic sclerosis (SSc); however, it has not been validated across different languages groups. The objective was to examine differential item functioning of the SWAP among 856 Canadian English- or French-speaking SSc patients. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the SWAP two-factor structure (Dissatisfaction with Appearance and Social Discomfort). The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause model was utilized to assess differential item functioning. Results revealed that the established two-factor model of the SWAP demonstrated relatively good fit. Statistically significant, but small-magnitude differential item functioning was found for three SWAP items based on language; however, the cumulative effect on SWAP scores was negligible. Findings provided empirical evidence that SWAP scores from Canadian English- and French-speaking patients can be compared and pooled without concern that measurement differences may substantially influence results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Randomization and Data-Analysis Items in Quality Standards for Single-Case Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Wendt, Oliver; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Reporting standards and critical appraisal tools serve as beacons for researchers, reviewers, and research consumers. Parallel to existing guidelines for researchers to report and evaluate group-comparison studies, single-case experimental (SCE) researchers are in need of guidelines for reporting and evaluating SCE studies. A systematic search was…

  8. Psychometric properties of the five-item version of the Mindful Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS) in Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Otto R F; Melkevik, Ole; Samdal, Oddrun; Larsen, Torill M; Haug, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure, model-based reliability, measurement invariance and concurrent validity of the five-item version of the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in Norwegian adolescents. An initial pilot study was carried out using a sample of 77 fifteen year olds. For the main analyses, a sample of 2140 Norwegian adolescents was used who participated in the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analyses found support for the one-factor structure of the five-item version of the MAAS. Acceptable model fit was found in both the pilot sample (χ 2 =6.48, df=5, p=0.26; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.06; comparative fit index [CFI]=0.99; standardised root mean square residual [SRMR]=0.03) and the HBSC sample (χ 2 =27.1, df=4, pMAAS displayed concurrent validity through moderate negative associations with health complaints ( r=-0.44; pMAAS is an adequate measure of mindfulness in Norwegian adolescents. Due to the brief nature of the scale, it can easily be included in epidemiological and clinical studies with an interest for trait mindfulness. The five-item MAAS may therefore have great potential to facilitate more knowledge about the role of mindfulness in adolescent health.

  9. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  10. The Domain-Specific Risk Taking Scale for Adult Populations: Item Selection and Preliminary Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge and Information Management Committee In conducting the research described in this report, the investigators adhered to the policies and...et domaine social). Notre premier objectif était de documenter les changements que nous avons apportés à l’échelle DOSPERT et de présenter les...avons ajouté 16 nouveaux, ce qui a donné 48 items en bout de ligne (voir l’annexe A). Notre premier objectif était de documenter les changements que

  11. 48 CFR 245.7101-3 - DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROPERTY Plant Clearance Forms 245.7101-3 DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document. Use for shipments of excess industrial plant equipment and contractor inventory redistribution system...

  12. Multilevel Item Response Modeling: Applications to Large-Scale Assessment of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    The call for standards-based reform and educational accountability has led to increased attention to large-scale assessments. Over the past two decades, large-scale assessments have been providing policymakers and educators with timely information about student learning and achievement to facilitate their decisions regarding schools, teachers and…

  13. Scale development with small samples: a new application of longitudinal item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Carrie R; Morlock, Robert; Blum, Steven I; Edwards, Michael C; Wirth, R J

    2018-02-08

    Measurement development in hard-to-reach populations can pose methodological challenges. Item response theory (IRT) is a useful statistical tool, but often requires large samples. We describe the use of longitudinal IRT models as a pragmatic approach to instrument development when large samples are not feasible. The statistical foundations and practical benefits of longitudinal IRT models are briefly described. Results from a simulation study are reported to demonstrate the model's ability to recover the generating measurement structure and parameters using a range of sample sizes, number of items, and number of time points. An example using early-phase clinical trial data in a rare condition demonstrates these methods in practice. Simulation study results demonstrate that the longitudinal IRT model's ability to recover the generating parameters rests largely on the interaction between sample size and the number of time points. Overall, the model performs well even in small samples provided a sufficient number of time points are available. The clinical trial data example demonstrates that by using conditional, longitudinal IRT models researchers can obtain stable estimates of psychometric characteristics from samples typically considered too small for rigorous psychometric modeling. Capitalizing on repeated measurements, it is possible to estimate psychometric characteristics for an assessment even when sample size is small. This allows researchers to optimize study designs and have increased confidence in subsequent comparisons using scores obtained from such models. While there are limitations and caveats to consider when using these models, longitudinal IRT modeling may be especially beneficial when developing measures for rare conditions and diseases in difficult-to-reach populations.

  14. Nonparametric Item Response Theory for Investigating Dimensionality of Marketing Scales: A SERVQUAL application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, L.J.; Sijtsma, K.

    2008-01-01

    Assessing scale dimensionality is an important issue in the marketing literature. In an exploratory context, principal axis factoring and principal components analysis receive emphasis, while other fields apply suitable alternatives. This article introduces a promising procedure known as Mokken

  15. Why Japanese workers show low work engagement: An item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Miyanaka, Daisuke; Iwata, Noboru

    2010-11-05

    With the globalization of occupational health psychology, more and more researchers are interested in applying employee well-being like work engagement (i.e., a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption) to diverse populations. Accurate measurement contributes to our further understanding and to the generalizability of the concept of work engagement across different cultures. The present study investigated the measurement accuracy of the Japanese and the original Dutch versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (9-item version, UWES-9) and the comparability of this scale between both countries. Item Response Theory (IRT) was applied to the data from Japan (N = 2,339) and the Netherlands (N = 13,406). Reliability of the scale was evaluated at various levels of the latent trait (i.e., work engagement) based the test information function (TIF) and the standard error of measurement (SEM). The Japanese version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with extremely low work engagement, whereas the original Dutch version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with high work engagement. The measurement accuracy of both versions was not similar. Suppression of positive affect among Japanese people and self-enhancement (the general sensitivity to positive self-relevant information) among Dutch people may have caused decreased measurement accuracy. Hence, we should be cautious when interpreting low engagement scores among Japanese as well as high engagement scores among western employees.

  16. Why Japanese workers show low work engagement: An item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Noboru

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the globalization of occupational health psychology, more and more researchers are interested in applying employee well-being like work engagement (i.e., a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption to diverse populations. Accurate measurement contributes to our further understanding and to the generalizability of the concept of work engagement across different cultures. The present study investigated the measurement accuracy of the Japanese and the original Dutch versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (9-item version, UWES-9 and the comparability of this scale between both countries. Item Response Theory (IRT was applied to the data from Japan (N = 2,339 and the Netherlands (N = 13,406. Reliability of the scale was evaluated at various levels of the latent trait (i.e., work engagement based the test information function (TIF and the standard error of measurement (SEM. The Japanese version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with extremely low work engagement, whereas the original Dutch version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with high work engagement. The measurement accuracy of both versions was not similar. Suppression of positive affect among Japanese people and self-enhancement (the general sensitivity to positive self-relevant information among Dutch people may have caused decreased measurement accuracy. Hence, we should be cautious when interpreting low engagement scores among Japanese as well as high engagement scores among western employees.

  17. Refinement of the Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS-21) and Development of 9-Item Equivalent Versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Orchard, Carole; Khalili, Hossein; Avery, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Measures of interprofessional (IP) socialization are needed to capture the role of interprofessional education in preparing students and health practitioners to function as part of IP health care teams. The aims of this study were to refine a previously published version of the Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (the ISVS-24) and create two shorter equivalent forms to be used in pre-post studies. A graded response model was used to identify ISVS items in a practitioner data set (n = 345), with validation (measure invariance) conducted using a separate student sample (n = 341). Analyses indicated a unidimensional 21-item version with excellent measurement properties, Cronbach alpha of 0.988, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.985-0.991. There was evidence of measure invariance, as there was excellent agreement of the factor scores for the practitioner and student data, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.993, 95% CI 0.991-0.994. This indicates that the ISVS-21 measures IP socialization consistently across groups. Two 9-item equivalent versions for pre-post use were developed, with excellent agreement between the two forms. The student score agreement for the two item sets was excellent: intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.970, 95% CI 0.963-0.976. The ISVS-21 is a refined measure to assess existing levels of IP socialization in practitioners and students, and relate IP socialization to other important constructs such as IP collaboration and the development of an IP identity. The equivalent versions can be used to assess change in IP socialization as a result of interprofessional education.

  18. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge Scale for Adolescents: Item Response Theory Analyses Based on Data from a Study in South Africa and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaro, Leif E.; Breivik, Kyrre; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Kaaya, Sylvia; Onya, Hans E.; Wubs, Annegreet; Helleve, Arnfinn; Flisher, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    A 14-item human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge scale was used among school students in 80 schools in 3 sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). For each item, an incorrect or don't know response was coded as 0 and correct response as 1. Exploratory factor…

  19. Testing the interval-level measurement property of multi-item visual analogue scales.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, P.F.M.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.; Lamers, L.M.; Busschbach, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conditions were studied that may invalidate health-state values derived from the visual analogue scale (VAS). METHODS: Respondents were asked to place cards with descriptions of EQ-5D health states on a 20 cm EuroQol VAS and modified versions of it, positioning them such that the

  20. Testing the interval-level measurement property of multi-item visual analogue scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Paul F M; Stalmeier, Peep F M; Lamers, Leida M; Busschbach, Jan J V

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conditions were studied that may invalidate health-state values derived from the visual analogue scale (VAS). METHODS: Respondents were asked to place cards with descriptions of EQ-5D health states on a 20 cm EuroQol VAS and modified versions of it, positioning them such that the

  1. A new look at the psychometrics of the parenting scale through the lens of item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Michael F; Xu, Shu; Slep, Amy M Smith; Bulling, Lisanne; O'Leary, Susan G

    2014-01-01

    The psychometrics of the Parenting Scale's Overreactivity and Laxness subscales were evaluated using item response theory (IRT) techniques. The IRT analyses were based on 2 community samples of cohabiting parents of 3- to 8-year-old children, combined to yield a total sample size of 852 families. The results supported the utility of the Overreactivity and Laxness subscales, particularly in discriminating among parents in the mid to upper reaches of each construct. The original versions of the Overreactivity and Laxness subscales were more reliable than alternative, shorter versions identified in replicated factor analyses from previously published research and in IRT analyses in the present research. Moreover, in several cases, the original versions of these subscales, in comparison with the shortened versions, exhibited greater 6-month stabilities and correlations with child externalizing behavior and couple relationship satisfaction. Reliability was greater for the Laxness than for the Overreactivity subscale. Item performance on each subscale was highly variable. Together, the present findings are generally supportive of the psychometrics of the Parenting Scale, particularly for clinical research and practice. They also suggest areas for further development.

  2. Scaling properties in single collision model of light ion reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukanic, J.; Simovic, R.

    2004-01-01

    Light ion reflection from solids in the keV energy region has been studied within the single collision model. Particle and energy reflection coefficients as functions of the scaled transport cross section have been calculated numerically by utilizing the exact scattering function for the Kr-C potential and analytically with an effective power approximation for the same potential. The obtained analytical formulae approximate very accurately to the numerical results. Comparison of the calculated reflection coefficients with the experimental data and computer simulations for different light ion-heavy target combinations shows that the scaled transport cross section remains a convenient scaling parameter in the single collision domain, as adopted previously in multiple collision theory

  3. Using Item Response Theory to Develop Measures of Acquisitive and Protective Self-Monitoring From the Original Self-Monitoring Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Michael P; Kostal, Jack W; Stillwell, David; Kosinski, Michal

    2017-07-01

    For the past 40 years, the conventional univariate model of self-monitoring has reigned as the dominant interpretative paradigm in the literature. However, recent findings associated with an alternative bivariate model challenge the conventional paradigm. In this study, item response theory is used to develop measures of the bivariate model of acquisitive and protective self-monitoring using original Self-Monitoring Scale (SMS) items, and data from two large, nonstudent samples ( Ns = 13,563 and 709). Results indicate that the new acquisitive (six-item) and protective (seven-item) self-monitoring scales are reliable, unbiased in terms of gender and age, and demonstrate theoretically consistent relations to measures of personality traits and cognitive ability. Additionally, by virtue of using original SMS items, previously collected responses can be reanalyzed in accordance with the alternative bivariate model. Recommendations for the reanalysis of archival SMS data, as well as directions for future research, are provided.

  4. Using Procedure Based on Item Response Theory to Evaluate Classification Consistency Indices in the Practice of Large-Scale Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the growing interest in the methods of evaluating the classification consistency (CC indices, only few researches are available in the field of applying these methods in the practice of large-scale educational assessment. In addition, only few studies considered the influence of practical factors, for example, the examinee ability distribution, the cut score location and the score scale, on the performance of CC indices. Using the newly developed Lee's procedure based on the item response theory (IRT, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of CC indices when practical factors are taken into consideration. A simulation study and an empirical study were conducted under comprehensive conditions. Results suggested that with negatively skewed distribution, the CC indices were larger than with other distributions. Interactions occurred among ability distribution, cut score location, and score scale. Consequently, Lee's IRT procedure is reliable to be used in the field of large-scale educational assessment, and when reporting the indices, it should be treated with caution as testing conditions may vary a lot.

  5. Validity and reliability of the Cohen 10-item Perceived Stress Scale in patients with chronic headache: Persian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Robabe; Sirati Nir, Masoud; Ebadi, Abbas; Tavallai, Abbas; Habibi, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    The Cohen Perceived Stress Scale is being used widely in various countries. The present study evaluated the validity and reliability of the Cohen 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in assessing tension headache, migraine, and stress-related diseases in Iran. This study is a methodological and cross-sectional descriptive investigation of 100 patients with chronic headache admitted to the pain clinic of Baqiyatallah Educational and Therapeutic Center. Convenience sampling was used for subject selection. PSS psychometric properties were evaluated in two stages. First, the standard scale was translated. Then, the face validity, content, and construct of the translated version were determined. The average age of participants was 38 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 13.2. As for stress levels, 12% were within the normal range, 36% had an intermediate level, and 52% had a high level of stress. The face validity and scale content were remarkable, and the KMO coefficient was 0.82. Bartlett's test yielded 0.327 which was statistically significant (pPSS-10 has good internal consistency and reliability. The availability of a validated Persian PSS-10 would indicate a link between stress and chronic headache. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determining reliable change on the modified fatigue impact scale (5-item version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Bruce, Amanda S; Glusman, Morgan; Thelen, Joanie; Lynch, Sharon; Bruce, Jared M

    2018-02-01

    Fatigue is prevalent in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but little research indicates how to best quantify changes in fatigue over time. Evaluate reliable change on the abbreviated Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS-5) in MS patients. One-hundred sixty eight MS patients completed the MFIS-5 at baseline and follow-up as part of two larger studies. Test-retest reliability scores and reliable change indices were calculated. Differences of 4, 5, 6, and 7 points on the MFIS-5 represent statistically meaningful change at the .70, .80, .90, and .95 confidence intervals, respectively. The MFIS-5 can be used to quickly and reliably assess statistically meaningful changes in fatigue among MS patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Social anxiety and self-esteem: Hungarian validation of the "Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Straightforward Items"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel-Forintos, Dóra; Kresznerits, Szilvia

    2017-06-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the third most frequent emotional disorder with 13-15% prevalence rate, it remains unrecognized very often. Social phobia is associated with low self-esteem, high self-criticism and fear of negative evaluation by others. It shows high comorbidity with depression, alcoholism, drug addiction and eating disorders. To adapt the widely used "Fear of Negative Evaluation" (FNE) social phobia questionnaire. Anxiety and mood disorder patients (n = 255) completed the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (30, 12 and 8 item-versions) as well as social cognition, anxiety and self-esteem questionnaires. All the three versions of the FNE have strong internal validity (α>0.83) and moderate significant correlation with low self-esteem, negative social cognitions and anxiety. The short 8-item BFNE-S has the strongest disciminative value in differentiating patients with social phobia and with other emotional disorders. The Hungarian version of the BFNE-S is an effective tool for the quick recognition of social phobia. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(22): 843-850.

  8. Probing single nanometer-scale pores with polymeric molecular rulers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Sarah E.; DiMarzio, Edmund A.; Wang, Qian; Stanford, Vincent M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2010-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that individual molecules of single-stranded DNA can be driven electrophoretically through a single Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin ion channel. Polynucleotides thread through the channel as extended chains and the polymer-induced ionic current blockades exhibit stable modes during the interactions. We show here that polynucleotides can be used to probe structural features of the α-hemolysin channel itself. Specifically, both the pore length and channel aperture profile can be estimated. The results are consistent with the channel crystal structure and suggest that polymer-based "molecular rulers" may prove useful in deducing the structures of nanometer-scale pores in general.

  9. An approach for estimating item sensitivity to within-person change over time: An illustration using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N Maritza; Bolt, Daniel M; Deng, Sien

    2016-12-01

    When assessments are primarily used to measure change over time, it is important to evaluate items according to their sensitivity to change, specifically. Items that demonstrate good sensitivity to between-person differences at baseline may not show good sensitivity to change over time, and vice versa. In this study, we applied a longitudinal factor model of change to a widely used cognitive test designed to assess global cognitive status in dementia, and contrasted the relative sensitivity of items to change. Statistically nested models were estimated introducing distinct latent factors related to initial status differences between test-takers and within-person latent change across successive time points of measurement. Models were estimated using all available longitudinal item-level data from the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale, including participants representing the full-spectrum of disease status who were enrolled in the multisite Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Five of the 13 Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive items demonstrated noticeably higher loadings with respect to sensitivity to change. Attending to performance change on only these 5 items yielded a clearer picture of cognitive decline more consistent with theoretical expectations in comparison to the full 13-item scale. Items that show good psychometric properties in cross-sectional studies are not necessarily the best items at measuring change over time, such as cognitive decline. Applications of the methodological approach described and illustrated in this study can advance our understanding regarding the types of items that best detect fine-grained early pathological changes in cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A composite score for a measuring instrument utilising re-scaled Likert values and item weights from matrices of pairwise ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Becker

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A methodology is proposed to develop a measuring instrument (metric for evaluating subjects from a population that cannot provide data to facilitate the development of such a metric (e.g. pre-term infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Central to this methodology is the employment of an expert group that decides on the items to be included in the metric, the weights assigned to these items, and an index associated with the Likert scale points for each item. The experts supply pairwise ratios of an importance between items, and the geometric mean method is applied to these to establish the item weights – a well-established procedure in multi-criteria decision analysis. The ratios are found by having a managed discussion before asking the members of the expert panel to mark a visual analogue scale for each item. Opsomming ‘n Metode word aangebied waarmee ‘n meetinstrument (metriek ontwikkel kan word vir die evaluering van persone uit ‘n populasie wat nie self die data vir die ontwikkeling van die metriek kan voorsien nie (bv. vroeggebore babas in die neonatale intensiewe sorgeenheid. Die kern van hierdie werkswyse is die gebruik van ‘n deskundige groep wat die items vir die meetinstrument kies, gewigte aan die items toeken, en vir elke item ‘n indeks opstel wat met die Likert-skaal punte geassosieer word. Die deskundiges het paarsgewyse verhoudings tussen items verskaf en die meetkundig-gemiddelde metode is hierop toegepas om die itemgewigte te verkry – ‘n goedgevestigde gebruik in meerdoelwitbesluitkunde. Die paarsgewyse verhoudings is gewerf deur die deskundiges, na ‘n bestuurde bespreking, vir elke item ‘n visuele analoogskaal te laat invul.

  11. The multi-dimensional model of Māori identity and cultural engagement: item response theory analysis of scale properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G; Houkamau, Carla A

    2013-01-01

    We argue that there is a need for culture-specific measures of identity that delineate the factors that most make sense for specific cultural groups. One such measure, recently developed specifically for Māori peoples, is the Multi-Dimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. The MMM-ICE is a 6-factor measure that assesses the following aspects of identity and cultural engagement as Māori: (a) group membership evaluation, (b) socio-political consciousness, (c) cultural efficacy and active identity engagement, (d) spirituality, (e) interdependent self-concept, and (f) authenticity beliefs. This article examines the scale properties of the MMM-ICE using item response theory (IRT) analysis in a sample of 492 Māori. The MMM-ICE subscales showed reasonably even levels of measurement precision across the latent trait range. Analysis of age (cohort) effects further indicated that most aspects of Māori identification tended to be higher among older Māori, and these cohort effects were similar for both men and women. This study provides novel support for the reliability and measurement precision of the MMM-ICE. The study also provides a first step in exploring change and stability in Māori identity across the life span. A copy of the scale, along with recommendations for scale scoring, is included.

  12. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP10) scale: two-factor model and association with adult depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denollet, Johan; Smolderen, Kim G E; van den Broek, Krista C; Pedersen, Susanne S

    2007-06-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with poor mental and physical health. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale retrospectively assesses Alienation (dysfunctional communication and intimacy) and Control (overprotection by parents), with an emphasis on deficiencies in empathic parenting. We examined the 2-factor structure of the RRP(10) and its relationship with adult depression. 664 respondents from the general population (48% men, mean age 54.6+/-14.2 years) completed the RRP(10), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and Beck Depression Inventory. The Alienation and Control dimensions of the RRP(10) displayed a sound factor structure, good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.83-0.86), and convergent validity against the PBI scales. No significant gender differences were found on the RRP(10) scales. Stratifying by RRP(10) dimensions showed that respondents high in Alienation and Control, for both father (33.3% vs. 14.5%, pAlienation and Control. While scoring high on Alienation or Control alone was also significantly and independently associated with depressive symptoms, scoring high on both Alienation and Control was most strongly connected with depressive symptoms for both father (OR=2.48, pparental Alienation and Control. High Alienation and Control were independently related to increased risk of depressive symptoms. Given the brevity of the RRP(10), it can easily be used in epidemiological/clinical research on the link between the remembered relationship with parents and mental/physical health.

  13. Construct validity and responsiveness of the single-item presenteeism question in patients with lower back pain for the measurement of presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, Jesse; Lewis, Martyn; Jowett, Sue; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    Validity and responsiveness study using a randomized clinical trial and prospective cohort study of patients with low back pain (LBP). To provide evidence for construct validity and responsiveness to change of a single-item presenteeism question (SIPQ) in patients with LBP. The SIPQ is a simple, easy to administer tool that has been used to measure the impact of back pain on reduced productivity at work (presenteeism) as a standalone measure. Evidence supporting the validity and responsiveness of the SIPQ among patients with back pain is however lacking. The SIPQ was administered to patients consulting for back pain in a randomized controlled trial (N = 851) and a cohort intervention study (N = 922). Construct validity was assessed using convergent, divergent, and known-group validity. The validity investigation included assessing associations between the SIPQ and pain, disability, psychological, health status, and quality of life measures. Responsiveness was assessed using external indicators of change as comparators, evaluating correlation of clinical change scores and effect size statistics. Moderate to strong correlations were found between presenteeism and pain (r: 0.44-0.77), disability (r: 0.53-0.70), and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey physical dimensions (r: -0.66 to -0.55). Presenteeism was strongly associated with disease-specific pain and disability scales. The SIPQ was responsive to changes in productivity-presenteeism change scores indicated strong correlation with change scores, and high responsiveness in distribution- and anchor-based testing. The SIPQ is a potentially valid and responsive tool for assessing the impact of back pain on presenteeism. This SIPQ could, with relative ease, facilitate further research on the estimation of presenteeism within economic evaluation studies of musculoskeletal conditions, thus providing policymakers with estimates of economic impact of musculoskeletal disease. Further evidence is, however, merited to assess

  14. Validity of the three apathy items of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-3A) in measuring apathy in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertens, Anne Suzanne; Moonen, Justine E F; de Waal, Margot W M; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; de Ruijter, Wouter; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; van der Mast, Roos C; de Craen, Anton J M

    2017-04-01

    The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-3A, a three-item subset of the GDS-15, is increasingly used as a measure for apathy in research settings to assess factors associating with this neuropsychiatric syndrome. We aimed to assess how accurately the GDS-3A discriminates between presence and absence of apathy in two populations of community-dwelling older persons, using the Apathy Scale as reference standard. Baseline data were used from 427 participants of the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study Leiden and 1118 participants of the PROactive Management Of Depression in the Elderly (PROMODE) Study, all ≥75 years and with available GDS-3A and Apathy Scale measurements. A cut-off score of ≥14 was used for presence of apathy according to the Apathy Scale. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Based on the likelihood ratios for GDS-3A scores, a cut-off of ≥2 was used for presence of apathy according to the GDS-3A to calculate test characteristics. The AUC was 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.62-0.73) in the DANTE Study and 0.72 (0.67-0.77) in the PROMODE Study. In the DANTE Study sensitivity was 29.3% (21.4-38.1) and specificity was 88.5% (84.4-91.8), whereas in the PROMODE Study sensitivity was 32.8% (24.5-41.1) and specificity 92.6% (90.9-94.2). Stratification on population characteristics did not yield more favourable test characteristics. The GDS-3A has low sensitivity and high specificity as a measure of apathy in two populations of older persons. Using the GDS-3A in research might yield estimates biassed towards the null in case of non-differential misclassification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Routine use of an abbreviated 4-item scale to assess dependence in essential activities of daily living amongst elderly hemodialysis patients: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Farhat; Jassal, Sarbjit V

    2013-02-01

    Poor functional status is associated with reduced survival and poor outcomes in older dialysis patients. The Geriatric Nephrology Advisory Group recommends routine evaluation of functional status on all older patients; however, assessments can be time consuming and burdensome to clinical care providers. The objective of this study was to validate an abbreviated 4-item self-report screening tool for use in elderly hemodialysis patients. The functional dependence of community-dwelling hemodialysis patients, aged ≥65 years, was measured by trained evaluators. The accuracy of a 4-item self-report activities of daily living (ADL) score was compared against formal evaluation by the Barthel Index and the outcomes using agreement statistics and Cox regression analysis. The cohort included 167 patients with a mean age of 74.8 ± 5.9 years (57 % males). The 4-item scale correctly identified 83 % of the patients dependent in ≥1 ADL. Those incorrectly identified as independent on the abbreviated scale were uniformly unable to climb stairs without assistance. The sensitivity and specificity, and coefficient for agreement between the 4-item scale and the Barthel Index were 83.2, 100 and 0.78 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the 4-item scale were 100 and 76.9 %, respectively. Using the 4-item scale, the presence of severe disability was predictive of increased mortality (HR 12.5; 95 % CI 2.5-65.0; P = 0.03). The 4-item scale is a simple, valid screening test for disability which can be used in the elderly population on dialysis as a screening tool. Difficulties with stair climbing may be overlooked using this score.

  16. eHealth literacy in chronic disease patients: An item response theory analysis of the eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Krieger, Janice L; Stellefson, Michael; Alber, Julia M

    2017-02-01

    Chronic disease patients are affected by low computer and health literacy, which negatively affects their ability to benefit from access to online health information. To estimate reliability and confirm model specifications for eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) scores among chronic disease patients using Classical Test (CTT) and Item Response Theory techniques. A stratified sample of Black/African American (N=341) and Caucasian (N=343) adults with chronic disease completed an online survey including the eHEALS. Item discrimination was explored using bi-variate correlations and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. A categorical confirmatory factor analysis tested a one-factor structure of eHEALS scores. Item characteristic curves, in-fit/outfit statistics, omega coefficient, and item reliability and separation estimates were computed. A 1-factor structure of eHEALS was confirmed by statistically significant standardized item loadings, acceptable model fit indices (CFI/TLI>0.90), and 70% variance explained by the model. Item response categories increased with higher theta levels, and there was evidence of acceptable reliability (ω=0.94; item reliability=89; item separation=8.54). eHEALS scores are a valid and reliable measure of self-reported eHealth literacy among Internet-using chronic disease patients. Providers can use eHEALS to help identify patients' eHealth literacy skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Loneliness Among People With Spinal Cord Injury: Exploring the Psychometric Properties of the 3-Item Loneliness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Whelen, Susan; Taylor, Heather B; Feltz, Michelle; Whelen, Megan

    2016-10-01

    To (1) examine a measure of loneliness and its correlates in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) to enhance our understanding of loneliness, which has received limited scientific study in the context of SCI; and (2) conduct preliminary analyses of the reliability and validity of the measure, including an evaluation of the unique impact of loneliness on psychological health. Cross-sectional. Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems. People with SCI (N=175) participating in Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems follow-up interviews at 1 study site between April 2014 and June 2015. Not applicable. The 3-item Loneliness Scale. Examination of individual items showed that approximately 40% of the sample reported that they felt they lacked companionship, felt left out, and felt isolated from others either some of the time or often. Mean scores in our sample were elevated compared with published data on middle-aged and older adults. Results provided evidence of internal consistency, comparable to that reported in the literature, and preliminary evidence of convergent and divergent validity. Loneliness was related to psychological health even after controlling for measures of demographics, disability, and social integration, suggesting that loneliness captures more than just social isolation or social integration in people with SCI. Loneliness, which may be more common among people with SCI, is related to poorer psychological health. Given the serious physical and psychological health consequences of loneliness documented in the general literature, it is imperative that the experience of loneliness among people with SCI be given serious and systematic attention in the literature as well as in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation and application of the Chinese version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10) among parents of children with cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Qiu, Hong Zhong; Li, Peng Fei; Chen, Peng; Liang, Mu Zi; Liu, Mei Ling; Yu, Yuan Liang; Wang, Shu Ni; Quan, Xiao Ming

    2017-04-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with cancer often experience considerable emotional distress for their children with negative emotions, such as disbelief, depression, anxiety, hope and shock. Resilience is defined as the psychological characteristics that promote positive adaptation in the face of stress and adversity, which has been demonstrated to relate to positive coping and less psychological distress. Thus, a quick screening tool to evaluate the levels of resilience of parents with cancer-diagnosed children is urgently required. The Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were used to evaluate the CD-RISC-10 using a sample size of 500 parents. Velicer's Minimum Average Partial (MAP) Test and a parallel analysis were also supplemented to confirm the EFA-derived structure of the scale. The participants were given the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ) to test the associates with CD-RISC-10 and obtain the cut-off of the scale. The Chinese version of CD-RISC-10 has good psychometric properties and retains its single dimension in the original English version, which can explain 49.602% of the total variance. The CFA demonstrates the fit indices of a one-order model: Chi-Square = 39.987, CMIN/DF = 1.333, P resilience of the parents when their children undergo treatment, which can be the most important indicator to their psychological health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  20. Ordinal-To-Interval Scale Conversion Tables and National Items for the New Zealand Version of the WHOQOL-BREF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian U Krägeloh

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL questionnaires are widely used around the world and can claim strong cross-cultural validity due to their development in collaboration with international field centres. To enhance conceptual equivalence of quality of life across cultures, optional national items are often developed for use alongside the core instrument. The present study outlines the development of national items for the New Zealand WHOQOL-BREF. Focus groups with members of the community as well as health experts discussed what constitutes quality of life in their opinion. Based on themes extracted of aspects not contained in the existing WHOQOL instrument, 46 candidate items were generated and subsequently rated for their importance by a random sample of 585 individuals from the general population. Applying importance criteria reduced these items to 24, which were then sent to another large random sample (n = 808 to be rated alongside the existing WHOQOL-BREF. A final set of five items met the criteria for national items. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four national items as belonging to the psychological domain of quality of life, and one item to the social domain. Rasch analysis validated these results and generated ordinal-to-interval conversion algorithms to allow use of parametric statistics for domain scores with and without national items.

  1. Short Scales for the Assessment of Personality Traits: Development and Validation of the Portuguese Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Nunes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of quickly assessing personality traits in many studies prompted the development of brief scales such as the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI, a measure of five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness. In the current study, we present the Portuguese version of TIPI and examine its psychometric properties, based on a sample of 333 Portuguese adults aged 18 to 65 years. The results revealed reliability coefficients similar to the original version (α = 0.39–0.72, very good 4-week test–retest reliability (n = 81, rs > 0.71, expected factorial structure, high convergent validity with the Big-Five Inventory (rs > 0.60, and correlations with self-esteem, affect, and aggressiveness similar to those found with standard measures of personality traits. Overall, our findings suggest that the Portuguese TIPI is a reliable and valid alternative to longer measures: it offers a promising tool for research contexts in which the available time for personality assessment is highly limited.

  2. Measuring Filial Piety in the 21st Century: Development, Factor Structure, and Reliability of the 10-Item Contemporary Filial Piety Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Terry Y S; Yan, Elsie C W; Ho, Andy H Y; Shum, Michelle H Y; Wong, Gloria H Y; Lau, Mandy M Y; Wang, Junfang

    2016-11-01

    The experience and practice of filial piety have evolved in modern Chinese societies, and existing measures fail to capture these important changes. Based on a conceptual analysis on current literature, 42 items were initially compiled to form a Contemporary Filial Piety Scale (CFPS), and 1,080 individuals from a representative sample in Hong Kong were surveyed. Principal component analysis generated a 16-item three-factor model: Pragmatic Obligations (Factor 1; 10 items), Compassionate Reverence (Factor 2; 4 items), and Family Continuity (Factor 3; 2 items). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed strong factor loadings for Factors 1 and 2, while removing Factor 3 and conceptually duplicated items increased total variance explained from 58.02% to 60.09% and internal consistency from .84 to .88. A final 10-item two-factor structure model was adopted with a goodness of fit of 0.95. The CFPS-10 is a data-driven, simple, and efficient instrument with strong psychometric properties for assessing contemporary filial piety. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Testing the Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the World Health Organization Six-Item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener Using the Stockholm Public Health Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Dalman, Christina

    2017-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) is intended to measure population prevalence of ADHD. The short version ASRS-6 has yet not been validated in a population setting. Our aim was to examine the validity of the ASRS-6 in a general population. We used the Stockholm Public Health Cohort 2014. The convergent validity was assessed using item response theory (IRT). The discriminant validity was assessed by examining the correlation between the ASRS and known correlates. The ASRS-6 was unidimensional albeit with hyperactivity and impulsivity items fitting less good. IRT analysis showed that the item difficulty ranged between easy to hard and that the four items on inattention had good or very good discriminatory ability. Correlates were all in the expected direction. The ASRS-6 has adequate validity in the general population but reflects the duality of ADHD having both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as sufficient and non-necessary criteria.

  4. Self efficacy for fruit, vegetable and water intakes: expanded and abbreviated scales from item response modeling analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to improve an existing measure of fruit and vegetable intake self efficacy, by including items that varied on levels of difficulty, and testing a corresponding measure of water intake self efficacy. A cross sectional assessment was used. Items were modified to have easy, moderate, ...

