WorldWideScience

Sample records for single item literacy

  1. Single Item Inventory Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends a fundamental result about single-item inventory systems. This approach allows more general performance measures, demand processes and order policies, and leads to easier analysis and implementation, than prior research. We obtain closed form expressions for the

  2. The Feasibility of Single-Item Measures for Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeremy S.; Turner, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers in a number of disciplines have examined the utility of single-item measures for both affective and cognitive constructs. While these authors have indicated that, under certain circumstances, the use of single-item measures is appropriate, there remains concern regarding the reliability and validity of single-item measures. This study…

  3. Mathematical literacy examination items and student errors: An analysis of English Second Language students’ responses

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    Vale, Pamela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical literacy is a real-world practical attribute yet students write a high-stakes examination in order to pass the subject Mathematical Literacy in the National Certificates (Vocational (NC(V. In these examinations, all sources of information are contextualised in language. It can be effortful for English second language students to decode text. The deliberate processing that is required saturates working memory and prevents these students from optimally engaging in problem solving. In this study, 15 items from an NC(V Level 4 Mathematical Literacy examination are selected, as well as 15 student responses to each of these questions. From these responses, those which are incorrect are analysed to determine whether the error is due to insufficient mathematical literacy or a lack of English language proficiency. These results are used as an indication as to whether the examination is fair and valid for this group of students.

  4. Science Literacy: How do High School Students Solve PISA Test Items?

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    Wati, F.; Sinaga, P.; Priyandoko, D.

    2017-09-01

    The Programme for International Students Assessment (PISA) does assess students’ science literacy in a real-life contexts and wide variety of situation. Therefore, the results do not provide adequate information for the teacher to excavate students’ science literacy because the range of materials taught at schools depends on the curriculum used. This study aims to investigate the way how junior high school students in Indonesia solve PISA test items. Data was collected by using PISA test items in greenhouse unit employed to 36 students of 9th grade. Students’ answer was analyzed qualitatively for each item based on competence tested in the problem. The way how students answer the problem exhibits their ability in particular competence which is influenced by a number of factors. Those are students’ unfamiliarity with test construction, low performance on reading, low in connecting available information and question, and limitation on expressing their ideas effectively and easy-read. As the effort, selected PISA test items can be used in accordance teaching topic taught to familiarize students with science literacy.

  5. FINANCIAL LITERACY: A STUDY USING THE APPLICATION OF ITEM RESPONSE THEORY

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    João Carlos Hipólito Bernardes do Nascimento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the level of financial literacy of Business Administration course students at a federal Higher Education Institution (HEI. To this end, a survey was conducted on 307 students. The Item Response Theory (IRT was employed for data analysis and the findings support the conclusion that the students show a low level of financial literacy, as well as the existence of a conservative investment profile among students. This scenario, in line with previous empirical studies conducted in the Brazil, is worrying given the potential negative externalities resulting from poor financial decisions, especially those related to home financing and retirement preparations. This study contributes to the empirical evaluation, within the national context, of the use of IRT in estimating financial literacy, and shows that it is, indeed, an important methodological option in the estimation of this latent trait. Furthermore, this enables financial knowledge to be compared through consistent and reliable means, using studies, populations, realities and separate programs.

  6. Correlates of a Single-Item Indicator Versus a Multi-Item Scale of Outness About Same-Sex Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Noor, Syed W; Galos, Dylan L; Rosser, B R Simon

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated if a single-item indicator measured the degree to which people were open about their same-sex attraction ("out") as accurately as a multi-item scale. For the multi-item scale, we used the Outness Inventory, which includes three subscales: family, world, and religion. We examined correlations between the single- and multi-item measures; between the single-item indicator and the subscales of the multi-item scale; and between the measures and internalized homonegativity, social attitudes towards homosexuality, and depressive symptoms. In addition, we calculated Tjur's R (2) as a measure of predictive power of the single-item indicator, multi-item scale, and subscales of the multi-item scale in predicting two health-related outcomes: depressive symptoms and condomless anal sex with multiple partners. There was a strong correlation between the single- and multi-item measures (r = 0.73). Furthermore, there were strong correlations between the single-item indicator and each subscale of the multi-item scale: family (r = 0.70), world (r = 0.77), and religion (r = 0.50). In addition, the correlations between the single-item indicator and internalized homonegativity (r = -0.63), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = -0.38), and depression (r = -0.14) were higher than those between the multi-item scale and internalized homonegativity (r = -0.55), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = -0.21), and depression (r = -0.13). Contrary to the premise that multi-item measures are superior to single-item measures, our collective findings indicate that the single-item indicator of outness performs better than the multi-item scale of outness.

  7. eHealth literacy in chronic disease patients: An item response theory analysis of the eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Krieger, Janice L; Stellefson, Michael; Alber, Julia M

    2017-02-01

    Chronic disease patients are affected by low computer and health literacy, which negatively affects their ability to benefit from access to online health information. To estimate reliability and confirm model specifications for eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) scores among chronic disease patients using Classical Test (CTT) and Item Response Theory techniques. A stratified sample of Black/African American (N=341) and Caucasian (N=343) adults with chronic disease completed an online survey including the eHEALS. Item discrimination was explored using bi-variate correlations and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. A categorical confirmatory factor analysis tested a one-factor structure of eHEALS scores. Item characteristic curves, in-fit/outfit statistics, omega coefficient, and item reliability and separation estimates were computed. A 1-factor structure of eHEALS was confirmed by statistically significant standardized item loadings, acceptable model fit indices (CFI/TLI>0.90), and 70% variance explained by the model. Item response categories increased with higher theta levels, and there was evidence of acceptable reliability (ω=0.94; item reliability=89; item separation=8.54). eHEALS scores are a valid and reliable measure of self-reported eHealth literacy among Internet-using chronic disease patients. Providers can use eHEALS to help identify patients' eHealth literacy skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Single item inventory models : A time- and event- averages approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends a fundamental result about single-item inventory systems. This approach allows more general performance measures, demand processes and order policies, and leads to easier analysis and implementation, than prior research. We obtain closed form expressions for the

  9. Face validity of the single work ability item

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jensen, Bjørn Søvsø; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the face validity of the self-reported single item work ability with objectively measured heart rate reserve (%HRR) among blue-collar workers. METHODS: We utilized data from 127 blue-collar workers (Female = 53; Male = 74) aged 18-65 years fro...

  10. Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated memory test), participants studied single words and then took a memory test involving studied word and ne...

  11. A Psychometric Analysis of the Italian Version of the eHealth Literacy Scale Using Item Response and Classical Test Theory Methods.

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    Diviani, Nicola; Dima, Alexandra Lelia; Schulz, Peter Johannes

    2017-04-11

    The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) is a tool to assess consumers' comfort and skills in using information technologies for health. Although evidence exists of reliability and construct validity of the scale, less agreement exists on structural validity. The aim of this study was to validate the Italian version of the eHealth Literacy Scale (I-eHEALS) in a community sample with a focus on its structural validity, by applying psychometric techniques that account for item difficulty. Two Web-based surveys were conducted among a total of 296 people living in the Italian-speaking region of Switzerland (Ticino). After examining the latent variables underlying the observed variables of the Italian scale via principal component analysis (PCA), fit indices for two alternative models were calculated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The scale structure was examined via parametric and nonparametric item response theory (IRT) analyses accounting for differences between items regarding the proportion of answers indicating high ability. Convergent validity was assessed by correlations with theoretically related constructs. CFA showed a suboptimal model fit for both models. IRT analyses confirmed all items measure a single dimension as intended. Reliability and construct validity of the final scale were also confirmed. The contrasting results of factor analysis (FA) and IRT analyses highlight the importance of considering differences in item difficulty when examining health literacy scales. The findings support the reliability and validity of the translated scale and its use for assessing Italian-speaking consumers' eHealth literacy. ©Nicola Diviani, Alexandra Lelia Dima, Peter Johannes Schulz. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.04.2017.

  12. Communicating Quantitative Literacy: An Examination of Open-Ended Assessment Items in TIMSS, NALS, IALS, and PISA

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    Karl W. Kosko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Literacy (QL has been described as the skill set an individual uses when interacting with the world in a quantitative manner. A necessary component of this interaction is communication. To this end, assessments of QL have included open-ended items as a means of including communicative aspects of QL. The present study sought to examine whether such open-ended items typically measured aspects of quantitative communication, as compared to mathematical communication, or mathematical skills. We focused on public-released items and rubrics from four of the most widely referenced assessments: the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS-95: the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS; now the National Assessment of Adult Literacy, NAAL in 1985 and 1992, the International Adult Literacy Skills (IALS beginning in 1994; and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA beginning in 2000. We found that open-ended item rubrics in these QL assessments showed a strong tendency to assess answer-only responses. Therefore, while some open-ended items may have required certain levels of quantitative reasoning to find a solution, it is the solution rather than the reasoning that was often assessed.

  13. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS).

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    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  14. A Study on Detecting of Differential Item Functioning of PISA 2006 Science Literacy Items in Turkish and American Samples

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    Çikirikçi Demirtasli, Nükhet; Ulutas, Seher

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Item bias occurs when individuals from different groups (different gender, cultural background, etc.) have different probabilities of responding correctly to a test item despite having the same skill levels. It is important that tests or items do not have bias in order to ensure the accuracy of decisions taken according to test…

  15. A Model-Free Diagnostic for Single-Peakedness of Item Responses Using Ordered Conditional Means

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    Polak, Marike; De Rooij, Mark; Heiser, Willem J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we propose a model-free diagnostic for single-peakedness (unimodality) of item responses. Presuming a unidimensional unfolding scale and a given item ordering, we approximate item response functions of all items based on ordered conditional means (OCM). The proposed OCM methodology is based on Thurstone & Chave's (1929) "criterion…

  16. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS.

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    Sara Konrath

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVES: The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS. Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies. METHODS: In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250, we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. RESULTS: The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults, intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression, and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior. The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. SIGNIFICANCE: The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  17. The Brazilian version of the 20-item rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine and dentistry

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    Cruvinel, Agnes Fátima P.; Méndez, Daniela Alejandra C.; Oliveira, Juliana G.; Gutierres, Eliézer; Lotto, Matheus; Machado, Maria Aparecida A.M.; Oliveira, Thaís M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The misunderstanding of specific vocabulary may hamper the patient-health provider communication. The 20-item Rapid Estimate Adult Literacy in Medicine and Dentistry (REALMD-20) was constructed to screen patients by their ability in reading medical/dental terminologies in a simple and rapid way. This study aimed to perform the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of this instrument for its application in Brazilian dental patients. Methods The cross-cultural adaptation was performed through conceptual equivalence, verbatim translation, semantic, item and operational equivalence, and back-translation. After that, 200 participants responded the adapted version of the REALMD-20, the Brazilian version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30), ten questions of the Brazilian National Functional Literacy Index (BNFLI), and a questionnaire with socio-demographic and oral health-related questions. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the reliability and validity of the REALMD-20 (P < 0.05). Results The sample was composed predominantly by women (55.5%) and white/brown (76%) individuals, with an average age of 39.02 years old (±15.28). The average REALMD-20 score was 17.48 (±2.59, range 8–20). It displayed a good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.789) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.73; 95% CI [0.66 − 0.79]). In the exploratory factor analysis, six factors were extracted according to Kaiser’s criterion. The factor I (eigenvalue = 4.53) comprised four terms— “Jaundice”, “Amalgam”, “Periodontitis” and “Abscess”—accounted for 25.18% of total variance, while the factor II (eigenvalue = 1.88) comprised other four terms—“Gingivitis”, “Instruction”, “Osteoporosis” and “Constipation”—accounted for 10.46% of total variance. The first four factors accounted for 52.1% of total variance. The REALMD-20 was positively correlated with the BREALD-30 (Rs = 0.73, P < 0

  18. The Brazilian version of the 20-item rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine and dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Fátima P. Cruvinel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The misunderstanding of specific vocabulary may hamper the patient-health provider communication. The 20-item Rapid Estimate Adult Literacy in Medicine and Dentistry (REALMD-20 was constructed to screen patients by their ability in reading medical/dental terminologies in a simple and rapid way. This study aimed to perform the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of this instrument for its application in Brazilian dental patients. Methods The cross-cultural adaptation was performed through conceptual equivalence, verbatim translation, semantic, item and operational equivalence, and back-translation. After that, 200 participants responded the adapted version of the REALMD-20, the Brazilian version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30, ten questions of the Brazilian National Functional Literacy Index (BNFLI, and a questionnaire with socio-demographic and oral health-related questions. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the reliability and validity of the REALMD-20 (P < 0.05. Results The sample was composed predominantly by women (55.5% and white/brown (76% individuals, with an average age of 39.02 years old (±15.28. The average REALMD-20 score was 17.48 (±2.59, range 8–20. It displayed a good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.789 and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.73; 95% CI [0.66 − 0.79]. In the exploratory factor analysis, six factors were extracted according to Kaiser’s criterion. The factor I (eigenvalue = 4.53 comprised four terms— “Jaundice”, “Amalgam”, “Periodontitis” and “Abscess”—accounted for 25.18% of total variance, while the factor II (eigenvalue = 1.88 comprised other four terms—“Gingivitis”, “Instruction”, “Osteoporosis” and “Constipation”—accounted for 10.46% of total variance. The first four factors accounted for 52.1% of total variance. The REALMD-20 was positively correlated with the BREALD-30 (Rs = 0

  19. Gender Differences in Scientific Literacy of HKPISA 2006: A Multidimensional Differential Item Functioning and Multilevel Mediation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan Yin

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of gender differences of 15-year-old students on scientific literacy and their impacts on students’ motivation to pursue science education and careers (Future-oriented Science Motivation) in Hong Kong. The data for this study was collected from the Program for International Student Assessment in Hong Kong (HKPISA). It was carried out in 2006. A total of 4,645 students were randomly selected from 146 secondary schools including government, aided and private schools by two-stage stratified sampling method for the assessment. HKPISA 2006, like most of other large-scale international assessments, presents its assessment frameworks in multidimensional subscales. To fulfill the requirements of this multidimensional assessment framework, this study deployed new approaches to model and investigate gender differences in cognitive and affective latent traits of scientific literacy by using multidimensional differential item functioning (MDIF) and multilevel mediation (MLM). Compared with mean score difference t-test, MDIF improves the precision of each subscales measure at item level and the gender differences in science performance can be accurately estimated. In the light of Eccles et al (1983) Expectancy-value Model of Achievement-related Choices (Eccles’ Model), MLM examines the pattern of gender effects on Future-oriented Science Motivation mediated through cognitive and affective factors. As for MLM investigation, Single-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (Single-Group CFA) was used to confirm the applicability and validity of six affective factors which was, originally prepared by OECD. These six factors are Science Self-concept, Personal Value of Science, Interest in Science Learning, Enjoyment of Science Learning, Instrumental Motivation to Learn Science and Future-oriented Science Motivation. Then, Multiple Group CFA was used to verify measurement invariance of these factors across gender groups. The results of

  20. Which Single-Item Measures of Overactive Bladder Symptom Treatment Correlate Best With Patient Satisfaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Oelke, Matthias; Vogel, Monika; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: While complex symptom scales are important research tools, simpler, preferably single item scales may be more useful for routine clinical practise in the evaluation of patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). This study aimed to compare multiple single-item scales at baseline and after

  1. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension : Single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Twisk, W.R.; Heymans, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP.

  2. Assessing the Validity of Single-item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples

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    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) - a more psychometrically established measure. Methods Two large samples from Washington (N=13,064) and Oregon (N=2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and a representative German sample (N=1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Results Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62 – 0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78 – 0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001 – 0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS were very small (average absolute difference = 0.015 −0.042). Conclusions Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use. PMID:24890827

  3. Assessing the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures: results from three large samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)-a more psychometrically established measure. Two large samples from Washington (N = 13,064) and Oregon (N = 2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and a representative German sample (N = 1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62-0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78-0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001-0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS was very small (average absolute difference = 0.015-0.042). Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use.

  4. Meta-analytic guidelines for evaluating single-item reliabilities of personality instruments.

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    Spörrle, Matthias; Bekk, Magdalena

    2014-06-01

    Personality is an important predictor of various outcomes in many social science disciplines. However, when personality traits are not the principal focus of research, for example, in global comparative surveys, it is often not possible to assess them extensively. In this article, we first provide an overview of the advantages and challenges of single-item measures of personality, a rationale for their construction, and a summary of alternative ways of assessing their reliability. Second, using seven diverse samples (Ntotal = 4,263) we develop the SIMP-G, the German adaptation of the Single-Item Measures of Personality, an instrument assessing the Big Five with one item per trait, and evaluate its validity and reliability. Third, we integrate previous research and our data into a first meta-analysis of single-item reliabilities of personality measures, and provide researchers with guidelines and recommendations for the evaluation of single-item reliabilities. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Single-Item Measurement of Suicidal Behaviors: Validity and Consequences of Misclassification.

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    Alexander J Millner

    Full Text Available Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although research has made strides in better defining suicidal behaviors, there has been less focus on accurate measurement. Currently, the widespread use of self-report, single-item questions to assess suicide ideation, plans and attempts may contribute to measurement problems and misclassification. We examined the validity of single-item measurement and the potential for statistical errors. Over 1,500 participants completed an online survey containing single-item questions regarding a history of suicidal behaviors, followed by questions with more precise language, multiple response options and narrative responses to examine the validity of single-item questions. We also conducted simulations to test whether common statistical tests are robust against the degree of misclassification produced by the use of single-items. We found that 11.3% of participants that endorsed a single-item suicide attempt measure engaged in behavior that would not meet the standard definition of a suicide attempt. Similarly, 8.8% of those who endorsed a single-item measure of suicide ideation endorsed thoughts that would not meet standard definitions of suicide ideation. Statistical simulations revealed that this level of misclassification substantially decreases statistical power and increases the likelihood of false conclusions from statistical tests. Providing a wider range of response options for each item reduced the misclassification rate by approximately half. Overall, the use of single-item, self-report questions to assess the presence of suicidal behaviors leads to misclassification, increasing the likelihood of statistical decision errors. Improving the measurement of suicidal behaviors is critical to increase understanding and prevention of suicide.

  6. Language Games and Meaning as Used in Student Encounters with Scientific Literacy Test Items

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    Serder, Margareta; Jakobsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in science education has suggested that difficulties among students learning science relate to challenges in framing its discourse. This article examines the role that language plays in a scientific literacy test for which everyday life is an augmented aspect. Video-recorded data was collected in four ninth-grade science classes…

  7. K-12 Literacy. Where We Stand. Item Number 39-0231

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document contains texts for two resolutions adopted by the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) in July 1998 regarding Beginning Reading Instruction and in July 2006, regarding Adolescent Literacy. A Question & Answer section follows the resolutions, addressing the following issues: (1) Reasons for focus on reading; (2) Differing views on…

  8. The Relationship Between the Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire Among Rural Intervention Participants of Varying Health Literacy Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kružliaková, Natalie; Estabrooks, Paul A; You, Wen; Hedrick, Valisa; Porter, Kathleen; Kiernan, Michaela; Zoellner, Jamie

    2018-02-09

    A pragmatic, self-reported physical activity measure is needed for individuals of varying health literacy status. This study is a secondary analysis of a 6-month behavioral intervention for rural Appalachian adults developed using health literacy strategies. We examined the relationship and responsiveness of the Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat) and adapted Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) and determined if baseline health literacy status moderates intervention effects. Of 301 enrolled participants, 289 completed the L-Cat at baseline and 212 at 6 months. Approximately 33% were low health literate and 43% reported annual income of ≤$14,999. There was high agreement (84.1%) between the L-Cat and adapted GLTEQ for classifying individuals as meeting physical activity recommendations with little differences by health literacy level (low literacy 80.4% and high literacy 85.9%). The primary source of incongruent classification was the adapted GLTEQ classified almost 20% of individuals as meeting recommendations, whereas the L-Cat classified them as not meeting recommendations. There were differences in responsiveness between measures, but baseline health literacy status did not moderate change in any L-Cat or adapted GLTEQ measures. Implications and recommendations for using the L-Cat 2.3 and GLTEQ among individuals of varying health literacy status are discussed.

  9. Cross-National Prevalence of Traditional Bullying, Traditional Victimization, Cyberbullying and Cyber-Victimization: Comparing Single-Item and Multiple-Item Approaches of Measurement

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    Yanagida, Takuya; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Many large-scale cross-national studies rely on a single-item measurement when comparing prevalence rates of traditional bullying, traditional victimization, cyberbullying, and cyber-victimization between countries. However, the reliability and validity of single-item measurement approaches are highly problematic and might be biased. Data from…

  10. Fully Polynomial Approximation Schemes for Single-Item Capacitated Economic Lot-Sizing Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.M. van Hoesel; A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractNP-hard cases of the single-item capacitated lot-sizing problem have been the topic of extensive research and continue to receive considerable attention. However, surprisingly few theoretical results have been published on approximation methods for these problems. To the best of our

  11. Single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are useful for assessing burnout in medical professionals.

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    West, Colin P; Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2009-12-01

    Burnout has negative effects on work performance and patient care. The current standard for burnout assessment is the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), a well-validated instrument consisting of 22 items answered on a 7-point Likert scale. However, the length of the MBI can limit its utility in physician surveys. To evaluate the performance of two questions relative to the full MBI for measuring burnout. Cross-sectional data from 2,248 medical students, 333 internal medicine residents, 465 internal medicine faculty, and 7,905 practicing surgeons. The single questions with the highest factor loading on the emotional exhaustion (EE) ("I feel burned out from my work") and depersonalization (DP) ("I have become more callous toward people since I took this job") domains of burnout were evaluated in four large samples of medical students, internal medicine residents, internal medicine faculty, and practicing surgeons. Spearman correlations between the single EE question and the full EE domain score minus that question ranged from 0.76-0.83. Spearman correlations between the single DP question and the full DP domain score minus that question ranged from 0.61-0.72. Responses to the single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization stratified risk of high burnout in the relevant domain on the full MBI, with consistent patterns across the four sampled groups. Single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization provide meaningful information on burnout in medical professionals.

  12. Which single-item measures of overactive bladder symptom treatment correlate best with patient satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Martin C; Oelke, Matthias; Vogel, Monika; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H

    2011-04-01

    While complex symptom scales are important research tools, simpler, preferably single item scales may be more useful for routine clinical practise in the evaluation of patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). This study aimed to compare multiple single-item scales at baseline and after treatment with patient-reported overall rating of treatment efficacy. In a pre-planned secondary analysis of a previously reported observational study, 4,450 patients were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks open-label treatment with solifenacin. Apart from episode counting for classical OAB symptoms, the following single-item rating scales were applied: Indevus Urgency Severity Scale, Urgency Perception Scale, a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), quality of life question of the IPSS, and general health and bladder problem questions of the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ). At baseline OAB symptoms correlated at best moderately with each (r = 0.285-0.508) other or with any of the rating scales (r = 0.060-0.399). Pair-wise correlations between treatment-associated symptom or scale improvements tended to be tighter (r = 0.225-0.588). When compared to patient-reported efficacy, the VAS (r = 0.487) and the bladder problem question of the KHQ (r = 0.452) showed the tightest correlation, whereas all symptom and rating scale improvements exhibited poor correlation with patient-reported tolerability (r ≤ 0.283). The VAS and the bladder problem question of the KHQ show the greatest promise as single-item scales to assess problem intensity in OAB patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Concurrent validity of single-item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in burnout assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Colin P; Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Satele, Daniel V; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2012-11-01

    Burnout is a common problem among physicians and physicians-in-training. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is the gold standard for burnout assessment, but the length of this well-validated 22-item instrument can limit its feasibility for survey research. To evaluate the concurrent validity of two questions relative to the full MBI for measuring the association of burnout with published outcomes. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND MAIN MEASURES: The single questions "I feel burned out from my work" and "I have become more callous toward people since I took this job," representing the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization domains of burnout, respectively, were evaluated in published studies of medical students, internal medicine residents, and practicing surgeons. We compared predictive models for the association of each question, versus the full MBI, using longitudinal data on burnout and suicidality from 2006 and 2007 for 858 medical students at five United States medical schools, cross-sectional data on burnout and serious thoughts of dropping out of medical school from 2007 for 2222 medical students at seven United States medical schools, and cross-sectional data on burnout and unprofessional attitudes and behaviors from 2009 for 2566 medical students at seven United States medical schools. We also assessed results for longitudinal data on burnout and perceived major medical errors from 2003 to 2009 for 321 Mayo Clinic Rochester internal medicine residents and cross-sectional data on burnout and both perceived major medical errors and suicidality from 2008 for 7,905 respondents to a national survey of members of the American College of Surgeons. Point estimates of effect for models based on the single-item measures were uniformly consistent with those reported for models based on the full MBI. The single-item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization exhibited strong associations with each published outcome (all p ≤ 0.008). No conclusion regarding

  14. Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Jesper

    I løbet at de seneste 10 år har literacy-begrebet for alvor vundet indpas som et etableret begreb i den nordiske forsknings- og uddannelsesverden, ikke mindst inden for læse-/skriveområdet. Der er dog langt fra konsensus om den præcise betydning af begrebet, og af samme grund hersker der en udbredt...... forvirring om hvorledes det skal forstås. Man kan på den baggrund stille spørgsmålet om hvorvidt literacy overhovedet er et brugbart og produktivt begreb i en nordisk kontekst. Når man i PISA-undersøgelserne giver læseområdet den pleonastiske betegnelse reading literacy, kunne det give anledning til...... at tvivle på at det er tilfældet. Med afsæt i forskellige begrebs- og forskningsmæssige perspektiver diskuteres i oplægget literacy-begrebets berettigelse, og i forlængelse heraf præsenteres et bud på en trifokal optik som teoretisk blik på literacy i undervisningskontekster. Eksempler fra forskellige...

  15. Using personality item characteristics to predict single-item reliability, retest reliability, and self-other agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Reinout Everhard; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri

    2016-01-01

    The use of reliability estimates is increasingly scrutinized as scholars become more aware that test–retest stability and self–other agreement provide a better approximation of the theoretical and practical usefulness of an instrument than its internal reliability. In this study, we investigate item

  16. A mathematical model for order splitting in a multiple supplier single-item inventory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; Rezapour, Shabnam

    2013-01-01

    The policy of simultaneously splitting replenishment orders among several suppliers has received considerable attention in the last few years and continues to attract the attention of researchers. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model which considers multiple-supplier single-item inventory...... systems. The item acquisition lead times of suppliers are random variables. Backorder is allowed and shortage cost is charged based on not only per unit in shortage but also per time unit. Continuous review (s,Q) policy has been assumed. When the inventory level depletes to a reorder level, the total......, procurement cost, inventory holding cost, and shortage cost, is minimized. We also conduct extensive numerical experiments to show the advantages of our model compared with the models in the literature. According to our extensive experiments, the model developed in this paper is the best model...

  17. Assessment of Fatigue in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Psychometric Comparison of Single-item, Multiitem, and Multidimensional Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, M.A.H.; Klooster, P.M. ten; Bode, C.; Vonkeman, H.E.; Glas, C.A.; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.; Albada-Kuipers, I. van; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Laar, M.A. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychometric functioning of multidimensional disease-specific, multiitem generic, and single-item measures of fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and longitudinal item response theory (IRT) modeling were used to

  18. Assessment of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis: a psychometric comparison of single-item, multiitem, and multidimensional measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, Antonius H.; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Bode, Christina; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Jansen, Tim; van Albeda-Kuijpers, Iet; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychometric functioning of multidimensional disease-specific, multiitem generic, and single-item measures of fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and longitudinal item response theory (IRT) modeling were used to

  19. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the “Short Five” personality inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; García Velázquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku; Walkowitz, Gari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item “Short Five” (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model) in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China), and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours), there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the full version

  20. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the "Short Five" personality inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenn Konstabel

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item "Short Five" (S5 by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China, and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours, there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the

  1. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the "Short Five" personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; García Velázquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku; Walkowitz, Gari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item "Short Five" (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model) in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China), and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours), there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the full version of

  2. Fuzzy Decision-Making Approach in Geometric Programming for a Single Item EOQ Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisha Pattnaik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and methods: Fuzzy decision-making approach is allowed in geometric programming for a single item EOQ model with dynamic ordering cost and demand-dependent unit cost. The setup cost varies with the quantity produced/purchased and the modification of objective function with storage area in the presence of imprecisely estimated parameters are investigated.  It incorporates all concepts of a fuzzy arithmetic approach, the quantity ordered, and demand per unit compares both fuzzy geometric programming technique and other models for linear membership functions.  Results and conclusions: Investigation of the properties of an optimal solution allows developing an algorithm whose validity is illustrated through an example problem and the results discu ssed. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied with respect to changes in different parameter values.  

  3. Single-item measure for assessing quality of life in children with drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Lauryn; Widjaja, Elysa; Smith, Mary Lou

    2018-03-01

    The current study investigated the psychometric properties of a single-item quality of life (QOL) measure, the Global Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy question (G-QOLCE), in children with drug-resistant epilepsy. Data came from the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery on Health-Related Quality of Life Study (PESQOL), a multicenter prospective cohort study (n = 118) with observations collected at baseline and at 6 months of follow-up on children aged 4-18 years. QOL was measured with the QOLCE-76 and KIDSCREEN-27. The G-QOLCE was an overall QOL question derived from the QOLCE-76. Construct validity and reliability were assessed with Spearman's correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Responsiveness was examined through distribution-based and anchor-based methods. The G-QOLCE showed moderate (r ≥ 0.30) to strong (r ≥ 0.50) correlations with composite scores, and most subscales of the QOLCE-76 and KIDSCREEN-27 at baseline and 6-month follow-up. The G-QOLCE had moderate test-retest reliability (ICC range: 0.49-0.72) and was able to detect clinically important change in patients' QOL (standardized response mean: 0.38; probability of change: 0.65; Guyatt's responsiveness statistics: 0.62 and 0.78). Caregiver anxiety and family functioning contributed most strongly to G-QOLCE scores over time. Results offer promising preliminary evidence regarding the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the proposed single-item QOL measure. The G-QOLCE is a potentially useful tool that can be feasibly administered in a busy clinical setting to evaluate clinical status and impact of treatment outcomes in pediatric epilepsy.

  4. A single-item global job satisfaction measure is associated with quantitative blood immune indices in white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori; Irie, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Although a single-item job satisfaction measure has been shown to be reliable and inclusive as multiple-item scales in relation to health, studies including immunological data are few. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of single-item job and family life satisfaction based on its association with immune indices. A total of 189 white-collar employees (70% men) underwent a blood draw for the measurement of natural killer (NK), total T, and B cell counts as well as plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentrations and completed single-item job and family life satisfaction measures, respectively. The response options for satisfaction measures were 'dissatisfied' (coded 1) to 'satisfied' (coded 4). Spearman's partial correlations controlling for cofactors revealed that increased job satisfaction was positively associated with NK cells (rsp=0.201, p=0.007) and IgG (rsp=0.178, p=0.018), while family life satisfaction was unrelated to immune indices. Those who reported a combination of low job/low family life satisfaction had significantly lower NK and higher B cell counts than those with a high job/high family life satisfaction. Our study suggests that the single-item summary measure of job satisfaction, but not family life satisfaction, may be a valid tool to evaluate immune status in healthy white-collar employees.

  5. Working Memory for Sequences of Temporal Durations Reveals a Volatile Single-Item Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Husain, Masud

    2016-01-01

    When a sequence is held in working memory, different items are retained with differing fidelity. Here we ask whether a sequence of brief time intervals that must be remembered show recency effects, similar to those observed in verbal and visuospatial working memory. It has been suggested that prioritizing some items over others can be accounted for by a "focus of attention," maintaining some items in a privileged state. We therefore also investigated whether such benefits are vulnerable to disruption by attention or expectation. Participants listened to sequences of one to five tones, of varying durations (200 ms to 2 s). Subsequently, the length of one of the tones in the sequence had to be reproduced by holding a key. The discrepancy between the reproduced and actual durations quantified the fidelity of memory for auditory durations. Recall precision decreased with the number of items that had to be remembered, and was better for the first and last items of sequences, in line with set-size and serial position effects seen in other modalities. To test whether attentional filtering demands might impair performance, an irrelevant variation in pitch was introduced in some blocks of trials. In those blocks, memory precision was worse for sequences that consisted of only one item, i.e., the smallest memory set-size. Thus, when irrelevant information was present, the benefit of having only one item in memory is attenuated. Finally we examined whether expectation could interfere with memory. On half the trials, the number of items in the upcoming sequence was cued. When the number of items was known in advance, performance was paradoxically worse when the sequence consisted of only one item. Thus the benefit of having only one item to remember is stronger when it is unexpectedly the only item. Our results suggest that similar mechanisms are used to hold auditory time durations in working memory, as for visual or verbal stimuli. Further, solitary items were remembered

  6. Working memory for sequences of temporal durations reveals a volatile single-item store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay G Manohar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available When a sequence is held in working memory, different items are retained with differing fidelity. Here we ask whether a sequence of brief time intervals that must be remembered show recency effects, similar to those observed in verbal and visuospatial working memory. It has been suggested that prioritising some items over others can be accounted for by a focus of attention, maintaining some items in a privileged state. We therefore also investigated whether such benefits are vulnerable to disruption by attention or expectation. Participants listened to sequences of one to five tones, of varying durations (200ms to 2s. Subsequently, the length of one of the tones in the sequence had to be reproduced by holding a key. The discrepancy between the reproduced and actual durations quantified the fidelity of memory for auditory durations. Recall precision decreased with the number of items that had to be remembered, and was better for the first and last items of sequences, in line with set-size and serial position effects seen in other modalities. To test whether attentional filtering demands might impair performance, an irrelevant variation in pitch was introduced in some blocks of trials. In those blocks, memory precision was worse for sequences that consisted of only one item, i.e. the smallest memory set size. Thus, when irrelevant information was present, the benefit of having only one item in memory is attenuated. Finally we examined whether expectation could interfere with memory. On half the trials, the number of items in the upcoming sequence was cued. When the number of items was known in advance, performance was paradoxically worse when the sequence consisted of only one item. Thus the benefit of having only one item to remember is stronger when it is unexpectedly the only item. Our results suggest that similar mechanisms are used to hold auditory time durations in working memory, as for visual or verbal stimuli. Further, solitary items were

  7. Robustness of two single-item self-esteem measures: cross-validation with a measure of stigma in a sample of psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    Robins' Single-item Self-esteem Inventory was compared with a single item from the Coopersmith Self-esteem. Although a new scoring format was used, there was good evidence of cross-validation in 83 current and former psychiatric patients who completed Harvey's adapted measure of stigma felt and experienced by users of mental health services. Scores on the two single-item self-esteem measures correlated .76 (p self-esteem in users of mental health services.

  8. The measurement of psychological literacy: a first approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody; Gasson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Psychological literacy, the ability to apply psychological knowledge to personal, family, occupational, community and societal challenges, is promoted as the primary outcome of an undergraduate education in psychology. As the concept of psychological literacy becomes increasingly adopted as the core business of undergraduate psychology training courses world-wide, there is urgent need for the construct to be accurately measured so that student and institutional level progress can be assessed and monitored. Key to the measurement of psychological literacy is determining the underlying factor-structure of psychological literacy. In this paper we provide a first approximation of the measurement of psychological literacy by identifying and evaluating self-report measures for psychological literacy. Multi-item and single-item self-report measures of each of the proposed nine dimensions of psychological literacy were completed by two samples (N = 218 and N = 381) of undergraduate psychology students at an Australian university. Single and multi-item measures of each dimension were weakly to moderately correlated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of multi-item measures indicated a higher order three factor solution best represented the construct of psychological literacy. The three factors were reflective processes, generic graduate attributes, and psychology as a helping profession. For the measurement of psychological literacy to progress there is a need to further develop self-report measures and to identify/develop and evaluate objective measures of psychological literacy. Further approximations of the measurement of psychological literacy remain an imperative, given the construct's ties to measuring institutional efficacy in teaching psychology to an undergraduate audience. PMID:25741300

  9. The measurement of psychological literacy: a first approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D; Heritage, Brody; Gasson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Psychological literacy, the ability to apply psychological knowledge to personal, family, occupational, community and societal challenges, is promoted as the primary outcome of an undergraduate education in psychology. As the concept of psychological literacy becomes increasingly adopted as the core business of undergraduate psychology training courses world-wide, there is urgent need for the construct to be accurately measured so that student and institutional level progress can be assessed and monitored. Key to the measurement of psychological literacy is determining the underlying factor-structure of psychological literacy. In this paper we provide a first approximation of the measurement of psychological literacy by identifying and evaluating self-report measures for psychological literacy. Multi-item and single-item self-report measures of each of the proposed nine dimensions of psychological literacy were completed by two samples (N = 218 and N = 381) of undergraduate psychology students at an Australian university. Single and multi-item measures of each dimension were weakly to moderately correlated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of multi-item measures indicated a higher order three factor solution best represented the construct of psychological literacy. The three factors were reflective processes, generic graduate attributes, and psychology as a helping profession. For the measurement of psychological literacy to progress there is a need to further develop self-report measures and to identify/develop and evaluate objective measures of psychological literacy. Further approximations of the measurement of psychological literacy remain an imperative, given the construct's ties to measuring institutional efficacy in teaching psychology to an undergraduate audience.

  10. Item analysis of single-peaked response data : the psychometric evaluation of bipolar measurement scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, Maaike Geertruida

    2011-01-01

    The thesis explains the fundamental difference between unipolar and bipolar measurement scales for psychological characteristics. We explore the use of correspondence analysis (CA), a technique that is similar to principal component analysis and is available in SAS and SPSS, to select items that

  11. Validity of a single item food security questionnaire in Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Cao, Zhirong R; Egeland, Grace M

    2014-06-01

    Assess sensitivity and specificity of each of the 18 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) questionnaire items to determine whether a rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible in an Inuit population. Food insecurity prevalence was assessed by the 18-item USDA HFSSM in a randomized sample of Inuit households participating in the Inuit Health Survey and the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. Questions were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (+/2), and total percent accuracy for adult and child food insecurity (yes/no). Child food security items were evaluated for both surveys. For children, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when it was not possible to feed the children a healthy meal because there was not enough money?” had the best performance in both samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 97.3%, respectively, for the Inuit Health Survey, and 88.5% and 95.4% for the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. For adults, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when the food for you and your family just did not last and there was no money to buy more?” demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 93.4%. Rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible and may be a useful tool for health care and social service providers. However, as prevalence and severity of food insecurity change over time, rapid assessment techniques should not replace periodic screening by using the full USDA HFSSM questionnaire.

  12. Randomization and Data-Analysis Items in Quality Standards for Single-Case Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Wendt, Oliver; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Reporting standards and critical appraisal tools serve as beacons for researchers, reviewers, and research consumers. Parallel to existing guidelines for researchers to report and evaluate group-comparison studies, single-case experimental (SCE) researchers are in need of guidelines for reporting and evaluating SCE studies. A systematic search was…

  13. 48 CFR 245.7101-3 - DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROPERTY Plant Clearance Forms 245.7101-3 DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document. Use for shipments of excess industrial plant equipment and contractor inventory redistribution system...

  14. Validity and usefulness of a single-item measure of patient-reported bother from side effects of cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Timothy P; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Mroczek, Daniel; O'Connor, Mary; Cella, David

    2018-03-01

    The improving efficacy of cancer treatment has resulted in an increasing array of treatment-related symptoms and associated burdens imposed on individuals undergoing aggressive treatment of their disease. Often, clinical trials compare therapies that have different types, and severities, of adverse effects. Whether rated by clinicians or patients themselves, it can be difficult to know which side effect profile is more disruptive or bothersome to patients. A simple summary index of bother can help to adjudicate the variability in adverse effects across treatments being compared with each other. Across 4 studies, a total of 5765 patients enrolled in cooperative group studies and industry-sponsored clinical trials were the subjects of the current study. Patients were diagnosed with a range of primary cancer sites, including bladder, brain, breast, colon/rectum, head/neck, hepatobiliary, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, and prostate as well as leukemia and lymphoma. All patients were administered the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General version (FACT-G). The single item "I am bothered by side effects of treatment" (GP5), rated on a 5-point Likert scale, is part of the FACT-G. To determine its validity as a useful summary measure from the patient perspective, it was correlated with individual and aggregated clinician-rated adverse events and patient reports of their general ability to enjoy life. Analyses of pharmaceutical trials demonstrated that mean GP5 scores ("I am bothered by side effects of treatment") significantly differed by maximum adverse event grade (PEffect sizes ranged from 0.13 to 0.46. Analyses of cooperative group trials demonstrated a significant correlation between GP5 and item GF3 ("I am able to enjoy life") in the predicted direction. The single FACT-G item "I am bothered by side effects of treatment" is significantly associated with clinician-reported adverse events and with patients' ability to enjoy their lives. It has promise as an

  15. The development and validation of a novel outcome measure to quantify mobility in the dysvascular lower extremity amputee: the amputee single item mobility measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, Daniel C; Williams, Rhonda M; Turner, Aaron P; Czerniecki, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a novel patient-reported single-item mobility measure. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Four Veteran’s Administration Medical Centers. Subjects: Individuals undergoing their first major unilateral lower extremity amputation; 198 met inclusion criteria; of these, 113 (57%) enrolled. Interventions: None. Main measures: The Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure, a single item measure with scores ranging from 0 to 6, was developed by an expert panel, and concurrently administered with the Locomotor Capabilities Index-5 (LCI-5) and other outcome measures at six weeks, four months, and 12 months post-amputation. Criterion and construct validity, responsiveness, and floor/ceiling effects were evaluated. Responsiveness was assessed using the standardized response mean. Results: The overall mean 12-month Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure score was 3.39 ±1.4. Scores for transmetatarsal, transtibial, and transfemoral amputees were 4.2 (±1.3), 3.2 (±1.5), and 2.9 (±1.1), respectively. Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure scores demonstrated “large” and statistically significant correlations with the LCI-5 scores at six weeks (r = 0.72), four months (r = 0.81), and 12 months (r = 0.86). At four months and 12 months, the correlation between Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure scores and hours of prosthetic use were r = 0.69 and r = 0.66, respectively, and between Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure scores and Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales functional restriction scores were r = 0.45 and r = 0.67, respectively. Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure scores increased significantly from six weeks to 12 months post-amputation. Minimal floor/ceiling effects were demonstrated. Conclusions: In the unilateral dysvascular amputee, the Amputee Single Item Mobility Measure has strong criterion and construct validity, excellent

  16. The Swiss Health Literacy Survey: development and psychometric properties of a multidimensional instrument to assess competencies for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen; Thombs, Brett D; Schmid, Margareta R

    2014-06-01

    Growing recognition of the role of citizens and patients in health and health care has placed a spotlight on health literacy and patient education. To identify specific competencies for health in definitions of health literacy and patient-centred concepts and empirically test their dimensionality in the general population. A thorough review of the literature on health literacy, self-management, patient empowerment, patient education and shared decision making revealed considerable conceptual overlap as competencies for health and identified a corpus of 30 generic competencies for health. A questionnaire containing 127 items covering the 30 competencies was fielded as a telephone interview in German, French and Italian among 1255 respondents randomly selected from the resident population in Switzerland. Analyses with the software MPlus to model items with mixed response categories showed that the items do not load onto a single factor. Multifactorial models with good fit could be erected for each of five dimensions defined a priori and their corresponding competencies: information and knowledge (four competencies, 17 items), general cognitive skills (four competencies, 17 items), social roles (two competencies, seven items), medical management (four competencies, 27 items) and healthy lifestyle (two competencies, six items). Multiple indicators and multiple causes models identified problematic differential item functioning for only six items belonging to two competencies. The psychometric analyses of this instrument support broader conceptualization of health literacy not as a single competence but rather as a package of competencies for health. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  18. The validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale in adolescents and a comparison with single-item life satisfaction measures: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Veljko

    2016-12-01

    The validity of the life satisfaction measures commonly used among adults has been rarely examined in adolescent samples. The present research had two main goals: (1) to evaluate the structural validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) among adolescents and to test measurement invariance across gender; (2) to compare the criterion and convergent validity of the SWLS and single-item life satisfaction measures among adolescents. Three samples of Serbian adolescents were recruited for the present research. Study 1 (N = 481, M age  = 17.01 years) examined the structure of the SWLS via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and evaluated measurement invariance of the SWLS across gender by a multi-group CFA. Study 2 (N = 283, M age  = 17.34 years) and Study 3 (N = 220, M age  = 16.73 years) compared the convergent validity of the SWLS and single-item life satisfaction measures. The results of Study 1 supported the original one-factor model of the SWLS among adolescents and provided evidence for strong measurement invariance of the SWLS across gender. The findings of Study 2 and Study 3 showed that the SWLS and single-item measures were equally valid and strongly associated (r = .734 in Study 2 and r = .668 in Study 3). No substantial differences in correlations with school success and well-being indicators were found between the SWLS and single-item measures. Our findings support the use of the SWLS among adolescents and indicate that single-item life satisfaction measures perform as well as the SWLS in adolescent samples.

