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Sample records for single isophthalic acid

  1. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liquid crystals; banana-shaped compounds; isophthalic acids; X-ray diffraction. Abstract. In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several ...

  2. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core ...

  3. Conformational, electronic, and spectroscopic characterization of isophthalic acid (monomer and dimer structures) experimentally and by DFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardak, F; Karaca, C; Bilgili, S; Atac, A; Mavis, T; Asiri, A M; Karabacak, M; Kose, E

    2016-08-05

    Isophthalic acid (C6H4(CO2H)2) is a noteworthy organic compound widely used in coating and synthesis of resins and the production of commercially important polymers such as drink plastic bottles. The effects of isophthalic acid (IPA) on human health, toxicology, and biodegradability are the main focus of many researchers. Because structural and spectroscopic investigation of molecules provides a deep understanding of interactional behaviors of compounds, this study stands for exploring those features. Therefore, the spectroscopic, structural, electronic, and thermodynamical properties of IPA were thoroughly studied in this work experimentally using UV-Vis, (1)H and (13)C NMR, FT-IR, FT-Raman and theoretically via DFT and TD-DFT calculations. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum in water was taken in the region 200-400nm. The NMR chemical shifts ((1)H and (13)C) were recorded in DMSO solution. The infrared and Raman spectra of the solid IPA were recorded in the range of 4000-400cm(-1) and 3500-50cm(-1), respectively. DFT and TD-DFT calculations were performed at the level of B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) in determination of geometrical structure, electronic structure analysis and normal mode. The (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were estimated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method was used to determine the total energy distribution (TED) to assign the vibrational modes accurately. Weak interactions such as hydrogen bonding and Van der Walls were analyzed via reduced density gradient (RDG) analysis in monomeric and dimeric forms. Furthermore, the excitation energies, density of state (DOS) diagram, thermodynamical properties, molecular electro-static potential (MEP), and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adenin-1-ium hydrogen isophthalate dimethylformamide monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandavasi Koteswara Rao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title proton-transfer organic salt, C5H6.3N5+·C8H4.7O4−·C3H7NO, the adeninium moiety is protonated at the N atom in the 1-position of the 6-amino-7H-purin-1-ium (adeninium cation. In the solid state, the second acidic proton of isophthalic acid is partially transferred to the imidazole N atom of the adeninium cation [refined O—H versus N—H ratio = 0.70 (11:0.30 (11]. Through the partially transferred proton, the adeninium cation is strongly hydrogen bonded (N—H...O/O—H...N to the isophthalate anion. This strong interaction is assisted by another N—H...O hydrogen bond originating from the adeninium NH2 group towards the isophthalate keto O atom, with an R22(8 graph-set motif. This arrangement is linked via N—H...O hydrogen bonds to the O atoms of the carboxylate group of an isophthalate anion. Together, these hydrogen bonds lead to the formation criss-cross zigzag isophthalate...adeninium chains lying parallel to (501 and (50-1. The adeninium cations and the isophthalate anions are arranged in infinite π stacks that extend along the c-axis direction [interplanar distance = 3.305 (3 Å]. Molecules are inclined with respect to this direction and within the stacks they are offset by ca. half a molecule each. Combination of the N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds with the π–π interactions forms infinitely stacked isophthalate...adeninium chains, thus leading to a two-dimensional supramolecular structure with parallel interdigitating layers formed by the π stacked isophthalate...adeninium chains. The DMF molecules of crystallization are bonded to the adeninium cations through strong N—H...O hydrogen bonds and project into the lattice space in between the anions and cations. There are also C—H...O hydrogen bonds present which, combined with the other interactions, form a three-dimensional network. The crystal under investigation was found to be split and was handled as if non-merohedrally twinned.

  5. Effect of pendant isophthalic acid moieties on the adsorption properties of light hydrocarbons in HKUST-1-like tbo -MOFs: Application to methane purification and storage

    KAUST Repository

    Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium adsorption of methane (CH4), C2+ gases (ethane (C2H6), ethylene (C2H4), propane (C3H8), and propylene (C3H6)), and carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured on a series of tbo-MOFs (topological analogues of the prototypical MOF, HKUST-1, correspondingly dubbed tbo-MOF-1), which were developed via the supermolecular building layer (SBL) pillaring strategy. Specifically, tbo-MOF-2 and its isoreticular, functionalized analogue, tbo-MOF-2-{CH2O[Ph(CO2H)2]}2 (or tbo-MOF-3), which is characterized by pendant isophthalic acid moieties freely pointing into the cavities, were evaluated on the basis of potential use in methane storage and C2+/CH4 separation. The parent, tbo-MOF-2, showed high gravimetric and volumetric CH4 uptake, close to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target for methane storage at 35 bar and room temperature. Though the presence of the pendant isophthalic acid moiety in the analogous compound, tbo-MOF-3, led to a decrease in total CH4 uptake, due mainly to the reduced size of the cavities, interestingly, it increased the affinity of the SBL-based tbo-MOF platform for propane, propene, ethane, and ethylene at low pressures compared with CH4, due additionally to the enhanced interactions of the highly polarizable light hydrocarbons with the isophthalic acid moiety. Using Ideal Adsorption Solution Theory (IAST), the predicted mixture adsorption equilibria for the C3H8/CH4, C3H6/CH4, C2H6/CH4, C2H4/CH4, and C3H8/CO2 systems showed high adsorption selectivity for C2+ over methane for tbo-MOF-3 compared with tbo-MOF-2. The high working storage capacity of tbo-MOF-2 and the high affinity of tbo-MOF-3 for C2+ over CH4 and CO2 make tbo-MOF an ideal platform for studies in gas storage and separation.

  6. A series of coordination polymers constructed from R-isophthalic acid (R=–SO{sub 3}H, –NO{sub 2}, and –OH) and N-donor ligands: Syntheses, structures and fluorescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yong-Hong, E-mail: zhou21921@sina.com [School of Chemistry and Material Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000 (China); Zhou, Xu-Wan; Zhou, Su-Rong [School of Chemistry and Material Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000 (China); Tian, Yu-Peng; Wu, Jie-Ying [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Six novel Zn(II), Cd(II), and Cu(II) mixed-ligand coordination complexes, namely, [Zn{sub 2}Na(sip){sub 2}(bpp){sub 3}(Hbpp)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·8H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd{sub 3}(sip){sub 2}(nbi){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·7H{sub 2}O (2), [Zn(sip)(nbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]·Hnbi·3H{sub 2}O (3), [Cd(hip)(nbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]·nbi·5H{sub 2}O (4), [Cd{sub 2}(nip){sub 2}(nbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·DMF (5), and [Cu(nip)(nbi)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O (6) (H{sub 3}sip=5-sulfoisophthalic acid, H{sub 2}hip=5-hydroxylisophthalic acid, H{sub 2}nip=5-nitroisophthalic acid, bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane, and nbi=6-nitrobenzimidazole) have been synthesized hydrothermally by the self-assembly of R-isophthalic acid (R=–SO{sub 3}H, –NO{sub 2}, and –OH) and N-donor ligands. Single crystal X-ray analyses reveal that two Zn(II) ions and one Na(I) ion of complex 1 are linked through O atoms to generate a 1D linear chain. Then the 2D supramolecular architectures are constructed via intermolecular interactions. In complex 2, the Cd1 ions are connected by bridging carboxyl groups from sip{sup 3−} anions to form 1D double chain, which are further connected by Cd2 ions to afford 2D layer structure. The adjacent 2D layers are further linked via hydrogen-bonding interactions to give 3D supramolecular network. Compounds 3–5 show 1D chain structures, which are assembled into 2D or 3D supramolecular frameworks via weak interactions. In compound 6, the Cu(II) ions are bridged by the nip{sup 2−} ligands to form 48-membered ring, which is assembled into 1Dchain via the π-π stacking interaction. In addition, the thermal stabilities and fluorescence properties of these compounds have also been studied. - Graphical abstract: A series of Cd(II)/Zn(II)/ Cu(II) coordination polymers based on R-isophthalic acid (R=–SO{sub 3}H, –NO{sub 2}, and –OH) and N-donor ligands have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized. Photoluminescent properties

  7. Four coordination polymers based on 5-tert-butyl isophthalic acid and rigid bis(imidazol-1yl)benzene linkers: Synthesis, luminescence detection of acetone and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arıcı, Mürsel, E-mail: marici@ogu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Zafer Yeşilel, Okan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Büyükgüngör, Orhan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    methanol could be used as a fluorescent sensor for the detection of acetone. Moreover, thermal and optical properties of the complexes were also studied. - Highlights: • Four new 2D and 3D coordination polymers with 5-tert-butyl isophthalic acid and rigid bis(imidazol-1yl)benzene linkers. • The structural diversity depending on ligands and coordination number of metal centers. • Fluorescent sensor for the detection of acetone.

  8. Solvothermal synthesis and structure of coordination polymers of Nd(III) and Dy(III) with rigid isophthalic acid derivatives and flexible adipic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariem, Mukaddus; Kumar, Manesh; Yawer, Mohd; Sheikh, Haq Nawaz

    2017-12-01

    Two new coordination polymers (CPs) with the formula [Nd(hip)(adip) 0.5(H2O)2]n.nH2O (1) and [Dy(aip)(adip)0.5(H2O)2]n.nH2O (2) were synthesized by self-assembly of lanthanide salts with rigid [5-hydroxyisophthalic acid (H2hip)], [5-aminoisophthalic acid (H2aip)] and flexible [adipic acid (H2adip)] linkers under solvothermal conditions. The CPs 1 &2 crystallize in monoclinic C2/c space group. Both the CPs have 1D linear ladder shaped extension with the linkages having the backbone of hip2-, aip2- and adip2- ligands. The 1D linear ladder chains generate three dimensional (3D) supramolecular frameworks via significant π-π and hydrogen bonding interactions. The CP 2 (Dy) emit strong ligand sensitized characteristic f-f luminescence emission. The CP 2 also exhibit weak ferromagnetic interactions at low temperatures.

  9. Syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties of Zn(Ⅱ)/Co(Ⅱ) coordination polymers based on flexible tetracarboxylate ligand of 5,5′-(butane-1,4-diyl)-bis(oxy)-di isophthalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yan-Peng [Inner Mongolia Key Lab Chem & Phys Rare Earth Mat, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ordos College of Inner Mongolia University, Ordos 017000 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ordos Applied Technology College, Ordos 017000 (China); Guo, Le [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ordos College of Inner Mongolia University, Ordos 017000 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ordos Applied Technology College, Ordos 017000 (China); Dong, Wei; Jia, Min; Zhang, Jing-Xue; Sun, Zhong [Inner Mongolia Key Lab Chem & Phys Rare Earth Mat, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Chang, Fei, E-mail: ndchfei@imu.edu.cn [Inner Mongolia Key Lab Chem & Phys Rare Earth Mat, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Three new mixed-ligand metal-organic frameworks based on 5,5′-(butane-1,4- diyl)-bis(oxy)-diisophthalic acid and transitional metal cations with the help of two ancillary bridging N-donor pyridyl and imidazole linkers, [Zn(L){sub 0.5}(4,4′-bpy)]·2(H{sub 2}O) (1), [M(L){sub 0.5}(bib)]·4(H{sub 2}O) (M = Zn (2), Co (3)), (4,4′-bpy=4,4′–bipyridine, bib=1,4-bis (1H-imidazol-1-yl)-butane), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. Their structures and properties were determined by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses, IR spectra, elemental analyses and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Compounds 1–3 display a 3D 3-fold interpenetrated frameworks linked by the L{sup 4−} ligands, ancillary N-donor linkers and the free water molecules in the crystal lattice. Topological analysis reveals that 1–3 are a (4,4)-connected bbf topology net with the (6{sup 4}·8{sup 2})(6{sup 6}) topology. The effects of the L{sup 4−} anions, the N-donor ligands, and the metal ions on the structures of the coordination polymers have been discussed. Furthermore, luminescence properties and thermogravimetric properties of these compounds were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Three new compounds of MOFs have been prepared and characterized. The luminescence properties and thermogravimetric properties of compounds were investigated. Display Omitted.

  10. Gas adsorption and structural diversity in a family of Cu(II) pyridyl-isophthalate metal–organic framework materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jamie A.; Athwal, Harprit Singh; Blake, Alexander J.; Lewis, William; Hubberstey, Peter; Schröder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    A family of Cu(II)-based metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized using three pyridyl-isophthalate ligands, H2L1 (4′-(pyridin-4-yl)biphenyl-3,5-dicarboxylic acid), H2L2 (4′′-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl-3,5-dicarboxylic acid) and H2L3 (5-[4-(pyridin-4-yl)naphthalen-1-yl]benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid). Although in each case the pyridyl-isophthalate ligands adopt the same pseudo-octahedral [Cu2(O2CR)4N2] paddlewheel coordination modes, the resulting frameworks are structurally diverse, particularly in the case of the complex of Cu(II) with H2L3, which leads to three distinct supramolecular isomers, each derived from Kagomé and square nets. In contrast to [Cu(L2)] and the isomers of [Cu(L3)], [Cu(L1)] exhibits permanent porosity. Thus, the gas adsorption properties of [Cu(L1)] were investigated with N2, CO2 and H2, and the material exhibits an isosteric heat of adsorption competitive with leading MOF sorbents for CO2. [Cu(L1)] displays high H2 adsorption, with the density in the pores approaching that of liquid H2. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Coordination polymers and metal–organic frameworks: materials by design’. PMID:27895262

  11. Solvothermal synthesis of tetravalent uranium with isophthalate or pyromellitate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falaise, Clement; Delille, Jason; Volkringer, Christophe; Loiseau, Thierry [Contribution from Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide (UCCS) - UMR CNRS 8181, Universite de Lille, USTL-ENSCL, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2015-06-15

    Three new coordination polymers bearing tetravalent uranium have been isolated with the O-donor ligands such as isophthalate (1,3-bdc) or pyromellitate (btec). The compounds 1 and 3 have been solvothermally synthesized in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The crystal structure of U(1,3-bdc){sub 2}(DMF) (1) is built up from discrete tricapped trigonal-primastic UO{sub 9} units, for which one carbonyl oxygen atom from DMF is bound to uranium. The connection of the UO{sub 9} units with the isophthalate linkers occurs in a chelating and bidentate fashion and gives rise to the formation of a 3D framework, delimiting narrow channels running along the [101] direction. Upon heating, the DMF molecules are removed, generating the second phase U(1,3-bdc){sub 2} (2) compound, closely related to 1. Indeed, the coordination environment of uranium is reduced to eight with a distorted square-antiprismatic geometry. This transition induces the relative shrinkage of the network (ΔV = 23 %). The structure of the compound U(btec)(DMF){sub 2} (3) also exhibits a 3D framework composed of an isolated bicapped square-antiprismatic UO{sub 10} unit, for which two carbonyl oxygen atoms from DMF are bonded to uranium. Pyromellitate ensures the connection of the UO{sub 10} units through the carboxylate arms in a chelating mode. This results in the formation of a network with diamond-shaped channels, developed along the c axis and encapsulating the DMF molecules. In contrast to 1, no stable phase is observed upon removing the DMF species by heating. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carboxylate groups, presence of a sulphur atom and of a fluorine substituent in meta posi- tion of the outer rings) result in a large number of possible conformations. 2.3 Influence of lateral substituent on the central ring Y2 or Y4. Resorcinol-based banana-shaped molecules are very sensitive to the introduction of sub-.

  13. Crystal structure of 5-[(4-carboxybenzyloxy]isophthalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Serajul Haque Faizi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular shape of the title compound, C16H12O7, is bent around the central CH2—O bond. The two benzene rings are almost perpendicular to one another, making a dihedral angle of 87.78 (7°. In the crystal, each molecule is linked to three others by three pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming undulating sheets parallel to the bc plane and enclosing R22(8 ring motifs. The sheets are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions, forming a three-dimensional network.

  14. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain cultures of lactobacilli and mixed culture starter made from them. KiBeom Lee1*, Ho-Jin Kim1 and Sang-Kyu Park2. 1Bio Center Technopark, 7-50 Songdo, Yeonsu-Gu, Incheon 406-840, Republic of Korea. 2Nambu University, Chumdan ...

  15. Synthesis of Aromatic Polyester (Polyarylate) by Removal of Phenol from Condenatin Polymerization of Bisphenol A and Diphenyl Terephthalate/Isophthalate Mixtures; Bisufenoru A to jifeniruterefutarato/isofutarato kongobutsu tono jushukugo ni yoru hokozoku poriesuteru(poriarireto) no gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Takashi. [Asahi CHemical Industry Crop., Okayama (Japan). Chemicals and Plastics Deveopment Laboratory; Kinoshita, Takashi,; Masamoto, Junzo. [Kyoto Institute of Tecnology, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Polymer Science and Engineering

    1999-01-10

    Industrially avaiable poly (bisphenol A arenedicarboxylate) Npolyarylate) is conventionally produced by the omterfacial condensation polymerization of bisphenol A and the mixture of terephthaloyl/isophthaloyl chlorides. We now report a new synthetic method without using the acid chloride derivatives, and the synthesis of oligomeric arenedicarboxylate by the melt condensation polymerization of bisphenol A and diphenyl terephthalte/isophthalate (mole ratio of reactants is 1/0.5/0.5). By removal of phenol from the reaction mixture, we obtained oligomeric ester, which can be changed to a high molecular weight polyester in the subsequent reactions. This report discussed the kenetics of the melt condensation of bisphenol A and diphenyl terephthalate/isophthalate mixtures. The melt condensation polymerization of bisphenol A and diphenyl terephthalate/isophthalate was analyzed by the bimolecular reaction of -OH and a phenyl ester. The activation energy was estimated to be 32.2 kcal/mol. The relationships between the reduced viscosity and molecular weight was estimated and the following experimental equation was obtained; {eta}{sub sp}/C=7.46x10{sup -5}M{sup 0.83}{sub w}. Polymer was analyzed by {sup 1}H-NMR, and the ratio of the end group of the hydroxy group to phenyl ester group was determined. FD-MS suggested four types of oligomeric ester end groups: phenyl-hydroxy, hydroxy-hydroxy, and cyclic. (author)

  16. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L. salivarius alone showed relatively good assimilation of various amino acids that existed at only a little amounts in MRS media (Asn, Asp, Cit, Cys, Glu, His, Lys, Orn, Phe, Pro, Tyr, Arg, Ile, Leu, Met, Ser, Thr, Trp and Val), whereas Ala and Gly accumulated in L. salivarius cultures. P. acidilactici, in contrast, hydrolyzed the ...

  17. Silicon Dioxide Thin Film Mediated Single Cell Nucleic Acid Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Evgeny; Dominova, Irina; Shusharina, Natalia; Botman, Stepan; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Patrushev, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    A limited amount of DNA extracted from single cells, and the development of single cell diagnostics make it necessary to create a new highly effective method for the single cells nucleic acids isolation. In this paper, we propose the DNA isolation method from biomaterials with limited DNA quantity in sample, and from samples with degradable DNA based on the use of solid-phase adsorbent silicon dioxide nanofilm deposited on the inner surface of PCR tube. PMID:23874571

  18. Detection of anomalies in NLO sulphamic acid single crystals by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ultrasonic pulse echo overlap technique (PEO) has been used to measure the velocities of 10 MHz acoustic waves in sulphamic acid single crystals in the range of 300–400 K. This study evaluated all the elastic stiffnessconstants, compliance constants and Poisson's ratios of the crystal. The temperature variations of the ...

  19. ESR Study on Irradiated Ascorbic Acid Single Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuner, H.; Korkmaz, M.

    2007-01-01

    Food irradiation is a 'cold' process for preserving food and has been established as a safe and effective method of food processing and preservation after more than five decades of research and development. The small temperature increase, absence of residue and effectiveness of treatment of pre-packed food are the main advantages. In food industry, ascorbic acid and its derivatives are frequently used as antioxidant agents. However, irradiation is expected to produces changes in the molecules of food components and of course in the molecules of the agents added as preservation agents such as ascorbic acid. These changes in the molecular structures could cause decreases in the antioxidant actions of these agents. Therefore, the radiation resistance of these agents must be known to determine the amount of radiation dose to be delivered. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is one of the leading methods for identification of intermediates produced after irradiation. ESR spectrum of irradiated solid powder of ascorbic acid is fairly complex and determinations of involved radical species are difficult. In the present work, single crystals of ascorbic acid irradiated by gamma radiation are used to determine molecular structures of radiation induced radicalic species and four radicalic species related in pair with P21 crystal symmetry are found to be responsible from experimental ESR spectrum of gamma irradiated single crystal of ascorbic acid

  20. Theoretical Investigation on the Solubilization in Water of Functionalized Single-Wall Carbon Nano tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mananghaya, M.; Rodulfo, E.; Santos, G.N.; Villagracia, A.; Mananghaya, M.

    2012-01-01

    An important technique to increase the solubility and reactivity of carbon nano tube is through functionalization. In this study, the effects of functionalization of some single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNTs) were investigated with the aid of density functional theory. The SWCNT model used in the study consists of a finite, (5, 0) zigzag nano tube segment containing 60 C atoms with hydrogen atoms added to the dangling bonds of the perimeter carbons. There are three water-dispersible SWCNTs used in this study that were functionalized with (a) formic acid, as a model of carboxylic acid, (b) isophthalic acid, as a model aromatic dicarboxylic acid, and (c) benzenesulfonic acid, as a model aromatic sulfonic acid. Binding energies of the organic radicals to the nano tubes are calculated, as well as the HOMO-LUMO gaps and dipole moments of both nano tubes and functionalized nano tubes. Binding was found out to be thermodynamically favorable. The functionalization increases the electrical dipole moments and results in an enhancement in the solubility of the nano tubes in water manifested through favorable changes in the free energies of solvation. This should lower the toxicity of nano tubes and improve their biocompatibility.

  1. 21 CFR 177.1345 - Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate/ terephthalate copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1345... polymers complying with § 177.1630. (a) Identity. For the purpose of this section, ethylene/1,3-phenylene...

  2. Synthesis, crystal structures, luminescence properties of two metal coordination polymers derived from 5-substituted isophthalate and flexible bis (triazole) ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Chun-lun; Wang, Li-na; Van Hecke, Kristof; Cui, Guang-hua

    2014-08-14

    Two new metal complexes, [Ni(btx)(nip)(H2O)]n (1), {[Cd(btx)(mip)(H2O)]·H2O}n (2) (btx=1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene, H2nip=5-nitroisophthalic acid, H2mip=5-methyisophthalic acid) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods, IR spectroscopy, TGA and elemental analysis. Complex 1 features a 3D metal-organic framework with three-fold interpenetrating CdSO4-type topology. Complex 2 exhibits a 2D network with square grid units, which is further extended into a rare 3,5T1 three-dimensional supramolecular network via three modes of classical OH⋯O hydrogen bonds. In addition, luminescence properties of 1 and 2 have also been investigated in the solid state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Single-Molecule Studies of Hyaluronic Acid Conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes-Gold, Sarah; Berezney, John; Saleh, Omar

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a charged linear polysaccharide abundant in extracellular spaces. Its solution conformation and mechanical properties help define the environment outside of cells, play key roles in cell motility and adhesion processes, and are of interest for the development of HA biomaterials. Intra-chain hydrogen bonds and electrostatic repulsion contribute to HAs physical structure, but the nature of this structure, as well as its dependence on solution electrostatics, are not well-understood. To address this problem, we have investigated HA conformation and mechanical properties under a range of solution conditions systematically designed to affect charge screening or hydrogen bonding. We used magnetic tweezers to apply biological-scale stretching forces to individual HA chains under varying solution conditions.

  4. The Impact of Single Amino Acids on Growth and Volatile Aroma Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Fairbairn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen availability and utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae significantly influence fermentation kinetics and the production of volatile compounds important for wine aroma. Amino acids are the most important nitrogen source and have been classified based on how well they support growth. This study evaluated the effect of single amino acids on growth kinetics and major volatile production of two phenotypically different commercial wine yeast strains in synthetic grape must. Four growth parameters, lag phase, maximum growth rate, total biomass formation and time to complete fermentation were evaluated. In contrast with previous findings, in fermentative conditions, phenylalanine and valine supported growth well and asparagine supported it poorly. The four parameters showed good correlations for most amino acid treatments, with some notable exceptions. Single amino acid treatments resulted in the predictable production of aromatic compounds, with a linear correlation between amino acid concentration and the concentration of aromatic compounds that are directly derived from these amino acids. With the increased complexity of nitrogen sources, linear correlations were lost and aroma production became unpredictable. However, even in complex medium minor changes in amino acid concentration continued to directly impact the formation of aromatic compounds, suggesting that the relative concentration of individual amino acids remains a predictor of aromatic outputs, independently of the complexity of metabolic interactions between carbon and nitrogen metabolism and between amino acid degradation and utilization pathways.

  5. Noisy Response to Antibiotic Stress Predicts Subsequent Single-Cell Survival in an Acidic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitosch, Karin; Rieckh, Georg; Bollenbach, Tobias

    2017-04-26

    Antibiotics elicit drastic changes in microbial gene expression, including the induction of stress response genes. While certain stress responses are known to "cross-protect" bacteria from other stressors, it is unclear whether cellular responses to antibiotics have a similar protective role. By measuring the genome-wide transcriptional response dynamics of Escherichia coli to four antibiotics, we found that trimethoprim induces a rapid acid stress response that protects bacteria from subsequent exposure to acid. Combining microfluidics with time-lapse imaging to monitor survival and acid stress response in single cells revealed that the noisy expression of the acid resistance operon gadBC correlates with single-cell survival. Cells with higher gadBC expression following trimethoprim maintain higher intracellular pH and survive the acid stress longer. The seemingly random single-cell survival under acid stress can therefore be predicted from gadBC expression and rationalized in terms of GadB/C molecular function. Overall, we provide a roadmap for identifying the molecular mechanisms of single-cell cross-protection between antibiotics and other stressors. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. COPASAAR – A database for proteomic analysis of single amino acid repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalby Andrew R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single amino acid repeats make up a significant proportion in all of the proteomes that have currently been determined. They have been shown to be functionally and medically significant, and are associated with cancers and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Huntington's Chorea, where a poly-glutamine repeat is responsible for causing the disease. The COPASAAR database is a new tool to facilitate the rapid analysis of single amino acid repeats at a proteome level. The database aims to simplify the comparison of repeat distributions between proteomes in order to provide a better understanding of their function and evolution. Results A comparative analysis of all proteomes in the database (currently 244 shows that single amino acid repeats account for about 12–14% of the proteome of any given species. They are more common in eukaryotes (14% than in either archaea or bacteria (both 13%. Individual analyses of proteomes show that long single amino acid repeats (6+ residues are much more common in the Eukaryotes and that longer repeats are usually made up of hydrophilic amino acids such as glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine, aspartic acid and serine. Conclusion COPASAAR is a useful tool for comparative proteomics that provides rapid access to amino acid repeat data that can be readily data-mined. The COPASAAR database can be queried at the kingdom, proteome or individual protein level. As the amount of available proteome data increases this will be increasingly important in order to automate proteome comparison. The insights gained from these studies will give a better insight into the evolution of protein sequence and function.

  7. Single molecule DNA interaction kinetics of retroviral nucleic acid chaperone proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark

    2010-03-01

    Retroviral nucleocapsid (NC) proteins are essential for several viral replication processes including specific genomic RNA packaging and reverse transcription. The nucleic acid chaperone activity of NC facilitates the latter process. In this study, we use single molecule biophysical methods to quantify the DNA interactions of wild type and mutant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC and Gag and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) NC. We find that the nucleic acid interaction properties of these proteins differ significantly, with HIV-1 NC showing rapid protein binding kinetics, significant duplex destabilization, and strong DNA aggregation, all properties that are critical components of nucleic acid chaperone activity. In contrast, HTLV-1 NC exhibits significant destabilization activity but extremely slow DNA interaction kinetics and poor aggregating capability, which explains why HTLV-1 NC is a poor nucleic acid chaperone. To understand these results, we developed a new single molecule method for quantifying protein dissociation kinetics, and applied this method to probe the DNA interactions of wild type and mutant HIV-1 and HTLV-1 NC. We find that mutations to aromatic and charged residues strongly alter the proteins' nucleic acid interaction kinetics. Finally, in contrast to HIV-1 NC, HIV-1 Gag, the nucleic acid packaging protein that contains NC as a domain, exhibits relatively slow binding kinetics, which may negatively impact its ability to act as a nucleic acid chaperone.

  8. Elastic Properties of Nucleic Acids by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camunas-Soler, Joan; Ribezzi-Crivellari, Marco; Ritort, Felix

    2016-07-05

    We review the current knowledge on the use of single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques to extrapolate the elastic properties of nucleic acids. We emphasize the lesser-known elastic properties of single-stranded DNA. We discuss the importance of accurately determining the elastic response in pulling experiments, and we review the simplest models used to rationalize the experimental data as well as the experimental approaches used to pull single-stranded DNA. Applications used to investigate DNA conformational transitions and secondary structure formation are also highlighted. Finally, we provide an overview of the effects of salt and temperature and briefly discuss the effects of contour length and sequence dependence.

  9. Computational and experimental studies of the interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rozo, Ciro E.; Castillo-León, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    This work involved the preparation of a conjugate between single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid that was obtained without covalent chemical functionalization using a simple “one pot” synthesis method. Subsequently, the conjugate was investigated by a computational hybrid method: our own N...

  10. Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomczynski, P; Sacchi, N

    1987-04-01

    A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of valerenic acid after single and multiple doses of valerian in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gail D; Elmer, Gary W; Taibi, Diana M; Vitiello, Michael V; Kantor, Eric; Kalhorn, Thomas F; Howald, William N; Barsness, Suzanne; Landis, Carol A

    2010-10-01

    Insomnia is a commonly reported clinical problem with as many as 50% of older adults reporting difficulty in falling and/or remaining asleep. Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a commonly used herb that has been advocated for promoting sleep. Valerenic acid is used as a marker for quantitative analysis of valerian products with evidence of pharmacological activity relevant to the hypnotic effects of valerian. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of valerenic acid in a group of elderly women after receiving a single nightly valerian dose and after 2 weeks of valerian dosing. There was not a statistically significant difference in the average peak concentration (C(max)), time to maximum concentration (T(max)) area under the time curve (AUC), elimination half-life (T(1/2)) and oral clearance after a single dose compared with multiple dosing. There was considerable inter- and intra-subject variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters. C(max) and AUC deceased and T(1/2) increased with increased body weight. The variability between the capsules was extremely low: 2.2%, 1.4% and 1.4%, for hydroxyvalerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid and valerenic acid, respectively. In conclusion, large variability in the pharmacokinetics of valerenic acid may contribute to the inconsistencies in the effect of valerian as a sleep aid. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Corrosion of Bronzes by Extended Wetting with Single versus Mixed Acidic Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Gianni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of bronzes was examined in the context of single-acid versus mixed-acid (as in urban acid rain solutions. Two bi-component bronzes (copper with either 3% Sn or 7% Sn that closely represent those of historic artifacts were immersed for five weeks in conditions designed to replicate those experienced by statues and ornaments in cities where rainfall and humidity constantly produce an electrolyte layer on the surfaces of bronzes. Ions, acids, and particles of pollutants can dissolve in this layer, resulting in a variety of harsh corrosion processes. The kinetics of corrosion and the properties of the resulting patinas were monitored weekly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit potential measurements. The sizes and appearances of the corrosion products were monitored and used to estimate the progress of the corrosion, whose crystalline structures were visualized using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, identified by X-ray diffraction, and characterized by spectrocolorimetry. The electrochemical measurements demonstrated that greater damage (in terms of color change and corrosion product formation did not correspond to deficiencies in protection. The mixed-acid solution did not corrode the bronzes, as would be expected from the additive effects of the single acids. The postulated mechanisms of metal dissolution appear to be specific to a particular bronze alloy, with the tin component playing an important role.

  13. Single-stranded regions in transforming deoxyribonucleic acid after uptake by competent Haemophilus influenzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedgwick, B.; Setlow, J.K.

    1976-02-01

    About 15% of donor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is single stranded immediately after uptake into competent Haemophilus influenzae wild-type cells, as judged by its sensitivity to S1 endonuclease. This amount decreases to 4 to 5% by 30 min after uptake. Mutants which are defective in the covalent association of recipient and donor DNA form little or no S1 endonuclease-sensitive donor. At 17 C donor DNA taken up by the wild type contains single-stranded regions although there is no observable association, either covalent or noncovalent. The single-stranded regions are at the ends of donor DNA molecules, as judged by the unchanged sedimentation velocity after S1 endonuclease digestion. The amount of single-stranded donor remains constant at 17 C for more than 60 min after uptake, suggesting that the decrease observed at 37 C is the result of association of single-stranded ends with single-stranded regions of recipient cell DNA. Three sequential steps necessary for the integration of donor DNA into recipient DNA are proposed: the synthesis of single-stranded regions in recipient DNA, the interaction of donor DNA with recipient DNA resulting in the production of single-stranded ends on donor DNA, and the stable pairing of homologous single-stranded regions. (auth)

  14. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Hansen, Esben H; Kannangara, Rubini

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside...... into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes......-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression...

  15. Separation of Minor Actinides by a Single Cycle Approach using Unsymmetrical Diglycolamide and Diglycolamic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, R.; Nayak, P.K.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Prathibha, T.; Rajeswari, S.; Antony, M.P.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    A new class of CHON-extractants, namely unsymmetrical diglycol-amides (UDGA) and diglycolamic acid were developed for the partitioning of minor actinides from high level liquid waste. Group separation of trivalent metal ions (An(III) + Ln(III)) from fast reactor (FR) simulated high-level liquid waste (SHLLW) was demonstrated using UDGA, N,N,-didodecyl-N',N'-dioctyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamide (D 3 DODGA)without the addition of organic phase modifier in n-dodecane phase. A single-cycle approach has been explored for the separation of trivalent actinides from FR-SHLLW using the solvent phase composed of D 3 DODGA and di-2-ethylhexyl-diglycolamic acid (HDEHDGA), or tetra-bis(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid(HDEHP). A procedure was developed to minimise the extraction of unwanted metal ions by using aqueous soluble complexing agents in FR-SHLLW. Based on the optimised conditions, a counter current mixer-settler run was performed to separate Am(III) from FR-SHLLW using a novel ejector based mixer-settler. Quantitative extraction of trivalent (Am(III) + Ln(III)) was observed in both the systems. Am(III) alone was back extracted from loaded organic phase using a solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid - citric acid. The results showed the possibility of selective separation of trivalent actinides alone from high level liquid waste in a single cycle process. (authors)

  16. A single extracellular amino acid in Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 defines antagonist species selectivity and G protein selection bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergeev, Eugenia; Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Bolognini, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    that are able to block the human receptor. Docking of exemplar antagonists from two chemical series to homology models of both human and mouse Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 suggested that a single lysine - arginine variation at the extracellular face of the receptor might provide the basis for antagonist...... selectivity and mutational swap studies confirmed this hypothesis. Extending these studies to agonist function indicated that although the lysine - arginine variation between human and mouse orthologs had limited effect on G protein-mediated signal transduction, removal of positive charge from this residue...

  17. Structural and optical properties of Cd2+ ion on the growth of sulphamic acid single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajyalakshmi, S.; Rao, Valluru Srinivasa; Reddy, P. V. S. S. S. N.; Krishna, V. Y. Rama; Samatha, K.; Rao, K. Ramachandra

    2016-05-01

    Transparent single crystals of Cadmium doped Sulphamic acid (SA) was grown by Conventional slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) which had the size of 13 × 8 × 7 mm3. The grown single crystals have been characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction UV-visible Spectral studies and Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency and the results were discussed. The lattice parameters of the grown Cd2+ ion doped SA crystal are confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and belong to orthorhombic system. Optical transmittance of the crystal was recorded using UV-vis NIR spectrophotometer with its lower cut off wavelength around 259nm. SHG measurements indicate that the SHG efficiency of the grown Cd2+ ion doped SA crystal at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm is approximately equal to KDP.

  18. [Controlling arachidonic acid metabolic network: from single- to multi-target inhibitors of key enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Zheng; Shang, Er-chang; Yang, Kun; Wei, Deng-guo; Zhou, Lu; Jiang, Xiao-lu; He, Chong; Lai, Lu-hua

    2009-03-01

    Inflammatory diseases are common medical conditions seen in disorders of human immune system. There is a great demand for anti-inflammatory drugs. There are major inflammatory mediators in arachidonic acid metabolic network. Several enzymes in this network have been used as key targets for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. However, specific single-target inhibitors can not sufficiently control the network balance and may cause side effects at the same time. Most inflammation induced diseases come from the complicated coupling of inflammatory cascades involving multiple targets. In order to treat these complicated diseases, drugs that can intervene multi-targets at the same time attracted much attention. The goal of this review is mainly focused on the key enzymes in arachidonic acid metabolic network, such as phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase and eukotriene A4 hydrolase. Advance in single target and multi-targe inhibitors is summarized.

  19. Single-crystal Au microflakes modulated by amino acids and their sensing and catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjie; Wu, Xiaochen; Zhou, Jiyu; Kong, Qingshan; Li, Chaoxu

    2016-04-01

    Single-crystal Au microflakes with the planar area over 10(3)μm(2) (i.e. being accessible to the human eye resolution) were synthesized in an environment-friendly route by directing two-dimensional growth of Au nanocrystals into macroscopic scales with amino acids as both reducing agents and capping agents. Side groups of amino acids were found to be a determinant parameter to tune the dimension and size of Au single crystals. The successful synthesis of Au microflakes provides an unprecedented opportunity to bridge nanotechnology and macroscopic devices, and hereby to start a new scenario of exploring their unique properties and applications in optoelectronic devices and bio-sensing fields across multiple length scales. For example, Au microflakes respond to air humidity upon depositing on films of chitin nanofibrils, and sense various physiological molecules as electrode materials of biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Locked Nucleic Acid Probe Based on Selective Salt-Induced Effect Detects Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of single based genetic mutation by using oligonucleotide probes is one of the common methods of detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms at known loci. In this paper, we demonstrated a hybridization system which included a buffer solution that produced selective salt-induced effect and a locked nucleic acid modified 12 nt oligonucleotide probe. The hybridization system is suitable for hybridization under room temperature. By using magnetic nanoparticles as carriers for PCR products, the SNPs (MDR1 C3435T/A from 45 volunteers were analyzed, and the results were consistent with the results from pyrophosphoric acid sequencing. The method presented in this paper differs from the traditional method of using molecular beacons to detect SNPs in that it is suitable for research institutions lacking real-time quantitative PCR detecting systems, to detect PCR products at room temperature.