  5. Simulating Biomass Fast Pyrolysis at the Single Particle Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Jakes, Joseph E. [U.S. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

    2017-07-01

    Simulating fast pyrolysis at the scale of single particles allows for the investigation of the impacts of feedstock-specific parameters such as particle size, shape, and species of origin. For this reason particle-scale modeling has emerged as an important tool for understanding how variations in feedstock properties affect the outcomes of pyrolysis processes. The origins of feedstock properties are largely dictated by the composition and hierarchical structure of biomass, from the microstructural porosity to the external morphology of milled particles. These properties may be accounted for in simulations of fast pyrolysis by several different computational approaches depending on the level of structural and chemical complexity included in the model. The predictive utility of particle-scale simulations of fast pyrolysis can still be enhanced substantially by advancements in several areas. Most notably, considerable progress would be facilitated by the development of pyrolysis kinetic schemes that are decoupled from transport phenomena, predict product evolution from whole-biomass with increased chemical speciation, and are still tractable with present-day computational resources.

  6. Problem of item overlap between the psychopathy screening device and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G L

    2000-12-01

    Content validity requires a clear definition of the construct of interest and the delineation of the construct from similar constructs. Content validity also requires that the items be representative of the construct as well as specific to the construct. An examination of the items on the Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD), a parent- and teacher-rating scale of childhood psychopathy, indicates significant overlap with the symptoms and associated features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). The failure of the PSD to have unique items results in poor discriminant validity with ADHD, ODD, and CD rating scales. More careful attention to content validation guidelines is required to develop a more useful measure of childhood psychopathy.

  7. Explaining Method Effects Associated with Negatively Worded Items in Trait and State Global and Domain-Specific Self-Esteem Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Jose M.; Oliver, Amparo; Galiana, Laura; Sancho, Patricia; Lila, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    Several investigators have interpreted method effects associated with negatively worded items in a substantive way. This research extends those studies in different ways: (a) it establishes the presence of methods effects in further populations and particular scales, and (b) it examines the possible relations between a method factor associated…

  8. Improving the quality and applicability of the Dutch scales of the communication profile for the hearing impaired using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokkink, L.B.; Knol, D.L.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; Kramer, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to improve the quality and applicability of the 6 Dutch scales of the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired (CPHI; Demorest & Erdman, 1986, 1987, 1988) using item response theory (IRT). IRT modeling can produce precise, valid, and relatively brief

  9. easyCBM CCSS Math Item Scaling and Test Form Revision (2012-2013): Grades 6-8. Technical Report #1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to document the piloting and scaling of new easyCBM mathematics test items aligned with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and to describe the process used to revise and supplement the 2012 research version easyCBM CCSS math tests in Grades 6-8. For all operational 2012 research version test forms (10…

  10. A comment on Watson, Deary, and Austin and Watson, Roberts, Gow, and Deary : How to investigate whether personality items form a hierarchical scale?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R.

    I comment on two recent papers by Watson et al. (2007, 2008) who investigated whether personality items form a hierarchical scale. I discuss that the methods they used are inappropriate and discuss alternative methods presented in the literature. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved..

  11. Using Rasch Analysis to Examine the Dimensionality Structure and Differential Item Functioning of the Arabic Version of the Perceived Physical Ability Scale for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; AL-Sinani, Yousra; El Shourbagi, Sahar; Fakhroo, Hessa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the Rasch model technique to examine the dimensionality structure and differential item functioning of the Arabic version of the Perceived Physical Ability Scale for Children (PPASC). A sample of 220 Omani fourth graders (120 males and 100 females) responded to an Arabic translated version of the PPASC. Data on students'…

  12. Measuring Student Involvement: A Comparison of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory in the Construction of Scales from Student Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkness, Jessica; DeAngelo, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the psychometric utility of Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) for scale construction with data from higher education student surveys. Using 2008 Your First College Year (YFCY) survey data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program at the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, two scales…

  13. Psychometric properties of responses by clinicians and older adults to a 6-item Hebrew version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachner, Yaacov G; O'Rourke, Norm; Goldfracht, Margalit

    2013-01-01

    The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) is commonly used as a screening instrument, as a continuous measure of change in depressive symptoms over time, and as a means to compare the relative efficacy of treatments. Among several abridged versions, the 6-item HAM-D6 is used most widely in lar...... degree because of its good psychometric properties. The current study compares both self-report and clinician-rated versions of the Hebrew version of this scale....

  14. My mind is as clear as it used to be: A pilot study illustrating the difficulties of employing a single-item subjective screen to detect cognitive impairment in outpatients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibiger, Gail; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Wall, Jacqueline R; Passik, Steven D

    2003-08-01

    Oncology patients often complain that their "mind does not seem to be clear." This subjective perception, sometimes referred to as "chemo brain," may be due to situational stressors, psychological disorders, organic factors, or effects of neurotoxic medications. Cognitive decline cannot only diminish quality of life, but can also interfere with a patient's ability to make decisions regarding complex treatment issues. The current study investigated the utility of using item 11 of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Screen (ZSDS) as a cognitive screen. A sample of 61 ambulatory cancer patients completed this study. Participants were recruited from four sites of Community Cancer Care, Inc., in Indiana. A battery of cognitive instruments and psychosocial inventories was administered in a standardized order. The sample had a mean age of 58.6 years and comprised 57.4% (n=35) women and 42.6% (n=26) men. Item 11 of the ZSDS was not significantly correlated to the cognitive measures. Correlates of the perception of cognitive impairment were the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) Attention Scale (r=-0.26, PStroop test (F=19.8, Pspecificity indicated that the single-item screen used in this study is not an accurate means for identifying oncology patients with actual cognitive impairment. We conclude that while the perception of cognitive impairment is common in cancer patients, there may be problems in interpreting the nature of these complaints, particularly in separating them from depressive preoccupation.

  15. An abbreviated Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale for Chinese-speaking population with colorectal cancer after surgery: cultural adaptation and item reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L-F; Hung, C-L; Kuo, L-J; Tsai, P-S

    2017-09-01

    No instrument is available to assess the impact of faecal incontinence (FI) of quality of life for Chinese-speaking population. The purpose of the study was to adapt the Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL) for patients with colorectal cancer, assess the factor structure and reduce the items for brevity. A sample of 120 participants were enrolled. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and contrasted-groups validity were assessed. Construct validity was analysed using an exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). The internal consistency (Cronbach's α of the total scale and four subscales = 0.98 and 0.97, 0.96, 0.92, 0.82 respectively), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥.98 for all scales with p < .001) and significant correlations of all scales with selected subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey and the Wexner scale suggested satisfactory reliability and validity. The severe FI group (with a Wexner score ≥9) scored significantly lower on the scale than the less severe FI group (with a Wexner score <9) did (p < .001). The CFA supported a two-factor structure and demonstrated an excellent model fit of the 15-item abbreviated version of the FIQL-Chinese. The FIQL-Chinese has satisfactory validity and reliability and the abbreviated version may be more practical and applicable. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. RT-based memory detection : Item saliency effects in the single-probe and the multiple-probe protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Kleinberg, B.; Theocharidou, K.

    RT-based memory detection may provide an efficient means to assess recognition of concealed information. There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in detection rates, and we explored two potential moderators: item saliency and test protocol. Participants tried to conceal low salient (e.g.,

  17. A protocol for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: Item scoring rules, Rater training, and outcome accuracy with data on its application in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Kelly J; Rough, Jennifer N; Evans, Maggie; Ho, Sheau-Yan; Meyerhoff, Jonah; Roberts, Lorinda M; Vacek, Pamela M

    2016-08-01

    We present a fully articulated protocol for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), including item scoring rules, rater training procedures, and a data management algorithm to increase accuracy of scores prior to outcome analyses. The latter involves identifying potentially inaccurate scores as interviews with discrepancies between two independent raters on the basis of either scores >=5-point difference) or meeting threshold for depression recurrence status, a long-term treatment outcome with public health significance. Discrepancies are resolved by assigning two new raters, identifying items with disagreement per an algorithm, and reaching consensus on the most accurate scores for those items. These methods were applied in a clinical trial where the primary outcome was the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-Seasonal Affective Disorder version (SIGH-SAD), which includes the 21-item HAM-D and 8 items assessing atypical symptoms. 177 seasonally depressed adult patients were enrolled and interviewed at 10 time points across treatment and the 2-year followup interval for a total of 1589 completed interviews with 1535 (96.6%) archived. Inter-rater reliability ranged from ICCs of .923-.967. Only 86 (5.6%) interviews met criteria for a between-rater discrepancy. HAM-D items "Depressed Mood", "Work and Activities", "Middle Insomnia", and "Hypochondriasis" and Atypical items "Fatigability" and "Hypersomnia" contributed most to discrepancies. Generalizability beyond well-trained, experienced raters in a clinical trial is unknown. Researchers might want to consider adopting this protocol in part or full. Clinicians might want to tailor it to their needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Desenvolvimento de uma escala para medir o potencial empreendedor utilizando a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI Development of a scale to measure the entrepreneurial potential using the Item Response Theory (IRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Ricardo Rath Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversas variáveis estão relacionadas ao desenvolvimento da atividade empreendedora, verifica-se, entre elas, a importância do agente empreendedor. Dos estudos que contribuem para o seu entendimento, este segue a linha que defende que o empreendedor tem características e traços de personalidade singulares em relação à população, os quais são propícios ao sucesso do empreendedorismo. O objetivo deste trabalho é desenvolver uma escala para medir o potencial empreendedor utilizando a Teoria da Resposta ao Item. Foi utilizado o modelo logístico de dois parâmetros da TRI. As estimativas dos parâmetros foram obtidas a partir da amostra com 764 pessoas que responderam a um instrumento composto por 103 itens. A curva de informação e do erro padrão do teste e a interpretação qualitativa de níveis da escala permitiram determinar o intervalo mais apropriado para utilização do instrumento. Os resultados mostraram que a escala é mais adequada para avaliar indivíduos com baixo até moderadamente alto potencial empreendedor. Por isso, sugere-se que novos itens sejam incorporados ao instrumento para mensurar e interpretar níveis ainda mais elevados. A Teoria da Resposta ao Item permite que novos itens sejam calibrados a fim de mensurar os empreendedores com alto potencial empreendedor, aproveitando os dados já obtidos.Several variables are related to the development of entrepreneurial activities. An important one among them is the entrepreneurial agent. This study is one of many that contribute to the understanding of the entrepreneurial agent. In its line of thought, it upholds the idea that the entrepreneur has characteristics and personality traits that stand out from the general population and that are favorable to the success of the entrepreneurship. This study aims at developing a measurement scale for entrepreneurial potential using the Item Response Theory. The items were generated by Santos (2008 based on a theoretical model

  19. A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of the 6-Item Version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerby, N; Andersen, J H; Søndergaard, S; Østergaard, S D; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    In a study aimed at identifying the items carrying information regarding the global severity of depression, the 6-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6) was derived from the original 17-item version of the scale (HAM-D17). Since then, the HAM-D6 has been used in a wide range of clinical studies. We now provide a systematic review of the clinimetric properties of HAM-D6 in comparison with those of HAM-D17 and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). We conducted a systematic search of the literature in PubMed, PsycInfo, and EMBASE databases in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline. Studies reporting data on the clinimetric validity of the HAM-D6 and either the HAM-D17 or MADRS in non-psychotic unipolar or bipolar depression were included in the synthesis. The search identified 681 unique records, of which 51 articles met the inclusion criteria. According to the published literature, HAM-D6 has proven to be superior to both HAM-D17 and MADRS in terms of scalability (each item contains unique information regarding syndrome severity), transferability (scalability is constant over time and irrespective of sex, age, and depressive subtypes), and responsiveness (sensitivity to change in severity during treatment). According to the published literature, the clinimetric properties of HAM-D6 are superior to those of both the HAM-D17 and MADRS. Since the validity of HAM-D6 has been demonstrated in both research and clinical practice, using the scale more consistently would facilitate translation of results from one setting to the other. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Barriers and benefits to desired behaviors for single use plastic items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Jill F; Hardy, Scott D

    2018-02-01

    Given the growing saliency of plastic marine debris, and the impact of plastics on beaches and aquatic environments in the Laurentian Great Lakes, applied research is needed to support municipal and nongovernmental campaigns to prevent debris from reaching the water's edge. This study addresses this need by examining the barriers and benefits to positive behavior for two plastic debris items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin: plastic bags and plastic water bottles. An online survey is employed to gather data on the use and disposal of these plastic items and to solicit recommendations on how to positively change behavior to reduce improper disposal. Results support a ban on plastic bags and plastic water bottles, with more enthusiasm for a bag ban. Financial incentives are also seen as an effective way to influence behavior change, as are location-specific solutions focused on education and outreach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychometric properties of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale in antepartum women from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Dana; Barkmann, Claus; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Bindt, Carola

    2014-12-01

    To explore the psychometric properties of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) in West African pregnant women. In a cross-sectional study, the GAD-7, the PHQ-9 (depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire) and the WHO-DAS II (12-item World Health Organization Disability Scale) were administered to n=647 Ivorian and n=395 Ghanaian antepartum women with low-risk pregnancies (third trimester; gestational age range: 28-40 weeks) in 2010-2011. Statistical analyses combined classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). Cronbach׳s α was close to acceptable (α=.69 in Côte d'Ivoire; α=.67 in Ghana). Construct validity was demonstrated by correlations between the GAD-7 and both the PHQ-9 and the WHO-DAS II. Results regarding factorial validity were ambiguous: confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses indicated that the data fit the unidimensionality assumption; however, the explained variance was low. IRT methods suggested excellent item infit and outfit measures. Yet, residual principal component analyses showed a lack of unidimensionality. Rasch analyses revealed that the response options were not used as intended. Item-person-fit was not optimal since the items did not discriminate well on the range of the latent construct where most of the women drawn from the general population were located. Both samples were somewhat homogenous regarding gestational age and urban residence; test-retest reliability was not investigated. The GAD-7 met the requirements of CTT. However, applying the stricter criteria of IRT suggested areas for potential improvements. Cross-cultural adaption and a dichotomized response format might ameliorate the GAD-7 for the use in sub-Saharan countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary data concerning the reliability and psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the 20-item Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arapidis Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 20-item Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN-20 is a self-report scale developed in order to assess the well-being of patients receiving antipsychotic medication independent of the improvement in their psychotic symptoms. The current study reports on the reliability and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the SWN-20. Methods A total of 100 inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia (79 males and 21 females, aged 42.6 ± 11.35 years old from 3 different facilities were assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, the Calgary Depression Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale, and completed the SWN-20. The statistical analysis included the calculation of Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, the Cronbach α and factor analysis with Varimax normalised rotation. Results The SWN-20 had an α value equal to 0.79 and all the items were equal. The factor analysis revealed the presence of seven factors explaining 66% of total variance. The correlation matrix revealed a moderate relationship of the SWN-20 and its factors with the PANSS-Negative (PANSS-N, PANSS-General Psychopathology (PANSS-G, the Simpson-Angus and the Calgary scales, and no relationship to age, education and income class. Discussion The Greek translation of the SWN-20 is reliable, with psychometric properties close to the original scale.

  3. Asenapine effects on individual Young Mania Rating Scale items in bipolar disorder patients with acute manic or mixed episodes: a pooled analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazorla P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pilar Cazorla, Jun Zhao, Mary Mackle, Armin Szegedi Merck, Rahway, NJ, USA Background: An exploratory post hoc analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential differential effects over time of asenapine and olanzapine compared with placebo on the eleven individual items comprising the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS in patients with manic or mixed episodes in bipolar I disorder. Methods: Data were pooled from two 3-week randomized, controlled trials in which the eleven individual items comprising the YMRS were measured over 21 days. An analysis of covariance model adjusted by baseline value was used to test for differences in changes from baseline in YMRS scores between groups. Results: Each of the eleven individual YMRS item scores was significantly reduced compared with placebo at day 21. After 2 days of treatment, asenapine and olanzapine were superior to placebo for six of the YMRS items: disruptive/aggressive behavior, content, irritability, elevated mood, sleep, and speech. Conclusion: Reduction in manic symptoms over 21 days was associated with a broad-based improvement across all symptom domains with no subset of symptoms predominating. Keywords: asenapine, Young Mania Rating Scale, bipolar disorder, YMRS, antipsychotic, olanzapine

  4. Disparity between General Symptom Relief and Remission Criteria in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A Post-treatment Bifactor Item Response Theory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ariana E; Reise, Steven P; Marder, Stephen R; Mansolf, Maxwell; Han, Carol; Bilder, Robert M

    2017-12-01

    Objective: Total scale scores derived by summing ratings from the 30-item PANSS are commonly used in clinical trial research to measure overall symptom severity, and percentage reductions in the total scores are sometimes used to document the efficacy of treatment. Acknowledging that some patients may have substantial changes in PANSS total scores but still be sufficiently symptomatic to warrant diagnosis, ratings on a subset of 8 items, referred to here as the "Remission set," are sometimes used to determine if patients' symptoms no longer satisfy diagnostic criteria. An unanswered question remains: is the goal of treatment better conceptualized as reduction in overall symptom severity, or reduction in symptoms below the threshold for diagnosis? We evaluated the psychometric properties of PANSS total scores, to assess whether having low symptom severity post-treatment is equivalent to attaining Remission. Design: We applied a bifactor item response theory (IRT) model to post-treatment PANSS ratings of 3,647 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia assessed at the termination of 11 clinical trials. The bifactor model specified one general dimension to reflect overall symptom severity, and five domain-specific dimensions. We assessed how PANSS item discrimination and information parameters varied across the range of overall symptom severity (θ), with a special focus on low levels of symptoms (i.e., θgeneral symptom severity, and only 8% reflected secondary domain factors. This implies that a general factor may provide a good indicator of symptom severity, and that interpretation is not overly complicated by multidimensionality; (2) Post-treatment, 534 individuals (about 15% of the whole sample) scored in the "Relief" range of general symptom severity, but more than twice that number (n = 1351) satisfied Remission criteria (37%). 2 in 3 Remitted patients had scores that were not in a low symptom range (corresponding to Absent or Minimal item scores); (3) PANSS items

  5. Centering, Scale Indeterminacy, and Differential Item Functioning Detection in Hierarchical Generalized Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Yuk Fai; Kamata, Akihito

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss and illustrate two centering and anchoring options available in differential item functioning (DIF) detection studies based on the hierarchical generalized linear and generalized linear mixed modeling frameworks. We compared and contrasted the assumptions of the two options, and examined the properties of their DIF…

  6. Toward improving food safety in the domestic environment: a multi-item Rasch scale for the measurement of the safety efficacy of domestic food-handling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arnout R H; Frewer, Lynn J; Nauta, Maarten J

    2006-10-01

    To reduce consumer health risks from foodborne diseases that result from improper domestic food handling, consumers need to know how to safely handle food. To realize improvements in public health, it is necessary to develop interventions that match the needs of individual consumers. Successful intervention strategies are therefore contingent on identifying not only the practices that are important for consumer protection, but also barriers that prevent consumers from responding to these interventions. A measure of food safety behavior is needed to assess the effectiveness of different intervention strategies across different groups of consumers. A nationally representative survey was conducted in the Netherlands to determine which practices are likely conducted by which consumers. Participants reported their behaviors with respect to 55 different food-handling practices. The Rasch modeling technique was used to determine a general measure for the likelihood of an average consumer performing each food-handling behavior. Simultaneously, an average performance measure was estimated for each consumer. These two measures can be combined to predict the likelihood that an individual consumer engages in a specific food-handling behavior. A single "food safety" dimension was shown to underlie all items. Some potentially safe practices (e.g., use of meat thermometers) were reported as very difficult, while other safe practices were conducted by respondents more frequently (e.g., washing of fresh fruit and vegetables). A cluster analysis was applied to the resulting data set, and five segments of consumers were identified. Different behaviors may have different effects on microbial growth in food, and thus have different consequences for human health. Once the microbial relevance of the different consumer behaviors has been confirmed by experiments and modeling, the scale developed in the research reported here can be used to develop risk communication targeted to the needs

  7. Passive ultra high frequency radio frequency identification systems for single-item identification in food supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Barge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry, composition, size, and shape of items are much less regular than in other commodities sectors. In addition, a wide variety of packaging, composed by different materials, is employed. As material, size and shape of items to which the tag should be attached strongly influence the minimum power requested for tag functioning, performance improvements can be achieved only selecting suitable radio frequency (RF identifiers for the specific combination of food product and packaging. When dealing with logistics units, the dynamic reading of a vast number of tags could originate simultaneous broadcasting of signals (tag-to-tag collisions that could affect reading rates and the overall reliability of the identification procedure. This paper reports the results of an analysis of the reading performance of ultra high frequency radio frequency identification systems for multiple static and dynamic electronic identification of food packed products in controlled conditions. Products were considered when arranged on a logistics pallet. The effects on reading rate of different factors, among which the product type, the gate configuration, the field polarisation, the power output of the RF reader, the interrogation protocol configuration as well as the transit speed, the number of tags and their interactions were statistically analysed and compared.

  8. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor Structure and Uniform Differential Item Functioning Across Gender and Three Racial/Ethnic Groups for ADHD, Conduct Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesner, Margit; Kanouse, David E.; Elliott, Marc N.; Windle, Michael; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM–IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 chi...

  9. Perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students in Southwest Nigeria: validation of a 5-item gender scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekitan, Afe Taiwo; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Osalusi, Bamidele; Adeleye, Olufunke; Ale, Ayotunde

    2017-08-29

    Our study focused on the perception of victims of rape and the relationship with the perception of social roles for gender among college students in southwest Nigeria using a 5-item gender social scale and a perception of victims of rape questionnaire. The study was done among 312 college students in Southwest Nigeria and explored the perception of victims of rape and gender social roles. The aim was to determine the relationship between perception of rape victims and view of gender social roles. We used a perception of rape victims questionnaire and a validated 5-item gender social roles scale to assess the views of participants. The findings revealed that females had better perception of victims of rape than males. Females also had more positive views of females' social roles involving gender. However, there was poor perception on work-related social roles and the traditional concept of headship in the varied situations described on the 5-item gender social scale. Old stereotypes of typically blaming victims of rape were not common beliefs among college students. There were no significant correlations between perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students. Seemingly, the perception of victims of rape does not have a significant relationship with the concept of gender social roles.

  10. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Arndt,1–3 Ethan Sahker,1,4 Suzy Hedden1 1Iowa Consortium for Substance Abuse Research and Evaluation, 2Department of Psychiatry, Carver College of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, 4Department of Psychological and Quantitative Foundations, Counseling Psychology Program College of Education, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Methods: Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores. Multiple group factor analysis provided a quasi-confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The solution accounted for 75.24% of the total variance, suggesting that 10 factors provide a reasonably good fit. However, Tucker’s congruence coefficients between the factor structure and defining weights (0.41–0.52 suggested a poor fit to the hypothesized 10-domain structure. Principal components of the 10-domain scores yielded one factor whose eigenvalue was greater than one (5.93, accounting for 75.8% of the common variance. A few domains had perceptible but small unique variance components suggesting that a few of the domains may warrant enrichment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is one general factor, with a caveat. Using the 10 measures inflates the chance for Type I errors. Using one general measure avoids this issue, is simple to interpret, and could reduce the number of items. However, those seeking to maximally predict later recovery success may need to use the full instrument and all 10 domains. Keywords: social support, psychometrics, quality of life

  11. Value in Single-level Lumbar Discectomy: Surgical Disposable Item Cost and Relationship to Patient-reported Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Modic, Michael T; Krishnaney, Ajit A

    2017-11-01

    This is a retrospective study. Compare improvements in health status measures (HSMs) and surgical costs to determine whether use of more costly items has any relationship to clinical outcome and value in lumbar disc surgery. Association between cost, outcomes, and value in spine surgery, including lumbar discectomy is poorly understood. Outcomes were calculated as difference in mean HSM scores between preoperative and postoperative timeframes. Prospective validated patient-reported HSMs studied were EuroQol quality of life index score (EQ-5D), Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Surgical costs consisted of disposable items and implants used in operating room. We retrospectively identified all adult patients at Cleveland Clinic main campus between October 2009 and August 2013 who underwent lumbar discectomy (652) using administrative billing data, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code 63030. HSMs were obtained from Cleveland Clinic Knowledge Program Data Registry. In total, 67% of operations performed in the outpatient or ambulatory setting, 33% in the inpatient setting. Among 9 surgeons who performed >10 lumbar discectomies, there were 72.4 operations per surgeon, on average. Mean surgical costs of each surgeon differed (Pcosts (Pcosts (P=0.76, 0.07, 0.76, respectively). In multivariable regression, only surgical cost was significantly correlated to mean difference in PDQ (P=0.030). More costly surgeries resulted in worse PDQ outcomes. Mean surgical costs varied statistically among 9 surgeons; costs were not shown to be positively correlated with patient outcomes. Performing an operation using more costly disposable supplies/implants does not seem to improve patient outcomes and should be considered when constructing preference cards and during an operation.

  12. The use of an item response theory-based disability item bank across diseases: accounting for differential item functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees A; Vermeulen, Marinus; De Haan, Rob J

    2010-05-01

    There is not a single universally accepted activity of daily living (ADL) instrument available to compare disability assessments across different patient groups. We developed a generic item bank of ADL items using item response theory, the Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Scale (ALDS). When comparing outcomes of the ALDS between patients groups, item characteristics of the ALDS should be comparable across groups. The aim of the study was to assess the differential item functioning (DIF) in a group of patients with various disorders to investigate the comparability across these groups. Cross-sectional, multicenter study including 1,283 in- and outpatients with a variety of disorders and disability levels. The sample was divided in two groups: (1) mainly neurological patients (n=497; vascular medicine, Parkinson's disease and neuromuscular disorders) and (2) patients from internal medicine (n=786; pulmonary diseases, chronic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and geriatric patients). Eighteen of 72 ALDS items showed statistically significant DIF (P<0.01). However, the DIF could effectively be modeled by the introduction of disease-specific parameters. In the subgroups studied, DIF could be modeled in such a way that the ensemble of the items comprised a scale applicable in both groups.

  13. Development of coordination system model on single-supplier multi-buyer for multi-item supply chain with probabilistic demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia, G.; Santoso, A.; Prayogo, D. N.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, the level of competition between supply chains is getting tighter and a good coordination system between supply chains members is very crucial in solving the issue. This paper focused on a model development of coordination system between single supplier and buyers in a supply chain as a solution. Proposed optimization model was designed to determine the optimal number of deliveries from a supplier to buyers in order to minimize the total cost over a planning horizon. Components of the total supply chain cost consist of transportation costs, handling costs of supplier and buyers and also stock out costs. In the proposed optimization model, the supplier can supply various types of items to retailers whose item demand patterns are probabilistic. Sensitivity analysis of the proposed model was conducted to test the effect of changes in transport costs, handling costs and production capacities of the supplier. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed a significant influence on the changes in the transportation cost, handling costs and production capacity to the decisions of the optimal numbers of product delivery for each item to the buyers.

  14. A multi-perspective focus-group approach to revise items in a dietary self-efficacy scale for older Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jung-Hua; Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Chen, Su-Hui

    2015-01-01

    To revise items in the Cardiac Diet Self-Efficacy Scale, Chinese version (CDSE-C) using focus groups. There is limited literature on using focus groups with older adults as well as nursing and nutrition professionals to revise a questionnaire. A qualitative research with multi-perspective focus-group approach was used from February through June 2009. Four serial focus groups were conducted including two focus groups of older adults from Taipei County (n = 6) and Yilan County (n = 6), one group of 5 nursing professionals, and one group of 4 nutritionists. Serial focus group discussions added one category to the CDSE-C (reducing salt) and 3 items, resulting in an 18-item scale with six categories: healthy eating behaviors, reducing fat and cholesterol, resisting relapse, increasing fiber and vegetable, reducing sugar, and reducing salt. This revised measure can serve as a reliable tool for assessing older Chinese adults' healthy eating self-efficacy to evaluate and improve nutritional status in this population.

  15. Evaluation of a four-item DSM-5 Limited Prosocial Emotions specifier scale within and across settings with Spanish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijas, Raquel; Servera, Mateu; García-Banda, Gloria; Barry, Christopher T; Burns, G Leonard

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate a 4-item measure of the DSM-5 Limited Prosocial Emotions (LPE) specifier (a 4-item measure of prosocial emotions). Mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and ancillary teachers completed measures of prosocial emotions (PE), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-inattention (IN), ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), academic and social impairment on 811 Spanish first-grade children (46% girls). Confirmatory factor and structural regression analyses showed PE symptom scores to have (a) good reliability for the 4 sources (80% to 89% true score variance), (b) invariance of like-symptom loadings and intercepts across the 4 sources, (c) strong convergent and discriminant validity within home and school settings, (d) no convergent validity across settings, and (e) associations with academic and social impairment independent of the ODD dimension (the unique effects of PE also remained significant after controlling for ODD, ADHD-IN, and ADHD-HI for mothers and ancillary teachers). A graded response item response theory analysis indicated that PE scores provided an accurate measure of the PE trait across a wide trait range and especially at low PE trait levels (i.e., scores in the clinical range). Findings also supported the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of 2 or more LPE symptoms in 2 or more settings (e.g., high levels of the LPE trait were associated with the occurrence of 2 or more symptoms with 4% of the sample showing 2 or more symptoms in both settings). Although additional studies are still required, the PE measure appears useful as a brief measure of the LPE specifier. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Rating Scale Items: A Brief Review of Nomenclature, Components, and Formatting to Inform the Development of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Theodore J.; Boice, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Ratings scales are a common component of many multisource, multimethod frameworks for socioemotional and behavior assessment of children. There is a modest literature base to support the use of attitudinal, behavioral, and personality rating scales. Much of that historic literature focuses on the characteristics and interpretations of specific…

  17. Test-retest reliability of Antonovsky's 13-item sense of coherence scale in patients with hand-related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Ørts; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Cederlund, Ragnhild

    2017-01-01

    to be a powerful tool to measure the ICF component personal factors, which could have an impact on patients' rehabilitation outcomes. Implications for rehabilitation Antonovsky's SOC-13 scale showed test-retest reliability for patients with hand-related disorders. The SOC-13 scale could be a suitable tool to help...... measure personal factors....

  18. The 13-Item Sense of Coherence Scale in Dutch-Speaking Adolescents and Young Adults: Structural Validity, Age Trends, and Chronic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Luyckx; Eva Goossens; Silke Apers; Jessica Rassart; Theo Klimstra; Jessie Dezutter; Philip Moons

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the structural validity of the Dutch version of the 13-item sense of coherence (SOC) scale, examined age trends in SOC in adolescence and young adulthood (ages 14-30 years), and investigated the potential impact of chronic disease on SOC. Eight samples of Belgian high school students, college students, and young adult employees collected between 2005 - 2010 were used (total N = 2,781); 380 of these individuals aged 14-18 years were diagnosed with congenital heart ...

  19. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Major Depressive Disorder Hierarchy: Rasch Analysis of 6 items of the Hamilton Depression Scale Covering the Continuum of Depressive Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo de Carvalho Alves, Lucas; Pio de Almeida Fleck, Marcelo; Boni, Aline; Sica da Rocha, Neusa

    2017-01-01

    Melancholic features of depression (MFD) seem to be a unidimensional group of signs and symptoms. However, little importance has been given to the evaluation of what features are related to a more severe disorder. That is, what are the MFD that appear only in the most depressed patients. We aim to demonstrate how each MFD is related to the severity of the major depressive disorder. We evaluated both the Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS-17) and its 6-item melancholic subscale (HAM-D6) in 291 depressed inpatients using Rasch analysis, which computes the severity of each MFD. Overall measures of model fit were mean (±SD) of items and persons residual = 0 (±1); low χ2 value; p>0.01. For the HDRS-17 model fit, mean (±SD) of item residuals = 0.35 (±1.4); mean (±SD) of person residuals = -0.15 (±1.09); χ2 = 309.74; pdepressed mood, work and activities, somatic symptoms, psychic anxiety, guilt feelings, and psychomotor retardation. Depressed mood is less severe, while guilt feelings and psychomotor retardation are more severe MFD in a psychiatric hospitalization. Understanding depression as a continuum of symptoms can improve the understanding of the disorder and may improve its perspective of treatment.

  1. KNO scaling analysis of singly charged projectile fragments at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, N.; Singh, V.; Inbanathan, S.S.R.

    2016-01-01

    This research article deals with the KNO scaling behaviour of singly charged projectile fragments emitted during 84 Kr 36 interactions with nuclear emulsion detector at around one GeV per nucleon. We observed that singly charged projectile fragments are strongly obeying the KNO scaling behaviour. (author)

  2. Atomic-Scale Control of Electron Transport through Single Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y. F.; Kroger, J.; Berndt, R.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-phthalocyanine molecules adsorbed on Ag(111) were contacted with the tip of a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope. Orders-of-magnitude variations of the single-molecule junction conductance were achieved by controllably dehydrogenating the molecule and by modifying the atomic structure...

  3. Test-retest reliability at the item level and total score level of the Norwegian version of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Måøy, Åsa Blad; Jørgensen, Vivien; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik

    2016-05-01

    Translation of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS), and investigation of test-retest reliability on item-level and total-score-level. Translation, adaptation and test-retest study. A specialized rehabilitation setting in Norway. Fifty-four wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury. The median age of the cohort was 49 years, and the median number of years after injury was 13. Interventions/measurements: The SCI-FCS was translated and back-translated according to guidelines. Individuals answered the SCI-FCS twice over the course of one week. We investigated item-level test-retest reliability using Svensson's rank-based statistical method for disagreement analysis of paired ordinal data. For relative reliability, we analyzed the total-score-level test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2.1), the standard error of measurement (SEM), and the smallest detectable change (SDC) for absolute reliability/measurement-error assessment and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. All items showed satisfactory percentage agreement (≥69%) between test and retest. There were small but non-negligible systematic disagreements among three items; we recovered an 11-13% higher chance for a lower second score. There was no disagreement due to random variance. The test-retest agreement (ICC2.1) was excellent (0.83). The SEM was 2.6 (12%), and the SDC was 7.1 (32%). The Cronbach's alpha was high (0.88). The Norwegian SCI-FCS is highly reliable for wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injuries.