  19. 'Do you think you suffer from depression?' Reevaluating the use of a single item question for the screening of depression in older primary care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayalon, Liat; Goldfracht, Margalit; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    to existing depression screening tools. METHODS: A cross sectional sample of 153 older primary care patients. Participants completed several depression-screening measures (e.g. a single depression screen, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Major Depression Inventory, Visual Analogue Scale). Measures were......OBJECTIVES: The majority of older adults seek depression treatment in primary care. Despite impressive efforts to integrate depression treatment into primary care, depression often remains undetected. The overall goal of the present study was to compare a single item screening for depression......: An easy way to detect depression in older primary care patients would be asking the single question, 'do you think you suffer from depression?'...

  20. Utility and validity of a single-item visual analog scale for measuring dental anxiety in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukuttan, Devapriya; Vinayagavel, Mythreyi; Tadepalli, Anupama

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated whether a visual analog scale (VAS) was comparable to the multi-item Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) in assessing dental anxiety in clinical practice. In total, 200 consecutive patients aged 20-70 years who presented at the dental outpatient department of SRM Dental College, Chennai were enrolled. The test-retest value for the VAS was 0.968. The Spearman rank correlations between the VAS and MDAS items and total score were significant (P dental visit and the VAS also showed a strong correlation (r = 0.473, P dental phobia. The weighted kappa was 69% for agreement between MDAS and the VAS in identifying patients with and without dental anxiety at cut-offs of 13 and 4.75, respectively. The VAS was found to be a valid measure and was comparable to the multi-item MDAS.

  1. Evaluation of the single-item self-rating adherence scale for use in routine clinical care of people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, B J; Fredericksen, R J; Crane, P K; Safren, S A; Mugavero, M J; Willig, James H; Simoni, J M; Wilson, I B; Saag, M S; Kitahata, M M; Crane, H M

    2013-01-01

    The self-rating scale item (SRSI) is a single-item self-report adherence measure that uses adjectives in a 5-point Likert scale, from "very poor" to "excellent," to describe medication adherence over the past 4 weeks. This study investigated the SRSI in 2,399 HIV-infected patients in routine care at two outpatient primary HIV clinics. Correlations between the SRSI and four commonly used adherence items ranged from 0.37 to 0.64. Correlations of adherence barriers, such as depression and substance use, were comparable across all adherence items. General estimating equations suggested the SRSI is as good as or better than other adherence items (p's <0.001 vs. <0.001-0.99) at predicting adherence-related clinical outcomes, such as HIV viral load and CD4(+) cell count. These results and the SRSI's low patient burden suggest its routine use could be helpful for assessing adherence in clinical care and should be more widespread, particularly where more complex instruments may be impractical.

  2. RT-based memory detection : Item saliency effects in the single-probe and the multiple-probe protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Kleinberg, B.; Theocharidou, K.

    RT-based memory detection may provide an efficient means to assess recognition of concealed information. There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in detection rates, and we explored two potential moderators: item saliency and test protocol. Participants tried to conceal low salient (e.g.,

  3. Health literacy and physical and psychological wellbeing in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Doba, Nobutaka; Butler, James P; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2009-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of low health literacy and investigate the relationship between low health literacy and physical and psychological wellbeing in the Japanese general population. A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in a national sample of Japanese adults. Health literacy was measured by self-report using the validated single-item screening question, "How confident are you filling out forms by yourself?" Wellbeing was measured with the physical and psychological domains of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-BREF. Effect sizes were computed by dividing the mean difference in scores by the standard deviation of the scores of all participants. In 1040 adult enrollees (mean age, 57-year-old; women, 52%), there were 161 (15.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.3-17.7%) with low health literacy. Individuals with low health literacy reported lower physical wellbeing (60.6 vs. 71.7, pliteracy. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, health risk behaviors and chronic conditions, these differences were still significant (physical wellbeing, pphysical wellbeing (-0.55) and also for psychological wellbeing (-0.44). The prevalence of self-reported low health literacy in Japanese adults is substantial and it is independently associated with poorer physical and mental wellbeing. Efforts to monitor health literacy and to evaluate causal pathways to poor wellbeing should be encouraged in the Japanese population.

  4. Barriers and benefits to desired behaviors for single use plastic items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Jill F; Hardy, Scott D

    2018-02-01

    Given the growing saliency of plastic marine debris, and the impact of plastics on beaches and aquatic environments in the Laurentian Great Lakes, applied research is needed to support municipal and nongovernmental campaigns to prevent debris from reaching the water's edge. This study addresses this need by examining the barriers and benefits to positive behavior for two plastic debris items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin: plastic bags and plastic water bottles. An online survey is employed to gather data on the use and disposal of these plastic items and to solicit recommendations on how to positively change behavior to reduce improper disposal. Results support a ban on plastic bags and plastic water bottles, with more enthusiasm for a bag ban. Financial incentives are also seen as an effective way to influence behavior change, as are location-specific solutions focused on education and outreach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Teaching Journalistic Texts in Science Classes: the Importance of Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginosar, Avshalom; Tal, Tali

    2017-11-01

    This study employs a single framework for investigating both environmental journalistic texts published on news websites, and science teachers' choices of such texts for their teaching. We analyzed 188 environmental items published during 2 months in seven news websites to determine popularity of topics. Then, 64 science junior high school teachers responded to a closed questionnaire to identify their preferred topics for using in the classroom and patterns of using environmental news items. In a second, open-ended questionnaire, responded by 50 teachers, we investigated the teachers' media literacy in terms of identifying text types and writers of environmental news items. Good alignment was found between the published topics on the websites and teachers' choices, with somewhat different distribution of topics, which could be explained by curriculum requirements. Teachers' identification of text types and writer types was inaccurate, which implied that their media literacy is inadequate. We argue that media literacy is required for effective use of journalistic texts in science teaching.

  6. Pediatric injury information seeking for mothers with young children: The role of health literacy and ehealth literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer A; Falisi, Angela L; Roberts, Kristin J; Smith, Katherine C; McKenzie, Lara B

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of preferred sources of injury information among parents is needed to develop best practices for information dissemination. Yet, almost no research examines injury information seeking for a national sample of mothers. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in 2013 with 1081 mothers in the United States (U.S.) with at least one child literacy with the Morris Single-Item Screener (18% low), and eHealth literacy using the eHEALS (28% low). The internet was the most preferred source for injury information (76%), followed by health providers (44%), and family/friends (35%). Most mothers selected the internet as the first choice for information about bicycle helmets (65%) and car seats (63%). For poison prevention, preferences were mixed; 48% internet compared with 41% health providers. Mothers with low health literacy were more likely to have discussed injury prevention with their doctors ( P = 0.022) and searched for injury information ( P = 0.001), but less likely to report the internet as a top source ( P literacy were less likely to search for injury information ( P information ( P = 0.028). Findings suggest the internet is a common source of injury prevention information, but health providers remain a valuable resource for mothers, especially those with lower literacy skills. Despite widespread internet use, health providers should be sure to communicate injury prevention information to mothers, especially those at risk for low health literacy and eHealth literacy.

  7. Simple screening tools to identify limited health literacy in a low-income patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylitalo, Kelly R; Meyer, M Renée Umstattd; Lanning, Beth A; During, Christina; Laschober, Ryan; Griggs, Jackson O

    2018-03-01

    Adults with limited health literacy have difficulty managing chronic conditions, higher hospitalization rates, and more healthcare expenditures. Simple screening tools have been developed, but limited work has evaluated instruments among low-income populations. This study assessed health literacy among primary care patients of a federally qualified health center, and compared a single screening question about perceived difficulty completing medical forms.A cross-sectional survey was administered to English-speaking patients ≥40 years. Both the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), a 6-item questionnaire, and a single-item screening question about perceived difficulty with completing medical forms, assessed health literacy. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of inadequate health literacy and receiver operator curves compared the NVS and single-item question.Participants (n = 406) were, on average, aged 58.5 years (±11.3), 72.2% female, and identified as Hispanic/Latino (19.2%), non-Hispanic white (31.0%), non-Hispanic black (40.9%), or other (8.9%). Of the 406 participants, 335 (82.5%) completed the NVS. Patients who declined NVS were more likely to be older (P literacy. Older adults, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black patients, patients with missed office visits, and those reporting less confidence completing medical forms were significantly more likely to have inadequate health literacy. Perceived confidence completing medical forms demonstrated low sensitivity but high specificity at multiple thresholds.This is the first investigation to compare the NVS and confidence completing medical forms question. Many patients declined health literacy assessments, but health literacy screening may identify patients who need additional health education and resources.

  8. Passive ultra high frequency radio frequency identification systems for single-item identification in food supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Barge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry, composition, size, and shape of items are much less regular than in other commodities sectors. In addition, a wide variety of packaging, composed by different materials, is employed. As material, size and shape of items to which the tag should be attached strongly influence the minimum power requested for tag functioning, performance improvements can be achieved only selecting suitable radio frequency (RF identifiers for the specific combination of food product and packaging. When dealing with logistics units, the dynamic reading of a vast number of tags could originate simultaneous broadcasting of signals (tag-to-tag collisions that could affect reading rates and the overall reliability of the identification procedure. This paper reports the results of an analysis of the reading performance of ultra high frequency radio frequency identification systems for multiple static and dynamic electronic identification of food packed products in controlled conditions. Products were considered when arranged on a logistics pallet. The effects on reading rate of different factors, among which the product type, the gate configuration, the field polarisation, the power output of the RF reader, the interrogation protocol configuration as well as the transit speed, the number of tags and their interactions were statistically analysed and compared.

  9. The International Adult Literacy Survey: What Does It Really Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mary; Barton, David

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the International Adult Literacy Survey (as reported in OECD 1997) from a New Literacy Studies perspective. Criticism of the survey includes charges that: it provides only a partial picture of literacy; culture is treated as bias; and the test items do not represent the real-life items as claimed. Contains 30 references. (PGS)

  10. 'Do you think you suffer from depression?' Reevaluating the use of a single item question for the screening of depression in older primary care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayalon, Liat; Goldfracht, Margalit; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    to existing depression screening tools. METHODS: A cross sectional sample of 153 older primary care patients. Participants completed several depression-screening measures (e.g. a single depression screen, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Major Depression Inventory, Visual Analogue Scale). Measures were...... evaluated against a depression diagnosis made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. RESULTS: Overall, 3.9% of the sample was diagnosed with depression. The most notable finding was that the single-item question, 'do you think you suffer from depression?' had as good or better sensitivity (83......: An easy way to detect depression in older primary care patients would be asking the single question, 'do you think you suffer from depression?'...

  11. Value in Single-level Lumbar Discectomy: Surgical Disposable Item Cost and Relationship to Patient-reported Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Modic, Michael T; Krishnaney, Ajit A

    2017-11-01

    This is a retrospective study. Compare improvements in health status measures (HSMs) and surgical costs to determine whether use of more costly items has any relationship to clinical outcome and value in lumbar disc surgery. Association between cost, outcomes, and value in spine surgery, including lumbar discectomy is poorly understood. Outcomes were calculated as difference in mean HSM scores between preoperative and postoperative timeframes. Prospective validated patient-reported HSMs studied were EuroQol quality of life index score (EQ-5D), Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Surgical costs consisted of disposable items and implants used in operating room. We retrospectively identified all adult patients at Cleveland Clinic main campus between October 2009 and August 2013 who underwent lumbar discectomy (652) using administrative billing data, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code 63030. HSMs were obtained from Cleveland Clinic Knowledge Program Data Registry. In total, 67% of operations performed in the outpatient or ambulatory setting, 33% in the inpatient setting. Among 9 surgeons who performed >10 lumbar discectomies, there were 72.4 operations per surgeon, on average. Mean surgical costs of each surgeon differed (Pcosts (Pcosts (P=0.76, 0.07, 0.76, respectively). In multivariable regression, only surgical cost was significantly correlated to mean difference in PDQ (P=0.030). More costly surgeries resulted in worse PDQ outcomes. Mean surgical costs varied statistically among 9 surgeons; costs were not shown to be positively correlated with patient outcomes. Performing an operation using more costly disposable supplies/implants does not seem to improve patient outcomes and should be considered when constructing preference cards and during an operation.

  12. Development of coordination system model on single-supplier multi-buyer for multi-item supply chain with probabilistic demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia, G.; Santoso, A.; Prayogo, D. N.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, the level of competition between supply chains is getting tighter and a good coordination system between supply chains members is very crucial in solving the issue. This paper focused on a model development of coordination system between single supplier and buyers in a supply chain as a solution. Proposed optimization model was designed to determine the optimal number of deliveries from a supplier to buyers in order to minimize the total cost over a planning horizon. Components of the total supply chain cost consist of transportation costs, handling costs of supplier and buyers and also stock out costs. In the proposed optimization model, the supplier can supply various types of items to retailers whose item demand patterns are probabilistic. Sensitivity analysis of the proposed model was conducted to test the effect of changes in transport costs, handling costs and production capacities of the supplier. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed a significant influence on the changes in the transportation cost, handling costs and production capacity to the decisions of the optimal numbers of product delivery for each item to the buyers.

  13. Is low health literacy associated with increased emergency department utilization and recidivism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Richard T; Kennedy, Sarah K; D'Agostino McGowan, Lucy; McGownan, Lucy; Goodman, Melody; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    The objective was to determine whether patients with low health literacy have higher emergency department (ED) utilization and higher ED recidivism than patients with adequate health literacy. The study was conducted at an urban academic ED with more than 95,000 annual visits that is part of a 13-hospital health system, using electronic records that are captured in a central data repository. As part of a larger, cross-sectional, convenience sample study, health literacy testing was performed using the short test of functional health literacy in adults (S-TOFHLA) and standard test thresholds identifying those with inadequate, marginal, and adequate health literacy. The authors collected patients' demographic and clinical data, including items known to affect recidivism. This was a structured electronic record review directed at determining 1) the median number of total ED visits in this health system within a 2-year period and 2) the proportion of patients with each level of health literacy who had return visits within 3, 7, and 14 days of index visits. Descriptive data for demographics and ED returns are reported, stratified by health literacy level. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square was used to test whether there is an association between health literacy and ED recidivism. A negative binomial multivariable model was performed to examine whether health literacy affects ED use, including variables significant at the 0.1 alpha level on bivariate analysis and retaining those significant at an alpha of 0.05 in the final model. Among 431 patients evaluated, 13.2% had inadequate, 10% had marginal, and 76.3% had adequate health literacy as identified by S-TOFHLA. Patients with inadequate health literacy had higher ED utilization compared to those with adequate health literacy (p = 0.03). Variables retained in the final model included S-TOFHLA score, number of medications, having a personal doctor, being a property owner, race, insurance, age, and simple comorbidity score

  14. Cross-Sectional Study of the Relation of Health Literacy to Primary Language and Emergency Department Length of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangarm, Dusadee; Ernst, Amy; Horner, Rachel; Crum, Ashley; Weiss, Steven J; Zemkova, Yana; King, Kisa

    2017-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) or primary language was related to the degree of health literacy of patients. Adult English-speaking and Spanish-speaking patients were recruited for the study. Participants completed the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) tool (English and Spanish versions), a 6-question validated scale. Patients with NVS scores of 0 to 3 were considered to be at risk for limited health literacy, whereas those with adequate health literacy were defined as scoring a 4 to 6. After completion of their ED visit, a retrospective chart review was performed to identify the patient's ED LOS (time from registration to time of disposition) and ED disposition. In addition, 2 single-item questions were compared with the NVS for validity. Participants included 250 English-speaking and 257 Spanish-speaking subjects. Per the NVS, 71% (359 of 507) of all patients had limited health literacy. By language group, significantly more Spanish-speaking than English-speaking patients had limited health literacy (93% vs 48%, diff 45%, 95% confidence interval 37-51). There was no significant difference in LOS between the limited health literacy group and adequate health literacy group (medians 440 vs 461 min). The 2 single-item questions had fair validity in comparison to the NVS scale (κ 0.2-0.3). There was a significant difference in health literacy based on language, with 93% of all Spanish-speaking patients in our sample having limited health literacy. We found no significant difference in ED LOS between patients with limited health and adequate health literacy in an academic urban ED setting.

  15. Bipolar Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiguchi Sumiyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article asserts that the Japanese wide-scope mo ‘even’ in simple sentences are bipolar items (BPIs antilicensed or forbidden by negation and licensed in a non-monotonic (NM environment. BPIs share the features of negative polarity items (NPIs as well as positive polarity items (PPIs. The Dutch ooit ‘ever’, the Serbo-Croatian i-series ‘and/even’, and the Hungarian is-series ‘and/even’ are antilicensed by clausemate negation and licensed by extraclausal negation (van der Wouden, 1997; Progovac, 1994; Szabolcsi, 2002 or non-monotonic negative (and positive, for Serbo-Croatian emotive predicates. Adding an NPI rescues BPIs in uncomfortable clausemate negation.

  16. Construct validity and responsiveness of the single-item presenteeism question in patients with lower back pain for the measurement of presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, Jesse; Lewis, Martyn; Jowett, Sue; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    Validity and responsiveness study using a randomized clinical trial and prospective cohort study of patients with low back pain (LBP). To provide evidence for construct validity and responsiveness to change of a single-item presenteeism question (SIPQ) in patients with LBP. The SIPQ is a simple, easy to administer tool that has been used to measure the impact of back pain on reduced productivity at work (presenteeism) as a standalone measure. Evidence supporting the validity and responsiveness of the SIPQ among patients with back pain is however lacking. The SIPQ was administered to patients consulting for back pain in a randomized controlled trial (N = 851) and a cohort intervention study (N = 922). Construct validity was assessed using convergent, divergent, and known-group validity. The validity investigation included assessing associations between the SIPQ and pain, disability, psychological, health status, and quality of life measures. Responsiveness was assessed using external indicators of change as comparators, evaluating correlation of clinical change scores and effect size statistics. Moderate to strong correlations were found between presenteeism and pain (r: 0.44-0.77), disability (r: 0.53-0.70), and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey physical dimensions (r: -0.66 to -0.55). Presenteeism was strongly associated with disease-specific pain and disability scales. The SIPQ was responsive to changes in productivity-presenteeism change scores indicated strong correlation with change scores, and high responsiveness in distribution- and anchor-based testing. The SIPQ is a potentially valid and responsive tool for assessing the impact of back pain on presenteeism. This SIPQ could, with relative ease, facilitate further research on the estimation of presenteeism within economic evaluation studies of musculoskeletal conditions, thus providing policymakers with estimates of economic impact of musculoskeletal disease. Further evidence is, however, merited to assess

  17. Is the Newest Vital Sign a Useful Measure of Health Literacy in HIV Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordovski, Victoria M; Woods, Steven Paul; Avci, Gunes; Verduzco, Marizela; Morgan, Erin E

    Limited health literacy is common among persons infected with HIV and has been linked to poor mental and physical health outcomes, but there are no well-validated screening measures of health literacy in this vulnerable clinical population. The present study evaluates the usefulness of the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) as a brief measure of health literacy in HIV disease. Seventy-eight HIV+ adults were administered the NVS, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS). Main criterion variables included plasma HIV viral load, medication management capacity, self-efficacy for medication management, and perceived relationships with healthcare providers. The NVS showed good internal consistency and moderate correlations with the REALM and SILS. Rates of limited health literacy were highest on the NVS (30.3%) as compared to SILS (6.6%) and REALM (9.2%). A series of regressions controlling for education showed that the NVS was incrementally predictive of viral load, medication management capacity and self-efficacy, and relationships with healthcare providers, above and beyond the REALM and SILS. The NVS shows evidence of reliability, convergent validity, and incremental criterion-related validity and thus may serve as useful screening tool for assessing health literacy in HIV disease.

  18. Health literacy of caregivers of adult care recipients: A systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Eva Y N; Knight, Tess; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Burney, Susan

    2018-03-01

    Caregivers play a vital role in providing support to adults with a chronic condition, or cognitive or physical impairment. Low health literacy in caregivers has the potential to impact adequate care provision, and consequently, care recipient health outcomes. The aim of the study was to systematically review literature related to health literacy of caregivers of adult care recipients, and examine its relationship with care recipient, and caregiver, health outcomes. Electronic databases were searched for relevant English-language publications that assessed health literacy in caregivers. Included studies were abstracted into evidence tables and assessed using an eight-item quality scale. The search identified 2717 new titles and abstracts, with 67 shortlisted for full review. Twelve papers from 2003 to 2015 met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of limited health literacy in caregivers ranged from 0% to 52.5% depending on the measure and cut-off criteria used. Associations were found between low caregiver health literacy and (i) poorer care recipient self-management behaviours; (ii) increased care recipient use of health services; and (iii) increased caregiver burden. The quality of the studies ranged from fair to excellent. Low health literacy in caregivers differed depending on the measures and scoring criteria used. Evidence to support the relationship between caregiver health literacy and care recipient, and caregiver health outcomes was limited to single studies. Recommendations for further research include: the development of caregiver health literacy measures across different populations; examination of associations between caregiver health literacy and care recipient outcomes; and the development of interventions designed to improve caregiver health literacy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Health Literacy and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Smothers, Kyle; Rogers, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this review was to assess published literature relating to health literacy and older adults. Method: The current review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. Results: Eight articles met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in urban settings in the United States. Study sample size ranged from 33 to 3,000 participants. Two studies evaluated health-related outcomes and reported significant associations between low health literacy and poorer health outcomes. Two other studies investigated the impact of health literacy on medication management, reporting mixed findings. Discussion: The findings of this review highlight the importance of working to improve health care strategies for older adults with low health literacy and highlight the need for a standardized and validated clinical health literacy screening tool for older adults. PMID:28138488

  20. Cultural Literacy of a College of Education Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William; Monaco, Malina

    This study sought to analyze the cultural literacy of a college of education faculty and compare it to the cultural literacy of undergraduate and graduate students at the same institution. A 100-item instrument, based upon a New York Times book review of "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know" (E. D. Hirsch, Jr., and…

  1. Is a single item stress measure independently associated with subsequent severe injury: a prospective cohort study of 16,385 forest industry employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Simo; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Joensuu, Matti; Väänänen, Ari

    2014-06-02

    A previous review showed that high stress increases the risk of occupational injury by three- to five-fold. However, most of the prior studies have relied on short follow-ups. In this prospective cohort study we examined the effect of stress on recorded hospitalised injuries in an 8-year follow-up. A total of 16,385 employees of a Finnish forest company responded to the questionnaire. Perceived stress was measured with a validated single-item measure, and analysed in relation recorded hospitalised injuries from 1986 to 2008. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine the prospective associations between work stress, injuries and confounding factors. Highly stressed participants were approximately 40% more likely to be hospitalised due to injury over the follow-up period than participants with low stress. This association remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, occupational status, educational level, and physical work environment. High stress is associated with an increased risk of severe injury.

  2. Concurrent Validity and Sensitivity to Change of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) Within an Elementary Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rhonda L; Eklund, Katie; Kilgus, Stephen P

    2017-06-12

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity, sensitivity to change, and teacher acceptability of Direct Behavior Rating single-item scales (DBR-SIS), a brief progress monitoring measure designed to assess student behavioral change in response to intervention. Twenty-four elementary teacher-student dyads implemented a daily report card intervention to promote positive student behavior during prespecified classroom activities. During both baseline and intervention, teachers completed DBR-SIS ratings of 2 target behaviors (i.e., Academic Engagement, Disruptive Behavior) whereas research assistants collected systematic direct observation (SDO) data in relation to the same behaviors. Five change metrics (i.e., absolute change, percent of change from baseline, improvement rate difference, Tau-U, and standardized mean difference; Gresham, 2005) were calculated for both DBR-SIS and SDO data, yielding estimates of the change in student behavior in response to intervention. Mean DBR-SIS scores were predominantly moderately to highly correlated with SDO data within both baseline and intervention, demonstrating evidence of the former's concurrent validity. DBR-SIS change metrics were also significantly correlated with SDO change metrics for both Disruptive Behavior and Academic Engagement, yielding evidence of the former's sensitivity to change. In addition, teacher Usage Rating Profile-Assessment (URP-A) ratings indicated they found DBR-SIS to be acceptable and usable. Implications for practice, study limitations, and areas of future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  4. Family Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livija Knaflič

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in child and adult literacy demonstrates that the achievement and the level of literacy that children attain at school is connected with the social and cultural characteristics and the level of literacy of the child's family. This intergenerational transfer of the level of literacy has motivated the search for different ways of improving the level of literacy.The concept of family literacy is based on the assumption that a higher level of parent literacy means that the children may achieve the same, and it also offers better schooling prospects. Family literacy programmes help fami­lies to develop different activities, in­cluding reading and writing skills, both in their community and in everyday life.

  5. Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health literacy refers to how well a person can get the health information and services that they need, and ... adults in the United States have low health literacy. It affects their ability to make health decisions. ...

  6. Physical literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Roučka, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Topic: Physical literacy Goals: The aproximation of physical literacy, collection and evaluation questionnaires of physical literacy knowledge and students anamnesis. Description of applicants progress in the specific movement skills. Method: Unified questionnaires was used for obtaining informations. We make video for movement analysis. Results: The results didn't obtain our expectation that students are able to express precisely the content of physical literacy by specific skills. However, ...

  7. Evaluation of instruments to assess health literacy in Arabic language among Iraqis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jumaili, Ali Azeez; Al-Rekabi, Mohammed Dakhil; Sorofman, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Low health literacy is associated with lack of medical information, less use of preventive measures, low medication adherence rates, high health care costs and high risk of hospitalization. The aims were to compare the results of the three health literacy tests, to measure for the first time the health literacy level of Iraqis, to describe the use of standardized health literacy tests, to evaluate reliability and validity of the Arabic versions of these tests, and to investigate whether there is relationship between the participant characteristics and the health literacy level. A convenience sample of 95 subjects was studied in five community pharmacies in Al-Najaf and Babylon governorates, Iraq. Three health literacy tests, the Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS), the New Vital Sign (NVS) and the Short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), were translated in the Arabic language and administered to the pharmacy customers. There were no statistically significant associations between age, gender, education and current education status and NVS score, but there were significant positive associations between the level of education and each one of SILS, New SILS, and S-TOFHLA scores. SILS has one subjective, possibly culturally biased question. Since Iraqis are generally not exposed to reading product labels, the NVS test might be not an accurate measure for them. S-TOFHLA was the most comprehensive test and gave equitable results. The Arabic version of S-TOFHLA can be used to measure health literacy in 22 Arabic speaking countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Political Literacy as Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Cory Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This paper contends that political literacy and information literacy are compatible concepts that are inextricably linked and should therefore be taught and stressed simultaneously to students in the classroom. Improving the information literacy and political literacy skills of students will allow them to not only perform better academically, but also empower them to become better citizens who form opinions and make decisions based on appropriate and quality information.

  9. Data Literacy is Statistical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Past definitions of statistical literacy should be updated in order to account for the greatly amplified role that data now play in our lives. Experience working with high-school students in an innovative data science curriculum has shown that teaching statistical literacy, augmented by data literacy, can begin early.

  10. Using existing questionnaires in latent class analysis: should we use summary scores or single items as input? A methodological study using a cohort of patients with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen AM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anne Molgaard Nielsen,1 Werner Vach,2 Peter Kent,1,3 Lise Hestbaek,1,4 Alice Kongsted1,4 1Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; 2Center for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; 4Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Background: Latent class analysis (LCA is increasingly being used in health research, but optimal approaches to handling complex clinical data are unclear. One issue is that commonly used questionnaires are multidimensional, but expressed as summary scores. Using the example of low back pain (LBP, the aim of this study was to explore and descriptively compare the application of LCA when using questionnaire summary scores and when using single items to subgrouping of patients based on multidimensional data. Materials and methods: Baseline data from 928 LBP patients in an observational study were classified into four health domains (psychology, pain, activity, and participation using the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. LCA was performed within each health domain using the strategies of summary-score and single-item analyses. The resulting subgroups were descriptively compared using statistical measures and clinical interpretability. Results: For each health domain, the preferred model solution ranged from five to seven subgroups for the summary-score strategy and seven to eight subgroups for the single-item strategy. There was considerable overlap between the results of the two strategies, indicating that they were reflecting the same underlying data structure. However, in three of the four health domains, the single-item strategy resulted in a more nuanced description, in terms

  11. Making a Literacy Plan: Developing an Integrated Curriculum That Meets Your School's Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Literacy does not happen in a single lesson or course. There are no shortcuts to gaining mastery over a skill set, whether it is reading literacy, information literacy and research skills, online literacy and digital citizenship, or visual literacy. School librarians dream about a perfect integrated curriculum: there is ample time for…

  12. Children's Literacy Interest and Its Relation to Parents' Literacy-Promoting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Laura E.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; McQueen, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how children's literacy interests related to parent literacy-promoting practices across time. Using a sample of 909 preschool-age children and the newly developed Child Activities Preference Checklist, literacy interest appeared to be a complex construct, not easily captured by a single measure. In a subsample of 230 children…

  13. Do Subjective Measures Improve the Ability to Identify Limited Health Literacy in a Clinical Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Melody S; Griffey, Richard T; Carpenter, Christopher R; Blanchard, Melvin; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2015-01-01

    Existing health literacy assessments developed for research purposes have constraints that limit their utility for clinical practice, including time requirements and administration protocols. The Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS) consists of 3 self-administered Single-Item Literacy Screener (SILS) questions and obviates these clinical barriers. We assessed whether the addition of SILS items or the BHLS to patient demographics readily available in ambulatory clinical settings reaching underserved patients improves the ability to identify limited health literacy. We analyzed data from 2 cross-sectional convenience samples of patients from an urban academic emergency department (n = 425) and a primary care clinic (n = 486) in St. Louis, Missouri. Across samples, health literacy was assessed using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised (REALM-R), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), and the BHLS. Our analytic sample consisted of 911 adult patients, who were primarily female (62%), black (66%), and had at least a high school education (82%); 456 were randomly assigned to the estimation sample and 455 to the validation sample. The analysis showed that the best REALM-R estimation model contained age, sex, education, race, and 1 SILS item (difficulty understanding written information). In validation analysis this model had a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 81%, a positive likelihood ratio (LR(+)) of 3.26, and a negative likelihood ratio (LR(-)) of 0.47; there was a 28% misclassification rate. The best NVS estimation model contained the BHLS, age, sex, education and race; this model had a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 72%, LR(+) of 2.75, LR(-) of 0.32, and a misclassification rate of 25%. Findings suggest that the BHLS and SILS items improve the ability to identify patients with limited health literacy compared with demographic predictors alone. However, despite being easier to administer in clinical settings, subjective estimates of health literacy have

  14. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  15. Association of various components of media literacy and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Hobbs, Renee

    2009-01-01

    To determine which specific aspects of media literacy were most strongly associated with smoking outcomes. Students at a public high school responded to cross-sectional survey items measuring smoking outcomes, components of media literacy, and other variables. Of the 1211 participants, 19% were current smokers (N = 216) and 40% of the nonsmokers (N = 342) were susceptible to smoking. In the adjusted models, current smoking was most strongly related to representation-reality domain items, but susceptibility to smoking was associated with each of the media literacy domains. Varied relationships exist between individual facets of media literacy and smoking outcomes.

  16. Association of Various Components of Media Literacy and Adolescent Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A.; Hobbs, Renee

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine which specific aspects of media literacy were most strongly associated with smoking outcomes. Methods Students at a public high school responded to cross-sectional survey items measuring smoking outcomes, components of media literacy, and other variables. Results Of the 1211 participants, 19% were current smokers (N = 216) and 40% of the nonsmokers (N = 342) were susceptible to smoking. In the adjusted models, current smoking was most strongly related to representation-reality domain items, but susceptibility to smoking was associated with each of the media literacy domains. Conclusion Varied relationships exist between individual facets of media literacy and smoking outcomes. PMID:18844513

  17. Measuring Practicing Clinicians’ Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Katherine; Jensen, Ashley E.; Bennett, Katelyn J.; Sherman, Scott E.; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background As healthcare moves towards technology-driven population health management, clinicians must adopt complex digital platforms to access health information and document care. Objectives This study explored information literacy, a set of skills required to effectively navigate population health information systems, among primary care providers in one Veterans’ Affairs (VA) medical center. Methods Information literacy was assessed during an 8-month randomized trial that tested a population health (panel) management intervention. Providers were asked about their use and comfort with two VA digital tools for panel management at baseline, 16 weeks, and post-intervention. An 8-item scale (range 0-40) was used to measure information literacy (Cronbach’s a=0.84). Scores between study arms and provider types were compared using paired t-tests and ANOVAs. Associations between self-reported digital tool use and information literacy were measured via Pearson’s correlations. Results Providers showed moderate levels of information literacy (M= 27.4, SD 6.5). There were no significant differences in mean information literacy between physicians (M=26.4, SD 6.7) and nurses (M=30.5, SD 5.2, p=0.57 for difference), or between intervention (M=28.4, SD 6.5) and control groups (M=25.1, SD 6.2, p=0.12 for difference). Information literacy was correlated with higher rates of self-reported information system usage (r=0.547, p=0.001). Clinicians identified data access, accuracy, and interpretability as potential information literacy barriers. Conclusions While exploratory in nature, cautioning generalizability, the study suggests that measuring and improving clinicians’ information literacy may play a significant role in the implementation and use of digital information tools, as these tools are rapidly being deployed to enhance communication among care teams, improve health care outcomes, and reduce overall costs. PMID:28197620

  18. Information Literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    conceptions and learning experiences of students, information literacy initiatives and IL learning challenges in higher .... is familiar with and able to effectively engage in new technology environments, including social media, and. • is able to ... The study demonstrated that a lack of information literacy skills in university.

  19. An analysis of differential item functioning by gender in the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja Louise; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen

    2015-04-01

    The Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ; McKenzie & Paxton, 2006) was developed as a brief screen for intellectual disability. Although several previous studies have evaluated the LDSQ with respect to its utility as a clinical and research tool, no studies have considered the fairness of the test across males and females. In the current study we, therefore, used a multi-group item response theory approach to assess differential item functioning across gender in a sample of 211 males and 132 females assessed in clinical and forensic settings. Although the test did not show evidence of differential item functioning by gender, it was necessary to exclude one item due to estimation problems and to combine two very highly related items (concerning reading and writing ability) into a single literacy item Thus, in addition to being generally supportive of the utility of the LDSQ, our results also highlight possible areas of weakness in the tool and suggest possible amendments that could be made to test content to improve the test in future revisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative Literacy at Michigan State University, 2: Connection to Financial Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gilliland

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The lack of capability of making financial decisions has been recently described for the adult United States population. A concerted effort to increase awareness of this crisis, to improve education in quantitative and financial literacy, and to simplify financial decision-making processes is critical to the solution. This paper describes a study that was undertaken to explore the relationship between quantitative literacy and financial literacy for entering college freshmen. In summer 2010, incoming freshmen to Michigan State University were assessed. Well-tested financial literacy items and validated quantitative literacy assessment instruments were administered to 531 subjects. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between level of financial literacy and independent variables including quantitative literacy score, ACT mathematics score, and demographic variables including gender. The study establishes a strong positive association between quantitative literacy and financial literacy on top of the effects of the other independent variables. Adding one percent to the performance on a quantitative literacy assessment changes the odds for being at the highest level of financial literacy by a factor estimated to be 1.05. Gender is found to have a large, statistically significant effect as well with being female changing the odds by a factor estimated to be 0.49.

  1. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  2. Health Literacy Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Health Outcomes Strategies Resources What is health literacy? Health literacy is the degree to which individuals ... to be retained. Back to Top What is literacy? Literacy can be defined as a person's ability ...

  3. Literacy and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Mooney, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between literacy and health disparities, focusing on the concept of health literacy. Recommendations are provided for ways to bridge the health literacy gap for learners in adult basic education and family literacy programs.

  4. Digital literacies

    CERN Document Server

    Hockly, Nicky; Pegrum, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic shifts in our communication landscape have made it crucial for language teaching to go beyond print literacy and encompass the digital literacies which are increasingly central to learners' personal, social, educational and professional lives. By situating these digital literacies within a clear theoretical framework, this book provides educators and students alike with not just the background for a deeper understanding of these key 21st-century skills, but also the rationale for integrating these skills into classroom practice. This is the first methodology book to address not jus

  5. Associations between smoking and media literacy in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Sidani, Jaime; Carroll, Mary V; Fine, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    Organizations recommend media literacy to reduce tobacco use, and higher media literacy has been associated with lower smoking among high school students. The relationship between smoking media literacy and tobacco use, however, has not been systematically studied among college students. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between smoking and smoking media literacy among college students. We conducted the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) at a large, urban university, adding six items measuring smoking media literacy. A total of 657 students responded to this random sample e-mail survey. We used multiple logistic regression to determine independent associations between smoking media literacy items and current smoking. The media literacy scale was internally consistent (alpha = 0.79). Of the respondents, 21.5% reported smoking cigarettes over the past 30 days. In a fully adjusted multivariate model, participants with medium media literacy had an odds ratio (OR) for current smoking of 0.45 (95% CI = 0.29, 0.70), and those with high media literacy had an OR for current smoking of 0.38 (95% CI = 0.20, 0.70). High smoking media literacy is independently associated with lower odds of smoking. Smoking media literacy may be a valuable construct to address in college populations.

  6. Computational Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongtay, Rocio; Robering, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in and recognition of the importance of Computational Literacy, a skill generally considered to be necessary for success in the 21st century. While much research has concentrated on requirements, tools, and teaching methodologies for the acquisit......In recent years, there has been a growing interest in and recognition of the importance of Computational Literacy, a skill generally considered to be necessary for success in the 21st century. While much research has concentrated on requirements, tools, and teaching methodologies...... for the acquisition of Computational Literacy at basic educational levels, focus on higher levels of education has been much less prominent. The present paper considers the case of courses for higher education programs within the Humanities. A model is proposed which conceives of Computational Literacy as a layered...

  7. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  8. Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Nesset, Sigmund

    2003-01-01

    Information literacy is a concept which is well established in theory while in practice it is only slowly breaking ground in accordance with the understanding of its significance and the possibilities of its realisation. Based on fundamental works, the characteristics of information literacy, its cognitive foundations and significance for individuals as well as for society, are argumented in the article. The analyzed content of this concept is connected with the content of a librarian’s knowl...