  1. Single-Labeled Oligonucleotides Showing Fluorescence Changes upon Hybridization with Target Nucleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Tae Hwang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequence-specific detection of nucleic acids has been intensively studied in the field of molecular diagnostics. In particular, the detection and analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is crucial for the identification of disease-causing genes and diagnosis of diseases. Sequence-specific hybridization probes, such as molecular beacons bearing the fluorophore and quencher at both ends of the stem, have been developed to enable DNA mutation detection. Interestingly, DNA mutations can be detected using fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes with only one fluorophore. This review summarizes recent research on single-labeled oligonucleotide probes that exhibit fluorescence changes after encountering target nucleic acids, such as guanine-quenching probes, cyanine-containing probes, probes containing a fluorophore-labeled base, and microenvironment-sensitive probes.

  2. Determination of trace inorganic anions in weak acids by single-pump column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haibao; Chen, Huadong; Zhong, Yingying; Ren, Dandan; Qian, Yaling; Tang, Hongfang; Zhu, Yan

    2010-08-01

    Ion chromatography has been proposed for the determination of three common inorganic anions (chloride, nitrate, and sulfate) in nine weak acids (tartaric acid, citric acid, formic acid, acetic acid, metacetonic acid, butyric acid, butanedioic acid, hexafluorophosphoric acid, and salicylic acid) using a single pump, two valves, a single eluent, and a single conductivity detector. The present system uses ion exclusion, concentrator, and anion-exchange columns connected in series via 6-port and 10-port valves in a Dionex ICS-2100 ion chromatograph. The valves were switched for the determination of three inorganic anions from weak acids in a single chromatographic run. Sample matrices of weak acids with a series of concentrations can be investigated. Complete separations of the previously mentioned anions are demonstrated within 40 min. Under the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviation values ranged from 1.3 to 3.8%. The detection limits of the three inorganic anions (S/N = 3) were in the range of 0.3-1.7 microg/L. The recoveries were in the range of 75.2-117.6%. With this system, automation for routine analysis, short analysis time, and low cost can be achieved.

  3. Prolonged efficacy of a single dose of the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Janet E; Ellis, Susan P; Lester, James E; Gutcher, Sandra; Khanna, Tina; Purohit, Om-Prakesh; McCloskey, Eugene; Coleman, Robert E

    2007-09-15

    Bisphosphonates play a central role in the management of bone loss due to a range of disorders, including metastatic bone disease, cancer treatment-induced bone loss, and postmenopausal osteoporosis. With potent bisphosphonates, such as zoledronic acid, it may be possible to maintain efficacy with relatively infrequent administration. Sixty-six patients who were osteopenic at >1 year following curative cancer therapy received a single i.v. 4 mg dose of the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using double-beam X-ray absorptiometry scan and the bone resorption marker N-telopeptide of type II collagen was determined using a chemiluminescence ELISA assay. The single dose of zoledronic acid induced mean increases in bone BMD at the lumbar spine of 3.1%, 5.2%, and 5.3% and at the total hip of 2.7%, 3.5%, and 4.3% after 12, 24, and 36 months of follow-up, respectively (P < 0.001 at all time points). By 36 months, 84% of patients had achieved increase in BMD at the spine and 90% at the hip. The mean percentage decrease in the bone resorption marker N-telopeptide was approximately 58% at 6 weeks and 42%, 33%, and 31% at 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively (P < 0.001). A single dose of zoledronic acid in patients with low BMD results in a sustained increase in BMD and a corresponding decrease in bone resorption. Very infrequent administration of zoledronic acid may have clinical benefits in terms of convenience, reduced toxicity, improved compliance, and cost.

  4. Amino acid profiles and presumptive nutritional assessment of single-cell protein from certain lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, M D; Bergen, W G; Reddy, C A

    1977-04-01

    The amino acid profiles, modified essential amino acid (MEAA) indexes, and in vitro pepsin digestibilities were determined for single-cell protein (SCP) from certain industrially important lactobacilli. For the three parameters examined, substantial differences were seen between different Lactobacillus species and between strains with a given species. SCP from all of the lactobacilli examined appeared relatively high in MEAA indexes and pepsin digestibility. SCP from L. acidophilus 3205 and L. fermenti 3954 had the highest MEAA indexes, whereas L. bulgaricus 2217 and L. thermophilus 3863 had the highest percentage of digestible crude protein. SCP from L. plantarum strains had the lowest MEAA indexes. The essential amino acid compositions of SCP from different lactobacilli appear comparable to that of Food and Agriculture Organization reference protein and SCP from other sources.

  5. Single-column ion chromatography with determination of hydrazoic acid produced in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guilan; Tan Shuping

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of hydrazine and its derivative with ammonium metavanadate may produce hydrazoic acid (HN 3 ). A single-column ion chromatography is used for the determination of HN 3 after neutralizing the rest acid in the sample with sodium hydroxide. Chromatography separation of HN 3 is carried out on a 25 cm x 0.46 cm (inside diameter) stainless steel column packed with Vydac IC302 ion Chromatography packing. The eluent is 1 mmol/L o-phthalic acid, and the ion is detected by conductivity detector. The detection limit in the presence chromatography is 5 μg/mL, the linear range is from 5 to 201 μg/mL, the linear correlation coefficient is 0.9994, respectively. The analysis accuracy is 2% for standard sample, and the detection limit is 51 μg/mL for HN 3 in the real sample. (authors)

  6. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Nethaji J.; Hansen, Esben H.; Kannangara, Rubini; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Holme, Inger; Hebelstrup, Kim; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression in tobacco. PMID:24941968

  7. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Hansen, Esben H; Kannangara, Rubini; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Holme, Inger; Hebelstrup, Kim; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-06-19

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression in tobacco.

  8. SAFETY EVALUATION OF OXALIC ACID WASTE RETRIEVAL IN SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) 241-C-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the safety evaluation of the process of retrieving sludge waste from single-shell tank 241-C-106 using oxalic acid. The results of the HAZOP, safety evaluation, and control allocation/decision are part of the report. This safety evaluation considers the use of oxalic acid to recover residual waste in single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106. This is an activity not addressed in the current tank farm safety basis. This evaluation has five specific purposes: (1) Identifying the key configuration and operating assumptions needed to evaluate oxalic acid dissolution in SST 241-C-106. (2) Documenting the hazardous conditions identified during the oxalic acid dissolution hazard and operability study (HAZOP). (3) Documenting the comparison of the HAZOP results to the hazardous conditions and associated analyzed accident currently included in the safety basis, as documented in HNF-SD-WM-TI-764, Hazard Analysis Database Report. (4) Documenting the evaluation of the oxalic acid dissolution activity with respect to: (A) Accident analyses described in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), and (B) Controls specified in HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (TSR). (5) Documenting the process and results of control decisions as well as the applicability of preventive and/or mitigative controls to each oxalic acid addition hazardous condition. This safety evaluation is not intended to be a request to authorize the activity. Authorization issues are addressed by the unreviewed safety question (USQ) evaluation process. This report constitutes an accident analysis

  9. A Single Electrochemical Probe Used for Analysis of Multiple Nucleic Acid Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dawn M.; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Pinzon, Jeffer M.; Armas, Stephanie; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M.; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical hybridization sensors have been explored extensively for analysis of specific nucleic acids. However, commercialization of the platform is hindered by the need for attachment of separate oligonucleotide probes complementary to a RNA or DNA target to an electrode’s surface. Here we demonstrate that a single probe can be used to analyze several nucleic acid targets with high selectivity and low cost. The universal electrochemical four-way junction (4J)-forming (UE4J) sensor consists of a universal DNA stem-loop (USL) probe attached to the electrode’s surface and two adaptor strands (m and f) which hybridize to the USL probe and the analyte to form a 4J associate. The m adaptor strand was conjugated with a methylene blue redox marker for signal ON sensing and monitored using square wave voltammetry. We demonstrated that a single sensor can be used for detection of several different DNA/RNA sequences and can be regenerated in 30 seconds by a simple water rinse. The UE4J sensor enables a high selectivity by recognition of a single base substitution, even at room temperature. The UE4J sensor opens a venue for a re-useable universal platform that can be adopted at low cost for the analysis of DNA or RNA targets. PMID:29371782

  10. Single-molecule spectroscopy of amino acids and peptides by recognition tunnelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanan; Ashcroft, Brian; Zhang, Peiming; Liu, Hao; Sen, Suman; Song, Weisi; Im, Jongone; Gyarfas, Brett; Manna, Saikat; Biswas, Sovan; Borges, Chad; Lindsay, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    The human proteome has millions of protein variants due to alternative RNA splicing and post-translational modifications, and variants that are related to diseases are frequently present in minute concentrations. For DNA and RNA, low concentrations can be amplified using the polymerase chain reaction, but there is no such reaction for proteins. Therefore, the development of single-molecule protein sequencing is a critical step in the search for protein biomarkers. Here, we show that single amino acids can be identified by trapping the molecules between two electrodes that are coated with a layer of recognition molecules, then measuring the electron tunnelling current across the junction. A given molecule can bind in more than one way in the junction, and we therefore use a machine-learning algorithm to distinguish between the sets of electronic `fingerprints' associated with each binding motif. With this recognition tunnelling technique, we are able to identify D and L enantiomers, a methylated amino acid, isobaric isomers and short peptides. The results suggest that direct electronic sequencing of single proteins could be possible by sequentially measuring the products of processive exopeptidase digestion, or by using a molecular motor to pull proteins through a tunnel junction integrated with a nanopore.

  11. Reaction of single-standard DNA with hydroxyl radical generated by iron(II)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigodich, R.V.; Martin, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the reaction of Fe(II)-EDTA and hydrogen peroxide with the single-stranded nucleic acids d(pT) 70 and a 29-base sequence containing a mixture of bases results in substantial damage which is not directly detected by gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the DNA sugar backbone is enhanced significantly after the samples are incubated at 90 degree C in the presence of piperidine. The latter reaction is used in traditional Maxam-Gilbert DNA sequencing to detect base damage, and the current results are consistent with reaction of the hydroxyl radical with the bases in single-stranded DNA (although reaction with sugar may also produce adducts that are uncleaved but labile to cleavage by piperidine). We the authors propose that hydroxyl radicals may react preferentially with the nucleic acid bases in ssDNA and that reaction of the sugars in dsDNA is dominant because the bases are sequestered within the double helix. These results have implications both for the study of single-stranded DNA binding protein binding sites and for the interpretation of experiments using the hydroxyl radical to probe DNA structure or to footprint double-stranded DNA binding protein binding sites

  12. Uranium Release from Acidic Weathered Hanford Sediments: Single-Pass Flow-Through and Column Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, South Korea; Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Reinoso-Maset, Estela [Sierra; Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Mueller, Karl T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Perdrial, Nicolas [Department; Department; O’Day, Peggy A. [Sierra; Chorover, Jon [Department

    2017-09-21

    The reaction of acidic radioactive waste with sediments can induce mineral transformation reactions that, in turn, control contaminant fate. Here, sediment weathering by synthetic uranium-containing acid solutions was investigated using bench-scale experiments to simulate waste disposal conditions at Hanford’s cribs, USA. During acid weathering, the presence of phosphate exerted a strong influence over uranium mineralogy and a rapidly precipitated, crystalline uranium phosphate phase (meta-ankoleite [K(UO2)(PO4)·3H2O]) was identified using spectroscopic and diffraction-based techniques. In phosphate-free system, uranium oxyhydroxide minerals such as K-compreignacite [K2(UO2)6O4(OH)6·7H2O] were formed. Single-pass flow-through (SPFT) and column leaching experiments using synthetic Hanford pore water showed that uranium precipitated as meta-ankoleite during acid weathering was strongly retained in the sediments, with an average release rate of 2.67E-12 mol g-1 s-1. In the absence of phosphate, uranium release was controlled by dissolution of uranium oxyhydroxide (compreignacite-type) mineral with a release rate of 1.05-2.42E-10 mol g-1 s-1. The uranium mineralogy and release rates determined for both systems in this study support the development of accurate U-release models for prediction of contaminant transport. These results suggest that phosphate minerals may be a good candidate for uranium remediation approaches at contaminated sites.

  13. Nucleic Acid Self-Assembly Circuitry Aided by Exonuclease III for Discrimination of Single Nucleotide Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Hsing, I-Ming

    2017-11-21

    Robust and rapid discrimination of one base mutations in nucleic acid sequences is important in clinical applications. Here, we report a hybridization-based assay exploiting nucleic acid self-assembly circuitry and enzyme exonuclease III (Exo III) for the differentiation of single nucleotide variants (SNVs). This one-step approach combines the merits of discrimination power of competitive DNA hybridization probes (probe + sink) with catalytic amplification assisted by Exo III. The phosphorothioate bonds modified on a wild-type (WT) specific sink inhibit the Exo III digestion; thus, subsequent catalytic amplification magnifies only the intended SNV targets. The integrated assay exhibits improved SNV discrimination rather than hybridization probes relying solely on competition or amplification and enables SNV detection at 1% abundance. Two frequent cancer-driver mutation sequences (EGFR-L861Q, NRAS-Q61K) were tested. Our strategy allows simple sequence design and can easily adapt to multianalyte SNV detections.

  14. Single-molecule characterization and engineering of the surfaces of nucleic acid sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Eric Alan

    The advent of personalized medicine will require biosensors capable of reliably detecting small levels of disease biomarkers. In microarrays and sensors for nucleic acids, hybridization events between surface-tethered DNA probes and the nucleic acids of interest (targets) are transduced into a detectable signal. However, target-binding ultimately occurs as a result of molecular motions and interactions between the probe and target at the nanometer scale, and common characterization methods either lack the resolution to characterize the sensors at this scale or provide only limited information about their interactions with their nanoscale chemical environment. In this dissertation I argue that an impediment to the development of more reliable and practical biosensors is the lack of knowledge and control of the nanometer length-scale structure of biosensor surfaces, which has a profound impact on molecular recognition and reactions for detection. After reviewing the fundamental surface chemistry and structural motifs of biosensors in Chapter 1, in Chapter 2 I use electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) to characterize in situ a common class of model nucleic acid sensors---thiolated DNA attached to a gold electrode which has been passivated by an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer---with single-molecule resolution. This level of detail allows me to observe both the conformations of individual probes and their spatial distribution at the nanoscale, then determine how these are affected by assembly conditions, probe structure, and interactions with co-adsorbates. I also determine how these nanoscale details affect the dynamic response of probes to electric fields, which have been commonly used in sensing schemes, and ultimately the ability of the surface-tethered probes to bind with target nucleic acids. In Chapter 3, I demonstrate and optimize the nanoscale patterning of individual DNA molecules into isolated, chemically well-defined niches on the surface

  15. Investigation on crystalline perfection, mechanical, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of L-tartaric acid single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugan, G. Senthil, E-mail: nanosen@gmail.com; Ramasamy, P., E-mail: nanosen@gmail.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Tamilnadu - 603110 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Polar organic nonlinear optical material, L-tartaric acid single crystals have been grown from slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study indicates that the grown crystal crystallized in monoclinic system with space group P2{sub 1}. Crystalline perfection of the crystal has been evaluated by high resolution X-ray diffraction technique and it reveals that the crystal quality is good and free from structural grain boundaries. Mechanical stability of the crystal has been analyzed by Vickers microhardness measurement and it exhibits reverse indentation size effect. Piezoelectric d{sub 33} co-efficient for the crystal has been examined and its value is 47 pC/N. The ferroelectric behaviour of the crystal was analyzed by polarization-electric field hysteresis loop measurement.

  16. Adsorption of nucleic acid bases and amino acids on single-walled carbon and boron nitride nanotubes: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Song, Wei; Wang, Lu; Lu, Jing; Luo, Guangfu; Zhou, Jing; Qin, Rui; Li, Hong; Gao, Zhengxiang; Lai, Lin; Li, Guangping; Mei, Wai Ning

    2009-11-01

    We study the adsorptions of nucleic acid bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U) and four amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, alanine on the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and boron nitride nanotubes (SWBNNTs) by using density functional theory. We find that the aromatic content plays a critical role in the adsorption. The adsorptions of nucleic acid bases and amino acids on the (7, 7) SWBNNT are stronger than those on the (7, 7) SWCNT. Oxidative treatment of SWCNTs favors the adsorption of biomolecules on nanotubes.

  17. Staining of fluid-catalytic cracking catalysts: Localising Brønsted acidity within a single catalyst particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurmans, I.L.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31406592X; Ruiz Martinez, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341386405; van Leeuwen, S.L.; van der Beek, D.; Bergwerff, J.A.; Knowles, W.V.; Vogt, Eelco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073717398; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2012-01-01

    A time-resolved in situ micro-spectroscopic approach has been used to investigate the Brønsted acidic properties of fluid-catalytic-cracking (FCC) catalysts at the single particle level by applying the acid-catalysed styrene oligomerisation probe reaction. The reactivity of individual FCC components

  18. A single amino acid substitution affects substrate specificity in cysteine proteinases from Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smooker, P. M.; Whisstock, J. C.; Irving, J. A.; Siyaguna, S.; Spithill, T. W.; Pike, R. N.

    2000-01-01

    The trematode Fasciola hepatica secretes a number of cathepsin L-like proteases that are proposed to be involved in feeding, migration, and immune evasion by the parasite. To date, six full cDNA sequences encoding cathepsin L preproproteins have been identified. Previous studies have demonstrated that one of these cathepsins (L2) is unusual in that it is able to cleave substrates with a proline in the P2 position, translating into an unusual ability (for a cysteine proteinase) to clot fibrinogen. In this study, we report the sequence of a novel cathepsin (L5) and compare the substrate specificity of a recombinant enzyme with that of recombinant cathepsin L2. Despite sharing 80% sequence identity with cathepsin L2, cathepsin L5 does not exhibit substantial catalytic activity against substrates containing proline in the P2 position. Molecular modeling studies suggested that a single amino acid change (L69Y) in the mature proteinases may account for the difference in specificity at the S2 subsite. Recombinant cathepsin L5/L69Y was expressed in yeast and a substantial increase in the ability of this variant to accommodate substrates with a proline residue in the P2 position was observed. Thus, we have identified a single amino acid substitution that can substantially influence the architecture of the S2 subsite of F. hepatica cathepsin L proteases. PMID:11206078

  19. ESR study of irradiated single crystals of the cocrystalline complex of cytidine: Salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.M.; Sagstuen, E.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation at 77 K of single crystals of the 1:1 complex of cytidine and salicylic acid produces a phenoxyl radical formed by oxidation of the salicylic acid. Anisotropic hyperfine coupling tensors have been determined for this radical which are associated with the para and ortho hydrogens. No cytidine oxidation products (alkoxy or hydroxyalkyl radicals) were observed at 77 K. Following the decay of the phenoxyl radical at room temperature, four radicals were detected. These include the cytosine 5--yl and 6--yl radicals, formed by H addition to the cytosine ring, and an anisotropic doublet. By UV irradiation at room temperature, it is possible to convert a significant fraction of 6-yl radicals into 5-yl radicals. Hyperfine coupling and g tensors determined for the anisotropic doublet indicate that this radical is formed in the C/sub 1'/-C/sub 2'/ region of the sugar moiety. These results indicate a shift in radiation damage away from the salicylic acid upon warming, and show that the radiation chemistry of the cocrystalline complex is different from that of the isolated bases

  20. A technique for quantifying intracellular free sodium ion using a microplate reader in combination with sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate and probenecid in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Daisuke; Hongo, Kenichi; Ito, Keiichi; Yoshino, Takuya; Kayama, Yosuke; Komukai, Kimiaki; Kawai, Makoto; Date, Taro; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2013-12-26

    Intracellular sodium ([Na+]i) kinetics are involved in cardiac diseases including ischemia, heart failure, and hypertrophy. Because [Na+]i plays a crucial role in modulating the electrical and contractile activity in the heart, quantifying [Na+]i is of great interest. Using fluorescent microscopy with sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate (SBFI) is the most commonly used method for measuring [Na+]i. However, one limitation associated with this technique is that the test cannot simultaneously evaluate the effects of several types or various concentrations of compounds on [Na+]i. Moreover, there are few reports on the long-term effects of compounds on [Na+]i in cultured cells, although rapid changes in [Na+]i during a period of seconds or several minutes have been widely discussed. We established a novel technique for quantifying [Na+]i in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes attached to a 96-well plate using a microplate reader in combination with SBFI and probenecid. We showed that probenecid is indispensable for the accurate measurement because it prevents dye leakage from the cells. We further confirmed the reliability of this system by quantifying the effects of ouabain, which is known to transiently alter [Na+]i. To illustrate the utility of the new method, we also examined the chronic effects of aldosterone on [Na+]i in cultured cardiomyocytes. Our technique can rapidly measure [Na+]i with accuracy and sensitivity comparable to the traditional microscopy based method. The results demonstrated that this 96-well plate based measurement has merits, especially for screening test of compounds regulating [Na+]i, and is useful to elucidate the mechanisms and consequences of altered [Na+]i handling in cardiomyocytes.

  1. Tb3+ added sulfamic acid single crystals with optimal photoluminescence properties for opto-electric devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Brahmaji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Terbium doped Sulfamic Acid (Tb3+:SA single crystals were grown successfully by the slow evaporation solution (SEST technique and the unidirectional method. The lattice parameters and the functional group were identified for the grown crystal by using single crystal X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, respectively. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis (HRXRD shows the crystalline perfection of the grown crystal. The optical transparency and band gap of the grown crystals were determined from UV-VIS spectroscopy. TG/DTA studies reveal that the grown crystals are thermally stable up to 190 °C. The frequency dependent dielectric properties were studied at different temperatures. Vickers micro hardness studies show that Tb3+:SA belongs to the class of soft materials. Second harmonic generation efficiency of Tb3+:SA is 3.7 times that of pure KDP. The photoluminescence emission and excitation studies of Tb3+:SA single crystals indicated the green emission at 543 nm, which is due to a transition from the 5D4 excited state to the 7F5 ground state.

  2. Investigation of the gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange behavior of aromatic dicarboxylic acids in a quadrupole ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipuk, Joseph E.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2007-11-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions of four deprotonated aromatic dicarboxylic acids (phthalic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid and 2,6-naphthalic acid) with D2O were performed in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Experimental results showed significant differences in the rate and extent of exchange when the relative position of the carboxylic acid groups varied. Spontaneous and near complete exchange of one aromatic hydrogen atom occurred when the carboxylic acid groups were in the meta-position, whereas no additional exchange was observed for either the ortho- or para-isomers or for the structurally similar naphthalic acid. Computational investigations support the participation of several possible exchange mechanisms with the contribution of each relying heavily on the relative orientation of the acid moieties. A relay mechanism that bridges the deprotonation site and the labile hydrogen site appears to be responsible for the H/D exchange of not only the labile hydrogen atom of isophthalic acid, but also for the formation of a stable carbanion and corresponding subsequent exchange of one aromatic hydrogen atom. The impact of hydrogen bonding on the relay mechanism is demonstrated by the reaction of phthalic acid as the extent and rate of reaction are greatly retarded by the favorable interaction of the two carboxylic acid groups. Finally, a flip-flop mechanism is likely responsible for the exchange of both terephthalic acid and 2,6-naphthalic acid where the reactive sites are too remote for exchange via relay.

  3. Single cigar-shaped nanopores functionalized with amphoteric amino acid chains: experimental and theoretical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mubarak; Ramirez, Patricio; Nguyen, Hung Quoc; Nasir, Saima; Cervera, Javier; Mafe, Salvador; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2012-04-24

    We present an experimental and theoretical characterization of single cigar-shaped nanopores with pH-responsive carboxylic acid and lysine chains functionalized on the pore surface. The nanopore characterization includes (i) optical images of the nanostructure obtained by FESEM; (ii) different chemical procedures for the nanopore preparation (etching time and functionalizations; pH and electrolyte concentration of the external solution) allowing externally tunable nanopore responses monitored by the current-voltage (I-V) curves; and (iii) transport simulations obtained with a multilayer nanopore model. We show that a single, approximately symmetric nanopore can be operated as a reconfigurable diode showing different rectifying behaviors by applying chemical and electrical signals. The remarkable characteristics of the new nanopore are the sharp response observed in the I-V curves, the improved tunability (with respect to previous designs of symmetric nanopores) which is achieved because of the direct external access to the nanostructure mouths, and the broad range of rectifying properties. The results concern both fundamental concepts useful for the understanding of transport processes in biological systems (ion channels) and applications relevant for tunable nanopore technology (information processing and drug controlled release).

  4. Single intra-articular injection of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid for hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fabrizio

    2016-03-01

    Intra-articular (IA) injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) into the hip joint appears to be safe and well tolerated but only a small number of randomized clinical trials in humans has been published. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single IA injection of high-molecular-weight (2800 kDa) HA (Coxarthrum) for hip osteoarthritis. All patients received a single IA administration of 2.5 % sodium hyaluronate (75 mg/3 mL) of high molecular weight. Fluoroscopy requires an iodized contrast medium (iopamidol, 1 ml) which highlights the capsule before administering HA. Patients were evaluated before IA injection (T0), after 3 months, after 6 months and after 1 year from injection. Results were evaluated by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI II), Harris Hip Score and a visual analog scale of pain (pain VAS). All treated patients were considered for statistical analysis. Two hundred seven patients were included at T0. The mean age was 67 years (range 46-81). Regarding BPI severity score, changes in pain between T0 and the three following visits were statistically highly significant (p injection of Coxarthrum is effective from the third month and that the results are stable or continue to improve up to 1 year. IV.

  5. Single aromatic residue location alters nucleic acid binding and chaperone function of FIV nucleocapsid protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Wei; Naiyer, Nada; Fichtenbaum, Eric; Qualley, Dominic F.; McCauley, Micah J.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Williams, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus that infects domestic cats, and is an excellent animal model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. The nucleocapsid (NC) protein is critical for replication in both retroviruses. FIV NC has several structural features that differ from HIV-1 NC. While both NC proteins have a single conserved aromatic residue in each of the two zinc fingers, the aromatic residue on the second finger of FIV NC is located on the opposite C-terminal side relative to its location in HIV-1 NC. In addition, whereas HIV-1 NC has a highly charged cationic N-terminal tail and a relatively short C-terminal extension, the opposite is true for FIV NC. To probe the impact of these differences on the nucleic acid (NA) binding and chaperone properties of FIV NC, we carried out ensemble and single-molecule assays with wild-type (WT) and mutant proteins. The ensemble studies show that FIV NC binding to DNA is strongly electrostatic, with a higher effective charge than that observed for HIV-1 NC. The C-terminal basic domain contributes significantly to the NA binding capability of FIV NC. In addition, the non-electrostatic component of DNA binding is much weaker for FIV NC than for HIV-1 NC. Mutation of both aromatic residues in the zinc fingers to Ala (F12A/W44A) further increases the effective charge of FIV NC and reduces its non-electrostatic binding affinity. Interestingly, switching the location of the C-terminal aromatic residue to mimic the HIV-1 NC sequence (N31W/W44A) reduces the effective charge of FIV NC and increases its non-electrostatic binding affinity to values similar to HIV-1 NC. Consistent with the results of these ensemble studies, single-molecule DNA stretching studies show that while WT FIV NC has reduced stacking capability relative to HIV-1 NC, the aromatic switch mutant recovers the ability to intercalate between the DNA bases. Our results demonstrate that altering the position of a single aromatic

  6. Annotating single amino acid polymorphisms in the UniProt/Swiss-Prot knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Yum L; Famiglietti, Maria; Gos, Arnaud; Duek, Paula D; David, Fabrice P A; Gateau, Alain; Bairoch, Amos

    2008-03-01

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot (http://beta.uniprot.org/uniprot; last accessed: 19 October 2007) is a manually curated knowledgebase providing information on protein sequences and functional annotation. It is part of the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt). The knowledgebase currently records a total of 32,282 single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs) touching 6,086 human proteins (Release 53.2, 26 June 2007). Nearly all SAPs are derived from literature reports using strict inclusion criteria. For each SAP, the knowledgebase provides, apart from the position of the mutation and the resulting change in amino acid, information on the effects of SAPs on protein structure and function, as well as their potential involvement in diseases. Presently, there are 16,043 disease-related SAPs, 14,266 polymorphisms, and 1,973 unclassified variants recorded in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. Relevant information on SAPs can be found in various sections of a UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry. In addition to these, cross-references to human disease databases as well as other gene-specific databases, are being added regularly. In 2003, the Swiss-Prot variant pages were created to provide a concise view of the information related to the SAPs recorded in the knowledgebase. When compared to the information on missense variants listed in other mutation databases, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot further records information on direct protein sequencing and characterization including posttranslational modifications (PTMs). The direct links to the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database entries further enhance the integration of phenotype information with data at protein level. In this regard, SAP information in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot complements nicely those existing in genomic and phenotypic databases, and is valuable for the understanding of SAPs and diseases.

  7. Single amino acid loss in the dystrophin protein associated with a mild clinical phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Roser; Kekou, Kyriaki; Gkika, Artemis; Papadimas, George; Vogiatzakis, Nikolaos; Svingou, Maria; Papadopooulos, Constantinos; Nikas, Ioanis; Dinopoulos, Argirios; Youroukos, Sotiris; Kanavakis, Emmanouel

    2017-01-01

    The dystrophinopathies include a spectrum of muscle diseases caused by mutations in the dystrophin (DMD) gene. The clinical phenotype ranges from severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy to a mild phenotype with elevated creatine kinase (CK). Clinical and molecular assessment of 7 patients carrying a single amino acid loss in the dystrophin protein (p.His1690del) caused by a c.5068_5070delCAC tri-nucleotide deletion in exon 36 of the DMD gene. All patients were asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and had elevated CK levels. Febrile illness, but not exercise, induced muscle symptoms in some patients. None had evidence of cardiomyopathy. Analysis of the short tandem repeat (STR)45 locus and sequencing of exon 36 of the DMD gene indicates that c.5068_5070delCAC is a founder mutation. The c.5068_5070delCAC locus in the DMD gene is associated with a very mild phenotype. Further study is needed to evaluate disease progression in these patients. Muscle Nerve 55: 46-50, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Estimation of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake using single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Kido, Akira

    1986-01-01

    Renal function was assessed by measurement of 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) uptake by the kidney based on the transectional tomographic image obtained by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The renal uptake was expressed as percentage of the total radioactivity detected in the kidney, the volume of which was measured by convolution method, against the amount dosed. Absorption was corrected by GE-STAR method using cut off level of 42 %. In order to determine normal range, measurement was made for 40 kidneys of each of 10 male and female volunteers confirmed of having normal kidneys both morphologically and functionally. The average volume of the kidney was 220.4 ml for the right and 239.3 ml for the left for males, and 205.9 ml and 236.5 ml, respectively for females. The renal uptake of radioactivity (at 2 h after injection), was 26.8 % for the right and 27.6 % for the left for males, with corresponding figures for females being 26.4 % and 27.9 %, respectively. Distribution range of renal volume and renal uptake was obtained by bivariate analysis with 90 % and 95 % probability. From these results, our method of renal function determination based on renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA obtained from renal transactional tomogram by SPECT is considered to be accurate and potentially useful for clinical purpose. (author)

  9. Single-Step Access to Long-Chain α,ω-Dicarboxylic Acids by Isomerizing Hydroxycarbonylation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Goldbach, Verena

    2016-11-09

    Dicarboxylic acids are compounds of high value, but to date long-chain alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids have been difficult to access in a direct way. Unsaturated fatty acids are ideal starting materials with their molecular structure of long methylene sequences and a carboxylate functionality, in addition to a double bond that offers itself for functionalization. Within this paper, we established a direct access to alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids by combining isomerization and selective terminal carbonylation of the internal double bond with water as a nucleophile on unsaturated fatty acids. We identified the key elements of this reaction: a homogeneous reaction mixture ensuring sufficient contact between all reactants and a catalyst system allowing for activation of the Pd precursor under aqueous conditions. Experiments under pressure reactor conditions with [(dtbpx)Pd(OTf)(2)] as catalyst precursor revealed the importance of nucleophile and reactant concentrations and the addition of the diprotonated diphosphine ligand (dtbpxH(2))(OTf)(2) to achieve turnover numbers >120. A variety of unsaturated fatty acids, including a triglyceride, were converted to valuable long-chain dicarboxylic acids with high turnover numbers and selectivities for the linear product of >90%. We unraveled the activation pathway of the Pd-II precursor, which proceeds via a reductive elimination step forming a Pd species and oxidative addition of the diprotonated diphosphine ligand, resulting in the formation of the catalytically active Pd hydride species. Theoretical calculations identified the hydrolysis as the rate-determining step. A low nucleophile concentration in the reaction mixture in combination with this high energetic barrier limits the potential of this reaction. In conclusion, water can be utilized as a nucleophile in isomerizing functionalization reactions and gives access to long-chain dicarboxylic acids from a variety of unsaturated substrates. The activity of the catalytic

  10. Phylogenetic group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes for single-cell detection of lactic acid bacteria in oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quevedo, Beatrice; Giertsen, Elin; Zijnge, Vincent; Luethi-Schaller, Helga; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Thurnheer, Thomas; Gmuer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for the single-cell detection and enumeration of lactic acid bacteria, in particular organisms belonging to the major phylogenetic groups and species of oral lactobacilli and to

  11. Non-covalent conjugates of single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid for interaction with cells overexpressing folate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Novoa, Leidy V.

    2013-01-01

    We here present amethod to form a noncovalent conjugate of single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid aimed to interact with cells over-expressing folate receptors. The bonding was obtained without covalent chemical functionalization using a simple, rapid “one pot” synthesis method. The zeta p...

  12. Immunotoxicity of nucleic acid reduced BioProtein - a bacterial derived single cell protein - in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-marie; Poulsen, Morten; Christensen, Hanne Risager

    2002-01-01

    BioProtein is a single cell protein produced by a mixed methanotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria culture using natural gas as energy source, which has been approved for animal feed. BioProtein contains a large amount of nucleic acids making the product less suitable for human consumption, theref...

  13. Real-time in vitro dissolution of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single ethyl cellulose coated extrudates studied by UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunø, Mette Høg; Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Larsen, Crilles Casper

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single extrudates by UV imaging and to explore the technique as a visualization tool for detecting film coating defects on extrudates coated with a thin ethyl cellulose layer. 5-Aminosalicylic acid...... extrudates were film coated with ethyl cellulose in a typical lab system coater equipped with one Wurster partition. Dissolution testing was performed first in a conventional paddle dissolution apparatus and second, in a flow through geometry equipped with a UV imaging system. Selected film coated extrudates...... dissolution testing. The release from defect extrudates was visualized by the absorbance maps and the release was highest from the compromised part of the extrudates. UV imaging has proven to be a useful technique to visualize the release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single film coated extrudates and it has...

  14. The nucleic acid metabolism in rat liver after single and long-term administration of tritium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorokhova, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    It was shown that after a single administration of tritiUm oxide in a dose of 22.2 MBq/g body mass the liver mass increased, the concentration of nucleic acids decreased and the biosynthesjs rate increased dUring a one-month observation. By the end of the observation period (the first year) the parameters under study were normalized. The long-term administration of tritium oxide in daily doses of 0.37, 0.925 and 1.85 MBq/g body mass caused changes in the nucleac acid metabolism which were less manifest (at early times), than in the case of a single injection. At the same time, the long-term administration of tritium oxide in the dose of 0.925 MBq/g caused a substantial disturbance of the nucleic acid metabolism at later times (after 2-9 months)

  15. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 μg/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 μL injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Acetic acid, a relatively green single-use catalyst for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdim, O.; Demirci, U.B.; Miele, P. [Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-09-15

    Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) has been studied (reactivity and kinetics) at high acid concentration (0.32 M). A mineral (hydrochloric acid, HCl) and an organic benign (acetic acid, CH{sub 3}COOH) acid have been chosen. Our study has three distinct objectives, namely: (i) combining the simplicity of the storage of solid NaBH{sub 4} with the simplicity of the aqueous solution of acid; (ii) showing CH{sub 3}COOH can be as reactive as HCl in specific well-chosen operating conditions; and (iii) emphasizing the relative greenness of the CH{sub 3}COOH-based process. All of these objectives have been fulfilled and show that CH{sub 3}COOH is a benign relatively green acid catalyst of choice for catalyzing hydrogen generation from NaBH{sub 4}, the acid-water-NaBH{sub 4} system being quite simple. (author)

  17. Combined effect of metformin with ascorbic acid versus acetyl salicylic acid on diabetes-related cardiovascular complication; a 12-month single blind multicenter randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillani, Syed Wasif; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Abdul, Mohi Iqbal Mohammad; Baig, Mirza R

    2017-08-14

    We aimed to investigate the efficacy of ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid among type II diabetes mellitus patients using metformin (only) for diabetes management therapy. A 12-month single blinded multicenter randomized control trial was designed to investigate the measured variables [Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c), Renal function, Albumin Creatinine Ratio (ACR) etc.]. The trial was randomized into 2 experimental parallel arms (ascorbic acid vs acetylsalicylic acid) were blinded with study supplements in combination with metformin and findings were compared to control arm with metformin alone and blinded with placebo. Withdrawal criteria was defined to maintain the equity and balance in the participants in the whole trial. Patients with metformin and ascorbic acid (parallel arm I) was twice more likely to reduce HbA1c than metformin alone (control arm) in a year (OR 2.31 (95% CI 1.87-4.42) p ascorbic acid with metformin is more effective against reducing risks for diabetes related long-term complications (including ACR). TRIAL details Registration No: NTR-6100, Registry Name: Netherlands Trial Registry, URL: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=6100 , Date of Registration: 20th October, 2016, Date of first Enrollment: 1 November, 2015.