  4. The Effects of Positively and Negatively Worded Items on the Factor Structure of the UCLA Loneliness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodeen, Hamzeh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale and examine possible wording effects on a sample of 1,429 students from the United Arab Emirates University. Correlated traits-correlated uniqueness as well as correlated traits-correlated methods were used to examine…

  5. DL-sQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Service Quality of Online Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Naj; Lowe, Sue; Pinegar, Kem

    2006-01-01

    Education is a service with multiplicity of student interactions over time and across multiple touch points. Quality teaching needs to be supplemented by consistent quality supporting services for programs to succeed under the competitive distance learning landscape. ServQual and e-SQ scales have been proposed for measuring quality of traditional…

  6. The 13-Item Sense of Coherence Scale in Dutch-Speaking Adolescents and Young Adults: Structural Validity, Age Trends, and Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Luyckx

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the structural validity of the Dutch 13-item sense of coherence (SOC scale, examined age trends in SOC in adolescence and young adulthood, and investigated the potential impact of chronic disease on SOC. Eight samples of Belgian high school students, college students, and young adult employees were used (total 'N' = 2,781; 380 of them aged 14-18 years were diagnosed with congenital heart disease. The SOC-13 scale proved to be structurally valid, as configural, metric, and scalar invariance was established. In line with salutogenic theory, SOC was found to increase with age through the teens and twenties. Relatedly, whereas high school and college students did not differ on mean SOC scores, employed young adults scored significantly higher. Having congenital heart disease was associated with higher levels of SOC in 14-18 year olds: they displayed similarly high scores on SOC as healthy individuals in their late twenties.

  7. Bipolar Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiguchi Sumiyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article asserts that the Japanese wide-scope mo ‘even’ in simple sentences are bipolar items (BPIs antilicensed or forbidden by negation and licensed in a non-monotonic (NM environment. BPIs share the features of negative polarity items (NPIs as well as positive polarity items (PPIs. The Dutch ooit ‘ever’, the Serbo-Croatian i-series ‘and/even’, and the Hungarian is-series ‘and/even’ are antilicensed by clausemate negation and licensed by extraclausal negation (van der Wouden, 1997; Progovac, 1994; Szabolcsi, 2002 or non-monotonic negative (and positive, for Serbo-Croatian emotive predicates. Adding an NPI rescues BPIs in uncomfortable clausemate negation.

  8. Vision for single flux quantum very large scale integrated technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Arnold; Bunyk, Paul; Kleinsasser, Alan; Spargo, John

    2006-05-01

    Single flux quantum (SFQ) electronics is extremely fast and has very low on-chip power dissipation. SFQ VLSI is an excellent candidate for high-performance computing and other applications requiring extremely high-speed signal processing. Despite this, SFQ technology has generally not been accepted for system implementation. We argue that this is due, at least in part, to the use of outdated tools to produce SFQ circuits and chips. Assuming the use of tools equivalent to those employed in the semiconductor industry, we estimate the density of Josephson junctions, circuit speed, and power dissipation that could be achieved with SFQ technology. Today, CMOS lithography is at 90-65 nm with about 20 layers. Assuming equivalent technology, aggressively increasing the current density above 100 kA cm-2 to achieve junction speeds approximately 1000 GHz, and reducing device footprints by converting device profiles from planar to vertical, one could expect to integrate about 250 M Josephson junctions cm-2 into SFQ digital circuits. This should enable circuit operation with clock frequencies above 200 GHz and place approximately 20 K gates within a radius of one clock period. As a result, complete microprocessors, including integrated memory registers, could be fabricated on a single chip. This technology was exported from the United States in accordance with the US Department of Commerce Export Administration Regulations (EAR) for ultimate destination in the United Kingdom. Diversion contrary to US law prohibited.

  9. Vision for single flux quantum very large scale integrated technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, Arnold; Bunyk, Paul; Kleinsasser, Alan; Spargo, John

    2006-01-01

    Single flux quantum (SFQ) electronics is extremely fast and has very low on-chip power dissipation. SFQ VLSI is an excellent candidate for high-performance computing and other applications requiring extremely high-speed signal processing. Despite this, SFQ technology has generally not been accepted for system implementation. We argue that this is due, at least in part, to the use of outdated tools to produce SFQ circuits and chips. Assuming the use of tools equivalent to those employed in the semiconductor industry, we estimate the density of Josephson junctions, circuit speed, and power dissipation that could be achieved with SFQ technology. Today, CMOS lithography is at 90-65 nm with about 20 layers. Assuming equivalent technology, aggressively increasing the current density above 100 kA cm -2 to achieve junction speeds approximately 1000 GHz, and reducing device footprints by converting device profiles from planar to vertical, one could expect to integrate about 250 M Josephson junctions cm -2 into SFQ digital circuits. This should enable circuit operation with clock frequencies above 200 GHz and place approximately 20 K gates within a radius of one clock period. As a result, complete microprocessors, including integrated memory registers, could be fabricated on a single chip

  10. Scaling analysis for the ocean motions in single phase natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, B.H.; Wen, Q.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The scaling criteria for ocean motions are obtained. • The optimization and selection of the scaling criteria is also analyzed. • The oscillating period in experiments is determined by the time scale. - Abstract: The effects of ocean motions should be analyzed properly in order to guarantee the safety margin of facilities in the engineering design of floating nuclear reactor system. The scaling analysis for the ocean motions in single phase natural circulation is performed. The scaling criteria for both single ocean motions and compound ocean motions are obtained. The selection and optimization of scaling criteria is also analyzed. The oscillating amplitude in experiments should be kept to be identical to that in actual ocean motions. The oscillating period is determined by the time scale. The length scale, oscillating period and experimental power should be taken into consideration synthetically to obtain a reasonable experimental period

  11. Effects of memantine on cognition in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease: post-hoc analyses of ADAS-cog and SIB total and single-item scores from six randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecocci, Patrizia; Bladström, Anna; Stender, Karina

    2009-05-01

    The post-hoc analyses reported here evaluate the specific effects of memantine treatment on ADAS-cog single-items or SIB subscales for patients with moderate to severe AD. Data from six multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, double-blind, 6-month studies were used as the basis for these post-hoc analyses. All patients with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of less than 20 were included. Analyses of patients with moderate AD (MMSE: 10-19), evaluated with the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) and analyses of patients with moderate to severe AD (MMSE: 3-14), evaluated using the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), were performed separately. The mean change from baseline showed a significant benefit of memantine treatment on both the ADAS-cog (p ADAS-cog single-item analyses showed significant benefits of memantine treatment, compared to placebo, for mean change from baseline for commands (p < 0.001), ideational praxis (p < 0.05), orientation (p < 0.01), comprehension (p < 0.05), and remembering test instructions (p < 0.05) for observed cases (OC). The SIB subscale analyses showed significant benefits of memantine, compared to placebo, for mean change from baseline for language (p < 0.05), memory (p < 0.05), orientation (p < 0.01), praxis (p < 0.001), and visuospatial ability (p < 0.01) for OC. Memantine shows significant benefits on overall cognitive abilities as well as on specific key cognitive domains for patients with moderate to severe AD. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students (UWES-S) using a sample of Japanese university and college students majoring medical science, nursing, and natural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubakita, Takashi; Shimazaki, Kazuyo; Ito, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Nobuo

    2017-10-30

    The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students has been used internationally to assess students' academic engagement, but it has not been analyzed via item response theory. The purpose of this study was to conduct an item response theory analysis of the Japanese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students translated by authors. Using a two-parameter model and Samejima's graded response model, difficulty and discrimination parameters were estimated after confirming the factor structure of the scale. The 14 items on the scale were analyzed with a sample of 3214 university and college students majoring medical science, nursing, or natural science in Japan. The preliminary parameter estimation was conducted with the two parameter model, and indicated that three items should be removed because there were outlier parameters. Final parameter estimation was conducted using the survived 11 items, and indicated that all difficulty and discrimination parameters were acceptable. The test information curve suggested that the scale better assesses higher engagement than average engagement. The estimated parameters provide a basis for future comparative studies. The results also suggested that a 7-point Likert scale is too broad; thus, the scaling should be modified to fewer graded scaling structure.

  13. Agreeableness scale- short version: item selection and psychometric properties / Escala fatorial de socialização- versão reduzida: seleção de itens e propriedades psicométricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiana Farias Oliveira Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at selecting items from the Agreeableness Factor Scale for obtaining a short version of this test that could keep adequate psychometric properties. One thousand one hundred participants composed the sample. Items were selected using a qualitative strategy, which focused on item content that was not related to clinical descriptions and a quantitative analysis based on Rasch's model. The scale was reduced from 70 to 28 items, based on these criteria. In order to check the psychometric properties of the short version, both versions were compared by Rasch indices and by reanalyzing validity studies conducted with the original scale. The short version kept good psychometric properties, which suggests the possibility of using it when there is time restriction.

  14. Is there scale-dependent bias in single-field inflation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Putter, Roland; Doré, Olivier; Green, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Scale-dependent halo bias due to local primordial non-Gaussianity provides a strong test of single-field inflation. While it is universally understood that single-field inflation predicts negligible scale-dependent bias compared to current observational uncertainties, there is still disagreement on the exact level of scale-dependent bias at a level that could strongly impact inferences made from future surveys. In this paper, we clarify this confusion and derive in various ways that there is exactly zero scale-dependent bias in single-field inflation. Much of the current confusion follows from the fact that single-field inflation does predict a mode coupling of matter perturbations at the level of f NL local ; ≈ −5/3, which naively would lead to scale-dependent bias. However, we show explicitly that this mode coupling cancels out when perturbations are evaluated at a fixed physical scale rather than fixed coordinate scale. Furthermore, we show how the absence of scale-dependent bias can be derived easily in any gauge. This result can then be incorporated into a complete description of the observed galaxy clustering, including the previously studied general relativistic terms, which are important at the same level as scale-dependent bias of order f NL local  ∼ 1. This description will allow us to draw unbiased conclusions about inflation from future galaxy clustering data

  15. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as screening instruments for depression in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Tim J; Friedrich, Michael; Johansen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression screening in patients with cancer is recommended by major clinical guidelines, although the evidence on individual screening tools is limited for this population. Here, the authors assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 2 established screening instruments......: the depression modules of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), in a representative sample of patients with cancer. METHODS: This multicenter study was conducted with a proportional, stratified, random sample of 2141 patients with cancer across...... all major tumor sites and treatment settings. The PHQ-9 and HADS-D were assessed and compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition diagnosis of major depressive disorder using...

  16. Industrial-scale separation of high-purity single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes for biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomogida, Yohei; Tanaka, Takeshi; Zhang, Minfang; Yudasaka, Masako; Wei, Xiaojun; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2016-06-01

    Single-chirality, single-wall carbon nanotubes are desired due to their inherent physical properties and performance characteristics. Here, we demonstrate a chromatographic separation method based on a newly discovered chirality-selective affinity between carbon nanotubes and a gel containing a mixture of the surfactants. In this system, two different selectivities are found: chiral-angle selectivity and diameter selectivity. Since the chirality of nanotubes is determined by the chiral angle and diameter, combining these independent selectivities leads to high-resolution single-chirality separation with milligram-scale throughput and high purity. Furthermore, we present efficient vascular imaging of mice using separated single-chirality (9,4) nanotubes. Due to efficient absorption and emission, blood vessels can be recognized even with the use of ~100-fold lower injected dose than the reported value for pristine nanotubes. Thus, 1 day of separation provides material for up to 15,000 imaging experiments, which is acceptable for industrial use.

  17. Using a Large-scale Neural Model of Cortical Object Processing to Investigate the Neural Substrate for Managing Multiple Items in Short-term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Ulloa, Antonio; Horwitz, Barry

    2017-11-01

    Many cognitive and computational models have been proposed to help understand working memory. In this article, we present a simulation study of cortical processing of visual objects during several working memory tasks using an extended version of a previously constructed large-scale neural model [Tagamets, M. A., & Horwitz, B. Integrating electrophysiological and anatomical experimental data to create a large-scale model that simulates a delayed match-to-sample human brain imaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 310-320, 1998]. The original model consisted of arrays of Wilson-Cowan type of neuronal populations representing primary and secondary visual cortices, inferotemporal (IT) cortex, and pFC. We added a module representing entorhinal cortex, which functions as a gating module. We successfully implemented multiple working memory tasks using the same model and produced neuronal patterns in visual cortex, IT cortex, and pFC that match experimental findings. These working memory tasks can include distractor stimuli or can require that multiple items be retained in mind during a delay period (Sternberg's task). Besides electrophysiology data and behavioral data, we also generated fMRI BOLD time series from our simulation. Our results support the involvement of IT cortex in working memory maintenance and suggest the cortical architecture underlying the neural mechanisms mediating particular working memory tasks. Furthermore, we noticed that, during simulations of memorizing a list of objects, the first and last items in the sequence were recalled best, which may implicate the neural mechanism behind this important psychological effect (i.e., the primacy and recency effect).

  18. Reducing the item number to obtain the same-length self-assessment scales: a systematic approach using result of graphical loglinear rasch models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Kreiner, Svend

    2011-01-01

    . For self-assessment, self-scoring and self-interpretational purposes it is deemed prudent that subscales measuring comparable constructs are of the same item length. Consequently, in order to obtain a self-assessment version of the R-D-LSI with an equal number of items in each subscale, a systematic...... approach to item reduction based on results of graphical loglinear Rasch modeling (GLLRM) was designed. This approach was then used to reduce the number of items in the subscales of the R-D-LSI which had an item-length of more than seven items, thereby obtaining the Danish Self-Assessment Learning Styles...

  19. Planck scale physics of the single-particle Schrödinger equation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    August 2002 physics pp. 375–383. Planck scale physics of the single-particle Schrödinger equation with gravitational self-interaction. VIKRAM SONI. National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110 016, India. Abstract. We consider the modification of a single-particle Schrödinger equation by the inclusion.

  20. Electrochemistry of single molecules and biomolecules, molecular scale nanostructures, and low-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazmutdinov, Renat R.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemistry at ultra-small scales, where even the single molecule or biomolecule can be characterized and manipulated, is on the way to a consolidated status. At the same time molecular electrochemistry is expanding into other areas of sophisticated nano- and molecular scale systems including...

  1. Is a single item stress measure independently associated with subsequent severe injury: a prospective cohort study of 16,385 forest industry employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Simo; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Joensuu, Matti; Väänänen, Ari

    2014-06-02

    A previous review showed that high stress increases the risk of occupational injury by three- to five-fold. However, most of the prior studies have relied on short follow-ups. In this prospective cohort study we examined the effect of stress on recorded hospitalised injuries in an 8-year follow-up. A total of 16,385 employees of a Finnish forest company responded to the questionnaire. Perceived stress was measured with a validated single-item measure, and analysed in relation recorded hospitalised injuries from 1986 to 2008. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine the prospective associations between work stress, injuries and confounding factors. Highly stressed participants were approximately 40% more likely to be hospitalised due to injury over the follow-up period than participants with low stress. This association remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, occupational status, educational level, and physical work environment. High stress is associated with an increased risk of severe injury.

  2. How to compare scores from different depression scales: equating the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and the ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR) using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Tritt, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Fliege, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of questionnaires for measuring depression are available. Item Response Theory models can help to evaluate the questionnaires exceeding the boundaries of Classical Test Theory and provide an opportunity to equate the questionnaires. In this study after checking for unidimensionality, a General Partial Credit Model was applied to data from two different depression scales [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR)] obtained in clinical settings from a consecutive sample, including 4517 observations from a total of 2999 inpatients and outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic. The precision of each questionnaire was compared and the model was used to transform scores based on the assumed underlying latent trait. Both instruments were constructed to measure the same construct and their estimates of depression severity are highly correlated. Our analysis showed that the predicted scores provided by the conversion tables are similar to the observed scores in a validation sample. The PHQ-9 and ISR depression scales measure depression severity across a broad range with similar precision. While the PHQ-9 shows advantages in measuring low or high depression severity, the ISR is more parsimonious and also suitable for clinical purposes. Furthermore, the equation tables derived in this study enhance the comparability of studies using either one of the instruments, but due to substantial statistical spread the comparison of individual scores is imprecise. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Self-reported cognitive distortions in the psychosis continuum: A Polish 18-item version of the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale (DACOBS-18).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawęda, Łukasz; Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Krężołek, Martyna; Kłosowska, Joanna; Staszkiewicz, Maciej; Moritz, Steffen

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a short version of the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale (DACOBS), which is a self-report tool to assess cognitive distortions related to psychosis. A principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on a large non-clinical sample (n=1207) and cross-validated with a confirmatory factor analysis on an independent non-clinical sample (n=653). Discriminative validity was performed by contrasting the high risk for psychosis non-clinical sample (n=63), low risk for psychosis non-clinical sample (n=152), patients with schizophrenia (n=105), and patients with depression (n=56). Correlations between symptoms, cognitive functions, source monitoring deficits, and jumping to conclusions were performed among a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia. An 18-item scale (DACOBS-18) with a four-factor solution was established. Internal consistency (α=0.84) and test-retest reliability (r=0.84, pcognitive measures is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a

  5. Using existing questionnaires in latent class analysis: should we use summary scores or single items as input? A methodological study using a cohort of patients with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen AM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anne Molgaard Nielsen,1 Werner Vach,2 Peter Kent,1,3 Lise Hestbaek,1,4 Alice Kongsted1,4 1Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; 2Center for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; 4Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Background: Latent class analysis (LCA is increasingly being used in health research, but optimal approaches to handling complex clinical data are unclear. One issue is that commonly used questionnaires are multidimensional, but expressed as summary scores. Using the example of low back pain (LBP, the aim of this study was to explore and descriptively compare the application of LCA when using questionnaire summary scores and when using single items to subgrouping of patients based on multidimensional data. Materials and methods: Baseline data from 928 LBP patients in an observational study were classified into four health domains (psychology, pain, activity, and participation using the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. LCA was performed within each health domain using the strategies of summary-score and single-item analyses. The resulting subgroups were descriptively compared using statistical measures and clinical interpretability. Results: For each health domain, the preferred model solution ranged from five to seven subgroups for the summary-score strategy and seven to eight subgroups for the single-item strategy. There was considerable overlap between the results of the two strategies, indicating that they were reflecting the same underlying data structure. However, in three of the four health domains, the single-item strategy resulted in a more nuanced description, in terms

  6. Single-parameter scaling and maximum entropy inside disordered one-dimensional systems: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaojun; Ma, Xujun; Yépez, Miztli; Genack, Azriel Z.; Mello, Pier A.

    2017-11-01

    The single-parameter scaling hypothesis relating the average and variance of the logarithm of the conductance is a pillar of the theory of electronic transport. We use a maximum-entropy ansatz to explore the logarithm of the particle, or energy density lnW (x ) at a depth x into a random one-dimensional system. Single-parameter scaling would be the special case in which x =L (the system length). We find the result, confirmed in microwave measurements and computer simulations, that the average of lnW (x ) is independent of L and equal to -x /ℓ , with ℓ the mean free path. At the beginning of the sample, var [lnW (x )] rises linearly with x and is also independent of L , with a sublinear increase and then a drop near the sample output. At x =L we find a correction to the value of var [lnT ] predicted by single-parameter scaling.

  7. Single Image Super-Resolution Based on Multi-Scale Competitive Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofeng; Qu, Xiaobo; He, Yifan; Guo, Di

    2018-03-06

    Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are successful in single-image super-resolution. Traditional CNNs are limited to exploit multi-scale contextual information for image reconstruction due to the fixed convolutional kernel in their building modules. To restore various scales of image details, we enhance the multi-scale inference capability of CNNs by introducing competition among multi-scale convolutional filters, and build up a shallow network under limited computational resources. The proposed network has the following two advantages: (1) the multi-scale convolutional kernel provides the multi-context for image super-resolution, and (2) the maximum competitive strategy adaptively chooses the optimal scale of information for image reconstruction. Our experimental results on image super-resolution show that the performance of the proposed network outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Level-statistics in Disordered Systems: A single parametric scaling and Connection to Brownian Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Pragya

    2004-01-01

    We find that the statistics of levels undergoing metal-insulator transition in systems with multi-parametric Gaussian disorders and non-interacting electrons behaves in a way similar to that of the single parametric Brownian ensembles \\cite{dy}. The latter appear during a Poisson $\\to$ Wigner-Dyson transition, driven by a random perturbation. The analogy provides the analytical evidence for the single parameter scaling of the level-correlations in disordered systems as well as a tool to obtai...

  9. From a single pellet press to a bench scale pellet mill - Pelletizing six different biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Shang, Lei; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for biomass pellets requires the investigation of alternative raw materials for pelletizetion. In the present paper, the pelletization process of fescue, alfalfa, sorghum, triticale, miscanthus and willow is studied to determine if results obtained in a single pellet press...... (SPP) can be extrapolated to larger scale pellet mills. The single pellet press was used to find the optimum moisture content and die operating temperature for pellet production. Then, these results were compared with those obtained from a bench-scale pellet mill. A moisture content of around 10 wt...

  10. Correlation between the pain numeric rating scale and the 12-item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltychev, Mikhail; Bärlund, Esa; Laimi, Katri

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between pain severity measured on a numeric rating scale and restrictions of functioning measured with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0). This was a cross-sectional study of 1207 patients with musculoskeletal pain conditions. Correlation was assessed using Spearman's and Pearson tests. Although all the Spearman's rank correlations between WHODAS 2.0 items and pain severity were statistically significant, they were mostly weak, with only a few moderate associations for 'S2 household responsibilities', 'S8 washing', 'S9 dressing', and 'S12 day-to-day work'. The correlation between the WHODAS 2.0 total score and pain severity was also moderate: 0.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.45] for average pain and 0.42 (95% CI: 0.37-0.46) for worst pain. The correlation between the WHODAS 2.0 total score and pain level was also assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation, yielding figures that were similar to Spearman's correlation: 0.42 (PWHODAS 2.0 was weak to moderate, with slightly stronger associations in physical domains of functioning.

  11. Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction in parallel microbore tubes using MDIMJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darekar, Mayur; Singh, K.K.; Joshi, J.M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction of U(VI) from simulated lean streams is explored using micro-scale contactor comprising of a MDIMJ (Monoblock Distributor with Integrated Microfluidic Junction) and PTFE microbore tubes. 30% (v/v) TBP in dodecane has been used as the extracting phase. The objective of the study is to demonstrate numbering up approach for scale-up of micro-scale extraction using indigenously conceptualized and fabricated MDIMJ. First the performance of MIDIMJ for equal flow distribution is tested. Then the effects of inlet flow rate and O/A ratio on stage efficiency and percentage extraction are studied. The experiments show that it is easy to scale-up single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction by using MDIMJ for numbering up approach. Maximum capacity tested is 4.8 LPH. With O/A = 2/1, more than 90% extraction is achieved in a very short contact time of less than 3s. The study thus demonstrates possibility of process intensification and easy scale-up of micro-scale solvent extraction

  12. A comparison of three methods of assessing differential item functioning (DIF) in the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale: ordinal logistic regression, Rasch analysis and the Mantel chi-square procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Isobel M; Scott, Neil W; Adler, Mats; Reid, Ian C

    2014-12-01

    It is important for clinical practice and research that measurement scales of well-being and quality of life exhibit only minimal differential item functioning (DIF). DIF occurs where different groups of people endorse items in a scale to different extents after being matched by the intended scale attribute. We investigate the equivalence or otherwise of common methods of assessing DIF. Three methods of measuring age- and sex-related DIF (ordinal logistic regression, Rasch analysis and Mantel χ(2) procedure) were applied to Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) data pertaining to a sample of 1,068 patients consulting primary care practitioners. Three items were flagged by all three approaches as having either age- or sex-related DIF with a consistent direction of effect; a further three items identified did not meet stricter criteria for important DIF using at least one method. When applying strict criteria for significant DIF, ordinal logistic regression was slightly less sensitive. Ordinal logistic regression, Rasch analysis and contingency table methods yielded consistent results when identifying DIF in the HADS depression and HADS anxiety scales. Regardless of methods applied, investigators should use a combination of statistical significance, magnitude of the DIF effect and investigator judgement when interpreting the results.

  13. Psychometric properties and factor structure of the 13-item satisfaction with daily occupations scale when used with people with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Bäckström, Martin; Eakman, Aaron M

    2014-12-24

    In mental health care practice and research it is increasingly recognized that clients' subjective perceptions of everyday occupations, such as satisfaction, are important in recovery from mental illness. Instruments thus need to be developed to assess satisfaction with everyday occupations. The aim of the present study was to assess psychometric properties of the 13-item Satisfaction with Daily Occupation (SDO-13) when used with people with mental health problems, including its internal consistency, factor structure, construct validity and whether the scale produced ceiling or floor effects. An additional question concerned if the factor structure varied whether the participants were, or were not, presently engaged in the activity they rated. The interview-based SDO-13 includes items pertaining to work/studies, leisure, home maintenance, and self-care occupations. Whether the person currently performs an occupation or not, he/she is asked to indicate his/her satisfaction with that occupation. The SDO-13 was completed with 184 persons with mental illness. Residual variables were created to remove the variation linked with currently performing the targeted occupation or not and to assess the factor structure of the SDO-13. The indicators of general satisfaction with daily occupations, self-esteem and global functioning were used to assess construct validity. The statistical methods included tests of homogeneity, confirmatory factor analysis and Pearson correlations. The internal consistency was satisfactory at 0.79. A three-factor solution indicated that the construct behind the SDO-13 was composed of three facets; Taking care of oneself and the home, Work and studies, and Leisure and relaxation. The same factor structure was valid for both original scores and the residuals. An expected pattern of correlations with the indicators was mainly found, suggesting basic construct validity. No ceiling or floor effects were found. Taken together, the findings suggest the

  14. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  15. Micromechanics of pseudo-single-asperity friction: Effects of nanometer-scale roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qunyang

    Nanometer-scale roughness on a solid surface has significant effects on friction, since inter-surface forces operate predominantly within a nanometer-scale gap distance in frictional contact. This thesis presents two novel atomic force microscope friction experiments, each using a gold surface sliding against a flat mica surface as the representative friction system. A diamagnetic lateral force calibrator (D-LFC) was invented to enable the accurate quantitative force measurements. In one of the experiment, a disk-shaped single nano-asperity of gold was used to measure the molecular level frictional behavior. The adhesive friction stress was measured to be 264 MPa and the molecular friction factor 0.0108 for a direct gold-mica contact in 30% humid air. The capillary force from the condensed water meniscuses was found to play an important role in magnifying the contact pressure to plastically deform the nano-asperities leading to the dramatic evolution of frictional responses. In the second experiment, the frictional response of a micrometer-scale asperity with nanometer-scale roughness exhibited a pseudo-single-asperity frictional behavior. However, the apparent friction stress, 40.5 MPa, fell well below the Hurtado-Kim model prediction for a smooth-single-asperity friction, exhibiting an apparent size-scale dependence of the friction stress. An interfacial roughness (IR) layer model was then developed to investigate the effects of roughness on pseudo-single-asperity friction. The model calculation shows that the nanometer-scale surface roughness is the major mechanism that explains the apparent size-scale dependence of the friction observed in the experiments. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the apparent friction stress as well as the apparent pressure-dependent fiction factor relies on the surface roughness. Both experimental and theoretical results suggest that the evolution status of surface roughness is one of the important internal variables for the

  16. A single gene (yes controls pigmentation of eyes and scales in Heliothis virescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Brown

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A yellow-eyed mutant was discovered in a strain of Heliothis virescens, the tobacco budworm, that already exhibited a mutation for yellow scale, y. We investigated the inheritance of these visible mutations as candidate markers for transgenesis. Yellow eye was controlled by a single, recessive, autosomal factor, the same type of inheritance previously known for y. Presence of the recombinant mutants with yellow scales with wild type eyes in test crosses indicated independent segregation of genes for these traits. The recombinant class with wild type scales and yellow eyes was completely absent and there was a corresponding increase of the double mutant parental class having yellow scales and yellow eyes. These results indicated that a single factor for yellow eye also controls yellow scales independently of y. This gene was named yes, for yellow eye and scale. We hypothesize that yes controls both eye and scale color through a deficiency in transport of pigment precursors in both the ommochrome and melanin pathways. The unlinked gene y likely controls an enzyme affecting the melanin pathway only. Both y and yes segregated independently of AceIn, acetylcholinesterase insensitivity, and sodium channel hscp, which are genes related to insecticide resistance.

  17. Heart rate detection from single-foot plantar bioimpedance measurements in a weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Delia H; Casas, Oscar; Pallas-Areny, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Electronic bathroom scales are an easy-to-use, affordable mean to measure physiological parameters in addition to body weight. They have been proposed to obtain the ballistocardiogram (BCG) and derive from it the heart rate, cardiac output and systolic blood pressure. Therefore, weighing scales may suit intermittent monitoring in e-health and patient screening. Scales intended for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have also been proposed to estimate the heart rate by amplifying the pulsatile impedance component superimposed on the basal impedance. However, electronic weighing scales cannot easily obtain the BCG from people that have a single leg neither are bioimpedance measurements between both feet recommended for people wearing a pacemaker or other electronic implants, neither for pregnant women. We propose a method to detect the heart rate (HR) from bioimpedance measured in a single foot while standing on an bathroom weighting scale intended for BIA. The electrodes built in the weighing scale are used to apply a 50 kHz voltage between the outer electrode pair and to measure the drop in voltage across the inner electrode pair. The agreement with the HR simultaneously obtained from the ECG is excellent. We have also compared the drop in voltage across the waist and the thorax with that obtained when measuring bioimpedance between both feet to compare the possible risk of the proposed method to that of existing BIA scales.

  18. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  19. Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zheng-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ming; Chen, Yen-Sheng

    2006-09-15

    Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motors is studied in this paper. In order to analyse a variety of periodic and chaotic phenomena, we employ several numerical techniques such as phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. Anti-control of chaos can be achieved by adding an external constant term or an external periodic term.

  20. Construct Validity of the Dutch Version of the 12-Item Partners in Health Scale: Measuring Patient Self-Management Behaviour and Knowledge in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Anke; Effing, T.W.; Harvey, Peter; Battersby, Malcolm; Frith, Peter; van Beurden, Wendy; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective The 12-item Partners in Health scale (PIH) was developed in Australia to measure self-management behaviour and knowledge in patients with chronic diseases, and has undergone several changes. Our aim was to assess the construct validity and reliability of the latest PIH version in Dutch

  1. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as screening instruments for depression in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Tim J; Friedrich, Michael; Johansen, Christoffer; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Faller, Herman; Koch, Uwe; Brähler, Elmar; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Weis, Joachim; Mehnert, Anja

    2017-11-01

    Depression screening in patients with cancer is recommended by major clinical guidelines, although the evidence on individual screening tools is limited for this population. Here, the authors assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 2 established screening instruments: the depression modules of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), in a representative sample of patients with cancer. This multicenter study was conducted with a proportional, stratified, random sample of 2141 patients with cancer across all major tumor sites and treatment settings. The PHQ-9 and HADS-D were assessed and compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition diagnosis of major depressive disorder using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Oncology as the criterion standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9 and HADS-D was fair for diagnosing major depressive disorder, with areas under the ROC curves of 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.79) and 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.77), respectively. The 2 questionnaires did not differ significantly in their areas under the ROC curves (P = .15). The PHQ-9 with a cutoff score ≥7 had the best screening performance, with a sensitivity of 83% (95% confidence interval, 78%-89%) and a specificity of 61% (95% confidence interval, 59%-63%). The American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline screening algorithm had a sensitivity of 44% (95% confidence interval, 36%-51%) and a specificity of 84% (95% confidence interval, 83%-85%). In patients with cancer, the screening performance of both the PHQ-9 and the HADS-D was limited compared with a standardized diagnostic interview. Costs and benefits of routinely screening all patients with cancer should be weighed carefully. Cancer 2017;123:4236-4243. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American

  2. Validity and reliability of the Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult Version based on the WHODAS 2.0--36 items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Hwang, Ai-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Hsu, Hsin-Yuan; Chi, Wen-Chou; Wu, Ting-Fang; Chang, Ben-Shang; Lu, Shu-Jen; Liao, Hua-Fang; Teng, Su-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2014-11-01

    The disability eligibility determination system is based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework in Taiwan. The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale (FUNDES) has been developed since 2007 for assessing the status of an individual's activities and participation in the disability eligibility system. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the FUNDES-Adult Version (FUNDES-Adult). During 2011-2012, a total of 5736 adults with disabilities (aged 58.4 ± 18.2 years) were randomly recruited for a national population-based study. These adults were assessed in person by certified professionals in the authorized hospitals. Domains 1-6 of the FUNDES-Adult addressing the performance and capability dimensions are modified from the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0-36-item version, and Domain 7 (Environmental attribute) and capability and capacity dimensions of Domain 8 (Motor action) are designed based on the ICF coding system. The internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.9). An exploratory factor analysis yielded a five-factor FUNDES structure with a variance of 76.1% and 76.9% and factor loadings of 0.56-0.94 and 0.55-0.94 for the performance and capability dimensions, respectively. The factor loadings for the second-order confirmatory factor analysis for the performance and capability dimensions were from 0.81 to 0.89. In Domains 1-6 and 8, the ceiling effects were from 9% to 36%, and the floor effects were from 5% to 45%. FUNDES-Adult has acceptable reliability and validity and can be used to measure activities and participation for people with disabilities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Smallest detectable change and test-retest reliability of a self-reported outcome measure: Results of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and 12-item General Health Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Shotaro; Takahashi, Kana; Inoue, Aimi; Takada, Koki; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Tanigawa, Masaru; Hirao, Kazuki

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to examine the smallest detectable change (SDC) and test-retest reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We tested 154 young adults at baseline and 2 weeks later. We calculated the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability with a two-way random effects model for agreement. We then calculated the standard error of measurement (SEM) for agreement using the ICC formula. The SEM for agreement was used to calculate SDC values at the individual level (SDC ind ) and group level (SDC group ). The study participants included 137 young adults. The ICCs for all self-reported outcome measurement scales exceeded 0.70. The SEM of CES-D was 3.64, leading to an SDC ind of 10.10 points and SDC group of 0.86 points. The SEM of GSES was 1.56, leading to an SDC ind of 4.33 points and SDC group of 0.37 points. The SEM of GHQ-12 with bimodal scoring was 1.47, leading to an SDC ind of 4.06 points and SDC group of 0.35 points. The SEM of GHQ-12 with Likert scoring was 2.44, leading to an SDC ind of 6.76 points and SDC group of 0.58 points. To confirm that the change was not a result of measurement error, a score of self-reported outcome measurement scales would need to change by an amount greater than these SDC values. This has important implications for clinicians and epidemiologists when assessing outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The impact of ordinate scaling on the visual analysis of single-case data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Evan H; Radley, Keith C

    2017-08-01

    Visual analysis is the primary method for detecting the presence of treatment effects in graphically displayed single-case data and it is often referred to as the "gold standard." Although researchers have developed standards for the application of visual analysis (e.g., Horner et al., 2005), over- and underestimation of effect size magnitude is not uncommon among analysts. Several characteristics have been identified as potential contributors to these errors; however, researchers have largely focused on characteristics of the data itself (e.g., autocorrelation), paying less attention to characteristics of the graphic display which are largely in control of the analyst (e.g., ordinate scaling). The current study investigated the impact that differences in ordinate scaling, a graphic display characteristic, had on experts' accuracy in judgments regarding the magnitude of effect present in single-case percentage data. 32 participants were asked to evaluate eight ABAB data sets (2 each presenting null, small, moderate, and large effects) along with three iterations of each (32 graphs in total) in which only the ordinate scale was manipulated. Results suggest that raters are less accurate in their detection of treatment effects as the ordinate scale is constricted. Additionally, raters were more likely to overestimate the size of a treatment effect when the ordinate scale was constricted. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanoscale heterostructures with molecular-scale single-crystal metal wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Paromita; Halder, Aditi; Viswanath, B; Kundu, Dipan; Ramanath, Ganpati; Ravishankar, N

    2010-01-13

    Creating nanoscale heterostructures with molecular-scale (synthesis of nanoscale heterostructures with single-crystal molecular-scale Au nanowires attached to different nanostructure substrates. Our method involves the formation of Au nanoparticle seeds by the reduction of rocksalt AuCl nanocubes heterogeneously nucleated on the substrates and subsequent nanowire growth by oriented attachment of Au nanoparticles from the solution phase. Nanoscale heterostructures fabricated by such site-specific nucleation and growth are attractive for many applications including nanoelectronic device wiring, catalysis, and sensing.