  9. Quantifying Media Literacy: Development, Reliability, and Validity of a New Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arke, Edward T.; Primack, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Media literacy has the potential to alter outcomes in various fields, including education, communication, and public health. However, measurement of media literacy remains a critical challenge in advancing this field of inquiry. In this manuscript, we describe the development and testing of a pilot measure of media literacy. Items were formed…

  10. Globalising Assessment: An Ethnography of Literacy Assessment, Camels and Fast Food in the Mongolian Gobi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    What happens when standardised literacy assessments travel globally? The paper presents an ethnographic account of adult literacy assessment events in rural Mongolia. It examines the dynamics of literacy assessment in terms of the movement and re-contextualisation of test items as they travel globally and are received locally by Mongolian…

  11. Research of Middle School Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers’ Mathematical Literacy on PISA Items [Ortaokul Matematik Öğretmeni Adaylarının Matematik Okuryazarlık Becerilerinin PISA Soruları Üzerinden İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangül Kabael

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate development of middle school pre-service mathematics teachers’ mathematical literacy through teacher education program on some PISA items. Participants of this qualitative study were 22 pre-service teachers who were at fourth or sixth term. In first section, a test consisted of 5 PISA items was carried out with participants. In second section, clinical interviews with same PISA items lasted approximately ninety minutes were conducted with selected five participants via criterion sampling from 22 graduated participants. Data from test and clinical interviews were analysed by qualitative methods. According to the results of first section, participants had difficulties in mathematization, especially making relations between variables in the problem, interpreting graphics and participants’ mathematical literacy was not desirable. Participants could not progress in mathematical literacy from fourth term to graduation, had still difficulties in mathematization. Besides, participants assessed aims of items in the context of concept knowledge, mathematical abilities related to items not in the context of attaching importance to mathematical literacy. Participants could assess appropriateness of items for middle grades except difficult items for them. [Bu çalışmada ortaokul matematik öğretmeni adaylarının matematik okuryazarlıklarının matematik öğretmenliği lisans programındaki gelişiminin bazı PISA soruları üzerinden incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Nitel olarak desenlenen çalışmanın katılımcılarını dördüncü ya da altıncı yarıyılında olan 22 öğretmen adayı oluşturmaktadır. İki aşamadan oluşan çalışmanın ilk aşamasında 22 katılımcının matematik okuryazarlıkları beş PISA sorusundan oluşan test ile incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın ikinci aşamasında ise bu katılımcılardan ölçüt örnekleme yöntemiyle seçilen beş katılımcı ile mezun olduklarında, ilk a

  12. Examination of an eHealth literacy scale and a health literacy scale in a population with moderate to high cardiovascular risk: Rasch analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Richtering

    Full Text Available Electronic health (eHealth strategies are evolving making it important to have valid scales to assess eHealth and health literacy. Item response theory methods, such as the Rasch measurement model, are increasingly used for the psychometric evaluation of scales. This paper aims to examine the internal construct validity of an eHealth and health literacy scale using Rasch analysis in a population with moderate to high cardiovascular disease risk.The first 397 participants of the CONNECT study completed the electronic health Literacy Scale (eHEALS and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ. Overall Rasch model fit as well as five key psychometric properties were analysed: unidimensionality, response thresholds, targeting, differential item functioning and internal consistency.The eHEALS had good overall model fit (χ2 = 54.8, p = 0.06, ordered response thresholds, reasonable targeting and good internal consistency (person separation index (PSI 0.90. It did, however, appear to measure two constructs of eHealth literacy. The HLQ subscales (except subscale 5 did not fit the Rasch model (χ2: 18.18-60.60, p: 0.00-0.58 and had suboptimal targeting for most subscales. Subscales 6 to 9 displayed disordered thresholds indicating participants had difficulty distinguishing between response options. All subscales did, nonetheless, demonstrate moderate to good internal consistency (PSI: 0.62-0.82.Rasch analyses demonstrated that the eHEALS has good measures of internal construct validity although it appears to capture different aspects of eHealth literacy (e.g. using eHealth and understanding eHealth. Whilst further studies are required to confirm this finding, it may be necessary for these constructs of the eHEALS to be scored separately. The nine HLQ subscales were shown to measure a single construct of health literacy. However, participants' scores may not represent their actual level of ability, as distinction between response categories was unclear for

  13. The "Test of Financial Literacy": Development and Measurement Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Rebeck, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The "Test of Financial Literacy" (TFL) was created to measure the financial knowledge of high school students. Its content is based on the standards and benchmarks stated in the "National Standards for Financial Literacy" (Council for Economic Education 2013). The test development process involved extensive item writing and…

  14. Association of Various Components of Media Literacy and Adolescent Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A.; Hobbs, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine which specific aspects of media literacy were most strongly associated with smoking outcomes. Methods: Students at a public high school responded to cross-sectional survey items measuring smoking outcomes, components of media literacy, and other variables. Results: Of the 1211 participants, 19% were current smokers (N =…

  15. Information literacy: Educate through literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Atjo, Nur Amanah Ilham; Pratama, Muhammad Fadhil

    2017-01-01

    The concepts and terms about “Information Literacy” has become general study in education studies. Information literacy is pivotal in this global world where the information literacy equip a person’s ability to access, understand and use the information intelligently. In higher education, in the learning process, students should be able to get used to a new way in education. Students must independently by finding, training themselves and absorbing the education material from lecturers. The de...

  16. The Relationship of Health Literacy With Use of Digital Technology for Health Information: Implications for Public Health Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer; Gerstner, Gena; Pergolino, Kristen; Graham, Yvonne; Falisi, Angela; Strogatz, David

    An understanding of the association of health literacy with patterns related to access and usage of digital technologies and preferences for sources of health information is necessary for public health agencies and organizations to appropriately target channels for health information dissemination. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in New York State. Health literacy was assessed using the Morris Single-Item Screener, a self-report question. A weighted analysis was conducted utilizing Stata/SE. The final sample size of New York State residents used for analysis was 1350. In general, self-report health literacy did not predict digital technology use (ie, Internet and smartphone use, text messaging) but was associated with certain digital activities. People with low self-report health literacy were less likely to use search engines (P = .026) but more likely to get health information from social networking sites (P = .002) and use health-related phone apps (P = .046). With respect to health information seeking, those with lower self-report health literacy reported greater difficulty with their most recent search for health information. Furthermore, they were more likely to prefer text messages (P = .013) and radio (P = .022), 2 text-limited communication channels, to receive health information than those with higher self-report health literacy. While self-report health literacy does not appear to influence access to and use of digital technologies, there is a strong association with experiences searching for health information and preferences for health information sources. Public health agencies and organizations should consider the needs and preferences of people with low health literacy when determining channels for health information dissemination. They should also consider implementing interventions to develop health information-seeking skills in populations they serve and prepare information and materials that are easily accessible and

  17. My mind is as clear as it used to be: A pilot study illustrating the difficulties of employing a single-item subjective screen to detect cognitive impairment in outpatients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibiger, Gail; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Wall, Jacqueline R; Passik, Steven D

    2003-08-01

    Oncology patients often complain that their "mind does not seem to be clear." This subjective perception, sometimes referred to as "chemo brain," may be due to situational stressors, psychological disorders, organic factors, or effects of neurotoxic medications. Cognitive decline cannot only diminish quality of life, but can also interfere with a patient's ability to make decisions regarding complex treatment issues. The current study investigated the utility of using item 11 of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Screen (ZSDS) as a cognitive screen. A sample of 61 ambulatory cancer patients completed this study. Participants were recruited from four sites of Community Cancer Care, Inc., in Indiana. A battery of cognitive instruments and psychosocial inventories was administered in a standardized order. The sample had a mean age of 58.6 years and comprised 57.4% (n=35) women and 42.6% (n=26) men. Item 11 of the ZSDS was not significantly correlated to the cognitive measures. Correlates of the perception of cognitive impairment were the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) Attention Scale (r=-0.26, PStroop test (F=19.8, Pspecificity indicated that the single-item screen used in this study is not an accurate means for identifying oncology patients with actual cognitive impairment. We conclude that while the perception of cognitive impairment is common in cancer patients, there may be problems in interpreting the nature of these complaints, particularly in separating them from depressive preoccupation.

  18. Adult Literacy in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Ahmed H.

    The philosophy behind adult literacy in Zanzibar is that adult literacy is a process whereby the illiterate is empowered to become aware of his or her potential. Literacy activities emphasize a relation to work, sometimes known as functional literacy. Specific objectives of literacy programs are to improve living conditions, impart self-reliant…

  19. Psychometric Profile of an Experimental Emergent Literacy Screener for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailet, Laura L; Zettler-Greeley, Cynthia; Lewis, Kandia

    2017-08-31

    Home literacy activities influence children's emergent literacy progress and readiness for reading instruction. To help parents fulfill this opportunity, we developed a new Emergent Literacy Screener (ELS) and conducted 2 studies of its psychometric properties with independent prekindergarten samples. For Study 1 (n = 812, Mage = 54.4 months, 49.4% male, 46.1% white) exploratory factor analyses (EFA) supported a 5-factor structure. EFA and item calibration supported the removal of 10 items from the original 30 test items. The resultant 20-item ELS demonstrated good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .83) and significant positive correlation, r = .50, p literacy measure, Get Ready to Read - Revised. For Study 2 (n = 959, Mage = 53.5 months, 52.3% male, 60.3% white), confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported a bifactor model, which captured direct effects of 5 specific subfactors and an overarching emergent literacy factor. Using a cut score of 15, the ELS demonstrated moderate sensitivity (.71) and specificity (.61). Negative predictive value was high, whereas positive predictive value was low. Overall the ELS demonstrated acceptable psychometric characteristics for use by parents of prekindergarten children, providing a promising new tool for universal emergent literacy screening and an opportunity to identify where children are in their emergent literacy development. Implications for further research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Information Literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    2) would agree, saying that information literate students access, evaluate and use information from a variety of sources, communicate effectively, and reflect on the process as well as the product. Information Literacy is especially relevant in primary and secondary schools, institutions of higher learning, and in business and ...

  1. Information Literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    accepted, leading to a renewed emphasis on information literacy in all education sectors (Bundy 2002). ALA's definition sees IL as ... and/or networks to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, and create information in order to function in a knowledge society. This definition .... organizing and accessing information. The study ...

  2. Studying New Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, Michele; Lankshear, Colin

    2014-01-01

    New literacies research offers valuable insights into young people's everyday literacy practices. Teachers can use the kinds of research outcomes reported here to build on new literacies in appropriate ways for academic purposes.

  3. The Association of Health Literacy and Electronic Health Literacy With Self-Efficacy, Coping, and Caregiving Perceptions Among Carers of People With Dementia: Research Protocol for a Descriptive Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthymiou, Areti; Middleton, Nicos; Charalambous, Andreas; Papastavrou, Evridiki

    2017-11-13

    In the last decade, electronic health (eHealth) literacy has attracted the attention of the scientific community, as it is associated with the self-management of patients with chronic diseases and the quality and cost of care. It is estimated that 80% of people with chronic diseases are cared for at home by a family member, friend, or relative. Informal carers are susceptible to physical and mental health problems, as well as social and financial hardships. Nevertheless, there seems to be a research gap in terms of carers' needs, skills, and available resources in the age of new technologies, with the vital role of eHealth literacy of the carers remaining unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of eHealth literacy and health literacy of primary and secondary carers of people with dementia, to explore the association between health and eHealth literacy, as well as their association with the caregiving variables: self-efficacy, coping, and caring perceptions. A sample of 200 primary carers (the carer who supports the people with dementia in everyday living) and 200 secondary carers (family member, friend, or other person in the social network assisting the primary carer in their role) will be recruited from dementia day care centers and Alzheimer's associations in Greece and Cyprus. The study will be a cross-sectional correlational descriptive study. Tools to be used include the eHealth Literacy Scale adapted for carers to measure eHealth literacy, European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire 16 (HLS-EU-Q16), Single Item Literacy Screener, Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy, Carers of Older People in Europe (COPE) index for caregiving perceptions, and COPE brief to measure selected coping strategies. Descriptive statistics will be reported, and correlations between different variables will be explored with parametric and nonparametric measures. As a preliminary study, the HLS-EU-Q16 has been validated in 107 older people. The internal

  4. The Association of Health Literacy and Electronic Health Literacy With Self-Efficacy, Coping, and Caregiving Perceptions Among Carers of People With Dementia: Research Protocol for a Descriptive Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background In the last decade, electronic health (eHealth) literacy has attracted the attention of the scientific community, as it is associated with the self-management of patients with chronic diseases and the quality and cost of care. It is estimated that 80% of people with chronic diseases are cared for at home by a family member, friend, or relative. Informal carers are susceptible to physical and mental health problems, as well as social and financial hardships. Nevertheless, there seems to be a research gap in terms of carers’ needs, skills, and available resources in the age of new technologies, with the vital role of eHealth literacy of the carers remaining unexplored. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the level of eHealth literacy and health literacy of primary and secondary carers of people with dementia, to explore the association between health and eHealth literacy, as well as their association with the caregiving variables: self-efficacy, coping, and caring perceptions. Methods A sample of 200 primary carers (the carer who supports the people with dementia in everyday living) and 200 secondary carers (family member, friend, or other person in the social network assisting the primary carer in their role) will be recruited from dementia day care centers and Alzheimer’s associations in Greece and Cyprus. The study will be a cross-sectional correlational descriptive study. Tools to be used include the eHealth Literacy Scale adapted for carers to measure eHealth literacy, European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire 16 (HLS-EU-Q16), Single Item Literacy Screener, Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy, Carers of Older People in Europe (COPE) index for caregiving perceptions, and COPE brief to measure selected coping strategies. Descriptive statistics will be reported, and correlations between different variables will be explored with parametric and nonparametric measures. Results As a preliminary study, the HLS-EU-Q16 has been

  5. Halal Literacy: A Concept Exploration and Measurement Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Muslim consumers have strict commandments which guides their consumption behavior. However, Muslim individuals may have different compliance regarding the commandments. This difference in compliance may be explained by difference in halal literacy. Halal literacy is the ability to differentiate permissible (halal and forbidden (haram goods and services which came from better understanding of Islamic laws (shariah.Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of Halal Literacy as well as to develop and validate an instrument to measure Halal Literacy for Muslim consumers. Halal literacy was measured using two methods. One method using six items of five point Likert self evaluation scale and the other using fifteen true-false test questions with an option to choose doesn’t know. Proportion of correct and incorrect was used as weights in scoring to represent the difficulty of items. Scoring results were then analyzed with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA using Weighted Least Square method to test construct validity. Scores were then used to classify cases into high, moderate and low Literacy groups.Self evaluation halal literacy and switching Intentions are compared between groups using ANOVA to determine concurrent validity. Only ten out of fifteen items are considered valid using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. ANOVA showed that grouping of high, moderate and low literacy score can distinguish differences in perceived halal literacy and switching intentions between the groups. Post hoc tests and descriptive statistics revealed interesting non linear relationship between the halal literacy scores; self evaluated halal literacy and intentions to switch from products without halal labels.

  6. Development and psychometric evaluation of an information literacy self-efficacy survey and an information literacy knowledge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Rodger; Tepe, Chabha

    2015-03-01

    To develop and psychometrically evaluate an information literacy (IL) self-efficacy survey and an IL knowledge test. In this test-retest reliability study, a 25-item IL self-efficacy survey and a 50-item IL knowledge test were developed and administered to a convenience sample of 53 chiropractic students. Item analyses were performed on all questions. The IL self-efficacy survey demonstrated good reliability (test-retest correlation = 0.81) and good/very good internal consistency (mean κ = .56 and Cronbach's α = .92). A total of 25 questions with the best item analysis characteristics were chosen from the 50-item IL knowledge test, resulting in a 25-item IL knowledge test that demonstrated good reliability (test-retest correlation = 0.87), very good internal consistency (mean κ = .69, KR20 = 0.85), and good item discrimination (mean point-biserial = 0.48). This study resulted in the development of three instruments: a 25-item IL self-efficacy survey, a 50-item IL knowledge test, and a 25-item IL knowledge test. The information literacy self-efficacy survey and the 25-item version of the information literacy knowledge test have shown preliminary evidence of adequate reliability and validity to justify continuing study with these instruments.

  7. Development and psychometric evaluation of an information literacy self-efficacy survey and an information literacy knowledge test*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Rodger; Tepe, Chabha

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop and psychometrically evaluate an information literacy (IL) self-efficacy survey and an IL knowledge test. Methods In this test–retest reliability study, a 25-item IL self-efficacy survey and a 50-item IL knowledge test were developed and administered to a convenience sample of 53 chiropractic students. Item analyses were performed on all questions. Results The IL self-efficacy survey demonstrated good reliability (test–retest correlation = 0.81) and good/very good internal consistency (mean κ = .56 and Cronbach's α = .92). A total of 25 questions with the best item analysis characteristics were chosen from the 50-item IL knowledge test, resulting in a 25-item IL knowledge test that demonstrated good reliability (test–retest correlation = 0.87), very good internal consistency (mean κ = .69, KR20 = 0.85), and good item discrimination (mean point-biserial = 0.48). Conclusions This study resulted in the development of three instruments: a 25-item IL self-efficacy survey, a 50-item IL knowledge test, and a 25-item IL knowledge test. The information literacy self-efficacy survey and the 25-item version of the information literacy knowledge test have shown preliminary evidence of adequate reliability and validity to justify continuing study with these instruments. PMID:25517736

  8. A single-item self-rated health measure correlates with objective health status in the elderly: a survey in suburban Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin eMeng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe measurement of health status of the elderly remains one important topic. Self-rated health status (SRH is considered to be a simple indicator to measure the health status of the old population. But some researchers still take a skeptical view about its reliability. This study aims to investigate the association between self-rated health indicator and health status of the elderly and discuss its subsequent public health implications.MethodsIn a total 1096 people who were 60 years of age or older from 1784 households from a suburban area of Beijing were interviewed using multistage stratified cluster sampling. SRH was measured by a single question please choose one point in this 0-100 scale which can best represent your health today?. The disease status and physical functional status were also obtained. A multiple linear regression was conducted to test the associate between SRH and individual’s disease/functional status.ResultsThe average of SRH scores of the elderly was 72.49±15.64 (on a 1 to 100 scale. The SRH scores declined not only with the severity of self-reported mental/disease status, but also with the decrease of physical functional status. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for other variables, two-week sickness, chronic diseases, hospitalization, and ability of self-care (washing and dressing were able to explain 35% of the variation in SRH among the elderly. Among them, disease status and self-care ability were the most powerful predictor of SRH. After adjusting other variables, physical functional status could explain only 5% of the variation in SRH.ConclusionSRH reflects the disease/functional health status of the elderly. It is an easy-to-implement variable and it can reduce both recall bias and investigator bias, thus being widely used in health surveys. It is a cost-effective means of measuring the health status. However, the comparability of SRH in different populations should be studied

  9. Effects of memantine on cognition in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease: post-hoc analyses of ADAS-cog and SIB total and single-item scores from six randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecocci, Patrizia; Bladström, Anna; Stender, Karina

    2009-05-01

    The post-hoc analyses reported here evaluate the specific effects of memantine treatment on ADAS-cog single-items or SIB subscales for patients with moderate to severe AD. Data from six multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, double-blind, 6-month studies were used as the basis for these post-hoc analyses. All patients with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of less than 20 were included. Analyses of patients with moderate AD (MMSE: 10-19), evaluated with the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) and analyses of patients with moderate to severe AD (MMSE: 3-14), evaluated using the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), were performed separately. The mean change from baseline showed a significant benefit of memantine treatment on both the ADAS-cog (p ADAS-cog single-item analyses showed significant benefits of memantine treatment, compared to placebo, for mean change from baseline for commands (p < 0.001), ideational praxis (p < 0.05), orientation (p < 0.01), comprehension (p < 0.05), and remembering test instructions (p < 0.05) for observed cases (OC). The SIB subscale analyses showed significant benefits of memantine, compared to placebo, for mean change from baseline for language (p < 0.05), memory (p < 0.05), orientation (p < 0.01), praxis (p < 0.001), and visuospatial ability (p < 0.01) for OC. Memantine shows significant benefits on overall cognitive abilities as well as on specific key cognitive domains for patients with moderate to severe AD. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Location Indices for Ordinal Polytomous Items Based on Item Response Theory. Research Report. ETS RR-15-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usama S.; Chang, Hua-Hua; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Polytomous items are typically described by multiple category-related parameters; situations, however, arise in which a single index is needed to describe an item's location along a latent trait continuum. Situations in which a single index would be needed include item selection in computerized adaptive testing or test assembly. Therefore single…

  11. Environmental Literacy and Attitudes among Malaysian Business Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Corina; Nichol, Esmie Obrin; Janggu, Tamoi; Madi, Nero

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of environmental literacy among business lecturers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A survey, which involved a combination of newly developed items and items adopted from past studies, was used to collect data from 35 respondents (out of 70). Findings: The overall mean score for…

  12. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  13. The Nuances of Health Literacy, Nutrition Literacy, and Food Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velardo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Health literacy, defined as the ability to access, understand, and use health information, has been identified as an international public health goal. The term nutrition literacy has emerged as a distinct form of health literacy, yet scholars continue to reflect on constituent skills and capabilities in light of discussions regarding what it means to be food literate and health literate. This viewpoint argues that a comprehensive conceptualization of nutrition literacy should reflect key elements of health literacy and food literacy constructs. Nutbeam's tripartite model of health literacy is employed to explore competencies that are likely to facilitate healthy food relationships. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Religious Literacies in a Secular Literacy Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how a literacy teacher and her students engaged students' Christian religious literacies in a secular classroom and the outcomes of those transactions. Case study methods; scholarship offering historical, cultural, and social perspectives on Christian religious literacies; and the New London Group's theory of a pedagogy of…

  15. Patients' literacy skills: more than just reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonlau, Matthias; Martin, Laurie; Haas, Ann; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Rudd, Rima

    2011-11-01

    Limited literacy contributes to suboptimal care and outcomes for patients. The Institute of Medicine noted that future work in health literacy should consider multiple literacy skills. However, lacking empirical evidence of the relationship between different literacy skills, reading skills are often used as proxies of literacy in research and practice. Using a community-based sample of 618 individuals residing in Boston, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island, the authors conducted a principal component analysis on measures of four literacy skills--reading, numeracy, oral (speaking), and aural (listening)--to examine whether and to what extent literacy can, or should, be represented by a single measure. The first principal component represented overall literacy and could only explain 60% of the total variation in literacy skills among individuals. The second principal component differentiated between numeracy/reading and the oral/aural exchange. While reading and numeracy best represent overall literacy, patients' relative strengths may vary. Those with moderate reading ability may have high oral and aural language skills. Conversely, people who have difficulties speaking with or understanding a provider may read well. Effective communication with patients should rely on the oral exchange and written health information, and not rely on a single literacy skill.

  16. Literacy in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This collection of essays addresses issues related to basic literacy and mathematical competence in the United States. Articles include the following: "The Roots of Literacy" (David Hawkins); "Historical Perspectives on Literacy and Schooling" (Daniel P. Resnick); "Reconciling the Literacies of Generations" (William…

  17. Validity and Reliability of the Iranian Version of eHealth Literacy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Bazm

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction:  The eHEALS is an 8-item measure of eHealth literacy developed to measure consumers’ combined knowledge, comfort, and perceived skills at finding, evaluating, and applying electronic health information to health problems. The current study aims to measure validity and reliability of the Iranian version of eHEALS questionnaire in a population context. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on 525 youths people who has been chosen randomly in Iran, Yazd. We determined content validity, construct validity and predictive validity of the translated questionnaire. Principal components factor analysis was used to determine the theoretical fit of the measures with the data. The internal consistency of the translated questionnaire was evaluated using Cronbach α coefficient. The results were analyzed in SPSSv16. Results: The principal component analysis (PCA produced a single factor solution (70.48% of variance with factor loading ranging from 0.723 to 0.862. The internal consistency of the scale was sufficient (alpha=0.88 , P<0.001 and the test-retest coefficients for the items were reliable (r= 0.96, P<0.001. Discussion: The results of the study showed that the items in the translated questionnaire were equivalent to the original scale .The version of the eHEALS questionnaire showed both good reliability and validity for the screening of eHealth literacy of Iranian people.

  18. Computer Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    curricula, systems must reorder their priorities.ඇ One question for computer-literacy advocates is this: What is computer literacy more important...Context." AEDS Journal, 17, 3 (Spring 1984) 1-13. "Reader’s Survey Results: What Is Computer Literacy?" Classroom Computer Learning (March 1986) p. 53...Acquisition of Computer Literacy." Journal of Computer-Based Information, 12, 1 (Winter 1985) 12-16. "\\ What is Computer Literacy?" Article 10c in Cannings

  19. Measuring Health Literacy Among Adults with HIV Infection in Mozambique: Development and Validation of the HIV Literacy Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tique, José A; Howard, Leigh M; Gaveta, Sandra; Sidat, Mohsin; Rothman, Russell L; Vermund, Sten H; Ciampa, Philip J

    2017-03-01

    The role of health literacy on HIV outcomes has not been evaluated widely in Africa, in part because few appropriate literacy measures exist. We developed a 16-item scale, the HIV Literacy Test (HIV-LT) to assess literacy-related tasks needed to participate in HIV care. Items were scored as correct or incorrect; higher scores indicated higher literacy skill (range 0-100 %). We tested internal reliability (Kuder-Richardson coefficient) of the HIV-LT in a convenience sample of 319 Portuguese-speaking, HIV infected adults on antiretroviral treatment in Maputo, Mozambique. Construct validity was assessed by a hypothetical model developed a priori. The HIV-LT was reliable and valid to measure participants' literacy skills. The mean HIV-LT score was 42 %; literacy skills applicable to HIV care were challenging for many participants. The HIV-LT could be used to assess the relationship of literacy and HIV-related outcomes in diverse settings, and evaluate interventions to improve health communication for those in HIV care.

  20. Validation of the short version of Korean functional Health Literacy Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to validate a short version of the Korean functional Health Literacy Test. Development of a brief and valid health literacy assessment tool, with an optimal cut-off value, is essential to identify individuals with low health literacy in the Korean-speaking population. This is a psychometric validation study of the instrument. Item response analysis using 2-parameter logistic estimates was used for item reduction. The short form of the Korean functional Health Literacy Test was validated among 170 nursing students and 129 older adults in Korea. Data were collected from December 2015 to February 2016. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to classify health literacy level with the cut-off value. Item difficulty parameters of the short form of the Korean functional Health Literacy Test ranged from -1.33 to -0.35; item discrimination ranged from 1.91 to 4.47. Significant differences of the test score were shown between nursing students and older adults. The cut-off value of 6 out of 8 on the short form of the Korean functional Health Literacy Test showed a sensitivity of 0.79 and specificity of 0.65. The short form of the Korean functional Health Literacy Test is a valid tool with sufficient diagnostic accuracy to assess health literacy in the Korean-speaking population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Cross-cultural validation of health literacy measurement tools in Italian oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Paola; Cocchi, Simone; Polesel, Jerry; Cipolat Mis, Chiara; Bragatto, Donato; Cavuto, Silvio; Conficconi, Alice; Costanzo, Carla; De Giorgi, Melissa; Drace, Christina A; Fiorini, Federica; Gangeri, Laura; Lisi, Andrea; Martino, Rosalba; Mosconi, Paola; Paradiso, Angelo; Ravaioli, Valentina; Truccolo, Ivana; De Paoli, Paolo

    2017-06-19

    The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristics of four Health Literacy (HL) measurement tools, viz. Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA), Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS) and Single question on Self-rated Reading Ability (SrRA) among Italian oncology patients. The original version of the tools were translated from the English language into Italian using a standard forward-backward procedure and according to internationally recognized good practices. Their internal consistency (reliability) and validity (construct, convergent and discriminative) were tested in a sample of 245 consecutive cancer patients recruited from seven Italian health care centers. The internal consistency of the STOFHLA-I was Chronbach's α=0.96 and that of NVS-I was α=0.74. The STOFHLA-I, NVS-I, SILS-I and SrRA-I scores were in a good relative correlation and in all tools the discriminative known-group validity was confirmed. The reliability and validity values were similar to those obtained from other cultural context studies. The psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of NVS, STHOFLA, SILS and SrRA were found to be good, with satisfactory reliability and validity. This indicates that they could be used as a screening tool in Italian patients. Moreover, the use of the same cross-cultural tools, validated in different languages, is essential for implementing multicenter studies to measure and compare the functional HL levels across countries.

  2. Family literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    I Projekt familielæsning, der er et samarbejde mellem Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning og Hillerød Bibliotek, arbejder vi med at få kontakt til de familier, som biblioteket ellers aldrig ser som brugere og dermed også de børn, der vokser op i familier, for hvem bøger og oplæsningssituationer ikk...... er en selvfølgelig del af barndommen. Det, vi vil undersøge og ønsker at være med til at udvikle hos disse familier, er det, man kan kalde family literacy....

  3. ICT Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2017-01-01

    human limitations, developing critical measures and acknowledging feelings of estrangement, puzzlement as well as sheer wonder of technology. ICT literacy is indeed all about visions of the good life and the art of living in the twenty-first century. The main focus of this paper is to explore...... and discuss ICT in relation to pupils and teachers and try to understand why and how these technologies are implemented in the school system. This focus not only allows us to better understand how concepts and habits with respect to ICT are shaped in numerous children, but teaches us to acquire an enhanced...

  4. The Best of the Literacy Beat 1988-1989. The Best of the Literacy Beat 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Writers Association, Washington, DC.

    This document is a set of two volumes that contain prize-winning newspaper articles and summaries of radio and television shows selected as part of the Media Resource Project on Literacy. Items in the 1988-89 book include the following: "Why Daddy Can't Read" (Sally L. Gilman); "The Triumph of Jimmy Sanchez" (Sandra Macias); "Illiteracy:…

  5. Psychological aspects of literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livija Knaflič

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Literacy is a complex cultural and social phenomenon with multiple effects on both, the individual and social levels. This article presents multidimensional model of literacy with linguistic, cognitive, socio-cultural, developmental and educational dimensions. A use of literacy is a literacy event and it means the use and/or presence of all dimensions of literacy. The use of new technologies and the emergence of digital literacy brought about a new meaning of literacy. There are two main processes to stress: (a the writing (text is more and more dominated by images and (b the book is going to be replaced by the screen. These facts raise at least two questions: what is the future of literacy and what are psychological, social and cultural effects of these changes? The aim of this article is to present a psychological view of literacy skills with a very modest aspiration to offer a better understanding of library users and non users.

  6. The Development of Adolescent Online Reading Literacy Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Lin Chang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By adopting the constructs of reading literacy and with the use of information and communication technology, the purpose of this study is to develop two adolescent online reading literacy assessments (ORLA and examine the preliminary validity of ORLA. In addition, samples of online reading literacy performance are described. The design of ORLA is based on PISA electronic reading assessment framework and Leu et al. (2004’s online reading comprehension definition. A total of 601 eighth graders from junior high schools and 618 tenth graders from senior high schools in Taiwan City participated in this study. This study uses Rasch IRT model to calibrate the item parameter and scale scores. The results indicated: the online reading literacy assessments had adequate difficulty level, reasonable validity evidences, and students’ online reading literacy performance contains ICT element which is different from offline reading; the gender effect exists in the online reading environment by grades.

  7. Enabling Digital Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Georgsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    There are some tensions between high-level policy definitions of “digital literacy” and actual teaching practice. We need to find workable definitions of digital literacy; obtain a better understanding of what digital literacy might look like in practice; and identify pedagogical approaches, which...... support teachers in designing digital literacy learning. We suggest that frameworks such as Problem Based Learning (PBL) are approaches that enable digital literacy learning because they provide good settings for engaging with digital literacy. We illustrate this through analysis of a case. Furthermore......, these operate on a meso-level mediating between high-level concepts of digital literacy and classroom practice....

  8. Men's depression and suicide literacy: a nationally representative Canadian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Hannan-Leith, Madeline N; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Black, Nick; Mackenzie, Corey S; Lohan, Maria; Creighton, Genevieve

    2016-12-01

    Male suicide prevention strategies include diagnosis and effective management of men's depression. Fundamental to suicide prevention efforts is public awareness, which in turn, is influenced by literacy levels about men's depression and suicide. The aim of this study is to examine sex differences in mental health literacy with respect to men's depression and suicide among a cohort of Canadian respondents. About 901 English-speaking Canadian men and women completed online survey questionnaires to evaluate mental health literacy levels using 10-item D-Lit and 8-item LOSS questionnaires, which assess factual knowledge concerning men's depression and suicide. Statistical tests (Chi-square, z-test) were used to identify significant differences between sex sub-groups at 95% confidence. Overall, respondents correctly identified 67% of questions measuring literacy levels about male depression. Respondents' male suicide literacy was significantly poorer at 53.7%. Misperceptions were especially evident in terms of differentiating men's depressive symptoms from other mental illnesses, estimating prevalence and identifying factors linked to male suicide. Significant sex differences highlighted that females had higher literacy levels than men in regard to male depression. Implementing gender sensitive and specific programs to target and advance literacy levels about men's depression may be key to ultimately reducing depression and suicide among men in Canada.

  9. Development and validation of a survey instrument to measure children's advertising literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey measurement instrument for children's advertising literacy. Based on the multidimensional conceptualization of advertising literacy by 0056"> Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, and Buijzen (2011), 39 items were created to measure two

  10. Literacy in the World and Turkey "A General Assessment of the Situation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asici, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Literacy concept has changed and become different as a result of researches carried out in the field of educational sciences, and social and technological developments in the world. Particularly after the 1990s, literacy concept included not a single fact, but multiple facts. The word literacy has started being used along with different…

  11. Health Literacy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Health Literacy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Health Literacy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Health literacy and health care spending and utilization in a consumer-driven health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Nancy A; Kyanko, Kelly; Busch, Susan; Losasso, Anthony T; Levin, Regina A

    2011-01-01

    We examined health literacy and health care spending and utilization by linking responses of three health literacy questions to 2006 claims data of enrollees new to consumer-driven health plans (n = 4,130). Better health literacy on all four health literacy measures (three item responses and their sum) was associated with lower total health care spending, specifically, lower emergency department and inpatient admission spending (p < .05). Similarly, fewer inpatient admissions and emergency department visits were associated with higher adequate health literacy scores and better self-reports of the ability to read and learn about medical conditions (p-value <.05). Members with lower health literacy scores appear to use services more appropriate for advanced health conditions, although office visit rates were similar across the range of health literacy scores.

  13. Psychometric properties of three single-item pain scales in patients with rheumatoid arthritis seen during routine clinical care: a comparative perspective on construct validity, reproducibility and internal responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendlbeck, Melanie; Araujo, Elizabeth G; Schett, Georg; Englbrecht, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the construct validity, reproducibility (ie, retest reliability) and internal responsiveness to treatment change of common single-item scales measuring overall pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to investigate the corresponding effect of common pain-related comorbidities and medical consultation on these outcomes. 236 patients with RA completed a set of questionnaires including a visual analogue scale (VAS), a numerical rating scale (NRS) and a verbal rating scale (VRS) measuring overall pain before and immediately after routine medical consultation as well as 1 week after the patient's visit. Construct validity and retest reliability were evaluated using the Bravais-Pearson correlation while standardised response means (SRM) were calculated for evaluating internal responsiveness. Differences in the perception of pain were calculated using dependent samples t-tests. In the total sample, construct validity was good across all three time points (convergent validity of pain scales: rT1-T3=0.82-0.92, pscales with age: rage=0.01-0.16, p>0.05). In patients maintaining antirheumatic treatment, retest reliability of pain scales was confirmed for all scales and across time points (rVAS=0.82-0.95, rNRS=0.89-0.98, rVRS=0.80-0.90, pscales to a change in treatment was low across all scales (SRM=0.08-0.21). The VAS especially suggested a change in pain perception after medical consultation in patients maintaining therapy. The VAS, NRS and VRS are valid and retest reliable in an outpatient clinical practice setting. The low pain scales' internal responsiveness to treatment change is likely to be due to the short follow-up period. Patients with RA maintaining antirheumatic therapy seem to experience less pain after medical consultation.

  14. The use of an item response theory-based disability item bank across diseases: accounting for differential item functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees A; Vermeulen, Marinus; De Haan, Rob J

    2010-05-01

    There is not a single universally accepted activity of daily living (ADL) instrument available to compare disability assessments across different patient groups. We developed a generic item bank of ADL items using item response theory, the Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Scale (ALDS). When comparing outcomes of the ALDS between patients groups, item characteristics of the ALDS should be comparable across groups. The aim of the study was to assess the differential item functioning (DIF) in a group of patients with various disorders to investigate the comparability across these groups. Cross-sectional, multicenter study including 1,283 in- and outpatients with a variety of disorders and disability levels. The sample was divided in two groups: (1) mainly neurological patients (n=497; vascular medicine, Parkinson's disease and neuromuscular disorders) and (2) patients from internal medicine (n=786; pulmonary diseases, chronic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and geriatric patients). Eighteen of 72 ALDS items showed statistically significant DIF (P<0.01). However, the DIF could effectively be modeled by the introduction of disease-specific parameters. In the subgroups studied, DIF could be modeled in such a way that the ensemble of the items comprised a scale applicable in both groups.

  15. Literacies in the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, the author invites readers to consider the body and its central place in literacy pedagogy, practice and research. She emphasizes two interrelated paths for teachers and researchers interested in literacies to tend to the body: (1) the ways literacies are engaged and cultivated for making sense of bodies, and (2) the literacies…

  16. Health literacy in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diemer, Frederieke S.; Haan, Yentl C.; Nannan Panday, Rani V.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Oehlers, Glenn P.; Brewster, Lizzy M.

    2017-01-01

    Low health literacy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. However, data on health literacy in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. Therefore, we assessed the level of health literacy in Suriname, a middle-income country with a high cardiovascular mortality. We estimated

  17. Health literacy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der Iris; Uiters, Ellen; Sørensen, Kristine; Röthlin, Florian; Pelikan, Jürgen; Rademakers, Jany; Boshuizen, Hendriek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health literacy is an important determinant of health, but national health literacy levels are known for only some European countries. This study aims to examine to what extent national health literacy levels can be estimated based on publicly available census data. Method:

  18. Measuring News Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  19. Smoking media literacy in Vietnamese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Huong, Nguyen T; Chi, Hoang K; Tien, Truong Q

    2011-01-01

    Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the association with smoking behavior and susceptibility to future smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 2000 high school students completed the SML scale, which is based on an integrated theoretical framework of media literacy, and items assessing cigarette use. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine the association of SML with smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Ordinal logistic regression was also to determine whether smoking in the past 30 days was associated with the 8 domains/core concepts of media literacy which comprise the SML. Smoking media literacy was lower among the Vietnamese adolescents than what has been previously reported in American adolescents. Ordinal logistic regression analysis results showed that in the total sample SML was associated with reduced smoking, but there was no association with susceptibility to future smoking. Further analysis showed that results differed according to school and grade level. There did not appear to be association of smoking with the specific domains/concepts that comprise the SML. The association of SML with reduced smoking suggests the need for further research involving SML, including the testing of media literacy training interventions, in Vietnamese adolescents and also other populations of adolescents. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  20. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  1. Using Gaming Literacies to Cultivate New Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Yin; Wang, Shiang-Kwei

    2010-01-01

    The use of games in educational contexts has recently received growing attention; however, many teachers struggle with finding a right context to adopt games in the classroom. To strengthen teachers' beliefs about the educational value of games, this article explains the similarities and differences between new literacies and gaming literacy and…

  2. Is the Cloze Procedure Appropriate to Evaluate Health Literacy in Older Individuals? Age Effects in the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Ownby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Health literacy has received increasing attention because of its importance for older individuals’ health, as studies have shown a close relation between older individuals’ health literacy and their health. Research also suggests that older individuals have low levels of health literacy, but this finding is variable and may depend on which health literacy test is used. Older individuals assessed with the Test of Functional Health Literacy (TOFHLA score lower than younger individuals, but a previous study suggested that this may result from age-related differential item functioning (DIF on the TOFHLA. The study reported here assessed age-related DIF in a sample of community-dwelling volunteers. Twenty-two percent of items were differentially more difficult for older individuals independent of their overall ability, and when these items were eliminated from the total score, age differences were no longer found. Performance on a working memory task predicted older but not younger individuals’ performance on the age-related items. At least part of older individuals’ apparent deficits in health literacy when assessed by the TOFHLA may be related to DIF on its items. The TOFHLA, and any measure that employs the cloze procedure to evaluate reading comprehension, should be used cautiously in older individuals.

  3. Information Literacy and Digital Literacy: Competing or Complementary?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanne Marie Cordell

    2013-01-01

    Digital Literacy is a more recent term than Information Literacy and is used for multiple categories of library users in multiple types of libraries. Determining the relationship between Information Literacy and Digital Literacy is essential before revision of the Information Literacy Standards can proceed.

  4. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  5. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Document Server

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  6. Using literacy narratives to scaffold academic literacy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal for Language Teaching ... Subsequently, the proposed framework, which infuses narrative pedagogy and a particular version of transformative pedagogies into a new literacies model, ... the paper. Keywords: academic literacy, language pedagogy, literacy narratives, multiliteracies, multimodality, teacher education ...

  7. A Construction of Global Literacy Indicators for Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Sheng Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era of glocalization and logloblization, only university graduates who are globally literate can effectively deal with international affairs or work overseas. Therefore, this study aimed to construct a set of global literacy indicators for undergraduates in Taiwan. The global literacy indicators can be used as a guide to assess undergraduates’ global literacy level and serve as the foundation for developing global education curriculums. Employing a theoretical framework, this study drafted global literacy dimensions and indicators from reviewing related literature, and invited 18 practitioners with international experience to participate in this study. During the item development process, fuzzy Delphi method (FDM and analytic hierarchy process (AHP were applied to select and weight global literacy indicators respectively. Consequently, a set of global literacy indicators for undergraduates were constructed, which include the following four dimensions: communication, context, career development, and culture. “Communication” is the most important dimension among them, while “communicate with foreign languages” and “use information and communication technology (ICT to communicate with others” are the most important indicators and items at the second and third hierarchical levels, respectively.

  8. Development and psychometric testing of the Health Literacy Index for Female Marriage Immigrants (HLI-FMI) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Health Literacy Index for Female Marriage Immigrants (HLI-FMI). Study participants were 282 women who migrated to Korea from Asian countries to marry and had a mean age of 33.24 years and had immigrated a mean of 5.58 years ago. Data were collected between March 2013 and May 2013. An initial 31 preliminary items were developed based on literature reviews and focus group interviews, including three constructs of health literacy: skills (print, numeracy), tasks (access, understand, appraise, apply), and health contexts (health promotion and disease prevention, health care maintenance and treatment, health system navigation). Exploratory factor analyses of the HLI-FMI yielded 12 items in two factors: Access-Understand Health Literacy (seven items) and Appraise-Apply Health Literacy (five items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.74). Criterion validity was supported through a significant correlation with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Short Form. Guided by a classical test theory and item response theory, item difficulty and discrimination were within acceptable ranges. HLI-FMI scores were positively associated with participant education and Korean proficiency. The HLI-FMI appears to be the first valid and reliable comprehensive health literacy measure for evaluating health literacy in Korean female marriage immigrants.

  9. Health literacy: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speros, Carolyn

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports an analysis of the concept of health literacy in order to clarify its meaning, reduce ambiguities associated with references to it, and promote consistency in using the concept in nursing dialogue and research. Health literacy is a relatively new concept in health promotion research. Only within the last decade have researchers identified the problems associated with health literacy, the role it plays in an individual's ability to comprehend health and self-care information, and its relationship to health outcomes. Clarifying the concept is essential so that nurses develop an awareness of the phenomenon and its relationship to the outcomes of their communication and health education efforts. The method used for this concept analysis was that of Walker and Avant (1995). Health literacy empowers people to act appropriately in new and changing health-related circumstances through the use of advanced cognitive and social skills. The defining attributes of health literacy are reading and numeracy skills, comprehension, the capacity to use information in health care decision-making, and successful functioning as a healthcare consumer. Antecedents of health literacy are literacy and a health-related experience. Consequences of health literacy include improved self-reported health status, lower health care costs, increased health knowledge, shorter hospitalizations, and less frequent use of health care services. Empirical referents of the concept are the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults and the health literacy component of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy. An analysis of the concept of health literacy enhances nurses' ability to assess more accurately their clients' levels of health literacy, thus identifying those at risk for misunderstanding health care instructions, shame associated with inadequate reading skills, and inability to adhere to health care recommendations.