  18. Identification of the SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism for Fatty Acid Composition Associated with Beef Flavor-related FABP4 (Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 in Korean Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-yep Oh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between unsaturated fatty acids influencing beef flavor and four types of SNPs (c.280A>G, c.388G>A, c.408G>C and c.456A>G located at exon 2, 3 and 4 of the FABP4 gene, which is a fatty acid binding protein 4 in Korean cattle (n = 513. When analyzing the relationship between single genotype, fatty acids and carcass trait, individuals of GG, GG, CC and GG genotypes that are homozygotes, had a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and marbling scores than other genotypes (p<0.05. Then, haplotype block showed strong significant relationships not only with unsaturated fatty acids (54.73%, but also with marbling scores (5.82 in ht1×ht1 group (p<0.05. This ht1×ht1 group showed significant differences with unsaturated fatty acids and marbling scores that affected beef flavor in Korean cattle. Therefore, it can be inferred that the ht1×ht1 types might be valuable new markers for use in the improvement of Korean cattle.

  19. The efficacy of multiple versus single hyaluronic acid injections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concoff, Andrew; Sancheti, Parag; Niazi, Faizan; Shaw, Peter; Rosen, Jeffrey

    2017-12-21

    Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IA-HA) is a common therapy used to treat knee pain and suppress knee inflammation in knee osteoarthritis (OA), typically prescribed in regimens ranging from a single injection to 5 weekly injections given once weekly. We conducted a systematic review to determine the efficacy of IA-HA, with subgroup analyses to explore the differences in knee pain and adverse events (AEs) across different dosing regimens. We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify studies evaluating IA-HA for the management of knee OA compared to IA-saline. Primary outcome measure was the mean knee pain score at 13 Weeks (3 months) or 26 weeks (6 months). Secondary outcome was the number of treatment-related AEs and treatment-related serious adverse events (SAEs). We evaluated differences in levels of pain and AEs/SAEs between dosing regimens compared to IA-Saline. Thirty articles were included. Overall, IA-HA injections were associated with less knee pain compared to IA-Saline injections for all dosing regimens. 2-4 injections of IA-HA vs. IA-Saline produced the largest effect size at both 3-months and 6-months (Standard mean difference [SMD] = -0.76; -0.98 to -0.53, 95% CI, P injection studies yielded a non-significant treatment effect at 3 and 6 months, while ≥5 5 injections demonstrated a significant improvement in pain only at 6 months. Five or more injections of IA-HA were associated with a higher risk of treatment-related AEs compared to IA-Saline (Risk ratio [RR] = 1.67; 1.09 to 2.56 95% CI, p = 0.02), which was a result not seen within the 1 and 2-4 injection subgroups. Overall, 2-4 and ≥5 injection regimens provided pain relief over IA-Saline, while single injection did not. Intra-articular injections of HA used in a 2-4 injection treatment regimen provided the greatest benefit when compared to IA-Saline with respect to pain improvement in patients with knee OA, and was generally deemed safe with few to no

  20. A single amino acid substitution controls DAF-dependent phenotype of echovirus 11 in rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, Alexey V; Rezaykin, Alexey V; Sergeev, Alexander G; Fadeyev, Fedor A; Grigoryeva, Julia V; Sokolova, Zoya I

    2012-06-01

    Decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) is used by DAF-dependent (Daf+) variants of echovirus 11 (EV11) as a primary cellular receptor. The interaction of EV11 with DAF is completely reversible, therefore DAF-dependent variants require an unidentified coreceptor to initiate uncoating. Daf- variants of EV11, which do not interact with DAF, use an alternative primary cellular receptor. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis whether the coreceptor, which is necessary for the uncoating of DAF-dependent variants, may act as an alternative primary receptor for the Daf- variants of EV11. By using the model of the two closely related daf+ and daf- clones of EV11 in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell line, it was shown that a single amino acid substitution in the capsid protein VP2 could control the expression of the DAF-dependent phenotype. Anti-DAF monoclonal antibody has blocked the infection of RD cells by the DAF-dependent daf+ clone, but not by the daf- clone of EV11. Since the structural proteins of the two clones differed only in the receptor binding site for DAF, the unidentified non-DAF primary receptor for the daf- clone might have the same conformation as the uncoating coreceptor required for the daf+ clone. Despite the difference in primary receptors, both daf+ and daf- clones were equally inhibited by a monoclonal antibody to beta2-microglobulin. The monoclonal antibody B9.12.1 to class I human leukocyte antigen molecules showed no inhibitory effect in regards to either clone. The hypothesis of convergent intracellular traffic of Daf+ and Daf- variants of EV11 is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, P.; Vogel, H.; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weissflog, J.; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 41 (2015), s. 12586-12591 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fatty acid desaturase * Manduca sexta * sex pheromone biosynthesis * pheromone evolution * substrate specificity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  2. Sensitive analysis of amino acids with carrier-mediated single drop microextraction in-line coupled with capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongmi; Choi, Kihwan; Kim, Jihye; Ahmed, Ahmed Yacine Badjah Hadj; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Chung, Doo Soo

    2011-10-14

    In order to analyze amino acids sensitively without derivatization, we have developed carrier-mediated single drop microextraction (SDME). Nonane-1-sulfonic acid was added to an acidic sample donor solution as a carrier to form neutral ion pair complexes with amino acids. The ion pair complexes were extracted to the organic phase, covering a drop of an aqueous basic acceptor phase hanging at the tip of a capillary, and then back-extracted to the basic acceptor phase, where both the amino acids and the carrier have negative charges and the ion pair complexes are broken. The resulting extract of enriched amino acids was injected into the capillary and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. With 20-min SDME with agitation of the donor phase, enrichment factors of four aromatic amino acids were up to 120-fold, yielding the LOD of 70-500 nM. The linear dynamic ranges for corrected peak areas were 1-100 μM with linear correlation coefficients larger than 0.9959. With internal standardization, the intraday RSDs of migration times and corrected peak areas were 0.01-0.04% and 2.0-3.7%, respectively. The capabilities of sample cleanup including desalting and preconcentration of carrier-mediated SDME were demonstrated with the analysis of human urine after minimal pretreatment of acidification and centrifugation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Adsorptive removal of acid blue 113 and tartrazine by fly ash from single and binary dye solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pura, S.; Atun, G. [Istanbul University, Avcilar (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Adsorption of two acid dyestuffs, acid blue 113 (AB) and tartrazine (TA), has been studied from their single and binary solutions by using fly ash (FA) as an adsorbent. The S shaped isotherms observed for dye adsorption from single solutions show that both acid dyes are not preferred at a low concentration region whereas adsorption of the dyes from binary solutions is enhanced via solute-solute interactions. Although the L-shaped isotherm is observed in binary solutions adsorbability of AB decreases in concentrated solutions with respect to single one, time dependency of adsorption is well described with a pseudo-second-order kinetic model as well as the linear relation of Bt vs. t plots (not passing through origin) indicates that film diffusion is effective on dye adsorption. Modeled isotherm curves using isotherm parameters of the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equations adequately fit to experimental equilibrium data. Equilibrium adsorption of AB in binary solutions has been quite well predicted by the extended Freundlich and the Sheindorf-Rebuhn-Sheintuch (SRS) models. In general, the isotherm curves constructed in the temperature range of 298-328K show that the optimum temperature is 318K for AB removal from both single and binary solutions.

  4. Structural and optical properties of Cd{sup 2+} ion on the growth of sulphamic acid single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajyalakshmi, S.; Samatha, K. [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003 (India); Rao, Valluru Srinivasa; Reddy, P. V. S. S. S. N.; Rao, K. Ramachandra, E-mail: drkrcr@gmail.com [Crystal Growth & Nano Science Research Center, Department of Physics, Govt. College (A), Rajahmundry-533 105 (India); Krishna, V. Y. Rama [Department of Engg. Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Transparent single crystals of Cadmium doped Sulphamic acid (SA) was grown by Conventional slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) which had the size of 13 × 8 × 7 mm{sup 3}. The grown single crystals have been characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction UV-visible Spectral studies and Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency and the results were discussed. The lattice parameters of the grown Cd{sup 2+} ion doped SA crystal are confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and belong to orthorhombic system. Optical transmittance of the crystal was recorded using UV-vis NIR spectrophotometer with its lower cut off wavelength around 259nm. SHG measurements indicate that the SHG efficiency of the grown Cd{sup 2+} ion doped SA crystal at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm is approximately equal to KDP.

  5. Cost-Utility of a Single-Injection Combined Corticosteroid-Hyaluronic Acid Formulation vs a 2-Injection Regimen of Sequential Corticosteroid and Hyaluronic Acid Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Etienne L; Deakon, Robert T; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Bhandari, Mohit; Lamontagne, Martin; McCormack, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown early and sustained relief with a combination therapy of a corticosteroid (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This can be administered via a single injection containing both products or as separate injections. The former may be more expensive when considering only product cost, but the latter incurs the additional costs and time of a second procedure. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-utility of the single injection with the 2-injection regimen. The results of this analysis revealed that the single-injection formulation of a CS and HA may be cost-effective, assuming a willingness-to-pay of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life year gained, for symptomatic relief of OA symptoms. This treatment may also be more desirable to patients who find injections to be inconvenient or unpleasant.

  6. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    . 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different......A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed...

  7. Crystal growth, structure analysis and characterisation of 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankari, R. Siva, E-mail: sivasankari.sh@act.edu.in [Department of Physics, Agni College of Technology, Thalambur, Chennai-603103 (India); Perumal, Rajesh Narayana [Department of Physics, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Chennai-603110 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Single crystal of dielectric material 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. The grown crystal was harvested in 25 days. The crystal structure was analyzed by Single crystal X - ray diffraction. UV-vis-NIR analysis was performed to examine the optical property of the grown crystal. The thermal property of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The dielectric measurements were carried out and the dielectric constant was calculated and plotted at all frequencies.

  8. Transgenic manipulation of a single polyamine in poplar cells affects the accumulation of all amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridev Mohapatra; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Subhash C. Minocha

    2010-01-01

    The polyamine metabolic pathway is intricately connected to metabolism of several amino acids. While ornithine and arginine are direct precursors of putrescine, they themselves are synthesized from glutamate in multiple steps involving several enzymes. Additionally, glutamate is an amino group donor for several other amino acids and acts as a substrate for biosynthesis...

  9. Highly efficient one-step conversion of cyclohexane to adipic acid using single-site heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Robert; Thomas, John Meurig; Xu, Mingcan; Harris, Kenneth D M; Greenhill-Hooper, Michael; Quill, Kieran

    2006-01-28

    A solid source of 'active' oxygen (acetylperoxyborate, APB), when dissolved in aqueous solution in the presence of a single-site microporous catalyst containing redox centres (Fe(III)AlPO-31, Mn(III)AlPO-5, Fe(III)AlPO-5), converts cyclohexane with high efficiency (ca. 88%) and exceptionally high selectivity (ca. 81%) to adipic acid at 383 K; this procedure is also effective in converting styrene to styrene oxide and -pinene and (+)-limonene to their corresponding epoxides.

  10. Structural and dynamic changes associated with beneficial engineered single-amino-acid deletion mutations in enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, James A J; Rizkallah, Pierre J; Jones, D Dafydd

    2014-08-01

    Single-amino-acid deletions are a common part of the natural evolutionary landscape but are rarely sampled during protein engineering owing to limited and prejudiced molecular understanding of mutations that shorten the protein backbone. Single-amino-acid deletion variants of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) have been identified by directed evolution with the beneficial effect of imparting increased cellular fluorescence. Biophysical characterization revealed that increased functional protein production and not changes to the fluorescence parameters was the mechanism that was likely to be responsible. The structure EGFP(D190Δ) containing a deletion within a loop revealed propagated changes only after the deleted residue. The structure of EGFP(A227Δ) revealed that a `flipping' mechanism was used to adjust for residue deletion at the end of a β-strand, with amino acids C-terminal to the deletion site repositioning to take the place of the deleted amino acid. In both variants new networks of short-range and long-range interactions are generated while maintaining the integrity of the hydrophobic core. Both deletion variants also displayed significant local and long-range changes in dynamics, as evident by changes in B factors compared with EGFP. Rather than being detrimental, deletion mutations can introduce beneficial structural effects through altering core protein properties, folding and dynamics, as well as function.

  11. 1H NMR study on the intermolecular interactions of macrocyclic and single α-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Rodolfo; Pabón, Laura; Quevedo-Acosta, Yovanny

    2013-06-01

    Through analysis of 1H NMR spectra, evidence was found for intermolecular interactions between macrocyclic amino acid derivatives from L-tyrosine and their importance in the formation of aggregates in solution. It was also shown that both macrocyclic and simple amino acids are capable of retaining alcohol molecules through hydrogen bonding, where the alcohol molecule acts as a proton donor and the amino group acts as an acceptor.

  12. Providing Vegetable Stearic Acid Super V 1895 S From Hidrogenated Of Crude Vegetable Stearic Acid HCV 1895 S With A Single Fractional Distillation Column

    OpenAIRE

    Ritonga, Muhammad Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    In 2005 stearic acid V 1895 S is manufactured for 1st time in Indonesia base on the natural vegetable oil, Crude Palm Oil to apply Twin Rivers’s demand. One of it specific quality (iodine value 0.15 g/100 g maximum) is very influence to the purifying steps, one of the steps is purifying of hydrogenated crude V 1895 S (HCV 1895 S) feed by a single column of fractional distillation to produce V 1895 S with the lowest possible of it iodine value, lower than the maximum value. The results of app...

  13. Effect of capric, lauric and alpha-linolenic acids on the division time distributions of single cells of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado Kamdem, S; Guerzoni, M E; Baranyi, J; Pin, C

    2008-11-30

    The effect of non-inhibitory concentrations of capric, lauric and alpha-linolenic acids (C10:0, C12:0 and C18:3 respectively) on the division time distribution of single cells of Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated at pH 7 and pH 5. The effect of the initial cell concentration on the lag time of growing cell populations was also assessed. The statistical properties of the division times (defined as the time interval from birth to next binary fission for a single cell) were studied using the method of Elfwing et al. [Elfwing, A., Le Marc, Y., Baranyi, J., Ballagi, A., 2004. Observing the growth and division of large number of individual bacteria using image analysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70, 675-678]. The division times were significantly longer in the presence of free fatty acids than in the control. Shorter division intervals were detected at pH 7 than at pH 5 in the control experiment and in the presence of C10:0. However, both C12:0 and C18:3 slowed down the growth, regardless of the pH. The observed division time distributions were used to simulate growth curves from different inoculum sizes using the stochastic birth process described by Pin and Baranyi [Pin, C., Baranyi, J., 2006. Kinetics of single cells: observation and modelling of a stochastic process. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 2163-2169]. The output of the simulation results were compared with observed data. The lag times fitted to simulated growth curves were in good agreement with those fitted to growth curves measured by plate counts. The averaged out effect of the population masked the effect of the free fatty acids and pH on the division times of single cells.

  14. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-07-02

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different stress levels, was simulated. The simulated growth was subsequently compared to growth of low concentrations (0.4-1.0 CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese, exposed to similar stresses, and in general a good agreement was observed. In addition, growth simulations were performed using population relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes as reported in literature. Comparably good predictions were obtained as for the simulations performed using lag time data for individual cells of L. monocytogenes. Therefore, when lag time data for individual cells are not available, it was suggested that relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes can be used as a qualified default assumption when simulating growth of low concentrations of L. monocytogenes. Copyright

  15. A single amino acid substitution in the core protein of West Nile virus increases resistance to acidotropic compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Martín-Acebes

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a worldwide distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus that naturally cycles between birds and mosquitoes, although it can infect multiple vertebrate hosts including horses and humans. This virus is responsible for recurrent epidemics of febrile illness and encephalitis, and has recently become a global concern. WNV requires to transit through intracellular acidic compartments at two different steps to complete its infectious cycle. These include fusion between the viral envelope and the membrane of endosomes during viral entry, and virus maturation in the trans-Golgi network. In this study, we followed a genetic approach to study the connections between viral components and acidic pH. A WNV mutant with increased resistance to the acidotropic compound NH4Cl, which blocks organelle acidification and inhibits WNV infection, was selected. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that this mutant displayed a single amino acid substitution (Lys 3 to Glu on the highly basic internal capsid or core (C protein. The functional role of this replacement was confirmed by its introduction into a WNV infectious clone. This single amino acid substitution also increased resistance to other acidification inhibitor (concanamycin A and induced a reduction of the neurovirulence in mice. Interestingly, a naturally occurring accompanying mutation found on prM protein abolished the resistant phenotype, supporting the idea of a genetic crosstalk between the internal C protein and the external glycoproteins of the virion. The findings here reported unveil a non-previously assessed connection between the C viral protein and the acidic pH necessary for entry and proper exit of flaviviruses.

  16. A single amino acid substitution in the core protein of West Nile virus increases resistance to acidotropic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; de Oya, Nereida Jiménez; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Shi, Pei-Yong; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a worldwide distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus that naturally cycles between birds and mosquitoes, although it can infect multiple vertebrate hosts including horses and humans. This virus is responsible for recurrent epidemics of febrile illness and encephalitis, and has recently become a global concern. WNV requires to transit through intracellular acidic compartments at two different steps to complete its infectious cycle. These include fusion between the viral envelope and the membrane of endosomes during viral entry, and virus maturation in the trans-Golgi network. In this study, we followed a genetic approach to study the connections between viral components and acidic pH. A WNV mutant with increased resistance to the acidotropic compound NH4Cl, which blocks organelle acidification and inhibits WNV infection, was selected. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that this mutant displayed a single amino acid substitution (Lys 3 to Glu) on the highly basic internal capsid or core (C) protein. The functional role of this replacement was confirmed by its introduction into a WNV infectious clone. This single amino acid substitution also increased resistance to other acidification inhibitor (concanamycin A) and induced a reduction of the neurovirulence in mice. Interestingly, a naturally occurring accompanying mutation found on prM protein abolished the resistant phenotype, supporting the idea of a genetic crosstalk between the internal C protein and the external glycoproteins of the virion. The findings here reported unveil a non-previously assessed connection between the C viral protein and the acidic pH necessary for entry and proper exit of flaviviruses.

  17. The comparison of knee osteoarthritis treatment with single-dose bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells vs. hyaluronic acid injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncars, Valdis; Jakobsons, Eriks; Blums, Kristaps; Briede, Ieva; Patetko, Liene; Erglis, Kristaps; Erglis, Martins; Kalnberzs, Konstantins; Muiznieks, Indrikis; Erglis, Andrejs

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare treatment methods of the knee joint degenerative osteoarthritis, using autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells and hyaluronic acid injections and observe prevalence of adverse effects in both groups. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out. The analysis of pain and changes in osteoarthritis symptoms after a single intra-articular bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell injection into the knee joint in the Kellgren-Lawrence stage II-III osteoarthritis during the 12-month period were performed. The results were compared with the control group treated routinely by hyaluronic acid injections therapy. A therapy group of patients (n=28) received single bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell intra-articular injections. A control group of patients (n=28) was treated with a total of three sodium hyaluronate intra-articular injections each one performed a week apart. The clinical results were obtained using the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Knee Society Score (KSS) before and 3, 6, and 12 months after injection. A statistically significant improvement was observed in the mononuclear cell group over the starting point in all scores. At the endpoint at month 12, the KOOS score improved significantly (Phyaluronic acid versus the bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells group at time points 6 and 12 months demonstrated a statistically significant (Phyaluronic acid group. In both groups serious adverse effects were not observed. The intra-articular injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells is a safe manipulation with no side effects during the 12-month period. This treatment provides statistically significant clinical improvement between the starting point and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after. When compared to hyaluronic acid treatment, better pain relief in the long-term period of mononuclear cell group was observed. Copyright © 2017 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production

  18. Folic acid absorption determined by a single stool sample test--a double-isotope technique. The folic acid absorption capacity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelt, K

    1989-10-01

    The fractional folic acid absorption (FAFol) was determined in 66 patients with various gastrointestinal diseases by a double-isotope technique, employing a single stool sample test (SSST) as well as a complete stool collection. The age of the patients ranged from 2.5 months to 16.8 years (mean 6.3 years). The test dose was administered orally and consisted of 50 micrograms of [3H]folic acid (monoglutamate) (approximately 20 muCi), carmine powder, and 2 mg 51CrCl3 (approximately 1.25 muCi) as the unabsorbable tracer. The whole-body radiation given to a 1-year-old child averaged 4.8 mrad only. The stool and napkin contents were collected and homogenized by the addition of 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid. A 300-ml sample of the homogenized stool and napkin contents, as well as 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid (75% vol/vol) containing the standards, were counted for the content of 51Cr in a broad-based well counter. The quantity of [3H]folic acid was determined by liquid scintillation, after duplicate distillation. Estimated by SSST, the FAFol, which employs the stool with the highest content of 51Cr corresponding to the most carmine-colored stool, correlated closely with the FAFol based on complete stool collection (r = 0.96, n = 39, p less than 0.0001). The reproducibility of FAFol determined by SSST was assessed from repeated tests in 18 patients. For a mean of 81%, the SD was 4.6%, which corresponded to a coefficient of variation of 5.7%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Development of an Interaction Assay between Single-Stranded Nucleic Acids Trapped with Silica Particles and Fluorescent Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maeda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers are easily denatured by heating, a change in pH or chemical substances when they are immobilized on a substrate. To prevent denaturation of biopolymers, we developed a method to trap a polynucleotide on a substrate by hydrogen bonding using silica particles with surfaces modified by aminoalkyl chains ([A-AM silane]/SiO2. [A-AM silane]/SiO2 was synthesized by silane coupling reaction of N-2-(aminoethyl-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (A-AM silane with SiO2 particles with a diameter of 5 μm at 100 °C for 20 min. The surface chemical structure of [A-AM silane]/SiO2 was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations. The surface of the silica particles was modified with A-AM silane and primary amine groups were formed. [A-AM silane]/SiO2 was trapped with single-stranded nucleic acids [(Poly-X; X = A (adenine, G (guanine and C (cytosine] in PBS solution at 37 °C for 1 h. The single-stranded nucleic acids were trapped on the surface of the [A-AM silane]/SiO2 by hydrogen bonding to form conjugated materials. The resulting complexes were further conjugated by derivatives of acridine orange (AO as fluorescent labels under the same conditions to form [AO:Poly-X:A-AM silane]/SiO2 complexes. Changes in the fluorescence intensity of these complexes originating from interactions between the single-stranded nucleic acid and aromatic compounds were also evaluated. The change in intensity displayed the order [AO: Poly-G: A-AM silane]/SiO2 > [AO:Poly-A:A-AM silane]/SiO2 >> [AO:Poly-C:A-AM silane]/SiO2. This suggests that the single-stranded nucleic acids conjugated with aminoalkyl chains on the surfaces of SiO2 particles and the change in fluorescence intensity reflected the molecular interaction between AO and the nucleic-acid base in a polynucleotide.

  20. Single-needle temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis with hyaluronic acid injections. Preliminary data after a five-injection protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, D; Guarda-Nardini, L; Ferronato, G

    2009-10-01

    The classical technique for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthrocentesis provides a double access to the joint space, which may lead to patient's postoperatory discomfort. For this reason, a less invasive, single-needle approach has been recently described, and the present investigation reports findings on a case series of patients with TMJ osteoarthritis treated with hyaluronic acid injections following a single needle arthrocentesis. METHODS. Fourteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of TMJ osteoarthritis according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporo-mandibular Disorders were treated with a cycle of five weekly injections of hyaluronic acid after arthrocentesis. A number of subjective (pain at rest and mastication, masticatory efficiency, functional limitation, subjective efficacy of treatment, tolerability of treatment) and objective (maximum assisted and unassited mouth opening, protrusive and laterotrusive movements) outcome variables were assessed before and after the treatment period. At the end of the five-injection protocol, significant improvements were showed in almost all the subjective outcome variables. Tolerability of the treatment was good on a four-point ordinal scale since the time of the first injection. The present investigation suggested that the single needle technique for TMJ hyaluronic injection following arthrocentesis in osteoarthritic joints may have promising applications in the clinical setting, which have to be confirmed with future studies.

  1. Local piezoelectric activity of single poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencadas, V.; Ribeiro, C.; Heredia, A.; Bdikin, I. K.; Kholkin, A. L.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.

    2012-10-01

    Local piezoelectric properties of the poly(L-lactic acid) individual electrospun fibers have been studied by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. Piezoelectric response, polarization switching, and nanoscale patterning of the fibers have been demonstrated in this important biomaterial, thus opening interesting possibilities for tissue engineering and sensing/actuating applications.

  2. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Estades-Rubio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence Grade II and III and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane® and Group II with HA (Go-ON®. Patient’s evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  3. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estades-Rubio, Francisco J; Reyes-Martín, Alvaro; Morales-Marcos, Victor; García-Piriz, Mercedes; García-Vera, Juan J; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan A; Montañez-Heredia, Elvira

    2017-03-17

    Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA) in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade II and III) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane ® ) and Group II with HA (Go-ON ® ). Patient's evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  4. A comparison of anaerobic 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid degradation in single-fed and sequencing batch reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefsiniotis, P.; Wareham, D. G.; Fongsatitukul, P.

    2017-08-01

    This paper compares the practical limits of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) degradation that can be obtained in two laboratory-scale anaerobic digestion systems; namely, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a single-fed batch reactor (SFBR) system. The comparison involved synthesizing a decade of research conducted by the lead author and drawing summative conclusions about the ability of each system to accommodate industrial-strength concentrations of 2,4-D. In the main, 2 L liquid volume anaerobic SBRs were used with glucose as a supplemental carbon source for both acid-phase and two-phase conditions. Volatile fatty acids however were used as a supplemental carbon source for the methanogenic SBRs. The anaerobic SBRs were operated at an hydraulic retention time of 48 hours, while being subjected to increasing concentrations of 2,4-D. The SBRs were able to degrade between 130 and 180 mg/L of 2,4-D depending upon whether they were operated in the acid-phase or two-phase regime. The methanogenic-only phase did not achieve 2,4-D degradation however this was primarily attributed to difficulties with obtaining a sufficiently long SRT. For the two-phase SFBR system, 3.5 L liquid-volume digesters were used and no difficulty was experienced with degrading 100 % of the 2,4-D concentration applied (300 mg/L).

  5. Single Amino Acid Insertion in Loop 4 Confers Amphotropic Murine Leukemia Virus Receptor Function upon Murine Pit1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundorf, Mikkel D.; Pedersen, Finn Skou; O'Hara, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Pit1 is the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related human protein Pit2 is a receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV). The A-MuLV-related isolate 10A1 can utilize both Pit1 and Pit2 as receptors. A stretch...... of amino acids named region A was identified in Pit1 (residues 550 to 558 in loop 4) as critical for GALV and FeLV-B receptor function. We have here investigated the role of region A in A-MuLV and 10A1 entry. Insertion of a single amino acid in region A of mouse Pit1 resulted in a functional A...

  6. A rapid automated procedure for laboratory and shipboard spectrophotometric measurements of seawater alkalinity: continuously monitored single-step acid additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Byrne, R. H.; Lindemuth, M.; Easley, R. A.; Patsavas, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    An automated system for shipboard and laboratory alkalinity measurements is presented. The simple system, which consists of a Dosimat titrator to deliver acid volumetrically and a USB 4000 spectrophotometer to monitor the titration progress, provides fast, precise and accurate measurements of total alkalinity for oceanographic research. The analytical method is based on single-point HCl titrations of seawater samples of a known volume; bromol cresol purple is used as an indicator to determine the final pH. Field data from an Arctic cruise demonstrates accuracy and precision around 1 micro mol/kg and a sample processing rate of 6 min per sample.

  7. Surface Adsorption and Replacement of Acid-Oxidized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM was used to investigate the adsorption of acid-oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (Ox-SWNTs and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone, PVP. It was found for the first time that Ox-SWNTs adsorbed onto the QCM electrode can be effectively replaced by PVP chains in an aqueous solution. This replacement process was also investigated by atomic force miscroscopic (AFM imaging, which shows good agreement with the QCM measurements. This study provides powerful tools for fundamental investigation of polymer-nanotube interactions and for controlled design/fabrication of functional polymer-nanotube surfaces for potential applications.

  8. Poly(acrylic acid)-directed synthesis of colloidally stable single domain magnetite nanoparticles via partial oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Cem L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755 (Turkey); Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry & Soft Matter cryoTEM Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Gurten, Berna [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755 (Turkey); Sadza, Roel [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry & Soft Matter cryoTEM Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Yenigul, Elcin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755 (Turkey); Sommerdijk, Nico A.J.M., E-mail: n.sommerdijk@tue.nl [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry & Soft Matter cryoTEM Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Bucak, Seyda, E-mail: seyda@yeditepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755 (Turkey)

    2016-10-15

    Octahedral, single domain magnetite nanoparticles with average size of ~55 nm were synthesized through oxidative aging of a ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH){sub 2}) precursor at high pH in water. The synthesis was also carried out in the presence of the hydrophilic polymer poly(acrylic acid). Presence of the polymer changed the particle morphology from octahedral to spherical while average size decreased to 40–50 nm. Although these particles have a tendency to precipitate due to their high magnetic moment, dispersions of these particles were obtained in the presence of this particular polymer which made the particles stable in water for several days making them suitable for various biotechnological applications such as cell separation owing to their low toxicity. - Highlights: • Stable, single domain magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized via partial oxidation. • Particles are readily stabilized in water by a biocompatible polymer. • Steric barrier is essential for the stabilization of large magnetite nanoparticles.

  9. Discharge mechanisms and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of single negative and positive lead-acid battery plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alkaine, C.V. [Group of Electrochemistry and Polymers, Chemistry Department, Federal University of Sao Carlos, 13560-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mengarda, P.; Impinnisi, P.R. [Battery Laboratory, Institute of Technology for Development - LACTEC, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    This study interpreted open circuit impedance measurements of single negative and positive lead-acid battery plates, which were at different discharge levels and arranged in a four-electrode cell. This was performed in the framework of a proposed general model of charge/discharge reactions, morphological models of active materials, and based on interpretation of the characteristics of single negative and positive plates as measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This study shows that the proposed reaction models, morphological characteristics and EIS attributions are compatible with the obtained EIS data. The analysis indicates that negative and positive plate reaction mechanisms cannot be those proposed by the dissolution-precipitation mechanism alone. Rather, the reactions seem to obey the various mechanisms and morphologic ideas proposed in the present paper. It is shown that variations in the resistivity and dielectric constants of discharged films need to be studied in greater detail than film thicknesses to gain a better understanding of the processes. (author)

  10. Single molecule FRET data analysis procedures for FRET efficiency determination: probing the conformations of nucleic acid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Asger Christian; Birkedal, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Single molecule FRET microscopy is an attractive technique for studying structural dynamics and conformational diversity of nucleic acid structures. Some of its strengths are that it can follow structural changes on a fast time scale and identify conformation distributions arising from dynamic or static population heterogeneity. Here, we give a description of the experiment and data analysis procedures of this method and detail what parameters are needed for FRET efficiency calculation. Using single molecule FRET data obtained on G-quadruplex DNA structures that exhibit large conformation diversity, we illustrate that the shape of the FRET distribution changes depending on what parameters are included in the data analysis procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stepwise thermometric titration of free acid and uranyl with single reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamek, M.

    1976-01-01

    The determination is based on the titration of 0.2-1 M Na 2 B 4 O 7 or Li 2 B 4 O 7 at a rate of 2.10 -6 -10 -5 equiv./s. The exothermal reaction H + +OH - =H 2 O is followed by the formation of polynuclear complexes, accompanied by the drop in the temperature of the reaction mixture. The break in the titration curve corresponds to the defined relation UO 2 2+ :OH - (7:3). It is thus possible to determine U also in the organic phase following the extraction of tributylphosphate from an acid medium. The determination is disturbed by easily hydrolyzable ions. The accuracy and correctness of the method is between 0.1-3%. depending on the concentrations of the determined components up to the molar ratio UO 2 2+ : acid 1:100. (M.K.)

  12. Impact of single dose intravenous tranexamic acid on peri-operative blood transfusion requirements in burn patients: A prospective, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Bhatia

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Preoperative administration of a single dose of tranexamic acid significantly reduces blood loss during debridement of burn wounds and skin graft harvesting surgeries without increasing the risk of untoward side-effects or complications.

  13. Potential mechanisms explaining why hydrolyzed casein-based diets outclass single amino acid-based diets in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes in diabetes-prone BB rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J. T. J.; Bos, N. A.; Harthoorn, L. F.; Stellaard, F.; Beijer-Liefers, S.; Rozing, J.; van Tol, E. A. F.

    Background It remains controversial whether avoidance of dietary diabetogenic triggers, such as cow's milk proteins, can prevent type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals. Here, different extensive casein hydrolysates (HC) and single amino acid (AA) formulations were tested for their

  14. Isolation of RNA from tumor samples: single-step guanidinium acid-phenol method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Naomi; Leek, Russell

    2006-01-01

    The guanidinium acid-phenol method of RNA extraction is relatively fast (4 h) and is useful for the processing of large numbers of samples, without the need for ultracentrifugation. This protocol produces total RNA that includes ribosomal, transfer, and messenger RNA. This high-quality RNA is suitable for Northern blot analysis, dot-blot hybridization, poly (A) RNA selection, in vitro translation, cDNA library construction, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, ribonuclease protection assay, and primer extension experiments.

  15. Extraction Equilibrium of Dicarboxylic Acids with Tertiary Amine in Single and Binary Diluents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Jaroslav; Heyberger, Aleš; Volaufová, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 5 (2004), s. 1075-1093 ISSN 0149-6395. [CHISA 2000. Prague, 27.08.2000-31.08.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/97/1213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : liquid extraction * dicarboxylic acids * tertiary amine Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.896, year: 2004

  16. Methodological study on determining endogenous amino acid excretion of broiler chickens by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Junhu; Wang Kangning; Yang Feng; Zhou Anguo; Cai Xuelin; Duanmu Dao

    1999-01-01

    Forty broiler chickens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 20 groups. Every fifth group was force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or a NFd + 3.20% enzyme hydrolysed casein (EHC) diet or diets with 5% and 20% crude protein (CP) in which soybean meal (sol.) was the sole nitrogen source. 30μCi 3 H-leucine/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after the force-feeding. Venous blood samples were taken at 5 min, 4h, 24h, 36h and 48h after the injection, and the amount of excreta for the whole period of 48h was collected. The amino acids excreted after force-feeding NFD + 3.20% EHC of CP5% diet were theoretically endogenous. The ratios of specific radioactivity (SR) in excreta and the value of definite integral in free plasma from 0 to 48 h after injection of labelled leucine were not different (P > 0.05) when NFD, NFD + 3.20% EHC or CP5% diet was fed. From these results and theoretical analysis, it was suggested that for the birds with CP20% diet, the ratio of SR in endogenous leucine and value of definite integral in free plasma from 0 to 48 h after injection of labelled leucine would be the same as that of the birds with NFD diet, and thus endogenous losses of leucine and other amino acids, by the endogenous amino acid pattern measured with NFD diet, could be estimated for CP20% diet. The endogenous amino acid losses measured by this new technique was 120.50% of those measured by NFD method. It was suggested that single intravenous injection of 3 H-leucine first proposed would be more valuable for determining endogenous amino acid losses, especially when practical nitrogen-containing diet was fed

  17. Hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose reduced postoperative bowel adhesions following laparoscopic urologic pelvic surgery: a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind study

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, U-Syn; Koh, Jun Sung; Cho, Kang Jun; Yoon, Byung Il; Lee, Kyu Won; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the anti-adhesive effect of treatment with hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Methods This was a randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel-group study using hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose in patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Sixty patients were enrolled in the study. All patients were randomly assigned to either the hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose treatment group (n?=?30) or the...

  18. 4-Oxocyclohexaneacetic acid: catemeric hydrogen bonding and spontaneous resolution of a single conformational enantiomer in an achiral ∊-keto acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh W. Thompson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C8H12O3, consists of a single conformational enantiomer, which aggregates in the catemeric acid-to-ketone hydrogen-bonding mode [O...O = 2.682 (4 Å and O—H...O = 172 (6°]. Four hydrogen-bonding chains of translationally related molecules pass through the cell orthogonal to the 43 screw axis along c, alternating in the 110 and the overline{1}10 direction, with alignment with respect to this axis of + + − −. Successive chains are rotated by 90° around the c axis. One C—H...O=C close contact, involving the carboxyl group, exists.

  19. A universal and label-free impedimetric biosensing platform for discrimination of single nucleotide substitutions in long nucleic acid strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dawn M; Martin, Christopher P; Armas, Stephanie M; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y

    2018-06-30

    We report a label-free universal biosensing platform for highly selective detection of long nucleic acid strands. The sensor consists of an electrode-immobilized universal stem-loop (USL) probe and two adaptor strands that form a 4J structure in the presence of a specific DNA/RNA analyte. The sensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]/K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] redox couple in solution. An increase in charge transfer resistance (R CT ) was observed upon 4J structure formation, the value of which depends on the analyte length. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to further characterize the sensor and monitor the electrochemical reaction in conjunction with thickness measurements of the mixed DNA monolayer obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry. In addition, the electron transfer was calculated at the electrode/electrolyte interface using a rotating disk electrode. Limits of detection in the femtomolar range were achieved for nucleic acid targets of different lengths (22 nt, 60 nt, 200 nt). The sensor produced only a background signal in the presence of single base mismatched analytes, even in hundred times excess in concentration. This label-free and highly selective biosensing platform is versatile and can be used for universal detection of nucleic acids of varied lengths which could revolutionize point of care diagnostics for applications such as bacterial or cancer screening. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PHARMACOKINETICS OF CEFTIOFUR CRYSTALLINE FREE ACID STERILE SUSPENSION IN GREEN IGUANAS ( IGUANA IGUANA) AFTER SINGLE INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadar, Miranda J; Hawkins, Michelle G; Taylor, Ian T; Byrne, Barbara A; Tell, Lisa A

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) for a single intramuscular injection in green iguanas ( Iguana iguana). Six green iguanas received an injection of 5 mg/kg CCFA into the triceps muscle. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, concentrations of ceftiofur free acid equivalents in plasma samples collected at predetermined time points were evaluated up to 21 days following drug administration. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was applied to the data. The observed maximum plasma concentration (C max obs ) was 2.765 ± 0.864 μg/mL, and the time of observed maximum concentration (T max obs ) was 6.1 ± 9.2 hr. The area under the curve (0 to infinity) was 239.3 ± 121.1 μg·hr/mL. No significant adverse drug reactions were clinically observed, and no visible injection site reactions were noted. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of bacterial isolates from iguanas were used to establish a target plasma concentration of 2.0 μg/mL. Based on the results from this study, a potential dosing interval for ceftiofur crystalline free acid administered at 5 mg/kg intramuscularly for iguanas maintained at a temperature of 30°C would be 24 hr based on a target plasma concentration of 2 μg/mL; however, multidose studies still need to be performed.