  6. Atomic-scale structure of single-layer MoS2 nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helveg, S.; Lauritsen, J. V.; Lægsgaard, E.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) the atomic-scale realm of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoclusters, which are of interest as a model system in hydrodesulfurization catalysis. The STM gives the first real space images of the shape and edge structure of single-layer MoS2 n...... nanoparticles synthesized on Au(lll), and establishes a new picture of the active edge sires of the nanoclusters. The results demonstrate a way to get detailed atomic-scale information on catalysts in general....

  7. A single-item self-rated health measure correlates with objective health status in the elderly: a survey in suburban Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin eMeng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe measurement of health status of the elderly remains one important topic. Self-rated health status (SRH is considered to be a simple indicator to measure the health status of the old population. But some researchers still take a skeptical view about its reliability. This study aims to investigate the association between self-rated health indicator and health status of the elderly and discuss its subsequent public health implications.MethodsIn a total 1096 people who were 60 years of age or older from 1784 households from a suburban area of Beijing were interviewed using multistage stratified cluster sampling. SRH was measured by a single question please choose one point in this 0-100 scale which can best represent your health today?. The disease status and physical functional status were also obtained. A multiple linear regression was conducted to test the associate between SRH and individual’s disease/functional status.ResultsThe average of SRH scores of the elderly was 72.49±15.64 (on a 1 to 100 scale. The SRH scores declined not only with the severity of self-reported mental/disease status, but also with the decrease of physical functional status. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for other variables, two-week sickness, chronic diseases, hospitalization, and ability of self-care (washing and dressing were able to explain 35% of the variation in SRH among the elderly. Among them, disease status and self-care ability were the most powerful predictor of SRH. After adjusting other variables, physical functional status could explain only 5% of the variation in SRH.ConclusionSRH reflects the disease/functional health status of the elderly. It is an easy-to-implement variable and it can reduce both recall bias and investigator bias, thus being widely used in health surveys. It is a cost-effective means of measuring the health status. However, the comparability of SRH in different populations should be studied

  8. Comparative efficacy of the generalized anxiety disorder 7-item scale and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as screening tools for generalized anxiety disorder in pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William; Glazer, Melanie; Michalski, Natalie; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2014-08-01

    About 24.1% of pregnant women suffer from at least 1 anxiety disorder, 8.5% of whom suffer specifically from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). GAD is often associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). During the perinatal period, the presence of physical and somatic symptoms often makes differentiation between depression and anxiety more challenging. To date, no screening tools have been developed to detect GAD in the perinatal population. We investigated the psychometric properties of the GAD 7-item Scale (GAD-7) as a screening tool for GAD in pregnant and postpartum women. Two hundred and forty perinatal women (n = 155 pregnant and n = 85 postpartum) referred for psychiatric consultation were enrolled. On the day of initial assessment, all women completed the GAD-7 and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-based diagnoses were made by experienced psychiatrists. Scores from the GAD-7 and EPDS were compared with the clinical diagnoses to evaluate the psychometric properties of the GAD-7 and EPDS when used as a screening tool for GAD. The GAD-7 yielded a sensitivity of 61.3% and specificity of 72.7% at an optimal cut-off score of 13. Compared with the EPDS and the EPDS-3A subscale, the GAD-7 displayed greater accuracy and specificity over a greater range of cut-off scores and more accurately identified GAD in patients with comorbid MDD. Our findings suggest that the GAD-7 represents a clinically useful scale for the detection of GAD in perinatal women.

  9. Analysis of individual items on the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom rating scale in children and adults: the effects of age and sex in pivotal trials of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisler RH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard H Weisler,1,2 Lenard A Adler,3 Scott H Kollins,4 David W Goodman,5 Mohamed Hamdani,5 Bryan Dirks,6 Ann C Childress71Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3New York University School of Medicine and Psychiatry Service, New York VA Harbor Healthcare System, New York, NY, USA; 4Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 5Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 6Shire Development LLC, Wayne, PA, USA; 7Center for Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Las Vegas, NV, USABackground: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptom presentation across age and sex has not been fully elucidated. The present post hoc analyses qualitatively explored the baseline levels of ADHD symptomatology across subgroups in two clinical trials of children and adults with ADHD to elucidate differences in participant presentation. The response to treatment was examined to determine patterns of response among items of the ADHD Rating Scale IV.Methods: Exploratory post hoc analyses of ADHD Rating Scale IV item scores were conducted on data from two 4-week placebo-controlled trials in children (6–12 years and in adults (18–55 years with ADHD. Baseline and endpoint mean item scores were determined for subgroups defined by age (6–9, 10–12, 18–39, and 40–55 years and sex.Results: The baseline mean item scores were generally numerically similar for all age-by-sex subgroups. The inattention (IA items were numerically higher than hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I items among older children and adults. The endpoint mean item scores were numerically lower after lisdexamfetamine dimesylate treatment for IA and H/I items in all subgroups.Conclusion: These results suggest that regardless of age or sex, baseline IA and H/I symptom profiles were comparable; however, IA vs H/I symptoms were more severe in older participants. In all age-by-sex subgroups, IA and

  10. Validation of the 10-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) in Zulu, Xhosa and Afrikaans populations in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Emily Claire; Davies, Thandi; Lund, Crick

    2017-01-09

    The 10-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) is a depression screening tool that has been used in the South African National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS), a national household panel study. This screening tool has not yet been validated in South Africa. This study aimed to establish the reliability and validity of the CES-D-10 in Zulu, Xhosa and Afrikaans. The CES-D-10's psychometric properties were also compared to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), a depression screening tool already validated in South Africa. Stratified random samples of Xhosa, Afrikaans and Zulu-speaking participants aged 15 years or older (N = 944) were recruited from Cape Town Metro and Ethekwini districts. Face-to-face interviews included socio-demographic questions, the CES-D-10, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS). Major depression was determined using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. All instruments were translated and back-translated to English. Construct validity was examined using exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were used to investigate the CES-D-10 and PHQ-9's criterion validity, and compared using the DeLong method. Overall, 6.6, 18.0 and 6.9% of the Zulu, Afrikaans and Xhosa samples were diagnosed with depression, respectively. The CES-D-10 had acceptable internal consistency across samples (α = 0.69-0.89), and adequate concurrent validity, when compared to the PHQ-9 and WHODAS. The CES-D-10 area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve was good to excellent: 0.81 (95% CI 0.71-0.90) for Zulu, 0.93 (95% CI 0.90-0.96) for Afrikaans, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.89-0.99) for Xhosa. A cut-off of 12, 11 and 13 for Zulu, Afrikaans and Xhosa, respectively, generated the most balanced sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (Zulu: 71.4, 72.6% and 16.1%; Afrikaans: 84.6%, 84.0%, 53.7%; Xhosa: 81

  11. Toward the synthesis of wafer-scale single-crystal graphene on copper foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Sun, Zhengzong; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Xiang, Changsheng; Samuel, E Loïc; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M

    2012-10-23

    In this research, we constructed a controlled chamber pressure CVD (CP-CVD) system to manipulate graphene's domain sizes and shapes. Using this system, we synthesized large (~4.5 mm(2)) single-crystal hexagonal monolayer graphene domains on commercial polycrystalline Cu foils (99.8% purity), indicating its potential feasibility on a large scale at low cost. The as-synthesized graphene had a mobility of positive charge carriers of ~11,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) on a SiO(2)/Si substrate at room temperature, suggesting its comparable quality to that of exfoliated graphene. The growth mechanism of Cu-based graphene was explored by studying the influence of varied growth parameters on graphene domain sizes. Cu pretreatments, electrochemical polishing, and high-pressure annealing are shown to be critical for suppressing graphene nucleation site density. A pressure of 108 Torr was the optimal chamber pressure for the synthesis of large single-crystal monolayer graphene. The synthesis of one graphene seed was achieved on centimeter-sized Cu foils by optimizing the flow rate ratio of H(2)/CH(4). This work should provide clear guidelines for the large-scale synthesis of wafer-scale single-crystal graphene, which is essential for the optimized graphene device fabrication.

  12. Multi-scale simulation of single crystal hollow turbine blade manufactured by liquid metal cooling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metal cooling (LMC process as a powerful directional solidification (DS technique is prospectively used to manufacture single crystal (SC turbine blades. An understanding of the temperature distribution and microstructure evolution in LMC process is required in order to improve the properties of the blades. For this reason, a multi-scale model coupling with the temperature field, grain growth and solute diffusion was established. The temperature distribution and mushy zone evolution of the hollow blade was simulated and discussed. According to the simulation results, the mushy zone might be convex and ahead of the ceramic beads at a lower withdrawal rate, while it will be concave and laggard at a higher withdrawal rate, and a uniform and horizontal mushy zone will be formed at a medium withdrawal rate. Grain growth of the blade at different withdrawal rates was also investigated. Single crystal structures were all selected out at three different withdrawal rates. Moreover, mis-orientation of the grains at 8 mm/min reached ~30°, while it was ~5° and ~15° at 10 mm/min and 12 mm/min, respectively. The model for predicting dendritic morphology was verified by corresponding experiment. Large scale for 2D dendritic distribution in the whole sections was investigated by experiment and simulation, and they presented a well agreement with each other. Keywords: Hollow blade, Single crystal, Multi-scale simulation, Liquid metal cooling

  13. Localization of Plastic Deformation in Aluminum Single Crystals at Different Scale Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalova, I. V.; Teplyakova, L. A.; Kunitsyna, T. S.

    2017-07-01

    The paper generalizes results of investigating the localization and fragmentation of plastic deformation in aluminum single crystals having a different orientation of the compression axis and lateral faces. The surface topography of the samples induced by plastic deformation includes such elements as deformation bands, folds and shear markings observed at different scale levels (macro, meso and micro). The morphological uniformity is identified for these elements in the aluminum single crystals. Depending on the resolution required, the quantification of the shear deformation markings is provided by the optical microscope and the scanning and transmission electron microscopes using the replication technique. The following parameters are obtained: the distance between the nearest shear deformation markings, width of shear markings, local shear; shear γ; the single-crystal volume fraction in which the shear deformation occurs at macro, meso, and micro-levels. The statistical examination of the shear deformation markings in aluminum single crystals with different geometry is performed at these three levels and allows us to conclude that the micro-scale level makes the main contribution to the shear deformation.

  14. Towards a single empirical correlation to predict kLa across scales and processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla Hernandez, Daniela Alejandra; Gernaey, Krist; Albæk, Mads O.

    for predicting kLa in all processes at pilot scale using off ‐ line viscosity measurements, and using the equation from Henzler and Kauling (1985) to evaluate the shear rate. In addition, a parameter set of the standard empirical equation was found that can predict oxygen transfer in Bacillus processes at all......Mathematical models are increasingly used in fermentation. Nevertheless, one of the major limitations of these models is that the parameters they include are process specific, e.g. the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa). Oxygen transfer was studied in order to establish a single equation...... to predict kLa, and data from a range of processes – pilot and production scale – were extracted. On ‐ line viscosity was measured for all processes (56 batches). Off ‐ line rheological measurements were performed for the pilot scale processes (26 batches). The apparent viscosity was evaluated with 5...

  15. Molecular scale buckling mechanics in individual aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes on elastomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Dahl-Young; Xiao, Jianliang; Kocabas, Coskun; MacLaren, Scott; Banks, Tony; Jiang, Hanqing; Huang, Yonggang Y; Rogers, John A

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the scaling of controlled nonlinear buckling processes in materials with dimensions in the molecular range (i.e., approximately 1 nm) through experimental and theoretical studies of buckling in individual single-wall carbon nanotubes on substrates of poly(dimethylsiloxane). The results show not only the ability to create and manipulate patterns of buckling at these molecular scales, but also, that analytical continuum mechanics theory can explain, quantitatively, all measurable aspects of this system. Inverse calculation applied to measurements of diameter-dependent buckling wavelengths yields accurate values of the Young's moduli of individual SWNTs. As an example of the value of this system beyond its use in this type of molecular scale metrology, we implement parallel arrays of buckled SWNTs as a class of mechanically stretchable conductor.

  16. A Third-Order Item Response Theory Model for Modeling the Effects of Domains and Subdomains in Large-Scale Educational Assessment Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijmen, Frank; Jeon, Minjeong; von Davier, Matthias; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Second-order item response theory models have been used for assessments consisting of several domains, such as content areas. We extend the second-order model to a third-order model for assessments that include subdomains nested in domains. Using a graphical model framework, it is shown how the model does not suffer from the curse of…

  17. An item response theory analysis of Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children or why strong clinical scales should be distrusted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberink, Iris J. L.; Meijer, Rob R.

    The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for Children with item response theory (IRT) models using a sample of 611 children. Results from a nonparametric Mokken analysis and a parametric IRT approach for boys (n = 268) and girls (n = 343)

  18. An item response theory analysis of Harter’s self-perception profile for children or why strong clinical scales should be distrusted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberink, I.J.L.; Meijer, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for Children with item response theory (IRT) models using a sample of 611 children. Results from a nonparametric Mokken analysis and a parametric IRT approach for boys (n = 268) and girls (n = 343)

  19. Large-Scale Mixed Temperate Forest Mapping at the Single Tree Level using Airborne Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, V.; Morsdorf, F.; Ginzler, C.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring vegetation on a single tree level is critical to understand and model a variety of processes, functions, and changes in forest systems. Remote sensing technologies are increasingly utilized to complement and upscale the field-based measurements of forest inventories. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) systems provide valuable information in the vertical dimension for effective vegetation structure mapping. Although many algorithms exist to extract single tree segments from forest scans, they are often tuned to perform well in homogeneous coniferous or deciduous areas and are not successful in mixed forests. Other methods are too computationally expensive to apply operationally. The aim of this study was to develop a single tree detection workflow using leaf-off ALS data for the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. Aargau covers an area of over 1,400km2 and features mixed forests with various development stages and topography. Forest type was classified using random forests to guide local parameter selection. Canopy height model-based treetop maxima were detected and maintained based on the relationship between tree height and window size, used as a proxy to crown diameter. Watershed segmentation was used to generate crown polygons surrounding each maximum. The location, height, and crown dimensions of single trees were derived from the ALS returns within each polygon. Validation was performed through comparison with field measurements and extrapolated estimates from long-term monitoring plots of the Swiss National Forest Inventory within the framework of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow, and Landscape Research. This method shows promise for robust, large-scale single tree detection in mixed forests. The single tree data will aid ecological studies as well as forest management practices. Figure description: Height-normalized ALS point cloud data (top) and resulting single tree segments (bottom) on the Laegeren mountain in Switzerland.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale in African American single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Jennifer; Hall, Lynne A

    2009-02-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) Scale is a commonly used measure of global self-esteem, an important element of mental health. The purpose of this cross sectional secondary analysis was to examine the psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of 98 African American single mothers. The RSE Scale showed adequate internal consistency with an alpha coefficient of .83. Two factors that accounted for a total of 54.7% of the variance were extracted. Self-esteem showed a strong negative relationship with both depressive symptoms and negative thinking. This study provides support for the internal consistency of the RSE Scale and partial support for its construct validity in this population. The RSE appears to represent a bidimensional construct of self-esteem for African American women, with the cultural influences of racial esteem and the rejection of negative stereotypes forming a separate and distinct aspect of this concept. The RSE Scale should be used and interpreted with caution in this population given these findings.

  1. Design of an omnidirectional single-point photodetector for large-scale spatial coordinate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Mao, Chensheng; Ren, Yongjie; Zhu, Jigui; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    In high precision and large-scale coordinate measurement, one commonly used approach to determine the coordinate of a target point is utilizing the spatial trigonometric relationships between multiple laser transmitter stations and the target point. A light receiving device at the target point is the key element in large-scale coordinate measurement systems. To ensure high-resolution and highly sensitive spatial coordinate measurement, a high-performance and miniaturized omnidirectional single-point photodetector (OSPD) is greatly desired. We report one design of OSPD using an aspheric lens, which achieves an enhanced reception angle of -5 deg to 45 deg in vertical and 360 deg in horizontal. As the heart of our OSPD, the aspheric lens is designed in a geometric model and optimized by LightTools Software, which enables the reflection of a wide-angle incident light beam into the single-point photodiode. The performance of home-made OSPD is characterized with working distances from 1 to 13 m and further analyzed utilizing developed a geometric model. The experimental and analytic results verify that our device is highly suitable for large-scale coordinate metrology. The developed device also holds great potential in various applications such as omnidirectional vision sensor, indoor global positioning system, and optical wireless communication systems.

  2. Emotional well-being in children and adolescents treated with atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Findings from a patient, parent and physician perspective using items from the pediatric adverse event rating scale (PAERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmann Ralf W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this analysis was to measure changes in items on the Pediatric Adverse Event Rating Scale (PAERS that relate to emotional well-being of children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD during treatment with atomoxetine for up to 24 weeks from the perspective of the patient, the parent, and the physician. Methods Patients aged 6–17 years with ADHD were treated with atomoxetine (target dose 1.2 mg/kg/day. In the two studies on which this secondary analysis is based the PAERS was used to assess the tolerability of atomoxetine in children and adolescents. This scale has a total of 48 items. The ten items that reflect emotional well-being were selected to measure changes over time from a patient, parent, and physician perspective. Results 421 patients were treated with atomoxetine. 355 patients completed the 8-week treatment period, and 260 patients completed the 24-week treatment period. The ten items that reflect emotional well-being were grouped in five dimensions: depressed mood, self-harm, irritability/agitation, drowsiness, and euphoria. The scores of these dimensions decreased over time, both from a patient as well as from a parent and physician perspective. Only the dimension self-harm was extremely low at baseline and stayed low over time. The mean scores for the ten items depended on the rater perspective. Conclusion The emotional well-being of children and adolescents with ADHD improved in terms of depressed mood, irritability/agitation, drowsiness, and euphoria during treatment with atomoxetine for up to 24 weeks.

  3. Large scale fabrication of nitrogen vacancy-embedded diamond nanostructures for single-photon source applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qianqing; Li, Wuxia; Tang, Chengchun; Chang, Yanchun; Hao, Tingting; Pan, Xinyu; Ye, Haitao; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2016-11-01

    Some color centers in diamond can serve as quantum bits which can be manipulated with microwave pulses and read out with laser, even at room temperature. However, the photon collection efficiency of bulk diamond is greatly reduced by refraction at the diamond/air interface. To address this issue, we fabricated arrays of diamond nanostructures, differing in both diameter and top end shape, with HSQ and Cr as the etching mask materials, aiming toward large scale fabrication of single-photon sources with enhanced collection efficiency made of nitrogen vacancy (NV) embedded diamond. With a mixture of O2 and CHF3 gas plasma, diamond pillars with diameters down to 45 nm were obtained. The top end shape evolution has been represented with a simple model. The tests of size dependent single-photon properties confirmed an improved single-photon collection efficiency enhancement, larger than tenfold, and a mild decrease of decoherence time with decreasing pillar diameter was observed as expected. These results provide useful information for future applications of nanostructured diamond as a single-photon source. Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0200402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11574369, 11574368, 91323304, 11174362, and 51272278), and the FP7 Marie Curie Action (project No. 295208) sponsored by the European Commission.

  4. Metal-induced rapid transformation of diamond into single and multilayer graphene on wafer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Diana; Deshmukh, Sanket A; Narayanan, Badri; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; Yan, Zhong; Balandin, Alexander A; Zinovev, Alexander; Rosenmann, Daniel; Sumant, Anirudha V

    2016-07-04

    The degradation of intrinsic properties of graphene during the transfer process constitutes a major challenge in graphene device fabrication, stimulating the need for direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates. Previous attempts of metal-induced transformation of diamond and silicon carbide into graphene suffers from metal contamination and inability to scale graphene growth over large area. Here, we introduce a direct approach to transform polycrystalline diamond into high-quality graphene layers on wafer scale (4 inch in diameter) using a rapid thermal annealing process facilitated by a nickel, Ni thin film catalyst on top. We show that the process can be tuned to grow single or multilayer graphene with good electronic properties. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanism of graphene growth on polycrystalline diamond. In addition, we demonstrate the lateral growth of free-standing graphene over micron-sized pre-fabricated holes, opening exciting opportunities for future graphene/diamond-based electronics.

  5. Atomic scale mass delivery driven by bend kink in single walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Biao; Ding Jianning; Ling Zhiyong; Yuan Ningyi; Cheng Guanggui

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of atomic scale mass delivery by bend kink in single walled carbon nanotube was investigated with the aid of molecular dynamics simulation. By keeping the bending angle while moving the tube end, the encapsulated atomic scale mass such as atom, molecule and atom group were successfully delivered through the nanotube. The van der Waals interaction between the encapsulated mass and the tube wall provided the driving force for the delivery. There were no dramatic changes in the van der Waals interaction, and a smooth and steady delivery was achieved when constant loading rate was applied. The influence of temperature on the atom group delivery was also analyzed. It is found raising temperature is harmful to the smooth movement of the atom group. However, the delivery rate can be promoted under higher temperature when the atom group is situated before the kink during the delivery.

  6. Control Algorithms for Large-scale Single-axis Photovoltaic Trackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical yield of large-scale photovoltaic power plants can be greatly improved by employing solar trackers. While fixed-tilt superstructures are stationary and immobile, trackers move the PV-module plane in order to optimize its alignment to the sun. This paper introduces control algorithms for single-axis trackers (SAT, including a discussion for optimal alignment and backtracking. The results are used to simulate and compare the electrical yield of fixed-tilt and SAT systems. The proposed algorithms have been field tested, and are in operation in solar parks worldwide.

  7. The method of arbitrarily large moments to calculate single scale processes in quantum field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Blümlein

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We devise a new method to calculate a large number of Mellin moments of single scale quantities using the systems of differential and/or difference equations obtained by integration-by-parts identities between the corresponding Feynman integrals of loop corrections to physical quantities. These scalar quantities have a much simpler mathematical structure than the complete quantity. A sufficiently large set of moments may even allow the analytic reconstruction of the whole quantity considered, holding in case of first order factorizing systems. In any case, one may derive highly precise numerical representations in general using this method, which is otherwise completely analytic.

  8. The method of arbitrarily large moments to calculate single scale processes in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC)

    2017-01-15

    We device a new method to calculate a large number of Mellin moments of single scale quantities using the systems of differential and/or difference equations obtained by integration-by-parts identities between the corresponding Feynman integrals of loop corrections to physical quantities. These scalar quantities have a much simpler mathematical structure than the complete quantity. A sufficiently large set of moments may even allow the analytic reconstruction of the whole quantity considered, holding in case of first order factorizing systems. In any case, one may derive highly precise numerical representations in general using this method, which is otherwise completely analytic.

  9. Escala fatorial de socialização: versão reduzida: seleção de itens e propriedades psicométricas Agreeableness scale: short version: item selection and psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiana Farias Oliveira Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi selecionar itens da Escala Fatorial de Socialização (EFS para a obtenção de uma versão reduzida, que mantivesse propriedades psicométricas adequadas. Baseou-se em uma amostra de 1.100 sujeitos. Para a seleção de itens, realizou-se análise qualitativa, buscando aqueles sem conteúdo clínico explícito e uma análise quantitativa, pelo modelo de Rasch. Tais critérios permitiram reduzir a EFS de 70 para 28 itens. As características psicométricas da versão reduzida foram verificadas pela comparação entre versões por Rasch e pela reanálise dos dados de estudos de validade realizados com a EFS. A versão reduzida manteve características psicométricas adequadas, o que sugere a possibilidade de utilização dessa versão da EFS em situações de avaliação com tempo restrito.This study aimed at selecting items from the Agreeableness Factor Scale for obtaining a short version of this test that could keep adequate psychometric properties. One thousand one hundred participants composed the sample. Items were selected using a qualitative strategy, which focused on item content that was not related to clinical descriptions and a quantitative analysis based on Rasch's model. The scale was reduced from 70 to 28 items, based on these criteria. In order to check the psychometric properties of the short version, both versions were compared by Rasch indices and by reanalyzing validity studies conducted with the original scale. The short version kept good psychometric properties, which suggests the possibility of using it when there is time restriction.

  10. Factor structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS, and the relationship between them: a study from France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaïl Amany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to test the factor structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS in elderly French people, and to test the relationship between these two questionnaires. Methods Using a standard 'forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language versions of the two instruments (i.e. the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Subjective Vitality Scale were translated into French. A sample of adults aged 58–72 years then completed both questionnaires. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The factor structures of the two instruments were extracted by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Finally, the relationship between the two instruments was assessed by correlation analysis. Results In all, 217 elderly adults participated in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 61.7 (SD = 6.2 years. The mean GHQ-12 score was 17.4 (SD = 8.0, and analysis showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.78. The mean VS score was 22.4 (SD = 7.4 and its internal consistency was found to be good (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.83. While CFA showed that the VS was uni-dimensional, analysis for the GHQ-12 demonstrated a good fit not only to the two-factor model (positive vs. negative items but also to a three-factor model. As expected, there was a strong and significant negative correlation between the GHQ-12 and the VS (r = -0.71, P Conclusion The results showed that the French versions of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS are reliable measures of psychological distress and vitality. They also confirm a significant negative correlation between these two instruments, lending support to their convergent validity in an elderly French population. The findings indicate that both measures have good structural

  11. Efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder: a subgroup analysis and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression item analyses of the Aripiprazole Depression Multicenter Efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Norio; Otsubo, Tempei; Kato, Masaki; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Ono, Hiroaki; Kamijima, Kunitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Results from this randomized, placebo-controlled study of aripiprazole augmentation to antidepressant therapy (ADT) in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (the Aripiprazole Depression Multicenter Efficacy [ADMIRE] study) revealed that aripiprazole augmentation was superior to ADT alone and was well tolerated. In subgroup analyses, we investigated the influence of demographic- and disease-related factors on the observed responses. We also examined how individual symptom improvement was related to overall improvement in MDD. Data from the ADMIRE study were analyzed. Subgroup analyses were performed on the primary outcome measures: the mean change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score from the end of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) treatment to the end of the randomized treatment. Changes in the MADRS total scores were consistently greater with aripiprazole than placebo in each of the subgroups. Efficacy was not related to sex, age, number of adequate ADT trials in the current episode, MDD diagnosis, number of depressive episodes, duration of the current episode, age at first depressive episode, time since the first depressive episode, type of SSRI/SNRI, or severity at the end of SSRI/SNRI treatment phase. Compared to placebo, aripiprazole resulted in significant and rapid improvement on seven of the 10 MADRS items, including sadness. These post-hoc analyses indicated that aripiprazole was effective for a variety of Japanese patients with MDD who had exhibited inadequate responses to ADT. Additionally, we suggest that aripiprazole significantly and rapidly improved the core depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Large curvature and background scale independence in single-metric approximations to asymptotic safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Tim R. [STAG Research Centre & Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-25

    In single-metric approximations to the exact renormalization group (RG) for quantum gravity, it has been not been clear how to treat the large curvature domain beyond the point where the effective cutoff scale k is less than the lowest eigenvalue of the appropriate modified Laplacian. We explain why this puzzle arises from background dependence, resulting in Wilsonian RG concepts being inapplicable. We show that when properly formulated over an ensemble of backgrounds, the Wilsonian RG can be restored. This in turn implies that solutions should be smooth and well defined no matter how large the curvature is taken. Even for the standard single-metric type approximation schemes, this construction can be rigorously derived by imposing a modified Ward identity (mWI) corresponding to rescaling the background metric by a constant factor. However compatibility in this approximation requires the space-time dimension to be six. Solving the mWI and flow equation simultaneously, new variables are then derived that are independent of overall background scale.

  13. Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale forcing properties: 2. Scale awareness and application to single-column model experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sha; Li, Zhijin; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin; Zhang, Minghua; Toto, Tami; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Endo, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    three-dimensional fields have been produced using the Community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system for the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains region. The GSI system is implemented in a multiscale data assimilation framework using the Weather Research and Forecasting model at a cloud-resolving resolution of 2 km. From the fine-resolution three-dimensional fields, large-scale forcing is derived explicitly at grid-scale resolution; a subgrid-scale dynamic component is derived separately, representing subgrid-scale horizontal dynamic processes. Analyses show that the subgrid-scale dynamic component is often a major component over the large-scale forcing for grid scales larger than 200 km. The single-column model (SCM) of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 is used to examine the impact of the grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components on simulated precipitation and cloud fields associated with a mesoscale convective system. It is found that grid-scale size impacts simulated precipitation, resulting in an overestimation for grid scales of about 200 km but an underestimation for smaller grids. The subgrid-scale dynamic component has an appreciable impact on the simulations, suggesting that grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components should be considered in the interpretation of SCM simulations.

  14. Transition from many domain to single domain martensite morphology in small-scale shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueland, Stian M.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of the martensitic transformation during a superelastic cycle is studied by in situ scanning electron microscopy deformation experiments in microwires of Cu–Zn–Al. The diameters of the wires studied (21–136 μm) span the range in which significant size effects upon transformation hysteresis have been observed. In larger wires the transformation is accommodated by the continual nucleation of many new martensite plates that grow and eventually coalesce with their neighbors. In small wires a single martensite plate nucleates at the start of transformation and then proceeds to grow in a monolithic fashion; the wire transforms by smooth axial propagation of a single interface. The transition from many domain to single domain transformation is gradual with wire diameter, and is based upon scaling of the domain density with sample size. We attribute it to a crossover from bulk to surface obstacle control of transformation front propagation. This observation also sheds light on reported size effects in energy dissipation in shape memory alloys

  15. Multi-scale Modeling of Compressible Single-phase Flow in Porous Media using Molecular Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Ahmed Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    In this study, an efficient coupling between Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Darcy-scale flow in porous media is presented. The cell-centered finite difference method with a non-uniform rectangular mesh were used to discretize the simulation domain and solve the governing equations. To speed up the MC simulations, we implemented a recently developed scheme that quickly generates MC Markov chains out of pre-computed ones, based on the reweighting and reconstruction algorithm. This method astonishingly reduces the required computational time by MC simulations from hours to seconds. In addition, the reweighting and reconstruction scheme, which was originally designed to work with the LJ potential model, is extended to work with a potential model that accounts for the molecular quadrupole moment of fluids with non-spherical molecules such as CO2. The potential model was used to simulate the thermodynamic equilibrium properties for single-phase and two-phase systems using the canonical ensemble and the Gibbs ensemble, respectively. Comparing the simulation results with the experimental data showed that the implemented model has an excellent fit outperforming the standard LJ model. To demonstrate the strength of the proposed coupling in terms of computational time efficiency and numerical accuracy in fluid properties, various numerical experiments covering different compressible single-phase flow scenarios were conducted. The novelty in the introduced scheme is in allowing an efficient coupling of the molecular scale and Darcy scale in reservoir simulators. This leads to an accurate description of the thermodynamic behavior of the simulated reservoir fluids; consequently enhancing the confidence in the flow predictions in porous media.