  10. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Health literacy, information seeking, and trust in information in Haitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetkin, Erica I; Zabor, Emily C; Isaac, Kathleen; Brennessel, Debra; Kemeny, M Margaret; Hay, Jennifer L

    2015-05-01

    To assess heath literacy, health information seeking, and trust in health-related information among Haitian immigrants seen in primary care. Health literacy was measured by the Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS); items on health information use were from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. BHLS scores differed according to age, education, and survey language. Participants with lower levels of health literacy tended to be more likely to place "a lot" or "some" trust in family and friends and religious organizations and leaders as sources of information about health or medical topics. Constructing a culturally-tailored and appropriate intervention regarding health promotion requires understanding how the population accesses and conveys health information.

  12. Health literacy assessment: relexicalising a US test for a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is an objective vocabulary test, designed as a screening instrument to identify the health literacy levels of patients in clinics, which uses item recognition of 66 health-related words. Lecoko found that, in a South African setting, only 8 out of the 66 words in the US-developed test could be deemed acceptable. Therefore, the ...

  13. Factors that affect South African Reading Literacy Achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected items from the prePIRLS 2011 learner, parent and teacher questionnaires were used in a two-level model to determine the effect of learner aptitude, ... The teaching of reading comprehension skills and strategies is identified as a significant predictor of reading literacy achievement, instruction of which should form ...

  14. Analysis of Item Difficulty Parameters on Item Characteristic Curves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Item Difficulty Parameters on Item Characteristic Curves as A Function of Changes in WAEC and NECO Examination Instruments and Students Ability Parameters in Mathematics Objective Test in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  15. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) for an item between two groups is present if, for the same person location on a variable, persons from different groups have different expected values for their responses. Applying only to dichotomously scored items in the popular Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method for detecting DIF in which persons are classified by…

  16. Framing Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Anneke Dirkx

    2016-01-01

    In 2000 the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) published the Standards for Information Literacy. After 15 years these standards were in desperate need of revision. Instead of releasing a revised edition of the Standards, in 2015 ACRL presented a completely new vision on information literacy in higher education. In this keynote we will explore the new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy in all its glory. We will compare it to the old standards. Is this new American Fram...

  17. Korean Secondary Students' Perception of Scientific Literacy as Global Citizens: Using Global Scientific Literacy Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Kongju; Shin, Namsoo; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Sung-Won; Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Sung-Youn; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2015-07-01

    We re-conceptualized the meaning of scientific literacy and developed an instrument, which we call the Global Scientific Literacy Questionnaire (GSLQ) based on a new conceptual framework for scientific literacy in the twenty-first century. We identified five dimensions, each with key elements. The five dimensions are (1) content knowledge (core ideas of science), (2) habits of mind (science practices), (3) character and values, (4) science as human endeavor, and (5) metacognition and self-direction. In this study, we attempted to diagnose the extent to which South Korean secondary students perceive themselves as global citizens having such capabilities using GSLQ with 3,202 students (7th-12th grades). Validity and reliability were examined using various statistical techniques including the Cronbach's α coefficient, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. The use and value of the instrument were discussed by examining the Korean secondary students' overall scientific literacy as well as their views on each dimension across gender and grade levels. We recommend that teachers and researchers use the GSLQ to assess students' global scientific literacy and provide comments on its usefulness as a research tool and the practical use of its inventory of items.

  18. Development and Validation of the Comprehensive Health Activities Scale: A New Approach to Health Literacy Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    CURTIS, LAURA M.; REVELLE, WILLIAM; AND, KATHERINE WAITE; WILSON, ELIZABETH A. H.; CONDON, DAVID M.; BOJARSKI, ELIZABETH; PARK, DENISE C.; AND, DAVID W. BAKER; WOLF, MICHAEL S.

    2014-01-01

    Current health literacy measures have been criticized for solely measuring reading and numeracy skills when a broader set of skills is necessary for making informed health decisions, especially when information is often conveyed verbally and through multimedia video. We devised nine health tasks and a corresponding 190 item assessment to more comprehensively measure health literacy skills. A sample of 826 participants age 55-74 recruited from an academic General Internal Medicine practice and three Federally Qualified Health Centers in Chicago, Illinois completed the assessment. Items were reduced using hierarchical factor analysis and item response theory resulting in the 45-item Comprehensive Health Activities Scale (CHAS). All 45 items loaded on one general latent trait and the resulting scale demonstrated high reliability and strong construct validity using measures of health literacy and global cognitive functioning. The predictive validity of the CHAS using self-reported general, physical, and mental health status was comparable to or better than widely used measures of health literacy, depending on the outcome. Despite comprehensively measuring health literacy skills, items in the CHAS supported one primary construct. With similar psychometric properties, current measures may be adequate, depending on the purpose of the assessment. PMID:25375025

  19. Mental health literacy among residents in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; He, Yanling; Jiang, Qing; Cai, Jun; Wang, Weiling; Zeng, Qingzhi; Miao, Juming; Qi, Xuejun; Chen, Jianxin; Bian, Qian; Cai, Chun; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Ziqing; Zhang, Mingyuan

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent adoption of China's new national mental health law provides a good opportunity to obtain baseline information about community mental health literacy in the country. Aim Assess knowledge and attitudes about mental disorders among residents in Shanghai. Methods A total of 1953 residents aged 15 or above selected from all 19 districts in Shanghai completed two self-report questionnaires – the Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) and the Case Assessment Questionnaire (CAQ). MHKQ total scores range from 0 to 20 (higher scores indicate better mental health literacy). The CAQ presents respondents with five case vignettes and possesses nine questions after each vignette measuring respondents' knowledge and attitudes towards these mental illnesses. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 26 to 98%, with a mean rate of 72%. The internal consistency (alpha) of the 20 items on the MHKQ was 0.69, but this decreased to 0.59 after removing four items about mental health promotion. A 5-factor model for the 20 items in the MHKQ was identified using exploratory factor analysis on one-half of the surveys, but the model was only partially validated in the confirmatory factor analysis using the second half of the surveys. On the CAQ, rates of correct recognition of mania, depression, schizophrenia with positive symptoms, schizophrenia with negative symptoms and anxiety were 42%, 35%, 30%, 19% and 21%, respectively. Work stress (37.3%), problems with thinking (30.0%) and negative life events (24.4%) were reported to be the three main causes of mental disorders. Seeing a counselor (34.2%) or a psychiatrist (33.3%) were the two most common suggestions for help-seeking. Higher education and younger age were related with better mental health literacy and higher rates of recognition of common mental disorders. Conclusions Mental health literacy in Shanghai appears to be increasing, but the reliability and validity of the instruments

  20. Theory-Based Parameterization of Semiotics for Measuring Pre-literacy Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezruczko, N

    2013-01-01

    A probabilistic model was applied to problem of measuring pre-literacy in young children. First, semiotic philosophy and contemporary cognition research were conceptually integrated to establish theoretical foundations for rating 14 characteristics of children's drawings and narratives (N = 120). Then ratings were transformed with a Rasch model, which estimated linear item parameter values that accounted for 79 percent of rater variance. Principle Components Analysis of item residual matrix confirmed variance remaining after item calibration was largely unsystematic. Validation analyses found positive correlations between semiotic measures and preschool literacy outcomes. Practical implications of a semiotics dimension for preschool practice were discussed

  1. Theory-Based Parameterization of Semiotics for Measuring Pre-literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruczko, N.

    2013-09-01

    A probabilistic model was applied to problem of measuring pre-literacy in young children. First, semiotic philosophy and contemporary cognition research were conceptually integrated to establish theoretical foundations for rating 14 characteristics of children's drawings and narratives (N = 120). Then ratings were transformed with a Rasch model, which estimated linear item parameter values that accounted for 79 percent of rater variance. Principle Components Analysis of item residual matrix confirmed variance remaining after item calibration was largely unsystematic. Validation analyses found positive correlations between semiotic measures and preschool literacy outcomes. Practical implications of a semiotics dimension for preschool practice were discussed.

  2. Publishing Literacy for Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Mikki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an example of teacher-librarian collaboration (TLC in a highly diverse branch of geography as a part of bachelor's seminar teaching. One can say that everything is geography if the phenomenon in question is delimited in a certain region, place or space. Thus every other discipline provides its methods, paradigms and information sources into the use of geography. This obviously presents a challenge to the librarian as he tries to support the geography students' information seeking. The topics can vary between cellular biology applications to sociological perception which also means a large variety in information needs. In our paper we aim to describe different approaches of collaboration this kind of variety requires based on the experiences and feedback gathered in a project, the aim of which was to integrate information literacy (IL into the academic curriculum. Collaborating with teachers with different backgrounds and from different scientific traditions can be challenging for the librarian. Not only the information sources, databases and methods are different but it is the whole approach to the science that is different. Thus it is fairly obvious that the competence of a single librarian or a teacher is not sufficient for an effective IL instruction. The key here is the collaboration when librarian's information literacy and teacher's academic subject competence complete each other. A successful TLC gives opportunity for both marketing the idea of information literacy and the competence of a library professional. It may also increase the efficiency of teaching and studies and even shorten the time for a student to graduate. Especially in the case of seminar teaching TLC seems to give a valuable opportunity to instruct the students' seminar thesis along the way. In 2008, Kumpula Campus Library launched a project to integrate the IL teaching into the academic curriculum and to enhance the collaboration

  3. An individualised literacy intervention for low-progress readers and writers in the Foundation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swart, Marika

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Current literacy interventions (i.e. programmes of instruction for low-progress readers and writers that are supplementary to the literacy programmes used in mainstream classrooms implemented in most Western Cape schools reflect the use of isolated item-based literacy teaching methods. The low literacy levels in the Western Cape primary grades, however, do not indicate successful literacy learning. This article describes an individualised literacy intervention for emergent literacy learners that explored alternative, research-based methods of instruction. The intervention took shape as a comparison between low-progress learners who participated in the literacy intervention and average-progress learners who did not participate in this intervention. The aim was to accelerate the low-progress learners’ literacy learning so that they could reach the average-band performance of their classmates after 12 weeks in the intervention. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered by means of observations of learners and assessment results obtained in a pre-test-post-test design, with the addition of a mid-test to observe learners’ literacy progress. Based on qualitative data, the intervention proved to be successful, because observations indicated positive change in the low-progress learners’ reading and writing behaviours. Given the small sample size, the overall trend in the quantitative data supported the value of the intervention and indicated a need for extending the research beyond a pilot study. Further research using larger sample sizes is thus recommended.

  4. Situated Literacies: Reading and Writing in Context. Literacies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, David, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Ivanic, Roz, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on situated literacies and reading and writing in context. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Denny Taylor); "Introduction: Exploring Situated Literacies"; "Literacy Practices" (David Barton, Mary Hamilton); "Expanding the New Literacy Studies: Using Photographs To Explore…

  5. Information Literacy and Digital Literacy: Competing or Complementary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Rosanne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Digital literacy is a more recent concept than information literacy and can relate to multiple categories of library users in multiple types of libraries. Determining the relationship between information literacy and digital literacy is essential before revision of the ACRL "Standards" can proceed.

  6. Results of Studying Astronomy Students’ Science Literacy, Quantitative Literacy, and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris David; Follette, Katherine B.; Dokter, Erin F.; McCarthy, Don; Vezino, Beau; Formanek, Martin; Romine, James M.; Brock, Laci; Neiberding, Megan; Prather, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    Introductory astronomy courses often serve as terminal science courses for non-science majors and present an opportunity to assess non future scientists’ attitudes towards science as well as basic scientific knowledge and scientific analysis skills that may remain unchanged after college. Through a series of studies, we have been able to evaluate students’ basic science knowledge, attitudes towards science, quantitative literacy, and informational literacy. In the Fall of 2015, we conducted a case study of a single class administering all relevant surveys to an undergraduate class of 20 students. We will present our analysis of trends of each of these studies as well as the comparison case study. In general we have found that students basic scientific knowledge has remained stable over the past quarter century. In all of our studies, there is a strong relationship between student attitudes and their science and quantitative knowledge and skills. Additionally, students’ information literacy is strongly connected to their attitudes and basic scientific knowledge. We are currently expanding these studies to include new audiences and will discuss the implications of our findings for instructors.

  7. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  8. Sources of interference in item and associative recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osth, Adam F; Dennis, Simon

    2015-04-01

    A powerful theoretical framework for exploring recognition memory is the global matching framework, in which a cue's memory strength reflects the similarity of the retrieval cues being matched against the contents of memory simultaneously. Contributions at retrieval can be categorized as matches and mismatches to the item and context cues, including the self match (match on item and context), item noise (match on context, mismatch on item), context noise (match on item, mismatch on context), and background noise (mismatch on item and context). We present a model that directly parameterizes the matches and mismatches to the item and context cues, which enables estimation of the magnitude of each interference contribution (item noise, context noise, and background noise). The model was fit within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 10 recognition memory datasets that use manipulations of strength, list length, list strength, word frequency, study-test delay, and stimulus class in item and associative recognition. Estimates of the model parameters revealed at most a small contribution of item noise that varies by stimulus class, with virtually no item noise for single words and scenes. Despite the unpopularity of background noise in recognition memory models, background noise estimates dominated at retrieval across nearly all stimulus classes with the exception of high frequency words, which exhibited equivalent levels of context noise and background noise. These parameter estimates suggest that the majority of interference in recognition memory stems from experiences acquired before the learning episode. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Marketing Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Maura

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, more than a decade after the original Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (hereafter the Standards) were institutionalized as the goal of academic library instruction, the Information Literacy Competency Standards Review Task Force convened by ACRL recommended…

  10. Institutionalizing Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that information literacy is essential for individual and community empowerment, workforce readiness, and global competitiveness. However, there is a history of difficulty in integrating information literacy with the postsecondary educational process. This paper posits that a greater understanding of the…

  11. Computer Literacy: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Robert

    Varied views are presented in this report which addresses five primary issues: (1) What is computer literacy? (2) What does it cover? (3) Who is it for? (4) How should it be presented? and (5) Where can one get help in organizing a computer literacy program? The first section summarizes results of a survey of 14 educators who were asked their…

  12. Who Researches Functional Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Donita; Perry, Kristen H.; Ivanyuk, Lyudmyla; Tham, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to discover who researches functional literacy. This study was situated within a larger systematic literature review. We searched seven electronic databases and identified 90 sources to answer our larger question regarding how functional literacy is defined and conceptualized as well as the specific question pertinent…

  13. Literacy, Learning, and Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dennis; Hamm, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Considers the expanding definition of literacy from traditional reading and writing skills to include technological, visual, information, and networking literacy. Discusses the impact of media on social interactions and intellectual development; linking technology to educational goals; influences of new media symbol systems on communication;…

  14. Physical Literacy en bewegingsonderwijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan de Leeuw

    2017-01-01

    Physical Literacy gaat er in de kern om dat mensen beschikken over eigenschappen die het mogelijk maken een leven lang bewegen. Het begrip heeft een aantal implicaties voor het bewegingsonderwijs. Door Physical Literacy wordt het bewegingsonderwijs geïnspireerd een bijdrage te leveren aan de

  15. Literacy as Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Critical scholarship frequently depicts literacy education as an "initiation into passivity." Disconnected from the lives of students and reduced to strategies for scoring points on tests, literacy becomes an exercise in the reproduction of a moral economy of discipline, compliance, and productivity. Yet people also recognize that the modern world…

  16. Reconceptualising Critical Digital Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrazio, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption of…

  17. Literacy Tutoring Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljander, Raymond P.; Reina, Jacqueline A.; Siljander, Roger A.

    2005-01-01

    This book investigates the depth of the illiteracy problem in the United States and the rationale and administration of a literacy-learning program. Based on some of the latest reading research, the authors provide a comprehensive up-to-date look at literacy tutoring. Following an introduction to the illiteracy problem, the book focuses on…

  18. ICT literacy, information l

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Abstract. This paper discussed information communication technology (ICT) literacy as the relative measure of library staff's capacity to make appropriate use of ICTs for information acquisition, organization, retrieval and dissemination. It also examined the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy ...

  19. Invest in Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the economy elevates the need to build awareness of financial markets and personal finance among the nation's young people through implementing a financial literacy curriculum in schools. A limited amount of time spent on financial literacy can have a positive effect on students' budgeting skills. This knowledge will only add…

  20. Relocalising academic literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana; Holm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to the continuing discussion about academic literacy in international higher education. Approaching international study programmes as temporary educational contact zones, marked by a broad diversity in students’ educational and discursive experiences, we examine the negot......This article contributes to the continuing discussion about academic literacy in international higher education. Approaching international study programmes as temporary educational contact zones, marked by a broad diversity in students’ educational and discursive experiences, we examine...... the negotiation and relocalisation of academic literacy among students of the international master’s programme, Anthropology of Education and Globalisation (AEG), University of Aarhus, Denmark. The article draws on an understanding of academic literacy as a local practice situated in the social and institutional...... contexts in which it appears. Based on qualitative interviews with eleven AEG-students, we analyse students’ individual experiences of, and perspectives on, the academic literacy practices of this study programme. Our findings reveal contradictory understandings of internationalism and indicate a learning...

  1. Studying bilingual students’ literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    2012-01-01

    ), and linguistic diversity seems to be associated with societal problems and educational failure. ”The bilingual student” is placed in the core of this debate, as he or she is portrayed as a main cause of the low national placement in the international rankings (Holm & Laursen, 2011) and thus increasingly...... conceived of as a threat to a school’s profile (Rampton, Harris & Leung, 2001). In this paper, I focus on different conceptualizations of literacy and discuss the implications for research on bilingual children's literacy acquisition and the need to expand the understanding of literacy in ways, which might...... contribute to lift the basic understanding of bilinguals’ literacy out of a disqualifying political discourse. Drawing on the ongoing study Sign of Language (Laursen, 2011), I reflect on how a social semiotic framework might help open new research perspectives on bilingual children’s literacy acquisition...

  2. Informational literacy in higher education: design of a mensuration tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Toledo Sánchez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To show psychometric research phase to examine the validity of an instrument designed to measure information literacy in the Institutions of higher education in Mexico. Method. The questionnaire design of 50 items was based on the UNESCO standards of information and communication technologies (ICT competencies for teachers and skills standards for access and use of information in higher education. The methodological strategy contemplated verification of content validity, item-item correlation and construct through factorial analysis. The sample was 73 professors and librarians who work in educational institutions of northwestern Mexico. Results. The final design was reduced to 44 items, and it demonstrated the items evaluate the same construct in their internal structure, and revealed 5 dimensions for informational variable competencies and 5 competencies for ICT. Conclusions. The items have good clarity regarding the specific concept, nevertheless, the elimination of 6 items was needed proving to be a valid and reliable instrument to measure the informational literacy in the studied context.

  3. Characterizing Financial and Statistical Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Girolamo, Amalia; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    We characterize the literacy of an individual in a domain by their elicited subjective belief distribution over the possible responses to a question posed in that domain. We consider literacy across several financial, economic and statistical domains. We find considerable demographic heterogeneity...... in the degree of literacy. We also characterize the degree of consistency within a sample about their knowledge, even when that knowledge is imperfect. We show how uncertainty aversion might be a normatively attractive behavior for individuals who have imperfect literacy. Finally, we discuss extensions of our...... approach to characterize financial capability, the consequences of non-literacy, social literacy, and the information content of hypothetical survey measures of literacy....

  4. Why Information Literacy Is Invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Badke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many information literacy programs on higher education campuses, the literature of information literacy and the concept of information literacy as a viable academic subject remain hidden to most professors and academic administrators. Information literacy is invisible to academia because it is misunderstood, academic administrators have not put it on their institutions' agendas, the literature of information literacy remains in the library silo, there is a false belief that information literacy is acquired only by experience, there is a false assumption that technological ability is the same as information literacy, faculty culture makes information literacy less significant than other educational pursuits, faculty have a limited perception of the ability of librarians. and accrediting bodies have not yet advanced information literacy to a viable position in higher education. The new information age demands that these barriers be overcome and information literacy take a prominent place within the academic experience.

  5. Why Information Literacy Is Invisible

    OpenAIRE

    William Badke

    2011-01-01

    Despite the many information literacy programs on higher education campuses, the literature of information literacy and the concept of information literacy as a viable academic subject remain hidden to most professors and academic administrators. Information literacy is invisible to academia because it is misunderstood, academic administrators have not put it on their institutions' agendas, the literature of information literacy remains in the library silo, there is a false belief that infor...

  6. Linking Item Response Model Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J; Barrett, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of test equating scores on different test forms. This paper argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require any test score equating. Instead, it involves the necessity of parameter linking due to a fundamental problem inherent in the formal nature of these models-their general lack of identifiability. More specifically, item response model parameters need to be linked to adjust for the different effects of the identifiability restrictions used in separate item calibrations. Our main theorems characterize the formal nature of these linking functions for monotone, continuous response models, derive their specific shapes for different parameterizations of the 3PL model, and show how to identify them from the parameter values of the common items or persons in different linking designs.

  7. Findings Toward a Multidimensional Measure of Adolescent Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip; Prelip, Michael; Calimlim, Brian; Afifi, Abdelmonem; Quiter, Elaine; Nessim, Sharon; Wongvipat-Kalev, Nancy; Glik, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore a multidimensional measure of health literacy that incorporates skills necessary to manage one’s health environment. Methods We designed a questionnaire to assess variation in an expanded understanding of health literacy among publicly insured adolescents in California (N = 1208) regarding their health care experiences and insurance. Results Factor loading and item clustering patterns reflected in the exploratory principal components factor analysis suggest that the data are parsimoniously described by 6 domains. Conclusion This multidimensional measure becomes relevant in an era of health care reform in which many will for the first time have health insurance requiring them to navigate a system that uses a managed care model. PMID:23985181

  8. Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyo Sukoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N, which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the number of batch should be in integer value, the allocation of items to resulting batch need binary values, and also there are some non-linearity on objective function and constraint due to the dependent processing time. By applying relaxation on the decision variable of number of batch (N as parameter, a heuristic procedure could be applied to find solution of the single machine batch scheduling problem for multi items.

  9. Determining an Imaging Literacy Curriculum for Radiation Oncologists: An International Delphi Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gillan, Caitlin [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Milne, Robin A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Uchino, Minako; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Catton, Pamela [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Rapid evolution of imaging technologies and their integration into radiation therapy practice demands that radiation oncology (RO) training curricula be updated. The purpose of this study was to develop an entry-to-practice image literacy competency profile. Methods and Materials: A list of 263 potential imaging competency items were assembled from international objectives of training. Expert panel eliminated redundant or irrelevant items to create a list of 97 unique potential competency items. An international 2-round Delphi process was conducted with experts in RO. In round 1, all experts scored, on a 9-point Likert scale, the degree to which they agreed an item should be included in the competency profile. Items with a mean score ≥7 were included, those 4 to 6 were reviewed in round 2, and items scored <4 were excluded. In round 2, items were discussed and subsequently ranked for inclusion or exclusion in the competency profile. Items with >75% voting for inclusion were included in the final competency profile. Results: Forty-nine radiation oncologists were invited to participate in round 1, and 32 (65%) did so. Participants represented 24 centers in 6 countries. Of the 97 items ranked in round 1, 80 had a mean score ≥7, 1 item had a score <4, and 16 items with a mean score of 4 to 6 were reviewed and rescored in round 2. In round 2, 4 items had >75% of participants voting for inclusion and were included; the remaining 12 were excluded. The final list of 84 items formed the final competency profile. The 84 enabling competency items were aggregated into the following 4 thematic groups of key competencies: (1) imaging fundamentals (42 items); (2) clinical application (27 items); (3) clinical management (5 items); and (4) professional practice (10 items). Conclusions: We present an imaging literacy competency profile which could constitute the minimum training standards in radiation oncology residency programs.

  10. Determining an Imaging Literacy Curriculum for Radiation Oncologists: An International Delphi Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, Meredith E.; Gillan, Caitlin; Milne, Robin A.; Uchino, Minako; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Catton, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rapid evolution of imaging technologies and their integration into radiation therapy practice demands that radiation oncology (RO) training curricula be updated. The purpose of this study was to develop an entry-to-practice image literacy competency profile. Methods and Materials: A list of 263 potential imaging competency items were assembled from international objectives of training. Expert panel eliminated redundant or irrelevant items to create a list of 97 unique potential competency items. An international 2-round Delphi process was conducted with experts in RO. In round 1, all experts scored, on a 9-point Likert scale, the degree to which they agreed an item should be included in the competency profile. Items with a mean score ≥7 were included, those 4 to 6 were reviewed in round 2, and items scored <4 were excluded. In round 2, items were discussed and subsequently ranked for inclusion or exclusion in the competency profile. Items with >75% voting for inclusion were included in the final competency profile. Results: Forty-nine radiation oncologists were invited to participate in round 1, and 32 (65%) did so. Participants represented 24 centers in 6 countries. Of the 97 items ranked in round 1, 80 had a mean score ≥7, 1 item had a score <4, and 16 items with a mean score of 4 to 6 were reviewed and rescored in round 2. In round 2, 4 items had >75% of participants voting for inclusion and were included; the remaining 12 were excluded. The final list of 84 items formed the final competency profile. The 84 enabling competency items were aggregated into the following 4 thematic groups of key competencies: (1) imaging fundamentals (42 items); (2) clinical application (27 items); (3) clinical management (5 items); and (4) professional practice (10 items). Conclusions: We present an imaging literacy competency profile which could constitute the minimum training standards in radiation oncology residency programs

  11. Dissociating the neural correlates of intra-item and inter-item working-memory binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carinne Piekema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integration of information streams into a unitary representation is an important task of our cognitive system. Within working memory, the medial temporal lobe (MTL has been conceptually linked to the maintenance of bound representations. In a previous fMRI study, we have shown that the MTL is indeed more active during working-memory maintenance of spatial associations as compared to non-spatial associations or single items. There are two explanations for this result, the mere presence of the spatial component activates the MTL, or the MTL is recruited to bind associations between neurally non-overlapping representations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current fMRI study investigates this issue further by directly comparing intrinsic intra-item binding (object/colour, extrinsic intra-item binding (object/location, and inter-item binding (object/object. The three binding conditions resulted in differential activation of brain regions. Specifically, we show that the MTL is important for establishing extrinsic intra-item associations and inter-item associations, in line with the notion that binding of information processed in different brain regions depends on the MTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that different forms of working-memory binding rely on specific neural structures. In addition, these results extend previous reports indicating that the MTL is implicated in working-memory maintenance, challenging the classic distinction between short-term and long-term memory systems.

  12. Comparison of CAT Item Selection Criteria for Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung W.; Swartz, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Item selection is a core component in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Several studies have evaluated new and classical selection methods; however, the few that have applied such methods to the use of polytomous items have reported conflicting results. To clarify these discrepancies and further investigate selection method properties, six…

  13. Item Response Data Analysis Using Stata Item Response Theory Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Zheng, Xiaying

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and review the capability and performance of the Stata item response theory (IRT) package that is available from Stata v.14, 2015. Using a simulated data set and a publicly available item response data set extracted from Programme of International Student Assessment, we review the IRT package from…

  14. The impact of health and financial literacy on decision making in community-based older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bryan D; Boyle, Patricia A; Bennett, Jarred S; Bennett, David A

    2012-01-01

    Health and financial literacy have been linked to the health and well-being of older adults, yet there are few data on how health and financial literacy actually impact decision making regarding healthcare and economic choices in advanced age. To examine the association of health and financial literacy with decision making in older adults. Data came from 525 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal study of aging. Health and financial literacy were assessed via a series of questions designed to measure comprehension of health and financial information and concepts. The two scores were averaged to yield a total literacy score. A modified, 12-item version of the Decision-Making Competence Assessment Tool was used to measure financial and healthcare decision making (6 items each), using materials designed to approximate those used in real world settings. All 12 items were summed to yield a total decision-making score. Associations were tested via linear regression models adjusted for age, sex and education. Secondary models adjusted for global cognitive function, income, depression and chronic medical conditions. On average, participants correctly answered 67% of the literacy questions (health literacy = 61.6%, SD = 18.8% and financial literacy = 72.5%, SD = 16.0%). After adjustment for cognitive function, the total literacy score was positively associated with the decision-making total score (estimate = 0.64, SE = 0.08, p financial decision making (estimate = 0.28, SE = 0.05, p literacy, health and financial literacy all were independently associated with decision making in models adjusted for covariates including income, depression, and chronic medical conditions (all p values literacy and healthcare decision making was stronger among older persons, poorer persons and persons at the lower ranges of cognitive ability. Among community based older persons without dementia, higher levels of health

  15. Libraries and Literacy. A Literacy Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Library, Lansing.

    This handbook is designed to provide a comprehensive reference source about adult illiteracy for Michigan public librarians, whether or not they currently work with local literacy councils. Introductory material provides listings of members of the Michigan State Legislative Council and Library of Michigan Board of Trustees, and a listing of the…

  16. Low health literacy and healthcare utilization among immigrants and non-immigrants in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantwill, Sarah; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating the association between functional health literacy and knowledge on when to seek medical help for potentially harmless (overutilization) or serious (underutilization) situations among immigrants and non-immigrants in Switzerland. Data was collected among three immigrant groups and the native population (N=1146) in the German- and Italian-speaking part of Switzerland. Health literacy was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy (S-TOFHLA) and three Brief Health Literacy Screeners. Over- and underutilization of healthcare services was assessed with items asking participants about when to seek medical help for minor, respectively major, physical symptoms. Immigrants were more likely to seek medical help when unwarranted (overutilization). Health literacy, when assessed with the S-TOFHLA, was significantly associated with over- and underutilization. Yet, once controlled for covariates, the association between health literacy and overutilization was negative. Immigration background and micro-cultural differences emerged as important predictors of utilization. Results suggest that functional health literacy is directly related to healthcare utilization. The effects might be amplified by (micro-)cultural differences. Healthcare providers should be aware of differences in health literacy and utilization patterns among different population groups. Communication between patients and providers should be literacy and culturally sensitive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA: Development and Psychometric Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Ghanbari

    Full Text Available Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA.This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012-2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15-18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13 and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16. In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest and factor analysis were assessed.An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15-18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93. The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy.The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15-18 and can be used to evaluate

  18. Health literacy and functional health status among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael S; Gazmararian, Julie A; Baker, David W

    2005-09-26

    Individuals with limited health literacy have less health knowledge, worse self-management skills, lower use of preventive services, and higher hospitalization rates. We evaluated the association between health literacy, self-reported physical and mental health functioning, and health-related activity limitations among new Medicare managed care enrollees. A cross-sectional survey of 2923 enrollees was conducted in Cleveland, Ohio; Houston, Tex; Tampa, Fla; and Fort Lauderdale-Miami, Fla. Health literacy was measured using the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. We used outcome measures that included scores on the physical and mental health functioning subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, difficulties with instrumental activities of daily living and activities of daily living, and limitations because of physical health and pain. After adjusting for the prevalence of chronic conditions, health risk behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics, individuals with inadequate health literacy had worse physical function (67.7 vs 78.0, Phealth (76.2 vs 84.0, Phealth literacy. Individuals with inadequate health literacy were more likely to report difficulties with instrumental activities of daily living (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.92) and activities of daily living (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.62-4.96), limitations in activity because of physical health (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.39-2.32), fewer accomplishments because of physical health (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.48-2.45), and pain that interferes with normal work activities (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.46-2.77). Among community-dwelling older adults, inadequate health literacy was independently associated with poorer physical and mental health.

  19. Comprehensive health literacy in Japan is lower than in Europe: a validated Japanese-language assessment of health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Osaka, Wakako; Togari, Taisuke; Ishikawa, Hirono; Yonekura, Yuki; Sekido, Ai; Matsumoto, Masayoshi

    2015-05-23

    Health literacy, or the ability to access, understand, appraise and apply health information, is central to individuals' health and well-being. A comprehensive, concept-based measure of most dimensions of health literacy has been developed for the general population in Europe, which enables comparisons within and between countries. This study seeks to validate this tool for use in Japan, and to use a Japanese translation to compare health literacy levels in Japan and Europe. A total of 1054 Japanese adults recruited through an Internet research service company, completed a Japanese-language version of the 47-item European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47). The survey was administered via an online questionnaire, and participant demographics were closely matched to those of the most recent Japanese national census. Survey results were compared with those previously reported in an eight-country European study of health literacy. Internal consistency for the translated questionnaire was valid across multiple metrics. Construct validity was checked using confirmatory factor analyses. The questionnaire correlated well with existing scales measuring health literacy and mental health status. In general, health literacy in the Japanese population was lower than in Europe, with Japanese respondents rating all test items as more difficult than European respondents. The largest difference (51.5 %) was in the number of respondents finding it difficult to know where to get professional help when they are ill. This study translated a comprehensive health literacy questionnaire into Japanese and confirmed its reliability and validity. Comparative results suggest that Japanese health literacy is lower than that of Europeans. This discrepancy may be partly caused by inefficiency in the Japanese primary health care system. It is also difficult to access reliable and understandable health information in Japan, as there is no comprehensive national online platform

  20. Teaching Media Literacy with Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnin, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Background: A current problem in media literacy studies is whether or not to categorize graphic novels as media literacy texts. Thus, this article begins with a review of current media literacy research and its emphasis on defining media literacy texts as texts that rely on both print literacies and image literacies. Because graphic novels rely on…

  1. Interaction between functional health literacy, patient activation, and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodard LD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available LeChauncy D Woodard, Cassie R Landrum, Amber B Amspoker, David Ramsey, Aanand D Naik Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Section of Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Background: Functional health literacy (FHL and patient activation can impact diabetes control through enhanced diabetes self-management. Less is known about the combined effect of these characteristics on diabetes outcomes. Using brief, validated measures, we examined the interaction between FHL and patient activation in predicting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c control among a cohort of multimorbid diabetic patients.Methods: We administered a survey via mail to 387 diabetic patients with coexisting ­hypertension and ischemic heart disease who received outpatient care at one regional VA medical center between November 2010 and December 2010. We identified patients with the study conditions using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision-Clinical ­Modification (ICD-9-CM diagnoses codes and Current Procedure Terminology (CPT ­procedures codes. Surveys were returned by 195 (50.4% patients. We determined patient activation levels based on participant responses to the 13-item Patient Activation Measure and FHL levels using the single-item screening question, “How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?” We reviewed patient medical records to assess glycemic control. We used multiple logistic regression to examine whether activation and FHL were individually or jointly related to HbA1c control.Results: Neither patient activation nor FHL was independently related to glycemic control in the unadjusted main effects model; however, the interaction between the two was significantly associated with glycemic control (odds ratio 1.05 [95% confidence

  2. Does literacy improve finance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Martha; Olen, Helaine

    2015-04-01

    When economists ask questions about basic financial principles, most ordinary people answer incorrectly. Economic experts call this condition "financial illiteracy," which suggests that poor financial outcomes are due to a personal deficit of reading-related skills. The analogy to reading is compelling because it suggests that we can teach our way out of population-wide financial failure. In this comment, we explain why the idea of literacy appeals to policy makers in the advanced industrial nations. But we also show that the narrow skill set laid out by economists does not satisfy the politically inclusive definition of literacy that literacy studies fought for. We identify several channels through which people engage with ideas about finance and demonstrate that not all forms of literacy will lead people to the educational content prescribed by academic economists. We argue that truly financial literate people can defy the demands of financial theory and financial institutions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Beethoven, Literacy, and Me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Susan

    1988-01-01

    Relates the author's experiences with literacy in another medium during 18 months of concentrated music study. Describes how this experience produced insights about the student/teacher relationship, about learning, and about the writing process. (SR)

  4. Learn about Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidelines & Tools Plain Language Materials & Resources Testing Visual Communication Resources Understand Your Audience Measuring Skills & Experiences Culture & Language Older Adults Getting Started Importance of Health Literacy How Older Adults Make Health ...

  5. The Balanced Literacy Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Describes professional development program in Ontario school district to improve student reading and writing skills. Program used food-pyramid concepts to help teacher learn to provide a balanced and flexible approach to literacy instruction based on student needs. (PKP)

  6. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres.......Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres....

  7. Information Literacy Journal Club

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Michelle; Tumelty, Niamh

    2014-01-01

    The Information Literacy Journal Club (http://infolitjournalclub.blogspot.co.uk/) is an online discussion group that focuses on information literacy and other aspects of user education. The journal club was originally set up on the Blogger platform in December 2012 by Niamh Tumelty (University of Cambridge) and Sheila Webber (University of Sheffield), and since then the community involved has grown to include a range of professionals interested in the area.

  8. Computerized adaptive testing with item clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the cost of item writing and to enhance the flexibility of item presentation, items can be generated by item-cloning techniques. An important consequence of cloning is that it may cause variability on the item parameters. Therefore, a multilevel item response model is presented in which it

  9. Computerized adaptive testing with item cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    2003-01-01

    To increase the number of items available for adaptive testing and reduce the cost of item writing, the use of techniques of item cloning has been proposed. An important consequence of item cloning is possible variability between the item parameters. To deal with this variability, a multilevel item

  10. Health literacy assessment in developing countries: a case study in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauben, Sarah J; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2017-06-01

    Education and literacy are key determinants of health but do not necessarily ensure health literacy (HL). The Institute of Medicine's (IOM) definition of HL is widely accepted, but there is no consensus over its constituent parts. Developing a practical measure of HL is a priority, but challenging. We aimed to derive a measure of HL in data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program administered by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), which includes items representing domains of HL as defined by the IOM. We accessed data from the DHS conducted in Zambia in 2007. We applied factor analysis methods to eight survey questions that corresponded to elements of the IOM definition. We derived a single indicator and evaluated for reliability and validity. The derived dichotomous measure of HL demonstrated reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.68), good content validity, and importantly was composed of the elements described by the IOM including capacity to obtain, interpret and understand health information, and make appropriate health decisions. Only 46.5% of males and 24.5% of females had high literacy. HL varied considerably across other subgroups. This is the first study to derive a robust indicator of HL following the IOM definition in a large national sample. By applying and evaluating this method in future studies, researchers can use this approach in other DHS datasets to measure HL in additional countries, and ultimately test how HL relates to health outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Morphing Literacy: Boys Reshaping Their School-Based Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Heather A.; Stanford, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Details about a two-year ethnographic case study research in middle school boys to understand school literacy are presented. The study revealed that boys resist many school-based practices by transforming the assigned literacy work.

  12. Feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of brief health literacy and numeracy screening instruments in an urban emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody S; Lin, Margaret J; Melson, Andrew T; Griffey, Richard T

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of five health literacy screening instruments in emergency department (ED) patients: the Rapid Evaluation of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised (REALM-R), the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Single Item Literacy Screens (SILS), health numeracy, and physician gestalt. A secondary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of these instruments as measured by administration time, time on task, and interruptions during test administration. This was a prospective observational cross-sectional study of a convenience sampling of adult patients presenting during March 2011 and February 2012 to one urban university-affiliated ED. Subjects were consenting non-critically ill, English-speaking patients over the age of 18 years without aphasia, dementia, mental retardation, or inability to communicate. The diagnostic test characteristics of the REALM-R, NVS, SILS, health numeracy, and physician gestalt were quantitatively assessed by using the short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). A score of 22 or less was the criterion standard for limited health literacy (LHL). A total of 435 participants were enrolled, with a mean (±SD) age of 45 (±15.7) years, and 18% had less than a high school education. As defined by an S-TOFHLA score of 22 or less, the prevalence of LHL was 23.9%. In contrast, the NVS, REALM-R, and physician gestalt identified 64.8, 48.5, and 35% of participants as LHL, respectively. A normal NVS screen was the most useful test to exclude LHL, with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01 to 0.17). When abnormal, none of the screening instruments, including physician gestalt, significantly increased the posttest probability of LHL. The NVS and REALM-R require 3 and 5 minutes less time to administer than the S-TOFHLA. Administration of the REALM-R is associated with fewer test interruptions. One-quarter of these ED patients had marginal or inadequate health

  13. A Changing Literacy in Morocco: A Contextual and Pedagogical Overview (Changes in Literacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzaki, Abdelkader

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of literacy and literacy education in Morocco. Sketches the historical context, and then discusses literacy in formal school settings, adult programs, and needed improvements. (SR)

  14. Productive knowledge of collocations may predict academic literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dyk, Tobie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the relationship between productive knowledge of collocations and academic literacy among first year students at North-West University. Participants were administered a collocation test, the items of which were selected from Nation’s (2006 word frequency bands, i.e. the 2000-word, 3000-word, 5000-word bands; and the Academic Word List (Coxhead, 2000. The scores from the collocation test were compared to those from the Test of Academic Literacy Levels (version administered in 2012. The results of this study indicate that, overall, knowledge of collocations is significantly correlated with academic literacy, which is also observed at each of the frequency bands from which the items were selected. These results support Nizonkiza’s (2014 findings that a significant correlation between mastery of collocations of words from the Academic Word List and academic literacy exists; which is extended here to words from other frequency bands. They also confirm previous findings that productive knowledge of collocations increases alongside overall proficiency (cf. Gitsaki, 1999; Bonk, 2001; Eyckmans et al., 2004; Boers et al., 2006; Nizonkiza, 2011; among others. This study therefore concludes that growth in productive knowledge of collocations may entail growth in academic literacy; suggesting that productive use of collocations is linked to academic literacy to a considerable extent. In light of these findings, teaching strategies aimed to assist first year students meet academic demands posed by higher education and avenues to explore for further research are discussed. Especially, we suggest adopting a productive oriented approach to teaching collocations, which we believe may prove useful.

  15. Literacy of the Other: The Inner Life of Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarc, Aparna Mishra

    2015-01-01

    My paper situates literacy in the pre-symbolic implications of the maternal relation. Turning to child psychoanalysis, particularly Melanie Klein's theories of infancy and symbolization, my paper discusses the role the child's inner life plays in her engagements with literacy. Citing cases of second language learning, I pose literacy as…

  16. Critical Literacy for Adult Literacy in Language Learners. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzer, Carol; Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    This digest examines critical literacy and discusses why it is important to include it in instruction for adults learning English as a Second Language (ESL). Critical literacy takes learners beyond the development of basic literacy skills such as decoding, predicting, and summarizing and asks them to become critical consumers of the information…

  17. Reform in Literacy Education in China. Literacy Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yianwei, Wang; Jiyuan, Li

    Literacy in China is mainly concerned with illiteracy in rural areas. Therefore, reforming literacy education is largely a problem of how to eliminate rural literacy within the general framework of reform in contemporary China. From 1949 to 1988, the illiteracy rate among the population decreased from 80 percent to 20 percent. There are still…

  18. Literacy journeys: home and family literacy practices in immigrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I conclude that immigrant children have far greater language and literacy skills than presumed, and that schools need to recognize language and literacy practices that children engage in at home and in the community, and emphasize that social justice for all requires educational shifts. Keywords: family literacy practices; ...