  1. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Dong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yan; Lu, Zhisong; Yu, Samuel CT; Li, Rui; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test), brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH]), inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β), and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid. This work suggests SWCNTs could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, and provides a strategy to avoid the adverse effects. PMID:24596461

  2. Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker discovery and association analysis with the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA content in Larimichthys crocea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are valuable genetic resources for the association and conservation studies. Genome-wide SNP development in many teleost species are still challenging because of the genome complexity and the cost of re-sequencing. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS provided an efficient reduced representative method to squeeze cost for SNP detection; however, most of recent GBS applications were reported on plant organisms. In this work, we used an EcoRI-NlaIII based GBS protocol to teleost large yellow croaker, an important commercial fish in China and East-Asia, and reported the first whole-genome SNP development for the species. 69,845 high quality SNP markers that evenly distributed along genome were detected in at least 80% of 500 individuals. Nearly 95% randomly selected genotypes were successfully validated by Sequenom MassARRAY assay. The association studies with the muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA content discovered 39 significant SNP markers, contributing as high up to ∼63% genetic variance that explained by all markers. Functional genes that involved in fat digestion and absorption pathway were identified, such as APOB, CRAT and OSBPL10. Notably, PPT2 Gene, previously identified in the association study of the plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid level in human, was re-discovered in large yellow croaker. Our study verified that EcoRI-NlaIII based GBS could produce quality SNP markers in a cost-efficient manner in teleost genome. The developed SNP markers and the EPA and DHA associated SNP loci provided invaluable resources for the population structure, conservation genetics and genomic selection of large yellow croaker and other fish organisms.

  3. Single Atomic Iron Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction in Acidic Media: Particle Size Control and Thermal Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hanguang; Hwang, Sooyeon; Wang, Maoyu; Feng, Zhenxing; Karakalos, Stavros; Luo, Langli; Qiao, Zhi; Xie, Xiaohong; Wang, Chongmin; Su, Dong; Shao, Yuyan; Wu, Gang (BNL); (Oregon State U.); (SC); (PNNL); (Buffalo)

    2017-09-26

    It remains a grand challenge to replace platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts with earth-abundant materials for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media, which is crucial for large-scale deployment of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Here, we report a high-performance atomic Fe catalyst derived from chemically Fe-doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) by directly bonding Fe ions to imidazolate ligands within 3D frameworks. Although the ZIF was identified as a promising precursor, the new synthetic chemistry enables the creation of well-dispersed atomic Fe sites embedded into porous carbon without the formation of aggregates. The size of catalyst particles is tunable through synthesizing Fe-doped ZIF nanocrystal precursors in a wide range from 20 to 1000 nm followed by one-step thermal activation. Similar to Pt nanoparticles, the unique size control without altering chemical properties afforded by this approach is able to increase the number of PGM-free active sites. The best ORR activity is measured with the catalyst at a size of 50 nm. Further size reduction to 20 nm leads to significant particle agglomeration, thus decreasing the activity. Using the homogeneous atomic Fe model catalysts, we elucidated the active site formation process through correlating measured ORR activity with the change of chemical bonds in precursors during thermal activation up to 1100 °C. The critical temperature to form active sites is 800 °C, which is associated with a new Fe species with a reduced oxidation number (from Fe3+ to Fe2+) likely bonded with pyridinic N (FeN4) embedded into the carbon planes. Further increasing the temperature leads to continuously enhanced activity, linked to the rise of graphitic N and Fe–N species. The new atomic Fe catalyst has achieved respectable ORR activity in challenging acidic media (0.5 M H2SO4), showing a half-wave potential of 0.85 V vs RHE and leaving only a 30 mV gap with Pt/C (60 μgPt/cm2). Enhanced stability

  4. Single Amino Acid Mutation Controls Hole Transfer Dynamics in DNA-Methyltransferase HhaI Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Marina; Voityuk, Alexander A; Curutchet, Carles

    2015-09-17

    Different mutagenic effects are generated by DNA oxidation that implies the formation of radical cation states (so-called holes) on purine nucleobases. The interaction of DNA with proteins may protect DNA from oxidative damage owing to hole transfer (HT) from the stack to aromatic amino acids. However, how protein binding affects HT dynamics in DNA is still poorly understood. Here, we report a computational study of HT in DNA complexes with methyltransferase HhaI with the aim of elucidating the molecular factors that explain why long-range DNA HT is inhibited when the glutamine residue inserted in the double helix is mutated into a tryptophan. We combine molecular dynamics, quantum chemistry, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and find that protein binding stabilizes the energies of the guanine radical cation states and significantly impacts the corresponding electronic couplings, thus determining the observed behavior, whereas the formation of a tryptophan radical leads to less efficient HT.

  5. Single Atomic Iron Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction in Acidic Media: Particle Size Control and Thermal Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hanguang [Department; Hwang, Sooyeon [Center; Wang, Maoyu [School; Feng, Zhenxing [School; Karakalos, Stavros [Department; Luo, Langli [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Qiao, Zhi [Department; Xie, Xiaohong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Su, Dong [Center; Shao, Yuyan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Wu, Gang [Department

    2017-09-26

    To significantly reduce the cost of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, current Pt must be replaced by platinum-metal-group (PGM)-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acid. We report here a new class of high-performance atomic iron dispersed carbon catalysts through controlled chemical doping of iron ions into zinc-zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF), a type of metal-organic framework (MOF). The novel synthetic chemistry enables accurate size control of Fe-doped ZIF catalyst particles with a wide range from 20 to 1000 nm without changing chemical properties, which provides a great opportunity to increase the density of active sites that is determined by the particle size. We elucidated the active site formation mechanism by correlating the chemical and structural changes with thermal activation process for the conversion from Fe-N4 complex containing hydrocarbon networks in ZIF to highly active FeNx sites embedded into carbon. A temperature of 800oC was identified as the critical point to start forming pyridinic nitrogen doping at the edge of the graphitized carbon planes. Further increasing heating temperature to 1100oC leads to increase of graphitic nitrogen, generating possible synergistic effect with FeNx sites to promote ORR activity. The best performing catalyst, which has well-defined particle size around 50 nm and abundance of atomic FeNx sites embedded into carbon structures, achieve a new performance milestone for the ORR in acid including a half-wave potential of 0.85 V vs RHE and only 20 mV loss after 10,000 cycles in O2 saturated H2SO4 electrolyte. The new class PGM-free catalyst with approaching activity to Pt holds great promise for future PEM fuel cells.

  6. Single step natural poly(tannic acid) particle preparation as multitalented biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Aktas, Nahit

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we report the preparation of poly(tannic acid) (p(TA)) particles by crosslinking with glycerol diglycidyl ether (GDE) and trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TMPGDE). The p(TA) particles are negatively charged as obtained by the zeta potential measurements, -27mV. P(TA) particles are found to be an effective antioxidant material as 170mgL(-1) of p(TA) particle demonstrated the antioxidant equivalency of 82.5±7.2mgL(-1) of gallic acid (GA), used as standard in Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) method. Additionally, TA and p(TA) particles have a strong antimicrobial effect against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Furthermore, p(TA) particles were used as drug delivery materials by using model drugs such as TA itself, and GA in the release studies in PBS at pH7.4 at 37.5°C, and found that p(TA) particles can release 80.8 and 87.4% of the loaded TA and GA, respectively. Interestingly, p(TA) maintained its fluorescent property upon crosslinking of TA units. It is further demonstrated that p(TA) particles are as effective as cisplatin (a cancer drug) against A549 cancerous cells that both showed about 36 and 34% cell viability, respectively whereas linear TA showed 66% cell viability at 37.5μgmL(-1) concentration. Above this concentration p(TA) and cisplatin showed almost the same toxicity against A549 cancerous cells. Additionally, p(TA) particles are found to be much more biocompatible against L929 Fibroblast cells, about 84% cell viability in comparison to linear TA with about 53% at 75μgmL(-1) concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A theoretical study on the interaction of aromatic amino acids with graphene and single walled carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Chinagandham; Majumder, Chiranjib; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2009-03-28

    In this study we have investigated the interaction of phenylalanine (Phe), histidine (His), tyrosine (Tyr), and tryptophan (Tryp) molecules with graphene and single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an aim to understand the effect of curvature on the non-covalent interaction. The calculations are performed using density functional theory and the Moller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2) within linear combination of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital (LCAO-MO) approach. Using these methods, the equilibrium configurations of these complexes were found to be very similar, i.e., the aromatic rings of the amino acids prefer to orient in parallel with respect to the plane of the substrates, which bears the signature of weak pi-pi interactions. The binding strength follows the trend: Hisacids. Remarkably, we find excellent correlation between the polarizability and the strength of the interaction; the higher the polarizability, greater is the binding strength. Moreover, we have analyzed the electronic densities of state spectrum before and after adsorption of the amino acid moieties. The results reveal that the Fermi level of the free CNT is red-shifted by the adsorption of the amino acids and the degree of shift is consistent with the trend in polarizability of these molecules.

  8. Monitoring the functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with chitosan and folic acid by two-dimensional diffusion-ordered nmr spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Torres, Mary H.; Molina, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    A conjugate between single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan and folic acid has been prepared. It was characterized by diffusion ordered two-dimensional hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy which revealed the presence of a conjugate that was......A conjugate between single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan and folic acid has been prepared. It was characterized by diffusion ordered two-dimensional hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy which revealed the presence of a conjugate...... that was generated by the linkage between the carboxyl moiety of the folic acid and the amino group of the chitosan, which in turn was non-covalently bound to the single-walled carbon nanotubes. The obtained diffusion coefficient values demonstrated that free folic acid diffused more rapidly than the folic acid...... conjugated to single-walled carbon nanotubes-chitosan. The values of the proton signal of hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and two-dimensional hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy further confirmed that the folic acid was conjugated to the chitosan, wrapping the single...

  9. Natural variation in a single amino acid substitution underlies physiological responses to topoisomerase II poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdraljevic, Stefan; Strand, Christine; Seidel, Hannah S; Cook, Daniel E; Doench, John G; Andersen, Erik C

    2017-07-01

    Many chemotherapeutic drugs are differentially effective from one patient to the next. Understanding the causes of this variability is a critical step towards the development of personalized treatments and improvements to existing medications. Here, we investigate sensitivity to a group of anti-neoplastic drugs that target topoisomerase II using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that wild strains of C. elegans vary in their sensitivity to these drugs, and we use an unbiased genetic approach to demonstrate that this natural variation is explained by a methionine-to-glutamine substitution in topoisomerase II (TOP-2). The presence of a non-polar methionine at this residue increases hydrophobic interactions between TOP-2 and its poison etoposide, as compared to a polar glutamine. We hypothesize that this stabilizing interaction results in increased genomic instability in strains that contain a methionine residue. The residue affected by this substitution is conserved from yeast to humans and is one of the few differences between the two human topoisomerase II isoforms (methionine in hTOPIIα and glutamine in hTOPIIβ). We go on to show that this amino acid difference between the two human topoisomerase isoforms influences cytotoxicity of topoisomerase II poisons in human cell lines. These results explain why hTOPIIα and hTOPIIβ are differentially affected by various poisons and demonstrate the utility of C. elegans in understanding the genetics of drug responses.

  10. Highly stable triple helix formation by homopyrimidine (l)-acyclic threoninol nucleic acids with single stranded DNA and RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Vipin; Kesavan, Venkitasamy; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic (l)-threoninol nucleic acid (aTNA) containing thymine, cytosine and adenine nucleobases were synthesized and shown to form surprisingly stable triplexes with complementary single stranded homopurine DNA or RNA targets. The triplex structures consist of two (l)-aTNA strands and one DNA...... or RNA, and these triplexes are significantly stronger than the corresponding DNA or RNA duplexes as shown in competition experiments. As a unique property the (l)-aTNAs exclusively form triplex structures with DNA and RNA and no duplex structures are observed by gel electrophoresis. The results were...... compared to the known enantiomer (d)-aTNA, which forms much weaker triplexes depending upon temperature and time. It was demonstrated that (l)-aTNA triplexes are able to stop primer extension on a DNA template, showing the potential of (l)-aTNA for antisense applications....

  11. Growth, Optical, Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Non-Linear Optical Single Crystal: Glycine-Phthalic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sagadevan

    2016-11-01

    Single crystals of glycine-phthalic acid (GPA) were grown by slow evaporation process using aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to examine its cell structure and it was found that the GPA crystal corresponded to the orthorhombic system. To identify absorption range and cut-off wavelength for the GPA crystal, UV-visible spectrum was recorded. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to study the optical constants such as the refractive index, the extinction coefficient, electrical susceptibility, and optical conductivity. As a function of different frequencies and temperatures, the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss were examined. The electrical properties like plasma energy, Penn gap, Fermi energy, and polarizability were determined for the analysis of the second harmonic generation (SHG). Using the Kurtz powder technique, the SHG of the GPA crystal was studied. Investigations relating to hysteresis were carried out to ascertain the ferroelectric nature of the material.

  12. Soft cutting of single-wall carbon nanotubes by low temperature ultrasonication in a mixture of sulfuric and nitric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuba, M V; Paddubskaya, A G; Kuzhir, P P; Maksimenko, S A; Ksenevich, V K; Niaura, G; Seliuta, D; Kasalynas, I; Valusis, G

    2012-12-14

    To decrease single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) lengths to a value of 100-200 nm, aggressive cutting methods, accompanied by a high loss of starting material, are frequently used. We propose a cutting approach based on low temperature intensive ultrasonication in a mixture of sulfuric and nitric acids. The method is nondestructive with a yield close to 100%. It was applied to cut nanotubes produced in three different ways: gas-phase catalysis, chemical vapor deposition, and electric-arc-discharge methods. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to demonstrate that the cut carbon nanotubes have a low extent of sidewall degradation and their electronic properties are close to those of the untreated tubes. It was proposed to use the spectral position of the far-infrared absorption peak as a simple criterion for the estimation of SWCNT length distribution in the samples.

  13. Physicochemical improvement of rabbit derived single-domain antibodies by substitutions with amino acids conserved in camelid antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Naoya; Hashimoto, Ryuji; Noda, Masanori; Uchiyama, Susumu

    2018-02-01

    Recently, we showed that immunized rabbit heavy chain variable regions (rVHs) can have strong antigen binding activity comparable to that of the camelid variable domain of the heavy chain of heavy chain antibody (VHH). These rVHs lack the light chain variable regions (rVLs), which exist in the authentic Fab format; thus, molecular surfaces at the interface region of rVHs are exposed to solvent. This physical feature may change physicochemical properties, such as causing reduced stability. By overcoming potential physicochemical issues through engineering the interface region, rVHs could become more useful as single-domain antibodies. In this study, we substituted amino acid residues conserved at the interface region of rVHs with those of VHHs. These substitutions included V37F, involving substitution of a residue in the hydrophobic core with a bulkier hydrophobic amino acid, and G44E/L45R, involving double substitutions of highly exposed residues with more hydrophilic ones. As expected, biophysical and structural characterizations showed that the V37F substitution markedly enhanced the thermal stability through increased hydrophobic packing, while G44E/L45R substitutions greatly reduced hydrophobicity of the interface. The quadruple substitutions of V37F/G44E/L45R/F91Y resulted in not only enhancements of thermal stability and reduction in hydrophobicity, both in an additive manner, but also synergistic improvement of purification yield. This quadruple mutant exhibited greatly reduced non-specific binding with improved colloidal stability owing to the reduced hydrophobicity. The approach used in this study should further enhance the utility of rVHs and promote research and development of single-domain antibodies. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid: detection of acute myocardial infarction and injury in dogs using an iodinated fatty acid and single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rellas, J.S.; Corbett, J.R.; Kulkarni, P.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of an iodinated fatty acid, iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (1-123 PPA), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to detect myocardium injured by temporary or permanent coronary arterial occlusion was evaluated. In 5 control dogs, 11 dogs that underwent 90 to 120 minutes of fixed left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion, and 8 dogs that underwent 90 minutes of temporary LAD occlusion and up to 90 minutes of reflow, 2 to 6 mCi of I-123 PPA were injected and the dogs were imaged with SPECT. Control dogs showed relatively uniform uptake and clearance of I-123 PPA in similar left ventricular (LV) regions. Dogs with permanent LAD occlusion were identified by computer algorithm as having regions of decreased I-123 PPA uptake in the infarct-related area and a reduced rate of I-123 PPA clearance (-9.4% in infarct sectors [washin], +3.7% in sectors adjacent to the area of infarction, and +15.4% in control LV sectors [p less than 0.01]). Dogs with temporary LAD occlusion and reperfusion had decreased clearance of I-123 PPA from the regions with infarction; I-123 PPA clearance was -5.2 +/- 16.4% in infarct sectors, 12.7 +/- 7.4% in periinfarct zones, and 30.4 +/- 12% in control LV regions. These data demonstrate that tomographic analysis of I-123 PPA uptake and clearance permits the relatively noninvasive detection of LV myocardium injured by permanent or temporary LAD occlusion and reperfusion

  15. A single low dose of valproic acid in late prenatal life alters postnatal behavior and glutamic acid decarboxylase levels in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Li, Qi; Lam, Sylvia; Leung, Jana; Cheung, Charlton; Zhang, Xiaofan; Sham, Pak Chung; Chua, Siew Eng; McAlonan, Grainne Mary

    2016-11-01

    Rodents exposed to valproic acid (VPA) in prenatal life exhibit post-natal characteristics analogous to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Many previous studies used relatively high doses of VPA during early pregnancy, potentially confounding interpretation because the offspring are the 'survivors' of a toxic insult. Low dose or late gestation exposure has not been widely studied. We examined the behavioral sequelae of late gestation exposure to low dose VPA in the mouse. We also examined postnatal levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67) as markers for GABA neurons, because GABA pathology and subsequent excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is strongly implicated in ASD. Pregnant C57BL/6N mice received a single subcutaneous injection of 100 or 200mg/kg on gestation day 17. The control group received a saline injection on the same day. The offspring were tested in a battery of behavioral tests in adolescence and adulthood. Six brain regions were harvested and GAD65 and GAD67 were measured by western blotting. Compared to saline-exposed controls, adult mice exposed to prenatal VPA had impaired novel object exploration and fear conditioning anomalies. GAD67 was decreased in midbrain, olfactory bulb, prefrontal cortex and increased in cerebellum, hippocampus and striatum; GAD65 was decreased in all 6 regions. Our results suggest that a low dose of VPA in late pregnancy has persistent effects on brain development, and in particular the GABA system, which may be relevant to ASD. Further attention to the impact of gestation time and dose of exposure in VPA-induced ASD models is encouraged. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Single Sodium Pyruvate Ingestion Modifies Blood Acid-Base Status and Post-Exercise Lactate Concentration in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Olek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either 0.1 g·kg−1 of body mass of a sodium pyruvate or placebo. The capillary blood samples were obtained at rest, 60 min after ingestion, and then three and 15 min after completing the workout protocol to analyze acid-base status and lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glucose concentrations. The pulmonary gas exchange, minute ventilation and the heart rate were measured during the exercise at a constant power output, corresponding to ~90% O2max. The blood pH, bicarbonate and the base excess were significantly higher after sodium pyruvate ingestion than in the placebo trial. The blood lactate concentration was not different after the ingestion, but the post-exercise was significantly higher in the pyruvate trial (12.9 ± 0.9 mM than in the placebo trial (10.6 ± 0.3 mM, p < 0.05 and remained elevated (nonsignificant after 15 min of recovery. The blood pyruvate, alanine and glucose concentrations, as well as the overall pulmonary gas exchange during the exercise were not affected by the pyruvate ingestion. In conclusion, the sodium pyruvate ingestion one hour before workout modified the blood acid-base status and the lactate production during the exercise.

  17. Effect of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in acetylsalicylic acid metabolic pathway genes on platelet reactivity in patients with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postula, Marek; Janicki, Piotr K.; Rosiak, Marek; Kaplon-Cieslicka, Agnieszka; Kondracka, Agnieszka; Trzepla, Ewa; Filipiak, Krzysztof J.; Kosior, Dariusz A.; Czlonkowski, Andrzej; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Background Platelet reactivity in patients on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) therapy can be influenced by physiological or pathological conditions affecting ASA pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. The mechanism of such variability in the therapeutic response to ASA, particularly in diabetic patients, is poorly understood. The rate of elimination of ASA and its metabolite, salicylic acid (SA), is likely a major factor determining drug efficacy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms in the selected candidate genes within the ASA metabolic pathway on the platelet reactivity and concentration of ASA and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) metabolites in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Material/Methods The study cohort consisted of 287 Caucasians with T2DM who had been taking ASA tablets at the dose of 75 mg per day for at least 3 months. Platelet reactivity analyses were performed using VerifyNow Aspirin and PFA-100 assays. The measured ASA metabolite included salicylic acid (ASA), and TxA2 metabolites included serum TxB2 and urinary 11-dh-TxB2. Genotyping for the selected 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 5 genes of the ASA metabolic pathway was performed using a Sequenom iPLEX platform. Results No statistically significant association was observed between the investigated SNPs genotypes, platelet reactivity, and measured metabolites in the investigated cohort of patients. Conclusions The results of our study failed to confirm that the selected variants in the genes within the ASA metabolic pathway might contribute to platelet reactivity in a diabetic population treated with ASA. PMID:23715170

  18. Changes in the content of fatty acids in CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus of Krushinsky-Molodkina rats after single and fivefold audiogenic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Tatyana; Aripovsky, Alexander; Kulagina, Tatyana

    2017-09-01

    Audiogenic seizures (AS) are generalized seizures evoked by high frequency sounds. Since the hippocampus is involved in the generation and maintenance of seizures, the effect of AS on the composition and content of fatty acids in the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas of AS-susceptible Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rats on days 1, 3, and 14 after single and fivefold seizures were examined. The total content of all fatty acids in field СА1 was found to be lower compared with the control at all times of observation after both a single seizure or fivefold seizures. The total content of fatty acids in field СА3 decreased at all times of examination after a single seizure, whereas it remained unchanged on days 3 and 14 following five AS. The content of omega-3 fatty acids in both fields at all times of observation after a single seizure and fivefold AS did not significantly differ from that in intact animals. The absence of significant changes in the content of stearic and α-linolenic acids and a considerable decrease in the levels of palmitic, oleic, and eicosapentaenoic acids were common to both fields at all times after both a single seizure or fivefold AS. The changes in the content of fatty acids in the СА3 and СА1 fields of the brain of AS-susceptible rats indicate that fatty acids are involved in both the development of seizure activity and neuroprotective anticonvulsive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Quantitative analysis of seven phenolic acids in eight Yinqiao Jiedu serial preparations by quantitative analysis of multi-components with single-marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-jun; Zhang, Li; Guo, Qing; Kou, Jun-ping; Yu, Bo-yang; Gu, Dan-hua

    2015-04-01

    The study aims to develop a unified method to determine seven phenolic acids (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A and isochlorogenic acid C) contained in honeysuckle flower that is the monarch drug of all the eight Yinqiao Jiedu serial preparations using quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker (QAMS). Firstly, chlorogenic acid was used as a reference to get the average relative correction factors (RCFs) of the other phenolic acids in ratios to the reference; columns and instruments from different companies were used to validate the durability of the achieved RCFs in different levels of standard solutions; and honeysuckle flower extract was used as the reference substance to fix the positions of chromatographic peaks. Secondly, the contents of seven phenolic acids in eight different Yinqiao Jiedu serial preparations samples were calculated based on the RCFs durability. Finally, the quantitative results were compared between QAMS and the external standard (ES) method. The results have showed that the durability of the achieved RCFs is good (RSD during 0.80% - 2.56%), and there are no differences between the quantitative results of QAMS and ES (the relative average deviation quantitative control of honeysuckle flower principally prescribed in Yinqiao Jiedu serial preparations.

  20. Dynamic encapsulation of hydrophilic nisin in hydrophobic poly (lactic acid) particles with controlled morphology by a single emulsion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shaowen; Lu, Jue; Liu, Zhiguo; Srivastava, Devesh; Song, Anna; Liu, Yan; Lee, Ilsoon

    2014-06-01

    Hydrophilic nisin-loaded hydrophobic poly (lactic acid) (PLA) particles with controlled size and shape were successfully produced utilizing a one-step single emulsification method. Preliminary shear stress and temperature tests showed that there was no significant loss in the nisin inhibition activity during this process. PLA/nisin composite particles were prepared into solid nanocomposite spheres (50-200 nm) or hollow microcomposite spheres (1-5 μm) under the operative conditions developed in our previous study, in which the hydrophilic nisin in the aqueous phase solution could be entrapped in the hydrophobic polymer in the emulsification process generating either single or multiple emulsions. The incorporation of nisin in PLA had little effect on key processing conditions, which allows the dynamic control of the morphology and property of resulting particles. Microscopic and surface analyses suggested that nisin was dispersed uniformly inside the polymer matrix and adsorbed on the particle surface. The encapsulation amount and efficiency were enhanced with the increase in nisin loading in the aqueous solution. Unique reversible control of particle size and shape by this process was successfully applied in the nisin encapsulation. Alternating temperature in the repeating emulsification steps improved the encapsulation efficiency while generated particles in desired size and shape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A single amino acid substitution in the group 1 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor abolishes TLF-1 binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E DeJesus

    Full Text Available Critical to human innate immunity against African trypanosomes is a minor subclass of human high-density lipoproteins, termed Trypanosome Lytic Factor-1 (TLF-1. This primate-specific molecule binds to a haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor (HpHbR on the surface of susceptible trypanosomes, initiating a lytic pathway. Group 1 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense causes human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, escaping TLF-1 killing due to reduced uptake. Previously, we found that group 1 T. b. gambiense HpHbR (TbgHpHbR mRNA levels were greatly reduced and the gene contained substitutions within the open reading frame. Here we show that a single, highly conserved amino acid in the TbgHpHbR ablates high affinity TLF-1 binding and subsequent endocytosis, thus evading TLF-1 killing. In addition, we show that over-expression of TbgHpHbR failed to rescue TLF-1 susceptibility. These findings suggest that the single substitution present in the TbgHpHbR directly contributes to the reduced uptake and resistance to TLF-1 seen in these important human pathogens.

  2. Growth and spectroscopy studies of ADP single crystals with L-proline and L-arginine amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Brahim, F., E-mail: faouzi.benbrahi@fss.rnu.tn [Laboratoire des Sciences des Materiaux et de l' Environnement (MES-Lab), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Route de Soukra km 3.5, BP 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Bulou, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense (LPEC), UMR CNRS no 6087, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 09 (France)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} ADP single crystals were grown with L-proline and L-arginine as guest molecules. {yields} This enhances some properties: piezo-electric, NLO, dielectric and antiferroelectic. {yields} Such compounds can be successfully used for hydrogen bonding studies. - Abstract: Ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate (ADP) single crystals were grown with L-proline and L-arginine amino acids as additives at 4% molar concentrations. X-ray diffractograms, vibrational FT-IR, and Raman and NMR MAS of {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H spectra of pure and treated compounds were recorded at room temperature and interpreted. A shift of the wavenumbers of some internal modes of both PO{sub 4} and NH{sub 4} tetrahedrons species was observed. At the same time, some characteristic vibrational modes of N-H and C-H bonds of the organic molecules appeared in IR spectra. However, NMR results show a little shift of the resonance of the phosphorus and hydrogen nucleus, associated with some shoulders for this latter. These observations indicate that the host-additives interactions were achieved.

  3. Accuracy of Motor Axon Regeneration Across Autograft, Single Lumen, and Multichannel Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid) (PLGA) Nerve Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Godard C.; Spinner, Robert J.; Malessy, Martijn J. A.; Moore, Michael J.; Sorenson, Eric J.; Currier, Bradford L.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Windebank, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Accuracy of motor axon regeneration becomes an important issue in the development of a nerve tube for motor nerve repair. Dispersion of regeneration across the nerve tube may lead to misdirection and polyinnervation. In this study, we present a series of methods to investigate the accuracy of regeneration, which we used to compare regeneration across autografts and single lumen poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nerve tubes. We also present the concept of the multichannel nerve tube that may limit dispersion by separately guiding groups of regenerating axons. Methods Simultaneous tracing of the tibial and peroneal nerves with fast blue (FB) and diamidino yellow (DY), 8 weeks after repair of a 1-cm nerve gap in the rat sciatic nerve, was performed to determine the percentage of double-projecting motoneurons. Sequential tracing of the peroneal nerve with DY 1 week before and FB 8 weeks after repair was performed to determine the percentage of correctly directed peroneal motoneurons. Results In the cases in which there was successful regeneration across single lumen nerve tubes, more motoneurons had double projections to both the tibial and peroneal nerve branches after single lumen nerve tube repair (21.4%) than after autograft repair (5.9%). After multichannel nerve tube repair, this percentage was slightly reduced (16.9%), although not significantly. The direction of regeneration was nonspecific after all types of repair. Conclusion Retrograde tracing techniques provide new insights into the process of regeneration across nerve tubes. The methods and data presented in this study can be used as a basis in the development of a nerve tube for motor nerve repair. PMID:18728579

  4. , , , , , and Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001 carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases. Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001 stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  5. Phylogenetic group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes for single-cell detection of lactic acid bacteria in oral biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for the single-cell detection and enumeration of lactic acid bacteria, in particular organisms belonging to the major phylogenetic groups and species of oral lactobacilli and to Abiotrophia/Granulicatella. Results As lactobacilli are known for notorious resistance to probe penetration, probe-specific assay protocols were experimentally developed to provide maximum cell wall permeability, probe accessibility, hybridization stringency, and fluorescence intensity. The new assays were then applied in a pilot study to three biofilm samples harvested from variably demineralized bovine enamel discs that had been carried in situ for 10 days by different volunteers. Best probe penetration and fluorescent labeling of reference strains were obtained after combined lysozyme and achromopeptidase treatment followed by exposure to lipase. Hybridization stringency had to be established strictly for each probe. Thereafter all probes showed the expected specificity with reference strains and labeled the anticipated morphotypes in dental plaques. Applied to in situ grown biofilms the set of probes detected only Lactobacillus fermentum and bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group. The most cariogenic biofilm contained two orders of magnitude higher L. fermentum cell numbers than the other biofilms. Abiotrophia/Granulicatella and streptococci from the mitis group were found in all samples at high levels, whereas Streptococcus mutans was detected in only one sample in very low numbers. Conclusions Application of these new group- and species-specific FISH probes to oral biofilm-forming lactic acid bacteria will allow a clearer understanding of the supragingival biome, its spatial architecture and of structure-function relationships implicated during plaque homeostasis and caries development. The probes should prove of value far beyond the field of oral microbiology, as many of

  6. Phylogenetic group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes for single-cell detection of lactic acid bacteria in oral biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurnheer Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH probes for the single-cell detection and enumeration of lactic acid bacteria, in particular organisms belonging to the major phylogenetic groups and species of oral lactobacilli and to Abiotrophia/Granulicatella. Results As lactobacilli are known for notorious resistance to probe penetration, probe-specific assay protocols were experimentally developed to provide maximum cell wall permeability, probe accessibility, hybridization stringency, and fluorescence intensity. The new assays were then applied in a pilot study to three biofilm samples harvested from variably demineralized bovine enamel discs that had been carried in situ for 10 days by different volunteers. Best probe penetration and fluorescent labeling of reference strains were obtained after combined lysozyme and achromopeptidase treatment followed by exposure to lipase. Hybridization stringency had to be established strictly for each probe. Thereafter all probes showed the expected specificity with reference strains and labeled the anticipated morphotypes in dental plaques. Applied to in situ grown biofilms the set of probes detected only Lactobacillus fermentum and bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group. The most cariogenic biofilm contained two orders of magnitude higher L. fermentum cell numbers than the other biofilms. Abiotrophia/Granulicatella and streptococci from the mitis group were found in all samples at high levels, whereas Streptococcus mutans was detected in only one sample in very low numbers. Conclusions Application of these new group- and species-specific FISH probes to oral biofilm-forming lactic acid bacteria will allow a clearer understanding of the supragingival biome, its spatial architecture and of structure-function relationships implicated during plaque homeostasis and caries development. The probes should prove of value far beyond the field of

  7. Exploring Redox Properties of Aromatic Amino Acids in Water: Contrasting Single Photon vs Resonant Multiphoton Ionization in Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Seidel, Robert; Kumar, Gaurav; Bradforth, Stephen E

    2018-04-12

    Direct measurements of the valence ionization energies and the reorganization energies of the three aromatic amino acids, l-tyrosine, l-tryptophan, and l-phenylalanine, in aqueous solution using the liquid microjet technique and two different photoemission methods-X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at 175 eV photon energy and resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) using 2 × 267 nm (2 × 4.64 eV) UV laser light-are reported. l-Tryptophan has the lowest vertical ionization energy, 7.3 eV, followed by tyrosine (7.8 eV) and phenylalanine (∼8.7 eV). Essentially, no variation in recovered orbital energies is observed comparing near threshold ionization to X-ray ionization. Superior sensitivity of the (background-free) R2PI scheme for solutions with very low solute concentration (<2 mM) is demonstrated in contrast to the single-photon XPS measurements, which often requires solute concentrations of 0.1-1 molar. This higher sensitivity along with chemical selectivity of the R2PI technique can be exploited for both spectroscopic assignment and as an analytical tool. The nature of the adiabatic ionization energy for the three aromatic amino acids has been explored by the R2PI approach and by empirically formulating the correlation between the estimated ionization onset with electronic and nuclear relaxation on the excited state surface. Our results have implications for understanding one-electron transfer within enzymes and in redox situations where (ir)reversible deprotonation occurs such as those manifest in the biochemistry of oxidation damage.

  8. Single amino acid mutation alters thermostability of the alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus: thermodynamics and temperature dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Yang, Qingjun; Feng, Hong

    2015-02-01

    Dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP) from Bacillus pumilus BA06 has been demonstrated to have high catalytic efficiency and good thermostability, with potential application in leather processing. In order to get insights into its catalytic mechanism, two mutants with single amino acid substitution according to the homology modeling and multiple sequence alignment were characterized in thermodynamics of thermal denaturation and temperature dependence of substrate hydrolysis. The results showed that both mutants of V149I and R249E have a systematic increase in catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) in a wide range of temperatures, mainly due to an increase of k1 (substrate diffusion) and k2 (acylation) for V149I and of k2 and k3 (deacylation) for R249E. In comparison with the wild-type DHAP, the thermostability is increased for V149I and decreased for R249E. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the free energy (ΔGa°) of activation for thermal denaturation may govern the thermostability. The value of ΔGa° is increased for V149I and decreased for R249E. Based on these data and the structural modeling, it is suggested that substitution of Val149 with Ile may disturb the local flexibility in the substrate-binding pocket, leading to enhancement of binding affinity for the substrate. In contrast, substitution of Arg249 with Glu leads to interruption of interaction with the C-terminal of enzyme, thus resulting in less thermostability. This study indicates that amino acid residues in the active center or in the substrate-binding pocket may disturb the catalytic process and can be selected as the target for protein engineering in the bacterial alkaline proteases. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Combination of electromembrane extraction and liquid-phase microextraction in a single step: Simultaneous group separation of acidic and basic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) were combined in a single step for the first time to realize simultaneous and clear group separation of basic and acidic drugs. Using 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for EME and dihexyl ether...... as the SLM for LPME, basic and acidic drugs were extracted and separated simultaneously from a low pH sample by EME and LPME, respectively. After 15 min of extraction, basic drugs (citalopram and sertraline) were exhaustively extracted, whereas the recoveries for acidic drugs (ketoprofen and ibuprofen) were...... in the range of 76%-86%. Longer extraction time provided higher recoveries for the acidic drugs, but this somewhat deteriorated the group separation. Matrices effects from the coexisting acidic drugs/basic drugs were tested, and we observed that simultaneous EME/LPME was not affected by coexisting drugs...

  10. PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes activate neutrophils to increase production of hypochlorous acid, the oxidant capable of degrading nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, Irina I., E-mail: irina.vlasova@yahoo.com [Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vakhrusheva, Tatyana V. [Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sokolov, Alexey V.; Kostevich, Valeria A. [Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Research Institute for Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gusev, Alexandr A.; Gusev, Sergey A. [Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Melnikova, Viktoriya I. [Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lobach, Anatolii S. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-01

    Perspectives for the use of carbon nanotubes in biomedical applications depend largely on their ability to degrade in the body into products that can be easily cleared out. Carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (c-SWCNTs) were shown to be degraded by oxidants generated by peroxidases in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In the present study we demonstrated that conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to c-SWCNTs does not interfere with their degradation by peroxidase/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system or by hypochlorite. Comparison of different heme-containing proteins for their ability to degrade PEG-SWCNTs has led us to conclude that the myeloperoxidase (MPO) product hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the major oxidant that may be responsible for biodegradation of PEG-SWCNTs in vivo. MPO is secreted mainly by neutrophils upon activation. We hypothesize that SWCNTs may enhance neutrophil activation and therefore stimulate their own biodegradation due to MPO-generated HOCl. PEG-SWCNTs at concentrations similar to those commonly used in in vivo studies were found to activate isolated human neutrophils to produce HOCl. Both PEG-SWCNTs and c-SWCNTs enhanced HOCl generation from isolated neutrophils upon serum-opsonized zymosan stimulation. Both types of nanotubes were also found to activate neutrophils in whole blood samples. Intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of PEG-SWCNTs into mice induced an increase in percentage of circulating neutrophils and activation of neutrophils and macrophages in the peritoneal cavity, suggesting the evolution of an inflammatory response. Activated neutrophils can produce high local concentrations of HOCl, thereby creating the conditions favorable for degradation of the nanotubes. -- Highlights: ► Myeloperoxidase (MPO) product hypochlorous acid is able to degrade CNTs. ► PEGylated SWCNTs stimulate isolated neutrophils to produce hypochlorous acid. ► SWCNTs are capable of activating neutrophils in blood samples. ► Activation of

  11. A Single-step Process to Convert Karanja Oil to Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Using Amberlyst15 as a Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Gupta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Karanja oil was successfully converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME in a single- step process using Amberlyst15 as a catalyst. A methanol to oil ratio of 6 was required to retain the physical structure of the Amberlyst15 catalyst. At higher methanol to oil ratios, the Amberlyst15 catalyst disintegrated. Disintegration of Amberlyst15 caused an irreversible loss in catalytic activity. This loss in activity was due to a decrease in surface area of Amberlyst15, which was caused by a decrease in its mesoporous volume. It appeared that the chemical nature of Amberlyst15 was unaffected. Reuse of Amberlyst15 with a methanol to oil ratio of 6:1 also revealed a loss in FAME yield. However, this loss in activity was recovered by heating the used Amberlyst15 catalyst to 393 K. The kinetic parameters of a power law model were successfully determined for a methanol to oil ratio of 6:1. An activation energy of 54.9 kJ mol–1 was obtained.