  16. Determinants of single family residential water use across scales in four western US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Bonnette, Matthew Ryan; Stoker, Philip; Crow-Miller, Britt; Wentz, Elizabeth

    2017-10-15

    A growing body of literature examines urban water sustainability with increasing evidence that locally-based physical and social spatial interactions contribute to water use. These studies however are based on single-city analysis and often fail to consider whether these interactions occur more generally. We examine a multi-city comparison using a common set of spatially-explicit water, socioeconomic, and biophysical data. We investigate the relative importance of variables for explaining the variations of single family residential (SFR) water uses at Census Block Group (CBG) and Census Tract (CT) scales in four representative western US cities - Austin, Phoenix, Portland, and Salt Lake City, - which cover a wide range of climate and development density. We used both ordinary least squares regression and spatial error regression models to identify the influence of spatial dependence on water use patterns. Our results show that older downtown areas show lower water use than newer suburban areas in all four cities. Tax assessed value and building age are the main determinants of SFR water use across the four cities regardless of the scale. Impervious surface area becomes an important variable for summer water use in all cities, and it is important in all seasons for arid environments such as Phoenix. CT level analysis shows better model predictability than CBG analysis. In all cities, seasons, and spatial scales, spatial error regression models better explain the variations of SFR water use. Such a spatially-varying relationship of urban water consumption provides additional evidence for the need to integrate urban land use planning and municipal water planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Disease progression in patients with single, large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, John P.; Campbell, Georgia; Ratnaike, Thiloka; Blakely, Emma L.; Falkous, Gavin; Nesbitt, Victoria; Schaefer, Andrew M.; McNally, Richard J.; Gorman, Grainne S.; Taylor, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Single, large-scale deletions of mitochondrial DNA are a common cause of mitochondrial disease and cause a broad phenotypic spectrum ranging from mild myopathy to devastating multi-system syndromes such as Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Studies to date have been inconsistent on the value of putative predictors of clinical phenotype and disease progression such as mutation load and the size or location of the deletion. Using a cohort of 87 patients with single, large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions we demonstrate that a variety of outcome measures such as COX-deficient fibre density, age-at-onset of symptoms and progression of disease burden, as measured by the Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale, are significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the size of the deletion, the deletion heteroplasmy level in skeletal muscle, and the location of the deletion within the genome. We validate these findings with re-analysis of 256 cases from published data and clarify the previously conflicting information of the value of these predictors, identifying that multiple regression analysis is necessary to understand the effect of these interrelated predictors. Furthermore, we have used mixed modelling techniques to model the progression of disease according to these predictors, allowing a better understanding of the progression over time of this strikingly variable disease. In this way we have developed a new paradigm in clinical mitochondrial disease assessment and management that sidesteps the perennial difficulty of ascribing a discrete clinical phenotype to a broad multi-dimensional and progressive spectrum of disease, establishing a framework to allow better understanding of disease progression. PMID:24277717

  18. Reports of Perceived Adverse Events of Stimulant Medication on Cognition, Motivation, and Mood: Qualitative Investigation and the Generation of Items for the Medication and Cognition Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovshoff, Hanna; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan K; Carucci, Sara; Coghill, David; Danckaerts, Marina; Dittmann, Ralf W; Falissard, Bruno; Grimshaw, Dina Gojkovic; Hollis, Chris; Inglis, Sarah; Konrad, Kerstin; Liddle, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Suzanne; Nagy, Peter; Thompson, Margaret; Wong, Ian C K; Zuddas, Alessandro; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-08-01

    There is no questionnaire to specifically monitor perceived adverse events of methylphenidate (MPH) on cognition, motivation, and mood. The current study therefore had two goals. First, to harvest accounts of such putative events from transcripts of interviews in samples enriched for such potential experiences. Second, to use the derived data to generate items for a new questionnaire that can be used for monitoring such events in medication trials or routine clinical care. Following a literature search aimed at identifying associations between MPH and cognition and/or motivation, a qualitative semistructured interview was designed to focus specifically on the domains of cognition (i.e., reasoning, depth/breadth of thinking, intellectual capacity, and creativity) and motivation (i.e., drive, effort, and attitudes toward rewards/incentives). Interviews were conducted with 45 participants drawn from the following four groups: (a) clinicians, child and adolescent psychiatrists, and pediatricians specializing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 15); (2) teachers, with experience of teaching at least 10 medicated children with ADHD (n = 10); (3) parents of children with ADHD (n = 8) treated with MPH; and (4) adolescents/adults with ADHD (n = 12). Purposeful sampling was used to selectively recruit ADHD participants whose histories suggested a degree of vulnerability to MPH adverse events. Data were analyzed using a deductive approach to content analysis. While we probed purposefully for cognitive and motivational adverse events, a third domain, related to mood, emerged from the reports. Therefore, three domains, each with a number of subdomains, were identified from the interview accounts: (i) Cognition (six subdomains; attention/concentration, changes in thinking, reduced creativity, sensory overload, memory, slower processing speed); (ii) motivation (four subdomains; loss of intrinsic motivation for goal-directed activities, external

  19. Investigating Separate and Concurrent Approaches for Item Parameter Drift in 3PL Item Response Theory Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Bulut, Okan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines separate and concurrent approaches to combine the detection of item parameter drift (IPD) and the estimation of scale transformation coefficients in the context of the common item nonequivalent groups design with the three-parameter item response theory equating. The study uses real and synthetic data sets to compare the two…

  20. Pore morphologies of root induced biopores from single pore to network scale investigated by XRCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peth, Stephan; Wittig, Marlen C.; Uteau Puschmann, Daniel; Pagenkemper, Sebastian; Haas, Christoph; Holthusen, Dörthe; Horn, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Biopores are assumed to be an important factor for nutrient acquisition by providing biologically highly active soil-root interfaces to re-colonizing roots and controlling oxygen and water flows at the pedon scale and within the rhizosphere through the formation of branching channel networks which potentially enhance microbial turnover processes. Characteristic differences in pore morphologies are to be expected depending on the genesis of biopores which, for example, can be earthworm-induced or root-induced or subsequently modified by one of the two. Our understanding of biophysical interactions between plants and soil can be significantly improved by quantifying 3D biopore architectures across scales ranging from single biopores to pedon scale pore networks and linking pore morphologies to microscale measurements of transport processes (e.g. oxygen diffusion). While a few studies in the past have investigated biopore networks on a larger scale yet little is known on the micro-morphology of root-induces biopores and their associated rhizosphere. Also little data is available on lateral transport of oxygen through the rhizosphere which will strongly influence microbial turnover processes and consequently control the release and uptake of nutrients. This paper highlights results gathered within a research unit on nutrient acquisition from the subsoil. Here we focus on X-ray microtomography (XRCT) studies ranging from large soil columns (70 cm length and 20 cm diameter) to individual biopores and its surrounding rhizosphere. Samples were collected from sites with different preceding crops (fescue, chicory, alfalfa) and various cropping durations (1-3 years). We will present an approach for quantitative image analysis combined with micro-sensor measurements of oxygen diffusion and spatial gradients of O2 partial pressures to relate pore structure with transport functions. Implications of various biopore architectures for the accessibility of nutrient resources in

  1. Assessment of Grade-Level Differences in Coping Behavior among Adolescents Using Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal-Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine grade-level differences in coping behaviors among adolescents using a probabilistic multidimensional scaling (MDS) single-ideal-point model. Using data from students in middle school and at college, this article illustrated the MDS single-ideal-point model as an alternative to examine students' typical…

  2. Strategies for Probing Nanometer-Scale Electrocatalysts: From Single Particles to Catalyst-Membrane Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeniewski, Carol [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry

    2014-01-20

    The project primary objectives are to prepare and elucidate the promoting properties of materials that possess high activity for the conversion of hydrogen and related small molecules (water, oxygen, carbon monoxide and methanol) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. One area of research has focused on the study of catalyst materials. Protocols were developed for probing the structure and benchmarking the activity of Pt and Pt bimetallic nanometer-scale catalyst against Pt single crystal electrode standards. A second area has targeted fuel cell membrane and the advancement of simple methods mainly based on vibrational spectroscopy that can be applied broadly in the study of membrane structure and transport properties. Infrared and Raman methods combined with least-squares data modeling were applied to investigate and assist the design of robust, proton conductive membranes, which resist reactant crossover.

  3. Factor structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS), and the relationship between them: a study from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama-Younes, Mareï; Montazeri, Ali; Ismaïl, Amany; Roncin, Charles

    2009-03-05

    The objectives of this study were to test the factor structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS) in elderly French people, and to test the relationship between these two questionnaires. Using a standard 'forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language versions of the two instruments (i.e. the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Subjective Vitality Scale) were translated into French. A sample of adults aged 58-72 years then completed both questionnaires. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The factor structures of the two instruments were extracted by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Finally, the relationship between the two instruments was assessed by correlation analysis. In all, 217 elderly adults participated in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 61.7 (SD = 6.2) years. The mean GHQ-12 score was 17.4 (SD = 8.0), and analysis showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.78). The mean VS score was 22.4 (SD = 7.4) and its internal consistency was found to be good (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.83). While CFA showed that the VS was uni-dimensional, analysis for the GHQ-12 demonstrated a good fit not only to the two-factor model (positive vs. negative items) but also to a three-factor model. As expected, there was a strong and significant negative correlation between the GHQ-12 and the VS (r = -0.71, P GHQ-12) and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS) are reliable measures of psychological distress and vitality. They also confirm a significant negative correlation between these two instruments, lending support to their convergent validity in an elderly French population. The findings indicate that both measures have good structural characteristics.

  4. Scanning, Multibeam, Single Photon Lidars for Rapid, Large Scale, High Resolution, Topographic and Bathymetric Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Degnan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several scanning, single photon sensitive, 3D imaging lidars are herein described that operate at aircraft above ground levels (AGLs between 1 and 11 km, and speeds in excess of 200 knots. With 100 beamlets and laser fire rates up to 60 kHz, we, at the Sigma Space Corporation (Lanham, MD, USA, have interrogated up to 6 million ground pixels per second, all of which can record multiple returns from volumetric scatterers such as tree canopies. High range resolution has been achieved through the use of subnanosecond laser pulsewidths, detectors and timing receivers. The systems are presently being deployed on a variety of aircraft to demonstrate their utility in multiple applications including large scale surveying, bathymetry, forestry, etc. Efficient noise filters, suitable for near realtime imaging, have been shown to effectively eliminate the solar background during daytime operations. Geolocation elevation errors measured to date are at the subdecimeter level. Key differences between our Single Photon Lidars, and competing Geiger Mode lidars are also discussed.

  5. Techniques for extracting single-trial activity patterns from large-scale neural recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Mark M; Yu, Byron M; Sahani, Maneesh; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2008-01-01

    Summary Large, chronically-implanted arrays of microelectrodes are an increasingly common tool for recording from primate cortex, and can provide extracellular recordings from many (order of 100) neurons. While the desire for cortically-based motor prostheses has helped drive their development, such arrays also offer great potential to advance basic neuroscience research. Here we discuss the utility of array recording for the study of neural dynamics. Neural activity often has dynamics beyond that driven directly by the stimulus. While governed by those dynamics, neural responses may nevertheless unfold differently for nominally identical trials, rendering many traditional analysis methods ineffective. We review recent studies – some employing simultaneous recording, some not – indicating that such variability is indeed present both during movement generation, and during the preceding premotor computations. In such cases, large-scale simultaneous recordings have the potential to provide an unprecedented view of neural dynamics at the level of single trials. However, this enterprise will depend not only on techniques for simultaneous recording, but also on the use and further development of analysis techniques that can appropriately reduce the dimensionality of the data, and allow visualization of single-trial neural behavior. PMID:18093826

  6. Single isolated hadron response and determination of the jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vivarelli, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The response of single isolated hadrons in the ATLAS calorimeter is measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC. Isolated tracks with a momentum between 0.5 to 10-20 GeV are selected in the rapidity region up to 2.3. Adjacent energy deposits collected in calorimeter clusters are summed together in a cone of size R=0.2. The measured calorimeter cluster energy sum is compared to the track momentum. Data are in compared in detail to Monte Carlo simulation based on the Geant4 tool-kit and to test-beam measurements. The response to hadrons at low momenta is described by the Monte Carlo simulation with an accuracy of a few percent. Together with test-beam data the results of the single isolated hadron analysis can be used to get a first estimate of the jet energy scale uncertainty in the ATLAS detector.

  7. Scaling of the steady state and stability behaviour of single and two-phase natural circulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Bade, M.H.; Kumar, N.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Scaling methods for both single-phase and two-phase natural circulation systems have been presented. For single-phase systems, simulation of the steady state flow can be achieved by preserving just one nondimensional parameter. For uniform diameter two-phase systems also, it is possible to simulate the steady state behaviour with just one non-dimensional parameter. Simulation of the stability behaviour requires geometric similarity in addition to the similarity of the physical parameters appearing in the governing equations. The scaling laws proposed have been tested with experimental data in case of single-phase natural circulation. (author)

  8. Online automated in vivo zebrafish phosphoproteomics: from large-scale analysis down to a single embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeer, Simone; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Mohammed, Shabaz; van Breukelen, Bas; den Hertog, Jeroen; Slijper, Monique; Heck, Albert J R

    2008-04-01

    In the developing embryo, as in many other biological processes, complex signaling pathways are under tight control of reversible phosphorylation, guiding cell proliferation, differentiation, and growth. Therefore the large-scale identification of signaling proteins and their post-translational modifications is crucial to understand the proteome biology of the developing zebrafish embryo. Here, we used an automated, robust, and sensitive online TiO 2-based LC-MS/MS setup to enrich for phosphorylated peptides from 1 day old zebrafish embryos. We identified, with high confidence, 1067 endogenous phosphorylation sites in a sample taken from 60 embryos (approximately 180 microg), 321 from 10 embryos, and 47 phosphorylation sites from a single embryo, illustrating the sensitivity of the method. This data set, representing by far the largest for zebrafish, was further exploited by searching for serine/threonine or tyrosine kinase motifs using Scansite. For one-third of the identified phosphopeptides a potential kinase motif could be predicted, where it appeared that Cdk5 kinase, p38MAPK, PKA, and Casein Kinase 2 substrates were the most predominant motifs present, underpinning the importance of these kinases in signaling pathways in embryonic development. The phosphopeptide data set was further interrogated using alignments with phosphopeptides identified in recent large-scale phosphoproteomics screens in human and mouse samples. These alignments revealed conservation of phosphorylation sites in several proteins suggesting preserved function in embryonic development.

  9. Solar radiation transmissivity of a single-span greenhouse through measurements on scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, G.; Manolakos, D.; Kyritsis, S.

    1998-01-01

    The solar transmissivity of a single-span greenhouse has been investigated experimentally using a scale model, of dimensions 40 cm width and 80 cm length. The solar transmissivity was measured at 48 positions on the “ground” surface of the scale model using 48 small silicon solar cells. The greenhouse model was positioned horizontally on a specially made goniometric mechanism. In this way, the greenhouse azimuth could be changed so that typical days of the year could be simulated using different combinations of greenhouse azimuth and the position of the sun in the sky. The measured solar transmissivity distribution at the “ground” surface and the average greenhouse solar transmissivity are presented and analysed, for characteristic days of the year, for winter and summer for a latitude of 37°58′ (Athens, Greece). It is shown that for the latitude of 37°58′ N during winter, the E–W orientation is preferable to the N–S one. The side walls, and especially the East and West ones for the E–W orientation, reduce considerably the greenhouse transmissivity at areas close to the walls for long periods of the day when the angle of incidence of the solar rays to these walls is large. (author)

  10. Up-scaling single cell-inoculated suspension culture of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmeet; Mok, Pamela; Balakrishnan, Thavamalar; Rahmat, Siti Norfiza Binte; Zweigerdt, Robert

    2010-05-01

    We have systematically developed single cell-inoculated suspension cultures of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) in defined media. Cell survival was dependent on hESC re-aggregation. In the presence of the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (Ri) only approximately 44% of the seeded cells were rescued, but an optimized heat shock treatment combined with Ri significantly increased cell survival to approximately 60%. Mechanistically, our data suggest that E-cadherin plays a role in hESC aggregation and that dissociation and re-aggregation upon passaging functions as a purification step towards a pluripotency markers-enriched population. Mass expansion of hESC was readily achieved by up-scaling 2 ml cultures to serial passaging in 50 ml spinner flasks. A media comparison revealed that mTeSR was superior to KnockOut-SR in supporting cell proliferation and pluripotency. Persistent expression of pluripotency markers was achieved for two lines (hES2, hES3) that were used at higher passages (>86). In contrast, rapid down regulation of Oct4, Tra-1-60, and SSEA4 was observed for ESI049, a clinically compliant line, used at passages 20-36. The up-scaling strategy has significant potential to provide pluripotent cells on a clinical scale. Nevertheless, our data also highlights a significant line-to-line variability and the need for a critical assessment of novel methods with numerous relevant cell lines. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of Large-Scale Single-Crystalline Monolayer WS2 Using a Semi-Sealed Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Lan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As a two-dimensional semiconductor, WS2 has attracted great attention due to its rich physical properties and potential applications. However, it is still difficult to synthesize monolayer single-crystalline WS2 at larger scale. Here, we report the growth of large-scale triangular single-crystalline WS2 with a semi-sealed installation by chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Through this method, triangular single-crystalline WS2 with an average length of more than 300 µm was obtained. The largest one was about 405 μm in length. WS2 triangles with different sizes and thicknesses were analyzed by optical microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM. Their optical properties were evaluated by Raman and photoluminescence (PL spectra. This report paves the way to fabricating large-scale single-crystalline monolayer WS2, which is useful for the growth of high-quality WS2 and its potential applications in the future.

  12. Examination of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale-Version 2 and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale-Straightforward Items Factor Structure in a Sample of U.S. College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Lowe, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the factor structure of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation-Straightforward Items (BFNE-S) and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation-Version 2 (BFNE-II) among 151 college students from the United States. Results indicated that the BFNE-S and the BFNE-II scores demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability.…

  13. Item response drift in the Family Affluence Scale: A study on three consecutive surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, C. W.; Makransky, G.; Kreiner, S.

    2013-01-01

    Comparable data on socio-economic position (SEP) is essential to international studies on health inequalities. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) has used the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) on material assets. The present study used data collected from adolescents in eight countries...

  14. Measuring Mathematical Ability Needed for "Non-Mathematical" Majors: The Construction of a Scale Applying IRT and Differential Item Functioning across Educational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Silvia; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    Given that basic mathematical ability is a requirement to succeed in "non-mathematical" majors, e.g. degrees for Psychology, Education, and Health Sciences with compulsory introductory stats courses, assessing this ability can be useful to promote achievement. The aim of the present study was to develop a scale to measure the…

  15. Linking Existing Instruments to Develop an Activity of Daily Living Item Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Bonilha, Heather S; Simpson, Kit N; Simpson, Annie N; Hong, Ickpyo; Velozo, Craig A

    2018-03-01

    This study examined dimensionality and item-level psychometric properties of an item bank measuring activities of daily living (ADL) across inpatient rehabilitation facilities and community living centers. Common person equating method was used in the retrospective veterans data set. This study examined dimensionality, model fit, local independence, and monotonicity using factor analyses and fit statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and differential item functioning (DIF) using Rasch analysis. Following the elimination of invalid data, 371 veterans who completed both the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and minimum data set (MDS) within 6 days were retained. The FIM-MDS item bank demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .98) and met three rating scale diagnostic criteria and three of the four model fit statistics (comparative fit index/Tucker-Lewis index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.14, and standardized root mean residual = 0.07). PCA of Rasch residuals showed the item bank explained 94.2% variance. The item bank covered the range of θ from -1.50 to 1.26 (item), -3.57 to 4.21 (person) with person strata of 6.3. The findings indicated the ADL physical function item bank constructed from FIM and MDS measured a single latent trait with overall acceptable item-level psychometric properties, suggesting that it is an appropriate source for developing efficient test forms such as short forms and computerized adaptive tests.

  16. Construct Validity of the Dutch Version of the 12-Item Partners in Health Scale: Measuring Patient Self-Management Behaviour and Knowledge in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Lenferink

    Full Text Available The 12-item Partners in Health scale (PIH was developed in Australia to measure self-management behaviour and knowledge in patients with chronic diseases, and has undergone several changes. Our aim was to assess the construct validity and reliability of the latest PIH version in Dutch COPD patients.The 12 items of the PIH, scored on a self-rated 9-point Likert scale, are used to calculate total and subscale scores (knowledge; coping; recognition and management of symptoms; and adherence to treatment. We used forward-backward translation of the latest version of the Australian PIH to define a Dutch PIH (PIH(Du. Mokken Scale Analysis and common Factor Analysis were performed on data from a Dutch COPD sample to investigate the psychometric properties of the Dutch PIH; and to determine whether the four-subscale solution previously found for the original Australian PIH could be replicated for the Dutch PIH.Two subscales were found for the Dutch PIH data (n = 118; 1 knowledge and coping; 2 recognition and management of symptoms, adherence to treatment. The correlation between the two Dutch subscales was 0.43. The lower-bound of the reliability of the total scale equalled 0.84. Factor analysis indicated that the first two factors explained a larger percentage of common variance (39.4% and 19.9% than could be expected when using random data (17.5% and 15.1%.We recommend using two PIH subscale scores when assessing self-management in Dutch COPD patients. Our results did not support the four-subscale structure as previously reported for the original Australian PIH.

  17. Construct Validity of the Dutch Version of the 12-Item Partners in Health Scale: Measuring Patient Self-Management Behaviour and Knowledge in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenferink, Anke; Effing, Tanja; Harvey, Peter; Battersby, Malcolm; Frith, Peter; van Beurden, Wendy; van der Palen, Job; Paap, Muirne C S

    2016-01-01

    The 12-item Partners in Health scale (PIH) was developed in Australia to measure self-management behaviour and knowledge in patients with chronic diseases, and has undergone several changes. Our aim was to assess the construct validity and reliability of the latest PIH version in Dutch COPD patients. The 12 items of the PIH, scored on a self-rated 9-point Likert scale, are used to calculate total and subscale scores (knowledge; coping; recognition and management of symptoms; and adherence to treatment). We used forward-backward translation of the latest version of the Australian PIH to define a Dutch PIH (PIH(Du)). Mokken Scale Analysis and common Factor Analysis were performed on data from a Dutch COPD sample to investigate the psychometric properties of the Dutch PIH; and to determine whether the four-subscale solution previously found for the original Australian PIH could be replicated for the Dutch PIH. Two subscales were found for the Dutch PIH data (n = 118); 1) knowledge and coping; 2) recognition and management of symptoms, adherence to treatment. The correlation between the two Dutch subscales was 0.43. The lower-bound of the reliability of the total scale equalled 0.84. Factor analysis indicated that the first two factors explained a larger percentage of common variance (39.4% and 19.9%) than could be expected when using random data (17.5% and 15.1%). We recommend using two PIH subscale scores when assessing self-management in Dutch COPD patients. Our results did not support the four-subscale structure as previously reported for the original Australian PIH.

  18. High-Accuracy Elevation Data at Large Scales from Airborne Single-Pass SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Jean-Pierre Schumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation models (DEMs are essential data sets for disaster risk management and humanitarian relief services as well as many environmental process models. At present, on the hand, globally available DEMs only meet the basic requirements and for many services and modeling studies are not of high enough spatial resolution and lack accuracy in the vertical. On the other hand, LiDAR-DEMs are of very high spatial resolution and great vertical accuracy but acquisition operations can be very costly for spatial scales larger than a couple of hundred square km and also have severe limitations in wetland areas and under cloudy and rainy conditions. The ideal situation would thus be to have a DEM technology that allows larger spatial coverage than LiDAR but without compromising resolution and vertical accuracy and still performing under some adverse weather conditions and at a reasonable cost. In this paper, we present a novel single pass In-SAR technology for airborne vehicles that is cost-effective and can generate DEMs with a vertical error of around 0.3 m for an average spatial resolution of 3 m. To demonstrate this capability, we compare a sample single-pass In-SAR Ka-band DEM of the California Central Valley from the NASA/JPL airborne GLISTIN-A to a high-resolution LiDAR DEM. We also perform a simple sensitivity analysis to floodplain inundation. Based on the findings of our analysis, we argue that this type of technology can and should be used to replace large regions of globally available lower resolution DEMs, particularly in coastal, delta and floodplain areas where a high number of assets, habitats and lives are at risk from natural disasters. We conclude with a discussion on requirements, advantages and caveats in terms of instrument and data processing.

  19. Location Indices for Ordinal Polytomous Items Based on Item Response Theory. Research Report. ETS RR-15-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usama S.; Chang, Hua-Hua; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Polytomous items are typically described by multiple category-related parameters; situations, however, arise in which a single index is needed to describe an item's location along a latent trait continuum. Situations in which a single index would be needed include item selection in computerized adaptive testing or test assembly. Therefore single…

  20. Development of a Short Version of MSQOL-54 Using Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Rosato

    Full Text Available The Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54, 52 items grouped in 12 subscales plus two single items is the most used MS specific health related quality of life inventory.To develop a shortened version of the MSQOL-54.MSQOL-54 dimensionality and metric properties were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and Rasch modelling (Partial Credit Model, PCM on MSQOL-54s completed by 473 MS patients. Their mean age was 41 years, 65% were women, and median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score was 2.0 (range 0-9.5. Differential item functioning (DIF was evaluated for gender, age and EDSS. Dimensionality of the resulting short version was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA and CFA. Cognitive debriefing of the short instrument (vs. the original was then performed on 12 MS patients.CFA of MSQOL-54 subscales showed that the data fitted the overall model well. Two subscales (Role Limitations--Physical, Role Limitations--Emotional did not fit the PCM, and were removed; two other subscales (Health Perceptions, Social Function did not fit the model, but were retained as single items. Sexual Satisfaction (single-item subscale was also removed. The resulting MSQOL-29 consisted of 25 items grouped in 7 subscales, plus 4 single items. PCM fit statistics were within the acceptability range for all MSQOL-29 items except one which had significant DIF by age. EFA and CFA indicated adequate fit to the original two-factor (Physical and Mental Health Composites hypothesis. Cognitive debriefing confirmed that MSQOL-29 was acceptable and had lost no key items.The proposed MSQOL-29 is 50% shorter than MSQOL-54, yet preserves key quality of life dimensions. Prospective validation on a large, independent MS patient sample is ongoing.

  1. A robust single-beam optical trap for a gram-scale mechanical oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altin, P A; Nguyen, T T-H; Slagmolen, B J J; Ward, R L; Shaddock, D A; McClelland, D E

    2017-11-06

    Precise optical control of microscopic particles has been mastered over the past three decades, with atoms, molecules and nano-particles now routinely trapped and cooled with extraordinary precision, enabling rapid progress in the study of quantum phenomena. Achieving the same level of control over macroscopic objects is expected to bring further advances in precision measurement, quantum information processing and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. However, cavity optomechanical systems dominated by radiation pressure - so-called 'optical springs' - are inherently unstable due to the delayed dynamical response of the cavity. Here we demonstrate a fully stable, single-beam optical trap for a gram-scale mechanical oscillator. The interaction of radiation pressure with thermo-optic feedback generates damping that exceeds the mechanical loss by four orders of magnitude. The stability of the resultant spring is robust to changes in laser power and detuning, and allows purely passive self-locking of the cavity. Our results open up a new way of trapping and cooling macroscopic objects for optomechanical experiments.

  2. Large-scale separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by electronic type using click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Jo-Eun; Song, Sun Gu; Yoo, Pil J.; Song, Changsik; Kim, Woo-Jae

    2018-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be either metallic or semiconducting, making their separation critical for applications in nanoelectronics, biomedical materials, and solar cells. Herein, we investigate a novel solution-phase separation method based on click chemistry (azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition) and determine its efficiency and scalability. In this method, metallic SWCNTs in metallic/semiconducting SWCNT mixtures are selectively functionalized with alkyne groups by being reacted with 4-propargyloxybenezenediazonium tetrafluoroborate. Subsequently, silica nanoparticles are functionalized with azide groups and reacted with alkyne-bearing metallic SWCNTs in the SWCNT mixture in the presence of a Cu catalyst. As a result, metallic SWCNTs are anchored on silica powder, whereas non-functionalized semiconducting SWCNTs remain in solution. Low-speed centrifugation effectively removes the silica powder with attached metallic SWCNTs, furnishing a solution of highly pure semiconducting SWCNTs, as confirmed by Raman and UV-vis/near-infrared absorption measurements. This novel separation scheme exhibits the advantage of simultaneously separating both metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs from their mixtures, being cost-effective and therefore applicable at an industrial scale.

  3. Scales in single root water uptake models: a review, analysis and synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, K.; Lier, van Q.D.

    2011-01-01

    Scales in transport of water to roots are compared with the length and volume scales by using the concepts associated with the representative elementary volume (REV). The possibility of a mismatch between model scale and system scale when using a Darcy-Buckingham-based model to describe soil water

  4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the M5-50: An Implementation of the International Personality Item Pool Item Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Alan; Cooper, Christopher A.; McCord, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) provides researchers with public-domain, free-access personality measurement scales that are proxies of well-established published scales. One of the more commonly used IPIP sets employs 50 items to measure the 5 broad domains of the 5-factor model, with 10 items per factor. The…

  5. Consumer satisfaction and item response theory: creating a measurement scale Avaliação do nível de satisfação de alunos de uma instituição de ensino superior: uma aplicação da teoria da resposta ao item

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ligia Vincenzi Bortolotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, people have increasingly demanded more from the state and enterprises. Consumer satisfaction is not an organizational option, but rather a matter of survival for any institution. The quest for measurement of consumer satisfaction has been ongoing in many areas of research, and researchers have concentrated efforts to demonstrate the psychometric quality of their measurements. However, the techniques employed by these commitments have not kept pace with the advances in psychometric theory and methods. The Item Response Theory (IRT is an approach used for assessing latent trait. It is commonly used in educational and psychological tests and provides additional information beyond that obtained from classic psychometric techniques. This article presents a model of cumulative application of item response theory to measure the extent of students' satisfaction with their courses by creating a measurement scale. The Graded Response Model was used. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this theory in measuring satisfaction since it places both items as individuals on the same scale. This theory may be valuable in the evaluation of customer satisfaction and many other organizational phenomena. The findings may help the decision maker of an enterprise with the correction of flows, processes, and procedures, and, consequently, it may help generate increased efficiency and effectiveness in daily tasks and in event management business. Finally, the information obtained from the analysis can play a role in the development and/or evaluation of institutional planning.O tema deste trabalho é a utilização da Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI como ferramenta de avaliação de aspectos organizacionais específicos. O objetivo é aplicar um modelo cumulativo da TRI para criar uma medida de satisfação de alunos com seus cursos, avaliando também a satisfação no ensino e criando uma escala de medida. Muito utilizada nas áreas educacional e psicol

  6. Sintomas depressivos em idosos: análise dos itens da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica Síntomas depresivos en ancianos: análisis de los items de la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica Depressive symptoms in the elderly: analysis of the items of the Geriatric Depression Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Martins Alvarenga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a estrutura fatorial da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica de 15 itens em uma amostra de idosos assistidos pela Estratégia Saúde da Família, descrever o perfil social e analisar as respostas aos itens da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudo de delineamento transversal com 503 idosos assistidos pela Estratégia Saúde da Família, em Dourados, MS. Para analisar as respostas da EDG 15, utilizou-se o teste de Qui-quadrado de Mantel-Haenzsel (p OBJETIVOS: Verificar la estructura factorial de la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica de 15 items en una muestra de ancianos asistidos por la Estrategia Salud de la Familia, describir el perfil social y analizar las respuestas a los ítems de la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudio de delineamiento transversal realizado con 503 ancianos entrevistados y 503 asistidos por la Estrategia Salud de la Familia, en Dourados, MS (Brasil. Para analizar las respuestas de la EDG 15, se utilizó la prueba del Chi-cuadrado de Mantel-Haenzsel (p OBJECTIVES: To verify the factor structure of the Geriatric Depression Scale of 15 items (GDS 15 in a sample of elderly people assisted by the Family Health Strategy, to describe their social profile, and to analyze the responses to items on the Scale. METHODS: A cross-sectional study interviewing 503 elderly assisted by the Family Health Strategy, in Dourados, MS (Brazil. To analyze the responses of the GDS 15, we used the Mantel-Haenzsel chi-square test (p <0.05 was used. A factor analysis, internal consistency and generalization of the results for the population was performed. RESULTS: Of the 503 elderly interviwed, 69.0% were women, 53.1% were illiterate, 53.7% were 70 years or older, and 34.4% presented depression. Factor analysis identified four factors (apathy, hopelessness, lack of motivation, and isolation. The structure of the GDS 15 did not prove appropriate for the generalizability of results. CONCLUSION: Among elderly

  7. Smile Aesthetics Satisfaction Scale: development and validation of a new brief five-item measure of satisfaction with smile aesthetics in adults and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnert, Vlatka; Kovacevic Pavicic, Daniela; Pavlic, Andrej; Pokrajac-Bulian, Alessandra; Spalj, Stjepan

    2018-02-07

    To create and validate a brief questionnaire designed for the assessment of satisfaction with smile aesthetics and to test its efficiency as a patient-centred outcome measure of aesthetic interventions in dentistry. A team of three specialists - two from prosthodontics and one psychologist - used a self-evaluation scale consisting of five elements in order to rate self-perceived smile aesthetics. A total of 671 subjects (63% female), 18-86 years of age, were included in the investigation. The internal consistency, validity and stability of the questionnaire, along with the responsiveness induced by the tooth-whitening procedure, were evaluated. The relationship between self-perceived satisfaction with the smile aesthetics and the clinical status of the dentition was assessed. The questionnaire had one dimension accounting for 64.3% of variance and showed a high level of reliability (Cronbach α = 0.859). It measured a construct similar to concern with tooth appearance and the desire to improve this appearance (r = -0.403 and r = -0.353, respectively; P < 0.001). High test-retest reliability was demonstrated (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.985). The questionnaire was able to detect an increase in satisfaction with smile aesthetics as a result of the tooth-whitening procedure (P = 0.016). Clinical predictors of greater satisfaction with smile aesthetics were greater tooth display when smiling, decreased chroma and the absence of gingivitis, as well as absence of crowded, fractured and restored teeth in the anterior segment. A new questionnaire, titled the Smile Aesthetics Satisfaction Scale (SASS), showed good psychometric properties and its use can be recommended. © 2018 FDI World Dental Federation.

  8. Cavity-Enhanced Real-Time Monitoring of Single-Charge Jumps at the Microsecond Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C.; Loo, V.; Lemaître, A.; Sagnes, I.; Krebs, O.; Voisin, P.; Senellart, P.; Lanco, L.

    2014-04-01

    We use fast coherent reflectivity measurements, in a strongly coupled quantum dot micropillar device, to monitor in real time single-charge jumps at the microsecond time scale. Thanks to the strong enhancement of light-matter interaction inside the cavity, and to a close to shot-noise-limited detection setup, the measurement rate is 5 orders of magnitude faster than with previous optical experiments of direct single-charge sensing with quantum dots. The monitored transitions, identified at any given time with a less than 0.2% error probability, correspond to a carrier being captured and then released by a single material defect. This high-speed technique opens the way for the real-time monitoring of other rapid single quantum events, such as the quantum jumps of a single spin.

  9. Using an FSDS-R Item to Screen for Sexually Related Distress: A MsFLASH Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet S. Carpenter, PhD, RN, FAAN

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: A single FSDS-R item may be a useful screening tool to quickly identify midlife women with sexually related distress when it is not feasible to administer the entire scale, though further validation is warranted. Carpenter JS, Reed SD, Guthrie KA, Larson JC, Newton KM, Lau RJ, Learman LA, and Shifren JL. Using an FSDS-R item to screen for sexually related distress: A MsFLASH analysis. Sex Med 2015;3:7–13.