  19. Developmental Milestones of Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Developmental Milestones of Early Literacy Page Content ​In the spirit of making both ... at the well-defined developmental milestones of early literacy. Younger Than 6 Months: Never Too Young Unlike ...

  20. All Aspects of Health Literacy Scale (AAHLS): developing a tool to measure functional, communicative and critical health literacy in primary healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Deborah; McCarthy, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    Our aim was to develop and pilot a tool to measure health literacy in primary health care settings, encompassing functional, communicative and critical health literacy. Following consultation with providers and users of primary health care we developed a fourteen-item self-report scale, which was piloted on 146 participants. The reliability, content and construct validity of the scale was investigated as well as relationships between scores on the scales and participant characteristics. The overall scale had adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.74), though reliability of the subscales was less consistent. Principal component analysis indicated that scale items loaded on four factors, corresponding to skills in using written health information; communicating with health care providers; health information management and appraisal assertion of individual autonomy with regards to health. Overall scores and different subscale scores were associated with ethnic minority status, educational level, and self-rated health status, though the picture was complex. Health literacy is a complex and evolving construct. Nevertheless, we succeeded in developing a brief measure relating to different health literacy competencies, beyond functional literacy skills. Assessment using the AAHLS can provide important information for health care practitioners about the health literacy needs and capabilities of service users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Geography of Financial Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher B. Bumcrot; Judy Lin; Annamaria Lusardi

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how well equipped today’s households are to make complex financial decisions in the face of often high-cost and high-risk financial instruments. Specifically we focus on financial literacy. Most importantly, we describe the geography of financial literacy, i.e., how financial literacy is distributed across the fifty US states. We describe the correlation of financial literacy and some important aggregate variables, such as state-level poverty rates. Finally, we examine the...

  2. Developing and evaluating a relevant and feasible instrument for measuring health literacy of Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D; Begoray, Deborah L; Macdonald, Marjorie; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Frankish, Jim; Kwan, Brenda; Fung, Winny; Rootman, Irving

    2010-12-01

    Health literacy has come to play a critical role in health education and promotion, yet it is poorly understood in adolescents and few measurement tools exist. Standardized instruments to measure health literacy in adults assume it to be a derivative of general literacy. This paper reports on the development and the early-stage validation of a health literacy tool for high school students that measured skills to understand and evaluate health information. A systematic process was used to develop, score and validate items. Questionnaire data were collected from 275, primarily 10th grade students in three secondary schools in Vancouver, Canada that reflected variation in demographic profile. Forty-eight percent were male, and 69.1% spoke a language other than English. Bivariate correlations between background variables and the domain and overall health literacy scores were calculated. A regression model was developed using 15 explanatory variables. The R(2) value was 0.567. Key findings were that lower scores were achieved by males, students speaking a second language other than English, those who immigrated to Canada at a later age and those who skipped school more often. Unlike in general literacy where the family factors of mother's education and family affluence both played significant roles, these two factors failed to predict the health literacy of our school-aged sample. The most significant contributions of this work include the creation of an instrument for measuring adolescent health literacy and further emphasizing the distinction between health literacy and general literacy.

  3. Assessment of oral health literacy among patients attending Malabar dental college and research centre in Kerala: A cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Shimi S Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health literacy is relatively a new, but critical concept to decrease disparities and increase oral health for all. Low oral health literacy contributes to oral disease which results in increased cost for vulnerable population such as poor, those with low levels of education, minorities, and the elderly. Aim: To assess oral health literacy among patients attending Malabar dental college and research centre in Kerala. Materials and Methods: Health literacy in dentistry scale questionnaire with 29 items was administered by the investigator to collect data related to oral health literacy among 272 patients attending Malabar Dental College and Research Centre. The collected data were compiled and statistically analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The oral health literacy was assessed based on the interquartile range, of 272 patients, 23.9% of patients had poor oral health literacy, 57% were found to have moderate oral health literacy, and 19.1% patients were found to have good oral health literacy. The results were significant at P < 0.001. Conclusion: Oral health literacy was found to be moderate among patients attending Malabar Dental College and Research Centre.

  4. Disciplinary Literacy: "Adapt" Not Adopt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that every teacher is not a teacher of literacy, but instead posits that teachers in content areas must adapt literacy strategies to the content being taught and to the context in which that teaching occurs. Examples of adaptations of a literacy strategy for use in English/language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies…

  5. Literacy in an Information Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    1991-01-01

    Today's definition of literacy must include the ability to find and evaluate needed information. Proposes a national literacy agenda to change the way information is used in educational settings and provide greater access to expanding information resources. Considers information literacy a means of personal and national empowerment. (DMM)

  6. The Value of Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  7. Bilingual Literacy in Creole Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This article examines whether the conventional notion of bilingual literacy is applicable to speakers of creole languages in terms of autonomy, codification, instrumentalisation, education and literacy practices. It then goes on to describe alternative conceptions of both literacy and bilingualism that appear to be more relevant to creole…

  8. Bodies Matter in Literacy Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Lalitha

    2014-01-01

    Reading the implicit invitation in new literacies scholarship to reimagine pedagogy that leans into the lives of youth, Vasudevan reminds readers how the teacher's body is central to the meaning making of students in literacy classrooms. She extends this notion of embodiment to the work of the literacy coach and reiterates Skinner, Hagood,…

  9. Information Literacy: A Bogus Bandwagon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrank, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the concept of information literacy and its target audience of library users. Topics discussed include the relationship of information literacy to bibliographic instruction (BI) and other library instruction; the role of librarians; terminology problems in librarianship; and the effects of information literacy on the value of information…

  10. Examining the Impact of ABRACADABRA on Early Literacy in Northern Australia: An Implementation Fidelity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Abrami, Philip C.; Helmer, Janet; Savage, Robert; Harper, Helen; Lea, Tess

    2014-01-01

    To address students' poor literacy outcomes, an intervention using a computer-based literacy tool, ABRACADABRA, was implemented in 6 Northern Australia primary schools. A pretest, posttest parallel group, single blind multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted with 308 students between the ages of 4 and 8 years old (M age = 5.8 years, SD…

  11. Information weighted sampling for detecting rare items in finite populations with a focus on security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstrate, A.J.; Klaassen, C.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Frequently one has to search within a finite population for a single particular individual or item with a rare characteristic. Whether an item possesses the characteristic can only be determined by close inspection. The availability of additional information about the items in the population opens

  12. Retrieval of very large numbers of items in the Web of Science: an exercise to develop accurate search strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arencibia-Jorge, R.; Leydesdorff, L.; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z.; Rousseau, R.; Paris, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    The Web of Science interface counts at most 100,000 retrieved items from a single query. If the query results in a dataset containing more than 100,000 items the number of retrieved items is indicated as >100,000. The problem studied here is how to find the exact number of items in a query that

  13. Does numeracy correlate with measures of health literacy in the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Richard T; Melson, Andrew T; Lin, Margaret J; Carpenter, Christopher R; Goodman, Melody S; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2014-02-01

    are in the low to moderate range. Performance on numeracy testing was nearly universally poor, even among patients performing well on health literacy screens, with a substantial proportion of the latter patients unable to answer half of the numeracy items correctly. Insofar as numeracy is considered a subset of health literacy, these results suggest that commonly used health literacy screening tools in ED-based studies inadequately evaluate and overestimate numeracy. This suggests the potential need for separate numeracy screening when these skills are important for health outcomes of interest. Providers should be sensitive to potential numeracy deficits among those who may otherwise have normal health literacy. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  14. Cognitive decline impairs financial and health literacy among community-based older persons without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S; Segawa, Eisuke; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A

    2013-09-01

    Literacy is an important determinant of health and well-being across the life span but is critical in aging, when many influential health and financial decisions are made. Prior studies suggest that older persons exhibit lower literacy than younger persons, particularly in the domains of financial and health literacy, but the reasons why remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to: (a) examine pathways linking diverse resources (i.e., education, word knowledge, cognitive function, and decision making style) to health and financial literacy among older persons and determine the extent to which the relation of age with literacy represents a direct effect versus an indirect effect due to decrements in specific cognitive functions (i.e., executive functions and episodic memory); and (b) test the hypothesis that declines in executive function and episodic memory are associated with lower literacy among older persons without dementia. Six-hundred and forty-five community-based older persons without dementia underwent detailed assessments of diverse resources, including education, word knowledge, cognitive function (i.e., executive function, episodic memory) and decision making style (i.e., risk aversion), and completed a measure of literacy that included items similar to those used in the Health and Retirement Study, such as numeracy, financial concepts such as compound inflation and knowledge of stocks and bonds, and important health concepts such as understanding of drug risk and Medicare Part D. Path analysis revealed a strong effect of age on literacy, with about half of the effect of age on literacy due to decrements in executive functions and episodic memory. In addition, executive function had an indirect effect on literacy via decision making style (i.e., risk aversion), and education and word knowledge had independent effects on literacy. Finally, among (n = 447) persons with repeated cognitive assessments available for up to 14 years, regression

  15. Climate Literacy Ambassadors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Mooney, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Literacy Ambassadors program is a collaborative effort to advance climate literacy led by the Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. With support from NASA, CIMSS is coordinating a three-tiered program to train G6-12 teachers to be Ambassadors of Climate Literacy in their schools and communities. The complete training involves participation at a teacher workshop combined with web-based professional development content around Global and Regional Climate Change. The on-line course utilizes e-learning technology to clarify graphs and concepts from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Summary for Policy Makers with content intricately linked to the Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Educators who take the course for credit can develop lesson plans or opt for a project of their choosing. This session will showcase select lesson plans and projects, ranging from a district-wide action plan that engaged dozens of teachers to Ambassadors volunteering at the Aldo Leopold Climate Change Nature Center to a teacher who tested a GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign (SCRC) learning project with plans to participate in the SCRC program. Along with sharing successes from the CIMSS Climate Literacy Ambassadors project, we will share lessons learned related to the challenges of sustaining on-line virtual educator communities.

  16. Production of different literacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Wanderley Geraldi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we question the "modern" concept of literacy, observing it as it is a new theory aiming at replacing the concept of "alphabetization" and its practices so as to produce effective ways of inserting the subject in the worlds of writing and reading. We especially employ the Bakhtinian concepts of speech genres and responsible act on concrete utterances that exemplify the current teaching practice in order to show that the key problem in education is not the name change of a teaching practice, but it is both the mixture of two different realities when it comes to different levels of literacy or to different literacies and the unequal distribution of cultural goods in society.

  17. Implementing routine health literacy assessment in hospital and primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Courtney; Mion, Lorraine C; Willens, David E; Roumie, Christianne L; Kripalani, Sunil

    2014-02-01

    Patients with inadequate health literacy often have poorer health outcomes and increased utilization and costs. The Institute of Medicine has recommended that health literacy assessment be incorporated into health care information systems, which would facilitate large-scale studies of the effects of health literacy, as well as evaluation of system interventions to improve care by addressing health literacy. As part of the Health Literacy Screening (HEALS) study, a Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS) was incorporated into the electronic health record (EHR) at a large academic medical center. Changes were implemented to the nursing intake documentation across all adult hospital units, the emergency department, and three primary care practices. The change involved replacing previous education screening items with the BHLS. Implementation was based on a quality improvement framework, with a focus on acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity and sustainability. Support was gained from nursing leadership, education and training was provided, a documentation change was rolled out, feedback was obtained, and uptake of the new health literacy screening items was monitored. Between November 2010 and April 2012, there were 55,611 adult inpatient admissions, and from November 2010 to September 2011, 23,186 adult patients made 39,595 clinic visits to the three primary care practices. The completion (uptake) rate was 91.8% for the hospital and 66.6% for the outpatient clinics. Although challenges exist, it is feasible to incorporate health literacy screening into clinical assessment and EHR documentation. Next steps are to evaluate the association of health literacy with processes and outcomes of care across inpatient and outpatient populations.

  18. Development of an easy-to-use Spanish Health Literacy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Bender, Deborah E; Ruiz, Rafael E; Cho, Young Ik

    2006-08-01

    The study was intended to develop and validate a health literacy test, termed the Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults (SAHLSA), for the Spanish-speaking population. The design of SAHLSA was based on the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), known as the most easily administered tool for assessing health literacy in English. In addition to the word recognition test in REALM, SAHLSA incorporates a comprehension test using multiple-choice questions designed by an expert panel. Validation of SAHLSA involved testing and comparing the tool with other health literacy instruments in a sample of 201 Spanish-speaking and 202 English-speaking subjects recruited from the Ambulatory Care Center at UNC Health Care. With only the word recognition test, REALM could not differentiate the level of health literacy in Spanish. The SAHLSA significantly improved the differentiation. Item response theory analysis was performed to calibrate the SAHLSA and reduce the instrument to 50 items. The resulting instrument, SAHLSA-50, was correlated with the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, another health literacy instrument, at r=0.65. The SAHLSA-50 score was significantly and positively associated with the physical health status of Spanish-speaking subjects (peducation. The instrument displayed good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.92) and test-retest reliability (Pearson's r=0.86). The new instrument, SAHLSA-50, has good reliability and validity. It could be used in the clinical or community setting to screen for low health literacy among Spanish speakers.

  19. Health Literacy and Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Cajita, Tara Rafaela; Han, Hae-Ra

    2015-01-01

    Background Low health literacy affects millions of Americans, putting those who are affected at a disadvantage and at risk for poorer health outcomes. Low health literacy can act as a barrier to effective disease self-management; this is especially true for chronic diseases such as heart failure (HF) that require complicated self-care regimens. Purpose This systematic review examined quantitative research literature published between 1999 and 2014 to explore the role of health literacy among HF patients. The specific aims of the systematic review are to (1) describe the prevalence of low health literacy among HF patients, (2) explore the predictors of low health literacy among HF patients, and (3) discuss the relationship between health literacy and HF self-care and common HF outcomes. Methods A systematic search of the following databases was conducted, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, Embase, PsycINFO, and Scopus, using relevant keywords and clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. Conclusions An average of 39% of HF patients have low health literacy. Age, race/ethnicity, years of education, and cognitive function are predictors of health literacy. In addition, adequate health literacy is consistently correlated with higher HF knowledge and higher salt knowledge. Clinical Implications Considering the prevalence of low health literacy among in the HF population, nurses and healthcare professionals need to recognize the consequences of low health literacy and adopt strategies that could minimize its detrimental effect on the patient's health outcomes. PMID:25569150

  20. Literacy research methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, Nell K

    2012-01-01

    The definitive reference on literacy research methods, this book serves as a key resource for researchers and as a text in graduate-level courses. Distinguished scholars clearly describe established and emerging methodologies, discuss the types of questions and claims for which each is best suited, identify standards of quality, and present exemplary studies that illustrate the approaches at their best. The book demonstrates how each mode of inquiry can yield unique insights into literacy learning and teaching and how the methods can work together to move the field forward.   New to This Editi

  1. Measuring Ocean Literacy: What teens understand about the ocean using the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental

  2. Five Fabulous Literacy-Oriented Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlychek, Ken

    1997-01-01

    Profiles six noteworthy web sites on literacy-related information, including sites that deal with issues addressing literacy and deafness, literacy development, family literacy program development, evaluation of family literacy programs, and encouraging young children with deafness to read. Online addresses of the web sites are provided. (CR)

  3. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.214-72... 2008) Bids on []* will be given equal consideration along with bids on []** and any such bids received... [].** * Contracting officer will insert an alternate item that is considered acceptable. ** Contracting officer will...

  4. Nurse Practitioners' Use of Communication Techniques: Results of a Maryland Oral Health Literacy Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Laura W.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Radice, Sarah D.; Wang, Min Q.; Kleinman, Dushanka V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined nurse practitioners? use and opinions of recommended communication techniques for the promotion of oral health as part of a Maryland state-wide oral health literacy assessment. Use of recommended health-literate and patient-centered communication techniques have demonstrated improved health outcomes. Methods A 27-item self-report survey, containing 17 communication technique items, across 5 domains, was mailed to 1,410 licensed nurse practitioners (NPs) in Maryland in 2...

  5. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale: Latent structure of 8-item and 4-item versions in Peruvian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Soto, Cesar; Salas Blas, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    This research intended to validate two brief scales of sensations seeking with Peruvian adolescents: the eight item scale (BSSS8; Hoyle, Stephenson, Palmgreen, Lorch, y Donohew, 2002) and the four item scale (BSSS4; Stephenson, Hoyle, Slater, y Palmgreen, 2003). Questionnaires were administered to 618 voluntary participants, with an average age of 13.6 years, from different levels of high school, state and private school in a district in the south of Lima. It analyzed the internal structure of both short versions using three models: a) unidimensional (M1), b) oblique or related dimensions (M2), and c) the bifactor model (M3). Results show that both instruments have a single dimension which best represents the variability of the items; a fact that can be explained both by the complexity of the concept and by the small number of items representing each factor, which is more noticeable in the BSSS4. Reliability is within levels found by previous studies: alpha: .745 = BSSS8 and BSSS4 =. 643; omega coefficient: .747 in BSSS8 and .651 in BSSS4. These are considered suitable for the type of instruments studied. Based on the correlation between the two instruments, it was found that there are satisfactory levels of equivalence between the BSSS8 and BSSS4. However, it is recommended that the BSSS4 is mainly used for research and for the purpose of describing populations.

  6. Writing for Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Shannon Marie

    Scientific literacy is the foundation on which both California's currently adopted science standards and the recommended new standards for science are based (CDE, 2000; NRC, 2011). The Writing for Science Literacy (WSL) curriculum focuses on a series of writing and discussion tasks aimed at increasing students' scientific literacy. These tasks are based on three teaching and learning constructs: thought and language, scaffolding, and meta-cognition. To this end, WSL is focused on incorporating several strategies from the Rhetorical Approach to Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking to engage students in activities designed to increase their scientific literacy; their ability to both identify an author's claim and evidence and to develop their own arguments based on a claim and evidence. Students participated in scaffolded activities designed to strengthen their written and oral discourse, hone their rhetorical skills and improve their meta-cognition. These activities required students to participate in both writing and discussion tasks to create meaning and build their science content knowledge. Students who participated in the WSL curriculum increased their written and oral fluency and were able to accurately write an evidence-based conclusion all while increasing their conceptual knowledge. This finding implies that a discourse rich curriculum can lead to an increase in scientific knowledge.

  7. Teaching Two Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    It's obvious that technology is reshaping students' reading and writing practices, with or without educators' intervention. The challenge is to teach students to be truly literate in two languages--those of the pre- and post-digital worlds. So how can teachers teach to two literacies at once? They must approach this task with three mind-sets.…

  8. The 1971 Literacy Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Budd L., Ed.

    Results of a study of the campaigns to eliminate illiteracy in five districts of Tanzania are reported. Using case study methods, researchers from the Institute of Adult Education followed a common outline in collecting data from the Mafia, Ukerewe, Masasi, Kilimanjaro, and Pare Districts regarding their literacy campaigns. The outline was 1.…

  9. An Information Literacy Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielich, Paul; Page, Frederick

    2002-01-01

    Describes a pilot partnership formed by a science teacher and a science library media specialist between Detroit's Northwestern High School and the David Adamany Undergraduate Library at Wayne State University to develop student information literacy in high school. Discusses activities; teacher attitudes; introduction of the Big6 Skills; and…

  10. Media Literacy Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Provides an up-to-date bibliography of resources available for teaching media literacy. Groups resources into the areas of media education methodology, mass media texts, general background, television, film, the news and medium of print, advertising, gender and the media, popular culture, popular music and rock video, periodicals, and…

  11. Online Literacies at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Uses examples drawn from research across several sites in tourism and hospitality in which employees are required to interact with technology, in order to highlight issues relating to new online literacies that are now required for efficient work practices and to discuss implications for practice. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy…

  12. Adolescents and media literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCannon, Robert

    2005-06-01

    In the face of media industry consolidation, fewer people control media content which makes it harder for parents and citizens to know the research about media-related issues, such as video game violence, nutrition, and sexual risk-taking. Media literacy offers a popular and potentially successful way to counter the misinformation that is spread by Big Media public relations.

  13. Learning Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehm, Rae-Anne; Lupton, Mandy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on university students' experiences of learning information literacy. Method: Phenomenography was selected as the research approach as it describes the experience from the perspective of the study participants, which in this case is a mixture of undergraduate and postgraduate students studying education at an…

  14. Literacy before Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Emilia; Teberosky, Ana

    The reflections and theses on preschool children's literacy development presented in this book are the result of an experimental project carried out in Buenos Aires from 1974 to 1976. Chapter 1 discusses the educational situation in Latin America, traditional methods of reading instruction, contemporary psycholinguistics, the pertinence of…

  15. Embracing Physical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetert, E. Paul; Jefferies, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    At the most recent SHAPE America National Convention held in St. Louis, MO, an international perspective of the term "physical literacy" was introduced. Experts representing North America, Europe, and Asia provided insight into the increased acceptance and implementation of the term. Since the terms "physical education" and…

  16. Marketing Manual: Workplace Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanshawe Coll., Strathroy (Ontario).

    This manual applies marketing concepts and methods, selling techniques and principles to the workplace literacy program for the purpose of assisting individuals involved in promoting and selling these programs. Part I provides a rationale for marketing and discusses the following: the role of the sponsor in marketing, market versus marketing,…

  17. Extending Cultural Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Ted J.; Court, Deborah

    1992-01-01

    Advocates defining cultural literacy to recognize the mass media's role in transmitting and maintaining cultural stereotypes and shaping values and beliefs. Distinguishes between ideational and material aspects of culture. Advocates teaching critical thinking and respect for persons in light of questionable moral perspectives in certain media…

  18. Literacy and Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the ambiguous attitude toward literacy in ancient Athenian society. Asserts that few Athenian citizens could read, yet reading was regarded as intrinsic to democratic practices. Maintains that the democratic power of writing rests in the active, social interaction of citizens. (CFR)

  19. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  20. Stewards of Digital Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Participatory culture, in which citizens feel and exercise the agency of being cocreators of their culture and not just passive consumers of culture created by others, depends on widespread literacies of participation. One can't participate without knowing how. And cultural participation depends on a social component that is not easily learned…

  1. Writing and Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Magasic, Coleen

    2012-01-01

    Writing activities are a sure way to assess and enhance students' science literacy. Sometimes the author's students use technical writing to communicate their lab experiences, just as practicing scientists do. Other times, they use creative writing to make connections to the topics they're learning. This article describes both types of writing…

  2. Nuclear literacy - Hungarian experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, E.; Marx, G.

    1996-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants and the related environmental sentiments make basic nuclear education to a precondition of modern democratic decision making. Nuclear chapters of the curriculum used to treat the topics in historical and descriptive, thus less convincing way. The question arises: how to offer nuclear literacy to the youth in general, to show its empirical aspects and relevance to citizens. (author)

  3. The Geography of Financial Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bumcrot

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how well equipped today’s households are to make complex financial decisions in the face of often high-cost and high-risk financial instruments. Specifically we focus on financial literacy. Most importantly, we describe the geography of financial literacy, i.e., how financial literacy is distributed across the fifty US states. We describe the correlation of financial literacy and some important aggregate variables, such as state-level poverty rates. Finally, we examine the extent to which differences in financial literacy can be explained by states’ demographic and economic characteristics. To assess financial literacy, five questions were added to the 2009 National Financial Capability Study, covering fundamental concepts of economics and finance encountered in everyday life: simple calculations about interest rates and inflation, the workings of risk diversification, the relationship between bond prices and interest rates, and the relationship between interest payments and maturity in mortgages. We constructed an index of financial literacy based on the number of correct answers provided by each respondent to the five financial literacy questions. The financial literacy index reveals wide variation in financial literacy across states. Much of the variation is attributable to differences in the demographic makeup of the states; however, a handful of states have either higher or lower levels of financial literacy than is explained by demographics alone. Also, there is a significant correlation between the financial literacy of a state and that state’s poverty level. The findings indicate directions for policy makers and practitioners interested in targeting areas where financial literacy is low.

  4. An investigation of Mathematical Literacy assessment supported by an application of Rasch measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Long

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical Literacy (ML is a relatively new school subject that learners study in the final 3 years of high school and is examined as a matric subject. An investigation of a 2009 provincial examination written by matric pupils was conducted on both the curriculum elements of the test and learner performance. In this study we supplement the prior qualitative investigation with an application of Rasch measurement theory to review and revise the scoring procedures so as to better reflect scoring intentions. In an application of the Rasch model, checks are made on the test as a whole, the items and the learner responses, to ensure coherence of the instrument for the particular reference group, in this case Mathematical Literacy learners in one high school. In this article, we focus on the scoring of polytomous items, that is, items that are scored 0, 1, 2 … m. We found in some instances indiscriminate mark allocations, which contravened assessment and measurement principles. Through the investigation of each item, the associated scoring logic and the output of the Rasch analysis, rescoring was explored. We report here on the analysis of the test prior to rescoring, the analysis and rescoring of individual items and the post rescore analysis. The purpose of the article is to address the question: How may detailed attention to the scoring of the items in a Mathematical Literacy test, through theoretical investigation and the application of the Rasch model, contribute to a more informative and coherent outcome?

  5. Creating New Items in Zotero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Morton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Intro to the Zotero API, you learned a little bit about Zotero; now you can access some of its functions using Python scripts. In this lesson, you will create a new item in a Zotero library and add some basic metadata such as title and date.

  6. Alternative approaches to updating item parameter estimates in tests with item cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Item cloning techniques can greatly reduce the cost of item writing and enhance the flexibility of item presentation. To deal with the possible variability of the item parameters caused by item cloning, Glas and van der Linden (in press, 2006) proposed a multilevel item response model where it is

  7. Item level diagnostics and model - data fit in item response theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Item response theory (IRT) is a framework for modeling and analyzing item response data. Item-level modeling gives IRT advantages over classical test theory. The fit of an item score pattern to an item response theory (IRT) models is a necessary condition that must be assessed for further use of item and models that best fit ...

  8. Dimensions of Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing and Hearing Adolescents' Health Literacy and Health Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott R; Samar, Vincent J

    2016-01-01

    Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) adults have lower health literacy compared to hearing adults, but it is unclear whether this disparity also occurs in adolescence. We used the Health Literacy Skills Instrument-Short Form (HLSI-SF), Short Form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), Comprehensive Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (CHDKQ), and newly constructed interactive and critical health literacy survey items to quantify D/HH and hearing adolescents' health literacy. We adapted and translated survey materials into sign language and spoken English to reduce testing bias due to variable English language skills. Participants were 187 D/HH and 94 hearing college-bound high school students. When we adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, school grade, and socioeconomic status, D/HH adolescents demonstrated weaker general and functional health literacy and cardiovascular health knowledge than hearing adolescents on the HLSI, S-TOFHLA, and CHDKQ (all ps < .0001). Standard health literacy or knowledge scores were associated with several interactive and critical health literacy skills (all ps < .05). D/HH adolescents who reported greater hearing-culture identity, having hearing aids, experiencing better hearing with assistive devices, having good quality of communication with parents, and attending hearing schools at least half of the time had higher functional health literacy (all ps < .025). Those who reported English as their best language and attending hearing schools at least half of the time had higher cardiovascular health knowledge scores (all ps < .03). Results suggest that interventions to improve D/HH adolescents' health literacy should target their health-related conversations with their families; access to printed health information; and access to health information from other people, especially health care providers and educators.

  9. Dimensions of Deaf/Hard-of Hearing and Hearing Adolescents’ Health Literacy and Health Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott R.; Samar, Vincent J.

    2016-01-01

    Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) adults have lower health literacy compared to hearing adults but it is unclear if this disparity also occurs in adolescence. We used the Health Literacy Skills Instrument-Short Form (HLSI-SF), Short Form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy (S-TOFHLA), Comprehensive Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (CHDKQ) and newly constructed interactive and critical health literacy survey items to quantify D/HH and hearing adolescents’ health literacy. We adapted and translated survey materials into sign language and spoken English to reduce testing bias due to variable English language skills. Participants were 187 D/HH and 94 hearing college-bound high school students. Adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, school grade, and SES, D/HH adolescents demonstrated weaker general and functional health literacy and cardiovascular health knowledge than hearing adolescents on the HLSI, S-TOFHLA, and CHDKQ (all p’s<.0001). Standard health literacy or knowledge scores were associated with several interactive and critical health literacy skills (all p’s<.05). D/HH adolescents who reported greater hearing-culture identity, having hearing aids, experiencing better hearing with assistive devices, having good quality of communication with parents, and attending hearing schools at least half of the time had higher functional health literacy (all p’s<.025). Those who reported English as their best language and attending hearing schools at least half the time had higher cardiovascular health knowledge scores (all p’s< .03). Results suggest that interventions to improve D/HH adolescents’ health literacy should target their health-related conversations with their families, access to printed health information, and access to health information from other people, especially health care providers and educators. PMID:27548284

  10. A multisite community-based health literacy intervention for Spanish speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Mas, F; Cordova, C; Murrietta, A; Jacobson, H E; Ronquillo, F; Helitzer, D

    2015-06-01

    The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy emphasizes the importance of community-based opportunities for education, such as English as a second language (ESL) programs. It recommends collaborations among the adult literacy and ESL communities. However, limited attention has been given to researching the effectiveness of community-based interventions that combine ESL and health literacy. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of using different community settings for improving health literacy among adult Spanish speakers through an English language program. The study used a pre-experimental, single arm pretest-posttest design, and implemented the Health Literacy and ESL Curriculum. A collaborative was established between the community and university researchers. Participants were recruited at three distinctive sites. Health literacy was assessed using the Spanish version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). Analysis included descriptive and paired-group t test. Forty-nine participants completed the intervention and post-tests (92% retention rate). Overall--all sites--posttest scores significantly improved for total TOFHLA, raw numeracy, and reading comprehension (p literacy/language instruction to Spanish speaking adults. The study also points to community engagement and ESL programs as two essential components of effective health literacy interventions among Spanish speakers.

  11. Students’ Information Literacy: A Perspective from Mathematical Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyadi Wijaya

    2016-01-01

    Information literacy is mostly seen from the perspective of library science or information and communication technology. Taking another point of view, this study was aimed to explore students’ information literacy from the perspective of mathematical literacy. For this purpose, a test addressing Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) mathematics tasks were administered to 381 eighth and ninth graders from nine junior high schools in the Province of Yogyakarta. PISA mathematics ...

  12. A new adaptive testing algorithm for shortening health literacy assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currie Leanne M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low health literacy has a detrimental effect on health outcomes, as well as ability to use online health resources. Good health literacy assessment tools must be brief to be adopted in practice; test development from the perspective of item-response theory requires pretesting on large participant populations. Our objective was to develop a novel classification method for developing brief assessment instruments that does not require pretesting on large numbers of research participants, and that would be suitable for computerized adaptive testing. Methods We present a new algorithm that uses principles of measurement decision theory (MDT and Shannon's information theory. As a demonstration, we applied it to a secondary analysis of data sets from two assessment tests: a study that measured patients' familiarity with health terms (52 participants, 60 items and a study that assessed health numeracy (165 participants, 8 items. Results In the familiarity data set, the method correctly classified 88.5% of the subjects, and the average length of test was reduced by about 50%. In the numeracy data set, for a two-class classification scheme, 96.9% of the subjects were correctly classified with a more modest reduction in test length of 35.7%; a three-class scheme correctly classified 93.8% with a 17.7% reduction in test length. Conclusions MDT-based approaches are a promising alternative to approaches based on item-response theory, and are well-suited for computerized adaptive testing in the health domain.

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis of teachers’ development of digital literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Slættalíð, Tóri; Parveen, Mahmuda

    2015-01-01

    Teachers’ development of digital literacy (DL) is gaining importance with the increase in the integration and adoption of information and communication technologies in educational contexts. The focus has been predominantly on students and not much on teachers, who require greater attention due...... of teachers’ as an agenda for the transformation at both individual level and organizational level. Applying the methodology elaborated by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, 16 peer-reviewed articles were selected. Constant-comparative method was used...... for the qualitative analysis. This paper reports on three main categories: (a) definition of digital literacy, (b) development of digital literacy of pre-service and in-service teachers and (c) models for the development and evaluation of digital literacy. The general definitions of DL include the elements...

  14. Designing an Energy Literacy Questionnaire for Middle and High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWaters, Jan; Qaqish, Basil; Graham, Mary; Powers, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A measurement scale has been developed to assess secondary students' energy literacy--a citizenship understanding of energy that includes cognitive as well as affective and behavioral items. Instrument development procedures followed psychometric principles from educational and social psychology research. Initial exploration of the measure yielded…

  15. The Validation of a Food Label Literacy Questionnaire for Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jesse S.; Treu, Judith A.; Njike, Valentine; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Katz, Catherine S.; Katz, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability and validity of a 10-item questionnaire, the Food Label Literacy for Applied Nutrition Knowledge questionnaire. Methods: Participants were elementary school children exposed to a 90-minute school-based nutrition program. Reliability was assessed via Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient…

  16. Computer literacy among students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robabi, Hassan; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2015-01-01

    The need for medical students to be computer literate is vital. With the rapid integration of information technology (IT) in the health care field, equipping students of medical universities withcomputer competencies to effectively use are needed. The purpose of this study was to assess computer literacy (CL) needs of medical sciences students. This is descriptive-analytic. The population of the study comprised all students at Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. 385 students from allschools (Medicine, dentistry, paramedics, health, rehabilitation, nursing and midwifery) were selected through randomized- classified sampling. For data collecting, the Lin Tung- Cheng questionnaire was used which it contained 24 items in six sections.The obtained data analyzed by SPSS 15. The results showed that the 77.1% had personal computer. The total mean of students' computer literacy around six domains was 141.9±49.5 out of 240. The most familiarity with computers was the ability to it in internet (29.0±11.4) and the lowest was familiarity and using ability of hard ware (17.5±10.6). There was a significant relationship between passing the Computer lesson (P=0.001), passing Computer course (P=0.05) and having personal computer (P=0.001) with the mean of computer literacy. In sum, the medical sciences students' familiarity with computer literacy was not satisfactory and they had not appropriate familiarity with computer literacy skills. The researchers suggest the officials and in-charges to plan educational program for improving computer literacy skills in medical sciences students.

  17. Computer Literacy Among Students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robabi, Hassan; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The need for medical students to be computer literate is vital. With the rapid integration of information technology (IT) in the health care field, equipping students of medical universities withcomputer competencies to effectively use are needed. The purpose of this study was to assess computer literacy (CL) needs of medical sciences students. Methods: This is descriptive-analytic. The population of the study comprised all students at Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. 385 students from allschools (Medicine, dentistry, paramedics, health, rehabilitation, nursing and midwifery) were selected through randomized- classified sampling. For data collecting, the Lin Tung- Cheng questionnaire was used which it contained 24 items in six sections. The obtained data analyzed by SPSS 15. Results: The results showed that the 77.1% had personal computer. The total mean of students’ computer literacy around six domains was 141.9±49.5 out of 240. The most familiarity with computers was the ability to it in internet (29.0±11.4) and the lowest was familiarity and using ability of hard ware (17.5±10.6). There was a significant relationship between passing the Computer lesson (P=0.001), passing Computer course (P=0.05) and having personal computer (P=0.001) with the mean of computer literacy. Discussion: In sum, the medical sciences students’ familiarity with computer literacy was not satisfactory and they had not appropriate familiarity with computer literacy skills. The researchers suggest the officials and in-charges to plan educational program for improving computer literacy skills in medical sciences students. PMID:25946919

  18. A Simulated Single-Item Aggregate Inventory Model for U.S. Navy Repairable Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    carcass will be either lost or determined to be uneconomical to repair. 1. Definition of termo Define Q. as the procurement quantity of new material...the simulation clock reaches a user designated time, or after a user designated event occurs a given number of times. This parameter is established...relationships, is discussed in section D below. 4. Output Obtaining data from a SIGMA simulation is not a difficult task. The user simply designates the state

  19. Literacy in the contemporary scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B. Kleiman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the relationship between literacy and contemporaneity. I take as a point of departure for my discussion school literacy and its links with literacies in other institutions of the contemporary scene, in order to determine the relation between contemporary ends of reading and writing (in other words, the meaning of being literate in contemporary society and the practices and activities effectively realized at school in order to reach those objectives. Using various examples from teaching and learning situations, I discuss digital literacy practices and multimodal texts and multiliteracies from both printed and digital cultures. Throughout, I keep as a background for the discussion the functions and objectives of school literacy and the professional training of teachers who would like to be effective literacy agents in the contemporary world.

  20. A computer literacy scale for newly enrolled nursing college students: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung-Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Increasing application and use of information systems and mobile technologies in the healthcare industry require increasing nurse competency in computer use. Computer literacy is defined as basic computer skills, whereas computer competency is defined as the computer skills necessary to accomplish job tasks. Inadequate attention has been paid to computer literacy and computer competency scale validity. This study developed a computer literacy scale with good reliability and validity and investigated the current computer literacy of newly enrolled students to develop computer courses appropriate to students' skill levels and needs. This study referenced Hinkin's process to develop a computer literacy scale. Participants were newly enrolled first-year undergraduate students, with nursing or nursing-related backgrounds, currently attending a course entitled Information Literacy and Internet Applications. Researchers examined reliability and validity using confirmatory factor analysis. The final version of the developed computer literacy scale included six constructs (software, hardware, multimedia, networks, information ethics, and information security) and 22 measurement items. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the scale possessed good content validity, reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. This study also found that participants earned the highest scores for the network domain and the lowest score for the hardware domain. With increasing use of information technology applications, courses related to hardware topic should be increased to improve nurse problem-solving abilities. This study recommends that emphases on word processing and network-related topics may be reduced in favor of an increased emphasis on database, statistical software, hospital information systems, and information ethics.

  1. Design of Chemical Literacy Assessment by Using Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER) on Solubility Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusmaita, E.; Nasra, Edi

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to produce instrument for measuring chemical literacy assessment in basic chemistry courses with solubility topic. The construction of this measuring instrument is adapted to the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) problem’s characteristics and the Syllaby of Basic Chemistry in KKNI-IndonesianNational Qualification Framework. The PISA is a cross-country study conducted periodically to monitor the outcomes of learners' achievement in each participating country. So far, studies conducted by PISA include reading literacy, mathematic literacy and scientific literacy. Refered to the scientific competence of the PISA study on science literacy, an assessment designed to measure the chemical literacy of the chemistry department’s students in UNP. The research model used is MER (Model of Educational Reconstruction). The validity and reliability values of discourse questions is measured using the software ANATES. Based on the acquisition of these values is obtained a valid and reliable chemical literacy questions.There are seven question items limited response on the topic of solubility with valid category, the acquisition value of test reliability is 0,86, and has a difficulty index and distinguishing good

  2. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  3. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a

  4. Sharing the cost of redundant items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    We ask how to share the cost of finitely many public goods (items) among users with different needs: some smaller subsets of items are enough to serve the needs of each user, yet the cost of all items must be covered, even if this entails inefficiently paying for redundant items. Typical examples...

  5. Childhood roots of financial literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Grohmann, Antonia; Kouwenberg, Roy; Menkhoff, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Financial literacy predicts informed financial decisions, but what explains financial literacy? We use the concept of financial socialization and aim to represent three major agents of financial socialization: family, school and work. Thus we compile twelve relevant childhood characteristics in a new survey study and examine their relation to financial literacy, while controlling for established socio-demographic characteristics. We find in a mediation analysis that both family and school pos...

  6. Literacy in the contemporary scene

    OpenAIRE

    Angela B. Kleiman

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I examine the relationship between literacy and contemporaneity. I take as a point of departure for my discussion school literacy and its links with literacies in other institutions of the contemporary scene, in order to determine the relation between contemporary ends of reading and writing (in other words, the meaning of being literate in contemporary society) and the practices and activities effectively realized at school in order to reach those objectives. Using various exam...

  7. A Reconsideration of Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley J. Wilder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on the author's 2005 Chronicle of Higher Education article "Information Literacy Makes All the Wrong Assumptions." In it, the author argues that while library instruction is properly grounded in disciplinary norms, information literacy serves a vital institutional obligation as a means of assessing student learning. The content of library instruction thus serves the University's "vertical" disciplinary agendas, while information literacy serves its "horizontal" institution-wide agenda.

  8. The numeracy understanding in medicine instrument: a measure of health numeracy developed using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Marilyn M; Walker, Cindy M; Cappaert, Kevin J; Ganschow, Pamela S; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; McGinley, Emily L; Del Pozo, Sam; Schauer, Carrie; Tarima, Sergey; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Health numeracy can be defined as the ability to understand and apply information conveyed with numbers, tables and graphs, probabilities, and statistics to effectively communicate with health care providers, take care of one's health, and participate in medical decisions. To develop the Numeracy Understanding in Medicine Instrument (NUMi) using item response theory scaling methods. A 20-item test was formed drawing from an item bank of numeracy questions. Items were calibrated using responses from 1000 participants and a 2-parameter item response theory model. Construct validity was assessed by comparing scores on the NUMi to established measures of print and numeric health literacy, mathematic achievement, and cognitive aptitude. Community and clinical populations in the Milwaukee and Chicago metropolitan areas. Twenty-nine percent of the 1000 respondents were Hispanic, 24% were non-Hispanic white, and 42% were non-Hispanic black. Forty-one percent had no more than a high school education. The mean score on the NUMi was 13.2 (s = 4.6) with a Cronbach α of 0.86. Difficulty and discrimination item response theory parameters of the 20 items ranged from -1.70 to 1.45 and 0.39 to 1.98, respectively. Performance on the NUMi was strongly correlated with the Wide Range Achievement Test-Arithmetic (0.73, P < 0.001), the Lipkus Expanded Numeracy Scale (0.69, P < 0.001), the Medical Data Interpretation Test (0.75, P < 0.001), and the Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test (0.82, P < 0.001). Performance was moderately correlated to the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy (0.43, P < 0.001). The NUMi was found to be most discriminating among respondents with a lower-than-average level of health numeracy. The NUMi can be applied in research and clinical settings as a robust measure of the health numeracy construct.