  12. High affinity γPNA sandwich hybridization assay for rapid detection of short nucleic acid targets with single mismatch discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Johnathan M; Zhang, Li Ang; Manna, Arunava; Armitage, Bruce A; Ly, Danith H; Schneider, James W

    2013-07-08

    Hybridization analysis of short DNA and RNA targets presents many challenges for detection. The commonly employed sandwich hybridization approach cannot be implemented for these short targets due to insufficient probe-target binding strengths for unmodified DNA probes. Here, we present a method capable of rapid and stable sandwich hybridization detection for 22 nucleotide DNA and RNA targets. Stable hybridization is achieved using an n-alkylated, polyethylene glycol γ-carbon modified peptide nucleic acid (γPNA) amphiphile. The γPNA's exceptionally high affinity enables stable hybridization of a second DNA-based probe to the remaining bases of the short target. Upon hybridization of both probes, an electrophoretic mobility shift is measured via interaction of the n-alkane modification on the γPNA with capillary electrophoresis running buffer containing nonionic surfactant micelles. We find that sandwich hybridization of both probes is stable under multiple binding configurations and demonstrate single base mismatch discrimination. The binding strength of both probes is also stabilized via coaxial stacking on adjacent hybridization to targets. We conclude with a discussion on the implementation of the proposed sandwich hybridization assay as a high-throughput microRNA detection method.

  13. FunSAV: predicting the functional effect of single amino acid variants using a two-stage random forest model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Wang

    Full Text Available Single amino acid variants (SAVs are the most abundant form of known genetic variations associated with human disease. Successful prediction of the functional impact of SAVs from sequences can thus lead to an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms of why a SAV may be associated with certain disease. In this work, we constructed a high-quality structural dataset that contained 679 high-quality protein structures with 2,048 SAVs by collecting the human genetic variant data from multiple resources and dividing them into two categories, i.e., disease-associated and neutral variants. We built a two-stage random forest (RF model, termed as FunSAV, to predict the functional effect of SAVs by combining sequence, structure and residue-contact network features with other additional features that were not explored in previous studies. Importantly, a two-step feature selection procedure was proposed to select the most important and informative features that contribute to the prediction of disease association of SAVs. In cross-validation experiments on the benchmark dataset, FunSAV achieved a good prediction performance with the area under the curve (AUC of 0.882, which is competitive with and in some cases better than other existing tools including SIFT, SNAP, Polyphen2, PANTHER, nsSNPAnalyzer and PhD-SNP. The sourcecodes of FunSAV and the datasets can be downloaded at http://sunflower.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sjn/FunSAV.

  14. Entrapped Single Tungstate Site in Zeolite for Cooperative Catalysis of Olefin Metathesis with Brønsted Acid Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pu; Ye, Lin; Sun, Zhenyu; Lo, Benedict T W; Woodcock, Harry; Huang, Chen; Tang, Chiu; Kirkland, Angus I; Mei, Donghai; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2018-04-16

    Industrial olefin metathesis catalysts generally suffer from low reaction rates and require harsh reaction conditions for moderate activities. This is due to their inability to prevent metathesis active sites (MAS) from aggregation and their intrinsic poor adsorption and activation of olefin molecules. Here, isolated tungstate species as single molecular MAS is immobilized inside zeolite pores by Brønsted acid sites (BAS) on the inner surface. It is demonstrated for the first time that unoccupied BAS in atomic proximity to MAS enhance olefin adsorption and greatly facilitate the formation of metallocycle intermediates in a stereospecific manner. Thus, effective cooperative catalysis takes place over the BAS-MAS pair. In consequence, for the cross-metathesis of ethene and trans-2-butene to propene, under the same mild reaction conditions, the propene production rate over WOx/USY is ca. 7,300 times that over the industrial WO3/SiO2 based catalyst. A propene yield up to 79% (80% selectivity) without observable deactivation was obtained over WOx/USY for a wide range of reaction conditions.

  15. Growth and characterization of a single crystal of Urea Adipic acid (UAA) - A third order nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, A.; Krishnan, C.; Selvarajan, P.

    2014-03-01

    An organic single crystal of Urea Adipic acid (UAA) was successfully grown in methanol solvent by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature (30 °C). The structure of grown crystal was elucidated from the X-ray diffraction study and it belongs to monoclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P21/c. The optical transmission spectrum of UAA has been recorded and its theoretical calculations were carried out to determine the linear optical constants such as linear absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index and reflectance etc. The third-order nonlinearities of UAA crystal have been investigated by Z-scan method. The values of nonlinear refractive index (n2), the absorption coefficient (β) and third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) are found to be the order of 0.96 × 10-10 cm2/W, 1.248 × 10-4 cm/W and 6.44 × 10-8 esu respectively. Fourier Transform Infra Red and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal the intermolecular interactions present in the UAA sample. The dielectric and mechanical measurements of the title compound are also reported.

  16. Growth and characterization of a single crystal of Urea Adipic acid (UAA)--a third order nonlinear optical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, A; Krishnan, C; Selvarajan, P

    2014-03-25

    An organic single crystal of Urea Adipic acid (UAA) was successfully grown in methanol solvent by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature (30 °C). The structure of grown crystal was elucidated from the X-ray diffraction study and it belongs to monoclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P21/c. The optical transmission spectrum of UAA has been recorded and its theoretical calculations were carried out to determine the linear optical constants such as linear absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index and reflectance etc. The third-order nonlinearities of UAA crystal have been investigated by Z-scan method. The values of nonlinear refractive index (n2), the absorption coefficient (β) and third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ((3))) are found to be the order of 0.96×10(-10) cm(2)/W, 1.248×10(-4) cm/W and 6.44×10(-8) esu respectively. Fourier Transform Infra Red and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal the intermolecular interactions present in the UAA sample. The dielectric and mechanical measurements of the title compound are also reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Single Laboratory Validation of A Ready-to-Use Phosphatase Inhibition Assay for Detection of Okadaic Acid Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mata

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A phosphatase inhibition assay for detection of okadaic acid (OA toxins in shellfish, OkaTest, was single laboratory validated according to international recognized guidelines (AOAC, EURACHEM. Special emphasis was placed on the ruggedness of the method and stability of the components. All reagents were stable for more than 6 months and the method was highly robust under normal laboratory conditions. The limit of detection and quantification were 44 and 56 µg/kg, respectively; both below the European legal limit of 160 µg/kg. The repeatability was evaluated with 2 naturally contaminated samples. The relative standard deviation (RSD calculated was 1.4% at a level of 276 µg/kg and 3.9% at 124 µg/kg. Intermediate precision was estimated by testing 10 different samples (mussel and scallop on three different days and ranged between 2.4 and 9.5%. The IC50 values of the phosphatase used in this assay were determined for OA (1.2 nM, DTX-1 (1.6 nM and DTX-2 (1.2 nM. The accuracy of the method was estimated by recovery testing for OA (mussel, 78–101%; king scallop, 98–114%, DTX-1 (king scallop, 79–102% and DTX-2 (king scallop, 93%. Finally, the method was qualitatively compared to the mouse bioassay and LC-MS/MS.

  18. Dually cross-linked single network poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels with superior mechanical properties and water absorbency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming; Liu, Yi-Tao; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Shi, Fu-Kuan; Zhang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Mei-Fang; Xie, Xu-Ming

    2016-06-28

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogels with superior mechanical properties, based on a single network structure with dual cross-linking, are prepared by one-pot free radical polymerization. The network structure of the PAA hydrogels is composed of dual cross-linking: a dynamic and reversible ionic cross-linking among the PAA chains enabled by Fe(3+) ions, and a sparse covalent cross-linking enabled by a covalent cross-linker (Bis). Under deformation, the covalently cross-linked PAA chains remain intact to maintain their original configuration, while the Fe(3+)-enabled ionic cross-linking among the PAA chains is broken to dissipate energy and then recombined. It is found that the mechanical properties of the PAA hydrogels are significantly influenced by the contents of covalent cross-linkers, Fe(3+) ions and water, which can be adjusted within a substantial range and thus broaden the applications of the hydrogels. Meanwhile, the PAA hydrogels have excellent recoverability based on the dynamic and reversible ionic cross-linking enabled by Fe(3+) ions. Moreover, the swelling capacity of the PAA hydrogels is as high as 1800 times in deionized water due to the synergistic effects of ionic and covalent cross-linkings. The combination of balanced mechanical properties, efficient recoverability, high swelling capacity and facile preparation provides a new method to obtain high-performance hydrogels.

  19. Study on the Reactivity of Amino Acid Chemosensor, NPFNP, with Ethanol: Structural Elucidation through Single Crystal XRD and DFT Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ethoxy derivative of an amino acid chemosensor, 3-naphthyl-1-phenyl-5-(2ʹ-fluoro-5ʹ-nitrophenyl-2-pyrazoline (NPFNP, has been synthesized and characterized by different spectroscopic methods.  A single crystal of the ethoxy derivative, 3-naphthyl-1-phenyl-5-(2ʹ-ethoxy-5ʹ-nitrophenyl-2-pyrazoline NPENP, has been obtained and characterized.  The structure holds interest as it carries biologically active pyrazoline as a central ring attaching to electron donating and withdrawing substituents. The major motivation for this work was to gain detailed insight into the structural parameters of this compound for investigating the influence of crystal packing and geometrical dimensions on optical properties. Time-dependent DFT calculations have been employed for comparing the XRD data with theoretical parameters. The results show that the DFT method at B3LYP/6-31G level can well reproduce the structure of the title compound.

  20. Electrochemical characterization of mixed self-assembled films of water-soluble single-walled carbon nanotube-poly(m-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) and Iron(II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Agboola, BO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The redox activities of water-soluble iron(II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine (FeTSPc) and single-walled carbon nanotube-poly(m-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) (SWCNT-PABS) adsorbed on a gold surface precoated with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 2...

  1. The formation of right-handed and left-handed chiral nanopores within a single domain during amino acid self-assembly on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sena; Jeon, Aram; Driver, Russell W; Kim, Yeonwoo; Jeon, Eun Hee; Kim, Sehun; Lee, Hee-Seung; Lee, Hangil

    2016-05-25

    We report the formation of both right- and left-handed chiral nanopores within a single domain during the self-assembly of an amino acid derivative on an inert Au(111) surface using STM. DFT calculations employed to rationalize this unusual result identified that intermolecular interactions between chiral, windmill-shaped tetramers are crucial for self-assembly.

  2. Effects of single amino acid substitution on the biophysical properties and biological activities of an amphipathic α-helical antibacterial peptide against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Juanjuan; Huang, Jinfeng; Huang, Yibing; Chen, Yuxin

    2014-07-24

    An antimicrobial peptide, known as V13K, was utilized as the framework to study the effects of charge, hydrophobicity and helicity on the biophysical properties and biological activities of α-helical peptides. Six amino acids (Lys, Glu, Gly, Ser, Ala, and Leu) were individually used to substitute the original hydrophobic valine at the selected sixteenth location on the non-polar face of V13K. The results showed that the single amino acid substitutions changed the hydrophobicity of peptide analogs as monitored by RP-HPLC, but did not cause significant changes on peptide secondary structures both in a benign buffer and in a hydrophobic environment. The biological activities of the analogs exhibited a hydrophobicity-dependent behavior. The mechanism of peptide interaction with the outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-negative bacteria was investigated. We demonstrated that this single amino acid substitution method has valuable potential for the rational design of antimicrobial peptides with enhanced activities.

  3. Formic acid decomposition on Pt1/Cu (111) single platinum atom catalyst: Insights from DFT calculations and energetic span model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Fan; Li, Kun; Wang, Gui-Chang

    2018-04-01

    Inspired by the recent surface experimental results that the monatomic Pt catalysts has more excellent hydrogen production that Cu(111) surface, the mechanism of decomposition of formic acid on Cu(111) and single atom Pt1/Cu(111) surface was studied by periodic density functional theory calculations in the present work. The results show that the formic acid tends to undergo dehydrogenation on both surfaces to obtain the hydrogen product of the target product, and the selectivity and catalytic activity of Pt1/Cu (111) surface for formic acid dehydrogenation are better. The reason is that the single atom Pt1/Cu(111) catalyst reduces the reaction energy barrier (i.e., HCOO → CO2 + H) of the critical step of the dehydrogenation reaction due to the fact that the single atom Pt1/Cu(111) catalyst binds formate weakly compared to that of Cu (111) one. Moreover, it was found that the Pt1/Cu (111) binds CO more strongly than that of Cu (111) one and thus leading to the difficult for the formation of CO. These two factors would make the single Pt atom catalyst had the high selectivity for the H2 production. It is hoped that the present work may help people to design the efficient H2 production from HCOOH decomposition by reduce the surface binding strength of HCOO species, for example, using the low coordination number active site like single atom or other related catalytic system.

  4. Single and combined effects of acetic acid, furfural, and sugars on the growth of the pentose-fermenting yeastMeyerozyma guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Michelle Dos Santos Cordeiro; Bastos, Reinaldo Gaspar; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina

    2018-02-01

    The tolerance of the pentose-fermenting yeast Meyerozyma guilliermondii to the inhibitors released after the biomass hydrolysis, such as acetic acid and furfural, was surveyed. We first verified the effects of acetic acid and cell concentrations and initial pH on the growth of a M. guilliermondii strain in a semi-synthetic medium containing acetic acid as the sole carbon source. Second, the single and combined effects of furfural, acetic acid, and sugars (xylose, arabinose, and glucose) on the sugar uptake, cell growth, and ethanol production were also analysed. Growth inhibition occurred in concentrations higher than 10.5 g l -1 acetic acid and initial pH 3.5. The maximum specific growth rate (µ) was 0.023 h -1 and the saturation constant (ks) was 0.75 g l -1 acetic acid. Initial cell concentration also influenced µ. Acetic acid (initial concentration 5 g l -1 ) was co-consumed with sugars even in the presence of 20 mg l -1 furfural without inhibition to the yeast growth. The yeast grew and fermented sugars in a sugar-based medium with acetic acid and furfural in concentrations much higher than those usually found in hemicellulosic hydrolysates.

  5. Single-Atom Mn Active Site in a Triol-Stabilized β-Anderson Manganohexamolybdate for Enhanced Catalytic Activity towards Adipic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Luo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adipic acid is an important raw chemical for the commercial production of polyamides and polyesters. The traditional industrial adipic acid production utilizes nitric acid to oxidize KA oil (mixtures of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol, leading to the emission of N2O and thus causing ozone depletion, global warming, and acid rain. Herein, we reported an organically functionalized β-isomer of Anderson polyoxometalates (POMs nanocluster with single-atom Mn, β-{[H3NC(CH2O3]2MnMo6O18}− (1, as a highly active catalyst to selectively catalyze the oxidation of cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol, or KA oil with atom economy use of 30% H2O2 for the eco-friendly synthesis of adipic acid. The catalyst has been characterized by single crystal and powder XRD, XPS, ESI-MS, FT-IR, and NMR. A cyclohexanone (cyclohexanol conversion of >99.9% with an adipic acid selectivity of ~97.1% (~85.3% could be achieved over catalyst 1 with high turnover frequency of 2427.5 h−1 (2132.5 h−1. It has been demonstrated that the existence of Mn3+ atom active site in catalyst 1 and the special butterfly-shaped topology of POMs both play vital roles in the enhancement of catalytic activity.

  6. Exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) and sunflower oil in human adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Villegas, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is a potential oilseed crop because it is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (omega-3 fatty acid). To evaluate the exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi or sunflower oil in healthy volunteers. Plasma fatty acids concentrations were assayed by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector in 18 adult subjects. After fasting, blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after ingestion of 10 or 15 ml of sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil. The proportion ALA/linoleic acid was 1.37 in sacha inchi oil and 0.01 in sunflower oil. ALA, lauric acid, palmitic acid, linolelaidic acid, cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid, cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels changed over time after sacha inchi oil ingestion but not with sunflower oil. The time at maximal concentration (tmax) for ALA was 2 h after sacha inchi oil ingestion. No ALA in plasma was observed after sunflower oil consumption. The maximal concentration of ALA was 2.84 ± 0.36 mg/ml in women and 0.94 ± 0.57 mg/ml in men, p  0.05). There is a trend for higher plasma ALA levels with 15 ml sacha inchi oil. After 2 h of consumption, plasma delta triacylglycerol were reduced with sunflower oil but slightly increased with sacha inchi oil. A reduction in plasma delta triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein cholesterol was observed with both oils. Consumption of sacha inchi oil increased ALA and DHA in plasma.

  7. The Effect of Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching Times on Bonding Performance and Surface Free Energy with Single-step Self-etch Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, A; Barkmeier, W W; Takamizawa, T; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phosphoric acid pre-etching times on shear bond strength (SBS) and surface free energy (SFE) with single-step self-etch adhesives. The three single-step self-etch adhesives used were: 1) Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (3M ESPE), 2) Clearfil tri-S Bond (Kuraray Noritake Dental), and 3) G-Bond Plus (GC). Two no pre-etching groups, 1) untreated enamel and 2) enamel surfaces after ultrasonic cleaning with distilled water for 30 seconds to remove the smear layer, were prepared. There were four pre-etching groups: 1) enamel surfaces were pre-etched with phosphoric acid (Etchant, 3M ESPE) for 3 seconds, 2) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 5 seconds, 3) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 10 seconds, and 4) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 15 seconds. Resin composite was bonded to the treated enamel surface to determine SBS. The SFEs of treated enamel surfaces were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the enamel surfaces and enamel-adhesive interface. The specimens with phosphoric acid pre-etching showed significantly higher SBS and SFEs than the specimens without phosphoric acid pre-etching regardless of the adhesive system used. SBS and SFEs did not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times over 3 seconds. There were no significant differences in SBS and SFEs between the specimens with and without a smear layer. The data suggest that phosphoric acid pre-etching of ground enamel improves the bonding performance of single-step self-etch adhesives, but these bonding properties do not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times over 3 seconds.

  8. Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative evaluation of the pharmacokinetic data in humans after consumption of single doses of beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Gary; Dionisi, Fabiola; Renouf, Mathieu

    2011-06-01

    Coffee contains a complex mixture of chlorogenic acids, which are mainly ferulic and caffeic acids ester-linked to quinic acid. Green tea contains flavanols, mainly (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC). For healthy humans, we identified seven studies on green tea in liquid form and five on coffee beverage reporting single-dose plasma pharmacokinetics. Weighted averages, based on the number of subjects, and elimination of outliers, allowed estimation of some pharmacokinetic parameters. After consumption of an "average" cup of green tea containing 112 mg of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, 51 mg of EGC and 15 mg of EC in 200 mL, the predicted C(max) values (total free and sulfate/glucuronide conjugates) in plasma are 125, 181 and 76 nM, respectively, together with 94 nM methyl-EGC and 51 nM methyl-EC (standard deviation <20%). After consumption of an "average" cup of coffee (160 mg total chlorogenic acids (0.46 mmol)/200 mL), predicted C(max) values of caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, dihydrocaffeic and dihydroferulic acids are 114, 96, 50, 384 and 594 nM, respectively (too few studies to calculate standard deviation). Most studies report a very low amount of intact chlorogenic acids in plasma, with one exception. More studies on absorption of chlorogenic acids from coffee are required, including dose-response studies. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Will a single periarticular lidocaine-corticosteroid injection improve the clinical efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, Cemil; Altay, Mehmet Akif; Altay, Nuray; Kalender, Ali Murat; Öztürk, İbrahim Avşin

    2016-11-01

    A local injection of corticosteroid-lidocaine into the periarticular soft tissue structures is used commonly for rapid pain relief. It is hypothesized that knee pain associated with knee osteoarthritis would be relieved quickly and effectively in patients receiving intraarticular hyaluronic acid combined with a periarticular lidocaine-corticosteroid injection. To test this hypothesis, the clinical effect of the combined treatment with hyaluronic acid injection alone in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis as compared in this prospective single-blinded randomized trial. This study included 70 patients. Group 1 (n = 35) received intraarticular hyaluronic acid injections only, whereas group 2 (n = 35) received intraarticular hyaluronic acid injections combined with a single local injection of corticosteroid-lidocaine. Injections were administered to the most painful areas of the anterior or posterior medial condyle of the femur or tibia. The outcome was measured by independent assessors (blinded to treatment) using a linear VAS pain scale and WOMAC and HSS knee scores. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks. During the first 3 weeks, group 2 patients showed significantly better all scores than did group 1 patients (p hyaluronic acid alone in patients with knee osteoarthritis and can be considered a useful adjunctive treatment modality. This combined method may provide early return to patient's daily activity. Therapeutic study, Level I.

  10. A single nine-amino acid peptide induces virus-specific, CD8+ human cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones of heterogeneous serotype specificities

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    It is generally accepted that virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) recognize nine-amino acid peptides in conjunction with HLA class I molecules. We recently reported that dengue virus- specific CD8+ CTLs of two different serotype specificities, which were established by stimulation with dengue virus, recognize a single nine- amino acid peptide of the nonstructural protein NS3 of dengue virus type 4 (D4V) in an HLA-B35-restricted fashion. To further analyze the relationships betw...

  11. Effects of stereo-regularity on the single-chain mechanics of polylactic acid and its implications on the physical properties of bulk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Qian, Lu; Qian, Hu-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Cui, Shuxun

    2017-10-05

    The material properties of polylactic acid (PLA) are largely determined by its stereo-regularity (tacticity). To find out the origin at the molecular level, the single-chain mechanics of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) and poly-d,l-lactide (PDLLA) were comparatively investigated by single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM). At a low concentration, PLLA adopted a random-coil conformation in a good solvent. At a high concentration, however, the PLLA chain can be induced into a helix, which consumed additional energy during unfolding by further stretching. Due to the random arrangement of l- and d-repeating units in the PDLLA chain, PDLLA adopts a random-coil conformation at all concentrations. The difference in single-chain mechanics of PLLA and PDLLA at high concentrations may be the cause of their different macroscopic properties. This is the first report to reveal the stereo-regularity-dependent mechanics of a polymer at the single-molecule level, which may help to bridge the gap between understanding single-molecule and materials properties.

  12. A route to quantitative 13C NMR analysis of multicomponent polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, S.

    1991-01-01

    A protocol for quantitative sequential 13C NMR analysis is developed for polyesters composed of trimethylol propane (TMP), neopentyl glycol (NPG), and adipic and isophthalic acids. TMP centred, structural models with methyl adipate and isophthalate branches in all possible combinations are synthe......A protocol for quantitative sequential 13C NMR analysis is developed for polyesters composed of trimethylol propane (TMP), neopentyl glycol (NPG), and adipic and isophthalic acids. TMP centred, structural models with methyl adipate and isophthalate branches in all possible combinations...

  13. Amino Acid Functionalization of Doped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Effects of Dopants and Side Chains as Well as Zwitterionic Stabilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lisha; Zhu, Chang; Fu, Yujie; Yang, Gang

    2017-04-06

    Functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is necessitated in a number of conditions such as drug delivery, and here amino acid functionalization of SWCNTs is conducted within the framework of density functional theory. Functionalization efficiencies of Gly are largely determined by dopants, as a combined effect of atomic radius, electronic configuration, and distortion to SWCNTs. Different functionalization sites in Gly have divergent interaction strengths with M/SWCNTs that decline as O b > N > O a , and this trend seems almost independent of the identity of metallic dopants. B/SWCNT behaves distinctly and prefers to the N site. Dopants affect principally interaction strengths, while amino acids regulate significantly both functionalization configurations and interaction energies. Then focus is given to stabilization of zwitterionic amino acids due to enhanced interactions with the widely used zwitterionic drugs. All metallic dopants render zwitterionic Gly to be the most stable, and side chains in amino acids rather than dopants in M/SWCNTs cause more pronounced effects to zwitterionic stabilizations. Charge transfers between amino acids and M/SWCNTs are closely associated with zwitterionic stabilization effects, and different charge transfer mechanisms between M/SWCNTs and metal ions are interpreted. Thus, this work provides a comprehensive understanding of amino acid functionalization of M/SWCNTs.

  14. Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

  15. The 15N-leucine single-injection method allows for determining endogenous losses and true digestibility of amino acids in cecectomized roosters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujiu Hu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary protein content in poultry when using the 15N-leucine single-injection method to determine endogenous amino acid losses (EAALs in poultry. Forty-eight cecectomized roosters (2.39 ± 0.23 kg were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments containing protein levels of 0, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21%. Each bird was precisely fed an experimental diet of 25 g/kg of body weight. After feeding, all roosters were subcutaneously injected with a 15N-leucine solution at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight. Blood was sampled 23 h after the injection, and excreta samples were continuously collected during the course of the 48-h experiment. The ratio of 15N-enrichment of leucine in crude mucin to free leucine in plasma ranged from 0.664 to 0.763 and remained relatively consistent (P > 0.05 across all treatments. The amino acid (AA profiles of total endogenous AAs, except isoleucine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, proline and serine, were not influenced (P > 0.05 by dietary protein contents. The predominant endogenous AAs in the excreta were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonine, serine and proline. The order of the relative proportions of these predominant AAs also remained relatively constant (P > 0.05. The endogenous losses of total AAs determined with the 15N-leucine single-injection method increased curvilinearly with the dietary protein contents. The true digestibility of most AAs and total AAs was independent of their respective dietary protein levels. Collectively, the 15N-leucine single-injection method is appropriate for determining EAALs and the true digestibility of AAs in poultry fed varying levels of protein-containing ingredients.

  16. Reclamation of acid pickling waste: A facile route for preparation of single-phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Lu, Bin; Tang, Huihui; Zhao, Jingxiang; Cai, Qinghai, E-mail: caiqinghai@yahoo.com

    2015-05-01

    Using an alternative method of dropwise addition of iron salt in NaOH aqueous solution, nanocrystalline Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} materials were prepared from acid pickling waste as a starting material with ultrasonic enhancement and polyethylene glycol as a dispersant, as proved by XRD, TEM, TG–DSC and ICP-MS. The results showed that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} material was a well-crystallized magnetite with an average size of about 25 nm and purity 99.15%. Magnetic measurement revealed the nanocrystals were stronger superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 82.1 emu/g. - Graphical abstract: A facile method for the preparation of single-phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle from acid pickling waste by chemical precipitation was explored. The results characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, TG–DSC, ICP-MS and magnetic measurement showed that the obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanomaterial was well-crystallized magnetite and stronger superparamagnetic with single phase. - Highlights: • Reclamation of acid pickling waste. • An alternative route for preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Nanocrystals with single phase. • Stronger superparamagnetic nature.

  17. Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangiri-Rad Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29 by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min. The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8 was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs.

  18. Quantifying the effect of sorbic acid, heat and combination of both on germination and outgrowth of Bacillus subtilis spores at single cell resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rachna; Pieper, Gerard H; Ter Beek, Alexander; Vischer, Norbert O E; Smelt, Jan P P M; Manders, Erik M M; Brul, Stanley

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores are a problem for the food industry as they are able to survive preservation processes. The spores often reside in food products, where their inherent protection against various stress treatments causes food spoilage. Sorbic acid is widely used as a weak acid preservative in the food industry. Its effect on spore germination and outgrowth in a combined, 'hurdle', preservation setting has gained limited attention. Therefore, the effects of mild sorbic acid (3 mM), heat-treatment (85 °C for 10 min) and a combination of both mild stresses on germination and outgrowth of B. subtilis 1A700 spores were analysed at single spore level. The heat-treatment of the spore population resulted in a germination efficiency of 46.8% and an outgrowth efficiency of 32.9%. In the presence of sorbic acid (3 mM), the germination and outgrowth efficiency was 93.3% and 80.4% respectively whereas the combined heat and sorbic acid stress led to germination and outgrowth efficiencies of 52.7% and 27.0% respectively. The heat treatment clearly primarily affected the germination process, while sorbic acid affected the outgrowth and generation time. In addition a new 'burst' time-point was defined as the time-point at which the spore coat visibly breaks and/or is shed. The combined stresses had a synergistic effect on the time of the end of germination to the burst time-point, increasing both the mean and its variation more than either of the single stresses did. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Single and multi-component adsorption of salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine and caffeine from water onto transition metal modified and partially calcined inorganic-organic pillared clay fixed beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Lafaurie, Wilman A; Román, Félix R; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J

    2015-01-23

    Fixed-beds of transition metal (Co(2+), Ni(2+) or Cu(2+)) inorganic-organic pillared clays (IOCs) were prepared to study single- and multi-component non-equilibrium adsorption of a set of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs: salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine and caffeine) from water. Adsorption capacities for single components revealed that the copper(II) IOCs have better affinity toward salicylic and clofibric acid. However, multi-component adsorption tests showed a considerable decrease in adsorption capacity for the acids and an unusual selectivity toward carbamazepine depending on the transition metal. This was attributed to a combination of competition between PPCPs for adsorption sites, adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, and plausible pore blocking caused by carbamazepine. The cobalt(II) IOC bed that was partially calcined to fractionate the surfactant moiety showcased the best selectivity toward caffeine, even during multi-component adsorption. This was due to a combination of a mildly hydrophobic surface and interaction between the PPCP and cobalt(II). In general, the tests suggest that these IOCs may be a potential solution for the removal of PPCPs if employed in a layered-bed configuration, to take care of families of adsorbates in a sequence that would produce sharpened concentration wavefronts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Crystal growth, structural and thermal studies of amino acids admixtured L-arginine phosphate monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, P.; Saravanan, T.; Parthipan, G.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ravi, G.; Jayavel, R.

    2011-05-01

    To study the improved characteristics of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals, amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been grown by slow cooling method. Amino acids like glycine, L-alanine, and L-valine have been selected for doping. Optical quality bulk crystals have been harvested after a typical growth period of about twenty days. The effect of amino acids in the crystal lattice and molecular vibrational frequencies of various functional groups in the crystals have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) analyses respectively. Thermal behavior of the amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been studied from the TG and DTG analyses. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out to find the crystalline nature. Optical transmission studies have been carried out by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The cut off wavelength is below 240 nm for the grown crystals.

  1. Identification and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphism markers in FADS2 gene associated with olive oil fatty acids composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Rayda Ben; Ennouri, Karim; Hlima, Hajer Ben; Smaoui, Slim; Hanana, Mohsen; Mzid, Rim; Ercişli, Sezai; Rebai, Ahmed

    2017-07-12

    Genotyping of the FAD2.1 and FAD2.3 polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase 2 gene (FADS2) shows that they are associated with the fatty acids composition of olive oil samples. However, these associations require further confirmation in the Tunisian olive oil cultivars, and little is known about the effect of polymorphisms in fatty acid-related genes on olive oil mono- and poly- unsaturated fatty acids distribution. A set of olive oils from 12 Tunisian cultivars was chosen. The fatty acid composition of each olive oil sample was determined by gas chromatography. Statistical and modeling Bayesian analyses were used to assess whether the FAD2.1 and FAD2.3 genotypes were associated with fatty acids composition. The TT-FAD2.1 and the GG-FAD2.3 genotypes were found to be associated with a lower proportion of oleic acid (C18:1) (r = -0.778, p = 0.003; r = -0.781, p= 0.003) as well as higher proportion of linoleic (C18:2) (r = 0.693, p = 0.012; r = -0.759, p= 0.004) and palmitic acids (C16:0) (r = 0.643, p = 0.024; r = -0.503, p= 0.095), making varieties with this haplotype (i.e. Chemlali Sfax and Meski) producing more saturated (C16: 0) and polyunsaturated acids than oleic acid. The latter plays a major role in preventing several diseases. The two associations FADS2 FAD2.1 and FADS2 FAD2.3 with the fatty acid compositions of olive oil samples were identified among the studied olive cultivars. These associations differed between studied cultivars, which might explain variability in lipidic composition among them and consequently reflecting genetic diversity through differences in gene expression and biochemical pathways. FADS2 locus would constitute thus a good marker for detecting interesting lipidic chemotypes among commercial olive oils.

  2. A single amino acid substitution in the activation loop defines the decoy characteristic of VEGFR-1/FLT-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosana D; Mohammadi, Moosa; Rahimi, Nader

    2006-01-13

    VEGFR-1 is a kinase-defective receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and negatively modulates angiogenesis by acting as a decoy receptor. The decoy characteristic of VEGFR-1 is required for normal development and angiogenesis. To date, there is no molecular explanation for this unusual characteristic of VEGFR-1. Here we show that the molecular mechanisms underlying the decoy characteristic of VEGFR-1 is linked to the replacement of a highly conserved amino acid residue in the activation loop. This amino acid is highly conserved among all the type III RTKs and corresponds to aspartic acid, but in VEGFR-1 it is substituted to asparagine. Mutation of asparagine (Asn(1050)) within the activation loop to aspartic acid promoted enhanced ligand-dependent tyrosine autophosphorylation and kinase activation in vivo and in vitro. The mutant VEGFR-1 (Asp(1050)) promoted endothelial cell proliferation but not tubulogenesis. It also displayed an oncogenic phenotype as its expression in fibroblast cells elicited transformation and colony growth. Furthermore, mutation of the invariable aspartic acid to asparagine in VEGFR-2 lowered the autophosphorylation of activation loop tyrosines 1052 and 1057. We propose that the conserved aspartic acid in the activation loop favors the transphosphorylation of the activation loop tyrosines, and its absence renders RTK to a less potent enzyme by disfavoring transphosphorylation of activation loop tyrosines.

  3. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Activation Loop Defines the Decoy Characteristic of VEGFR-1/FLT-1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosana D.; Mohammadi, Moosa; Rahimi, Nader

    2006-01-01

    VEGFR-1 is a kinase-defective receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and negatively modulates angiogenesis by acting as a decoy receptor. The decoy characteristic of VEGFR-1 is required for normal development and angiogenesis. To date, there is no molecular explanation for this unusual characteristic of VEGFR-1. Here we show that the molecular mechanisms underlying the decoy characteristic of VEGFR-1 is linked to the replacement of a highly conserved amino acid residue in the activation loop. This amino acid is highly conserved among all the type III RTKs and corresponds to aspartic acid, but in VEGFR-1 it is substituted to asparagine. Mutation of asparagine (Asn1050) within the activation loop to aspartic acid promoted enhanced ligand-dependent tyrosine autophosphorylation and kinase activation in vivo and in vitro. The mutant VEGFR-1 (Asp1050) promoted endothelial cell proliferation but not tubulogenesis. It also displayed an oncogenic phenotype as its expression in fibroblast cells elicited transformation and colony growth. Furthermore, mutation of the invariable aspartic acid to asparagine in VEGFR-2 lowered the autophosphorylation of activation loop tyrosines 1052 and 1057. We propose that the conserved aspartic acid in the activation loop favors the transphosphorylation of the activation loop tyrosines, and its absence renders RTK to a less potent enzyme by disfavoring transphosphorylation of activation loop tyrosines. PMID:16286478

  4. Hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose reduced postoperative bowel adhesions following laparoscopic urologic pelvic surgery: a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, U-Syn; Koh, Jun Sung; Cho, Kang Jun; Yoon, Byung Il; Lee, Kyu Won; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl

    2016-06-10

    To assess the anti-adhesive effect of treatment with hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. This was a randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel-group study using hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose in patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Sixty patients were enrolled in the study. All patients were randomly assigned to either the hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose treatment group (n = 30) or the control group (n = 30). Viscera slide ultrasounds and plain X-rays were obtained at enrollment (V0), postoperative week 12 (V1), and 24 (V2). The primary end point was the difference in the excursion distance in the viscera slide ultrasound between V0 and V2. A total of 50 patients completed this study. The average excursion distance at V2 in the experimental group (n = 25) was significantly longer than in the control group (n = 25, 2.7 ± 1.2 vs. 1.3 ± 1.0 cm, respectively; p hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose. This randomized study demonstrated that hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose treatment resulted in a reduction in bowel adhesion to the abdominal wall after laparoscopic pelvic surgery and had good clinical safety. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02773251 Date: May 12, 2016.