  10. On the fluid dynamics of a laboratory scale single-use stirred bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeleye, A.O.O.; Marsh, D.T.J.; Osborne, M.D.; Lye, G.J.; Micheletti, M.

    2014-01-01

    The commercial success of mammalian cell-derived recombinant proteins has fostered an increase in demand for novel single-use bioreactor (SUB) systems that facilitate greater productivity, increased flexibility and reduced costs (Zhang et al., 2010). These systems exhibit fluid flow regimes unlike those encountered in traditional glass/stainless steel bioreactors because of the way in which they are designed. With such disparate hydrodynamic environments between SUBs currently on the market, traditional scale-up approaches applied to stirred tanks should be revised. One such SUB is the Mobius® 3 L CellReady, which consists of an upward-pumping marine scoping impeller. This work represents the first experimental study of the flow within the CellReady using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) approach, combined with a biological study into the impact of these fluid dynamic characteristics on cell culture performance. The PIV study was conducted within the actual vessel, rather than using a purpose-built mimic. PIV measurements conveyed a degree of fluid compartmentalisation resulting from the up-pumping impeller. Both impeller tip speed and fluid working volume had an impact upon the fluid velocities and spatial distribution of turbulence within the vessel. Cell cultures were conducted using the GS-CHO cell-line (Lonza) producing an IgG4 antibody. Disparity in cellular growth and viability throughout the range of operating conditions used (80–350 rpm and 1–2.4 L working volume) was not substantial, although a significant reduction in recombinant protein productivity was found at 350 rpm and 1 L working volume (corresponding to the highest Reynolds number tested in this work). The study shows promise in the use of PIV to improve understanding of the hydrodynamic environment within individual SUBs and allows identification of the critical hydrodynamic parameters under the different flow regimes for compatibility and scalability across the range of bioreactor

  11. Measuring resilience in adult women using the 10-items Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC. Role of trauma exposure and anxiety disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Scali

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt positively in the face of trauma. Little is known, however, about lifetime factors affecting resilience. METHODS: We assessed the effects of psychiatric disorder and lifetime trauma history on the resilience self-evaluation using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10 in a high-risk-women sample. Two hundred and thirty eight community-dwelling women, including 122 participants in a study of breast cancer survivors and 116 participants without previous history of cancer completed the CD-RISC-10. Lifetime psychiatric symptoms were assessed retrospectively using two standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Watson's Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Inventory. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, education, trauma history, cancer, current psychiatric diagnoses, and psychoactive treatment indicated a negative association between current psychiatric disorder and high resilience compared to low resilience level (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.21-0.93]. This was related to anxiety and not mood disorder. A positive and independent association with a trauma history was also observed (OR = 3.18, 95% CI [1.44-7.01]. CONCLUSION: Self-evaluation of resilience is influenced by both current anxiety disorder and trauma history. The independent positive association between resilience and trauma exposure may indicate a "vaccination" effect. This finding need to be taken into account in future studies evaluating resilience in general or clinical populations.

  12. Single-tube hydroponics as a novel idea for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masaharu; Ikenaga, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel protocol for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator termed "Single-tube hydroponics." Our protocol minimizes the materials and methods for cultivation whereby a large number of independent plants can be cultured in a limited space. This study may aid in the improvement of crop seed components, especially in the cultivation of transgenic plants.

  13. Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Noh, Heeso; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Dufresne, Eric R.; Prum, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructures produce the vivid structural colors of many butterfly wing scales, but their exact nanoscale organization is uncertain. We used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on single scales to characterize the 3D photonic nanostructures of five butterfly species from two families (Papilionidae, Lycaenidae). We identify these chitin and air nanostructures as single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals. We describe their optical function from SAXS data and photonic band-gap modeling. Butterflies apparently grow these gyroid nanostructures by exploiting the self-organizing physical dynamics of biological lipid-bilayer membranes. These butterfly photonic nanostructures initially develop within scale cells as a core-shell double gyroid (Ia3d), as seen in block-copolymer systems, with a pentacontinuous volume comprised of extracellular space, cell plasma membrane, cellular cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane, and intra-SER lumen. This double gyroid nanostructure is subsequently transformed into a single gyroid network through the deposition of chitin in the extracellular space and the degeneration of the rest of the cell. The butterflies develop the thermodynamically favored double gyroid precursors as a route to the optically more efficient single gyroid nanostructures. Current approaches to photonic crystal engineering also aim to produce single gyroid motifs. The biologically derived photonic nanostructures characterized here may offer a convenient template for producing optical devices based on biomimicry or direct dielectric infiltration. PMID:20547870

  14. Professor-Student Rapport Scale: Psychometric Properties of the Brief Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The original Professor-Student Rapport Scale contained 34 items and predicted several single-item student outcomes. A high level of internal consistency encouraged the development of a shorter measure in order to address apparent redundancy. Our goals in the current study were to provide psychometric data for the brief version of the scale and to…

  15. An item response theory analysis of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale and its correspondence with the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory among a sample of highly sexually active gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Grov, Christian; Mustanski, Brian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous scales and assessments are available to assess sexual compulsivity (SC). Aim This study sought to conduct an Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS) to provide evidence about its measurement precision at the various levels of the SC construct in a sample of highly sexually active gay and bisexual men (GBM). Methods SCS data from a sample of 202 GBM who are highly sexually active but who vary in their experiences of SC symptoms were modeled using Samejima's polytomous graded response IRT model. To describe the performance of the SCS relative to the HDSI, SCS scores were compared with participants’ corresponding HDSI results to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy. Main Outcome Measures This study examined the correspondence between the SCS and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI), a diagnostic instrument for the screening of hypersexuality. Results IRT analyses indicated that, although two of the SCS items had low reliability, the SCS as a whole was reliable across much of the SC continuum. Scores on the SCS and the HDSI were highly correlated; however, no potential cutoffs on the SCS corresponded strongly with the polythetic scoring criteria of the HDSI. Conclusion Comparisons of SCS scores with HDSI results indicated that the SCS itself could not serve as a substitute for the HDSI and would incorrectly classify a substantial number of individuals’ levels of hypersexuality. However, the SCS could be a useful screening tool to provide a preliminary screening of people at risk for meeting criteria on the HDSI. Combining the SCS and the HDSI may be an appropriate evaluation strategy in classifying GBM as negative on both (i.e., “non-hypersexual/non-SC”), positive on the SCS only (i.e., “at risk”), and positive on both the SCS and the HDSI (i.e., “problematic hypersexuality/SC”). PMID:25496349

  16. Exploratory Item Classification Via Spectral Graph Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunxiao; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Xu, Gongjun; Ying, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale assessments are supported by a large item pool. An important task in test development is to assign items into scales that measure different characteristics of individuals, and a popular approach is cluster analysis of items. Classical methods in cluster analysis, such as the hierarchical clustering, K-means method, and latent-class analysis, often induce a high computational overhead and have difficulty handling missing data, especially in the presence of high-dimensional responses. In this article, the authors propose a spectral clustering algorithm for exploratory item cluster analysis. The method is computationally efficient, effective for data with missing or incomplete responses, easy to implement, and often outperforms traditional clustering algorithms in the context of high dimensionality. The spectral clustering algorithm is based on graph theory, a branch of mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The algorithm first constructs a graph of items, characterizing the similarity structure among items. It then extracts item clusters based on the graphical structure, grouping similar items together. The proposed method is evaluated through simulations and an application to the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

  17. Comparative Studies on Scale-Up Methods of Single-Use Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Stoker, Emily B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to increase knowledge of oxygen mass transfer (kLa) and mixing times in the scale-up of disposable bioreactors.Results of oxygen mass transfer studies showed kLa to increase with increasing agitation and aeration rates. By maintaining a scale-up constant such as gassed power to volume or shear, an almost constant kLa was achieved during scale-up from 50 to 2000 L. Using the scale-up constant Pg/V resulted in statistically higher kLa values at greater reactor volumes. ...

  18. A 67-Item Stress Resilience item bank showing high content validity was developed in a psychosomatic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbarius, Nina; Fischer, Felix; Obbarius, Alexander; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Rose, Matthias

    2018-04-10

    To develop the first item bank to measure Stress Resilience (SR) in clinical populations. Qualitative item development resulted in an initial pool of 131 items covering a broad theoretical SR concept. These items were tested in n=521 patients at a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), as well as other state-of-the-art item analyses and IRT were used for item evaluation and calibration of the final item bank. Out of the initial item pool of 131 items, we excluded 64 items (54 factor loading .3, 2 non-discriminative Item Response Curves, 4 Differential Item Functioning). The final set of 67 items indicated sufficient model fit in CFA and IRT analyses. Additionally, a 10-item short form with high measurement precision (SE≤.32 in a theta range between -1.8 and +1.5) was derived. Both the SR item bank and the SR short form were highly correlated with an existing static legacy tool (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale). The final SR item bank and 10-item short form showed good psychometric properties. When further validated, they will be ready to be used within a framework of Computer-Adaptive Tests for a comprehensive assessment of the Stress-Construct. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Large-Scale Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Chun-Jiang; Sun, Ling-Dong; Luo, Feng

    2008-01-01

    We present an innovative approach to the production of single-crystal iron oxide nanorings employing a solution-based route. Single-crystal hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanorings were synthesized using a double anion-assisted hydrothermal method (involving phosphate and sulfate ions), which can be divi...

  20. Measuring organizational effectiveness in information and communication technology companies using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiller, Andréa Cristina; Peixe, Blênio César Severo; Tezza, Rafael; Pereira, Vera Lúcia Duarte do Valle; Pacheco, Waldemar; Bornia, Antonio Cezar; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure the effectiveness of the organizations Information and Communication Technology (ICT) from the point of view of the manager, using Item Response Theory (IRT). There is a need to verify the effectiveness of these organizations which are normally associated to complex, dynamic, and competitive environments. In academic literature, there is disagreement surrounding the concept of organizational effectiveness and its measurement. A construct was elaborated based on dimensions of effectiveness towards the construction of the items of the questionnaire which submitted to specialists for evaluation. It demonstrated itself to be viable in measuring organizational effectiveness of ICT companies under the point of view of a manager through using Two-Parameter Logistic Model (2PLM) of the IRT. This modeling permits us to evaluate the quality and property of each item placed within a single scale: items and respondents, which is not possible when using other similar tools.

  1. Comparison of single- and multi-scale models for the prediction of the Culicoides biting midge distribution in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renke Lühken

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed Culicoides presence-absence data from 46 sampling sites in Germany, where monitoring was carried out from April 2007 until May 2008. Culicoides presence-absence data were analysed in relation to land cover data, in order to study whether the prevalence of biting midges is correlated to land cover data with respect to the trapping sites. We differentiated eight scales, i.e. buffer zones with radii of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5 and 10 km, around each site, and chose several land cover variables. For each species, we built eight single-scale models (i.e. predictor variables from one of the eight scales for each model based on averaged, generalised linear models and two multiscale models (i.e. predictor variables from all of the eight scales based on averaged, generalised linear models and generalised linear models with random forest variable selection. There were no significant differences between performance indicators of models built with land cover data from different buffer zones around the trapping sites. However, the overall performance of multi-scale models was higher than the alternatives. Furthermore, these models mostly achieved the best performance for the different species using the index area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. However, as also presented in this study, the relevance of the different variables could significantly differ between various scales, including the number of species affected and the positive or negative direction. This is an even more severe problem if multi-scale models are concerned, in which one model can have the same variable at different scales but with different directions, i.e. negative and positive direction of the same variable at different scales. However, multi-scale modelling is a promising approach to model the distribution of Culicoides species, accounting much more for the ecology of biting midges, which uses different resources (breeding sites, hosts, etc. at

  2. Large-Scale Single Particle and Cell Trapping based on Rotating Electric Field Induced-Charge Electroosmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yupan; Ren, Yukun; Tao, Ye; Hou, Likai; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2016-12-06

    We propose a simple, inexpensive microfluidic chip for large-scale trapping of single particles and cells based on induced-charge electroosmosis in a rotating electric field (ROT-ICEO). A central floating electrode array, was placed in the center of the gap between four driving electrodes with a quadrature configuration and used to immobilize single particles or cells. Cells were trapped on the electrode array by the interaction between ROT-ICEO flow and buoyancy flow. We experimentally optimized the efficiency of trapping single particles by investigating important parameters like particle or cell density and electric potential. Experimental and numerical results showed good agreement. The operation of the chip was verified by trapping single polystyrene (PS) microspheres with diameters of 5 and 20 μm and single yeast cells. The highest single particle occupancy of 73% was obtained using a floating electrode array with a diameter of 20 μm with an amplitude voltage of 5 V and frequency of 10 kHz for PS microbeads with a 5-μm diameter and density of 800 particles/μL. The ROT-ICEO flow could hold cells against fluid flows with a rate of less than 0.45 μL/min. This novel, simple, robust method to trap single cells has enormous potential in genetic and metabolic engineering.

  3. Clinically important deterioration in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery: a choice of evaluation methods using the Oswestry Disability Index, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and pain scales: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Jeffrey L; Glassman, Steven D; Carreon, Leah Y

    2013-11-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures have become the mainstay for outcome appraisal in spine surgery. Clinically meaningful interpretation of HRQOL improvement has centered on the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). The purpose of this study was to calculate clinically important deterioration (CIDET) thresholds and determine a CIDET value for each HRQOL measure for patients undergoing lumbar fusion. Seven hundred twenty-two patients (248 males, 127 smokers, mean age 60.8 years) were identified with complete preoperative and 1-year postoperative HRQOLs including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and numeric rating scales (0-10) for back and leg pain following primary, instrumented, posterior lumbar fusion. Anchor-based and distribution-based methods were used to calculate CIDET for each HRQOL. Anchor-based methods included change score, change difference, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The Health Transition Item, an independent item of the SF-36, was used as the external anchor. Patients who responded "somewhat worse" and "much worse" were combined and compared with patients responding "about the same." Distribution-based methods were minimum detectable change and effect size. Diagnoses included spondylolisthesis (n = 332), scoliosis (n = 54), instability (n = 37), disc pathology (n = 146), and stenosis (n = 153). There was a statistically significant change (p < 0.0001) for each HRQOL measure from preoperatively to 1-year postoperatively. Only 107 patients (15%) reported being "somewhat worse" (n = 81) or "much worse" (n = 26). Calculation methods yielded a range of CIDET values for ODI (0.17-9.06), SF-36 physical component summary (-0.32 to 4.43), back pain (0.02-1.50), and leg pain (0.02-1.50). A threshold for clinical deterioration was difficult to identify. This may be due to the small number of patients reporting being worse after surgery and the variability across

  4. Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-03-02

    The uncertainty on the calorimeter energy response to jets of particles is derived for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and 7 TeV collected during 2009 and 2010. Then, using the decay of K_s and Lambda particles, the calorimeter response to specific types of particles (positively and negatively charged pions, protons, and anti-protons) is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo predictions. Finally, the jet energy scale uncertainty is determined by propagating the response uncertainty for single charged and neutral particles to jets. The response uncertainty is 2-5% for central isolated hadrons and 1-3% for the final calorimeter jet energy scale.

  5. Neoclassical theory of electromagnetic interactions a single theory for macroscopic and microscopic scales

    CERN Document Server

    Babin, Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors present their recently developed theory of electromagnetic interactions. This neoclassical approach extends the classical electromagnetic theory down to atomic scales and allows the explanation of various non-classical phenomena in the same framework. While the classical Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetism theory succeeds in describing the physical reality at macroscopic scales, it struggles at atomic scales. Here, quantum mechanics traditionally takes over to describe non-classical phenomena such as the hydrogen spectrum and de Broglie waves. By means of modifying the classical theory, the approach presented here is able to consistently explain quantum-mechanical effects, and while similar to quantum mechanics in some respects, this neoclassical theory also differs markedly from it. In particular, the newly developed framework omits probabilistic interpretations of the wave function and features a new fundamental spatial scale which, at the size of the free electron, is much lar...

  6. Small-Scale Spatial Analysis of In Situ Sea Temperature throughout a Single Coral Patch Reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin D. Gorospe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stress can cause geographically widespread bleaching events, during which corals become decoupled from their symbiotic algae. Bleaching, however, also can occur on smaller, spatially patchy scales, with corals on the same reef exhibiting varying bleaching responses. Thus, to investigate fine spatial scale sea temperature variation, temperature loggers were deployed on a 4 m grid on a patch reef in Kāne'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai‘i to monitor in situ, benthic temperature every 50 minutes at 85 locations for two years. Temperature variation on the reef was characterized using several summary indices related to coral thermal stress. Results show that stable, biologically significant temperature variation indeed exists at small scales and that depth, relative water flow, and substrate cover and type were not significant drivers of this variation. Instead, finer spatial and temporal scale advection processes at the benthic boundary layer are likely responsible. The implications for coral ecology and conservation are discussed.

  7. Anti-control of chaos of single time scale brushless dc motors and chaos synchronization of different order systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Zhengming; Chang Chingming; Chen Yensheng

    2006-01-01

    Anti-control of chaos of single time scale brushless dc motors (BLDCM) and chaos synchronization of different order systems are studied in this paper. By addition of an external nonlinear term, we can obtain anti-control of chaos. Then, by addition of the coupling terms, by the use of Lyapunov stability theorem and by the linearization of the error dynamics, chaos synchronization between a third-order BLDCM and a second-order Duffing system are presented

  8. Morphology and atomic-scale structure of single-layer WS2 nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchtbauer, Henrik G; Tuxen, Anders K; Moses, Poul G; Topsøe, Henrik; Besenbacher, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jeppe V

    2013-10-14

    Two-dimensional sheets of transition metal (Mo and W) sulfides are attracting strong attention due to the unique electronic and optical properties associated with the material in its single-layer form. The single-layer MoS2 and WS2 are already in widespread commercial use in catalytic applications as both hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts. Consequently, characterization of the morphology and atomic structure of such particles is of utmost importance for the understanding of the catalytic active phase. However, in comparison with the related MoS2 system only little is known about the fundamental properties of single-layer WS2 (tungstenite). Here, we use an interplay of atom-resolved Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) studies of Au(111)-supported WS2 nanoparticles and calculated edge structures using Density Functional Theory (DFT) to reveal the equilibrium morphology and prevalent edge structures of single-layer WS2. The STM results reveal that the single layer S-W-S sheets adopt a triangular equilibrium shape under the sulfiding conditions of the synthesis, with fully sulfided edges. The predominant edge structures are determined to be the (101[combining macron]0) W-edge, but for the smallest nanoclusters also the (1[combining macron]010) S-edges become important. DFT calculations are used to construct phase diagrams of the WS2 edges, and describe their sulfur and hydrogen coordination under different conditions, and in this way shed light on the catalytic role of WS2 edges.

  9. Criticality of Low-Energy Protons in Single-Event Effects Testing of Highly-Scaled Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report low-energy proton and low-energy alpha particle single-event effects (SEE) data on a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) latches and static random access memory (SRAM) that demonstrates the criticality of using low-energy protons for SEE testing of highly-scaled technologies. Low-energy protons produced a significantly higher fraction of multi-bit upsets relative to single-bit upsets when compared to similar alpha particle data. This difference highlights the importance of performing hardness assurance testing with protons that include energy distribution components below 2 megaelectron-volt. The importance of low-energy protons to system-level single-event performance is based on the technology under investigation as well as the target radiation environment.

  10. Comparison of a Sleep Item From the General Health Questionnaire-12 With the Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire as Measures of Sleep Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Dregan, Alexandru; Armstrong, David

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine whether a widely available single-item measure of sleep disturbances is an acceptable alternative to a multi-item sleep questionnaire. Methods Data were derived from Finnish Helsinki Health Study postal questionnaires administered in 2000–2002 (n = 7777, response rate 67%). The measures were the 4-item Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire (JSQ) on difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep, and nonrestorative sleep, and an item on sleep loss due to worry, from the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were done to compare the predictive performance of the GHQ-12 item with the JSQ scale. Using the above 2 measures of sleep, logistic regression models were used to examine associations between sociodemographic factors, working conditions, health-related factors, and sleep disturbance. Results The estimated area under the ROC curve was 0.68 among both women and men, which suggests that the ability of the GHQ-12 item to discriminate true positives from false positives was modest. However, the associations of sleep disturbance with its key determinants were largely similar using the GHQ-12 and the JSQ. Conclusions A widely available, GHQ-12-based, single-item sleep measure was not an adequate substitute for a multi-item measure of overall sleep disturbance. Although the measures produced largely similar associations for key determinants of poor sleep, the discrepancies between responses must be considered when analyzing data from a measure that uses a single sleep item. PMID:21986193

  11. Comparison of a sleep item from the General Health Questionnaire-12 with the Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire as measures of sleep disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Dregan, Alexandru; Armstrong, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether a widely available single-item measure of sleep disturbances is an acceptable alternative to a multi-item sleep questionnaire. Data were derived from Finnish Helsinki Health Study postal questionnaires administered in 2000-2002 (n = 7777, response rate 67%). The measures were the 4-item Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire (JSQ) on difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep, and nonrestorative sleep, and an item on sleep loss due to worry, from the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were done to compare the predictive performance of the GHQ-12 item with the JSQ scale. Using the above 2 measures of sleep, logistic regression models were used to examine associations between sociodemographic factors, working conditions, health-related factors, and sleep disturbance. The estimated area under the ROC curve was 0.68 among both women and men, which suggests that the ability of the GHQ-12 item to discriminate true positives from false positives was modest. However, the associations of sleep disturbance with its key determinants were largely similar using the GHQ-12 and the JSQ. A widely available, GHQ-12-based, single-item sleep measure was not an adequate substitute for a multi-item measure of overall sleep disturbance. Although the measures produced largely similar associations for key determinants of poor sleep, the discrepancies between responses must be considered when analyzing data from a measure that uses a single sleep item.

  12. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  13. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  14. The scaling of burnout data for a single fluid at a fixed pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, G.J.

    1966-12-01

    The success of the scaling factor concept in linking burnout measurements made in two different fluids has been amply demonstrated. This memorandum investigates the possibility of linking measurements made on two different systems in the same fluid. It seems that good accuracy may be obtained for systems whose linear dimensions differ by as much as a factor of two; this offers the possibility of saving very substantial amounts of power in testing reactor fuel element. A novel conclusion is that systems do not need to be geometrically similar in order to be linked by scaling factors. (author)

  15. Fully Streched Single DNA Molecules in a Nanofluidic Chip Show Large-Scale Structural Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Marie, Rodolphe; Bauer, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    When stretching and imaging DNA molecules in nanofluidic devices, it is important to know the relation between the physical length as measured in the lab and the distance along the contour of the DNA. Here a single DNA molecule longer than 1 Mbp is loaded into a nanofluidic device consisting of two...

  16. Modeling methane fluxes in wetlands with gas-transporting plants. 1. Single-root scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, R.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Methane dynamics in a water-saturated soil layer with gas-transporting roots is modeled with a weighed set of single-root model systems. Each model system consists of a soil cylinder with a gas-transporting root along its axis or a soil sphere with a gas-transporting root at its center. The weights

  17. End-of-pipe single-sludge denitrification in pilot-scale recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Nielsen, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    A step toward environmental sustainability of recirculat aquaculture systems (RAS) is implementation ofsingle-sludge denitrification, a process eliminating nitrate from the aqueous environment while reduc-ing the organic matter discharge simultaneously. Two 1700 L pilot-scale RAS systems each...

  18. Construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Malay version of the 21-item depression anxiety stress scale (Malay-DASS-21) among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, B N; Amrina, K; Trived, S; Loh, K P; Shashi, M

    2017-10-01

    The 21-item English version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) has been proposed as a method for assessing self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress over the past week in various clinical and nonclinical populations. Several Malay versions of the DASS-21 have been validated in various populations with varying success. One particular Malay version has been validated in various occupational groups (such as nurses and automotive workers) but not among male clinic outpatient attendees in Malaysia. To validate the Malay version of the DASS-21 (Malay-DASS-21) among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. A validation study with a random sample of 402 male respondents attending the outpatient clinic of a major public outpatient clinic in Johor Bahru and Segamat was carried out from January to March 2016. Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis (KMO = 0.947; Bartlett's test of sphericity is significant, pJohor. Further studies are necessary to revalidate the Malay-DASS-21 across different populations and cultures, and using confirmatory factor analyses.

  19. madSTORM: a superresolution technique for large-scale multiplexing at single-molecule accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jason; Manna, Asit; Barr, Valarie A.; Hong, Jennifer; Neuman, Keir C.; Samelson, Lawrence E.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of heterogeneous cellular structures using single-molecule localization microscopy has been limited by poorly defined localization accuracy and inadequate multiplexing capacity. Using fluorescent nanodiamonds as fiducial markers, we define and achieve localization precision required for single-molecule accuracy in dSTORM images. Coupled with this advance, our new multiplexing strategy, madSTORM, allows accurate targeting of multiple molecules using sequential binding and elution of fluorescent antibodies. madSTORM is used on an activated T-cell to localize 25 epitopes, 14 of which are on components of the same multimolecular T-cell receptor complex. We obtain an average localization precision of 2.6 nm, alignment error of 2.0 nm, and molecules within structures. Probing the molecular topology of complex signaling cascades and other heterogeneous networks is feasible with madSTORM. PMID:27708141

  20. SCANPY: large-scale single-cell gene expression data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, F Alexander; Angerer, Philipp; Theis, Fabian J

    2018-02-06

    SCANPY is a scalable toolkit for analyzing single-cell gene expression data. It includes methods for preprocessing, visualization, clustering, pseudotime and trajectory inference, differential expression testing, and simulation of gene regulatory networks. Its Python-based implementation efficiently deals with data sets of more than one million cells ( https://github.com/theislab/Scanpy ). Along with SCANPY, we present ANNDATA, a generic class for handling annotated data matrices ( https://github.com/theislab/anndata ).

  1. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  2. ESTIMATION OF THE SCALE PARAMETER FROM THE RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION FROM TYPE II SINGLY AND DOUBLY CENSORED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saeed Akhter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As common as the normal distribution is the Rayleigh distribution which occurs in works on radar, properties of sine wave plus-noise, etc. Rayleigh (1880 derived it from the amplitude of sound resulting from many important sources. The Rayleigh distribution is widely used in communication engineering, reliability analysis and applied statistics. Since the Rayleigh distribution has linearly increasing rate, it is appropriate for components which might not have manufacturing defects but age rapidly with time. Several types of electro-vacum devices have this feature. It is connected with one dimension and two dimensions random walk and is some times referred to as a random walk frequency distribution. It is a special case of Weibull distribution (1951 of wide applicability. It can be easily derived from the bivariate normal distribution with and p = 0. For further application of Rayleigh distribution, we refer to Johnson and Kotz (1994. Adatia (1995 has obtained the best linear unbiased estimator of the Rayleigh scale parameter based on fairly large censored samples. Dyer and Whisend (1973 obtained the BLUE of scale parameter based on type II censored samples for small N = 2(15. With the advance of computer technology it is now possible to obtain BLUE for large samples. Hirai (1978 obtained the estimate of the scale parameter from the Rayleigh distribution singly type II censored from the left side and right side and variances of the scale parameter. In this paper, we estimate the scale parameter of type II singly and doubly censored data from the Rayleigh distribution using Blom’s (1958 unbiased nearly best estimates and compare the efficiency of this estimate with BLUE and MLE.

  3. Single-field consistency relations of large scale structure part III: test of the equivalence principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Gleyzes, Jérôme; Vernizzi, Filippo [CEA, Institut de Physique Théorique, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 France (France); Hui, Lam [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027 (United States); Simonović, Marko, E-mail: creminel@ictp.it, E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr, E-mail: lhui@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it, E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10{sup −3}÷10{sup −4} on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.

  4. On the colour of wing scales in butterflies: iridescence and preferred orientation of single gyroid photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkery, Robert W; Tyrode, Eric C

    2017-08-06

    Lycaenid butterflies from the genera Callophrys , Cyanophrys and Thecla have evolved remarkable biophotonic gyroid nanostructures within their wing scales that have only recently been replicated by nanoscale additive manufacturing. These nanostructures selectively reflect parts of the visible spectrum to give their characteristic non-iridescent, matte-green appearance, despite a distinct blue-green-yellow iridescence predicted for individual crystals from theory. It has been hypothesized that the organism must achieve its uniform appearance by growing crystals with some restrictions on the possible distribution of orientations, yet preferential orientation observed in Callophrys rubi confirms that this distribution need not be uniform. By analysing scanning electron microscope and optical images of 912 crystals in three wing scales, we find no preference for their rotational alignment in the plane of the scales. However, crystal orientation normal to the scale was highly correlated to their colour at low (conical) angles of view and illumination. This correlation enabled the use of optical images, each containing up to 10 4 -10 5 crystals, for concluding the preferential alignment seen along the [Formula: see text] at the level of single scales, appears ubiquitous. By contrast, [Formula: see text] orientations were found to occur at no greater rate than that expected by chance. Above a critical cone angle, all crystals reflected bright green light indicating the dominant light scattering is due to the predicted band gap along the [Formula: see text] direction, independent of the domain orientation. Together with the natural variation in scale and wing shapes, we can readily understand the detailed mechanism of uniform colour production and iridescence suppression in these butterflies. It appears that the combination of preferential alignment normal to the wing scale, and uniform distribution within the plane is a near optimal solution for homogenizing the angular

  5. Single-user MIMO system, Painlevé transcendents, and double scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei; Chen, Min; Blower, Gordon; Chen, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we study a particular Painlevé V (denoted PV) that arises from multi-input-multi-output wireless communication systems. Such PV appears through its intimate relation with the Hankel determinant that describes the moment generating function (MGF) of the Shannon capacity. This originates through the multiplication of the Laguerre weight or the gamma density xαe-x, x > 0, for α > -1 by (1 + x/t)λ with t > 0 a scaling parameter. Here the λ parameter "generates" the Shannon capacity; see Chen, Y. and McKay, M. R. [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 58, 4594-4634 (2012)]. It was found that the MGF has an integral representation as a functional of y(t) and y'(t), where y(t) satisfies the "classical form" of PV. In this paper, we consider the situation where n, the number of transmit antennas, (or the size of the random matrix), tends to infinity and the signal-to-noise ratio, P, tends to infinity such that s = 4n2/P is finite. Under such double scaling, the MGF, effectively an infinite determinant, has an integral representation in terms of a "lesser" PIII. We also consider the situations where α =k +1 /2 ,k ∈N , and α ∈ {0, 1, 2, …}, λ ∈ {1, 2, …}, linking the relevant quantity to a solution of the two-dimensional sine-Gordon equation in radial coordinates and a certain discrete Painlevé-II. From the large n asymptotic of the orthogonal polynomials, which appears naturally, we obtain the double scaled MGF for small and large s, together with the constant term in the large s expansion. With the aid of these, we derive a number of cumulants and find that the capacity distribution function is non-Gaussian.

  6. Physical scale modeling of single free head piles under lateral loading in cohesive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Leonardo Salamanca-Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the small scale modeling of free head wood piles under horizontal loading in cohesive soils, tested in order to compare the results with analytical models proposed by various authors. Characteristic Load (CLM and P-Y Curves methods were used for the prediction of lateral deflections at the head of the piles and the method proposed by Broms for estimating the ultimate lateral load. These predictions were compared with the results of the physical modeling, obtaining a good approximation between them.

  7. Contact angle goniometry on single micron-scale fibers for composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel; Bomholt, Niels; Jeppesen, Jonas Camillus

    2017-01-01

    Probing the wetting properties of microfibers by polymer resins is of significant interest for the rational design of composite materials. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of contact angles on wetted micron scale fibers by imaging the fluid meniscus with telecentric optics at a spatial...... resolution of 4 um followed by automated image analysis. The meniscus is described as a catenary in the zero gravity approximation and by fitting this to the measured profile, the contact angle is obtained at the intersection between the fluid and the fiber surface. The method is validated by measuring...

  8. Scaling of dynamical decoupling for a single electron spin in nanodiamonds at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dong-Qi; Liu, Gang-Qin; Chang, Yan-Chun; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Overcoming the spin qubit decoherence is a challenge for quantum science and technology. We investigate the decoherence process in nanodiamonds by Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) technique at room temperature. We find that the coherence time T 2 scales as n γ . The elongation effect of coherence time can be represented by a constant power of the number of pulses n. Considering the filter function of CPMG decoupling sequence as a δ function, the spectrum density of noise has been reconstructed directly from the coherence time measurements and a Lorentzian noise power spectrum model agrees well with the experiment. These results are helpful for the application of nanodiamonds to nanoscale magnetic imaging

  9. destiny: diffusion maps for large-scale single-cell data in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Philipp; Haghverdi, Laleh; Büttner, Maren; Theis, Fabian J; Marr, Carsten; Buettner, Florian

    2016-04-15

    : Diffusion maps are a spectral method for non-linear dimension reduction and have recently been adapted for the visualization of single-cell expression data. Here we present destiny, an efficient R implementation of the diffusion map algorithm. Our package includes a single-cell specific noise model allowing for missing and censored values. In contrast to previous implementations, we further present an efficient nearest-neighbour approximation that allows for the processing of hundreds of thousands of cells and a functionality for projecting new data on existing diffusion maps. We exemplarily apply destiny to a recent time-resolved mass cytometry dataset of cellular reprogramming. destiny is an open-source R/Bioconductor package "bioconductor.org/packages/destiny" also available at www.helmholtz-muenchen.de/icb/destiny A detailed vignette describing functions and workflows is provided with the package. carsten.marr@helmholtz-muenchen.de or f.buettner@helmholtz-muenchen.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Time-scales for quenching single-bubble sonoluminescence in the presence of alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jingfeng; Matula, Thomas

    2002-11-01

    A small amount of alcohol added to water dramatically decreases the light intensity from single-bubble sonoluminescence [Weninger et al., J. Phys. Chem. 99, 14195-14197 (1995)]. From an excess accumulation at the bubble surface [Ashokkumar et al., J. Phys. Chem. 104, 8462-8465 (2000)], the molecules evaporate into the bubble interior, reducing the effective adiabatic exponent of the gas, and decreasing the bubble temperature and light output [Toegel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2509-2512 (2000)]. There is a debate as to the rate at which alcohol is injected into the bubble interior. One camp favors the notion that molecules must be repetitively injected over many acoustic cycles. Another camp favors the notion that most quenching occurs during a single collapse. An experiment has been conducted in order to resolve the debate. Quenching rates were measured by recording the instantaneous bubble response and corresponding light emission during a sudden increase in pressure. It was found that complete quenching in the presence of methanol requires over 8000 acoustic cycles, while quenching with butanol occurs in about 20 acoustic cycles. These observations are consistent with the view that quenching requires the repetitive injection of alcohol molecules over repetitive acoustic cycles.