  9. Measuring Science Literacy in College Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris David; Buxner, S. R.; Antonellis, J.; King, C.; Johnson, E.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    Initial results from a major study of scientific literacy are presented, involving nearly 10,000 undergraduates in science classes at a large Southwestern Land Grant public university over a 20-year period. The science content questions overlap with those in the NSF's Science Indicators series. About 10% of all undergraduates in the US take a General Education astronomy course, and NSF data and the work of Jon Miller show that the number of college science courses taken is the strongest predictor of civic scientific literacy. Our data show that gains in knowledge on any particular item through the time students graduate are only 10-15%. Among students who have taken most or all of their science requirements, one-in-three think that antibiotics kill viruses as well as bacteria, one-in-four think lasers work by focusing sound waves, one-in-five think atoms are smaller than electrons, and the same fraction is unaware that humans evolved from earlier species of animals and that the Earth takes a year to go around the Sun. The fraction of undergraduates saying that astrology is "not at all” scientific increases from 17% to a still-low 34% as they move through the university. Equally worrying, half of all science majors say that astrology is "sort of” or "very” scientific. Education majors - the cohort of future teachers - perform worse than average on most individual questions and in terms of their overall scientific literacy. Assuming the study institution is representative of the nation's higher education institutions, our instruction is not raising students to the level we would expect for educated citizens who must vote on many issues that relate to science and technology. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  10. Researching literacy practices in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    and methodological challenges in researching literacy practices in transition by examining (1) how migrants position themselves in narratives and provide ideological stances towards language learning and literacy, (2) how to research literacies presently in multilingual, multimodal global-local setting in the North...... and South, (3) how children´s investment in literacy draws on different figured worlds as interactional resources when constructing their identity, (4) how local and global norms meet in the discourses of writing on an international Master´s programme, and (5) how supranational conceptualizations...

  11. The Comprehensive Emergent Literacy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Rohde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The early skills of Emergent Literacy include the knowledge and abilities related to the alphabet, phonological awareness, symbolic representation, and communication. However, existing models of emergent literacy focus on discrete skills and miss the perspective of the surrounding environment. Early literacy skills, including their relationship to one another, and the substantial impact of the setting and context, are critical in ensuring that children gain all of the preliminary skills and awareness they will need to become successful readers and writers. Research findings over the last few decades have led to a fuller understanding of all that emergent literacy includes, resulting in a need for a new, more comprehensive model. A new model, described in this article, strives to explain how emergent literacy can be viewed as an interactive process of skills and context rather than a linear series of individual components. Early literacy learning opportunities are more likely to happen when teachers have a solid knowledge base of emergent literacy and child development. Research has shown that preschool teachers with limited knowledge about literacy development are significantly less able to provide such experiences for children. Teachers will be better able to facilitate all of the components of emergent literacy if they have access to, and understanding of, a model that describes the components, their interactions, and the importance of environmental factors in supporting children.

  12. Food, nutrition or cooking literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2014-01-01

    or other related literacy areas to food. The works are presented through their components and concepts of food literacy, andfurther discussed in the light of food elements included and seen in relation to aims concerning competencies. The definitions and content of the works presented reveal both...... similarities and differences concerning the understanding of food literacy, ranging from a narrow r understanding of food literacy as the ability to read food messages to broader interpretations aimed at empowerment and self-efficacy concerning food and nutrition and from simple cooking skills to life skills...

  13. Quantitative Map Literacy: A Cross between Map Literacy and Quantitative Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Xie; H.L. Vacher; Steven Reader; Elizabeth Walton

    2018-01-01

    We define quantitative map literacy (QML), a cross between map literacy and quantitative literacy (QL), as the concepts and skills required to accurately read, use, interpret, and understand the quantitative information embedded in a geospatial representation of data on a geographic background. Long used as tools in technical geographic fields, maps are now a common vehicle for communicating quantitative information to the public. As such, QML has potential to stand alongside health numeracy ...

  14. Teoria da Resposta ao Item Teoria de la respuesta al item Item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutalia Aparecida Candido de Araujo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com medidas de traços psicológicos é antiga, sendo que muitos estudos e propostas de métodos foram desenvolvidos no sentido de alcançar este objetivo. Entre os trabalhos propostos, destaca-se a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI que, a princípio, veio completar limitações da Teoria Clássica de Medidas, empregada em larga escala até hoje na medida de traços psicológicos. O ponto principal da TRI é que ela leva em consideração o item particularmente, sem relevar os escores totais; portanto, as conclusões não dependem apenas do teste ou questionário, mas de cada item que o compõe. Este artigo propõe-se a apresentar esta Teoria que revolucionou a teoria de medidas.La preocupación con las medidas de los rasgos psicológicos es antigua y muchos estudios y propuestas de métodos fueron desarrollados para lograr este objetivo. Entre estas propuestas de trabajo se incluye la Teoría de la Respuesta al Ítem (TRI que, en principio, vino a completar las limitaciones de la Teoría Clásica de los Tests, ampliamente utilizada hasta hoy en la medida de los rasgos psicológicos. El punto principal de la TRI es que se tiene en cuenta el punto concreto, sin relevar las puntuaciones totales; por lo tanto, los resultados no sólo dependen de la prueba o cuestionario, sino que de cada ítem que lo compone. En este artículo se propone presentar la Teoría que revolucionó la teoría de medidas.The concern with measures of psychological traits is old and many studies and proposals of methods were developed to achieve this goal. Among these proposed methods highlights the Item Response Theory (IRT that, in principle, came to complete limitations of the Classical Test Theory, which is widely used until nowadays in the measurement of psychological traits. The main point of IRT is that it takes into account the item in particular, not relieving the total scores; therefore, the findings do not only depend on the test or questionnaire

  15. Framing Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Dirkx

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL published the Standards for Information Literacy. After 15 years these standards were in desperate need of revision. Instead of releasing a revised edition of the Standards, in 2015 ACRL presented a completely new vision on information literacy in higher education. In this keynote we will explore the new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy in all its glory. We will compare it to the old standards. Is this new American Framework an opportunity for librarians to promote their courses to faculty in a new light, with the aim to integrate them into the curriculum? Do we really need a framework for information literacy to achieve this integration? Or is there another way? We will take a closer look at an interesting British alternative: the Researcher Development Framework from Vitae and The Society of College, National and University Libraries (SCONUL. We will compare both frameworks and list the pros and cons. It is a complicated situation: there are Standards, there is a new Framework in an early stage of implementation and there is this Researcher Development Framework. What do we, the librarians, have to do? Should we bid the old standards farewell and switch to the new framework? Or does the Researcher Development Framework provide a better alternative? We have to think and talk about our teaching role in our institutions. At this conference we can think and spar with our colleague librarians, putting one of the ACRL framework concepts, “scholarship as conversation”, into practice.

  16. Information literacy in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Basha, Athina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about the Albanian public's understanding and awareness of Information Literacy (IL) and the role of libraries in implementing policies, fostering Life Long Learning (LLL), and IL. Our research, carried out through a questionnaire, targets the national level, but for the purpose of this research , was distributed only in Central Albania. The survey has shown, that the government and its ministries, libraries and universities, lack an understanding of the concept and use of IL. ...

  17. National Institute for Literacy. Literacy Information and Communication System ("LINCS")

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute for Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each month, the Literacy Information and Communication System ("LINCS") will feature one of the three LINCS Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management, and Workforce Competitiveness--and introduce research-based resources that practitioners can use in their adult and family literacy programs and classrooms. This edition features the…

  18. A Commentary on Literacy Narratives as Sponsors of Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This brief commentary first clarifies Brandt's concept of sponsors of literacy in light of the way the concept has been taken up in writing studies. Then it treats Brandt's methods for handling accounts of literacy learning in comparison with other ways of analyzing biographical material. Finally it takes up Lawrence's argument about literacy…

  19. Rethinking Literacy Education in New Times: Multimodality, Multiliteracies, & New Literacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Rowsell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical overview of new fields of research, pedagogy, and practice in literacy education. In a digital, media-driven, globalized world, educators are faced with the challenge of mediating traditional notions of what it means to be literate (e.g., read and writing print-based texts with new and ever-emerging skills and interests in technology and digital media. Focusing on a pilot study in Oakville, ON and a longitudinal research study in Sydney, Australia, we compel readers to think about literacy in a new light. Without a push to redefine literacy, educators run the risk of teaching and learning language and literacy skills in anachronistic paradigms and frameworks. While research has not been able to fully establish the impact of multimodal communication, it is essential that educators learn to use these different modes of communication to teach literacy.

  20. Comparison of the neural correlates of encoding item-item and item-context associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny X Wong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available fMRI was employed to investigate the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG in the encoding of item-item and item-context associations. On each of a series of study trials subjects viewed a picture that was presented either to the left or right of fixation, along with a subsequently presented word that appeared at fixation. Memory was tested in a subsequent memory test that took place outside of the scanner. On each test trial one of two forced choice judgments was required. For the associative test, subjects chose between the word paired with the picture at study and a word studied on a different trial. For the source test, the judgment was whether the picture had been presented on the left or right. Successful encoding of associative information was accompanied by subsequent memory effects in several cortical regions, including much of the LIFG. By contrast, successful source encoding was selectively associated with a subsequent memory effect in right fusiform cortex. The finding that the LIFG was enhanced during successful associative, but not source, encoding is interpreted in light of the proposal that subsequent memory effects are localized to cortical regions engaged by the on-line demands of the study task.

  1. Numerosity estimates for attended and unattended items in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Troy D; Cassenti, Daniel N; Marusich, Laura R; Ghirardelli, Thomas G

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this research was to examine memories created for the number of items during a visual search task. Participants performed a visual search task for a target defined by a single feature (Experiment 1A), by a conjunction of features (Experiment 1B), or by a specific spatial configuration of features (Experiment 1C). On some trials following the search task, subjects were asked to recall the total number of items in the previous display. In all search types, participants underestimated the total number of items, but the severity of the underestimation varied depending on the efficiency of the search. In three follow-up studies (Experiments 2A, 2B, and 2C) using the same visual stimuli, the participants' only task was to estimate the number of items on each screen. Participants still underestimated the numerosity of the items, although the degree of underestimation was smaller than in the search tasks and did not depend on the type of visual stimuli. In Experiment 3, participants were asked to recall the number of items in a display only once. Subjects still displayed a tendency to underestimate, indicating that the underestimation effects seen in Experiments 1A-1C were not attributable to knowledge of the estimation task. The degree of underestimation depends on the efficiency of the search task, with more severe underestimation in efficient search tasks. This suggests that the lower attentional demands of very efficient searches leads to less encoding of numerosity of the distractor set.

  2. Through Increasing "Information Literacy" Capital and Habitus (Agency): The Complementary Impact on Composition Skills When Appropriately Sequenced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Through a case study approach of a cohort of community college students at a single community college, the impact on success rates in composition courses was analyzed based on the sequence of completing an information literacy course. Two student cohorts were sampled based on completing an information literacy course prior to, or concurrently with…

  3. Associations between health literacy and preventive health behaviors among older adults: findings from the health and retirement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Dena M; Larson, Janet L; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2016-07-19

    While the association between inadequate health literacy and adverse health outcomes has been well documented, less is known about the impact of health literacy on health perceptions, such as perceptions of control over health, and preventive health behaviors. We identified a subsample of participants (N = 707) from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative sample of older adults, who participated in health literacy testing. Self-reported health literacy was measured with a literacy screening question, and objective health literacy with a summed score of items from the Test of Functional Health Literacy. We compared answers on these items to those related to participation in health behaviors such as cancer screening, exercise, and tobacco use, as well as self-referencing health beliefs. In logistic regression models adjusted for gender, education, race, and age, participants with adequate self-reported health literacy (compared to poorer levels of health literacy) had greater odds of participation in mammography within the last 2 years (Odds ratio [OR] = 2.215, p = 0.01) and participation in moderate exercise two or more times per week (OR = 1.512, p = 0.03). Participants with adequate objective health literacy had reduced odds of participation in monthly breast self-exams (OR = 0.369, p = 0.004) and reduced odds of current tobacco use (OR = 0.456, p = 0.03). In adjusted linear regression analyses, self-reported health literacy made a small but significant contribution to explaining perceived control of health (β 0.151, p = health literacy were positively related to several health promoting behaviors and health-related beliefs and non-use of breast self-exams, a screening behavior of questionable benefit. These relationships varied however, between self-reported and objectively-measured health literacy. Further investigation into the specific mechanisms that lead higher literacy people to pursue

  4. The Associations Among Individual Factors, eHealth Literacy, and Health-Promoting Lifestyles Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Ching; Luo, Yi-Fang; Chiang, Chia-Hsun

    2017-01-10

    eHealth literacy is gaining importance for maintaining and promoting health. Studies have found that individuals with high eHealth literacy are more likely to adopt healthy eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. In addition, previous studies have shown that various individual factors (eg, frequency of seeking information on health issues, degree of health concern, frequency of eating organic food, and students' college major) are associated with eHealth literacy and health-promoting lifestyles. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health-promoting lifestyles among college students. Moreover, there is a lack of studies that focus on eHealth literacy as a predictor of psychological health behaviors. To examine the associations among various individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health-promoting lifestyles. The eHealth Literacy Scale is a 12-item instrument designed to measure college students' functional, interactive, and critical eHealth literacy. The Health-promoting Lifestyle Scale is a 23-item instrument developed to measure college students' self-actualization, health responsibility, interpersonal support, exercise, nutrition, and stress management. A nationally representative sample of 556 valid college students in Taiwan was surveyed. A questionnaire was administered to gather the respondents' background information, including the frequency of seeking information on health issues, the frequency of eating organic food, the degree of health concern, and the students' major. We then conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health-promoting lifestyles. The study found that factors such as medical majors (t 550 =2.47-7.55, Phealth (t 550 =2.15-9.01, Pcollege students' 4-6 health-promoting lifestyle dimensions and the 3 dimensions of eHealth literacy. Moreover, critical eHealth literacy positively predicted all 6 health

  5. Rats Remember Items in Context Using Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Corbin, Hannah E; Dalecki, Stefan J; Gentry, Meredith; Brotheridge, Sydney; Sluka, Christina M; Wu, Jie-En; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-10-24

    Vivid episodic memories in people have been characterized as the replay of unique events in sequential order [1-3]. Animal models of episodic memory have successfully documented episodic memory of a single event (e.g., [4-8]). However, a fundamental feature of episodic memory in people is that it involves multiple events, and notably, episodic memory impairments in human diseases are not limited to a single event. Critically, it is not known whether animals remember many unique events using episodic memory. Here, we show that rats remember many unique events and the contexts in which the events occurred using episodic memory. We used an olfactory memory assessment in which new (but not old) odors were rewarded using 32 items. Rats were presented with 16 odors in one context and the same odors in a second context. To attain high accuracy, the rats needed to remember item in context because each odor was rewarded as a new item in each context. The demands on item-in-context memory were varied by assessing memory with 2, 3, 5, or 15 unpredictable transitions between contexts, and item-in-context memory survived a 45 min retention interval challenge. When the memory of item in context was put in conflict with non-episodic familiarity cues, rats relied on item in context using episodic memory. Our findings suggest that rats remember multiple unique events and the contexts in which these events occurred using episodic memory and support the view that rats may be used to model fundamental aspects of human cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The literacy divide: health literacy and the use of an internet-based patient portal in an integrated health system-results from the diabetes study of northern California (DISTANCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Urmimala; Karter, Andrew J; Liu, Jennifer Y; Adler, Nancy E; Nguyen, Robert; Lopez, Andrea; Schillinger, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Internet-based patient portals are intended to improve access and quality, and will play an increasingly important role in health care, especially for diabetes and other chronic diseases. Diabetes patients with limited health literacy have worse health outcomes, and limited health literacy may be a barrier to effectively utilizing internet-based health access services. We investigated use of an internet-based patient portal among a well characterized population of adults with diabetes. We estimated health literacy using three validated self-report items. We explored the independent association between health literacy and use of the internet-based patient portal, adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and income. Among 14,102 participants (28% non-Hispanic White, 14% Latino, 21% African-American, 9% Asian, 12% Filipino, and 17% multiracial or other ethnicity), 6099 (62%) reported some limitation in health literacy, and 5671 (40%) respondents completed registration for the patient portal registration. In adjusted analyses, those with limited health literacy had higher odds of never signing on to the patient portal (OR 1.7, 1.4 to 1.9) compared with those who did not report any health literacy limitation. Even among those with internet access, the relationship between health literacy and patient portal use persisted (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8). Diabetes patients reporting limited health literacy were less likely to both access and navigate an internet-based patient portal than those with adequate health literacy. Although the internet has potential to greatly expand the capacity and reach of health care systems, current use patterns suggest that, in the absence of participatory design efforts involving those with limited health literacy, those most at risk for poor diabetes health outcomes will fall further behind if health systems increasingly rely on internet-based services.

  7. Measuring Practicing Clinicians' Information Literacy. An Exploratory Analysis in the Context of Panel Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brian E; Barboza, Katherine; Jensen, Ashley E; Bennett, Katelyn J; Sherman, Scott E; Schwartz, Mark D

    2017-02-15

    As healthcare moves towards technology-driven population health management, clinicians must adopt complex digital platforms to access health information and document care. This study explored information literacy, a set of skills required to effectively navigate population health information systems, among primary care providers in one Veterans' Affairs (VA) medical center. Information literacy was assessed during an 8-month randomized trial that tested a population health (panel) management intervention. Providers were asked about their use and comfort with two VA digital tools for panel management at baseline, 16 weeks, and post-intervention. An 8-item scale (range 0-40) was used to measure information literacy (Cronbach's α=0.84). Scores between study arms and provider types were compared using paired t-tests and ANOVAs. Associations between self-reported digital tool use and information literacy were measured via Pearson's correlations. Providers showed moderate levels of information literacy (M= 27.4, SD 6.5). There were no significant differences in mean information literacy between physicians (M=26.4, SD 6.7) and nurses (M=30.5, SD 5.2, p=0.57 for difference), or between intervention (M=28.4, SD 6.5) and control groups (M=25.1, SD 6.2, p=0.12 for difference). Information literacy was correlated with higher rates of self-reported information system usage (r=0.547, p=0.001). Clinicians identified data access, accuracy, and interpretability as potential information literacy barriers. While exploratory in nature, cautioning generalizability, the study suggests that measuring and improving clinicians' information literacy may play a significant role in the implementation and use of digital information tools, as these tools are rapidly being deployed to enhance communication among care teams, improve health care outcomes, and reduce overall costs.

  8. Development and psychometric validation of a Health Literacy in Dentistry scale (HeLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Parker, E; Mills, H; Brennan, D; Jamieson, L M

    2014-03-01

    Oral health literacy is emerging as a new public health challenge and poor oral health literacy is increasingly seen as an important predictor of poor oral health outcomes. Within Indigenous populations, there may be benefits to research in using a culturally acceptable, internally consistent and valid instrument to assess oral health literacy. We translated a general health literacy measure, the Health Literacy Management (HeLM) scale to make a dentally relevant scale; Health Literacy in Dentistry (HeLD). This study describes the development and assessment of the reliability and validity of the HeLD in an Indigenous Australian population. The 29 item HeLD scale assesses the components of oral health literacy. The reliability and validity of the seven HeLD subscales were evaluated in a convenience sample of 209 Indigenous Australians with mean age 35 years (range 17-81) and of which 139 were female. The scale was supported by exploratory factor analysis and established seven distinct and internally consistent domains of oral health literacy: Communication, Access, Receptivity, Understanding, Utilisation, Support and Economic Barriers (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91). Discriminative ability was confirmed by HeLD associations with socio-demographic variables and self-reported health ratings in the expected direction. The convergent validity and predictive validity were confirmed by HeLD scores being significantly associated with toothbrush ownership, use of a toothbrush, time since last dental visit and knowledge of the effect of cordial on the teeth. The HeLD appears to be an internally valid and reliable instrument and can be used for measuring oral health literacy among rural Indigenous Australian adults.

  9. Health Literacy and Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity During Aging, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Wardle, Jane; Wolf, Michael S; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Health literacy (the ability to read and understand health information) may help to support sustained participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during aging; this relationship has never been examined longitudinally. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health literacy and participation in weekly MVPA over an 8-year period among older adults. Data were from interviews with 4,345 adults aged 52-79 years in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013, analyzed in 2015. Health literacy was assessed in 2004/2005 as reading comprehension of a medicine label, defined as "low" (≤2/4 items correct); "medium" (3/4); and "high" (4/4). The outcome was maintaining weekly MVPA at all of five time points from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. A population-weighted logistic regression model was adjusted for sociodemographic, physical health, and cognitive (memory and verbal fluency) covariates. Overall, 72% (3,128/4,345) of the sample had high health literacy; 18% (797/4,345) had medium health literacy; and 10% (420/4,345) had low health literacy. Of those with high health literacy, 59% (1,840/3,128) consistently reported weekly participation in MVPA, compared with 33% (138/420) of those with low health literacy (AOR=1.37, 95% CI=1.04, 1.80). Better memory was weakly positively associated with long-term MVPA (AOR=1.03, 95% CI=1.00, 1.05, per point increase out of 24), as was better verbal fluency (AOR=1.05, 95% CI=1.01, 1.09, per point increase out of 9). High health literacy and good cognitive function are independently associated with participation in weekly MVPA over an 8-year period during aging. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 'Measuring' Physical Literacy and Related Constructs: A Systematic Review of Empirical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lowri C; Bryant, Anna S; Keegan, Richard J; Morgan, Kevin; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Jones, Anwen M

    2018-03-01

    The concept of physical literacy has received increased research and international attention recently. Where intervention programs and empirical research are gaining momentum, their operationalizations differ significantly. The objective of this study was to inform practice in the measure/assessment of physical literacy via a systematic review of research that has assessed physical literacy (up to 14 June, 2017). Five databases were searched using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols guidelines, with 32 published articles meeting the inclusion criteria. English-language, peer-reviewed published papers containing empirical studies of physical literacy were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Qualitative methods included: (1) interviews; (2) open-ended questionnaires; (3) reflective diaries; (4) focus groups; (5) participant observations; and (6) visual methods. Quantitative methods included: (1) monitoring devices (e.g., accelerometers); (2) observations (e.g., of physical activity or motor proficiency); (3) psychometrics (e.g., enjoyment, self-perceptions); (4) performance measures (e.g., exergaming, objective times/distances); (5) anthropometric measurements; and (6) one compound measure. Of the measures that made an explicit distinction: 22 (61%) examined the physical domain, eight (22%) the affective domain; five (14%) the cognitive domain; and one (3%) combined three domains (physical, affective, and cognitive) of physical literacy. Researchers tended to declare their philosophical standpoint significantly more in qualitative research compared with quantitative research. Current research adopts diverse often incompatible methodologies in measuring/assessing physical literacy. Our analysis revealed that by adopting simplistic and linear methods, physical literacy cannot be measured/assessed in a traditional/conventional sense. Therefore, we recommend that researchers are more creative in developing

  11. Linguistic adaptation and psychometric evaluation of original Oral Health Literacy-Adult Questionnaire (OHL-AQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Shaleen; Nagarajappa, Sandesh; Dasar, Pralhad L; Mishra, Prashant

    2016-10-01

    Linguistically adapted oral health literacy tools are helpful to assess oral health literacy among local population with clarity and understandability. The original oral health literacy adult questionnaire, Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire, was given in English (2013), consisting of 17 items under 4 domains. The present study rationalizes to culturally adapt and validate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi language. Thus, we objectified to translate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi and test its psychometric properties like reliability and validity among primary school teachers. The Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire was translated into Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire - Hindi Version using the World Health Organization recommended translation back-translation protocol. During pre-testing, an expert panel assessed content validity of the questionnaire. Face validity was assessed on a small sample of 10 individuals. A cross-sectional study was conducted (June-July 2015) and OHL-AQ-H was administered on a convenient sample of 170 primary school teachers. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively, with 2 weeks interval to ascertain adherence to the questionnaire response. Predictive validity was tested by comparing OHL-AQ-H scores with clinical indicators like oral hygiene scores and dental caries scores. The concurrent and discriminant validity was assessed through self-reported oral health and through negative association with sociodemographic variables. The data was analyzed by descriptive tests using chi-square and bivariate logistic regression in SPSS software, version 20 and pteachers to assess oral health literacy among Hindi speaking population. Hence, improving OHL levels and implementing education oriented policies can improve the quality of life.

  12. Information Literacy in Academic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Marzocchi, Stefania

    2005-01-01

    This literature review is deepening the relationship that information literacy can create into the university environment: the triangle formed by librarians, students and teachers. Each corner of this triangle has its own vision and perceptions about what information literacy skills are or should be.

  13. The Importance of Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna; Yang, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that campus communities must play a more active role in developing financial literacy than they currently do--and not just by providing counseling in moments of emergency. They argue that financial literacy, as a life skill, as a requisite to citizenship, and as a critical intellectual competency, is an essential…

  14. Teaching OOP with Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    Students lose interest in learning programming when the materials are not related to their lives. A challenge facing most students is that they lack the financial literacy necessary to manage their debts. An approach is developed to integrate financial literacy into an object-oriented programming (OOP) course. The approach is effective in…

  15. Financial Literacy and Financial Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayinzoga, Aussi; Bulte, Erwin H.; Lensink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We organise a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Rwanda to measure the impact of financial literacy training on financial knowledge and behaviour. The training increased financial literacy of participants, changed their savings and borrowing behaviour and had a positive effect on the

  16. Learning from Bilingual Family Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Luz A.

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores the literacies of bilingual families living in the Rio Grande Valley on the U.S.-Mexico border. Murillo argues that immigrant families living on the border play an important role in their children's literacy development, but that their voices are seldom heard in schools due to powerful and persistent deficit views…

  17. Threshold Concepts and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lori; Brunetti, Korey; Hofer, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    What do we teach when we teach information literacy in higher education? This paper describes a pedagogical approach to information literacy that helps instructors focus content around transformative learning thresholds. The threshold concept framework holds promise for librarians because it grounds the instructor in the big ideas and underlying…

  18. Fandom and Critical Media Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvermann, Donna E.; Hagood, Margaret C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates "Fandom" (exaggerated commitment to some aspect of the music industry, cinema, television, or sports) by looking at two adolescents and their musical preferences. Argues that connecting adolescents' musical fandom to critical media literacy in the classroom can get students interested in school literacy practices, assisting students'…

  19. Information Literacy: Partnerships for Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn; Senn, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the partnerships between teacher-librarians and principals, teachers, community members, public librarians, and businesses that school children need to gain information literacy skills. Descriptions, which are adapted from the forthcoming book "Information Literacy: Resources for Elementary School Leaders," include the…

  20. Language Correlates of Disciplinary Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihui

    2012-01-01

    Disciplinary literacy is defined here as the ability to engage in social, semiotic, and cognitive practices consistent with those of content experts. Characterizing literacy development as a process of braiding 3 language strands of everyday language, abstract language, and metaphoric language, this article describes the lexical and grammatical…

  1. What Is Physical Literacy, Really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurbala, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Physical literacy has become an increasingly influential concept in the past few decades, and is being woven into education, sport, and recreation policy and practice, particularly in Canada. The term is based on a metaphor that likens movement fluency to language literacy. Use of a metaphoric rather than a theoretical foundation has enabled…

  2. Convenience Store Workplace Literacy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzer, Carol; Mansoor, Inaam

    The Convenience Store Workplace Literacy Curriculum was developed for English-as-a-Second-Language classes offered by the Southland Corporation, 7-Eleven stores, through a national workplace literacy grant. It is based on an analysis of the tasks and interactions common to a convenience store worksite. Store employees, managers, field consultants,…

  3. The Family Literacy Reading Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Ann; Shoufler, Ann

    This report describes a summer project using children's literature as a teaching tool in the literacy section of the Family Literacy Reading Project. The idea for the project arose in response to a need for other resources for the English-as-a-Second-Language program and to students' desire to read to their children and grandchildren as one…

  4. Literacy House: Annual Report 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy House, Lucknow (India).

    The 1968 annual report of Literacy House focuses on functional literacy, food production, and family planning as well as on structural reorganization. A new organizational chart is included and the role of each individual in the organization is presented. The primary functions (training and research), and some details about the work of the…

  5. One Literacy or Double Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Argues against Australia's One Literacy movement, which advocates for a singular, measurable, narrowly-defined, English-only literacy that is to be applied to all schooling in Australia. Calls for an alternative approach that involves mastery of multiple languages and systems, diverse modes, and plural meanings of literate practice in contemporary…

  6. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  7. Transmedia Play: Literacy across Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Meryl; Herr-Stephenson, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Transmedia play is a new way to understand how children develop critical media literacy and new media literacies through their interactions with contemporary media that links stories and structures across platforms. This essay highlights five characteristics of transmedia play that make it particularly useful for learning:…

  8. Introduction to Media Literacy History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordac, Sarah Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Why is it important for us to consider the history of media literacy? Beyond forging connections of the past to the present, exploring the history of the field can deepen intellectual curiosity and understanding for those who work in media literacy education, ignite interest in others, and drive investigation into understanding the relationships…

  9. Rural Literacies: Toward Social Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Michael; Donehower, Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this article we analyze the emergence of the field of rural literacies. We attempt to map this field in a way that illustrates the foundational ideas of literacy and rurality as relational concepts, which are devoid of meaning as what we call "singularities." Our insistence on the importance of context and place reveals multiple rural…

  10. Individuality and Literacy: Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rosemary A.

    The technology of literacy for any given culture helps to Determine the character of its members. In less than 3,000 years, Western culture has been transformed from an oral/aural culture through many increasingly literate phases to a present stage which is approaching "computer literacy." Erich Fromm suggests that in the course of…

  11. A Reconsideration of Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Stanley J.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a reflection on the author's 2005 Chronicle of Higher Education article "Information Literacy Makes All the Wrong Assumptions." In it, the author argues that while library instruction is properly grounded in disciplinary norms, information literacy serves a vital institutional obligation as a means of assessing student…

  12. Visual Literacy and Message Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers from different disciplines have explained their views and interpretations and written about visual literacy from their various perspectives. Visual literacy may be applied in almost all areas such as advertising, anatomy, art, biology, business presentations, communication, education, engineering, etc. (Pettersson, 2002a). Despite…

  13. Digital Media and Emergent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisrich, Katy; Blanchard, Jay

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses digital media and its potential effects on emergent literacy skills development for young children. While the impact of digital media exposure on children's emergent literacy development is largely unknown, it is becoming a significant issue, as more and more young children throughout the world observe and use various forms…

  14. Information Literacy and Digital Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.J.M. van de Ven; G. Goris (Gert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Information literacy is a crucial factor in renewing our educational programmes. Gradually, the educational process is changing from prescribed learning paths and materials to situations that appeal to the creativity of students. We have developed an online Information Literacy

  15. Associations between health literacy, HIV-related knowledge, and information behavior among persons living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonbraker, Samantha; Smaldone, Arlene; Luft, Heidi; Cushman, Linda F; Lerebours Nadal, Leonel; Halpern, Mina; Larson, Elaine

    2017-12-29

    To determine the health literacy levels of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) at a health clinic in the Dominican Republic (DR) and assess associations between health literacy, HIV-related knowledge, and health information behavior (how patients need, seek, receive, and use information). Cross-sectional, descriptive. Participants were 107 PLWH attending the Clinic. A theoretically based, 64-item survey assessing information behavior and HIV-related knowledge was administered in Spanish through individual interviews. Health literacy was assessed using the Short Assessment of Health Literacy-Spanish and English. On average, participants were 40.8 years old and had lived with HIV for 7.7 years. The majority (69.2%) had low health literacy. HIV-related knowledge and information behavior varied by health literacy level and uncertainty regarding a main indicator of disease progression, viral load, was demonstrated regardless of health literacy level. Participants with low health literacy were less likely to answer questions or answer questions correctly and many participants (39.2%) indicated viral transmission can occur through supernatural means. Findings demonstrate unmet information need and that information received may not always be understood. Methods to improve health education are needed to ensure patients receive health information in an understandable way. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Assessment of HIV/AIDS literacy in 15- 49 years old people in Yasuj and its related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shariatinia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Health literacy is the capacity of an individual to obtain, interpret, and understand basic health information and services and the competence to use such information and services in ways that are health enhancing. The aim of this study was to assess the HIV/AIDS health literacy in Yasuj and its related factors. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a 21-item valid and reliable questionnaire was used. Our sample included 250 individuals aged 15- 49 years that selected by two-stage cluster sampling method and completed the questionnaire. Results: Average of health literacy scores of participants was 10.30 ± 3.36 and only 16.4 percent of them had adequate HIV/AIDS literacy. In modified regression model, there was a significant association between education (B= 0.40, p<0.001, being governmental staff (B=1.54, p=0.02, and low economic status (B= - 0.52, p=0.02 with HIV/AIDS literacy scores. Conclusions: Most of the individuals in this study had not enough HIV/AIDS literacy level. It seems that lack of access to information and services relevant to the HIV/AIDS complexity and disproportion of information with audience and inappropriate form of presenting health messages, cause low health literacy. Keywords: health literacy, HIV/AIDS, Assessment

  17. The Scrumpled Geography of Literacies for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Ivanic, Roz; Mannion, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws upon the experience of the Literacies for Learning in Further Education research project in the UK. The project explored the literacy demands of a number of curriculum areas and the literacy practices of students in their everyday lives, in order to identify those "border literacies" which may act as resources for…

  18. The Intersection of Information and Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucevsek, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    To achieve higher science literacy, both students and the public require discipline-specific information literacy in the sciences. Scientific information literacy is a core component of the scientific process. In addition to teaching how to find and evaluate resources, scientific information literacy should include teaching the process of…

  19. Examining Media Literacy Levels of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Taskin; Temur, Turan

    2012-01-01

    As in many other countries, following the 2007-2008 education year when media literacy courses began to be included in the curricula, media literacy has become one of the discussion topics among educators and decision makers in Turkey. Discussion topics related to media literacy have included who is going to give the media literacy courses, what…

  20. A DISCOURSE ON CHILD MEDIA LITERACY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    to help children explore their media world positively is to impact the media literacy skills in them. Being trained ... Keywords: Media literacy; child media literacy; digital literacy; media realities; social realities. Introduction ... audiences to decipher the information that they receive through the channels of mass communication ...

  1. Financial literacy and financial literacy education : what might be the components of an effective financial literacy curriculum?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Abstract There is concern about lack of financial literacy and need for financial literacy education, but little or no attempt to understand their nature. Three questions were asked: 'What is financial literacy?', 'What is financial literacy education?' and 'What might be the components of an effective financial literacy curriculum?'. Adopting an inductive grounded theory approach and a pragmatist philosophy, in association with real-world organisations such as the National ...

  2. Literacy testing practices in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    Literacy testing has been researched as a social practice from different perspectives (McNamara & Roewer, 2006; Shohamy, 2001). Drawing on a Faucault inspired concept og governmentality in which literacy testing practices are seen as social technologies (Dean, 1999) and as a phenomenon closely...... related to supra- and transnational agencies this paper investigates the relation between state, pedagogy and conceptualizations of literacy. Drawing on data and findings from three ethnographic oriented studies of institutional testing practices of literacy in preschool, primary school and adult second...... language teaching in Denmark (Holm, 2004; 2007; 2009) this paper reveals the construction of values, ideologies and practices around institutional testing of litaracy in education. The analyses of testing instruments and assessment practices indicate among other things that testing of literacy have become...

  3. Visual Culture and Visual Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Onursoy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently visual literacy gains importance in the context of understanding the rising visual culture products, thinking about them and producing these products. The purpose of this article examines the concept of visual literacy that is the relationship with visual culture depending on the literature. Visual literacy is one of the multiple literatures that emerge from the development of information and information dissemination forms. Visual literacy is an interdisciplinary concept and associated with some areas, such as graphic design, visual arts, architectural engineering, industrial product design, visual communication and media literacy. Visual culture covers every human product, so visual products that we face in everyday life and visual realities with abundant alternatives constitute our daily life itself. Sometimes, this confusing visual understanding creates a gap between contemporary cultural richness and what can be observed.

  4. Validity of self-reported fitness across black and white race, gender, and health literacy subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, NiCole R; Clark, Daniel O; Stump, Timothy E; Callahan, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    To compare concurrent criterion validity of the Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) Survey, a new fitness measure, between black and white race, gender, and health literacy groups. Cross-sectional. Midwest urban primary care center and commercial fitness center. One hundred one black, white, male, and female primary care patients aged ≥40 years. Measures included demographics, the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, the SRFit Survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test battery of physical tests. The BodPod determined percentage of body fat. Body mass index was calculated. Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman rank order correlations between corresponding physical tests and SRFit survey items. Correlations between physical tests and SRFit items ranged from r = .52 to .76 (ρ = .41-.85) in males, r = .40 to .79 (ρ = .33-.80) in females, r = .45 to .79 (ρ = .53-.82) in blacks, and r = .49 to .77 (ρ = .33-.82) in whites. Correlations were r = .58 (ρ = .58) to r = .77 (ρ = .79) in persons with low health literacy and r = .50 to .79 (ρ = .39-.85) among persons with moderate to high health literacy. SRFit shows similar concurrent validity across race, gender, and health literacy subgroups.

  5. Subjective health literacy: Development of a brief instrument for school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paakkari, Olli; Torppa, Minna; Kannas, Lasse; Paakkari, Leena

    2016-12-01

    The present paper focuses on the measurement of health literacy (HL), which is an important determinant of health and health behaviours. HL starts to develop in childhood and adolescence; hence, there is a need for instruments to monitor HL among younger age groups. These instruments are still rare. The aim of the project reported here was, therefore, to develop a brief, multidimensional, theory-based instrument to measure subjective HL among school-aged children. The development of the instrument covered four phases: item generation based on a conceptual framework; a pilot study ( n = 405); test-retest ( n = 117); and construction of the instrument ( n = 3853). All the samples were taken from Finnish 7th and 9th graders. Initially, 65 items were generated, of which 32 items were selected for the pilot study. After item reduction, the instrument contained 16 items. The test-retest phase produced estimates of stability. In the final phase a 10-item instrument was constructed, referred to as Health Literacy for School-Aged Children (HLSAC). The instrument exhibited a high Cronbach alpha (0.93), and included two items from each of the five predetermined theoretical components (theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge, critical thinking, self-awareness, citizenship). The iterative and validity-driven development process made it possible to construct a brief multidimensional HLSAC instrument. Such instruments are suitable for large-scale studies, and for use with children and adolescents. Validation will require further testing for use in other countries.

  6. Media literacy and positive youth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Michelle J; Dobrow, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter explores the links among media literacy (specifically news media literacy), civic engagement, and positive youth development (PYD). We begin by providing an overview of the literature on PYD and media literacy, and go on to discuss media literacy in the context of civic development. We also explore the existing literature on the associations between news media use, news media literacy, and civic indicators. In addition, we discuss the promotion of media literacy (with a focus on news media literacy) and PYD in educational, extracurricular, and home settings. We conclude with a discussion of the current research in this nascent and interdisciplinary area and, as well, consider directions for future research.

  7. Information Literacy at Augustana: A Programmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Goebel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Information literacy programs, and the factors that influence their development and structure, can vary significantly from institution to institution. Credit-bearing discipline-specific information literacy courses are a rare and valuable component of an undergraduate educational experience and form the basis of Augustana's information literacy program. This article provides an overview of the development, implementation, successes, and drawbacks of the credit-bearing discipline-specific information literacy courses at the Augustana Campus of the University of Alberta (Camrose, Alberta, Canada. Additional program components including Augustana's annual information literacy workshop, information literacy awards, information literacy DVD, and marketing/branding, are discussed.

  8. A Bifactor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model for Differential Item Functioning Analysis on Testlet-Based Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…

  9. Emergency Power For Critical Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William R.

    2009-07-01

    Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, and tsunami, are becoming a greater problem as climate change impacts our environment. Disasters, whether natural or man made, destroy lives, homes, businesses and the natural environment. Such disasters can happen with little or no warning, leaving hundreds or even thousands of people without medical services, potable water, sanitation, communications and electrical services for up to several weeks. In our modern world, the need for electricity has become a necessity. Modern building codes and new disaster resistant building practices are reducing the damage to homes and businesses. Emergency gasoline and diesel generators are becoming common place for power outages. Generators need fuel, which may not be available after a disaster, but Photovoltaic (solar-electric) systems supply electricity without petroleum fuel as they are powered by the sun. Photovoltaic (PV) systems can provide electrical power for a home or business. PV systems can operate as utility interactive or stand-alone with battery backup. Determining your critical load items and sizing the photovoltaic system for those critical items, guarantees their operation in a disaster.

  10. Multiple true-false items: a comparison of scoring algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Felicitas-Maria; Lörwald, Andrea Carolin; Bauer, Daniel; Nouns, Zineb Miriam; Krebs, René; Guttormsen, Sissel; Fischer, Martin R; Huwendiek, Sören

    2017-11-30

    Multiple true-false (MTF) items are a widely used supplement to the commonly used single-best answer (Type A) multiple choice format. However, an optimal scoring algorithm for MTF items has not yet been established, as existing studies yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this study analyzes two questions: What is the optimal scoring algorithm for MTF items regarding reliability, difficulty index and item discrimination? How do the psychometric characteristics of different scoring algorithms compare to those of Type A questions used in the same exams? We used data from 37 medical exams conducted in 2015 (998 MTF and 2163 Type A items overall). Using repeated measures analyses of variance (rANOVA), we compared reliability, difficulty and item discrimination of different scoring algorithms for MTF with four answer options and Type A. Scoring algorithms for MTF were dichotomous scoring (DS) and two partial credit scoring algorithms, PS 50 where examinees receive half a point if more than half of true/false ratings were marked correctly and one point if all were marked correctly, and PS 1/n where examinees receive a quarter of a point for every correct true/false rating. The two partial scoring algorithms showed significantly higher reliabilities (α PS1/n  = 0.75; α PS50  = 0.75; α DS  = 0.70, α A  = 0.72), which corresponds to fewer items needed for a reliability of 0.8 (n PS1/n  = 74; n PS50  = 75; n DS  = 103, n A  = 87), and higher discrimination indices (r PS1/n  = 0.33; r PS50  = 0.33; r DS  = 0.30; r A  = 0.28) than dichotomous scoring and Type A. Items scored with DS tend to be difficult (p DS  = 0.50), whereas items scored with PS 1/n become easy (p PS1/n  = 0.82). PS 50 and Type A cover the whole range, from easy to difficult items (p PS50  = 0.66; p A  = 0.73). Partial credit scoring leads to better psychometric results than dichotomous scoring. PS 50 covers the range from easy to difficult items better than PS 1/n

  11. Students’ Information Literacy: A Perspective from Mathematical Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyadi Wijaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Information literacy is mostly seen from the perspective of library science or information and communication technology. Taking another point of view, this study was aimed to explore students’ information literacy from the perspective of mathematical literacy. For this purpose, a test addressing Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA mathematics tasks were administered to 381 eighth and ninth graders from nine junior high schools in the Province of Yogyakarta. PISA mathematics tasks which were used in this test had specific characteristics regarding information processing, i.e. containing superfluous information, having missing information, and requiring connection across information sources. An error analysis was performed to analyze students’ incorrect responses. The result of this study shows that students did not acquire three characteristics of information literacy; i.e. recognizing information needs, locating and evaluating the quality of information, and making effective and ethical use of information. This result indicates students’ low ability in information literacy.Keywords: information literacy, mathematical literacy, Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3532.73-82

  12. Benefits literacy, Bugs Bunny and bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, John; Hogg, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The human resources world is buzzing about literacy--specifically, financial literacy and health literacy. Yet if employers truly want their employees to take action based on that literacy, then employers must add motivation and process simplification to their benefits equation. This article provides employers with things to keep in mind in order to deliver content that improves employees' benefits literacy, and makes taking desired actions both relevant and easy for employees.