  5. Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Single and Multiple Oral Doses of an Omega-3-Carboxylic Acid Formulation in Healthy Male Japanese Subjects: A Phase 1 Single-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yoshinori; Nilsson, Catarina; Shimada, Hitoshi; Kim, Hyosung; Lundström, Torbjörn; Yajima, Toshitaka

    2018-02-01

    OM3-CA (omega-3-carboxylic acids) is a complex mixture of omega-3 carboxylic acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is approved in the United States for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. As part of its clinical development in Japan, we performed a phase 1 study to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics after single and multiple doses of OM3-CA in healthy male Japanese subjects. Eighteen Japanese subjects were allocated to receive 2 or 4 g/day OM3-CA, or placebo (n = 6 per group). In addition, 6 white subjects received 4 g/day OM3-CA. The primary objective was to determine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA. Plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were adjusted for baseline values for pharmacokinetic analysis. Overall, OM3-CA was well tolerated in healthy Japanese subjects. Two Japanese subjects in each group and 5 white subjects experienced adverse events (AEs). Alanine aminotransferase increase was the most common AE in Japanese subjects, also seen with placebo, and diarrhea was the most common AE in white subjects. The maximum plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were observed 5-6 hours postdose. The pharmacokinetic profiles of EPA and DHA after administration of OM3-CA were comparable between Japanese and white subjects. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Prediction of two-sample 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid plasma clearance from single-sample method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Li; Ma Ying-Chun; Wang Mei; Zhang Chun-Li; Wang Rong-Fu; Wang Hai-Yan

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an equation to predict dual plasma sample method (DPSM) 99m Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA) plasma clearance from single plasma sample method (SPSM), and to clarify the condition in which DPSM can be substituted by SPSM in measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were selected. Watson modified Christensen and Groth equation was used to calculate 99m Tc-DTPA plasma clearance by SPSM (sGFR). The equation recommended by the Nephrourology Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine was used to calculate 99m Tc-DTPA plasma clearance by DPSM (tGFR) in each patient. The difference between sGFR and tGFR was expressed as percent of the average of these two methods, and tGFR was predicted from sGFR. Plasma creatinine was measured by the kinetic picrate method, and GFR estimated by abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation (aGFR) and Cockcroft-Gault equation (cGFR) were evaluated as criteria in selection of DPSM and SPSM. Three hundred and sixty-nine patients with CKD were selected (208 male and 161 female). The average age and body weight were 51.4±15.5 years and 67.2±12.5 kg, respectively. The causes of CKD were glomerular disease, renal arterial stenosis, chronic tubulointerstitial disease, and other causes or causes unknown. The average tGFR was 62.9±36.5 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , ranging from 1-180 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . sGFR was significantly correlated with tGFR (r=0.9194, p 2 ; in contrast, then tGFR was±30 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , the difference was constant (-1.1%, 95% confidence interval -18.3%, 16.1%), and tGFR could be predicted from sGFR using the equation: predicted tGFR (ml/min/1.73 m 2 )=7 4244+0.7318 x sGFR+0.0022 x sGFR 2 (n=299, r 2 =0.9428, p 2 , the diagnostic sensitivity of a cut off value of aGFR=45 ml/min/1.73 m 2 was 91.8%, and recommended as a criterion in the selection of DPSM and SPSM. When GFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , t

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PAD1 and FDC1 show a positive relationship with ferulic acid decarboxylation ability among industrial yeasts used in alcoholic beverage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Nobuhiko; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2014-07-01

    Among industrial yeasts used for alcoholic beverage production, most wine and weizen beer yeasts decarboxylate ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, which has a smoke-like flavor, whereas sake, shochu, top-fermenting, and bottom-fermenting yeast strains lack this ability. However, the factors underlying this difference among industrial yeasts are not clear. We previously confirmed that both PAD1 (phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR538W) and FDC1 (ferulic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR539W) are essential for the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAD1 and FDC1 in sake, shochu, wine, weizen, top-fermenting, bottom-fermenting, and laboratory yeast strains were examined to clarify the differences in ferulic acid decarboxylation ability between these types of yeast. For PAD1, a nonsense mutation was observed in the gene sequence of standard top-fermenting yeast. Gene sequence analysis of FDC1 revealed that sake, shochu, and standard top-fermenting yeasts contained a nonsense mutation, whereas a frameshift mutation was identified in the FDC1 gene of bottom-fermenting yeast. No nonsense or frameshift mutations were detected in laboratory, wine, or weizen beer yeast strains. When FDC1 was introduced into sake and shochu yeast strains, the transformants exhibited ferulic acid decarboxylation activity. Our findings indicate that a positive relationship exists between SNPs in PAD1 and FDC1 genes and the ferulic acid decarboxylation ability of industrial yeast strains. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite nanoparticles for the determination of free fatty acid content in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Zhao, Qin; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-09

    This study proposes a rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) for determining the quantities of eight free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and behenic acid (C22:0) in oil. The amine-functionalized mesoporous Fe(3)O(4) magnetic NPs were applied as a sorbent for MSPE of FFAs from oil samples in a process that is based on hydrophilic interaction. The extraction can be completed rapidly in a dispersive mode with the aid of vigorous vortex. Additional tedious processing steps such as centrifugation and evaporation of organic solvent were not necessary with this procedure. Furthermore, esterification of FFAs can be accomplished during the desorption procedure by using methanol/sulfuric acid (99:1, v/v) as the desorption solvent. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the matrix solvent for extraction, the desorption solvent and desorption time, and the amount of sorbent and extraction time. The pretreatment process was rapid under optimal conditions, being accomplished within 15 min. When coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), a rapid, simple, and convenient MSPE-GC-FID method for the determination of FFAs in oil samples was established with a total analysis time within 25 min. The limits of detection for the target FFAs were found to be 7.22-26.26 ng/mL. Recoveries in oil samples were in the range of 81.33-117.75%, with RSDs of <6.4% (intraday) and <6.9% (interday). This method was applied successfully to the analysis of dynamic FFA formation in four types of edible oils subjected to an accelerated storage test. The simple, rapid, and cost-effective method developed in the current study offers a potential application for the extraction and

  9. Effects of Single Amino Acid Substitution on the Biophysical Properties and Biological Activities of an Amphipathic α-Helical Antibacterial Peptide Against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Tan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An antimicrobial peptide, known as V13K, was utilized as the framework to study the effects of charge, hydrophobicity and helicity on the biophysical properties and biological activities of α-helical peptides. Six amino acids (Lys, Glu, Gly, Ser, Ala, and Leu were individually used to substitute the original hydrophobic valine at the selected sixteenth location on the non-polar face of V13K. The results showed that the single amino acid substitutions changed the hydrophobicity of peptide analogs as monitored by RP-HPLC, but did not cause significant changes on peptide secondary structures both in a benign buffer and in a hydrophobic environment. The biological activities of the analogs exhibited a hydrophobicity-dependent behavior. The mechanism of peptide interaction with the outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-negative bacteria was investigated. We demonstrated that this single amino acid substitution method has valuable potential for the rational design of antimicrobial peptides with enhanced activities.

  10. MMS sensitivity of all amino acid-requiring mutants in aspergillus and its suppression by mutations in a single gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käfer, E

    1987-04-01

    All available amino acid-requiring mutants of Aspergillus nidulans were found to be hypersensitive to MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) to various degrees. On MMS media, secondary mutations could be selected which suppress this MMS sensitivity but do not affect the requirement. Many such mutations were analyzed and found to be alleles of one gene, smsA (= suppressor of MMS sensitivity), which mapped distal on the right arm of chromosome V. This gene is more likely to be involved in general regulation of amino acid biosynthesis than MMS uptake, since a variety of pathway interactions were clearly modified by smsA suppressors in the absence of MMS.

  11. Food matrices affect the bioavailability of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in a single meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schram, Laurine B; Nielsen, Carina J.; Porsgaard, Trine

    2007-01-01

    , a yoghurt drink, eight oil capsules, bread and butter; 4 g of fish oil was incorporated into one of the matrices. Blood samples were collected and fatty acid composition of chylomicrons was determined together with plasma levels of conjugated dienes and alpha-tocopherol. Fish oil incorporated into food...

  12. Prolonged increase of cis-urocanic acid levels in human skin and urine after single total-body ultraviolet exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Pavel, S.; Asghar, S. S.; Bos, J. D.; Teunissen, M. B.

    1997-01-01

    Cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA), a mediator of immunosuppression, is formed from trans-UCA upon UV-exposure of the skin. This study describes a liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of cis- and trans-UCA in skin, urine and plasma of nonirradiated volunteers. It also describes

  13. A novel tertiary prep-HPLC method for the isolation of single amino acids for AMS-radiocarbon measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Koudelka, Tomas; Tholey, Andreas; Dreves, Alexander

    2017-07-15

    AMS-radiocarbon measurements of amino acids can potentially provide more reliable radiocarbon dates than bulk collagen analysis. Nonetheless, the applicability of such an approach is often limited by the low-throughput of existing isolation methods and difficulties in determining the contamination introduced during the separation process. A novel tertiary prep-HPLC amino acid isolation method was developed that relies on the combustion of eluted material without requiring any additional chemical steps. Amino acid separation was carried out using a gradient mix of pure water and phosphoric acid with an acetonitrile step in-between runs to remove hydrophobic molecules from the separation column. The amount of contaminant carbon and its 14 C content were determined from two-point measurements of collagen samples of known 14 C content. The amount of foreign carbon due to the isolation process was estimated at 4±1μg and its 14 C content was 0.43±0.01 F 14 C. Radiocarbon values corrected for carbon contamination have only a minor increase in uncertainties. For Holocene samples, this corresponds to an added uncertainty typically smaller than 10 14 Cyears. The developed method can be added to routine AMS measurements without implying significant operational changes and offers a level of measurement uncertainty that is suitable for many archaeological, ecological, environmental, and biological applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A single pH fluorescent probe for biosensing and imaging of extreme acidity and extreme alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jian-Bin; Wang, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Yong-Bin; Li, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hong; Huo, Fang-Jun; Yin, Cai-Xia; Shi, Ya-Wei; Wang, Juan-Juan

    2017-07-04

    A simple tailor-made pH fluorescent probe 2-benzothiazole (N-ethylcarbazole-3-yl) hydrazone (Probe) is facilely synthesized by the condensation reaction of 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole with N-ethylcarbazole-3-formaldehyde, which is a useful fluorescent probe for monitoring extremely acidic and alkaline pH, quantitatively. The pH titrations indicate that Probe displays a remarkable emission enhancement with a pK a of 2.73 and responds linearly to minor pH fluctuations within the extremely acidic range of 2.21-3.30. Interestingly, Probe also exhibits strong pH-dependent characteristics with pK a 11.28 and linear response to extreme-alkalinity range of 10.41-12.43. In addition, Probe shows a large Stokes shift of 84 nm under extremely acidic and alkaline conditions, high selectivity, excellent sensitivity, good water-solubility and fine stability, all of which are favorable for intracellular pH imaging. The probe is further successfully applied to image extremely acidic and alkaline pH values fluctuations in E. coli cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the Single Dilute (0.43 M) Nitric Acid Extraction to Determine Geochemically Reactive Elements in Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, Jan E.; Römkens, Paul F.A.M.; Zomeren, van André; Rodrigues, S.M.; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2017-01-01

    Recently a dilute nitric acid extraction (0.43 M) was adopted by ISO (ISO-17586:2016) as standard for extraction of geochemically reactive elements in soil and soil like materials. Here we evaluate the performance of this extraction for a wide range of elements by mechanistic geochemical

  16. Acetobacter turbidans α-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase. How a Single Mutation Improves an Antibiotic-Producing Enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, Thomas R.M.; Polderman-Tijmes, Jolanda J.; Jekel, Peter A.; Williams, Christopher; Wybenga, Gjalt; Janssen, Dick B.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2006-01-01

    The α-amino acid ester hydrolase (AEH) from Acetobacter turbidans is a bacterial enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis and synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics. The crystal structures of the native enzyme, both unliganded and in complex with the hydrolysis product D-phenylglycine are reported, as well as

  17. A Single Amino Acid Difference between Mouse and Human 5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein (FLAP) Explains the Speciation and Differential Pharmacology of Novel FLAP Inhibitors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevitt, Jonathan M.; Hack, Michael D.; Herman, Krystal; Chang, Leon; Keith, John M.; Mirzadegan, Tara; Rao, Navin L.; Lebsack, Alec D.; Milla, Marcos E.

    2016-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) plays a critical role in the metabolism of arachidonic acid to leukotriene A4, the precursor to the potent pro-inflammatory mediators leukotriene B4 and leukotriene C4. Studies with small molecule inhibitors of FLAP have led to the discovery of a drug binding pocket on the protein surface, and several pharmaceutical companies have developed compounds and performed clinical trials. Crystallographic studies and mutational analyses have contributed to a general understanding of compound binding modes. During our own efforts, we identified two unique chemical series. One series demonstrated strong inhibition of human FLAP but differential pharmacology across species and was completely inactive in assays with mouse or rat FLAP. The other series was active across rodent FLAP, as well as human and dog FLAP. Comparison of rodent and human FLAP amino acid sequences together with an analysis of a published crystal structure led to the identification of amino acid residue 24 in the floor of the putative binding pocket as a likely candidate for the observed speciation. On that basis, we tested compounds for binding to human G24A and mouse A24G FLAP mutant variants and compared the data to that generated for wild type human and mouse FLAP. These studies confirmed that a single amino acid mutation was sufficient to reverse the speciation observed in wild type FLAP. In addition, a PK/PD method was established in canines to enable preclinical profiling of mouse-inactive compounds. PMID:27129215

  18. Engineering TaqII bifunctional endonuclease DNA recognition fidelity: the effect of a single amino acid substitution within the methyltransferase catalytic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylicz-Stachula, Agnieszka; Zebrowska, Joanna; Czajkowska, Edyta; Wrese, Weronika; Sulecka, Ewa; Skowron, Piotr M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to improve a useful molecular tool-TaqII restriction endonuclease-methyltransferase-by rational protein engineering, as well as to show an application of our novel method of restriction endonuclease activity modulation through a single amino acid change in the NPPY motif of methyltransferase. An amino acid change was introduced using site-directed mutagenesis into the taqIIRM gene. The mutated gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein variant was purified and characterized. Previously, we described a TspGWI variant with an amino acid change in the methyltransferase motif IV. Here, we investigate a complex, pleiotropic effect of an analogous amino acid change on its homologue-TaqII. The methyltransferase activity is reduced, but not abolished, while TaqII restriction endonuclease can be reactivated by sinefungin, with an increased DNA recognition fidelity. The general method for engineering of the IIS/IIC/IIG restriction endonuclease activity/fidelity is developed along with the generation of an improved TaqII enzyme for biotechnological applications. A successful application of our novel strategy for restriction endonuclease activity/fidelity alteration, based on bioinformatics analyses, mutagenesis and the use of cofactor-analogue activity modulation, is presented.

  19. The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction, the 'single-step' method has become widely used for isolating total RNA from biological samples of different sources. The principle at the basis of the method is that RNA is separated from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution containing guanidinium thiocyanate, sodium acetate, phenol and chloroform, followed by centrifugation. Under acidic conditions, total RNA remains in the upper aqueous phase, while most of DNA and proteins remain either in the interphase or in the lower organic phase. Total RNA is then recovered by precipitation with isopropanol and can be used for several applications. The original protocol, enabling the isolation of RNA from cells and tissues in less than 4 hours, greatly advanced the analysis of gene expression in plant and animal models as well as in pathological samples, as demonstrated by the overwhelming number of citations the paper gained over 20 years.

  20. Effect of single flame retardant aluminum tri-hydroxide and boric acid against inflammability and biodegradability of recycled PP/KF composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharty, Neng Sri; Dihardjo, Kuncoro; Handayani, Desi Suci; Firdaus, Maulidan

    2016-03-01

    Composites rPP/DVB/AA/KF had been reactively synthesized in melt using starting material: recycled polypropylene (rPP), kenaf fiber (KF), multifunctional compound acrylic acid (AA), compatibilizer divinyl benzene (DVB). To improve the inflammability of composites, single flame retardant aluminum tri-hydroxide (ATH) and boric acid (BA) as an additive was added. The inflammability of the composites was tested according to ASTM D635. By using 20% ATH and 5% BA additive in the composites it is effectively inhibiting its time to ignition (TTI). Its burning rate (BR) can be reduced and its heat realease (%HR) decreases. The biodegradability of composites was quantified by its losing weight (LW) of composites after buried for 4 months in the media with rich cellulolytic bacteria. The result shows that the LW of composites in the presence 20% ATH and 5% BA is 6.3%.

  1. New organic single crystal of (benzylthio)acetic acid: Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR) and thermal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, Justyna; Tarasiuk, Bogdan; Mazur, Liliana

    2016-04-01

    (Benzylthio)acetic acid (Hbta) was synthesized with 78% yield from benzyl chloride and thiourea as substrates. Well-shaped crystals of Hbta were grown by slow solvent evaporation technique from pure methanol. The compound was investigated by single-crystal X-ray and powder diffraction techniques and was also characterized by other analytical methods, like ATR-FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR and TG/DSC. The acid molecule adopts bent conformation in the solid state. The crystal structure of Hbta is stabilized by numerous intermolecular interactions, including O-H···O, C-H···O, C-H···S and C-H···π contacts. Thermal decomposition of the obtained material takes place above 150 °C.

  2. Molecular level computational studies of polyethylene and polyacrylonitrile composites containing single walled carbon nanotubes: effect of carboxylic acid functionalization on nanotube-polymer interfacial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatpanah, Shayesteh; Bohlén, Martin; Bolton, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and molecular mechanics (MM) methods have been used to investigate additive-polymer interfacial properties in single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polyethylene and SWNT-polyacrylonitrile composites. Properties such as the interfacial shear stress and bonding energy are similar for the two composites. In contrast, functionalizing the SWNT with carboxylic acid groups leads to an increase in these properties, with a larger increase for the polar polyacrylonitrile composite. Increasing the percentage of carbon atoms that were functionalized from 1 to 5% also leads to an increase in the interfacial properties. In addition, the interfacial properties depend on the location of the functional groups on the SWNT wall.

  3. A Single Amino Acid Mutation (I1012F) of the RNA Polymerase of Marine Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Changes In Vitro Virulence to Rainbow Trout Gill Epithelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sung-Hyun; Thu, Beate J.; Skall, Helle Frank

    2014-01-01

    was used in a gain-of-virulence approach based on the JF-09 backbone. Mutations were introduced into the G, NV, and L genes, and seven different virus clones were obtained. For the first time, we show that a single amino acid mutation in conserved region IV of the L protein, I1012F, rendered the virus able...... to in vivo virulence. In vitro virulence to gill epithelial cells (GECs) has been used as a proxy for in vivo virulence, and here we extend these studies further with the purpose of identifying residues associated with in vitro virulence. Genotype Ia (DK-3592B) and III (NO/650/07) isolates, which...

  4. Single-Dose Metformin Enhances Bile Acid-Induced Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secretion in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønden, Andreas; Albér, Anders; Rohde, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    -controlled, and double-blinded crossover study. Setting: This study was conducted at Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, Denmark. Patients: Fifteen metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes; all participants completed the study. Interventions: Four experimental study days in randomized order...... with administration of either 1500 mg metformin or placebo in combination with intravenous infusion of cholecystokinin (0.4 pmol × kg-1 × min-1) or saline. Main Outcome Measure: Plasma GLP-1 excursions as measured by baseline-subtracted area under the curve. Results: Single-dose metformin further enhanced bile acid...

  5. Alpha-Helical Fragaceatoxin C Nanopore Engineered for Double-Stranded and Single-Stranded Nucleic Acid Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wloka, Carsten; Mutter, Natalie Lisa; Soskine, Misha; Maglia, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Nanopores are used in single-molecule DNA analysis and sequencing. Herein, we show that Fragaceatoxin C (FraC), an α-helical pore-forming toxin from an actinoporin protein family, can be reconstituted in sphingomyelin-free standard planar lipid bilayers. We engineered FraC for DNA analysis and show

  6. The Use of Tranexamic Acid for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding by Medical and Surgical Intensivists: A Single Center Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Chertoff, Jason; Lowther, Grant; Alnuaimat, Hassan; Ataya, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background Tranexamic acid (TXA) may be beneficial in the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). We sought to investigate how frequently intensivists at our academic institution use TXA for patients with UGIB, and to investigate whether the utilization rate of TXA differs between surgical and medical intensivists, and provide an updated literature review on the subject. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted for UGIB to the surgical intensive car...

  7. Serum Uric Acid, Kidney Function and Acute Ischemic Stroke Outcomes in Elderly Patients: A Single-Cohort, Perspective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Falsetti, Lorenzo; Capeci, William; Tarquinio, Nicola; Viticchi, Giovanna; Silvestrini, Mauro; Catozzo, Vania; Fioranelli, Agnese; Buratti, Laura; Pellegrini, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease and hyperuricemia have been associated to an increased risk and a worse prognosis in acute ischemic stroke. Several mechanisms, including platelet dysfunction, coagulation disorders, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and an increased risk of atrial fibrillation could be implicated. The role of serum uric acid in this setting is still object of debate. We enrolled all the consecutive patients admitted to our department for acute ischemic stroke. Cox regression analy...

  8. The comparison of knee osteoarthritis treatment with single-dose bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells vs. hyaluronic acid injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdis Goncars

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The intra-articular injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells is a safe manipulation with no side effects during the 12-month period. This treatment provides statistically significant clinical improvement between the starting point and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after. When compared to hyaluronic acid treatment, better pain relief in the long-term period of mononuclear cell group was observed.

  9. Mms Sensitivity of All Amino Acid-Requiring Mutants in Aspergillus and Its Suppression by Mutations in a Single Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Käfer, Etta

    1987-01-01

    All available amino acid-requiring mutants of Aspergillus nidulans were found to be hypersensitive to MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) to various degrees. On MMS media, secondary mutations could be selected which suppress this MMS sensitivity but do not affect the requirement. Many such mutations were analyzed and found to be alleles of one gene, smsA (= suppressor of MMS sensitivity), which mapped distal on the right arm of chromosome V. This gene is more likely to be involved in general regula...

  10. Performance of mango seed adsorbents in the adsorption of anthraquinone and azo acid dyes in single and binary aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; Hernández-Montoya, Virginia

    2009-12-01

    In this study the husk of mango seed and two carbonaceous adsorbents prepared from it were used to study the adsorption behavior of eight acid dyes. The adsorbed amount in mmol m(-2) decayed asymptotically as the molecular volume and area increased. The interaction between the studied dyes and the mesoporous carbon was governed by the ionic species in solution and the acidic/basic groups on the surface. Less than 50% of the external surface of the microporous carbon became covered with the dyes molecules, though monolayer formation demonstrating specific interactions only with active sites on the surface and the adsorption magnitudes correlated with the shape parameter of the molecule within a particular dye group. The adsorption behavior in mixtures was determined by the molecular volume of the constituents; the greater the molecular volume difference, the greater the effect on the adsorbed amount. We also demonstrated that the raw husk of the mango seed can be used to remove up to 50% from model 50 mg l(-1) solutions of the studied acid dyes.

  11. The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P seeds. Significant (P oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty acid content was significantly (P seeds produced in T(1), than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5), but not in those produced in T(2).

  12. Reclamation of acid pickling waste: A facile route for preparation of single-phase Fe3O4 nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Lu, Bin; Tang, Huihui; Zhao, Jingxiang; Cai, Qinghai

    2015-05-01

    Using an alternative method of dropwise addition of iron salt in NaOH aqueous solution, nanocrystalline Fe3O4 materials were prepared from acid pickling waste as a starting material with ultrasonic enhancement and polyethylene glycol as a dispersant, as proved by XRD, TEM, TG-DSC and ICP-MS. The results showed that the Fe3O4 material was a well-crystallized magnetite with an average size of about 25 nm and purity 99.15%. Magnetic measurement revealed the nanocrystals were stronger superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 82.1 emu/g.

  13. A single amino acid change in HC-Pro of soybean mosaic virus alters symptom expression in a soybean cultivar carrying Rsv1 and Rsv3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2011-01-01

    It is generally believed that infidelity of RNA virus replication combined with R-gene-driven selection is one of the major evolutionary forces in overcoming host resistance. In this study, we utilized an avirulent soybean mosaic virus (SMV) mutant to examine the possibility of emergence of mutant viruses capable of overcoming R-gene-mediated resistance during serial passages. Interestingly, we found that the emerged progeny virus induced severe rugosity and local necrotic lesions in Jinpumkong-2 (Rsv1 + Rsv3) plants, while SMV-G7H provoked a lethal systemic hypersensitive response. Genome sequence analysis of the emerged progeny virus revealed that the mutation in CI that had caused SMV-G7H to lose its virulence was restored to the original sequence, and a single amino acid was newly introduced into HC-Pro, which means that the symptom alteration was due to this single amino acid mutation in HC-Pro. Our results suggest that SMV HC-Pro functions as a symptom determinant in the SMV-soybean pathosystem.

  14. Detection of impaired fatty acid metabolism in right ventricular hypertrophy. Assessment by I-123 β-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-ih; Goto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Go; Chiba, Hiroshi; Okada, Tomoya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko.

    1997-01-01

    The subjects consisted of 6 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 4 with primary pulmonary hypertension, 2 each with refractory pulmonary tuberculosis, tricuspid insufficiency, pulmonary embolism, 1 each with atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect (Eisenmenger complex), Ebstein anomaly, and endocardial defect, and 7 healthy controls. SPECT imaging with Tl-201 (Tl) and I-123 BMIPP, and Tc-99m RBC first pass and gated blood pool scintigraphy were performed. Based on Tl planar images, the subjects were classified into 3 groups: 7 patients with no RV visualization (Group A), 11 with moderate RV visualization (Group B) and 9 with marked RV visualization (Group C). As a semi-quantitative evaluation by a myocardial SPECT, 3 regions in 3 representative short axial images were divided into 9 segments, each of which was graded from 0 to +3, and their sum was calculated as the RV score. The right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF and the left ventricular ejection fraction were obtained by Tc-99m RBC cardiac scintigraphy. The groups with marked visualization of the right ventricle had lower RVEF, and there was a good correlation between the RVEF and the RV score with both a and BMIPP. Although a good correlation was demonstrated between the RV score with Tl and BMIPP in Groups A and B, in Group C, in which there was marked RV Tl visualization, the RV score with BMIPP was significantly smaller than with Tl. These findings suggest that impaired fatty acid metabolism may exist in severely hypertrophic right ventricle due to RV overload. (K.H.)

  15. Serum Uric Acid, Kidney Function and Acute Ischemic Stroke Outcomes in Elderly Patients: A Single-Cohort, Perspective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsetti, Lorenzo; Capeci, William; Tarquinio, Nicola; Viticchi, Giovanna; Silvestrini, Mauro; Catozzo, Vania; Fioranelli, Agnese; Buratti, Laura; Pellegrini, Francesco

    2017-02-20

    Chronic kidney disease and hyperuricemia have been associated to an increased risk and a worse prognosis in acute ischemic stroke. Several mechanisms, including platelet dysfunction, coagulation disorders, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and an increased risk of atrial fibrillation could be implicated. The role of serum uric acid in this setting is still object of debate. We enrolled all the consecutive patients admitted to our department for acute ischemic stroke. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of in-hospital death considering serum uric acid levels and all the comorbidities. In the overall sample, hyperuricemia was independently associated to an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. This effect was stronger in patients with chronic kidney disease while, in the group of patients with normal renal function, the relationship between hyperuricemia and increased stroke mortality was not confirmed. Hyperuricemia could be associated to higher in-hospital mortality for ischemic stroke among elderly patients when affected by kidney disease. Survival does not seem to be affected by hyperuricemia in patients with normal kidney function.

  16. Serum uric acid, kidney function and acute ischemic stroke outcomes in elderly patients: a single-cohort, perspective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Falsetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and hyperuricemia have been associated to an increased risk and a worse prognosis in acute ischemic stroke. Several mechanisms, including platelet dysfunction, coagulation disorders, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and an increased risk of atrial fibrillation could be implicated. The role of serum uric acid in this setting is still object of debate. We enrolled all the consecutive patients admitted to our department for acute ischemic stroke. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of in-hospital death considering serum uric acid levels and all the comorbidities. In the overall sample, hyperuricemia was independently associated to an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. This effect was stronger in patients with chronic kidney disease while, in the group of patients with normal renal function, the relationship between hyperuricemia and increased stroke mortality was not confirmed. Hyperuricemia could be associated to higher in-hospital mortality for ischemic stroke among elderly patients when affected by kidney disease. Survival does not seem to be affected by hyperuricemia in patients with normal kidney function.

  17. Single amino acids in the carboxyl terminal domain of aquaporin-1 contribute to cGMP-dependent ion channel activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yool Andrea J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaporin-1 (AQP1 functions as an osmotic water channel and a gated cation channel. Activation of the AQP1 ion conductance by intracellular cGMP was hypothesized to involve the carboxyl (C- terminus, based on amino acid sequence alignments with cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels and cGMP-selective phosphodiesterases. Results Voltage clamp analyses of human AQP1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 3–14 mM activated the ionic conductance response in a dose-dependent manner. Block of soluble guanylate cyclase prevented the response. Enzyme immunoassays confirmed a linear dose-dependent relationship between SNP and the resulting intracellular cGMP levels (up to 1700 fmol cGMP /oocyte at 14 mM SNP. Results here are the first to show that the efficacy of ion channel activation is decreased by mutations of AQP1 at conserved residues in the C-terminal domain (aspartate D237 and lysine K243. Conclusions These data support the idea that the limited amino acid sequence similarities found between three diverse classes of cGMP-binding proteins are significant to the function of AQP1 as a cGMP-gated ion channel, and provide direct evidence for the involvement of the AQP1 C-terminal domain in cGMP-mediated ion channel activation.

  18. A single amino acid substitution in the coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus induces chlorosis in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, M H; Zhang, L; Palukaitis, P

    1992-01-01

    Some strains of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) induce a bright yellow/white chlorosis in tobacco instead of the light green/dark green mosaic induced by most CMV strains. This property is controlled by RNA 3 of this tripartite virus. Recombination between cDNA clones of RNA 3 from a green mosaic strain, Fny-CMV, and a chlorotic strain, M-CMV, and inoculation of infectious transcripts of the chimeric RNAs 3, together with RNAs 1 and 2 of Fny-CMV, localized the chlorosis induction domain to a region of the coat protein gene containing two nucleotide differences. Site-directed mutagenesis of one nucleotide to change the codon for Leu129 in the M-CMV coat protein to Pro129 of Fny-CMV changed the phenotype from chlorotic to green mosaic, whereas the opposite change in phenotype was observed when the Pro129 in the Fny-CMV coat protein was altered to Ser129. Thus, the local secondary structure surrounding amino acid 129 rather than a particular amino acid per se is involved in chlorosis induction. PMID:1392593

  19. Construction, expression, and characterization of a single-chain variable fragment antibody against 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the hemolymph of silkworm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Nakamura, Seiko; Sasaki-Tabata, Kaori; Tanizaki, Yusuke; Maenaka, Katsumi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2011-07-01

    A single-chain variable fragment antibody against herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D-scFv) has been successfully expressed in the hemolymph of silkworm larvae using a rapid Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid DNA system. Variable heavy- and light-chain domains were cloned directly from the cDNA of the hybridoma cell line 2C4 and assembled together with flexible peptide linker (Gly(4)Ser)(3) between two domains. The yield of functional 2,4-D-scFv after purification was 640 μg per 30 ml of hemolymph, which is equivalent to 21.3 mg per liter of hemolymph. The characterization of 2,4-D-scFv using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) revealed that it has wide cross-reactivities against 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (65.5%), 2,4-dichlorophenol (47.9%), and 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid (26.0%), making it possible to apply 2,4-D-scFv to icELISA for detecting/determining 2,4-D and its metabolites. Judging from its cost and time requirements and its ease of handling, this BmNPV bacmid DNA expression system is more useful for expressing functional scFv than bacterial systems, which frequently require costly and time-consuming refolding.

  20. Low transfusion transmission of hepatitis E among 25,637 single-donation, nucleic acid-tested blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene H.; Holm, Dorte K.; Sækmose, Susanne G.

    2016-01-01

    was investigated among Danish blood donors, and the prevalence of HEV transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) was investigated among recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from 25,637 consenting donors collected during 1 month in 2015 were screened retrospectively using an individual-donation HEV RNA......BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus genotype-3 (HEV-gt-3) causes autochthonous infections in western countries, with a primary reservoir in animals, especially pigs. HEV transfusion transmission has been reported, and HEV-gt-3 prevalence is high in some European countries. The prevalence of HEV RNA...... nucleic acid test with a 95% detection probability of 7.9 IU/mL. HEV-positive samples were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotyped. Transmission was evaluated among recipients of HEV RNA-positive blood components. Phylogenetic analyses compared HEV sequences from blood donors...

  1. Pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadar, Miranda J; Hawkins, Michelle G; Byrne, Barbara A; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Keel, Kevin; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Tell, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects at the injection site of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) following IM administration of 1 dose to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 7 adult nonreleasable healthy red-tailed hawks. In a randomized crossover study, CCFA (10 or 20 mg/kg) was administered IM to each hawk and blood samples were obtained. After a 2-month washout period, administration was repeated with the opposite dose. Muscle biopsy specimens were collected from the injection site 10 days after each sample collection period. Pharmacokinetic data were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for various bacterial isolates were assessed. Mean peak plasma concentrations of ceftiofur-free acid equivalent were 6.8 and 15.1 μg/mL for the 10 and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively. Mean times to maximum plasma concentration were 6.4 and 6.7 hours, and mean terminal half-lives were 29 and 50 hours, respectively. Little to no muscle inflammation was identified. On the basis of a target MIC of 1 μg/mL and target plasma ceftiofur concentration of 4 μg/mL, dose administration frequencies for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms were estimated as every 36 and 45 hours for the 10 mg/kg dose and every 96 and 120 hours for the 20 mg/kg dose, respectively. Study results suggested that CCFA could be administered IM to red-tailed hawks at 10 or 20 mg/kg to treat infections with ceftiofur-susceptible bacteria. Administration resulted in little to no inflammation at the injection site. Additional studies are needed to evaluate effects of repeated CCFA administration.

  2. CT-guided single high-dose percutaneous acetic acid injection for small hepatocellular carcinoma: A long-term follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Heng; Liu Jing; Liu Fengli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcome of CT-guided single high-dose percutaneous acetic acid injection (PAI) for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC). Materials and methods: Sixty-eight consecutive patients (37 men and 31 women; age 52 ± 16 years) with SHCC have undergone CT-guided single high-dose PAI therapy since December 2000. Complications of high-dose PAI were recorded. Tumour survival and recurrence rates were assessed. Results: All PAI therapies were successful and no severe complications developed. The average follow-up period was 46 ± 18 months. The overall survival rates at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years were 93%, 82%, 68%, 59% and 51%, respectively. The cumulative local recurrence rates for the main tumour at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years were 18%, 22%, 25%, 28% and 28%, respectively. The cumulative new tumour recurrence rates at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years were 24%, 40%, 43%, 60% and 62%, respectively. Conclusion: CT-guided single high-dose PAI is safe and effective for the treatment of SHCC after long-term follow-up.

  3. Influence of VO2+ ions on structural and optical properties of potassium succinate-succinic acid single crystal for non-linear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet sheela, K.; Subramanian, P.

    2018-04-01

    A transparent and good optical quality semi organic single crystal of vanadium doped potassium succinate-succinic acid (KSSA) was synthesized by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The structural perfection was supported by the powder XRD of the KSSA-VO2+ single crystal. Optical behavior of the material was discovered from the absorption and transmission spectra of UV-vis-NIR characterization. Functional group and presence of metal ion in the specimen are depicted from FTIR traces. From the photoluminescence studies, emission of wavelength in the violet region (418 nm) at the excitation of 243 nm could be ascertained. EDAX, SEM measurements identify presence of elements and pictures the step-line growth and the imperfection presents in the grown crystal. EPR analysis extracts the information about the local site symmetry around the impurity ion, molecular orbital coefficients, admixture coefficients and ground state wave function of VO2+ doped KSSA single crystal. Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown crystal was investigated to explore the NLO characteristic of the material.

  4. HLA-G mediated immune regulation is impaired by a single amino acid exchange in the alpha 2 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Alexander A; Simper, Gwendolin S; Huyton, Trevor; Blasczyk, Rainer; Bade-Döding, Christina

    2018-03-29

    The trade-off from HLA class I expression to HLA-G expression support the immune evasion of malignant cells. The essential role of the virtually invariant HLA-G in immune tolerance, tumor immunology and its expression frequency in immune privileged tissues is known; however the specific importance of allelic subtypes in immune responses is still not well understood. HLA-G ∗ 01:01, ∗ 01:03 and ∗ 01:04 are the most prevalent allelic variants differing at residues 31 and 110, respectively. In cytotoxicity assays applying K562 cells transduced with the HLA-G variants as targets and NK cells as effectors the differential protective potential of HLA-G variants was analyzed. Their peptide profiles were determined utilizing soluble HLA technology. An increased protective potential of HLA-G ∗ 01:04 could be observed. All variants exhibit a unique peptide repertoire with marginal overlap, while G ∗ 01:04 differs in its peptide anchor profile substantially. The functional differences between HLA-G subtypes could be explained by the constraint of the bound peptides, modifying the pHLA-G accessible surface. For the first time a contribution of amino acid alterations within the HLA-G heavy chain for peptide selection and NK cell recognition could be observed. These results will be a step towards understanding immune tolerance and will guide towards personalized immune therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Sorption mechanisms of phenanthrene, lindane, and atrazine with various humic acid fractions from a single soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Guo, Xiaoying; Yang, Yu; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-03-15

    The sorption behavior of organic compounds (phenanthrene, lindane, and atrazine) to sequentially extracted humic acids and humin from a peat soil was examined. The elemental composition, XPS and (13)C NMR data of sorbents combined with sorption isotherm data of the tested compounds show that nonspecific interactions govern sorption of phenanthrene and lindane by humic substances. Their sorption is dependent on surface and bulk alkyl carbon contents of the sorbents, rather than aromatic carbon. Sorption of atrazine by these sorbents, however, is regulated by polar interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding). Carboxylic and phenolic moieties are key components for H-bonding formation. Thermal analysis reveals that sorption of apolar (i.e., phenanthrene and lindane) and polar (i.e., atrazine) compounds by humic substances exhibit dissimilar relationships with condensation and thermal stability of sorption domains, emphasizing the major influence of domain spatial arrangement on sorption of organic compounds with distinct polarity. Results of pH-dependent sorption indicate that reduction in sorption of atrazine by the tested sorbents is more evident than phenanthrene with increasing pH, supporting the dependence of organic compound sorption on its polarity and structure. This study highlights the different interaction mechanisms of apolar and polar organic compounds with humic substances.

  6. Detection of single amino acid mutation in human breast cancer by disordered plasmonic self-similar chain

    KAUST Repository

    Coluccio, M. L.

    2015-09-04

    Control of the architecture and electromagnetic behavior of nanostructures offers the possibility of designing and fabricating sensors that, owing to their intrinsic behavior, provide solutions to new problems in various fields. We show detection of peptides in multicomponent mixtures derived from human samples for early diagnosis of breast cancer. The architecture of sensors is based on a matrix array where pixels constitute a plasmonic device showing a strong electric field enhancement localized in an area of a few square nanometers. The method allows detection of single point mutations in peptides composing the BRCA1 protein. The sensitivity demonstrated falls in the picomolar (10−12 M) range. The success of this approach is a result of accurate design and fabrication control. The residual roughness introduced by fabrication was taken into account in optical modeling and was a further contributing factor in plasmon localization, increasing the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors. This methodology developed for breast cancer detection can be considered a general strategy that is applicable to various pathologies and other chemical analytical cases where complex mixtures have to be resolved in their constitutive components.