  11. Micro-positron emission tomography for measuring sub-core scale single and multiphase transport parameters in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahasky, Christopher; Benson, Sally M.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate descriptions of heterogeneity in porous media are important for understanding and modeling single phase (e.g. contaminant transport, saltwater intrusion) and multiphase (e.g. geologic carbon storage, enhanced oil recovery) transport problems. Application of medical imaging to experimentally quantify these processes has led to significant progress in material characterization and understanding fluid transport behavior at laboratory scales. While widely utilized in cancer diagnosis and management, cardiology, and neurology, positron emission tomography (PET) has had relatively limited applications in earth science. This study utilizes a small-bore micro-PET scanner to image and quantify the transport behavior of pulses of a conservative aqueous radiotracer injected during single and multiphase flow experiments in two heterogeneous Berea sandstone cores. The cores are discretized into axial-parallel streamtubes, and using the reconstructed micro-PET data, expressions are derived from spatial moment analysis for calculating sub-core tracer flux and pore water velocity. Using the flux and velocity measurements, it is possible to calculate porosity and saturation from volumetric flux balance, and calculate permeability and water relative permeability from Darcy's law. Second spatial moment analysis enables measurement of sub-core solute dispersion during both single phase and multiphase experiments. A numerical simulation model is developed to verify the assumptions of the streamtube dimension reduction technique. A variation of the reactor ratio is presented as a diagnostic metric to efficiently determine the validity of the streamtube approximation in core and column-scale experiments. This study introduces a new method to quantify sub-core permeability, relative permeability, and dispersion. These experimental and analytical methods provide a foundation for future work on experimental measurements of differences in transport behavior across scales.

  12. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  13. Molecular Sieving Across Centimeter-Scale Single-Layer Nanoporous Graphene Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutilier, Michael S H; Jang, Doojoon; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Kidambi, Piran R; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G; Karnik, Rohit

    2017-06-27

    Molecular sieving across atomically thin nanoporous graphene is predicted to enable superior gas separation performance compared to conventional membranes. Although molecular sieving has been demonstrated across a few pores in microscale graphene membranes, leakage through nonselective defects presents a major challenge toward realizing selective membranes with high densities of pores over macroscopic areas. Guided by multiscale gas transport modeling of nanoporous graphene membranes, we designed the porous support beneath the graphene to isolate small defects and minimize leakage through larger defects. Ion bombardment followed by oxygen plasma etching was used to produce subnanometer pores in graphene at a density of ∼10 11 cm -2 . Gas permeance measurements demonstrate selectivity that exceeds the Knudsen effusion ratio and scales with the kinetic diameter of the gas molecules, providing evidence of molecular sieving across centimeter-scale nanoporous graphene. The extracted nanoporous graphene performance is comparable to or exceeds the Robeson limit for polymeric gas separation membranes, confirming the potential of nanoporous graphene membranes for gas separations.

  14. Increasing power generation for scaling up single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Shaoan

    2011-03-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires a better understanding the importance of the different factors such as electrode surface area and reactor geometry relative to solution conditions such as conductivity and substrate concentration. It is shown here that the substrate concentration has significant effect on anode but not cathode performance, while the solution conductivity has a significant effect on the cathode but not the anode. The cathode surface area is always important for increasing power. Doubling the cathode size can increase power by 62% with domestic wastewater, but doubling the anode size increases power by 12%. Volumetric power density was shown to be a linear function of cathode specific surface area (ratio of cathode surface area to reactor volume), but the impact of cathode size on power generation depended on the substrate strength (COD) and conductivity. These results demonstrate the cathode specific surface area is the most critical factor for scaling-up MFCs to obtain high power densities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Beyond single syllables: large-scale modeling of reading aloud with the Connectionist Dual Process (CDP++) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Conrad; Ziegler, Johannes C; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-09-01

    Most words in English have more than one syllable, yet the most influential computational models of reading aloud are restricted to processing monosyllabic words. Here, we present CDP++, a new version of the Connectionist Dual Process model (Perry, Ziegler, & Zorzi, 2007). CDP++ is able to simulate the reading aloud of mono- and disyllabic words and nonwords, and learns to assign stress in exactly the same way as it learns to associate graphemes with phonemes. CDP++ is able to simulate the monosyllabic benchmark effects its predecessor could, and therefore shows full backwards compatibility. CDP++ also accounts for a number of novel effects specific to disyllabic words, including the effects of stress regularity and syllable number. In terms of database performance, CDP++ accounts for over 49% of the reaction time variance on items selected from the English Lexicon Project, a very large database of several thousand of words. With its lexicon of over 32,000 words, CDP++ is therefore a notable example of the successful scaling-up of a connectionist model to a size that more realistically approximates the human lexical system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrical contacts to nanorod networks at different length scales: From macroscale ensembles to single nanorod chains

    KAUST Repository

    Lavieville, Romain

    2013-11-01

    The nature of metal-semiconductor interfaces at the nanoscale is an important issue in micro- and nanoelectronic engineering. The study of charge transport through chains of CdSe semiconductor nanorods linked by Au particles represents an ideal model system for this matter, because the metal semiconductor interface is an intrinsic feature of the nanosystem. Here we show the controlled fabrication of all-inorganic hybrid metal-semiconductor networks with different size, in which the semiconductor nanorods are linked by Au domains at their tips. We demonstrate different approaches to selectively contact the networks and single nanorod chains with planar electrodes, and we investigate their charge transport at room temperature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Document Server

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  18. Full-Scale Crash Tests and Analyses of Three High-Wing Single

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Littell, Justin D.; Stimson, Chad M.; Jackson, Karen E.; Mason, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Emergency Locator Transmitter Survivability and Reliability (ELTSAR) project was initiated in 2014 to assess the crash performance standards for the next generation of ELT systems. Three Cessna 172 aircraft have been acquired to conduct crash testing at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility. Testing is scheduled for the summer of 2015 and will simulate three crash conditions; a flare to stall while emergency landing, and two controlled flight into terrain scenarios. Instrumentation and video coverage, both onboard and external, will also provide valuable data of airframe response. Full-scale finite element analyses will be performed using two separate commercial explicit solvers. Calibration and validation of the models will be based on the airframe response under these varying crash conditions.

  19. Collapse of small-scale density perturbations during preheating in single field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedamzik, Karsten; Lemoine, Martin; Martin, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    After cosmic inflation and before the transition to radiation domination, the cosmic energy density may have been dominated during an extended period by an oscillating massive scalar condensate. We show that during this period, sub-Hubble scale perturbations are subject to a metric preheating instability in the narrow resonance regime. We analyze in detail both, quadratic and quartic potentials. The instability leads to the growth of density perturbations which in many cases become non-linear already before the beginning of a radiation dominated Universe. This is particularly the case when requiring a phenomenologically preferred low reheat temperature. These early structures may lead to the emission of gravitational waves and the production of primordial black holes

  20. Large-Scale Procurement of Radiation Resistant Single-Mode Optical Fibers for CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Guillermain, Elisa; Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Ricci, Daniel; Weinand, Udo

    2015-01-01

    2400 km of special radiation resistant optical fibres were procured by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), for the installation of more than 55 km of optical fibre cables in the accelerator complex underground during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1). In the frame of this large-scale industrial production, a thorough quality assurance plan (QAP) was put in place and followed at each step of the process. In-depth qualification of optical fibres preceded the 17-month procurement process. All supplied batches were tested for their resistance to radiation, leading to more than 65 quality control irradiation tests. During the cable assembly process and the installations works, a full traceability down to the optical fibre level was ensured. The actions put in place in the frame of the QAP led to successful installation works and to full respect of the LS1 planning.

  1. Scaling of dynamical decoupling for a single electron spin in nanodiamonds at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dong-Qi; Liu, Gang-Qin; Chang, Yan-Chun; Pan, Xin-Yu, E-mail: xypan@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2014-01-01

    Overcoming the spin qubit decoherence is a challenge for quantum science and technology. We investigate the decoherence process in nanodiamonds by Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) technique at room temperature. We find that the coherence time T{sub 2} scales as n{sup γ}. The elongation effect of coherence time can be represented by a constant power of the number of pulses n. Considering the filter function of CPMG decoupling sequence as a δ function, the spectrum density of noise has been reconstructed directly from the coherence time measurements and a Lorentzian noise power spectrum model agrees well with the experiment. These results are helpful for the application of nanodiamonds to nanoscale magnetic imaging.

  2. Similarity analysis and scaling criteria for LWRs under single-phase and two-phase natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Kataoka, I.

    1983-03-01

    Scaling criteria for a natural circulation loop under single phase and two-phase flow conditions have been derived. For a single phase case the continuity, integral momentum, and energy equations in one-dimensional area average forms have been used. From this, the geometrical similarity groups, friction number, Richardson number, characteristic time constant ratio, Biot number, and heat source number are obtained. The Biot number involves the heat transfer coefficient which may cause some difficulties in simulating the turbulent flow regime. For a two-phase flow case, the similarity groups obtained from a perturbation analysis based on the one-dimensional drift-flux model have been used. The physical significance of the phase change number, subcooling number, drift-flux number, friction number are discussed and conditions imposed by these groups are evaluated. In the two-phase flow case, the critical heat flux is one of the most important transients which should be simulated in a scale model. The above results are applied to the LOFT facility in case of a natural circulation simulation. Some preliminary conclusions on the feasibility of the facility have been obtained

  3. Similarity analysis and scaling criteria for LWRs under single-phase and two-phase natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M.; Kataoka, I.

    1983-03-01

    Scaling criteria for a natural circulation loop under single phase and two-phase flow conditions have been derived. For a single phase case the continuity, integral momentum, and energy equations in one-dimensional area average forms have been used. From this, the geometrical similarity groups, friction number, Richardson number, characteristic time constant ratio, Biot number, and heat source number are obtained. The Biot number involves the heat transfer coefficient which may cause some difficulties in simulating the turbulent flow regime. For a two-phase flow case, the similarity groups obtained from a perturbation analysis based on the one-dimensional drift-flux model have been used. The physical significance of the phase change number, subcooling number, drift-flux number, friction number are discussed and conditions imposed by these groups are evaluated. In the two-phase flow case, the critical heat flux is one of the most important transients which should be simulated in a scale model. The above results are applied to the LOFT facility in case of a natural circulation simulation. Some preliminary conclusions on the feasibility of the facility have been obtained.

  4. Estimation of high-pT Jet Energy Scale Uncertainty from single hadron response with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00534683; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The jet energy scale (JES) uncertainty is estimated using different methods at different pT ranges. In situ techniques exploiting the pT balance between a jet and a reference object (e.g. Z or gamma) are used at lower pT, but at very high pT (> 2.5 TeV) there is not enough statistics for in-situ techniques. The JES uncertainty at high-pT is important in several searches for new phenomena, e.g. the dijet resonance and angular searches. In the highest pT range, the JES uncertainty is estimated using the calorimeter response to single hadrons. In this method, jets are treated as a superposition of energy depositions of single particles. An uncertainty is applied to each energy depositions belonging to the particles within the jet, and propagated to the final jet energy scale. This poster presents the JES uncertainty found with this method at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV and its developments.

  5. Nanometer-scale discernment of field emission from tungsten surface with single carbon monoxide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Soichiro; Suwa, Yuji; Katagiri, Souichi

    2017-12-01

    Unusual quantized beam fluctuations were found in the emission current from a cold-field emitter (CFE) operating in an extremely high vacuum of 10-10 Pa. To clarify the microscopic mechanism behind these fluctuations, we developed a new calculation method to evaluate the field emission from a heterogeneous surface under a strong electric field of 4 × 109 V/m by using the local potential distribution obtained by a first-principles calculation, instead of by using the work function. As a result of the first-principles calculations of a single molecule adsorbed on a tungsten surface, we found that dissociative adsorption of a carbon monoxide (CO) molecule enhances the emission current by changing the potential barrier in the area surrounding the C and O adatoms when these two atoms are placed at their most stable positions. It is also found that the migration of the O atom from the most stable position reduces the emission current. These types of enhancement and reduction of the emission current quantitatively explain the observed quantized fluctuations of the CFE emission current.

  6. In situ probing the interior of single bacterial cells at nanometer scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyin; Hemayet Uddin, Md; Ng, Tuck Wah; Paterson, David L.; Velkov, Tony; Li, Jian; Fu, Jing

    2014-10-01

    We report a novel approach to probe the interior of single bacterial cells at nanometre resolution by combining focused ion beam (FIB) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). After removing layers of pre-defined thickness in the order of 100 nm on the target bacterial cells with FIB milling, AFM of different modes can be employed to probe the cellular interior under both ambient and aqueous environments. Our initial investigations focused on the surface topology induced by FIB milling and the hydration effects on AFM measurements, followed by assessment of the sample protocols. With fine-tuning of the process parameters, in situ AFM probing beneath the bacterial cell wall was achieved for the first time. We further demonstrate the proposed method by performing a spatial mapping of intracellular elasticity and chemistry of the multi-drug resistant strain Klebsiella pneumoniae cells prior to and after it was exposed to the ‘last-line’ antibiotic polymyxin B. Our results revealed increased stiffness occurring in both surface and interior regions of the treated cells, suggesting loss of integrity of the outer membrane from polymyxin treatments. In addition, the hydrophobicity measurement using a functionalized AFM tip was able to highlight the evident hydrophobic portion of the cell such as the regions containing cell membrane. We expect that the proposed FIB-AFM platform will help in gaining deeper insights of bacteria-drug interactions to develop potential strategies for combating multi-drug resistance.

  7. Coherent energy scale revealed by ultrafast dynamics of UX3 (X = Al, Sn, Ga) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Saritha K.; Zhu, J.-X.; Sarrao, J. L.; Taylor, A. J.; Chia, Elbert E. M.

    2012-09-01

    The temperature dependence of relaxation dynamics of UX3 (X = Al, Ga, Sn) compounds is studied using the time-resolved pump-probe technique in reflectance geometry. For UGa3, our data are consistent with the formation of a spin density wave gap as evidenced from the quasidivergence of the relaxation time τ near the Néel temperature TN. For UAl3 and USn3, the relaxation dynamics shows a change from single-exponential to two-exponential behavior below a particular temperature, suggestive of coherence formation of the 5f electrons with the conduction band electrons. This particular temperature can be attributed to the spin fluctuation temperature Tsf, a measure of the strength of Kondo coherence. Our Tsf is consistent with other data such as resistivity and susceptibility measurements. The temperature dependence of the relaxation amplitude and time of UAl3 and USn3 were also fitted by the Rothwarf-Taylor model. Our results show that ultrafast optical spectroscopy is sensitive to c-f Kondo hybridization in the f-electron systems.

  8. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, S.P., E-mail: s.p.jeffs@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Lancaster, R.J. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Garcia, T.E. [IUTA (University Institute of Industrial Technology of Asturias), University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Oeste 7.1.17, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain)

    2015-06-11

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k{sub SP} method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results.

  9. Spontaneous Neuronal Activity in Developing Neocortical Networks: From Single Cells to Large-Scale Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Sinning, Anne; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Stüttgen, Maik C; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal activity has been shown to be essential for the proper formation of neuronal circuits, affecting developmental processes like neurogenesis, migration, programmed cell death, cellular differentiation, formation of local and long-range axonal connections, synaptic plasticity or myelination. Accordingly, neocortical areas reveal distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, when immature neurons start to develop voltage-dependent channels, spontaneous activity is highly synchronized within small neuronal networks and governed by electrical synaptic transmission. Subsequently, spontaneous activity patterns become more complex, involve larger networks and propagate over several neocortical areas. The developmental shift from local to large-scale network activity is accompanied by a gradual shift from electrical to chemical synaptic transmission with an initial excitatory action of chloride-gated channels activated by GABA, glycine and taurine. Transient neuronal populations in the subplate (SP) support temporary circuits that play an important role in tuning early neocortical activity and the formation of mature neuronal networks. Thus, early spontaneous activity patterns control the formation of developing networks in sensory cortices, and disturbances of these activity patterns may lead to long-lasting neuronal deficits.

  10. Growth and characterization of indium doped silicon single crystals at industrial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haringer, Stephan; Giannattasio, Armando; Alt, Hans Christian; Scala, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Indium is becoming one of the most important dopant species for silicon crystals used in photovoltaics. In this work we have investigated the behavior of indium in silicon crystals grown by the Czochralski pulling process. The experiments were performed by growing 200 mm crystals, which is a standard diameter for large volume production, thus the data reported here are of technological interest for the large scale production of indium doped p-type silicon. The indium segregation coefficient and the evaporation rate from the silicon melt have been calculated to be 5 × 10-4 ± 3% and 1.6 × 10-4 cm·s-1, respectively. In contrast to previous works the indium was introduced in liquid phase and the efficiency was compared with that deduced by other authors, using different methods. In addition, the percentage of electrically active indium at different dopant concentrations is calculated and compared with the carrier concentration at room temperature, measured by four-point bulk method.

  11. Factor Analytic Structure of the MCMI Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choca, James; And Others

    The factor analytic studies that have been done with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI), a 175-item paper-and-pencil test designed to evaluate symptomology in psychiatric patients, have been problematic in that the test's high inter-scale correlation could lead to an artificially robust factor structure. The present investigation…

  12. Park Facilities, Boundaries were determined from parcel mapping lines & site specific items, such as shelter locations, were obtained by field GPS observation, Published in 2010, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Park Facilities dataset current as of 2010. Boundaries were determined from parcel mapping lines & site specific items, such as shelter locations, were obtained...

  13. Comparative analysis of single-step and two-step biodiesel production using supercritical methanol on laboratory-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, Radoslav D.; Tomić, Milan D.; Kiss, Ferenc E.; Martinovic, Ferenc L.; Simikić, Mirko Ð.; Molnar, Tibor T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-step supercritical transesterification compared to the two-step process. • Two-step process: oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification. • Experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. • Higher biodiesel yields in two-step process at milder reaction conditions. • Two-step process has potential to be cost-competitive with the single-step process. - Abstract: Single-step supercritical transesterification and two-step biodiesel production process consisting of oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification were studied and compared. For this purpose, comparative experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor and optimal reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio and time) were determined. Results indicate that in comparison to a single-step transesterification, methyl esterification (second step of the two-step process) produces higher biodiesel yields (95 wt% vs. 91 wt%) at lower temperatures (270 °C vs. 350 °C), pressures (8 MPa vs. 12 MPa) and methanol to oil molar ratios (1:20 vs. 1:42). This can be explained by the fact that the reaction system consisting of free fatty acid (FFA) and methanol achieves supercritical condition at milder reaction conditions. Furthermore, the dissolved FFA increases the acidity of supercritical methanol and acts as an acid catalyst that increases the reaction rate. There is a direct correlation between FFA content of the product obtained in hydrolysis and biodiesel yields in methyl esterification. Therefore, the reaction parameters of hydrolysis were optimized to yield the highest FFA content at 12 MPa, 250 °C and 1:20 oil to water molar ratio. Results of direct material and energy costs comparison suggest that the process based on the two-step reaction has the potential to be cost-competitive with the process based on single-step supercritical transesterification. Higher biodiesel yields, similar or lower energy

  14. Dysphagia is prevalent in patients with CPEO and single, large-scale deletions in mtDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Hedermann; Løkken, Nicoline; Dahlqvist, Julia R.

    2017-01-01

    Background  The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of subjective and objective dysphagia in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) due to single, large-scale deletions (LSDs) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Methods  Sixteen patients with CPEO and single LSDs...... and single LSDs of mtDNA had a prolonged cold-water test, including one with a PEG-tube, who was unable to perform the test, and nine patients reported subjective swallowing problems (56.3%). All mitochondrial myopathy patients in the control group had a normal duration of the cold-water test.  Conclusions......  The study shows that dysphagia is a common problem in patients with CPEO and LSDs of mtDNA. Dysphagia seems to be progressive with age as abnormal swallowing occurred preferentially in persons ≥ 45 years. The study shows that increased awareness of this symptom should be given to address appropriate...

  15. An alternative to the search for single polymorphisms: toward molecular personality scales for the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R; Scally, Matthew; Terracciano, Antonio; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Costa, Paul T

    2010-12-01

    There is growing evidence that personality traits are affected by many genes, all of which have very small effects. As an alternative to the largely unsuccessful search for individual polymorphisms associated with personality traits, the authors identified large sets of potentially related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and summed them to form molecular personality scales (MPSs) with from 4 to 2,497 SNPs. Scales were derived from two thirds of a large (N = 3,972) sample of individuals from Sardinia who completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa, Jr., & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and were assessed in a genomewide association scan. When MPSs were correlated with the phenotype in the remaining one third of the sample, very small but significant associations were found for 4 of the 5e personality factors when the longest scales were examined. These data suggest that MPSs for Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness (but not Extraversion) contain genetic information that can be refined in future studies, and the procedures described here should be applicable to other quantitative traits. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Design-Oriented Analysis of Slow-Scale Bifurcations in Single Phase DC-AC Inverters via Autonomous Transformation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Ding, Honghui; Yi, Chuanzhi

    2017-06-01

    This paper deals with the design-oriented analysis of slow-scale bifurcations in single phase DC-AC inverters. Since DC-AC inverter belongs to a class of nonautonomous piecewise systems with periodic equilibrium orbits, the original averaged model has to be translated into an equivalent autonomous one via a virtual rotating coordinate transformation in order to simplify the theoretical analysis. Based on the virtual equivalent model, eigenvalue sensitivity is used to estimate the effect of the important parameters on the system stability. Furthermore, theoretical analysis is performed to identify slow-scale bifurcation behaviors by judging in what way the eigenvalue loci of the Jacobian matrix move under the variation of some important parameters. In particular, the underlying mechanism of the slow-scale unstable phenomenon is uncovered and discussed thoroughly. In addition, some behavior boundaries are given in the parameter space, which are suitable for optimizing the circuit design. Finally, physical experiments are performed to verify the above theoretical results.

  17. Analysis of Item Difficulty Parameters on Item Characteristic Curves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Item Difficulty Parameters on Item Characteristic Curves as A Function of Changes in WAEC and NECO Examination Instruments and Students Ability Parameters in Mathematics Objective Test in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  18. Identification of small-scale low and high permeability layers using single well forced-gradient tracer tests: fluorescent dye imaging and modelling at the laboratory-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barns, Gareth L; Thornton, Steven F; Wilson, Ryan D

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in aquifer permeability, which creates paths of varying mass flux and spatially complex contaminant plumes, can complicate the interpretation of contaminant fate and transport in groundwater. Identifying the location of high mass flux paths is critical for the reliable estimation of solute transport parameters and design of groundwater remediation schemes. Dipole flow tracer tests (DFTTs) and push-pull tests (PPTs) are single well forced-gradient tests which have been used at field-scale to estimate aquifer hydraulic and transport properties. In this study, the potential for PPTs and DFTTs to resolve the location of layered high- and low-permeability layers in granular porous media was investigated with a pseudo 2-D bench-scale aquifer model. Finite element fate and transport modelling was also undertaken to identify appropriate set-ups for in situ tests to determine the type, magnitude, location and extent of such layered permeability contrasts at the field-scale. The characteristics of flow patterns created during experiments were evaluated using fluorescent dye imaging and compared with the breakthrough behaviour of an inorganic conservative tracer. The experimental results show that tracer breakthrough during PPTs is not sensitive to minor permeability contrasts for conditions where there is no hydraulic gradient. In contrast, DFTTs are sensitive to the type and location of permeability contrasts in the host media and could potentially be used to establish the presence and location of high or low mass flux paths. Numerical modelling shows that the tracer peak breakthrough time and concentration in a DFTT is sensitive to the magnitude of the permeability contrast (defined as the permeability of the layer over the permeability of the bulk media) between values of 0.01-20. DFTTs are shown to be more sensitive to deducing variations in the contrast, location and size of aquifer layered permeability contrasts when a shorter central packer is used

  19. Identification of small-scale low and high permeability layers using single well forced-gradient tracer tests: Fluorescent dye imaging and modelling at the laboratory-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barns, Gareth L.; Thornton, Steven F.; Wilson, Ryan D.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in aquifer permeability, which creates paths of varying mass flux and spatially complex contaminant plumes, can complicate the interpretation of contaminant fate and transport in groundwater. Identifying the location of high mass flux paths is critical for the reliable estimation of solute transport parameters and design of groundwater remediation schemes. Dipole flow tracer tests (DFTTs) and push-pull tests (PPTs) are single well forced-gradient tests which have been used at field-scale to estimate aquifer hydraulic and transport properties. In this study, the potential for PPTs and DFTTs to resolve the location of layered high- and low-permeability layers in granular porous media was investigated with a pseudo 2-D bench-scale aquifer model. Finite element fate and transport modelling was also undertaken to identify appropriate set-ups for in situ tests to determine the type, magnitude, location and extent of such layered permeability contrasts at the field-scale. The characteristics of flow patterns created during experiments were evaluated using fluorescent dye imaging and compared with the breakthrough behaviour of an inorganic conservative tracer. The experimental results show that tracer breakthrough during PPTs is not sensitive to minor permeability contrasts for conditions where there is no hydraulic gradient. In contrast, DFTTs are sensitive to the type and location of permeability contrasts in the host media and could potentially be used to establish the presence and location of high or low mass flux paths. Numerical modelling shows that the tracer peak breakthrough time and concentration in a DFTT is sensitive to the magnitude of the permeability contrast (defined as the permeability of the layer over the permeability of the bulk media) between values of 0.01-20. DFTTs are shown to be more sensitive to deducing variations in the contrast, location and size of aquifer layered permeability contrasts when a shorter central packer is used

  20. Item Response Theory with Covariates (IRT-C) : Assessing item recovery and differential item functioning for the three-parameter logistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tay, L.; Huang, Q.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale testing, the use of multigroup approaches is limited for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) across multiple variables as DIF is examined for each variable separately. In contrast, the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure can be used to examine DIF across

  1. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) for an item between two groups is present if, for the same person location on a variable, persons from different groups have different expected values for their responses. Applying only to dichotomously scored items in the popular Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method for detecting DIF in which persons are classified by…

  2. Plant water uptake at the single plant scale: experiment vs. model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deery, D. M.; Passioura, J. B.; Condon, J.; Katupitiya, A.

    2008-12-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the soil is the main resistance to the extraction of water by the plant roots, owing to a combination of low root length density (unit length of root per unit volume of soil), low soil water diffusivity at low soil water content. To test this hypothesis wheat plants were grown in undisturbed and repacked clay-loam and repacked sand. The plants were kept in a controlled environment where they were challenged with a range of evaporative demands, first rising and then falling, and the transpiration rate, E, and the null measurement of the xylem water potential, B, were measured non-destructively and continuously. The experimental measurements were compared to the output of a mathematical model that solves the radial diffusion equation for the flow of water to a single plant root, assumed to represent all roots. For the repacked clay-loam and the repacked sand, the model could match the data during the rising phase of E, if it was assumed that only 10% of the roots were taking up water and that the soil water diffusivity was constant and low. However it could not match the data during the falling phase of E, unless it was assumed that there had been a significant rise in the hydraulic resistance of the plant, or perhaps more likely, that an additional, yet constant, interfacial resistance had developed when E was high and B was rapidly increasing. That the slope of B(E) during the falling phase of E, for the repacked clay-loam and the repacked sand, was essentially constant suggests that the radial flow of water through the soil generated only minor gradients in soil suction and therefore that neither low soil water diffusivity nor low root length density was inhibiting the extraction of water from the soil by the plant roots. For the undisturbed clay-loam soil, the radial-flow model did not agree with the experimental data even when various combinations of soil water diffusivity and root length density were tried. This

  3. VALIDITY OF THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR USE IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the factorial validity of the 33-item self-rated Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS: Schutte et al., 1998 for use with athletes. In stage 1, content validity of the EIS was assessed by a panel of experts (n = 9. Items were evaluated in terms of whether they assessed EI related to oneself and EI focused on others. Content validity further examined items in terms of awareness, regulation, and utilization of emotions. Content validity results indicated items describe 6-factors: appraisal of own emotions, regulation of own emotions, utilization of own emotions, optimism, social skills, and appraisal of others emotions. Results highlighted 13-items which make no direct reference to emotional experiences, and therefore, it is questionable whether such items should be retained. Stage 2 tested two competing models: a single factor model, which is the typical way researchers use the EIS and the 5-factor model (optimism was discarded as it become a single-item scale fiolliwng stage 1 identified in stage 1. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA results on EIS data from 1,681 athletes demonstrated unacceptable fit indices for the 33-item single factor model and acceptable fit indices for the 6-factor model. Data were re-analyzed after removing the 13-items lacking emotional content, and CFA results indicate partial support for single factor model, and further support for a five-factor model (optimism was discarded as a factor during item removal. Despite encouraging results for a reduced item version of the EIS, we suggest further validation work is needed

  4. Shock-induced plasticity in tantalum single crystals: Interatomic potentials and large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo, R.; Germann, T. C.; Guerrero, O.; An, Q.; Holian, B. L.

    2013-10-01

    We report on large-scale nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of shock wave compression in tantalum single crystals. Two new embedded atom method interatomic potentials of Ta have been developed and optimized by fitting to experimental and density functional theory data. The potentials reproduce the isothermal equation of state of Ta up to 300 GPa. We examined the nature of the plastic deformation and elastic limits as functions of crystal orientation. Shock waves along (100), (110), and (111) exhibit elastic-plastic two-wave structures. Plastic deformation in shock compression along (110) is due primarily to the formation of twins that nucleate at the shock front. The strain-rate dependence of the flow stress is found to be orientation dependent, with (110) shocks exhibiting the weaker dependence. Premelting at a temperature much below that of thermodynamic melting at the shock front is observed in all three directions for shock pressures above about 180 GPa.

  5. Mixed-scale channel networks including Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnels for efficient single particle entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjeong; Lim, Yeongjin; Shin, Heungjoo

    2016-06-01

    Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic carbon mold is fabricated by pyrolyzing a polymer mold patterned by photolithography. During pyrolysis, the polymer mold shrinks by ~90%, which enables nanosized carbon molds to be produced without a complex nanofabrication process. Because of the good adhesion between the polymer mold and the Si substrate, non-uniform volume reduction occurs during pyrolysis resulting in the formation of curved carbon mold side walls. These curved side walls and the relatively low surface energy of the mold provide efficient demolding of the PDMS channel networks. In addition, the trigonal prismatic shape of the polymer is converted into to a Kingfisher-beak-shaped carbon structure due to the non-uniform volume reduction. The transformation of this mold architecture produces a PDMS Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnel that connects the microchannel and the nanochannel smoothly. The smooth reduction in the cross-sectional area of the 3D microfunnels enables efficient single microparticle trapping at the nanochannel entrance; this is beneficial for studies of cell transfection.Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic

  6. Sputtering an exterior metal coating on copper enclosure for large-scale growth of single-crystalline graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Birong; Caridad, José M; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf

    2017-01-01

    We show the suppression of nucleation density in chemical vapor deposited graphene through the use of a sputtered metal coating on the exterior of a copper catalyst enclosure, resulting in the growth of sub-centimeter scale single crystal graphene domains and complete elimination of multilayer...... growth. The sputtered coating suppresses nucleation density by acting as both a diffusion barrier and as a sink for excess carbon during the growth, reducing the carbon concentration in the interior of the enclosure. Field effect mobility of hBN-templated devices fabricated from graphene domains grown...... in this way show room temperature carrier mobilities of 12 000 cm2 V−1 s−1 and an absence of weak localization at low temperature. These results indicate a very low concentration of line and point defects in the grown films, which is further supported by Raman and transmission electron microscopic...

  7. Re-evaluation of the definition of remission on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale based on recovery in health-related quality of life in an observational post-marketing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Jitsuki; Ishigooka, Jun; Nishimura, Katsuji

    2018-01-16

    Although a score of less than 7 for the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) has been widely adopted to define remission of depression, a full recovery from depression is closely related to the patient's quality of life as well. Accordingly, we re-evaluated this definition of remission using HAM-D17 in comparison with the corresponding score for health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measured by the SF-36. Using the data for depressive patients reported by GlaxoSmithKline K.K. (Study No. BRL29060A/863) in a post-marketing observational study of paroxetine, with a sample size of n = 722, multivariate logistic regression was performed with the HAM-D17 score as a dependent variable and with each of the eight domain scores of HRQOL (from the SF-36) transformed into a binominal form according to the national standard value for Japan. Then, area under curve of receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted. Based on the obtained results, a multivariate analysis was performed using the HAM-D17 score in a binomial form with HAM-D17 as a dependent variable and with each of the eight HRQOL domain scores (SF-36) as binominalized independent variables. A cutoff value for the HAM-D17 score of 5 provided the maximum ROC-AUC at "0.864." The significantly associated scores of the eight HRQOL domains (SF-36) were identified for the HAM-D17 cutoff values of ≥5 and ≤4. The scores for physical functioning (odds ratio, 0.473), bodily pain (0.557), vitality (0.379), social functioning (0.540), role-emotion (0.265), and mental health (0.467) had a significant negative association with the HAM-D17 score (p < 0.05), and HRQOL domain scores for HAM-D17 ≥ 5 were significantly lower compared with those for HAM-D17 ≤ 4. A cutoff value for HAM-D17 of less than or equal to 4 was the best candidate for indicating remission of depression when the recovery of HRQOL is considered. Restoration of social function and performance should be considered

  8. Max-Min SINR in Large-Scale Single-Cell MU-MIMO: Asymptotic Analysis and Low Complexity Transceivers

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2016-12-28

    This work focuses on the downlink and uplink of large-scale single-cell MU-MIMO systems in which the base station (BS) endowed with M antennas communicates with K single-antenna user equipments (UEs). Particularly, we aim at reducing the complexity of the linear precoder and receiver that maximize the minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio subject to a given power constraint. To this end, we consider the asymptotic regime in which M and K grow large with a given ratio. Tools from random matrix theory (RMT) are then used to compute, in closed form, accurate approximations for the parameters of the optimal precoder and receiver, when imperfect channel state information (modeled by the generic Gauss-Markov formulation form) is available at the BS. The asymptotic analysis allows us to derive the asymptotically optimal linear precoder and receiver that are characterized by a lower complexity (due to the dependence on the large scale components of the channel) and, possibly, by a better resilience to imperfect channel state information. However, the implementation of both is still challenging as it requires fast inversions of large matrices in every coherence period. To overcome this issue, we apply the truncated polynomial expansion (TPE) technique to the precoding and receiving vector of each UE and make use of RMT to determine the optimal weighting coefficients on a per- UE basis that asymptotically solve the max-min SINR problem. Numerical results are used to validate the asymptotic analysis in the finite system regime and to show that the proposed TPE transceivers efficiently mimic the optimal ones, while requiring much lower computational complexity.