  13. Definitions, Foundations and Associations of Physical Literacy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lowri C; Bryant, Anna S; Keegan, Richard J; Morgan, Kevin; Jones, Anwen M

    2017-01-01

    The concept of physical literacy has stimulated increased research attention in recent years-being deployed in physical education, sport participation, and the promotion of physical activity. Independent research groups currently operationalize the construct differently. The purpose of this systematic review was to conduct a systematic review of the physical literacy construct, as reflected in contemporary research literature. Five databases were searched using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews. Inclusion criteria were English language, peer reviewed, published by March 2016, and seeking to conceptualize physical literacy. Articles that met these criteria were analyzed in relation to three core areas: properties/attributes, philosophical foundations and theoretical associations with other constructs. A total of 50 published articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed qualitatively using inductive thematic analysis. The thematic analysis addressed the three core areas. Under definitions, core attributes that define physical literacy were identified, as well as areas of conflict between different approaches currently being adopted. One relatively clear philosophical approach was prominent in approximately half of the papers, based on a monist/holistic ontology and phenomenological epistemology. Finally, the analysis identified a number of theoretical associations, including health, physical activity and academic performance. Current literature contains different representations of the physical literacy construct. The costs and benefits of adopting an exclusive approach versus pluralism are considered. Recommendations for both researchers and practitioners focus on identifying and clearly articulating the definitions, philosophical assumptions and expected outcomes prior to evaluating the effectiveness of this emerging concept.

  14. Obtaining a Proportional Allocation by Deleting Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, B.; de Haan, R.; Schlotter, I.; Röthe, J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the following control problem on fair allocation of indivisible goods. Given a set I of items and a set of agents, each having strict linear preference over the items, we ask for a minimum subset of the items whose deletion guarantees the existence of a proportional allocation in the

  15. A Balance Sheet for Educational Item Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Michael D.

    Educational item banking presents observers with a considerable paradox. The development of test items from scratch is viewed as wasteful, a luxury in times of declining resources. On the other hand, item banking has failed to become a mature technology despite large amounts of money and the efforts of talented professionals. The question of which…

  16. The effect of individual factors on health behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of eHealth literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, WanChen; Chiang, ChiaHsun; Yang, ShuChing

    2014-12-12

    College students' health behavior is a topic that deserves attention. Individual factors and eHealth literacy may affect an individual's health behaviors. The integrative model of eHealth use (IMeHU) provides a parsimonious account of the connections among the digital divide, health care disparities, and the unequal distribution and use of communication technologies. However, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors, and IMeHU has not been empirically investigated. This study examines the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors using IMeHU. The Health Behavior Scale is a 12-item instrument developed to measure college students' eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. The eHealth Literacy Scale is a 12-item instrument designed to measure college students' functional, interactive, and critical eHealth literacy. A nationally representative sample of 525 valid college students in Taiwan was surveyed. A questionnaire was administered to collect background information about participants' health status, degree of health concern, major, and the frequency with which they engaged in health-related discussions. This study used Amos 6.0 to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to identify the best measurement models for the eHealth Literacy Scale and the Health Behavior Scale. We then conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors. Additionally, causal steps approach was used to explore indirect (mediating) effects and Sobel tests were used to test the significance of the mediating effects. The study found that perceptions of better health status (t520=2.14-6.12, PeHealth literacy and adoption of healthy eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. Moreover, eHealth literacy played an intermediary role in the association between individual factors and health behaviors (Sobel test=2.09-2.72, Pe

  17. New technologies for item monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, J.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy's request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence ampersand Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet)

  18. Linguistic adaptation and psychometric evaluation of original oral health literacy-adult questionnaire (OHL-AQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHALEEN VYAS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linguistically adapted oral health literacy tools are helpful to assess oral health literacy among local population with clarity and understandability. The original oral health literacy adult questionnaire, Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire, was given in English (2013, consisting of 17 items under 4 domains. The present study rationalizes to culturally adapt and validate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi language. Thus, we objectified to translate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi and test its psychometric properties like reliability and validity among primary school teachers. Methods: The Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire was translated into Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire – Hindi Version using the World Health Organization recommended translation backtranslation protocol. During pre-testing, an expert panel assessed content validity of the questionnaire. Face validity was assessed on a small sample of 10 individuals. A cross-sectional study was conducted (June-July 2015 and OHL-AQ-H was administered on a convenient sample of 170 primary school teachers. Internal consistency and testretest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, respectively, with 2 weeks interval to ascertain adherence to the questionnaire response. Predictive validity was tested by comparing OHL-AQ-H scores with clinical indicators like oral hygiene scores and dental caries scores. The concurrent and discriminant validity was assessed through self-reported oral health and through negative association with sociodemographic variables. The data was analyzed by descriptive tests using chi-square and bivariate logistic regression in SPSS software, version 20 and p<0.05 was considered as the significance level. Results: The mean OHL-AQ-H score was 13.58±2.82. ICC and Cronbach’s alpha for Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire – Hindi Version

  19. Health Literacy and Health Information Technology Adoption: The Potential for a New Digital Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Mabry-Flynn, Amanda; Champlin, Sara; Donovan, Erin E; Pounders, Kathrynn

    2016-10-04

    Approximately one-half of American adults exhibit low health literacy and thus struggle to find and use health information. Low health literacy is associated with negative outcomes including overall poorer health. Health information technology (HIT) makes health information available directly to patients through electronic tools including patient portals, wearable technology, and mobile apps. The direct availability of this information to patients, however, may be complicated by misunderstanding of HIT privacy and information sharing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether health literacy is associated with patients' use of four types of HIT tools: fitness and nutrition apps, activity trackers, and patient portals. Additionally, we sought to explore whether health literacy is associated with patients' perceived ease of use and usefulness of these HIT tools, as well as patients' perceptions of privacy offered by HIT tools and trust in government, media, technology companies, and health care. This study is the first wide-scale investigation of these interrelated concepts. Participants were 4974 American adults (n=2102, 42.26% male, n=3146, 63.25% white, average age 43.5, SD 16.7 years). Participants completed the Newest Vital Sign measure of health literacy and indicated their actual use of HIT tools, as well as the perceived ease of use and usefulness of these applications. Participants also answered questions regarding information privacy and institutional trust, as well as demographic items. Cross-tabulation analysis indicated that adequate versus less than adequate health literacy was significantly associated with use of fitness apps (P=.02), nutrition apps (P<.001), activity trackers (P<.001), and patient portals (P<.001). Additionally, greater health literacy was significantly associated with greater perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness across all HIT tools after controlling for demographics. Regarding privacy perceptions of HIT and

  20. Cognitive Function and Health Literacy Decline in a Cohort of Aging English Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Wardle, Jane; Wolf, Michael S; von Wagner, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Low health literacy is common among aging patients and is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. We aimed to describe health literacy decline during aging and to investigate the roles of cognitive function and decline in determining health literacy decline. Data were from 5,256 non-cognitively impaired adults aged ≥ 52 years in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Health literacy was assessed using a four-item reading comprehension assessment of a fictitious medicine label, and cognitive function was assessed in a battery administered in-person at baseline (2004-2005) and at follow-up (2010-2011). Overall, 19.6% (1,032/5,256) of participants declined in health literacy score over the follow-up. Among adults aged ≥ 80 years at baseline, this proportion was 38.2% (102/267), compared to 14.8% (78/526) among adults aged 52-54 years (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 2.26-4.57). Other sociodemographic predictors of health literacy decline were: male sex (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.04-1.38), non-white ethnicity (OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.51-3.89), low educational attainment (OR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.29-1.95 for no qualifications vs. degree education), and low occupational class (OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.39-2.01 for routine vs. managerial occupations). Higher baseline cognitive function scores protected against health literacy decline, while cognitive decline (yes vs. no) predicted decline in health literacy score (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.35-1.87 for memory decline and OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.32-1.85 for executive function decline). Health literacy decline appeared to increase with age, and was associated with even subtle cognitive decline in older non-impaired adults. Striking social inequalities were evident, whereby men and those from minority and deprived backgrounds were particularly vulnerable to literacy decline. Health practitioners must be able to recognize limited health literacy to ensure that clinical demands match the literacy skills of diverse patients.

  1. 75 FR 69986 - Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program AGENCY: Office of... for funding under the Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy program. SUMMARY: By February 2011, the...) projects to support comprehensive literacy development and to advance literacy skills, including pre...

  2. A Generalized Logistic Regression Procedure to Detect Differential Item Functioning among Multiple Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles; Beland, Sebastien; Gerard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of the logistic regression procedure to identify dichotomous differential item functioning (DIF) in the presence of more than two groups of respondents. Starting from the usual framework of a single focal group, we propose a general approach to estimate the item response functions in each group and to test for the presence…

  3. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  4. Knowledge, Informationa and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2000-09-01

    This paper problematises the notion of the "knowledge society" found in two recent initiatives: the OECD's International Adult Literacy Survey, and the New Zealand Foresight Project. The author supports a broadening of the concept of literacy, as suggested by the OECD reports, but points to some of the limits of "information" as the focus for such a re-definition. The principle of theorising social and economic futures is also endorsed, but the form this takes in the Foresight Project is seen as unnecessarily restrictive. To date, the Foresight Project can be seen as a synthesis of elements of market liberalism and scientific rationalism. Both projects ignore crucial political and ethical questions in their accounts of the "knowledge society" and the process of globalisation, and both are wedded to a technocratic mode of policy development and planning. The author calls for further critical work on changing patterns of literate activity in the information age, and stresses the importance of contemplating futures other than those driven by the imperatives of global capitalism.

  5. Psychosocial factors and financial literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John L

    2013-01-01

    This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to analyze the psychological and social variables associated with financial literacy. The HRS is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of individuals older than age 50 and their spouses. An ordinary least squares linear regression analysis explores the relationship between financial literacy and several economic and psychosocial variables. After controlling for earnings, level of education, and other socioeconomic variables in this exploratory study, I find that financial satisfaction and religiosity are correlated with financial literacy.

  6. Assessing the factor structure of a role functioning item bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatchkova, Milena D; Ware, John E; Bjorner, Jakob B

    2011-06-01

    Role functioning (RF) is an important part of health-related quality of life, but is hard to measure due to the wide definition of roles and fluctuations in role participation. This study aims to explore the dimensionality of a newly developed item bank assessing the impact of health on RF. A battery of measures with skip patterns including the new RF bank was completed by 2,500 participants answering only questions on social roles relevant to them. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for the participants answering items from all conceptual domains (N = 1193). Conceptually based dimensionality and method effects reflecting positively and negatively worded items were explored in a series of models. A bi-factor model (CFI = .93, RMSEA = .08) with one general and four conceptual factors (social, family, occupation, generic) was retained. Positively worded items were excluded from the final solution due to misfit. While a single factor model with methods factors had a poor fit (CFI = .88, RMSEA = .13), high loadings on the general factor in the bi-factor model suggest that the RF bank is sufficiently unidimensional for IRT analysis. The bank demonstrated sufficient unidimensionality for IRT-based calibration of all the items on a common metric and development of a computerized adaptive test.

  7. Losing Items in the Psychogeriatric Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Hoof PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Losing items is a time-consuming occurrence in nursing homes that is ill described. An explorative study was conducted to investigate which items got lost by nursing home residents, and how this affects the residents and family caregivers. Method: Semi-structured interviews and card sorting tasks were conducted with 12 residents with early-stage dementia and 12 family caregivers. Thematic analysis was applied to the outcomes of the sessions. Results: The participants stated that numerous personal items and assistive devices get lost in the nursing home environment, which had various emotional, practical, and financial implications. Significant amounts of time are spent on trying to find items, varying from 1 hr up to a couple of weeks. Numerous potential solutions were identified by the interviewees. Discussion: Losing items often goes together with limitations to the participation of residents. Many family caregivers are reluctant to replace lost items, as these items may get lost again.

  8. Health literacy in the pharmacy setting: defining pharmacotherapy literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King SR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: All currently available definitions of health literacy may be considered quite general. Given the complex nature of the patient-pharmacy encounter and the varying tasks required to properly and successfully consume or administer medication or to adhere to a pharmaceutical care regimen, these available definitions may describe inadequately a patient’s health literacy for the purpose of pharmacotherapy and pharmacist intervention. Therefore, the objective of this research was to conceptualize the Pharmacotherapy Literacy construct.Methods: Licensed pharmacists (n=2,368 were mailed a questionnaire providing them with the Healthy People 2010 definition of health literacy and asked, “Given this definition, how would you define Pharmacotherapy Literacy?” A total of 420 usable surveys were returned of which 176 (42% included responses to the open-ended question concerning pharmacotherapy literacy. Responses were reviewed independently and collectively by the authors. Common themes were identified, compared and discussed until consensus was reached. An initial definition was formulated and distributed to six doctoral-trained academicians and practicing pharmacists who were asked to offer their opinions of the definition as well as suggestions for its improvement. The definition was modified and subjected to further review from 15 additional doctoral-trained academicians and practicing pharmacists who provided feedback concerning its improvement.Results: Based on the recommendations received from the academicians and pharmacists, the following, definition was formulated by the authors: Pharmacotherapy Literacy – An individual’s capacity to obtain, evaluate, calculate, and comprehend basic information about pharmacotherapy and pharmacy related services necessary to make appropriate medication-related decisions, regardless of the mode of content delivery (e.g. written, oral, visual images and symbols.Conclusions: As the ever

  9. Development and validation of a smoking media literacy scale for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Gold, Melanie A; Switzer, Galen E; Hobbs, Renee; Land, Stephanie R; Fine, Michael J

    2006-04-01

    To develop a smoking media literacy (SML) scale by using empiric survey data from a large sample of high school students and to assess reliability and criterion validity of the scale. On the basis of an established theoretical framework, 120 potential items were generated, and items were eliminated or altered on the basis of input from experts and students. Cross-sectional responses to scale items, demographics, smoking-related variables, and multiple covariates were obtained to refine the scale and determine its reliability and validity. One large Pittsburgh, Pa, high school. A total of 1211 high school students aged 14 to 18 years. Current smoking, susceptibility to smoking, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking norms. Factor analysis demonstrated a strong 1-factor scale with 18 items (alpha = 0.87). After controlling for all covariate data, SML had a statistically significant and independent association with current smoking (P = .01), susceptibility (Pmedia literacy can be measured with excellent reliability and concurrent criterion validity. Given the independent association between SML and smoking, media literacy may be a promising tool for future tobacco control interventions.

  10. [Health literacy as an element of the Polish occupational health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobras, Maciej

    Nowadays it is believed that a comprehensive approach towards one's health requires the development and subsequent mastering of health literacy. Although this term has no Polish equivalent, it applies to the ability of individuals to access, analyze and understand information necessary to make informed health decisions. In this publication it is suggested that 'biegłość zdrowotna' can be used as a corresponding Polish term. This publication is based on the review of the available literature (in Polish and in English) on health literacy. To illustrate the hypothetical level of health literacy among Polish employers and employees reports of the Chief Labour Inspectorate and individual items from the Second European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER-2) were used. The analysis proves that health literacy is a multidimensional concept which has been studied and investigated so far only in relation to chosen nosological units, but practically it does not appear in relation to occupational health. There are reasons to believe that in Poland the low level of health literacy among both employers and employees, lies at the forefront of a passive approach towards the safeguarding of workers health. The concept of health literacy needs further dissemination in Poland, whereas the main area of future research should be the design of the Polish tool for assessing health literacy. The national system of occupational health seems to offer a possible ground for implementing such a concept, especially bearing in mind that within the current system there are several entities and services, which have the legal mandate to undertake informative and advisory duties - exactly those, which help build and master health literacy skills. Med Pr 2016;67(5):681-689. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. RIM: A Random Item Mixture Model to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, Sofie; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul; Magis, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting differential item functioning (DIF). We introduce a DIF model, called the random item mixture (RIM), that is based on a Rasch model with random item difficulties (besides the common random person abilities). In addition, a mixture model is assumed for the item difficulties such that the…

  12. Detecting Differential Item Discrimination (DID) and the Consequences of Ignoring DID in Multilevel Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Cross-level invariance in a multilevel item response model can be investigated by testing whether the within-level item discriminations are equal to the between-level item discriminations. Testing the cross-level invariance assumption is important to understand constructs in multilevel data. However, in most multilevel item response model…

  13. Assessing the Item Response Theory with Covariate (IRT-C) Procedure for Ascertaining Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform and/or nonuniform DIF using the Wald statistic.…

  14. Extent of awareness and prevalence of adulteration in selected food items in rural Dehradun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Srivastava

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adulteration of food items is common phenomenon in India. It includes both willful adulteration to improve texture and quality of food items and supply of substandard food items. The usual outcomes is outbreak of food borne illness. Aims & Objectives: i To estimate the prevalence of food adulteration in selected food items ii the awareness of subjects regarding food adulteration act and iii their buying practices. Material and Methods: Samplesize:150 households was sampled, based on prevalence of adulteration to be around 50%, with 95% confidence interval and absolute allowable error of 10%. Sample household were drawn from the selected villages randomly. Pre-designed and pretested questionnaires was administered to fulfill the objectives and food items were tested using NICE food adulteration kit. Data were analyzed by numeral with percentage, Pearson’s correlation test and F test. Results: In 59.3% households, housewives purchased the food items for the house. The prevalence of adulteration ranged from 17.3% to 66.2% in selected food items. Loose product was purchased by 54.3%. The food labels on packed items was not read by 86.3%. Mean percentage of purity was highest among literates (57.3 ±12.3 than illiterates and those having primary education. Statistically significant F ratio was seen for mean percentage of purity and respondent’s literacy status. Conclusion: Adulterant is rampant in poor strata of  society due to consumer’s illiteracy and lack of awareness towards food safety rules.

  15. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  16. Health Literacy and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Public Health. 87(6): 1027-1030. 11 Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, Clark WS. 1998. Health literacy and the risk of hospital admission. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 13(12): 791-798. ...

  17. 'Academic literacies approaches to genre'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Street

    Full Text Available I provide an overview of approaches to writing referred to as 'academic literacies' building on broader traditions, such as New Literacy Studies, and I draw out the relevance of such traditions for the ways in which lecturers provide support to their students with regard to the writing requirements of the University. I offer three case studies of the application of academic literacies approaches to programmes concerned with supporting student writing, in the UK and the USA. I briefly conclude by asking how far these accounts and this work can be seen to bring together many of the themes raised at SIGET conferences - including academic literacies and its relation to genre theories - and express the hope that it opens up trajectories for future research and collaboration of the kind they were founded to develop.

  18. Localising supranational concepts of literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    According to Blommaert (2003) conceptualizations of literacy within education might be seen as a variety of language that should be “read locally as well as translocally” by examining how conceptualizations of literacy are being both globalized and localized by whom, for whom and how...... – and with what impact for education. Following this research agenda I would like to argue for a Latour-inspired research approach that theorizes the material dimension of literacy and its capacity to travel. It is central to Latours´ sociology that humans are seen delegating roles and responsibilities to objects......, and Latour argues that it is by tracing the objects that circulate within and between sites of human social interaction that an account of the social becomes possible (Latour, 1999). An application of Latours theoretical perspective allows for an examination of literacy practices that can follow...

  19. Localising supranational concepts of literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    in the network. The object in focus is the “Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment” (2001) – a most influential document for education in Western Europe that contains a detailed conceptualization of literacy. Methodologically the supranational character......According to Blommaert (2003) conceptualizations of literacy within education might be seen as a variety of language that should be “read locally as well as translocally” by examining how conceptualizations of literacy are being both globalized and localized by whom, for whom and how...... – and with what impact for education. Following this research agenda I would like to argue for a Latour-inspired research approach that theorizes the material dimension of literacy and its capacity to travel. It is central to Latours´ sociology that humans are seen delegating roles and responsibilities to objects...

  20. Visual Literacy: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Donald J., Ed.

    Listed are nearly 300 books, articles, and audiovisual materials relating to visual literacy. Listings for written materials include author, title, publisher, and date of publication. Audiovisual listings include title, media type, date of production, and distributor. (EMH)

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of a Chinese Version of the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Malcolm; Norman, Cameron D.; Chang, Hsiao-Mei

    2012-01-01

    The eight-item eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) is a previously validated scale developed to assess consumers' combined knowledge, comfort, and perceived skills at finding, evaluating, and applying electronic health information to health problems. In the present study, a Chinese version of the eHEALS was developed and its psychometric properties…

  2. Literacy for health: an interdisciplinary model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Elisa K

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, many literacy and health education programs have had difficulty in significantly affecting vulnerable priority populations. The materials used were largely generalized for one language, one level of literacy, and one culture. A multidiscipline review of literature discusses the relationship between literacy, health, and culture and provides rationale for the interdisciplinary literacy for health model. The model's synthesis of anthropology, linguistics, literacy, nursing, and community partnership guides development of culturally and linguistically appropriate materials for successful adoption and diffusion within a priority population. In Nepal, the model is being used in the Mugom first-language literacy project among a group of remote Tibetan Buddhist peoples.

  3. Financial literacy and consumer loans

    OpenAIRE

    Lukešová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis deals with problems of financial literacy. The problem with financial literacy is an extensive topic, therefore the paper focuses only on consumer loans which belong to the most used products by citizens. The thesis gives basic information about companies, which offer consumer loans and warn against incorrect financial institutions and loan sharks. One of the chapters dedicates the indicator of advantages of consumer loans. It shows issues of indicator annual percentage ...

  4. Quantitative Literacy: Geosciences and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.; McCallum, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative literacy seems like such a natural for the geosciences, right? The field has gone from its origin as a largely descriptive discipline to one where it is hard to imagine failing to bring a full range of mathematical tools to the solution of geological problems. Although there are many definitions of quantitative literacy, we have proposed one that is analogous to the UNESCO definition of conventional literacy: "A quantitatively literate person is one who, with understanding, can both read and represent quantitative information arising in his or her everyday life." Central to this definition is the concept that a curriculum for quantitative literacy must go beyond the basic ability to "read and write" mathematics and develop conceptual understanding. It is also critical that a curriculum for quantitative literacy be engaged with a context, be it everyday life, humanities, geoscience or other sciences, business, engineering, or technology. Thus, our definition works both within and outside the sciences. What role do geoscience faculty have in helping students become quantitatively literate? Is it our role, or that of the mathematicians? How does quantitative literacy vary between different scientific and engineering fields? Or between science and nonscience fields? We will argue that successful quantitative literacy curricula must be an across-the-curriculum responsibility. We will share examples of how quantitative literacy can be developed within a geoscience curriculum, beginning with introductory classes for nonmajors (using the Mauna Loa CO2 data set) through graduate courses in inverse theory (using singular value decomposition). We will highlight six approaches to across-the curriculum efforts from national models: collaboration between mathematics and other faculty; gateway testing; intensive instructional support; workshops for nonmathematics faculty; quantitative reasoning requirement; and individual initiative by nonmathematics faculty.

  5. Meta-Literacy in Gameworlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pajares Tosca, Susana; Carrasco Yelmo, Silviano

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the notion of “meta-literacy”, understood as the player´s ability to navigate between spheres of reality and/or cross boundaries when interacting with a gameworld. We examine how meta-aesthetics functions in videogames and argue that it is relevant at both the fictional level ...... (intertextual literacy) and at the ludic level (self-referential literacy)....

  6. Exploring health literacy competencies towards patient education programme for Chinese-speaking healthcare professionals: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun; Chen, Yu-Chi; Wu, Fei Ling; Liao, Li-Ling

    2017-01-16

    To achieve consensus on a set of competencies in health literacy practice based on a literature review and expert consultation. Hospitals and community health centres in Taiwan. A 2-stage modified Delphi study involving a literature review was conducted, followed by qualitative interviews and 3 rounds of email-based data collection over a 3-month period in 2011. 15 Chinese healthcare practitioners with more than 6 months' experience in patient education were interviewed to collect data on health literacy practice. 24 experts (12 academic scholars in health literacy and 12 professionals with training related to health literacy practice) were invited to participate in the Delphi process. Qualitative data from the interviews were analysed and summarised to form 99 competency items for health literacy practice, which were categorised into 5 domains of health literacy practice including those pertaining to knowledge and skills. Consensus was reached on 92 of 99 competencies, using a modified Delphi technique. The 92 competencies in health literacy practice embraced core components of patient education in the Chinese healthcare profession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. La media literacy in Spagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josè Manuel Pérez Tornero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In questo contributo si ripercorre la storia della media literacy in Spagna e si descrivono i molti cambiamenti avvenuti sinora: tutti i soggetti coinvolti (educatori, autorità regolatrici, industria, società civile sono ben consapevoli dell’importanza della media literacy e della media education, e le azioni intraprese mirano a un ulteriore potenziamento di questa importanza. Tuttavia, malgrado gli sforzi compiuti, occorre un maggiore coordinamento e una più accurata programmazione. Lo sviluppo della media literacy viene qui descritto a partire dagli anni Sessanta, quando alcune scuole cominciano a usare i media come strumenti didattici in classe, sino ai Novanta con il boom delle nuove tecnologie digitali e della convergenza mediale e con l’affermarsi dei concetti di digital literacy e, più tardi, di media literacy. Per quanto riguarda l’educazione permanente, in questo contributo si solleva la questione della formazione degli insegnanti e delle specializzazioni postlaurea. Si accenna anche al processo di introduzione della materia nel curricolo. Rispetto alla ricerca e a progetti particolari, si citano alcune esperienze realizzate sia da istituzioni nazionali che da associazioni della società civile. Infine, si auspicano sviluppi futuri per la media literacy in Spagna grazie alla promulgazione della Ley General de la Comunicación Audiovisual (LGCA 2010 e all’istituzione del Consejo Estatal de Medios Audiovisuales (CEMA.

  8. Language Literacy in Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which the transfer of assumptions from first language (L1 writing can help the process of writing in second language (L2. In learning second language writing skills, learners have two primary sources from which they construct a second language system: knowledge and skills from first language and input from second language. To investigate the relative impact of first language literacy skills on second language writing ability, 60 EFL students from Tabriz Islamic Azad University were chosen as participants of this study, based on their language proficiency scores. The subjects were given two topics to write about: the experimental group subjects were asked to write in Persian and then translate their writing into English. The control group wrote in English. The results obtained in this study indicate that the content and vocabulary components of the compositions were mostly affected by the use of first language.

  9. The relationship of document and quantitative literacy with learning styles and selected personal variables for aerospace technology students at Indiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Royce Ann

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent that student scores on a researcher-constructed quantitative and document literacy test, the Aviation Documents Delineator (ADD), were associated with (a) learning styles (imaginative, analytic, common sense, dynamic, and undetermined), as identified by the Learning Type Measure, (b) program curriculum (aerospace administration, professional pilot, both aerospace administration and professional pilot, other, or undeclared), (c) overall cumulative grade point average at Indiana State University, and (d) year in school (freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior). The Aviation Documents Delineator (ADD) was a three-part, 35 question survey that required students to interpret graphs, tables, and maps. Tasks assessed in the ADD included (a) locating, interpreting, and describing specific data displayed in the document, (b) determining data for a specified point on the table through interpolation, (c) comparing data for a string of variables representing one aspect of aircraft performance to another string of variables representing a different aspect of aircraft performance, (d) interpreting the documents to make decisions regarding emergency situations, and (e) performing single and/or sequential mathematical operations on a specified set of data. The Learning Type Measure (LTM) was a 15 item self-report survey developed by Bernice McCarthy (1995) to profile an individual's processing and perception tendencies in order to reveal different individual approaches to learning. The sample used in this study included 143 students enrolled in Aerospace Technology Department courses at Indiana State University in the fall of 1996. The ADD and the LTM were administered to each subject. Data collected in this investigation were analyzed using a stepwise multiple regression analysis technique. Results of the study revealed that the variables, year in school and GPA, were significant predictors of the criterion variables, document

  10. Is Dental Utilization Associated with Oral Health Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgette, J M; Lee, J Y; Baker, A D; Vann, W F

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the pattern of association between dental utilization and oral health literacy (OHL). As part of the Carolina Oral Health Literacy Project, clients in the Women, Infants, and Children's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program completed a structured 30-min in-person interview conducted by 2 trained interviewers at 9 sites in 7 counties in North Carolina. Data were collected on clients' OHL, sociodemographics, dental utilization, self-efficacy, and dental knowledge. The outcome, OHL, was measured with a dental word recognition test (30-item Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry). Descriptive and multiple linear regression methods were used to examine the distribution of OHL and its association with covariates. After adjusting for age, education, race, marital status, self-efficacy, and dental knowledge, multiple linear regression showed that dental utilization was not a significant predictor of OHL (P > 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, dental utilization was not a significant predictor of OHL. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  11. The association between expressive grammar intervention and social and emergent literacy outcomes for preschoolers with SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla N

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether (a) expressive grammar intervention facilitated social and emergent literacy outcomes better than no intervention and (b) expressive grammar gains and/or initial expressive grammar level predicted social and emergent literacy outcomes. This investigation was a follow-up to a recently published study exploring the impact of grammatical language intervention on expressive grammar outcomes for preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI). Twenty-two 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers received ten 20-minute intervention sessions addressing primary deficits in grammatical morphology. Participants' social and emergent literacy skills were not targeted. Twelve children awaiting intervention, chosen from the same selection pool as intervention participants, served as controls. Blind assessments of social and emergent literacy outcomes were completed at preintervention, immediately postintervention, and 3 months postintervention. Only intervention participants experienced significant gains in social and emergent literacy outcomes and maintained these gains for 3 months postintervention. Expressive grammar gains was the only single significant predictor of these outcomes. Expressive grammar intervention was associated with broad impacts on social and emergent literacy outcomes that were maintained beyond the intervention period. Gains in expressive grammar predicted these outcomes. Social and emergent literacy skills were positively affected for preschoolers with SLI during a grammatical language intervention program.

  12. Rethinking Academic Literacies: Designing Multifaceted Academic Literacy Experiences for Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiili, Carita; Mäkinen, Marita; Coiro, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript introduces a multidimensional framework for academic literacies to help instructors become more aware of different aspects of literacies and how they might be used to plan and orchestrate meaningful, multifaceted literacy experiences in their classes. More specifically, this broad framework for literacy and learning explicitly…

  13. Literacy Coaching: Middle School Academic Achievement and Teacher Perceptions Regarding Content Area Literacy Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anjell H.; Neill, Patricia; Faust, Phyllis B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in perceptions of content area teachers receiving literacy coaching and teachers receiving no literacy coaching regarding implementation of literacy instruction. It also examined student achievement on standardized tests relative to literacy coaching. A survey measured teachers' perceptions regarding their…

  14. The relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarinejad, Farideh; Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2017-01-01

    The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and convey information in various forms of media including print and nonprint requires media literacy, but the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic information and services needed for appropriate decisions regarding health, considered an important element in a woman's ability to participate in health promotion and prevention activities for herself and her children, is needed to a level of health literacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers in Isfahan. This study used a descriptive correlation study. Data collection tools include Shahin media literacy and functional health literacy in adults' questionnaires. The population include pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan (4080 people). Ten out of the 351 health centers in Isfahan were selected as cluster. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Media literacy of respondents in the five dimensions was significantly lower than average 61.5% of pregnant women have inadequate health literacy, 18.8% had marginal health literacy, and only 19.7% of them have had adequate health literacy. There was a significant positive relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women. This study showed that the majority of pregnant women covered by health centers had limited health literacy and media literacy. Since one of the basic requirements for the utilization of health information is needed for adequate media literacy, promotion of media literacy is necessary for the respondents.

  15. The Literacy Environment of Preschool Classrooms: Contributions to Children's Emergent Literacy Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.; McGinty, Anita

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations among features of the classroom physical literacy environment (book materials, literacy area and writing materials) and psychological literacy environment (instructional support), and preschool children's gains in two areas of emergent literacy over an academic year. Results showed that features of the physical…

  16. Using Coding Apps to Support Literacy Instruction and Develop Coding Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy; Nadolny, Larysa; Estapa, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors present the concept of Coding Literacy and describe the ways in which coding apps can support the development of Coding Literacy and disciplinary and digital literacy skills. Through detailed examples, we describe how coding apps can be integrated into literacy instruction to support learning of the Common Core English…

  17. Student Perceptions of Literacy after the Ontario Secondary Literacy Course: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent literacy has emerged via the high-stakesstandardized test known as the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLTas a critical area of debate and study. Research has indicated a directconnection between literacy and identity, and that student literacy practicesdiffer from traditional measures of literacy located in school curriculum andevaluated via standardized tests such as the OSSLT. Outcomes such as limitedachievement, difficulties with literacy and the development of literacy skills,and subsequent below standard scorescan diminish student self-concept, lower self-esteem, and impede self-efficacy.This ethnographic case study illuminated the impact of OSSLT and subsequentmandatory enrolment in the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Course usingsemi-structured interviews involving high-school students from a northernOntario secondary school. Previous related research outcomes, whichdemonstrated a connection between standardized test scores and self-concept,were realized via participants’ understanding and perception of literacy, andthrough mitigating factors impacting literacy engagement and achievement.

  18. A single product perishing inventory model with demand interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper describes a single perishing product inventory model in which items deteriorate in two phases and then perish. An independent demand takes place at constant rates for items in both phases. A demand for an item in Phase I not satisfied may be satisfied by an item in Phase II, based on a probability measure.

  19. Marking Physical Literacy or Missing the Mark on Physical Literacy? A Conceptual Critique of Canada's Physical Literacy Assessment Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Randall, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Margaret Whitehead first introduced the concept of physical literacy over 20 years ago. Since that introduction, physical literacy has been gaining in popularity within many Western physical education and sport contexts. This is particularly true within Canada, where physical literacy has been embraced by two of the nation's most notable national…

  20. Media Literacy, News Literacy, or News Appreciation? A Case Study of the News Literacy Program at Stony Brook University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This case study provides practical and theoretical insights into the Stony Brook news literacy program, which is one of the most ambitious and well-funded curricular experiments in modern journalism education and media literacy. Analysis of document, interview, and observation data indicates that news literacy educators sought to teach students…

  1. The Canadian Assessment of Physical literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Claire E; Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required. M...

  2. Promoting media and information literacy in libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, F.; Franke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Librarians and (public) libraries are active in promoting information literacy and (more recently) media literacy. After a brief historical sketch, this document describes how public libraries assist patrons and educational institutions in enhancing knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to

  3. Literacy, Education and Schooling--For What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, Johan

    1975-01-01

    Literacy is discussed in terms of vertical and individualistic schooling, autonomous and societal education, and socioeconomic influences in an address presented at the International Symposium for Literacy, Persepolis, Iran. (LH)

  4. Financial Literacy, Retirement Planning and Household Wealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Maarten C. J.; Lusardi, Annamaria; Alessie, Rob J. M.

    Relying on comprehensive measures of financial knowledge, we provide evidence of a strong positive association between financial literacy and net worth, even after controlling for many determinants of wealth. We discuss two channels through which financial literacy might facilitate wealth

  5. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared to th...... with these three PISA units. In the paper we claim that in spite of detailed and strongly controlled methods for achieving translations of high standard used by the PISA, important and perhaps even decisive, differences between the four versions exist.......This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...... to the English and French original versions. Differences that occur as a result of the translation process concerning words’ meaning are demonstrated. The possible consequences of such differences are exemplified by an excerpt from a situation in which Swedish 15-year-old students collaboratively worked...

  6. The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Kappel, E. S.; Ladue, N.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Tuddenham, P.

    2009-12-01

    In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at www.earthscienceliteracy.org, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine “big ideas” and seventy-five “supporting concepts” fundamental to terrestrial geosciences. The content scope involved the geosphere and land-based hydrosphere as addressed by the NSF-EAR program, including the fields of geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry, geomorphology and land-use dynamics, geophysics, hydrologic sciences, petrology and geochemistry, sedimentary geology and paleobiology, and tectonics. The ESLI Principles were designed to complement similar documents from the ocean, atmosphere, and climate research communities, with the long-term goal of combining these separate literacy documents into a single Earth System Science literacy framework. The aim of these principles is to educate the public, shape the future of geoscience education, and help guide the development of government policy related to Earth science. For example, K-12 textbooks are currently being written and museum exhibits constructed with these Principles in hand. NPR-funded educational videos are in the process of being made in alignment with the ESLP Principles. US House and Senate representatives on science and education committees have been made aware that the major geoscience organizations have endorsed such a document generated and supported by the community. Given the importance of Earth science in so many societally relevant topics such as climate change, energy and mineral resources, water availability, natural hazards, agriculture, and human impacts on the biosphere, efforts should be taken to ensure that this document is in a position to

  7. Development and validation of a Weight-Specific Health Literacy Instrument (WSHLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-I; Lee, Shoou-Yih D

    2017-12-18

    Develop/validate a weight-specific health literacy instrument. The development of weight-specific health literacy measurement consisted of seven phases: (a) a literature review; (b) consultation with weight management experts; (c) generation of an item pool; (d) selection of items via the Delphi method; (e) pilot testing; (f) a national survey; and (g) examination of the psychometric properties of the results. A random sample of 362 Taiwanese adults completed the face-toface survey. The results of factor analysis indicated reasonable good fit of a 2-factor model (χ 2 /df=1.1, p=0.18; RMSEA=0.02, CFI=0.99, TLI=0.99). Construct validity testing showed that the both factors were significantly correlated with s-MHLS (γ=0.71, pwriting (γ=0.44, pevaluation in Mandarin Chinese speaking populations. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the Health Literacy of America Results of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Bennett, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Health literacy refers to an individual’s ability to understand healthcare information to make appropriate decisions (S. C Ratzen & R. M. Parker, 2000). Healthcare professionals are obligated to make sure that patients understand information to maximize the benefits of healthcare. The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) provides information on the literacy/health literacy levels of the U.S. adult population. The NAAL is the only large-scale survey of health literacy. The results of t...

  9. Psychological Literacy Weakly Differentiates Students by Discipline and Year of Enrolment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D.; Gasson, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Psychological literacy, a construct developed to reflect the types of skills graduates of a psychology degree should possess and be capable of demonstrating, has recently been scrutinized in terms of its measurement adequacy. The recent development of a multi-item measure encompassing the facets of psychological literacy has provided the potential for improved validity in measuring the construct. We investigated the known-groups validity of this multi-item measure of psychological literacy to examine whether psychological literacy could predict (a) students’ course of enrolment and (b) students’ year of enrolment. Five hundred and fifteen undergraduate psychology students, 87 psychology/human resource management students, and 83 speech pathology students provided data. In the first year cohort, the reflective processes (RPs) factor significantly predicted psychology and psychology/human resource management course enrolment, although no facets significantly differentiated between psychology and speech pathology enrolment. Within the second year cohort, generic graduate attributes (GGAs) and RPs differentiated psychology and speech pathology course enrolment. GGAs differentiated first-year and second-year psychology students, with second-year students more likely to have higher scores on this factor. Due to weak support for known-groups validity, further measurement refinements are recommended to improve the construct’s utility. PMID:26909058

  10. Psychological Literacy Weakly Differentiates Students by Discipline and Year of Enrolment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D; Gasson, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Psychological literacy, a construct developed to reflect the types of skills graduates of a psychology degree should possess and be capable of demonstrating, has recently been scrutinized in terms of its measurement adequacy. The recent development of a multi-item measure encompassing the facets of psychological literacy has provided the potential for improved validity in measuring the construct. We investigated the known-groups validity of this multi-item measure of psychological literacy to examine whether psychological literacy could predict (a) students' course of enrolment and (b) students' year of enrolment. Five hundred and fifteen undergraduate psychology students, 87 psychology/human resource management students, and 83 speech pathology students provided data. In the first year cohort, the reflective processes (RPs) factor significantly predicted psychology and psychology/human resource management course enrolment, although no facets significantly differentiated between psychology and speech pathology enrolment. Within the second year cohort, generic graduate attributes (GGAs) and RPs differentiated psychology and speech pathology course enrolment. GGAs differentiated first-year and second-year psychology students, with second-year students more likely to have higher scores on this factor. Due to weak support for known-groups validity, further measurement refinements are recommended to improve the construct's utility.

  11. Financial Literacy and Self-Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Cumurovic, Aida; Hyll, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between financial literacy and self-employment. We use established financial knowledge-based questions to measure financial literacy levels. The analysis shows a highly significant correlation between self-employment and financial literacy scores. To investigate the impact of financial literacy on being self-employed, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on information on economic education before entering the labour market and education of ...

  12. The literacy hypothesis and cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    Dawda, Dariusz (Darek)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis re-examines possible links between literacy and cognitive development from a medium perspective, where the child's engagement in literacy is assumed to enable literacy-specific forms of thought, and where the explanation for the nature of those cognitive forms is to be sought in the examination of how the physical and semiotic properties of literacy modify the child's symbolic interactions and thought. Specifically, I argue that the existing research suggests that at the onset of ...

  13. Professional development to enhance children's literacy skills

    OpenAIRE

    Škardová, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    The thesis examines early reading and readers, and introduces the whole language approach to reading as one of the possible ways to develop reading literacy. The theoretical part presents a review of literacy, history of reading instruction, and current issues in reading instruction. It also places the role of literacy development in the context of the Framework Education Programme for Basic Education in the Czech Republic. Moreover, the results of reading literacy studies in the Czech Republ...

  14. Financial Literacy of Pupils at Grammar School

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis "Financial literacy of pupils at grammar school" deals with the attitudes of students to the issue of financial literacy and the level of their knowledge. It focuses on individual components of financial literacy and key factors which influence and shape the students' knowledge and attitudes. Comparing available literature sources the definition of financial literacy is discussed in the theoretical part. The theoretical part also includes the way financial education is regu...