  7. Novel effects of a single administration of ferulic acid on the regulation of blood pressure and the hepatic lipid metabolic profile in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiansyah; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Koseki, Takuya; Komai, Michio

    2008-04-23

    We studied the effects of a single oral administration of ferulic acid (FA) on the blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Male 12-week-old SHRSP were administered FA (9.5 mg/kg of body weight) and distilled water as the control (C) (1 mL) via a gastric tube. The hypotensive effect of FA was observed at the lowest value after 2 h administration. A decrease in the angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the plasma corresponded well with the reduction of BP. Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower after 2 h administration. The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid and drug metabolism was downregulated in the FA group. These results suggest that oral administration of FA appears beneficial in improving hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

  8. Rapid determination of free fatty acid content in waste deodorizer distillates using single bounce-attenuated total reflectance-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Saba; Sherazi, Sayed Tufail Hussain; Talpur, Farah N; Mahesar, Sarfaraz A; Kara, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    A simple, rapid, economical, and environmentally friendly analytical method was developed for the quantitative assessment of free fatty acids (FFAs) present in deodorizer distillates and crude oils by single bounce-attenuated total reflectance-FTIR spectroscopy. Partial least squares was applied for the calibration model based on the peak region of the carbonyl group (C=O) from 1726 to 1664 cm(-1) associated with the FFAs. The proposed method totally avoided the use of organic solvents or costly standards and could be applied easily in the oil processing industry. The accuracy of the method was checked by comparison to a conventional standard American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) titrimetric procedure, which provided good correlation (R = 0.99980), with an SD of +/- 0.05%. Therefore, the proposed method could be used as an alternate to the AOCS titrimetric method for the quantitative determination of FFAs especially in deodorizer distillates.

  9. Ultra-high-density 3D DNA arrays within nanoporous biocompatible membranes for single-molecule-level detection and purification of circulating nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, M.; Shimoni, O.; Fox, K.; Karle, T. J.; Lohrmann, A.; Ostrikov, K.; Prawer, S.; Cervenka, J.

    2015-03-01

    Extracellular nucleic acids freely circulating in blood and other physiologic fluids are important biomarkers for non-invasive diagnostics and early detection of cancer and other diseases, yet difficult to detect because they exist in very low concentrations and large volumes. Here we demonstrate a new broad-range sensor platform for ultrasensitive and selective detection of circulating DNA down to the single-molecule level. The biosensor is based on a chemically functionalized nanoporous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated alumina membrane. The few nanometer-thick, yet perfect and continuous DLC-coating confers the chemical stability and biocompatibility of the sensor, allowing its direct application in biological conditions. The selective detection is based on complementary hybridization of a fluorescently-tagged circulating cancer oncomarker (a 21-mer nucleic acid) with covalently immobilized DNA on the surface of the membrane. The captured DNAs are detected in the nanoporous structure of the sensor using confocal scanning laser microscopy. The flow-through membrane sensor demonstrates broad-range sensitivity, spanning from 1015 molecules per cm2 down to single molecules, which is several orders of magnitude improvement compared to the flat DNA microarrays. Our study suggests that these flow-through type nanoporous sensors represent a new powerful platform for large volume sampling and ultrasensitive detection of different chemical biomarkers.Extracellular nucleic acids freely circulating in blood and other physiologic fluids are important biomarkers for non-invasive diagnostics and early detection of cancer and other diseases, yet difficult to detect because they exist in very low concentrations and large volumes. Here we demonstrate a new broad-range sensor platform for ultrasensitive and selective detection of circulating DNA down to the single-molecule level. The biosensor is based on a chemically functionalized nanoporous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated

  10. The Use of Tranexamic Acid for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding by Medical and Surgical Intensivists: A Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoff, Jason; Lowther, Grant; Alnuaimat, Hassan; Ataya, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) may be beneficial in the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). We sought to investigate how frequently intensivists at our academic institution use TXA for patients with UGIB, and to investigate whether the utilization rate of TXA differs between surgical and medical intensivists, and provide an updated literature review on the subject. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted for UGIB to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) and the medical intensive care unit (MICU) at our academic healthcare facility (University of Florida Health - Shands Hospital) from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2016. The patients were categorized as receiving or not receiving TXA. The overall utilization rate of TXA was calculated, and the utilization rates for the MICU and SICU were compared using a two-sample test for equality of two proportions with continuity correction. The study cohort included a total of 1,829 patients with a diagnosis of UGIB. Of those, 988 were treated in the MICU and 841 were treated in the SICU. Of the 988 patients in the MICU, six received TXA (0.61%), while 10 (1.19%) of the 841 patients in the SICU received TXA. The overall utilization rate of TXA was 0.87%. The odds of receiving TXA in the SICU were 1.97 times greater than in the MICU (odds ratio (OR): 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74 - 5.2, P = 1.83). Our study suggests that TXA may be underused in the management of UGIB, and that the utilization rate does not differ significantly between surgical and medical intensivists.

  11. Growth, spectral and optical characterization of a novel nonlinear optical organic material: D-Alanine DL-Mandelic acid single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, P.; Mohamed, M. Peer; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2017-04-01

    An organic nonlinear optical single crystal, D-alanine DL-mandelic acid was synthesized and successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at ambient temperature using solvent of aqueous solution. The unit cell parameters were assessed from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of diverse functional groups and vibrational modes were identified using Fourier Transform Infra Red and Fourier Transform Raman spectral analyses. The chemical structure of grown crystal has been identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic study. Ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis reveal that the crystal has lower cut-off wavelength down to 259 nm, is a key factor to exhibit second harmonic generation signal. The electronic optical band gap and Urbach energy is calculated as 5.31 eV and 0.2425 eV respectively from the UV absorption profile. The diverse optical properties such as, extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, optical conductivity was calculated using UV-visible data. The relative second harmonic efficiency of the compound is found to be 0.81 times greater than that of KH2PO4 (KDP). The thermal stability of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis techniques. The luminescence spectrum exhibited two peaks (520 nm, 564 nm) due to the donation of protons from carboxylic acid to amino group. The Vickers microhardness test was carried out employing one of the as-grown hard crystal and there by hardness number (Hv), Meyer's index (n), yield strength (σy), elastic stiffness constant (C11) and Knoop hardness number (HK) were assessed. The dielectric behaviour of the as-grown crystal was analyzed for different temperatures (313 K, 333 K, 353 K, and 373 K) at different frequencies.

  12. Growth, spectral, thermal, laser damage threshold, microhardness, dielectric, linear and nonlinear optical properties of an organic single crystal: L-phenylalanine DL-mandelic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaprakash, P. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India); Peer Mohamed, M. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishnan, P. [Department of Physics, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600 119, Tamil Nadu (India); Nageshwari, M.; Mani, G. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India); Lydia Caroline, M., E-mail: lydiacaroline2006@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-12-15

    Single crystals of L-phenylalanine dl-mandelic acid [C{sub 9}H{sub 11}NO{sub 2}. C{sub 8}H{sub 8}O{sub 3}], have been grown by the slow evaporation technique at room temperature using aqueous solution. The single crystal XRD study confirms monoclinic system for the grown crystal. The functional groups present in the grown crystal have been identified by FTIR and FT-Raman analyses. The optical absorption studies show that the crystal is transparent in the visible region with a lower cut-off wavelength of 257 nm and the optical band gap energy E{sub g} is determined to be 4.62 eV. The Kurtz powder second harmonic generation was confirmed using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. Further, the thermal studies confirmed no weight loss up to 150°C for the as-grown crystal. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibited three peaks (414 nm, 519 nm, 568 nm) due to the donation of protons from carboxylic acid to amino group. Laser damage threshold value was found to be 4.98 GW/cm{sup 2}. The Vickers microhardness test was carried out on the grown crystals and there by Vickers hardness number (H{sub v}), work hardening coefficient (n), yield strength (σ{sub y}), stiffness constant C{sub 11} were evaluated. The dielectric behavior of the crystal has been determined in the frequency range 50 Hz–5 MHz at various temperatures.

  13. Photosynthetic Performance of the Imidazolinone Resistant Sunflower Exposed to Single and Combined Treatment by the Herbicide Imazamox and an Amino Acid Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrinka Anastasova Balabanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The herbicide imazamox may provoke temporary yellowing and growth retardation in IMI-R sunflower hybrids, more often under stressful environmental conditions. Although photosynthetic processes are not the primary sites of imazamox action, they might be influenced; therefore, more information about the photosynthetic performance of the herbicide-treated plants could be valuable for a further improvement of the Clearfield technology. Plant biostimulants have been shown to ameliorate damages caused by different stress factors on plants, but very limited information exists about their effects on herbicide-stressed plants. In order to characterize photosynthetic performance of imazamox-treated sunflower IMI-R plants, we carried out experiments including both single and combined treatments by imazamox and a plant biostimulants containing amino acid extract. We found that imazamox application in a rate of 132 μg per plant (equivalent of 40 g active ingredient ha-1 induced negative effects on both light-light dependent photosynthetic redox reactions and leaf gas exchange processes, which was much less pronounced after the combined application of imazamox and amino acid extract.

  14. Alteration of nucleoside diphosphate binding specificity of E. coli elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) by single amino acid substitution at position 138

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Miller, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    A single amino acid substitution (Asp → Asn) at position 138 of E. coli EF-Tu was induced in the tufA gene by an M13 phage oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis protocol. The mutated tufA gene was then subcloned in a plasmid vector and expressed in maxicells. The properties of [ 35 S]methionine labelled mutant and wild type EF-Tu's were compared by in vitro assays. Mutant and wild-type EF-Tu's bound EF-Ts with approximately equal affinities. The 138-Asn mutation greatly reduced the protein's affinity for GDP; however, this mutation dramatically increased the proteins affinity for XDP. The mutant protein forms a stable complex with phe-tRNA and XTP, which binds to ribosomes; whereas, it does not form a complex with phe-tRNA and GTP. These results suggest that in EF-Tu x NDP complexes amino acid residue 138 must interact with the substituent on C-2 of the purine ring. Thus in wild-type EF-Tu Asp-138 would H-bond to 2-NH 2 of GDP, and in the mutant EF-Tu ASN-138 would form an equivalent H-bond with 2-0 of XDP. This explains why Asp-138 is conserved in the guanosine binding domains of nearly all GDP regulatory proteins

  15. Single amino acid change in the helicase domain of the putative RNA replicase of turnip crinkle virus alters symptom intensification by virulent satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmer, C W; Stenzler, L; Chen, X; Fay, N; Hacker, D; Howell, S H

    1992-01-01

    The virulent satellite [satellite C (sat C)] of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a small pathogenic RNA that intensifies symptoms in TCV-infected turnip plants (Brassica campestris). The virulence of sat C is determined by properties of the satellite itself and is influenced by the helper virus. Symptoms produced in infections with sat C differ in severity depending on the helper virus. The TCV-JI helper virus produces more severe symptoms than the TCV-B helper virus when inoculated with sat C. To find determinants in the TCV helper virus genome that affect satellite virulence, the TCV-JI genome was cloned and the sequence compared to the TCV-B genome. The genomes were found to differ by only five base changes, and only one of the base changes, at nucleotide position 1025, produced an amino acid change, an aspartic acid----glycine in the putative viral replicase. A chimeric TCV genome (TCV-B/JI) containing four of the five base changes (including the base change at position 1025) and a mutant TCV-B genome (TCV-B1025G) containing a single base substitution at position 1025 converted the TCV-B genome into a form that produces severe symptoms with sat C. The base change a position 1025 is located in the helicase of the putative viral replicase, and symptom intensification appears to result from differences in the rate of replication of the satellite supported by the two helper viruses. Images PMID:1370351

  16. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children with subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection: a single-centre, 7-year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biočíc, Mihovil; Todoríc, Jakov; Budimir, Dražen; Roíc, Andrea Cvitkovíc; Pogorelíc, Zenon; Juríc, Ivo; Šušnjar, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of medical intervention in patients with vesicoureteral reflux are to allow normal renal growth, prevent infections and pyelonephritis, and prevent renal failure. We present our experience with endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children by subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer injection. Methods Under cystoscopic guidance, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer underneath the intravesical portion of the ureter in a subureteral or submucosal location was injected in patients undergoing endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux. Results A total of 282 patients (120 boys and 162 girls) underwent the procedure. There were 396 refluxed ureters altogether. The mean age of patients was 4.9 years. The mean overall follow-up period was 44 months. Among the 396 ureters treated, 76% were cured with a single injection. A second and third injection raised the cure rate to 93% and 94%, respectively. Twenty-two (6%) ureters failed all 3 injections, and were converted to open surgery. Conclusion Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux can be recommended as a first-line therapy for most cases of vesicoureteral reflux, because of the short hospital stay, absence of complications and the high success rate. PMID:22854114

  17. Dual myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using thallium-201 and I-123-β-methyl-i-pentadecanoic acid in patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Katsuya

    1999-01-01

    Dual single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD) using 123 I-β-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) for myocardial fatty acid metabolism and 201 thallium (Tl)-chloride for myocardial perfusion. The left ventricle was divided into 9 segments, and accumulation of the radiotracers was assessed visually for each segment to calculate defect score for each tracer. There was some degree of decrease in myocardial accumulation of both tracers in all DMD patients. Reduced accumulation was most common at the apex (BMIPP: 67%, Tl: 63%), followed by the posterior wall, lateral wall, and anterior wall. On the other hand, reduced accumulation was less common at the septum. BMIPP showed a higher accumulation than Tl in all segments but the septum. When BMIPP defect score was larger than Tl defect score, BMIPP defect score tended to increase during 4 years follow-up (p Tl defect score revealed a slight fibrosis or normal myocardium. It can be concluded that the dual SPECT myocardial scintigraphy using BMIPP and Tl provides accurate information about disease progression of the heart in patients with DMD by detecting abnormalities of the myocardial metabolism of each substance, thereby enabling the assessment of left ventricular function. (author)

  18. Study on a Single-Dose Toxicity Test of D-Amino Acid Oxidase (DAAO Extracts Injected into the Tail Vein of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jungue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to analyze the single-dose toxicity of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO extracts. Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTR, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of DAAO extracts, 0.1 to 0.3 cc, were administered to the experimental group, and the same doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: In all 4 groups, no deaths occurred, and the LD50 of DAAO extracts administered by IV was over 0.3 ml/kg. No significant changes in the weight between the control group and the experimental group were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ, the results showed no significant differences in any organs or tissues. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that treatment with D-amino acid oxidase extracts is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidence.

  19. Multi-staging for extraction of cesium from nitric acid by a single liquid-liquid countercurrent centrifugal extractor with Taylor vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakase, Masahiko; Kinuhata, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Fission products that emit considerable decay heat and radioactivity, such as 137 Cs, have a large impact on waste management. Small and high-performance extractor is desirable for separating such nuclei. In this study, we implemented the continuous extraction of Cs from nitric acid in a single liquid-liquid countercurrent centrifugal extractor with Taylor Vortices by calix arene-bis(t-octylbenzo-crown-6)(BOBCalixC6) as an extractant with trioctylamine(TOA) as a suppressant and with 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) as a phase modifier. Because of slow extraction kinetics of this process, extraction with multiple theoretical stages by just replacing conventional extractors into the single centrifugal extractor is difficult. Hence, we improved the dispersion of organic phase by an inner rotor made of lipophilic epoxy resin and elevating the solution temperature to lower the viscosity. Higher temperature was not appropriate from the aspect of chemical equilibrium in this process, but extraction with multiple theoretical stages was found to be possible. (author)

  20. Structural and morphological studies on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate acid) (PHB)/chitosan drug releasing microspheres prepared by both single and double emulsion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W.-J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Shih, C.-J. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuang 1st Rd., Sanmin District, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hon, M.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Dayeh University, 112 Shan-Jiau Road, Da-Tsuen, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China) and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lien-Da Road, Kung-ching Li, Miao Li 360, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mcwang@cc.kuas.edu.tw

    2007-05-31

    Drug releasing microspheres of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid)/chitosan (PHB/CTS) with various compositions have been synthesized by both single and double emulsion methods, and collected by a freeze-drying process. In this study, gentamicin was used as an antibacterial medicine coated with PHB. The PHB/CTS microspheres of various compositions prepared by a single emulsion process (SEP) were identified as the major PHB phase together with a minor unknown Phase X by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR. However, in the microspheres prepared using a double emulsion process (DEP) the dominant Phase was X and the minor phase was PHB. The size of the PHB/CTS microspheres prepared by SEP increased with the PHB/CTS ratio from 1 {mu}m for 1:1 to 2 {mu}m for 5:1. However, the size of the PHB/CTS microspheres prepared by DEP decreased with the PHB/CTS ratio from 1 {mu}m for 1:1 to 800 nm for 5:1.

  1. Structural and morphological studies on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate acid) (PHB)/chitosan drug releasing microspheres prepared by both single and double emulsion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.-J.; Chen, Y.-H.; Shih, C.-J.; Hon, M.-H.; Wang, M.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Drug releasing microspheres of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid)/chitosan (PHB/CTS) with various compositions have been synthesized by both single and double emulsion methods, and collected by a freeze-drying process. In this study, gentamicin was used as an antibacterial medicine coated with PHB. The PHB/CTS microspheres of various compositions prepared by a single emulsion process (SEP) were identified as the major PHB phase together with a minor unknown Phase X by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR. However, in the microspheres prepared using a double emulsion process (DEP) the dominant Phase was X and the minor phase was PHB. The size of the PHB/CTS microspheres prepared by SEP increased with the PHB/CTS ratio from 1 μm for 1:1 to 2 μm for 5:1. However, the size of the PHB/CTS microspheres prepared by DEP decreased with the PHB/CTS ratio from 1 μm for 1:1 to 800 nm for 5:1

  2. Moving away from the reference genome: evaluating a peptide sequencing tagging approach for single amino acid polymorphism identifications in the genus Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Paul; Adams, Rachel M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hettich, Robert L

    2013-08-02

    The genetic diversity across natural populations of the model organism, Populus, is extensive, containing a single nucleotide polymorphism roughly every 200 base pairs. When deviations from the reference genome occur in coding regions, they can impact protein sequences. Rather than relying on a static reference database to profile protein expression, we employed a peptide sequence tagging (PST) approach capable of decoding the plasticity of the Populus proteome. Using shotgun proteomics data from two genotypes of P. trichocarpa, a tag-based approach enabled the detection of 6653 unexpected sequence variants. Through manual validation, our study investigated how the most abundant chemical modification (methionine oxidation) could masquerade as a sequence variant (Ala→Ser) when few site-determining ions existed. In fact, precise localization of an oxidation site for peptides with more than one potential placement was indeterminate for 70% of the MS/MS spectra. We demonstrate that additional fragment ions made available by high energy collisional dissociation enhances the robustness of the peptide sequence tagging approach (81% of oxidation events could be exclusively localized to a methionine). We are confident that augmenting fragmentation processes for a PST approach will further improve the identification of single amino acid polymorphism in Populus and potentially other species as well.

  3. Effects of single and combined administration of fermented barley extract and gamma-aminobutyric acid on the development of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokazono, Hideki; Omori, Toshiro; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects single and combined administration of fermented barley extract P (FBEP), prepared from barley-shochu distillery by-products, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Single administration of FBEP and GABA dose-dependently reduced the development of AD-like skin lesions in mice. GABA reduced the development of AD-like skin lesions by suppressing serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and splenocyte interleukin (IL)-4 production, while FBEP reduced skin lesions without affecting the IgE or cytokine production. However, in mice with induced AD-like skin lesions, combined administration of FBEP and GABA decreased serum IgE levels and splenic cell IL-4 production, and increased splenic cell interferon-gamma production. These results suggest that combined administration of FBEP and GABA alleviated AD-like skin lesions in the NC/Nga mice by adjusting the Th1/Th2 balance to a Th1-predominant immune response.

  4. Single-arm open-label study of Durolane (NASHA nonanimal hyaluronic acid for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the thumb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco E

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Eloisa Velasco,1 Mª Victoria Ribera,2 Joan Pi3 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital de Sant Joan Despí Moisés Broggi, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Parc Taulí University Hospital, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain Introduction: Osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal (TMC joint of the thumb – also known as rhizarthrosis – is painful and has a significant impact on quality of life. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid may potentially meet the need for effective, minimally invasive intervention in patients not responding adequately to initial treatment. We aimed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of viscosupplementation with Durolane (NASHA nonanimal hyaluronic acid in rhizarthrosis.Patients and methods: This was a prospective, single-arm, multicenter, open-label study with a 6-month follow-up period. Eligible patients had Eaton–Littler grade II–III rhizarthrosis in one TMC joint with pain and visual analog scale (VAS pain score ≥4 (scale: 0–10. A single injection of NASHA was administered to the affected TMC joint. The primary effectiveness variable was change from baseline in VAS pain score.Results: Thirty-five patients (mean age 60.8 years; 85.7% female received NASHA and completed the study. The least-squares mean change from baseline in VAS pain score over 6 months was –2.00, a reduction of 27.8% (p<0.001. The reduction in pain exceeded 25% as early as month 1 (26.5%, and gradual improvement was observed throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Secondary effectiveness parameters included QuickDASH (shortened version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [DASH], Kapandji thumb opposition test, radial abduction, metacarpophalangeal (MCP joint flexion, and pinch (clamp strength. Most of these measurements showed statistically significant improvements from baseline over 6 months. Five

  5. A multiplex GC-MS/MS technique for the sensitive and quantitative single-run analysis of acidic phytohormones and related compounds, and its application to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Axel; Düchting, Petra; Weiler, Elmar W

    2002-11-01

    A highly sensitive and accurate multiplex gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) technique is reported for indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and salicylic acid. The optimized setup allows the routine processing and analysis of up to 60 plant samples of between 20 and 200 mg of fresh weight per day. The protocol was designed and the equipment used was chosen to facilitate implementation of the method into other laboratories and to provide access to state-of-the-art analytical tools for the acidic phytohormones and related signalling molecules. Whole-plant organ-distribution maps for indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and salicylic acid were generated for Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. For leaves of A. thaliana, a spatial resolution of hormone quantitation down to approximately 2 mm(2) was achieved.

  6. PENGARUH SUHU DAN LAMA PROSES SULFONASI DALAM PROSES PRODUKSI METHYL ESTER SULFONIC ACID (MESA MENGGUNAKAN SINGLE TUBE FALLING FILM REACTOR (STFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mujdalipah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Temperature and Sulfonation Time on Methyl Ester Sulfonic Acid (MESA Production Process usingSingle Tube Falling Film Reactor (STFR Siti Mujdalipah, Erliza Hambali, Ani Suryani, Edi Zulchaidir ABSTRAK Methyl Ester Sulfonic Acid (MESA merupakan produk antara dari surfaktan Metil Ester Sulfonat (MES. MESmemiliki beragam aplikasi dalam produk personal care, pencuci dan pembersih, dan untuk Enhanced Oil Recovery(EOR. Proses produksi MESA menggunakan gas SO3 dalam Single Tube Falling Film Reactor (STFR merupakanteknologi yang umum digunakan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kondisi proses sulfonasi metil ester oleinterbaik menggunakan gas SO3 dalam STFR. Kajian dilakukan dalam tiga tahap, yaitu tahap penelitian, tahap analisis,dan tahap pengolahan data. Tahap produksi MESA terdiri dari pembuatan metil ester (ME dari olein minyak sawit dankajian pengaruh suhu dan lama proses sulfonasi. Tahap analisis meliputi analisis sifat Þ siko kimia olein minyak sawit,analisa sifat Þ siko kimia ME olein sawit, dan analisis sifat Þ siko kimia MESA olein sawit. Kajian pengaruh suhu danlama proses sulfonasi terhadap proses sulfonasi metil ester olein terdiri dari suhu 70, 90, dan 110 oC dan lama prosessulfonasi 30, 60, dan 90 menit. Analisis varian pada !=0,01 menunjukan bahwa lama proses sulfonasi berpengaruh nyataterhadap kadar bahan aktif. Analisis varian pada !=0,01 juga menunjukan bahwa lama proses sulfonasi berpengaruhnyata terhadap nilai pH, bilangan asam, bilangan iod, dan kemampuan MESA dalam menurunkan tegangan antarmuka(IFT, Interfacial Tension antara air formasi dan minyak bumi. Proses sulfonasi terbaik dicapai pada suhu sulfonasi 90oCdan lama proses sulfonasi 90 menit. Kondisi proses sulfonasi terbaik dapat menghasilkan MESA dengan karakteristikkadar bahan aktif 31,44%, pH 2,66, bilangan asam 24,88 ml NaOH/g sampel, bilangan iod 11,95 mg I/g sampel, danmemiliki kemampuan menurunkan IFT antara air formasi dan minyak bumi dari 30 dyne

  7. Comparison of the effect of a single dose of erythromycin with pantoprazole on gastric content volume and acidity in elective general surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Bhatia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents remains one of the most feared complications of anesthesia. A gastric pH of 2.5 or less and a volume of 25 ml (0.4 ml/kg body weight or more in average adult patients are considered critical factors for the development of pulmonary damage in adults. Materials and Methods: This study compared the efficacy of a single oral dose of erythromycin (a macrolide antibiotic with oral pantoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor on pre-operative gastric fluid volume and pH in a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled fashion in 80 adult patients (of ASA physical status I and II planned for elective surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups of 40 patients each. The pantoprazole group (Group I received oral pantoprazole 40 mg and the erythromycin group (Group II received oral erythromycin 250 mg at least 1 h prior to the induction of anesthesia. After tracheal intubation, gastric fluid was aspirated via a Salem Sump tube and its volume and pH were measured. Results: Although both erythromycin and pantoprazole decreased the gastric fluid volume to a similar extent, the decrease in gastric fluid acidity by pantoprazole was significantly greater than that by erythromycin. The proportion of patients at risk of pulmonary aspiration according to traditional criteria, i.e. pH ≤2.5 and volume ≥25ml, was lower in the pantoprazole group. Conclusion: Administration of pantoprazole was found to be more useful than a sub-therapeutic dose of erythromycin in decreasing both volume and acidity of gastric content.

  8. Resistance to colistin associated with a single amino acid change in protein PmrB among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates of worldwide origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayol, Aurélie; Poirel, Laurent; Brink, Adrian; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Yilmaz, Mesut; Nordmann, Patrice

    2014-08-01

    A series of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recovered from different countries was investigated in order to evaluate the involvement of the PmrA/PmrB two-component system in this resistance. Six isolates possessed a mutated PmrB protein, which is encoded by the pmrB gene, part of the pmrCAB operon involved in lipopolysaccharide modification. The same amino acid substitution (Thr157Pro) in PmrB was identified in the six isolates. The six isolates belonged to four distinct clonal groups, recovered in South Africa (sequence type 14 [ST14]), Turkey (ST101), and Colombia (ST258 and ST15). Three out of the four clones produced a carbapenemase, OXA-181, OXA-48, or KPC-3, while a single isolate did not produce any carbapenemase. Expression assays revealed an overexpression of the pmrA (70-fold), pmrB (70-fold), pmrC (170-fold), and pmrK (40-fold) genes in the pmrB-mutated isolate compared to expression of the pmrB wild-type isogenic K. pneumoniae isolate, confirming that the PmrB substitution was responsible for increased expression levels of those genes. Complementation assays leading to the expression of a wild-type PmrB protein restored the susceptibility to colistin in all isolates, confirming that the substitution in PmrB was responsible for the resistance phenotype. This study identified a key amino acid located in the PmrB protein as being responsible for the overexpression of pmrCAB and pmrHFIJKLM operons, leading to resistance to colistin. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Muscle free amino acid profiles are related to differences in skeletal muscle growth between single and twin ovine fetuses near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Francisco; Pacheco, David; Blair, Hugh; Kenyon, Paul; McCoard, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Twin sheep fetuses have reduced skeletal muscle weight near birth relative to singles as a result of restricted muscle hypertrophy. Intracellular free amino acids (FAA) are reported to regulate metabolic pathways which control muscle protein accretion, whereby reduced intracellular content of specific FAA may reduce their activation and therefore, muscle hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences in muscle weight between singleton and twin fetuses, under different maternal conditions is associated with reduced concentration of specific FAA. The FAA content in the semitendinosus muscle (ST) in singleton and twin fetuses (rank) at 140 days of gestation from heavy (H) or light (L) ewes fed ad libitum (A) or maintenance (M) level of nutrition was measured. Muscle weight was reduced in twin fetuses compared to singletons in all groups. Reduced concentrations of leucine, threonine and valine, but higher concentrations of methionine, ornithine, lysine and serine were found in twin fetuses compared to singletons. Maternal size and nutrition interaction with rank resulted in reduced glutamine in twins from HM-ewes (H-ewes under M nutrition) compared to their singleton counterparts. Maternal weight interaction with pregnancy rank reduced the concentration of arginine in twins, with a larger effect on H-ewes compared with L-ewes. Maternal size interaction with pregnancy rank resulted in twins from M-ewes to have lower alanine, while twins from A-ewes had lower aspartic acid concentration compared to singletons. The ST muscle weight was positively correlated only with arginine concentration after taking into account rank, size and nutrition. The present results indicate that reduced concentrations of specific intracellular FAA, such as arginine, leucine, valine, glutamine, which are known to play a role in muscle growth, could be acting as limiting factors for muscle hypertrophy in twin fetuses during late gestation. Ewe size and nutrition can

  10. A Single Amino Acid Change in the Marburg Virus Glycoprotein Arises during Serial Cell Culture Passages and Attenuates the Virus in a Macaque Model of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfson, Kendra J; Avena, Laura E; Delgado, Jenny; Beadles, Michael W; Patterson, Jean L; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) causes disease with high case fatality rates, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Licensing of MARV countermeasures will likely require approval via the FDA's Animal Efficacy Rule, which requires well-characterized animal models that recapitulate human disease. This includes selection of the virus used for exposure and ensuring that it retains the properties of the original isolate. The consequences of amplification of MARV for challenge studies are unknown. Here, we serially passaged and characterized MARV through 13 passes from the original isolate. Surprisingly, the viral genome was very stable, except for a single nucleotide change that resulted in an amino acid substitution in the hydrophobic region of the signal peptide of the glycoprotein (GP). The particle/PFU ratio also decreased following passages, suggesting a role for the amino acid in viral infectivity. To determine if amplification introduces a phenotype in an animal model, cynomolgus macaques were exposed to either 100 or 0.01 PFU of low- and high-passage-number MARV. All animals succumbed when exposed to 100 PFU of either passage 3 or 13 viruses, although animals exposed to the high-passage-number virus survived longer. However, none of the passage 13 MARV-exposed animals succumbed to 0.01-PFU exposure compared to 75% of passage 3-exposed animals. This is consistent with other filovirus studies that show some particles that are unable to yield a plaque in cell culture can cause lethal disease in vivo . These results have important consequences for the design of experiments that investigate MARV pathogenesis and that test the efficacy of MARV countermeasures. IMPORTANCE Marburg virus (MARV) causes disease with a high case fatality rate, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Serial amplification of viruses in cell culture often results in accumulation of mutations, but the effect of such cell culture passage on MARV is unclear. Serial passages of MARV

  11. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2012.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Dong, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The method described is intended for the quantification of all fatty acids, including commercially important groups of fatty acids used for labeling reasons [i. e., trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9] and/or individual fatty acids (i. e., linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, ecosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) in milk products, infant formula, and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. These products often contain milk fat and/or vegetable oils and are supplemented or not supplemented with oils rich in long-chain PUFA. The determination is performed by direct transesterification of ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid concentrate or powder products without prior fat extraction. Single-laboratory validation (SLV) data were submitted to the AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Nutrient Methods for review at the AOAC Annual Meeting held on September 30 to October 3, 2012, in Las Vegas, NV. The ERP determined that the data reviewed met the Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR® 2012.011) set by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) and was approved as an AOAC Official First Action method. The analytical range for SPIFAN samples was between 0.001 and 7.94 g/100 g reconstituted product or RTF liquid. LOQ was estimated as 0.001 g/100 g, while repeatability and intermediate precision were both less than 1.8% RSD above 0.05 g/100 g and acids ranged from 100.0 to 102.9% for three different SPIFAN products. All the parameters evaluated during the SLV were well within the values defined in SMPR 2012.011.

  12. A Single-dose Zoledronic Acid Infusion Prevents Antiretroviral Therapy–induced Bone Loss in Treatment-naive HIV-infected Patients: A Phase IIb Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Titanji, Kehmia; Lahiri, Cecile D.; Vunnava, Aswani; Foster, Antonina; Sanford, Sara E.; Sheth, Anandi N.; Lennox, Jeffrey L.; Knezevic, Andrea; Ward, Laura; Easley, Kirk A.; Powers, Philip; Weitzmann, M. Neale

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with bone loss leading to increased fracture rate among HIV-infected individuals. ART-induced bone loss is most intense within the first 48 weeks of therapy, providing a window for prophylaxis with long-acting antiresorptives. Methods. In a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomized 63 nonosteoporotic, ART-naive adults with HIV initiating ART with atazanavir/ritonavir + tenofovir/emtricitabine to a single zoledronic acid (ZOL) infusion (5 mg) vs placebo to determine the efficacy of ZOL in mitigating ART-induced bone loss. Plasma bone turnover markers and bone mineral density (BMD) were performed at weeks 0, 12, 24, and 48 weeks. Primary outcome was change in C-terminal telopeptide of collagen at 24 weeks. Repeated-measures analyses using mixed linear models were used to estimate and compare study endpoints. Results. The ZOL arm had a 65% reduction in bone resorption relative to the placebo arm at 24 weeks (0.117 ng/mL vs 0.338 ng/mL; P < .001). This effect of ZOL occurred as early as 12 weeks (73% reduction; P < .001) and persisted through week 48 (57% reduction; P < .001). The ZOL arm had an 8% higher lumbar spine BMD at 12 weeks relative to the placebo arm (P = .003), and remained 11% higher at 24 and 48 weeks. Similar trends were observed in the hip and femoral neck. Conclusions. A single dose of ZOL administered at ART initiation prevented ART-induced bone loss through the first 48 weeks of ART, the period when ART-induced bone loss is most pronounced. Validation of these results in larger multicenter randomized clinical trials is warranted. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01228318. PMID:27193748

  13. A single dose of dexamethasone encapsulated in polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid nanoparticles attenuates cisplatin-induced hearing loss following round window membrane administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Chen, Dongye; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shi, Fuxin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the sustained drug release properties and hearing protection effect of polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) stealth nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone (DEX). DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using an emulsion and evaporation technique, as previously reported. The DEX-loaded PEG-PLA nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) had a hydrodynamic diameter of 130±4.78 nm, and a zeta potential of -26.13±3.28 mV. The in vitro release of DEX from DEX-NPs lasted 24 days in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4), 5 days in artificial perilymph (pH 7.4), and 1 day in rat plasma. Coumarin 6-labeled NPs placed onto the round window membrane (RWM) of guinea pigs penetrated RWM quickly and accumulated to the organs of Corti, stria vascularis, and spiral ganglion cells after 1 hour of administration. The DEX-NPs locally applied onto the RWM of guinea pigs by a single-dose administration continuously released DEX in 48 hours, which was significantly longer than the free DEX that was cleared out within 12 hours after administration at the same dose. Further functional studies showed that locally administrated single-dose DEX-NPs effectively preserved outer hair cells in guinea pigs after cisplatin insult and thus significantly attenuated hearing loss at 4 kHz and 8 kHz frequencies when compared to the control of free DEX formulation. Histological analyses indicated that the administration of DEX-NPs did not induce local inflammatory responses. Therefore, prolonged delivery of DEX by PEG-PLA nanoparticles through local RWM diffusion (administration) significantly protected the hair cells and auditory function in guinea pigs from cisplatin toxicity, as determined at both histological and functional levels, suggesting the potential therapeutic benefits in clinical applications.

  14. Maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 coding regions modify the impact of prenatal supplementation with DHA on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Rzehak, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D; Garcia Feregrino, Raquel; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Demmelmair, Hans; Romieu, Isabelle; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo; Koletzko, Berthold; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2016-04-01

    Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene affect the activity and efficiency of enzymes that are responsible for the conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into their long-chain active form. A high prevalence of SNPs that are associated with slow PUFA conversion has been described in Hispanic populations. We assessed the heterogeneity of the effect of prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on birth weight across selected FADS SNPs in a sample of Mexican women and their offspring. We obtained information on the maternal genotype from stored blood samples of 654 women who received supplementation with 400 mg DHA/d or a placebo from weeks 18 to 22 of gestation through delivery as part of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We selected 4 tag SNPs (rs174455, rs174556, rs174602, and rs498793) in the FADS region for analysis. We used an ANOVA to test for the heterogeneity of the effect on birth weight across each of the 4 SNPs. The mean ± SD birth weight was 3210 ± 470 g, and the weight-for-age z score (WAZ) was -0.24 ± 1.00. There were no intention-to-treat differences in birth weights. We showed significant heterogeneity by SNP rs174602 (P= 0.02); offspring of carriers of alleles TT and TC in the intervention group were heavier than those in the placebo group (WAZ: -0.13 ± 0.14 and -0.20 ± 0.08 compared with -0.55 ± 0.15 and -0.39 ± 0.09, respectively); there were no significant differences in offspring of rs174602 CC homozygotes (WAZ: -0.26 ± 0.09 in the intervention group compared with -0.04 ± 0.09 in the placebo group). We showed no significant heterogeneity across the other 3 FADS SNPs. Differential responses to prenatal DHA supplementation on the basis of the genetic makeup of target populations could explain the mixed evidence of the impact of DHA supplementation on birth weight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00646360. © 2016

  15. In vitro and in vivo comparative study of the phototherapy anticancer activity of hyaluronic acid-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, and fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lin; Yuan, Yujie; Ren, Junxiao; Zhang, Yinling; Wang, Yongchao; Shan, Xiaoning; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2017-08-01

    In this work, carbon nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), graphene oxide (GO), and fullerene (C60) were modified by hyaluronic acid (HA) to obtain water-soluble and biocompatible nanomaterials with high tumor-targeting capacity and then the comparative study of these hyaluronic acid-modified carbon nanomaterials was made in vitro and in vivo. The conjugates of hyaluronic acid and carbon nanomaterials, namely, HA-SWNT, HA-GO, HA-C60, were confirmed by UV/Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). After HA modification, the sizes of HA-SWNT, HA-GO, and HA-C60 were in a range of 70 to 300 nm, and all the three HA-modified materials were at negative potential, demonstrating that HA modification was in favor of extravasation of carbon materials into a tumor site due to enhanced permeability and retention effect of tumor. Photothermal conversion in vitro test demonstrated excellent photothermal sensitivity of HA-SWNT and HA-GO. But the reactive oxygen yield of HA-C60 was the highest compared with the others under visible light irradiation, which proved the good photodynamic therapy effect of HA-C60. In addition, cytotoxicity experiments exhibited that the inhibitory efficacy of HA-SWNT was the lowest, the second was HA-C60, and the highest was HA-GO, which was consistent with the uptake degree of them. While under the laser irradiation, the cell inhibition of the HA-SWNT was the highest, the second was HA-GO, and the last was HA-C60. In vivo evaluation of the three targeting carbon nanomaterials was consistent with the cytotoxicity assay results. Taken together, the results demonstrated that HA-SWNT and HA-GO were suited for photothermal therapy (PTT) agents for their good photothermal property, while HA-C60 was used as a kind of photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent for its photodynamic effect.