  9. Assessment of low-scaling approximations to the equation of motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goings, Joshua J; Caricato, Marco; Frisch, Michael J; Li, Xiaosong

    2014-10-28

    Methods for fast and reliable computation of electronic excitation energies are in short supply, and little is known about their systematic performance. This work reports a comparison of several low-scaling approximations to the equation of motion coupled cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) and linear-response coupled cluster singles and doubles (LR-CCSD) equations with other single reference methods for computing the vertical electronic transition energies of 11 small organic molecules. The methods, including second order equation-of-motion many-body perturbation theory (EOM-MBPT2) and its partitioned variant, are compared to several valence and Rydberg singlet states. We find that the EOM-MBPT2 method was rarely more than a tenth of an eV from EOM-CCSD calculated energies, yet demonstrates a performance gain of nearly 30%. The partitioned equation-of-motion approach, P-EOM-MBPT2, which is an order of magnitude faster than EOM-CCSD, outperforms the CIS(D) and CC2 in the description of Rydberg states. CC2, on the other hand, excels at describing valence states where P-EOM-MBPT2 does not. The difference between the CC2 and P-EOM-MBPT2 can ultimately be traced back to how each method approximates EOM-CCSD and LR-CCSD. The results suggest that CC2 and P-EOM-MBPT2 are complementary: CC2 is best suited for the description of valence states while P-EOM-MBPT2 proves to be a superior O(N(5)) method for the description of Rydberg states.

  10. Atomic mechanism for the growth of wafer-scale single-crystal graphene: theoretical perspective and scanning tunneling microscopy investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Tianchao; Zhang, Jialin; Chen, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most promising approach for producing low-cost, high-quality, and large area graphene. Revealing the graphene growth mechanism at the atomic-scale is of great importance for realizing single crystal graphene (SCG) over wafer scale. Density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations are playing an increasingly important role in revealing the structure of the most stable carbon species, understanding the evolution processes, and disclosing the active sites. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is a powerful surface characterization tool to illustrate the real space distribution and atomic structures of growth intermediates during the CVD process. Combining them together can provide valuable information to improve the atomically controlled growth of SCG. Starting from a basic concept of the substrate effect on realizing SCG, this review covers the progress made in theoretical investigations on various carbon species during graphene growth on different transition metal substrates, in the STM study of the structural intermediates on transition metal surfaces, and in synthesizing graphene nanoribbons with atomic-precise width and edge structure, ending with a perspective on the future development of 2D materials beyond graphene.

  11. On the Influence of the Extrinsic Information Scaling Coefficient on the Performance of Single and Double Binary Turbo Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALTA, H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the influence of the extrinsic information scaling coefficient value (eic on the bit and frame error rate (BER/FER, for single and double binary turbo codes (S/DBTC decoded with maximum a posteriori (MAP and maximum logarithmic MAP (MaxLogMAP component algorithms. Firstly, we estimate the distance spectrum of the code with the so-called error impulse method (EIM, and we analyze its dependence as well as the dependence of the asymptotic FER on eic. Secondly, we estimate the actual FER using Monte Carlo simulations with eic as a parameter. The comparison of the FER(eic curves obtained by the two methods allows us, on the one hand, to assess the quality of the decoding algorithms, and on the other hand, to estimate the very low BER/FER performance of TCs, where the Monte Carlo method is practically unusable. The results presented also provide a practical guide for the appreciation of the optimal value of the scaling factor, eic. We may notice that also the MAP algorithm performance could be improved using eic<1.

  12. A Online NIR Sensor for the Pilot-Scale Extraction Process in Fructus Aurantii Coupled with Single and Ensemble Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Model performance of the partial least squares method (PLS alone and bagging-PLS was investigated in online near-infrared (NIR sensor monitoring of pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used as a reference method to identify the active pharmaceutical ingredients: naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. Several preprocessing methods and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS and moving window partial least squares (MWPLS variable selection methods were compared. Single quantification models (PLS and ensemble methods combined with partial least squares (bagging-PLS were developed for quantitative analysis of naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. SiPLS was compared to SiPLS combined with bagging-PLS. Final results showed the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of bagging-PLS to be lower than that of PLS regression alone. For this reason, an ensemble method of online NIR sensor is here proposed as a means of monitoring the pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii, which may also constitute a suitable strategy for online NIR monitoring of CHM.

  13. Quantification of a single score (1+) in the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), a clinical assessment of spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldt, Jourdan K; Lazzaro, Emily C; Roth, Elliot J; Suresh, Nina L

    2016-08-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is an assessment that is often used by clinicians to grade spasticity in the affected limbs of stroke survivors. The MAS is a function of the angle at which the clinician perceives a resistance to stretch and/or a `catch' during a passive joint rotation. The qualitative nature of the assessment in combination with the low resolution of the scale could result in varied grouping of spastic patients, even for a single score. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a method for the quantification of the MAS, which could provide greater resolution and could eventually guide better informed therapeutic interventions. The MAS assessment at the elbow joint for four stroke survivors with the same clinical MAS score of 1+ was performed by a clinician and quantified using signals from surface electromyography (EMG) and an electrogoniometer. The subjects were tested on both the affected and contralateral upper limbs. The findings from this study show a varied set of signal outputs across four stroke survivors, all graded at 1+. The quantification provides insight as to the mechanisms underlying the passive resistance.

  14. The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II): a nonparametric item response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Juan V; Ayuso-Mateos, José L; Aguado, Jaume; Fernandez, Ana; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Roca, Miquel; Haro, Josep M

    2010-05-20

    Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF) in men and women. The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing) implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves) and their options (option characteristic curves) in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.

  15. The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II: a nonparametric item response analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Ana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF in men and women. Methods The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves and their options (option characteristic curves in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Results Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. Conclusions All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.

  16. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  17. A road map for the realization of global-scale thorium breeding fuel cycle by single molten-fluoride flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.; Arakawa, K.; Erbay, L. B.

    2007-01-01

    composed of a simple single-phase molten-fluoride, which is used for all purposes of THORIMS-NES including the transmutation of waste nuclei as a most suitable working medium. This Th-U fuel cycle has significant advantages in negligible production of Trans-uranium elements, nuclear proliferation resistance, economy, etc., and in a high potential for producing hydrogen-fuel by easier high-temperature heat production in future. For its realization we have to develop the following steps successively: (A) Mini FUJI (7-10 MWe): laying foundation for the basic MSR technology and specialists, reconfirming/improving the ORNL-MSR-Program results, the successful 4 years operation experience of MSRE (Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment); (B) FUJI-Pu (100-300 MWe) : incinerating initial plutonium containing MS-fuel prepared easily by dry processing (simplified FREGATE project without solid-fuel reproduction) from spent solid fuels of existing nuclear power stations, and producing U 2 33. It means smooth/gradual shifting from present U-Pu cycle era; (C) AMSB: producing U 2 33 depending on the matured MSR technology 20-30 years later. (D) THORIMS-NES: globally deploying the regional centers. Now the real Th-U Breeding Fuel-cycle would be implemented for global survival in the issues of not only energy, environment and poverty but also the perfect elimination of the wars through the extinction of nuclear weapons by nuclear burnup of nuclear weapon materials, for which purpose the Th-U cycle has a significant advantage over the U-Pu cycle. In this study all items mentioned are explained, evaluated and discussed thoroughly for the sake of global survival

  18. Sources of interference in item and associative recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osth, Adam F; Dennis, Simon

    2015-04-01

    A powerful theoretical framework for exploring recognition memory is the global matching framework, in which a cue's memory strength reflects the similarity of the retrieval cues being matched against the contents of memory simultaneously. Contributions at retrieval can be categorized as matches and mismatches to the item and context cues, including the self match (match on item and context), item noise (match on context, mismatch on item), context noise (match on item, mismatch on context), and background noise (mismatch on item and context). We present a model that directly parameterizes the matches and mismatches to the item and context cues, which enables estimation of the magnitude of each interference contribution (item noise, context noise, and background noise). The model was fit within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 10 recognition memory datasets that use manipulations of strength, list length, list strength, word frequency, study-test delay, and stimulus class in item and associative recognition. Estimates of the model parameters revealed at most a small contribution of item noise that varies by stimulus class, with virtually no item noise for single words and scenes. Despite the unpopularity of background noise in recognition memory models, background noise estimates dominated at retrieval across nearly all stimulus classes with the exception of high frequency words, which exhibited equivalent levels of context noise and background noise. These parameter estimates suggest that the majority of interference in recognition memory stems from experiences acquired before the learning episode. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Imaging Live Cells at the Nanometer-Scale with Single-Molecule Microscopy: Obstacles and Achievements in Experiment Optimization for Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Beth L.; Matson, Jyl S.; DiRita, Victor J.; Biteen, Julie S.

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy enables biological investigations inside living cells to achieve millisecond- and nanometer-scale resolution. Although single-molecule-based methods are becoming increasingly accessible to non-experts, optimizing new single-molecule experiments can be challenging, in particular when super-resolution imaging and tracking are applied to live cells. In this review, we summarize common obstacles to live-cell single-molecule microscopy and describe the methods we have developed and applied to overcome these challenges in live bacteria. We examine the choice of fluorophore and labeling scheme, approaches to achieving single-molecule levels of fluorescence, considerations for maintaining cell viability, and strategies for detecting single-molecule signals in the presence of noise and sample drift. We also discuss methods for analyzing single-molecule trajectories and the challenges presented by the finite size of a bacterial cell and the curvature of the bacterial membrane. PMID:25123183

  20. Optimizing incomplete sample designs for item response model parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    Several models for optimizing incomplete sample designs with respect to information on the item parameters are presented. The following cases are considered: (1) known ability parameters; (2) unknown ability parameters; (3) item sets with multiple ability scales; and (4) response models with

  1. Item response theory at subject- and group-level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, Hilde

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California

  2. Advancing Accounting Research of Teaching Efficacy: Developing a Scale to Measure Student Attitudes toward Active Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Laurie; Zascavage, Victoria; Matherly, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Literature consistently documents a positive, direct effect of students' attitudes on learning (Lizzio, Wilson, & Simons, 2002). Hence, accounting studies describing active learning activities often report student attitudes as evidence of efficacy (e.g., Matherly & Burney, 2013), but rely on single-item instead of multi-item scales. This…

  3. Subjective Happiness of Lebanese College Youth in Lebanon: Factorial Structure and Invariance of the Arabic Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghnie, Lamia; Kazarian, Shahe S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the subjective happiness of Lebanese college youth using a multi-item rather than a single-item subjective happiness measure. An Arabic translation of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) was administered to 273 Lebanese college youth from state- and private-run higher institutions of learning, as was the Arabic Adult…

  4. Direct momentum-resolved observation of one-dimensional confinement of externally doped electrons within a single subnanometer-scale wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inkyung; Oh, Dong-Hwa; Shin, Ha-Chul; Ahn, Sung-Joon; Moon, Youngkwon; Woo, Sun-Hee; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Park, Chong-Yun; Ahn, Joung Real

    2015-01-14

    Cutting-edge research in the band engineering of nanowires at the ultimate fine scale is related to the minimum scale of nanowire-based devices. The fundamental issue at the subnanometer scale is whether angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) can be used to directly measure the momentum-resolved electronic structure of a single wire because of the difficulty associated with assembling single wire into an ordered array for such measurements. Here, we demonstrated that the one-dimensional (1D) confinement of electrons, which are transferred from external dopants, within a single subnanometer-scale wire (subnanowire) could be directly measured using ARPES. Convincing evidence of 1D electron confinement was obtained using two different gold subnanowires with characteristic single metallic bands that were alternately and spontaneously ordered on a stepped silicon template, Si(553). Noble metal atoms were adsorbed at room temperature onto the gold subnanowires while the overall structure of the wires was maintained. Only one type of gold subnanowire could be controlled using external noble metal dopants without transforming the metallic band of the other type of gold subnanowires. This result was confirmed by scanning tunnelling microscopy experiments and first-principles calculations. The selective control clearly showed that externally doped electrons could be confined within a single gold subnanowire. This experimental evidence was used to further investigate the effects of the disorder induced by external dopants on a single subnanowire using ARPES.

  5. Multi-scale Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) nest/roost habitat selection in Arizona and a comparison with single-scale modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad C. Timm; Kevin McGarigal; Samuel A. Cushman; Joseph L. Ganey

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy of future habitat selection studies will benefit by taking a multi-scale approach. In addition to potentially providing increased explanatory power and predictive capacity, multi-scale habitat models enhance our understanding of the scales at which species respond to their environment, which is critical knowledge required to implement effective...

  6. Laryngopharyngeal reflux: a prospective analysis of a 34 item symptom questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, L; Leslie, P; Gray, J; Chadwick, T; Hudson, M; Wilson, J A

    2009-10-01

    Laryngopharyngeal reflux is increasingly diagnosed, but both its symptoms and relationship to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease remain confused. (i) To assess symptoms in potential laryngopharyngeal reflux patients according to a comprehensive symptom list based on both a gastro-oesophageal reflux questionnaire and a laryngopharyngeal reflux questionnaire. (ii) To assess whether there are statistically discrete symptom clusters which might map to specific syndromes e.g. globus pharynges. Prospective single cohort questionnaire survey. A 34-item questionnaire comprising all symptoms identifiable on (i) the original 25-item Gastroesophageal Symptom Assessment Scale (GSAS) and (ii) the nine Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) items, 'unbundled' as necessary, were administered to 62 ENT clinic attenders. Descriptive, correlation and cluster analysis was performed. All but two of the combined 34-symptom list were endorsed by at least 20% of 62 patients. Certain symptoms which the Reflux Symptom Index groups as a single item were only weakly correlated. No specific symptom clusters were identified. Neither the most popular 'lower' oesophageal (GSAS) nor the 'throat' reflux (RSI) questionnaire adequately captures the full range of potential reflux symptoms regularly encountered in otolaryngology patients: inadequate evaluation of patients' symptoms may have contributed to the ongoing uncertainty about the role of acid or pepsin suppression. A more comprehensive reflux questionnaire is needed to characterise the true reflux correlations of laryngopharyngeal symptoms, and offer a symptom-specific measure of response to placebo and anti-reflux therapy.

  7. Comparison of children versus adults undergoing mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy: large-scale analysis of a single institution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Zeng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As almost any version of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL was safely and efficiently applied for adults as well as children without age being a limiting risk factor, the aim of the study was to compare the different characteristics as well as the efficacy, outcome, and safety of the pediatric and adult patients who had undergone mini-PCNL (MPCNL in a single institution. METHODS: We retrospective reviewed 331 renal units in children and 8537 renal units in adults that had undergone MPCNL for upper urinary tract stones between the years of 2000-2012. The safety, efficacy, and outcome were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: The children had a smaller stone size (2.3 vs. 3.1 cm but had smilar stone distribution (number and locations. The children required fewer percutaneous accesses, smaller nephrostomy tract, shorter operative time and less hemoglobin drop. The children also had higher initial stone free rate (SFR (80.4% vs. 78.6% after single session of MPCNL (p0.05. Both groups had low rate of high grade Clavien complications. There was no grade III, IV, V complications and no angiographic embolization required in pediatric group. One important caveat, children who required multiple percutaneous nephrostomy tracts had significant higher transfusion rate than in adults (18.8% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: This contemporary largest-scale analysis confirms that the stone-free rate in pediatric patients is at least as good as in adults without an increase of complication rates. However, multiple percutaneous nephrostomy tracts should be practiced with caution in children.

  8. Linking Item Response Model Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J; Barrett, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of test equating scores on different test forms. This paper argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require any test score equating. Instead, it involves the necessity of parameter linking due to a fundamental problem inherent in the formal nature of these models-their general lack of identifiability. More specifically, item response model parameters need to be linked to adjust for the different effects of the identifiability restrictions used in separate item calibrations. Our main theorems characterize the formal nature of these linking functions for monotone, continuous response models, derive their specific shapes for different parameterizations of the 3PL model, and show how to identify them from the parameter values of the common items or persons in different linking designs.

  9. Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyo Sukoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N, which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the number of batch should be in integer value, the allocation of items to resulting batch need binary values, and also there are some non-linearity on objective function and constraint due to the dependent processing time. By applying relaxation on the decision variable of number of batch (N as parameter, a heuristic procedure could be applied to find solution of the single machine batch scheduling problem for multi items.

  10. An emotional functioning item bank of 24 items for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) was established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa.; Gamper, Eva-Maria; Costantini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    that 24 items could be included in a unidimensional IRT model. DIF did not seem to have any significant impact on the estimation of EF. Evaluations indicated that the CAT measure may reduce sample size requirements by up to 50% compared to the QLQ-C30 EF scale without reducing power. CONCLUSION...

  11. Dissociating the neural correlates of intra-item and inter-item working-memory binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carinne Piekema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integration of information streams into a unitary representation is an important task of our cognitive system. Within working memory, the medial temporal lobe (MTL has been conceptually linked to the maintenance of bound representations. In a previous fMRI study, we have shown that the MTL is indeed more active during working-memory maintenance of spatial associations as compared to non-spatial associations or single items. There are two explanations for this result, the mere presence of the spatial component activates the MTL, or the MTL is recruited to bind associations between neurally non-overlapping representations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current fMRI study investigates this issue further by directly comparing intrinsic intra-item binding (object/colour, extrinsic intra-item binding (object/location, and inter-item binding (object/object. The three binding conditions resulted in differential activation of brain regions. Specifically, we show that the MTL is important for establishing extrinsic intra-item associations and inter-item associations, in line with the notion that binding of information processed in different brain regions depends on the MTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that different forms of working-memory binding rely on specific neural structures. In addition, these results extend previous reports indicating that the MTL is implicated in working-memory maintenance, challenging the classic distinction between short-term and long-term memory systems.

  12. Comparison of CAT Item Selection Criteria for Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung W.; Swartz, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Item selection is a core component in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Several studies have evaluated new and classical selection methods; however, the few that have applied such methods to the use of polytomous items have reported conflicting results. To clarify these discrepancies and further investigate selection method properties, six…

  13. Item Response Data Analysis Using Stata Item Response Theory Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Zheng, Xiaying

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and review the capability and performance of the Stata item response theory (IRT) package that is available from Stata v.14, 2015. Using a simulated data set and a publicly available item response data set extracted from Programme of International Student Assessment, we review the IRT package from…

  14. Modifying measures based on differential item functioning (DIF) impact analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ramirez, Mildred; Jones, Richard N; Choi, Seung; Crane, Paul K

    2012-09-01

    Measure modification can impact comparability of scores across groups and settings. Changes in items can affect the percent admitting to a symptom. Using item response theory (IRT) methods, well-calibrated items can be used interchangeably, and the exact same item does not have to be administered to each respondent, theoretically permitting wider latitude in terms of modification. Recommendations regarding modifications vary, depending on the use of the measure. In the context of research, adjustments can be made at the analytic level by freeing and fixing parameters based on findings of differential item functioning (DIF). The consequences of DIF for clinical decision making depend on whether or not the patient's performance level approaches the scale decision cutpoint. High-stakes testing may require item removal or separate calibrations to ensure accurate assessment. Guidelines for modification based on DIF analyses and illustrations of the impact of adjustments are presented.

  15. Development and preliminary validation of an ageism scale for dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Ryan; Barlow, Patrick B; Hartshorn, Jennifer; Kaufman, Laura; Smith, Becky; Kossioni, Anastassia; Marchini, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary validation of a novel scale assessing ageism attitudes among dental students. A 27-question scale was created based on existing ageism scales. The new ageism scale was applied to 144 dental students. Content validity was achieved by experts' consensus. Questions whose deletion increased the overall α, loading ageism scale included four items in a single factor that explained 58.5% of the overall variance with substantially higher reliability than other factors. The Cronbach's α for this single four-items factor was 0.75. This preliminary analysis of a novel ageism scale for dental professionals pointed to four items achieving high reliability, providing guidance for a future definitive validation study with a larger sample. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A Rasch rating scale modeling of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence scale in a sample of international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hong; Wang, Chuang; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale in a sample of international students studying in the U.S. universities using Rasch analysis. The results indicated that the original five-category rating structure may not function effectively for the international student sample. The results also revealed that although most of the items in the SSREI scale contributed to a single underlying construct, reverse-keyed items appeared to be problematic. Examination of the person-item map suggested that the items may be inappropriately targeted for this sample. In sum, the original version of the SSREI scale needs further improvement to adequately measure emotional intelligence.

  17. Nonparametric Estimation of Item and Respondent Locations from Unfolding-type Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S

    2006-06-01

    Unlike their monotone counterparts, nonparametric unfolding response models, which assume the item response function is unimodal, have seen little attention in the psychometric literature. This paper studies the nonparametric behavior of unfolding models by building on the work of Post (1992). The paper provides rigorous justification for a class of nonparametric estimators of respondents' latent attitudes by proving that the estimators consistently rank order the respondents. The paper also suggests an algorithm for the rank ordering of items along the attitudes scale. Finally, the methods are evaluated using simulated data.

  18. Mokken scaling analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Theodore D; Doyle, Frank; Watson, Roger; Ward, Mark; McGee, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a prolifically used scale of anxiety and depression. The original bidimensional anxiety-depression latent structure of the HADS has come under significant scrutiny, with previous studies revealing one-, two-, three- and four-dimensional structures. The current study examines the latent structure of the HADS using a non-parametric item response theory method. Using data conglomerated from four independent studies of cardiovascular disease employing the HADS (n=893), Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of the HADS. A single scale consisting of 12 of 14 HADS items was revealed, indicating a unidimensional latent HADS structure. The HADS was initially intended to measure mutually exclusive levels of anxiety and depression; however, the current study indicates that a single dimension of general psychological distress is captured. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a Scale to Assess Physician Advance Care Planning Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Kristin R; Ludwick, Ruth; Fischbein, Rebecca; McCormick, Kenelm; Meeker, James; Hewit, Mike; Drost, Jennifer; Kropp, Denise

    2017-06-01

    Although patients prefer that physicians initiate advance care planning (ACP) conversations, few physicians regularly do so. Physicians may be reluctant to initiate ACP conversations because they lack self-efficacy in their skills. Yet, no validated scale on self-efficacy for ACP exists. Our objective was to develop a scale that measures physicians' ACP self-efficacy (ACP-SE) and to investigate the validity of the tool. Electronic questionnaires were administered to a random sample of family medicine physicians (n = 188). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the scale was multidimensional. An initial assessment of the scale's validity was also conducted. The exploratory factor analysis indicated that a single factor was appropriate using all 17 items. A single, unidimensional scale was created by averaging the 17 items, yielding good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.95). The average scale score was 3.94 (standard deviation = 0.71) on a scale from 1 to 5. The scale was moderately correlated with a global single-item measure of self-efficacy for ACP ( r = .79, P < .001), and the scale differentiated between physician groups based on how much ACP they were doing, how recently they had an ACP conversation, formal training on ACP, and knowledge of ACP. In a multivariate analysis, the ACP-SE scale was a strong predictor of the percentage of patients with chronic life-limiting diseases with whom the physician discussed ACP. The final ACP-SE scale included 17 items and demonstrated high internal consistency.

  20. Large-scale single incised valley from a small catchment basin on the western Adriatic margin (central Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Vittorio; Trincardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The Manfredonia Incised Valley (MIV) is a huge erosional feature buried below the Apulian shelf, on the western side of the Adriatic margin. The incision extends more than 60 km eastward, from the Tavoliere Plain to the outer shelf, not reaching the shelf edge. High-resolution chirp sonar profiles allow reconstruction of the morphology of the incision and its correlation at regional scale. The MIV records a single episode of incision, induced by the last glacial-interglacial sea level fall that forced the rivers draining the Tavoliere Plain to advance basinward, reaching their maximum extent at the peak of the Last Glacial Maximum. The valley was filled during a relatively short interval of about 10,000 yr during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene sea level rise and almost leveled-off at the time of maximum marine ingression, possibly recording the short-term climatic fluctuations that occurred. The accommodation space generated by the lowstand incision was exploited during the following interval of sea level rise by very high rates of sediment supply that allowed the preservation of up to 45 m of valley fill. High-resolution chirp sonar profiles highlight stratal geometries that are consistent with a typical transgressive valley fill of an estuary environment, including bay-head deltas, central basin and distal barrier-island deposits, organized in a backstepping configuration. The highest complexity of the valley fill is reached in the shallowest and most proximal area, where a kilometric prograding wedge formed during a period dominated by riverine input, possibly connected to high precipitation rates. Based on the depth of the valley margins during this interval, the fill was likely isochronous with the formation of sapropel S1 in the Mediterranean region and may have recorded significant fluctuations within the hydrological cycle.

  1. Computerized adaptive testing with item clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the cost of item writing and to enhance the flexibility of item presentation, items can be generated by item-cloning techniques. An important consequence of cloning is that it may cause variability on the item parameters. Therefore, a multilevel item response model is presented in which it

  2. Computerized adaptive testing with item cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    2003-01-01

    To increase the number of items available for adaptive testing and reduce the cost of item writing, the use of techniques of item cloning has been proposed. An important consequence of item cloning is possible variability between the item parameters. To deal with this variability, a multilevel item

  3. Solution to the influence of the MSSW propagating velocity on the bandwidths of the single-scale wavelet-transform processor using MSSW device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenke; Zhu, Changchun; Kuang, Lun; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Jingduan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the possibility of solving the influence of the magnetostatic surface wave (MSSW) propagating velocity on the bandwidths of the single-scale wavelet transform processor using MSSW device. The motivation for this work was prompted by the processor that -3dB bandwidth varies as the propagating velocity of MSSW changes. In this paper, we present the influence of the magnetostatic surface wave (MSSW) propagating velocity on the bandwidths as the key problem of the single-scale wavelet transform processor using MSSW device. The solution to the problem is achieved in this study. we derived the function between the propagating velocity of MSSW and the -3dB bandwidth, so we know from the function that -3dB bandwidth of the single-scale wavelet transform processor using MSSW device varies as the propagating velocity of MSSW changes. Through adjusting the distance and orientation of the permanent magnet, we can implement the control of the MSSW propagating velocity, so that the influence of the MSSW propagating velocity on the bandwidths of the single-scale wavelet transform processor using MSSW device is solved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Streambank erosion rates and loads within a single watershed: Bridging the gap between temporal and spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of streambank erosion to watershed-scale sediment export is being increasingly recognized. However few studies have quantified bank erosion and watershed sediment flux at the basin scale across temporal and spatial scales. In this study we evaluated the spatial distribution, extent, a...

  5. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Soo Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1 fairness and validity, 2 impact on passing levels, and 3 utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.

  6. Child Development Program Evaluation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard J.

    The Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES) is actually two scales in one, a licensing scale and a quality scale. Licensing predictor items have been found to predict overall compliance of child day care centers with state regulations in four states. Quality scale items have been found to predict the overall quality of child day care…

  7. Gender-, age- and race/ethnicity-based Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis of MDS-UPDRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Wang, Lu; Tilley, Barbara C.; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Merkitch, Douglas; Luo, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Assess MDS-UPDRS items for gender-, age-, and race/ethnicity-based Differential Item Functioning. Background Assessing Differential Item Functioning is a core rating scale validation step. For the MDS-UPDRS, Differential Item Functioning occurs if item-score probability among people with similar levels of parkinsonism differ according to selected covariates (gender, age, race/ethnicity). If the magnitude of Differential Item Functioning is clinically relevant, item-score interpretation must consider influences by these covariates. Differential Item Functioning can be Non-uniform (covariate variably influences an item-score across different levels of parkinsonism) or Uniform (covariate influences an item-score consistently over all levels of parkinsonism. Methods Using the MDS-UPDRS translation database of over 5,000 PD patients from fourteen languages, we tested gender-, age-, and race/ethnicity-based Differential Item Functioning. To designate an item as having clinically relevant Differential Item Functioning, we required statistical confirmation by two independent methods, along with a McFadden pseudo-R2 magnitude statistic greater than “negligible.” Results Most items showed no gender-, age- or race/ethnicity-based Differential Item Functioning. When Differential Item Functioning was identified, the magnitude statistic was always in the “negligible” range, and the scale level impact was minimal. Conclusions The absence of clinically relevant Differential Item Functioning across all items and all Parts of MDS-UPDRS is strong evidence that the scale can be used confidently. As studies of Parkinson's disease increasingly involve multinational efforts and the MDS-UPDRS has several validated non-English translations, the findings support the scale's broad applicability in populations with varying gender, age, and race/ethnicity distributions. PMID:27943473

  8. Item Screening in Graphical Loglinear Rasch Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Svend; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    In behavioural sciences, local dependence and DIF are common, and purification procedures that eliminate items with these weaknesses often result in short scales with poor reliability. Graphical loglinear Rasch models (Kreiner & Christensen, in Statistical Methods for Quality of Life Studies, ed....... by M. Mesbah, F.C. Cole & M.T. Lee, Kluwer Academic, pp. 187–203, 2002) where uniform DIF and uniform local dependence are permitted solve this dilemma by modelling the local dependence and DIF. Identifying loglinear Rasch models by a stepwise model search is often very time consuming, since...... the initial item analysis may disclose a great deal of spurious and misleading evidence of DIF and local dependence that has to disposed of during the modelling procedure. Like graphical models, graphical loglinear Rasch models possess Markov properties that are useful during the statistical analysis...

  9. LA PLANTA ÚNICA COMO TIPO RESISTENTE A LA ESCALA / the single plan as a type resistant to scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colmenares Vilata

    2014-05-01

    centre and the container with the periphery is still valid, because the necessary density of the first and the extensive occupation of the second mean that it is impossible to invert the terms. However, both represent the strictly pragmatic development of the principles of the “free plan” as a generic operating system, giving rise to large constructions that test the resistance to the scale of the type itself. Taking the characteristic neutrality of the “single plan” as a reference, the text analyses the behaviour with regard to the change of size of its two complementary configurations: the large hypostile hall and the clear-span pavillion.

  10. A more general model for testing measurement invariance and differential item functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J

    2017-09-01

    The evaluation of measurement invariance is an important step in establishing the validity and comparability of measurements across individuals. Most commonly, measurement invariance has been examined using 1 of 2 primary latent variable modeling approaches: the multiple groups model or the multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) model. Both approaches offer opportunities to detect differential item functioning within multi-item scales, and thereby to test measurement invariance, but both approaches also have significant limitations. The multiple groups model allows 1 to examine the invariance of all model parameters but only across levels of a single categorical individual difference variable (e.g., ethnicity). In contrast, the MIMIC model permits both categorical and continuous individual difference variables (e.g., sex and age) but permits only a subset of the model parameters to vary as a function of these characteristics. The current article argues that moderated nonlinear factor analysis (MNLFA) constitutes an alternative, more flexible model for evaluating measurement invariance and differential item functioning. We show that the MNLFA subsumes and combines the strengths of the multiple group and MIMIC models, allowing for a full and simultaneous assessment of measurement invariance and differential item functioning across multiple categorical and/or continuous individual difference variables. The relationships between the MNLFA model and the multiple groups and MIMIC models are shown mathematically and via an empirical demonstration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. An Empirical Investigation of Thurstone and IRT Methods of Scaling Achievement Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Douglas F.; Forsyth, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Measurement scales developed using Thurstone and item-response theory (IRT) methods of scaling achievement tests for the same single-level data were compared for approximately 4,000 high school students taking the Iowa Tests of Educational Development in 1975. Results of both approaches indicate that variability increases as grade level increases.…

  12. Analysis of the Subscales of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellen, Murray I.; Hoffman, Roy A.

    1984-01-01

    Factor analyzed the item responses comprising each of the five external dimensions and the three internal dimensions of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. The results indicated that seven of the eight subscales are essentially single-factor scales. Implications for counseling are discussed. (Author)

  13. Design of a large-scale femtoliter droplet array for single-cell analysis of drug-tolerant and drug-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota eIino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis is a powerful method to assess the heterogeneity among individual cells, enabling the identification of very rare cells with properties that differ from those of the majority. In this Methods Article, we describe the use of a large-scale femtoliter droplet array to enclose, isolate, and analyze individual bacterial cells. As a first example, we describe the single-cell detection of drug-tolerant persisters of Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with the antibiotic carbenicillin. As a second example, this method was applied to the single-cell evaluation of drug efflux activity, which causes acquired antibiotic resistance of bacteria. The activity of the MexAB-OprM multidrug efflux pump system from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was expressed in Escherichia coli and the effect of an inhibitor D13-9001 were assessed at the single cell level.

  14. Information weighted sampling for detecting rare items in finite populations with a focus on security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstrate, A.J.; Klaassen, C.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Frequently one has to search within a finite population for a single particular individual or item with a rare characteristic. Whether an item possesses the characteristic can only be determined by close inspection. The availability of additional information about the items in the population opens

  15. Retrieval of very large numbers of items in the Web of Science: an exercise to develop accurate search strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arencibia-Jorge, R.; Leydesdorff, L.; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z.; Rousseau, R.; Paris, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    The Web of Science interface counts at most 100,000 retrieved items from a single query. If the query results in a dataset containing more than 100,000 items the number of retrieved items is indicated as >100,000. The problem studied here is how to find the exact number of items in a query that

  16. Single mode solid state distributed feedback dye laser fabricated by grey scale electron beam lithography on dye doped SU-8 resist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Rasmussen, Torben; Shi, Peixiong

    2005-01-01

    are optically pumped at 532 nm, and exhibit low lasing threshold from 530 nJ/mm2 and single mode output at selectable wavelengths from 580 to 630 nm, determined by the grating pitch. The lasers are well suited for integration into polymer based lab-on-chip circuits for interference based sensing.......We demonstrate grey scale electron beam lithography on functionalized SU-8 resist for fabrication of single mode solid state dye laser devices. The resist is doped with Rhodamine 6G perchlorate and the lasers are based on a first order Bragg grating distributed feedback resonator. The lasers...