  15. The "Academic Literacies" Model: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Mary R.; Street, Brian V.

    2006-01-01

    Although the term academic literacies was originally developed with regard to the study of literacies in higher education and the university, the concept also applies to K-12 education. An academic literacies perspective treats reading and writing as social practices that vary with context, culture, and genre (Barton & Hamilton, 1998; Street,…

  16. Teaching Financial Literacy with Max and Ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Natalya; Ferguson, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Teaching financial literacy is important at all stages of life, but is often neglected with elementary students. In this article, the authors describe a strategy for teaching financial literacy using the books about Max and Ruby by Rosemary Wells. These books can help introduce the five key concepts of financial literacy: scarcity, exchange,…

  17. Reframing Information Literacy as a Metaliteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Thomas P.; Jacobson, Trudi E.

    2011-01-01

    Social media environments and online communities are innovative collaborative technologies that challenge traditional definitions of information literacy. Metaliteracy is an overarching and self-referential framework that integrates emerging technologies and unifies multiple literacy types. This redefinition of information literacy expands the…

  18. Information Literacy for the Skeptical Library Director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia S.

    This paper begins by providing background on the information literacy movement, including the educational reform efforts of the 1980s, a higher education summit conference, and the 1989 American Library Association (ALA) Presidential Committee on Information Literacy Final Report. Other highlights include: the information literacy triangle;…

  19. Promoting Learning in Libraries through Information Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn; Ford, Barbara J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses information literacy and describes activities under the sponsorship of the National Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL) that promotes information literacy in schools and libraries. Activities of member organizations of the NFIL are described, including policy formation, publications, and programs; and the role of the American Library…

  20. Literacy and UNESCO: Conceptual and Historical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    At its founding in 1946, UNESCO put literacy at the top of its education and human rights agenda. More than six decades later, UNESCO maintains the mission statement: "UNESCO is at the forefront of global literacy efforts and is dedicated to keeping literacy high on national, regional and international agendas." This chapter briefly describes how…

  1. Language Assessment Literacy: Implications for Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the applied linguistics field has examined the knowledge, skills, and principles needed for assessment, defined as language assessment literacy. Two major issues in language assessment literacy have been addressed but not fully resolved--what exactly language assessment literacy is and how it differs among stakeholders (e.g., students…

  2. 8 CFR 312.1 - Literacy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Literacy requirements. 312.1 Section 312.1... FOR NATURALIZATION § 312.1 Literacy requirements. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in... determining English proficiency, as outlined in paragraph(c) of this section. (c) Literacy examination—(1...

  3. Mainstreaming academic literacy teaching: Implications for how ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article draws on research into the role of academic literacies within a range of disciplines and its implications for academic literacy teaching in Higher Education. The study explored ways of transforming current academic literacy teaching practices with a view to developing better synergy between the academic ...

  4. Is Media Literacy Passive or Active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Zachary S.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to "read" and "write", i.e. literacy, was once considered a trade secret by the professional scribes who depended on it for job security. The ability to read and write is still the most commonly understood notion of literacy, but technological developments require that the definition of literacy be expanded and…

  5. Developing a News Media Literacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Seth; Maksl, Adam; Craft, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Using a framework previously applied to other areas of media literacy, this study developed and assessed a measurement scale focused specifically on critical news media literacy. Our scale appears to successfully measure news media literacy as we have conceptualized it based on previous research, demonstrated through assessments of content,…

  6. Why History Matters for Media Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    RobbGrieco, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The ways people have publicly discussed and written about media literacy in the past have great bearing on how citizens, educators and learners are able to think about and practice their own media literacy. Our concepts of media literacy have evolved over time in response to changing contexts of media studies and educational discourses as well as…

  7. literacy.ca EXPRESS. April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This issue of "literacy.ca EXPRESS" focuses on poverty. The articles included in this issue are: (1) Poverty Overview; (2) Tony's Story; (3) LAN (Learner Advisory Network) Member's Story (Dianne Smith); (4) Linking Adult Literacy to Poverty Reduction; (5) MCL (Movement for Canadian Literacy) Update; (6) Highlights from the LAN; (7) Good…

  8. Physical Educators as Teachers of Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Debra A.; Deeney, Theresa A.

    2006-01-01

    In the wake of No Child Left Behind, school districts increasingly are being held accountable for demonstrating improved student achievement in English language literacy. This article discusses the current state of literacy in the nation, why physical education teachers need to promote literacy practices, and creative ways that physical education…

  9. Literacy Stewardship: Dakelh Women Composing Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Alanna

    2011-01-01

    This essay suggests a companion term to "literacy sponsors" that better mirrors the practice and protection of traditional literacies evident in the cases of two Dakelh elders. "Literacy steward" introduces a theoretical means to describe community members whose rhetorical decisions depend on traditions that are alternative to…

  10. A DIALOGIC PROPOSAL TO LITERARY LITERACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Castelo Branco Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on Bakhtin’s Circle’ studies, we reflect about a proposal of literary literacy on which teachers can teach abilities on orality, writing, reading and linguistic aspects reflection to their students in an integrated way. Therefore, our proposal of literary literacy is combined with the pragmatic discourse genres literacy, such as news found in digital sphere.

  11. Regional Inequality in Literacy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although India's literacy rate has increased, the faster population growth has increased the nation's total illiteracy. The paper reviews differences in literacy rates among various regions and examines factors to explain this inequality, concluding that compulsory education for children is not enough and that adult literacy campaigns are vital.…

  12. Financial Literacy, Financial Education, and Economic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…

  13. Selection of material balance areas and item control areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    Section 70.58, ''Fundamental Nuclear Material Controls,'' of 10 CFR Part 70, ''Special Nuclear Material,'' requires certain licensees authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material to establish Material Balance Areas (MBAs) or Item Control Areas (ICAs) for the physical and administrative control of nuclear materials. This section requires that: (1) each MBA be an identifiable physical area such that the quantity of nuclear material being moved into or out of the MBA is represented by a measured value; (2) the number of MBAs be sufficient to localize nuclear material losses or thefts and identify the mechanisms; (3) the custody of all nuclear material within an MBA or ICA be the responsibility of a single designated individual; and (4) ICAs be established according to the same criteria as MBAs except that control into and out of such areas would be by item identity and count for previously determined special nuclear material quantities, the validity of which must be ensured by tamper-safing unless the items are sealed sources. This guide describes bases acceptable to the NRC staff for the selection of material balance areas and item control areas. (U.S.)

  14. Modeling rule-based item generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Hanneke; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    2011-01-01

    An application of a hierarchical IRT model for items in families generated through the application of different combinations of design rules is discussed. Within the families, the items are assumed to differ only in surface features. The parameters of the model are estimated in a Bayesian framework,

  15. Bayesian Estimation of Item Response Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutakawa, Robert K.; Lin, Hsin Ying

    1986-01-01

    Item response curves for a set of binary responses are studied from a Bayesian viewpoint of estimating the item parameters. For the two-parameter logistic model with normally distributed ability, restricted bivariate beta priors are used to illustrate the computation of the posterior mode via the EM algorithm. (Author/LMO)

  16. Binomial test models and item difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1979-01-01

    In choosing a binomial test model, it is important to know exactly what conditions are imposed on item difficulty. In this paper these conditions are examined for both a deterministic and a stochastic conception of item responses. It appears that they are more restrictive than is generally

  17. Item Information in the Rasch Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Ron J.H.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Oosterloo, Sebe J.

    1988-01-01

    Fisher's information measure for the item difficulty parameter in the Rasch model and its marginal and conditional formulations are investigated. It is shown that expected item information in the unconditional model equals information in the marginal model, provided the assumption of sampling

  18. Exploratory Item Classification Via Spectral Graph Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunxiao; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Xu, Gongjun; Ying, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale assessments are supported by a large item pool. An important task in test development is to assign items into scales that measure different characteristics of individuals, and a popular approach is cluster analysis of items. Classical methods in cluster analysis, such as the hierarchical clustering, K-means method, and latent-class analysis, often induce a high computational overhead and have difficulty handling missing data, especially in the presence of high-dimensional responses. In this article, the authors propose a spectral clustering algorithm for exploratory item cluster analysis. The method is computationally efficient, effective for data with missing or incomplete responses, easy to implement, and often outperforms traditional clustering algorithms in the context of high dimensionality. The spectral clustering algorithm is based on graph theory, a branch of mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The algorithm first constructs a graph of items, characterizing the similarity structure among items. It then extracts item clusters based on the graphical structure, grouping similar items together. The proposed method is evaluated through simulations and an application to the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

  19. Full-Information Item Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, R. Darrell; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A method of item factor analysis is described, which is based on Thurstone's multiple-factor model and implemented by marginal maximum likelihood estimation and the EM algorithm. Also assessed are the statistical significance of successive factors added to the model, provisions for guessing and omitted items, and Bayes constraints. (TJH)

  20. Energy Literacy in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Turcotte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy plays an important role in everyday activities, whether at a personal, institutional, corporate or social level. In this context, an informed or literate public is critical for the longterm conservation, management, pricing and use of increasingly scarce energy resources. A series of surveys were used to probe the literacy of Canadians with regard to energy issues ranging from relative ranking and importance of energy compared to other national issues, preference for various fuel types and willingness to pay for offsetting environmental impacts from energy generation. In addition, they were asked how Canada’s government should prioritize national energy independence over trade, even if ultimately reducing imports might impact national economic health. The survey revealed that Canadians have a good general knowledge of energy use and relative cost but lack detailed knowledge about sources of energy fuels, as well as sources and linkages with environmental impacts. However, an overwhelming majority of respondents indicated they were concerned about environmental issues; most seemed to direct that concern towards fuels such as coal and nuclear power where support was low compared to a relatively unconcerned view about the often substantial environmental effects of hydro dams or wind farms. Canadians say they have been willing to make adjustments to their own energy-consumption habits, to save money and conserve energy. Further, respondents generally expressed a willingness to pay a surcharge on monthly utility bills, if it would help mitigate the environmental impact of energy generation. There were limits to this view. Support for extra charges falls off rapidly as the costs go up; drivers showed themselves highly resistant to switching their commute to transit, even despite rising gas prices; and respondents were less enthusiastic to the idea of installing home solar panels or switching to electric cars, even when offered a subsidy to do

  1. Mathematical Literacy: A new literacy or a new mathematics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Vithal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical Literacy is a ‘hot’ topic at present in most countries, whether it is referred to by that name, or in some cases as Numeracy, or Quantitative Literacy, or Matheracy, or as some part of Ethnomathematics, or related to Mathematics in Society. Questions continue to be asked about what is meant by mathematics in any concept of Mathematical Literacy and the use of the very word ‘Literacy’ in its association with Mathematics has been challenged. Its importance, however, lies in changing our perspective on mathematics teaching, away from the elitism so often associated with much mathematics education, and towards a more equitable, accessible and genuinely educational ideal.

  2. Literacy in Eighteenth Century Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques SOUBEYROUX

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is the result of a team research program elaborated from 1979 to 93 in 28 different Spanish cities, and bearing on the analysis of the signatures of some 49.000 men and women at various stages of the century. It constitutes the first national research synthesis on literacy in Spain. It is subdivided into four parts: 1 An analysis of source materials (mainly legacies and other notarized acts and of the methodological problems involved. 2 Research results concerning the first and second halves of the century, and exposition of the main parameters determining the literacy level: sex (men/women dimorphism, place of residence (city/country opposition. 3 A study of the literacy rates according to socioprofessional categories. 4 The evolution of literacy through the century on a quantitative level (reduction of illiteracy and a qualitative one (improvement in the qualitative one (improvement in the quality of signatures. The conclusion reveals a profound dichotomy in XVIII th century Spain: an average literacy rate slightly lower than that of Southern France, contrasting with high rates in some major cities and other areas of excellence, sometimes even better than those of French cities.

  3. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions.

  4. Information Literacy and Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Baysen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Teachers play a key role in raising individuals equipped with literacy skills that societies need in the 21st century. Therefore, teacher candidates should be equipped with such skills first. Thus those programs that aim to help teacher candidates gain these skills should be included in the curriculums of education faculties. Based on this framework, the aim of the study is to both reveal if the information literacy program is considered in both national policies, in laws and in teacher qualification and also determine the existence of information literacy program in departments of educations’ teacher training curriculum. For this purpose, qualitative research approaches have been utilized in the study for determining the existing situation. The data is collected from documents of laws, national policies and action plans, national education council decisions, teacher competencies which were produced by Ministry of Education of both Turkey and Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC and other related institutions and ministries and missions and programs of primary sources of governmental and foundation universities including education faculties in Ankara-Turkey and TRNC. Content analysis method was used to analyze the data. The analysis showed that information literacy education is not addressed sufficiently both in Turkey and TRNC in teacher education programs, there is a lack of awareness on information literacy education program in the education faculties. At the end of this study, evaluation of the obtained data was made and suggestions were made for future researches.

  5. Self-Reported Digital Literacy of the Pharmacy Workforce in North East Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie MacLure

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications at home and at work, also known as digital literacy or digital competence or e-skills, depends on personal experience and related education and training. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the self-reported digital literacy of the pharmacy workforce in the North East of Scotland. A purposive case sample survey was conducted across NHS Grampian in the NE of Scotland. Data collection was based on five items: sex, age band, role, pharmacy experience plus a final question about self-reported digital literacy. The study was conducted between August 2012 and March 2013 in 17 community and two hospital pharmacies. With few exceptions, pharmacy staff perceived their own digital literacy to be at a basic level. Secondary outcome measures of role, age, gender and work experience were not found to be clear determinants of digital literacy. Pharmacy staff need to be more digitally literate to harness technologies in pharmacy practice more effectively and efficiently.

  6. An Assessment of Organizational Health Literacy Practices at an Academic Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Latrina Y; Schmidtke, Carsten; Beck, Jules K; Hadden, Kristie B

    Organizational health literacy is the degree to which an organization considers and promotes the health literacy of patients. Addressing health literacy at an organizational level has the potential to have a greater impact on more health consumers in a health system than individual-level approaches. The purpose of this study was to assess health care practices at an academic health center using the 10 attributes of a health-literate health care organization. Using a survey research design, the Health Literate Healthcare Organization 10-Item Questionnaire was administered online using total population sampling. Employees (N = 10 300) rated the extent that their organization's health care practices consider and promote patients' health literacy. Differences in responses were assessed using factorial analysis of variance. The mean response was 4.7 on a 7-point Likert scale. Employee training and communication about costs received the lowest ratings. Univariate analyses revealed that there were no statistically significant differences (P = .05) by employees' health profession, years of service, or level of patient contact. There were statistically significant differences by highest education obtained with lowest ratings from employees with college degrees. Survey responses indicate a need for improvements in health care practices to better assist patients with inadequate health literacy.

  7. Self-Reported Digital Literacy of the Pharmacy Workforce in North East Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLure, Katie; Stewart, Derek

    2015-10-15

    In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration) pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth) applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications at home and at work, also known as digital literacy or digital competence or e-skills, depends on personal experience and related education and training. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the self-reported digital literacy of the pharmacy workforce in the North East of Scotland. A purposive case sample survey was conducted across NHS Grampian in the NE of Scotland. Data collection was based on five items: sex, age band, role, pharmacy experience plus a final question about self-reported digital literacy. The study was conducted between August 2012 and March 2013 in 17 community and two hospital pharmacies. With few exceptions, pharmacy staff perceived their own digital literacy to be at a basic level. Secondary outcome measures of role, age, gender and work experience were not found to be clear determinants of digital literacy. Pharmacy staff need to be more digitally literate to harness technologies in pharmacy practice more effectively and efficiently.

  8. An Item Analysis and Validity Investigation of Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Score Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    1971-01-01

    This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)

  9. Validating an electronic health literacy scale in an older hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Judith; Nokes, Kathleen M

    2017-09-01

    To examine the validity of the Spanish version of an instrument used to measure electronic health literacy (eHEALS) with an older Hispanic population from a number of Spanish-language countries living in New York City in the United States (US). Although the Internet is available globally, complex skills are needed to use this source of valuable health-related information effectively. Electronic health literacy is a multifactorial concept that includes health literacy but also requires technology skills. Cross-sectional. Recruitment occurred at a Senior Organization located in a largely Hispanic neighbourhood in New York City (N = 100). Participants completed eHEALS and selected items from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) which assesses how adults use different communication channels, including the Internet, to obtain vital health information. Data from the US HINTS sample (N = 162) were matched to the Senior Organization sample on age range and Hispanic ethnicity. The average Senior Organization participant was 68 years old, female, born in one of six different Spanish-language countries, and completed high school while the average HINTS participant was 67 years old, female and had high school or less education. Although there was no relationship with the two HINTS subscales and electronic health literacy, there were significant relationships between electronic health literacy and health status and confidence in self-care. Inadequate electronic health literacy is a barrier to positive health outcomes. The Spanish version of eHEALS could be used as a screening instrument to identify gaps and tailored interventions could be developed to increase consumer confidence in using the Internet for reliable health-related information. Knowledge in self-management is related to positive health outcomes; all persons irrespective of their electronic health literacy should be able to use all sources of health information to enhance their self-care.

  10. Item response theory - A first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sandra; Oliveira, Teresa; Oliveira, Amílcar

    2017-07-01

    The Item Response Theory (IRT) has become one of the most popular scoring frameworks for measurement data, frequently used in computerized adaptive testing, cognitively diagnostic assessment and test equating. According to Andrade et al. (2000), IRT can be defined as a set of mathematical models (Item Response Models - IRM) constructed to represent the probability of an individual giving the right answer to an item of a particular test. The number of Item Responsible Models available to measurement analysis has increased considerably in the last fifteen years due to increasing computer power and due to a demand for accuracy and more meaningful inferences grounded in complex data. The developments in modeling with Item Response Theory were related with developments in estimation theory, most remarkably Bayesian estimation with Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms (Patz & Junker, 1999). The popularity of Item Response Theory has also implied numerous overviews in books and journals, and many connections between IRT and other statistical estimation procedures, such as factor analysis and structural equation modeling, have been made repeatedly (Van der Lindem & Hambleton, 1997). As stated before the Item Response Theory covers a variety of measurement models, ranging from basic one-dimensional models for dichotomously and polytomously scored items and their multidimensional analogues to models that incorporate information about cognitive sub-processes which influence the overall item response process. The aim of this work is to introduce the main concepts associated with one-dimensional models of Item Response Theory, to specify the logistic models with one, two and three parameters, to discuss some properties of these models and to present the main estimation procedures.

  11. A Brief Didactic Intervention to Improve Multiple-Choice Item-Writing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Jones

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Audience: Emergency Medicine Residents, Faculty Introduction: High stakes examinations encountered throughout medical education are often composed of single best answer multiple-choice questions (MCQs. Many guidelines for writing MCQs exist, but often item writers receive little to no formal training. Flawed exam items have been shown to have lower discrimination values, potentially introducing construct-irrelevant variance to examinations, reducing their validity.1–3 Long-term faculty development in the area of item writing has been shown to improve examination item quality, with a pilot study showing that a more brief intervention had the same impact on quality of written items.4–6 Furthermore, when learners have been engaged in item writing, they have found the exercise to be a beneficial learning experience, with one study demonstrating an improved performance on a summative assessment as a result of participating in item writing.7–10 Objectives: The primary objective of this training module is to provide emergency medicine residents the basic knowledge necessary to write high quality structured single-best answer examination items through a brief, independent study format. Method: The training module is a PowerPoint-based lecture with recorded voiceover, which is provided in mp4 format.

  12. Integration of Information and Scientific Literacy: Promoting Literacy in Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbach, Kevin C.; Purzycki, Catherine B.; Bowman, Leslie A.; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy (SL) exercise for use in a first-year biology course. Students were provided the opportunity to access, retrieve, analyze, and evaluate primary scientific literature. By the completion of this project, student responses improved concerning knowledge and relevance of IL and SL skills. This project exposes students to IL and SL early in their undergraduate experience, preparing them for future academic advancement. PMID:21123700

  13. Improving Family Literacy Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 10-question Likert-type scale survey was presented to parents of children enrolled in the Imagination Library’s (IL program. IL sends age-appropriate books once a month to children from birth to age 5 so that their parent can read to them. After registering for the program and receiving books, 93 parents answered the survey questions electronically. The questions noted the difference in family literacy behavior after receiving the books. Nine of the questions were multiple-choice whereas the last question was open-ended. This third-year survey was compared with the earlier surveys to establish reliability and used repeated questions to establish validity. The respondents were drawn from a rural minority population in an economically depressed area. The survey results suggested that parents spend more time reading to their children regularly after enrolling in the program. The percentage of parents who read to their children more than once a day rose from 24% to 43%. According to the survey, 48% of parents reported that their child was much more interested in reading. More than half of the parents (67% reported that their child asked more frequently for books to be read to them after enrolling in the program. In addition, 68% of the families reported that multiple members of the family were engaged with the reading activities. Families report that reading the books had been a positive experience for their children and had helped 70% with vocabulary development and 66% with listening skills.

  14. Media Literacy in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Perovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few countries in the world have introduced media education into their curriculums. Montenegro became one of them in 2009, when “media literacy” was introduced as an optional subject for 16 and 17 year old students of Gymnasium high schools. This article presents the findings of the first and only research conducted so far on media education in Montenegro. It is a national case study which examines the potential of media education to change the school culture and accelerate education system reform towards embracing the new digital education paradigm in the future. The focus is on the results of research conducted through in-depth interviews with media literacy teachers all over the country. Despite the many challenges, all teachers identify the potential of media education to strengthen some of the key competences of the students and to improve their motivation and academic performance. They also identify potential to change positively school culture by transforming teachers into “cultural mediators” (Morcellini, 2007 and by supporting the formation of a “participative culture” (Jenkins & Kelley, 2013 in schools. This research recommends focusing education reform on spreading the media education pedagogy to the entire curriculum in order to embrace the new digital education paradigm in the future.

  15. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  16. Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) Applications and Item Response Theory Models for Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Eren Can; Demirtasli, R. Nukhet

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to provide a theoretical framework for computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and item response theory models for polytomous items. Besides that, it aims to introduce the simulation and live CAT software to the related researchers. Computerized adaptive test algorithm, assumptions of item response theory models, nominal response…

  17. A Regional and Local Item Response Theory Based Test Item Bank System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Walter; And Others

    This report describes the development, operation, maintenance, and future prospects of the item banks pioneered by the Portland (Oregon) School District. At the time of this report, there were 3,500 mathematics, 2,200 reading, and 2,300 language usage items calibrated under the fixed parameter model of item response theory (IRT) for Grades 3-8.…

  18. The randomly renewed general item and the randomly inspected item with exponential life distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeweiss, W.G.

    1979-01-01

    For a randomly renewed item the probability distributions of the time to failure and of the duration of down time and the expectations of these random variables are determined. Moreover, it is shown that the same theory applies to randomly checked items with exponential probability distribution of life such as electronic items. The case of periodic renewals is treated as an example. (orig.) [de

  19. RIM: A random item mixture model to detect Differential Item Functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederickx, S.; Tuerlinckx, T.; de Boeck, P.; Magis, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting differential item functioning (DIF). We introduce a DIF model, called the random item mixture (RIM), that is based on a Rasch model with random item difficulties (besides the common random person abilities). In addition, a mixture model is

  20. The Generalized Logit-Linear Item Response Model for Binary-Designed Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM), which represents the item-solving process as a series of dichotomous operations or steps. The GLLIRM assumes that the probability function of the item response is a logistic function of a linear composite of basic parameters which describe the operations, and the…

  1. Item Purification in Differential Item Functioning Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    For this dissertation, four item purification procedures were implemented onto the generalized linear mixed model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, and the performance of these item purification procedures was investigated through a series of simulations. Among the four procedures, forward and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)…

  2. Investigating Separate and Concurrent Approaches for Item Parameter Drift in 3PL Item Response Theory Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Bulut, Okan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines separate and concurrent approaches to combine the detection of item parameter drift (IPD) and the estimation of scale transformation coefficients in the context of the common item nonequivalent groups design with the three-parameter item response theory equating. The study uses real and synthetic data sets to compare the two…

  3. Evaluation of information literacy status among medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafkan, Leila; Hayat, Ali Asghar; Abbasi, Karim; Bazrafkan, Aghdas; Rohalamini, Azadeh; Fardid, Mozhgan

    2017-01-01

    The information literacy status and the use of information technology among students in the globalization age of course plans are very momentous. This study aimed to evaluate the information literacy status and use of information technology among medical students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2013. This was a descriptive-analytical study with cross-sectional method. The study population consisted of all medical students (physiopathology, externship and internship) studying at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The sample size (n=310) was selected by systematic random sampling. The tool of data gathering was LASSI questionnaire (assigned by America research association) with 48 closed items in five-point LIKERT scale. The questionnaire included two distinct parts of demographic questions and the information literacy skills based on the standards of information literacy capacities for academic education. The content validity was acquired by professors' and experts' comments. The reliability was also calculated by Cronbach'salpha (0.85). Data were analyzed in both descriptive (frequency- mean) and analytical level (t-test, analysis of variance) using SPSS 14 software. 60.3% of the participants were females, and the remaining (29.7%) were males. The mean score of information literacy and its five subgroups among the students weren't at a desirable level. The mean scores of information literacy for educational grades from the highest to lowest belonged to the internship, physiopathology and externship. The results showed that the highest average was related to the effective access ability to information among interns (9.27±3.57) and the lowest one was related to the ability of understanding legal and economical cases related with using information among externs (3.11±1.32).The results of ANOVA showed that there wasn't a significant difference between educational grades and information literacy. Finally, the result of independent t-test did not show a

  4. Evaluation of information literacy status among medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA BAZRAFKAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The information literacy status and the use of information technology among students in the globalization age of course plans are very momentous. This study aimed to evaluate the information literacy status and use of information technology among medical students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study with crosssectional method. The study population consisted of all medical students (physiopathology, externship and internship studying at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The sample size (n=310 was selected by systematic random sampling. The tool of data gathering was LASSI questionnaire (assigned by America research association with 48 closed items in five-point LIKERT scale. The questionnaire included two distinct parts of demographic questions and the information literacy skills based on the standards of information literacy capacities for academic education. The content validity was acquired by professors’ and experts’ comments. The reliability was also calculated by Cronbach’s alpha (0.85. Data were analyzed in both descriptive (frequency- mean and analytical level (t-test, analysis of variance using SPSS 14 software. Results: 60.3% of the participants were females, and the remaining (29.7% were males. The mean score of information literacy and its five subgroups among the students weren’t at a desirable level. The mean scores of information literacy for educational grades from the highest to lowest belonged to the internship, physiopathology and externship. The results showed that the highest average was related to the effective access ability to information among interns (9.27±3.57 and the lowest one was related to the ability of understanding legal and economical cases related with using information among externs (3.11±1.32. The results of ANOVA showed that there wasn’t a significant difference between educational grades and information literacy

  5. Development of a Short Version of MSQOL-54 Using Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Rosato

    Full Text Available The Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54, 52 items grouped in 12 subscales plus two single items is the most used MS specific health related quality of life inventory.To develop a shortened version of the MSQOL-54.MSQOL-54 dimensionality and metric properties were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and Rasch modelling (Partial Credit Model, PCM on MSQOL-54s completed by 473 MS patients. Their mean age was 41 years, 65% were women, and median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score was 2.0 (range 0-9.5. Differential item functioning (DIF was evaluated for gender, age and EDSS. Dimensionality of the resulting short version was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA and CFA. Cognitive debriefing of the short instrument (vs. the original was then performed on 12 MS patients.CFA of MSQOL-54 subscales showed that the data fitted the overall model well. Two subscales (Role Limitations--Physical, Role Limitations--Emotional did not fit the PCM, and were removed; two other subscales (Health Perceptions, Social Function did not fit the model, but were retained as single items. Sexual Satisfaction (single-item subscale was also removed. The resulting MSQOL-29 consisted of 25 items grouped in 7 subscales, plus 4 single items. PCM fit statistics were within the acceptability range for all MSQOL-29 items except one which had significant DIF by age. EFA and CFA indicated adequate fit to the original two-factor (Physical and Mental Health Composites hypothesis. Cognitive debriefing confirmed that MSQOL-29 was acceptable and had lost no key items.The proposed MSQOL-29 is 50% shorter than MSQOL-54, yet preserves key quality of life dimensions. Prospective validation on a large, independent MS patient sample is ongoing.

  6. National indicators of health literacy: ability to understand health information and to engage actively with healthcare providers - a population-based survey among Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Anne; Friis, Karina; Osborne, Richard H; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2014-10-22

    Health literacy is a multidimensional concept covering a range of cognitive and social skills necessary for participation in health care. Knowledge of health literacy levels in general populations and how health literacy levels impacts on social health inequity is lacking. The primary aim of this study was to perform a population-based assessment of dimensions of health literacy related to understanding health information and to engaging with healthcare providers. Secondly, the aim was to examine associations between socio-economic characteristics with these dimensions of health literacy. A population-based survey was conducted between January and April 2013 in the Central Denmark Region. Postal invitations were sent to a random sample of 46,354 individuals >25 years of age. Two health literacy dimensions were selected from the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ™): i) Understanding health information well enough to know what to do (5 items), and ii) Ability to actively engage with health care providers (5 items). Response options ranged from 1 (very difficult) to 4 (very easy). We investigated the level of perceived difficulty of each task, and the associations between the two dimensions and socio-economic characteristics. A total of 29,473 (63.6%) responded to the survey. Between 8.8%, 95% CI: 8.4-9.2 and 20.2%, 95% CI: 19.6-20.8 of the general population perceived the health literacy tasks as difficult or very difficult at the individual item level. On the scale level, the mean rating for i) understanding health information was 3.10, 95% CI: 3.09-3.10, and 3.07, 95% CI: 3.07-3.08 for ii) engagement with health care providers. Low levels of the two dimensions were associated with low income, low education level, living alone, and to non-Danish ethnicity. Associations with sex and age differed by the specific health literacy dimension. Estimates on two key dimensions of health literacy in a general population are now available. A substantial proportion of the

  7. Literacy competence based on fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    tool towards children's general Bildung and more specific development of literacy competence in the first years of school, in 2007 we carried out an investigation about fiction as a part of mother-tongue teaching and the process of children's learning to read. Via the investigation and general studies...... we want to get more knowledge ablout following questions:   How to define fiction which holds a personal and language "Bildung"? How to define the importance of fiction related to children's literacy competence? What kind of fiction do teachers use? How do teachers mediate fiction, how and in what...... extend do teachers make use of drawing and play activities? How to find a balance between to maintain the aesthetical and narrative methods and expressions AND gaining a literacy competence?   This paper has focus on the fourth question....

  8. Researching literacy practices in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    Researching literacy practices in transition Postmodern societies are characterized by constant, fast and unpredictable mobility of people, goods, ideas and values. These mobilities are often visualized as a movement from one place to another, as a temporary interference of the stability of fixed...... places. An alternative take on mobilty sees movement as the default and change as the normal way of being rather than the exception (Barton, 2012). This understanding of change is central to the framing concept of this symposium: transition. Transitional processes around literacy are significant because...... literacy is something that is taught and learned, that is adopted, transformed and appropriated and that is used to categorize and classify people (Holm & Pitkänen-Huhta, 2012). Based on detailed empirical studies in the Nordic countries, the aim of this symposium is to discuss how to explore and research...

  9. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R; Mitchell, Olivia S; Soo, Cindy K; Bravo, David

    2012-05-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs.

  10. Enhance Environmental Literacy through Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriasari, L. K.; Supriatna, N.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to improve environmental literacy elementary school students in Bandung. The design of this study used a classroom action research consisting of four stages, planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The results showed that there was an increase in the students’ environmental literacy. The conclusion of this research is that students’ environmental literacy can be improved through classroom learning by applying Problem Based Learning model. Learning planning is important which includes analysis of environmental literacy component and learning model that is used, Problem Based Learning, so that learning can run effectively, efficiently, and get maximum result. Efforts to improve environmental literacy should be sustainable.

  11. Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R. Agnew

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial literacy and numeracy are closely tied. Furthermore, financial literacy has been shown to relate to important financial behaviors. This study examines the relationship between financial literacy and retirement planning using a measure that includes questions requiring numeracy. We implement a customized survey to a representative sample of 1,024 Australians. Overall, we find aggregate levels of financial literacy similar to comparable countries with the young, least educated, those not employed, and those not in the labor force most at risk. Our financial literacy measure is positively related to retirement planning in our sample.

  12. Linking Existing Instruments to Develop an Activity of Daily Living Item Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Bonilha, Heather S; Simpson, Kit N; Simpson, Annie N; Hong, Ickpyo; Velozo, Craig A

    2018-03-01

    This study examined dimensionality and item-level psychometric properties of an item bank measuring activities of daily living (ADL) across inpatient rehabilitation facilities and community living centers. Common person equating method was used in the retrospective veterans data set. This study examined dimensionality, model fit, local independence, and monotonicity using factor analyses and fit statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and differential item functioning (DIF) using Rasch analysis. Following the elimination of invalid data, 371 veterans who completed both the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and minimum data set (MDS) within 6 days were retained. The FIM-MDS item bank demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .98) and met three rating scale diagnostic criteria and three of the four model fit statistics (comparative fit index/Tucker-Lewis index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.14, and standardized root mean residual = 0.07). PCA of Rasch residuals showed the item bank explained 94.2% variance. The item bank covered the range of θ from -1.50 to 1.26 (item), -3.57 to 4.21 (person) with person strata of 6.3. The findings indicated the ADL physical function item bank constructed from FIM and MDS measured a single latent trait with overall acceptable item-level psychometric properties, suggesting that it is an appropriate source for developing efficient test forms such as short forms and computerized adaptive tests.

  13. Association of Health Literacy With Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jesse P; Edwards, Gretchen C; Goggins, Kathryn; Tiwari, Vikram; Maiga, Amelia; Moses, Kelvin; Kripalani, Sunil; Idrees, Kamran

    2018-02-01

    Low health literacy is known to adversely affect health outcomes in patients with chronic medical conditions. To our knowledge, the association of health literacy with postoperative outcomes has not been studied in-depth in a surgical patient population. To evaluate the association of health literacy with postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. From November 2010 to December 2013, 1239 patients who were undergoing elective gastric, colorectal, hepatic, and pancreatic resections for both benign and malignant disease at a single academic institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, education, insurance status, procedure type, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, Charlson comorbidity index, and postoperative outcomes, including length of stay, emergency department visits, and hospital readmissions, were reviewed from electronic medical records. Health literacy levels were assessed using the Brief Health Literacy Screen, a validated tool that was administered by nursing staff members on hospital admission. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association of health literacy levels on postoperative outcomes, controlling for patient demographics and clinical characteristics. The association of health literacy with postoperative 30-day emergency department visits, 90-day hospital readmissions, and index hospitalization length of stay. Of the 1239 patients who participated in this study, 624 (50.4%) were women, 1083 (87.4%) where white, 96 (7.7%) were black, and 60 (4.8%) were of other race/ethnicity. The mean (SD) Brief Health Literacy Screen score was 12.9 (SD, 2.75; range, 3-15) and the median educational attainment was 13.0 years. Patients with lower health literacy levels had a longer length of stay in unadjusted (95% CI, 0.95-0.99; P = .004) and adjusted (95% CI, 0.03-0.26; P = .02) analyses. However, lower health literacy was not significantly associated with increased rates of 30-day

  14. eHealth Literacy Skills Among Undergraduate Nursing Students in the U.S. and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Park, Hyunmi

    2016-01-01

    Online health information is a critical resource for health consumers. Nursing professionals need to be eHealth literate to support patients and their families. The purpose of the study was to explore eHealth literacy skills among undergraduate nursing students in the U.S. and South Korea. One hundred and sixty-nine undergraduate nursing students in two universities, one in the southern area of the U.S. and one in the eastern area of South Korea, participated. Participants were asked to complete the eHealth Literacy Scale. The majority of participants perceived that the Internet is a useful or very useful tool in helping them make health-related decisions. The participants either agreed or strongly agreed with the 7 items of the eHealth literacy scale except an item such as they can call high to low quality of online health information. The U.S students have higher mean scores of all eHealth literacy items than students of South Korea.

  15. Individuals with chronic low back pain have greater difficulty in engaging in positive lifestyle behaviours than those without back pain: An assessment of health literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnett Angus F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the large volume of research dedicated to understanding chronic low back pain (CLBP, patient outcomes remain modest while healthcare costs continue to rise, creating a major public health burden. Health literacy - the ability to seek, understand and utilise health information - has been identified as an important factor in the course of other chronic conditions and may be important in the aetiology of CLBP. Many of the currently available health literacy measurement tools are limited since they measure narrow aspects of health literacy. The Health Literacy Measurement Scale (HeLMS was developed recently to measure broader elements of health literacy. The aim of this study was to measure broad elements of health literacy among individuals with CLBP and without LBP using the HeLMS. Methods Thirty-six community-dwelling adults with CLBP and 44 with no history of LBP responded to the HeLMS. Individuals were recruited as part of a larger community-based spinal health study in Western Australia. Scores for the eight domains of the HeLMS as well as individual item responses were compared between the groups. Results HeLMS scores were similar between individuals with and without CLBP for seven of the eight health literacy domains (p > 0.05. However, compared to individuals with no history of LBP, those with CLBP had a significantly lower score in the domain 'Patient attitudes towards their health' (mean difference [95% CI]: 0.46 [0.11-0.82] and significantly lower scores for each of the individual items within this domain (p d = 0.47-0.65. Conclusions Although no differences were identified in HeLMS scores between the groups for seven of the health literacy domains, adults with CLBP reported greater difficulty in engaging in general positive health behaviours. This aspect of health literacy suggests that self-management support initiatives may benefit individuals with CLBP.

  16. Developing a Geoscience Literacy Exam: Pushing Geoscience Literacy Assessment to New Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, E. A.; Steer, D. N.; Manduca, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    InTeGrate is a community effort aimed at improving geoscience literacy and building a workforce that can use geoscience to solve societal issues. As part of this work we have developed a geoscience literacy assessment instrument to measure students' higher order thinking. This assessment is an important part of the development of curricula designed to increase geoscience literacy for all undergraduate students. To this end, we developed the Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) as one of the tools to quantify the effectiveness of these materials on students' understandings of geoscience literacy. The InTeGrate project is a 5-year, NSF-funded STEP Center grant in its first year of funding. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The GLE instrument addresses content and concepts in the Earth, Climate, and Ocean Science literacy documents. The testing schema is organized into three levels of increasing complexity. Level 1 questions are single answer, understanding- or application-level multiple choice questions. For example, selecting which type of energy transfer is most responsible for the movement of tectonic plates. They are designed such that most introductory level students should be able to correctly answer after taking an introductory geoscience course. Level 2 questions are more advanced multiple answer/matching questions, at the understanding- through analysis-level. Students might be asked to determine the types of earth-atmosphere interactions that could result in changes to global temperatures in the event of a major volcanic eruption. Because the answers are more complicated, some introductory students and most advanced students should be able to respond correctly. Level 3 questions are analyzing- to evaluating-level short essays, such as describe the ways in which the atmosphere sustains life on Earth. These questions are designed such that introductory students could probably formulate a rudimentary response

  17. The measurement of tritium in Canadian food items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    Food items locally grown near Perth, Ontario and grocery store produce and locally grown items from the Pickering-Ajax area in the vicinity of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) have been analyzed for free water tritium (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT). The technique of measuring 3 He ingrowth in samples by mass spectrometry has been used because of its sensitivity and freedom from opportunity for contamination during processing and measurement. Concentrations observed at each site were of the order expected on the basis of known levels of tritium in the local atmosphere and precipitation. There was considerable variation between different materials and limited correlation between materials of a single type. (author). 10 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Forskerklummen: Figured Worlds of literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    ”Figured worlds”, altså forestillede verdener, er et teoretisk begreb, som i øjeblikket dukker op i flere og flere forskningssammenhænge. Det bliver anvendt på mange forskellige måder både inden for uddannelsesforskning og i forskning i literacy.......”Figured worlds”, altså forestillede verdener, er et teoretisk begreb, som i øjeblikket dukker op i flere og flere forskningssammenhænge. Det bliver anvendt på mange forskellige måder både inden for uddannelsesforskning og i forskning i literacy....

  19. Self-reported eHealth literacy among undergraduate nursing students in South Korea: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Lee, Eunjoo

    2015-02-01

    With the Internet being the preferred primary source for information seekers, 9 out of 10 Internet users report that they have looked online for health information in South Korea. Nurses as well as nursing students need to be knowledgeable about online health information resources and able to evaluate relevant information online in order to assist patients and patients' families' access. The purpose of the study was to assess eHealth literacy among undergraduate nursing students in South Korea. The specific aims were to: 1) identify the self-reported eHealth literacy levels, and 2) determine differences in levels of eHealth literacy between pre-nursing and nursing students. This study used a descriptive comparison design. One hundred and seventy-six undergraduate nursing students in South Korea participated. Participants were asked to complete the eHealth Literacy Scale. Collected data were analyzed using a descriptive statistical method and t-tests. Participants responded that the Internet is a useful or very useful tool in helping them make health-related decisions. Furthermore, participants felt that it is important to be able to access health resources on the Internet. The majority of the participants either agreed or strongly agreed that they felt comfortable using the Internet with awareness of what information is available and of their skill to find information. Only a few respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they had the ability to differentiate between a high quality and a low quality health resource on the Internet. Students enrolled in nursing scored higher means in all eHealth literacy items than students enrolled in pre-nursing. Six out of ten eHealth literacy items showed significant differences between two groups. Findings from this study provide fundamental data for education administrators and educators to begin supporting students with appropriate education programs to enhance their eHealth literacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Measuring health literacy in Asia: Validation of the HLS-EU-Q47 survey tool in six Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyen V. Duong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health literacy has been increasingly recognized as one of the most important social determinants for health. However, an appropriate and comprehensive assessment tool is not available in many Asian countries. This study validates a comprehensive health literacy survey tool European health literacy questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47 for the general public in several Asian countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey based on multistage random sampling in the target countries. A total of 10,024 participants aged ≥15 years were recruited during 2013–2014 in Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Taiwan, and Vietnam. The questionnaire was translated into local languages to measure general health literacy and its three domains. To evaluate the validity of the tool in these countries, data were analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency analysis, and regression analysis. Results: The questionnaire was shown to have good construct validity, satisfactory goodness-of-fit of the data to the hypothetical model in three health literacy domains, high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.90, satisfactory item-scale convergent validity (item-scale correlation ≥0.40, and no floor/ceiling effects in these countries. General health literacy index score was significantly associated with level of education (P from <0.001 to 0.011 and perceived social status (P from <0.001 to 0.016, with evidence of known-group validity. Conclusions: The HLS-EU-Q47 was a satisfactory and comprehensive health literacy survey tool for use in Asia.