  16. Efficacy of a novel sanitizer composed of lactic acid and peroxyacetic acid against single strains of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli K-12, Listeria innocua, and Lactobacillus plantarum in aqueous solution and on surfaces of romaine lettuce and spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Ho, Kai-Lai; Luzuriaga, Diego A; Rodde, Kenneth M; Tang, Shannon; Phan, Cuong

    2011-09-01

    A novel sanitizer composed of lactic acid and peroxyacetic acid (LA-PAA) was developed as an alternative to chlorinated water (CW) for fresh produce processing. Single strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli K-12, and Listeria innocua were used to demonstrate the microbial efficacy of LA-PAA. LA-PAA achieved a >7.8-log reduction of L. innocua and L. plantarum suspended in water at 4°C for 20 s, and LA, PAA, and CW achieved reductions of 0.4, 4.8, and 2.7 log, respectively. LA-PAA, when compared with LA, PAA, and CW, enhanced the reduction of L. innocua attached to romaine leaves by >2.2 log, and improved the removal of E. coli attached to spinach leaves by >2.4 log. The exponential improvement in the microbial efficacy of LA-PAA showed synergism between LA and PAA. LA-PAA microbial efficacy was inversely proportional to pH value and directly correlated with residence time and concentration. Despite an improvement in microbial reduction through the addition of surfactant to LA-PAA, the usage of surfactant in washing fresh produce was impeded by excessive foaming during actual processing. Effects of organic matter on the performance of LA-PAA were minimal. External sensory evaluations showed that LA-PAA had no negative effects on the quality of lettuce and tender leaves. Temperature-abuse studies demonstrated that LA-PAA reduced decay by ∼50% when compared with CW. Overall, these results support the premise that LA-PAA has significant potential to be an alternative to CW for fresh produce processing.

  17. Double injection/single detection asymmetric flow injection manifold for spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid: Selection the optimal conditions by MCDM approach based on different criteria weighting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumand, Samira; Chamjangali, Mansour Arab; Bagherian, Ghadamali

    2017-03-01

    A simple and sensitive double injection/single detector flow injection analysis (FIA) method is proposed for the simultaneous kinetic determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). This method is based upon the difference between the rates of the AA and UA reactions with Fe3 + in the presence of 1, 10-phenanthroline (phen). The absorbance of Fe2 +/1, 10-phenanthroline (Fe-phen) complex obtained as the product was measured spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. To reach a good accuracy in the differential kinetic determination via the mathematical manipulations of the transient signals, different criteria were considered in the selection of the optimum conditions. The multi criteria decision making (MCDM) approach was applied for the selection of the optimum conditions. The importance weights of the evaluation criteria were determined using the analytic hierarchy process, entropy method, and compromised weighting (CW). The experimental conditions (alternatives) were ranked by the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution. Under the selected optimum conditions, the obtained analytical signals were linear in the ranges of 0.50-5.00 and 0.50-4.00 mg L- 1 for AA and UA, respectively. The 3σ detection limits were 0.07 mg L- 1 for AA and 0.12 mg L- 1 for UA. The relative standard deviations for four replicate determinations of AA and UA were 2.03% and 3.30% respectively. The method was also applied for the analysis of analytes in the blood serum, Vitamine C tablets, and tap water with satisfactory results.

  18. Esophageal transit and in vivo disintegration of branded risedronate sodium tablets and two generic formulations of alendronic acid tablets: a single-center, single-blind, six-period crossover study in healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Alan C; Blackshaw, P Elaine; Hay, Peter D; Lawes, Simon C; Atherton, Clare T; Dansereau, Richard J; Wagner, Leigh K; Schnell, Dan J; Spiller, Robin C

    2008-05-01

    Delayed esophageal transit or disintegration of oral bisphosphonate tablets before they enter the stomach may be of concern with respect to iatrogenic complications among patients receiving longterm treatment. Different formulations of generic bisphosphonate tablets meeting regulatory requirements may have substantial differences in pharmaceutical attributes from the branded product that may result in different characteristics during esophageal transit. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and compare esophageal transit times and in vivo disintegration of 3 bisphosphonate formulations, one branded and the others generic, that are commercially available in Canada and the United Kingdom. This was a single-center, randomized, singleblind, 6-period crossover study in healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. Each subject received a single oral dose of a branded risedronate sodium 35-mg tablet and 2 generic formulations of alendronic acid 70-mg tablets (Novopharm Limited, Toronto, Canada, and Teva UK Limited, Morley, United Kingdom) in both the erect and semisupine (45 degrees ) positions. Although the products are labeled to be taken in the erect position, the semisupine position was included to simulate dosing in bedridden patients. Subjects took tablets with 30 mL of water in the morning after an overnight fast. The tablets were radiolabeled with technetium-99m ion-exchange resins to enable visualization and measurement of esophageal transit time and disintegration using a gamma camera. Dynamic scintigraphic images were obtained for a total of 10 minutes: 2 images per second for the first 30 seconds and 1 image every 15 seconds for 9.5 minutes. This was a mechanistic study and tolerability was not assessed. The study was conducted in 20 healthy white female subjects with a mean age of 62 years (range, 51-77 years). The effect of body position was statistically significant (P = 0.043), with the estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.74 indicating longer

  19. Single photon emission computed tomography with Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid in patients with upper urinary tract infection and/or vesicoureteral reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Asano, Yoshihumi; Tsukamoto, Eriko (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1991-03-01

    By means of Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy, an established method for assessing renal cortical damage, we evaluated the pick-up rate for renal defects (scars) by single photon computed tomography (SPECT) and planar images of 10 normal volunteers, and 58 patients (70 scintigrams) with upper urinary tract infections, most of whom had a history of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). The positive study rate for renal defects depended on the severity of VUR. The overall positive rates for renal cortical defects obtained by DMSA SPECT imaging and DMSA planar imaging were 60% and 43%, respectively, and the difference between these was significant (p<0.005). The mean absolute individual renal uptake(/injected dose) at 2 hours post-injection was decreased in the kidneys with defects detected by SPECT alone. The positive study rate for intravenous urography (IVU) depended on the grade of VUR and was 15% overall. DMSA SPECT imaging detects renal cortical defects at greater frequency than previously achieved. (author).

  20. Multiplexed interfacial transduction of nucleic acid hybridization using a single color of immobilized quantum dot donor and two acceptors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, W Russ; Krull, Ulrich J

    2010-01-01

    A multiplexed solid-phase assay for the detection of nucleic acid hybridization was developed on the basis of a single color of immobilized CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) as a donor in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This work demonstrated that two channels of detection did not necessitate two different QD donors. Two probe oligonucleotides were coimmobilized on optical fibers modified with QDs, and a sandwich assay was used to associate the acceptor dyes with interfacial hybridization events without target labeling. FRET-sensitized acceptor emission provided an analytical signal that was concentration dependent down to 10 nM. Changes in the ratio of coimmobilized probe oligonucleotides were found to yield linear changes in the relative amounts of acceptor emission. These changes were compared to previous studies that used mixed films of two QD donors for two detection channels. The analysis indicated that probe dilution effects were primarily driven by changes in acceptor number density and that QD dilution effects or changes in mean donor-acceptor distance were secondary. Hybridization kinetics were found to be consistent between different ratios of coimmobilized probes, suggesting that hybridization in this type of system occurred via the accepted model for solid-phase hybridization, where adsorption and then diffusion at the solid interface drove hybridization.

  1. Efficacy of poly(lactic acid)/carvacrol electrospun membranes against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans in single and mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffaro, Roberto; Lopresti, Francesco; D'Arrigo, Manuela; Marino, Andreana; Nostro, Antonia

    2018-03-13

    Carvacrol (CAR) is one of the most promising essential oil components with antimicrobial activity. New technologies aimed to incorporate this active molecule into carrier matrix to improve the stability and prolong the biological activity. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating CAR into electrospun membranes of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for potential applications as active antimicrobial system. To this end, PLA membranes containing homogeneously dispersed CAR were successfully prepared and a series of systematic tests including morpho-mechanical properties, in vitro release rate, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were carried out. The results revealed that CAR has a good compatibility with PLA and acts as a plasticizer, improving flexibility and extensibility of the matrix. The gradual release of CAR from PLA membranes warranted a significant antimicrobial activity up to 144 h and reduced the biofilm production by 92-96 and 88-95% of S. aureus and C. albicans in single and mixed cultures. A strong decrease of cell count, biomass, metabolic activity, and vitality of established 24- and 48-h biofilms were also demonstrated. In conclusion, this work highlights the potential of electrospun nanofibrous membranes as efficient stabilizers-carriers of CAR and opens up interesting perspectives on the use of this system as new tool for skin and wound bacterial-fungal infections.

  2. Optical and dielectric studies of KH2PO4 crystal influenced by organic ligand of citric acid and l-valine: A single crystal growth and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Anis

    Full Text Available In the present study pure, citric acid (CA and l-valine (LV doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP crystals have been grown with the aim to investigate the nonlinear optical applications facilitated by UV–visible, third order nonlinear optical (TONLO and dielectric properties. The structural parameters of grown crystals have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The enhancement in optical transparency of KDP crystal due to addition of CA and LV has been examined within 200–900 nm by means of UV–visible spectral analysis. In addition, the transmittance data have been used to evaluate the effect of dopants on reflectance, refractive index and extinction coefficient of grown crystals in the visible region. The Z-scan analysis has been performed at 632.8 nm to identify the nature of photoinduced nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption in doped KDP crystals. The influence of π-bonded ligand of dopant CA and LV on TONLO susceptibility (χ3, refractive index (n2 and absorption coefficient (β of KDP crystals has been evaluated to discuss laser assisted device applications. The decrease in dielectric constant and dielectric loss of KDP crystal due to addition of CA and LV has been explored using the temperature dependent dielectric studies. Keywords: Crystal growth, Nonlinear optical materials, UV–visible studies, Z-scan analysis, Dielectric studies

  3. Single glass nanopore-based regenerable sensing platforms with a non-immobilized polyglutamic acid probe for selective detection of cupric ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lizhen; He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Jin, Yongdong

    2015-08-19

    A single glass capillary nanopore-based sensing platform for rapid and selective detection of cupric ions is demonstrated by utilizing polyglutamic acid (PGA) as a non-immobilized probe. The detection is based on the significant decrease of ionic current through nanopore and the reversal of ion current rectification responses induced by the chelated cupric ions on the probes when in the presence of cupric ions. PGA shows high selectivity for detecting cupric ions rather than other metal ions. The sensitivity of the sensing platform can be improved about 1-2 orders of magnitude by employing asymmetric salt gradients during the measurements. And the PGA-based nanopore sensing platform shows excellent regenerability for Cu(2+) sensing applications. In addition, the method is found effective and reliable for the detection of cupric ions in real samples with small volume down to 20 μL. This nanopore-based sensing platform will find promising practical applications for the detection of cupric ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 2D l-Di-toluoyl-tartaric acid Lanthanide Coordination Polymers: Toward Single-component White-Light and NIR Luminescent Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wan-Ying; Sun, Jing-Wen; Yan, Peng-Fei; Li, Yu-Xin; An, Guang-Hui; Li, Guang-Ming

    2016-02-18

    A series of five l-di-p-toluoyl-tartaric acid (l-DTTA) lanthanide coordination polymers, namely {[Ln4 K(4)  L6 (H2O)x ]⋅yH2 O}n , [Ln=Dy (1), x=24, y=12; Ln=Ho (2), x=23, y=12; Ln=Er (3), x=24, y=12; Ln=Yb (4), x=24, y=11; Ln=Lu (5), x=24, y=12] have been isolated by simple reactions of H2L (H2 L= L-DTTA) with LnCl3 ⋅6 H2O at ambient temperature. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that complexes 1-5 feature two-dimensional (2D) network structures in which the Ln(3+) ions are bridged by carboxylate groups of ligands in two unique coordinated modes. Luminescent spectra demonstrate that complex 1 realizes single-component white-light emission, while complexes 2-4 exhibit a characteristic near-infrared (NIR) luminescence in the solid state at room temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Twisted intramolecular charge transfer investigation of semi organic L-Glutamic acid hydrochloride single crystal for organic light-emitting and optical limiting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Lija K.; George, Merin; Alex, Javeesh; Aravind, Arun; Sajan, D.; Vinitha, G.

    2018-03-01

    Single crystals of L-Glutamic acid hydrochloride (LGHCl) were grown by slow evaporation solution technique and good crystalline perfection was confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction studies. The complete vibrational studies of the compound were analyzed by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-visible spectra combined with Normal Coordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology and density functional theory (DFT). Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) occurs due to the presence of strong ionic intra-molecular Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding was confirmed by Hirshfeld Surface analysis. The existence of intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds due to the interaction between the lone pair of oxygen with the antibonding orbital was established by NBO analysis. The Z-scan result indicated that the title molecule exhibits saturable absorption behavior. The attractive third-order nonlinear properties suggest that LGHCl can be a promising candidate for the design and development devices for optical limiting applications. LGHCL exhibits distinct emission in the blue region of the fluorescence lifetime which proves to be a potential candidate for blue- Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabrication.

  6. Electrochemical detection of Hg(II in water using self-assembled single walled carbon nanotube-poly(m-amino benzene sulfonic acid on gold electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauta Gold Matlou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on the detection of mercury using single walled carbon nanotube-poly (m-amino benzene sulfonic acid (SWCNT-PABS modified gold electrode by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs technique. A thiol containing moiety (dimethyl amino ethane thiol (DMAET was used to facilitate the assembly of the SWCNT-PABS molecules onto the Au electrode surface. The successfully assembled monolayers were characterised using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Cyclic voltammetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies of the modified electrode (Au-DMAET-(SWCNT-PABS showed improved electron transfer over the bare Au electrode and the Au-DMAET in [Fe (CN6]3−/4− solution. The Au-DMAET-(SWCNT-PABS was used for the detection of Hg in water by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV analysis at the following optimized conditions: deposition potential of −0.1 V, deposition time of 30 s, 0.1 M HCl electrolyte and pH 3. The sensor showed a good sensitivity and a limit of detection of 0.06 μM with a linear concentration range of 20 ppb to 250 ppb under the optimum conditions. The analytical applicability of the proposed method with the sensor electrode was tested with real water sample and the method was validated with inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectroscopy. Keywords: Self-assembly, Gold electrode, Carbon nanotubes, Electrochemical detection, Mercury

  7. A single amino acid substitution modulates low-pH-triggered membrane fusion of GP64 protein in Autographa californica and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedroviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katou, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Hayato; Ikeda, Motoko; Kobayashi, Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that budded viruses of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) enter the cell cytoplasm but do not migrate into the nuclei of non-permissive Sf9 cells that support a high titer of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) multiplication. Here we show, using the syncytium formation assay, that low-pH-triggered membrane fusion of BmNPV GP64 protein (Bm-GP64) is significantly lower than that of AcMNPV GP64 protein (Ac-GP64). Mutational analyses of GP64 proteins revealed that a single amino acid substitution between Ac-GP64 H155 and Bm-GP64 Y153 can have significant positive or negative effects on membrane fusion activity. Studies using bacmid-based GP64 recombinant AcMNPV harboring point-mutated ac-gp64 and bm-gp64 genes showed that Ac-GP64 H155Y and Bm-GP64 Y153H substitutions decreased and increased, respectively, the multiplication and cell-to-cell spread of progeny viruses. These results indicate that Ac-GP64 H155 facilitates the low-pH-triggered membrane fusion reaction between virus envelopes and endosomal membranes.

  8. Photoresponsive surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods for uric acid detection in physiological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Qian [The Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Chongqing Municipality, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Hong Kong Institute of Education (Hong Kong); Li, Zai-yong; Wei, Yu-bo; Yang, Xia; Liu, Lan-tao [The Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Chongqing Municipality, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Gong, Cheng-bin, E-mail: gongcbtq@swu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Chongqing Municipality, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Ma, Xue-bing [The Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Chongqing Municipality, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Lam, Michael Hon-wah [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chow, Cheuk-fai, E-mail: cfchow@ied.edu.hk [Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Hong Kong Institute of Education (Hong Kong)

    2016-09-01

    A photoresponsive surface molecularly imprinted polymer for uric acid in physiological fluids was fabricated through a facile and effective method using bio-safe and biocompatible ZnO nanorods as a support. The strategy was carried out by introducing double bonds on the surface of the ZnO nanorods with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods was then prepared by surface polymerization using uric acid as template, water-soluble 5-[(4-(methacryloyloxy)phenyl)diazenyl]isophthalic acid as functional monomer, and triethanolamine trimethacryl ester as cross-linker. The surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods showed good photoresponsive properties, high recognition ability, and fast binding kinetics toward uric acid, with a dissociation constant of 3.22 × 10{sup −5} M in aqueous NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} buffer at pH = 7.0 and a maximal adsorption capacity of 1.45 μmol g{sup −1}. Upon alternate irradiation at 365 and 440 nm, the surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods can quantitatively uptake and release uric acid. - Highlights: • Novel surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods was synthesized. • ZnO-SMIP showed good selectivity toward uric acid in physiological fluids. • ZnO-SMIP displayed good photoresponsive properties.

  9. Intra-Articular, Single-Shot Hylan G-F 20 Hyaluronic Acid Injection Compared with Corticosteroid in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammachote, Nattapol; Kanitnate, Supakit; Yakumpor, Thanasak; Panichkul, Phonthakorn

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of knee osteoarthritis with hyaluronic acid or corticosteroid injection has been widely used. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (hylan G-F 20) with triamcinolone acetonide as a single intra-articular injection for knee osteoarthritis. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis were recruited. They were randomized to receive a single-shot, intra-articular injection of either 6 mL of hylan G-F 20 or 6 mL of a solution comprising 1 mL of 40-mg triamcinolone acetonide and 5 mL of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine. The primary outcomes were knee pain severity, knee function, and range of motion at 6 months. Ninety-nine patients were assessed before injection and underwent a 6-month follow-up. Patients and evaluators were blinded. Multilevel regression models were used to estimate differences between the groups. At the 6-month follow-up, compared with patients who took hylan G-F 20, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide had similar improvement in knee pain, knee function, and range of motion. The difference in mean outcome scores between groups was, with regard to knee pain, a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 3 points (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -6 to 11 points); with regard to knee function, a modified Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score of 0 points (95% CI, -8 to 6 points); and, with regard to range of motion, flexion of -1° (95% CI, -5° to 2°) and extension of 0° (95% CI, -0.5° to 0.5°). However, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide had better pain improvement from 24 hours until 1 week after injection; the mean difference between groups with regard to the VAS score was 12 points (95% CI, 5 to 20 points; p = 0.002) at 24 hours and 9 points (95% CI, 1 to 15 points; p = 0.018) at 1 week. At 2 weeks after injection, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide also had better knee

  10. Single cell oil production byTrichosporon cutaneumfrom steam-exploded corn stover and its upgradation for production of long-chain α,ω-dicarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Fang, Hao; Chen, Shaolin

    2017-01-01

    Single cell oil (SCO) production from lignocelluloses by oleaginous microorganisms is still high in production cost, making the subsequent production of biofuels inviable economically in such an era of low oil prices. Therefore, how to upgrade the final products of lignocellulose-based bioprocess to more valuable ones is becoming a more and more important issue. Differently sourced cellulases were compared in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the steam-exploded corn stover (SECS) and the cellulase from the mixed culture of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger was found to have the highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield 86.67 ± 4.06%. Three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis could greatly improve the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of SECS, achieving a yield of 74.24 ± 2.69% within 30 h. Different bioprocesses from SECS to SCO were compared and the bioprocess C with the three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis was the most efficient, producing 57.15 g dry cell biomass containing 31.80 g SCO from 327.63 g SECS. An efficient and comprehensive process from corn stover to long-chain α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) was established by employing self-metathesis, capable of producing 6.02 g long-chain DCAs from 409.54 g corn stover and 6.02 g alkenes as byproducts. On-site cellulase production by the mixed culture of T. reesei and A. niger is proven the most efficient in providing cellulase to the lignocellulose-based bioprocess. Three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis was found to have very good application value in SCO production by Trichosporon cutaneum from SECS. A whole process from corn stover to long-chain DCAs via a combination of biological and chemical approaches was successfully established and it is an enlightening example of the comprehensive utilization of agricultural wastes.

  11. Retrospective clinical study of 988 dual acid-etched implants placed in grafted and native bone for single-tooth replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesma, Newton; Pannuti, Cláudio Mendes; Cardaropoli, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of sex, implant characteristics, and bone grafting on the survival rate of dual acid-etched (DAE) implants. Patients treated with internal-hex DAE implants for single tooth replacement in a military dental clinic between January 2005 and December 2010 were included in this study. Clinical data related to implant characteristics, implant location, presence of grafted bone, and implant failures were collected. The primary outcome was implant loss. The survival rate was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression modeling was used to determine which factors would predict implant failure. DAE implants were evaluated in a total of 988 patients (80.3% men). Twenty-four (2.4%) implants failed, most were cylindric (54.2%) with regular platforms (70.8%) and were 10 mm long (58.3%). The failure rate was 2.4% for the anterior maxilla, 3.3% for the posterior maxilla, 1.6% for the anterior mandible, and 2.0% for posterior mandible. The cumulative survival rate was 97.6%. The failure rate was 8.8% in implants placed after sinus augmentation, 7.3% in bone block-grafted areas, and 1.6% in native bone. Based on multivariable analysis (Cox regression), sinus augmentation and bone block grafting had a statistically significant effect on implant failure; the hazard ratios were 5.5 and 4.6, respectively. The results revealed that DAE implants had high survival rates, and no influence of sex, location, shape, diameter, or length on failure rates could be observed. However, a significant association was observed between failure and presence of bone graft in the implant area.

  12. δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Single Nucleotide Polymorphism 2 and Peptide Transporter 2*2 Haplotype May Differentially Mediate Lead Exposure in Male Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Natali; Schaub, Tanner; Gutierrez, Marisela; Ortega, Alma X.

    2011-01-01

    Child low-level lead (Pb) exposure is an unresolved public health problem and an unaddressed child health disparity. Particularly in cases of low-level exposure, source removal can be impossible to accomplish, and the only practical strategy for reducing risk may be primary prevention. Genetic biomarkers of increased neurotoxic risk could help to identify small subgroups of children for early intervention. Previous studies have suggested that, by way of a distinct mechanism, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase single nucleotide polymorphism 2 (ALAD2) and/or peptide transporter 2*2 haplotype (hPEPT2*2) increase Pb blood burden in children. Studies have not yet examined whether sex mediates the effects of genotype on blood Pb burden. Also, previous studies have not included blood iron (Fe) level in their analyses. Blood and cheek cell samples were obtained from 306 minority children, ages 5.1 to 12.9 years. 208Pb and 56Fe levels were determined with inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. General linear model analyses were used to examine differences in Pb blood burden by genotype and sex while controlling for blood Fe level. The sample geometric mean Pb level was 2.75 µg/dl. Pb blood burden was differentially higher in ALAD2 heterozygous boys and hPEPT2*2 homozygous boys. These results suggest that the effect of ALAD2 and hPEPT2*2 on Pb blood burden may be sexually dimorphic. ALAD2 and hPEPT2*2 may be novel biomarkers of health and mental health risks in male children exposed to low levels of Pb. PMID:21327641

  13. Multiple PRP injections are more effective than single injections and hyaluronic acid in knees with early osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görmeli, Gökay; Görmeli, Cemile Ayşe; Ataoglu, Baybars; Çolak, Cemil; Aslantürk, Okan; Ertem, Kadir

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of intraarticular (IA) multiple and single platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as well as hyaluronic acid (HA) injections in different stages of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A total of 162 patients with different stages of knee OA were randomly divided into four groups receiving 3 IA doses of PRP, one dose of PRP, one dose of HA or a saline injection (control). Then, each group was subdivided into two groups: early OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0 with cartilage degeneration or grade I-III) and advanced OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade IV). The patients were evaluated before the injection and at the 6-month follow-ups using the EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores. Adverse events and patient satisfaction were recorded. There was a statistically significant improvement in the IKDC and EQ-VAS scores in all the treatment groups compared with the control group. The knee scores of patients treated with three PRP injections were significantly better than those patients of the other groups. There was no significant difference in the scores of patients injected with one dose of PRP or HA. In the early OA subgroups, significantly better clinical results were achieved in the patients treated with three PRP injections, but there was no significant difference in the clinical results of patients with advanced OA among the treatment groups. The clinical results of this study suggest IA PRP and HA treatment for all stages of knee OA. For patients with early OA, multiple (3) PRP injections are useful in achieving better clinical results. For patients with advanced OA, multiple injections do not significantly improve the results of patients in any group. I.

  14. Second site escape of a T20-dependent HIV-1 variant by a single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of the envelope glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout Ben

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the selection of a T20-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 variant in a patient on T20 therapy. The fusion inhibitor T20 targets the viral envelope (Env protein by blocking a conformational switch that is critical for viral entry into the host cell. T20-dependent viral entry is the result of 2 mutations in Env (GIA-SKY, creating a protein that undergoes a premature conformational switch, and the presence of T20 prevents this premature switch and rescues viral entry. In the present study, we performed 6 independent evolution experiments with the T20-dependent HIV-1 variant in the absence of T20, with the aim to identify second site compensatory changes, which may provide new mechanistic insights into Env function and the T20-dependence mechanism. Results Escape variants with improved replication capacity appeared within 42 days in 5 evolution cultures. Strikingly, 3 cultures revealed the same single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of Env (glycine at position 431 substituted for arginine: G431R. This mutation was sufficient to abolish the T20-dependence phenotype and restore viral replication in the absence of T20. The GIA-SKY-G431R escape variant produces an Env protein that exhibits reduced syncytia formation and reduced cell-cell fusion activity. The escape variant was more sensitive to an antibody acting on an early gp41 intermediate, suggesting that the G431R mutation helps preserve a pre-fusion Env conformation, similar to T20 action. The escape variant was also less sensitive to soluble CD4, suggesting a reduced CD4 receptor affinity. Conclusion The forced evolution experiments indicate that the premature conformational switch of the T20-dependent HIV-1 Env variant (GIA-SKY can be corrected by a second site mutation in Env (GIA-SKY-G431R that affects the interaction with the CD4 receptor.

  15. Single amino acid substitution in human platelet glycoprotein Ibbeta is responsible for the formation of the platelet-specific alloantigen Iy(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, U J; Kiefel, V; Böhringer, M; Afshar-Kharghan, V; Kroll, H; Santoso, S

    2000-03-01

    We recently described a new low-frequency platelet alloantigen on the human platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex, termed Iy(a), which was implicated in a severe case of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Immunoprecipitation studies with trypsin-treated platelets indicated that the Iy(a) alloantigenic determinants are formed by the membrane-associated remnant moiety of GP Ibalpha (GP Ibalpha(r)) together with GP Ibbeta and GP IX. To elucidate the molecular basis underlying the Iy(a) alloantigen, we amplified GPIbalpha(r), GPIbbeta, and GPIX genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nucleotide-sequence analysis of these 3 genes showed a G to A transition at position 141 on GPIbbeta gene in a subject positive for Iy(a). This transition resulted in a Gly(15)Glu dimorphism on the N-terminal domain of GPIbbeta. This finding was confirmed by genotyping analysis of 6 Iy(a)-positive subjects by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) studies using NarI endonuclease. In 300 randomly selected healthy blood donors, one Iy(a)-positive individual was found. Phenotypes determined by monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens assay and genotypes determined by RFLP were identical in this population. Analysis of Iy(a)-positive platelets showed that the point mutation affected neither the degree of surface expression nor the function of the GP Ibalpha-GP Ibbeta-IX complex on the platelet surface. Transient expression of the GP Ib-IX complex in CHO cells using wild-type GP Ibbeta (Gly(15)) or mutant GP Ibbeta (Glu(15)) allowed us to demonstrate that this single amino acid substitution is sufficient to induce Iy(a) epitope(s). (Blood. 2000;95:1849-1855)

  16. A single dose of dexamethasone encapsulated in polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid nanoparticles attenuates cisplatin-induced hearing loss following round window membrane administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun CL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Changling Sun,1,3,* Xueling Wang,1,* Zhaozhu Zheng,2 Dongye Chen,1 Xiaoqin Wang,2 Fuxin Shi,1 Dehong Yu,1 Hao Wu11Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Ear Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine on Ear and Nose Diseases, Shanghai, 2National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou, 3Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, The Fourth People’s Hospital of Wuxi City, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China*These authors have contributed equally to this workAbstract: This study aimed to investigate the sustained drug release properties and hearing protection effect of polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA stealth nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone (DEX. DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using an emulsion and evaporation technique, as previously reported. The DEX-loaded PEG-PLA nanoparticles (DEX-NPs had a hydrodynamic diameter of 130±4.78 nm, and a zeta potential of -26.13±3.28 mV. The in vitro release of DEX from DEX-NPs lasted 24 days in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4, 5 days in artificial perilymph (pH 7.4, and 1 day in rat plasma. Coumarin 6-labeled NPs placed onto the round window membrane (RWM of guinea pigs penetrated RWM quickly and accumulated to the organs of Corti, stria vascularis, and spiral ganglion cells after 1 hour of administration. The DEX-NPs locally applied onto the RWM of guinea pigs by a single-dose administration continuously released DEX in 48 hours, which was significantly longer than the free DEX that was cleared out within 12 hours after administration at the same dose. Further functional studies showed that locally administrated single-dose DEX-NPs effectively preserved outer hair cells in guinea pigs after cisplatin insult and thus significantly attenuated hearing loss at 4 kHz and 8

  17. Post hoc analysis of a single IV infusion of zoledronic acid versus daily oral risedronate on lumbar spine bone mineral density in different subgroups with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, C; Reid, D M; Devogelaer, J-P; Saag, K; Lau, C S; Reginster, J-Y; Papanastasiou, P; Bucci-Rechtweg, C; Su, G; Sambrook, P N

    2012-03-01

    This study summarizes the treatment effect of zoledronic acid infusion on lumbar spine bone mineral density in different subgroups with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Zoledronic acid is significantly more effective than risedronate in increasing lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) in both prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Introduction In patients on glucocorticoids, a single zoledronic acid infusion significantly increased BMD versus daily oral risedronate. We assessed treatment effect on LS BMD in different patient subgroups at month 12 that contributed to the risk of osteoporosis in addition to glucocorticoids. Methods Patients randomized to a single IV infusion of zoledronic acid 5 mg or risedronate (5 mg/day) and stratified based on glucocorticoids duration [treatment (>3 months) and prevention (≤ 3 months) subpopulations]were subgrouped by age; gender; menopausal status in women; dose and duration of prednisone during the trial; and baseline serum 25-OH vitamin D, LS BMD T-score, creatinine clearance, and concomitant medication use. Results At month 12, zoledronic acid significantly increased LS BMD versus risedronate in patients ≤ 74 years (Pinduced osteoporosis across a wide range of patients.

  18. Triple arterial phase MR imaging with gadoxetic acid using a combination of contrast enhanced time robust angiography, keyhole, and viewsharing techniques and two-dimensional parallel imaging in comparison with conventional single arterial phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ2 test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  19. Triple Arterial Phase MR Imaging with Gadoxetic Acid Using a Combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, Keyhole, and Viewsharing Techniques and Two-Dimensional Parallel Imaging in Comparison with Conventional Single Arterial Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul 04342 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ{sup 2} test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  20. Two single group, prospective, baseline-controlled feeding studies in infants and children with chronic diarrhea fed a hypoallergenic free amino acid-based formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschel, Marlene W; Antonson, Dean L; Murray, Nancy D; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Mattis, Lynn E; Kerzner, Benny; Tolia, Vasundhara; Baggs, Geraldine

    2014-05-29

    Infants and children with chronic diarrhea (CD) often require specialized foods or parenteral nutrition (PN) to achieve adequate nutrient intakes to support growth and development. We assessed the efficacy of an amino acid-based formula (AAF) in supporting growth and improving symptoms in infants and children with CD from multiple etiologies. Two studies were conducted: CD study in children (CD-C) and CD study in infants (CD-I). Each was a single group, baseline-controlled study in which each subject served as his/her own control. At enrollment, all subjects had CD lasting > 2 weeks and had ≥ 4 stools/day. Subjects were fed an AAF for 80 days starting at SD5, and were assessed at SD 28 and 84. 18 of 19 subjects completed the study. At enrollment, the mean age was 5.6 ± 0.7 years, the most common diagnosis was short bowel syndrome (SBS) (n = 13), and 5 subjects with SBS were on PN. Subjects achieved significant increases in weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.026). Over 50% of subjects achieved improvements in clinical outcomes targeted most frequently by their physicians. Of the five subjects on PN at enrollment, four had substantial weight gain and four had their PN requirements decreased. CD-I: 22 of 27 subjects completed the study. At enrollment, the mean age was 3.3 ± 0.3 months, the most common diagnosis was food allergy (n = 20), and no subjects were on PN. Subjects achieved significant increases in weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.0023), significant decreases in the number of stools/day (p = 0.0012), and improvements in stool consistency (p = 0.0024). Over 80% of subjects achieved improvements in the clinical outcomes targeted most frequently by their physicians. Infants and children with CD fed an AAF for three months displayed significant improvements in weight-for-age z-scores and clinical symptoms. Children dependent on PN also grew well and four of five decreased their dependence on PN. Both trials were registered on ClinTrials.gov (CD-C, NCT01812629; CD

  1. Kinetics and comparison of δ-aminolevulinic-acid-induced endogenous protoporphyrin-IX in single cell by steady state and multiphoton fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Elangovan, Masilamani; Periasamy, Ammasi

    2001-04-01

    Photodynamic Therapy has emerged as a new modality in the treatment of various nonmalignant and malignant diseases. It involves the systemic administration of tumor specific photo-sensitizers with the subsequent application of visible light. This combination causes the generation of cytotoxic species, which damage sensitive targets, producing cell injury and tumor destruction. Although, photofrin is the only photosensitizer currently approved for PDT and tumor detection, its concomitant cutaneous photosensitization poses a significant problem. Hence, δ-aminoleuvulinic acid (δ-ALA) a precursor for the endogenous production of Protoporphyrin IX, through heme biosynthesis pathway, has gained significant importance in the Photodynamic Therapy. Though δ-ALA is present naturally in the cells, exogenous δ-ALA helps to synthesis more of PpIX in the tumor cells, as the fast growing tumor cells take up the administered δ-ALA more than the normal cells. Based on these facts, many invasive studies have been reported on the kinetics of δ-ALA at cellular level by chemical extraction of PpIX from the cells. In the present study we have studied the kinetics of δ-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence from Hela cells by perchloric/Methanol extraction method. However, the amount of PpIX synthesized in the cells at different point of incubation time by noninvasive methods has not been reported. Hence we have also used a noninvasive technique of measuring the kinetics δ-ALA induced PPIX fluorescence from Hela, an epithelial cell derived from human cervical cancer by both single photon (steady state) and multi photon excitation. From the studies it is observed that the δ-ALA induced PpIX is more at 2 hours incubation time for 2 mM of δ-ALA concentration. Further, it is observed that with steady state fluorescence imaging method, the excitation light itself cause the Photodynamic damage, due to the prolonged exposure of the cells than in multi photon excitation, leading to the rounding

  2. Fluorescence of cis-1-amino-2-(3-indolyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid: a single tryptophan chi(1) rotamer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Thalji, Reema K; Adams, Paul D; Fronczek, Frank R; McLaughlin, Mark L; Barkley, Mary D

    2002-11-06

    A constrained derivative, cis-1-amino-2-(3-indolyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, cis-W3, was designed to test the rotamer model of tryptophan photophysics. The conformational constraint enforces a single chi(1) conformation, analogous to the chi(1) = 60 degrees rotamer of tryptophan. The side-chain torsion angles in the X-ray structure of cis-W3 were chi(1) = 58.5 degrees and chi(2) = -88.7 degrees. Molecular mechanics calculations suggested two chi(2) rotamers for cis-W3 in solution, -100 degrees and 80 degrees, analogous to the chi(2) = +/-90 degrees rotamers of tryptophan. The fluorescence decay of the cis-W3 zwitterion was biexponential with lifetimes of 3.1 and 0.3 ns at 25 degrees C. The relative amplitudes of the lifetime components match the chi(2) rotamer populations predicted by molecular mechanics. The longer lifetime represents the major chi(2) = -100 degrees rotamer. The shorter lifetime represents the minor chi(2) = 80 degrees rotamer having the ammonium group closer to C4 of the indole ring (labeled C5 in the cis-W3 X-ray structure). Intramolecular excited-state proton transfer occurs at indole C4 in the tryptophan zwitterion (Saito, I.; Sugiyama, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Muramatsu, S.; Matsuura,T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1984, 106, 4286-4287). Photochemical isotope exchange experiments showed that H-D exchange occurs exclusively at C5 in the cis-W3 zwitterion, consistent with the presence of the chi(2) = 80 degrees rotamer in solution. The rates of two nonradiative processes, excited-state proton and electron transfer, were measured for individual chi(2) rotamers. The excited-state proton-transfer rate was determined from H-D exchange and fluorescence lifetime data. The excited-state electron-transfer rate was determined from the temperature dependence of the fluorescence lifetime. The major quenching process in the -100 degrees rotamer is electron transfer from the excited indole to carboxylate. Electron transfer also occurs in the 80 degrees rotamer, but the

  3. Impact of sex on uric acid levels and its relationship with the extent of coronary artery disease: A single-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, L.; Verdoia, M.; Schaffer, A.; Marino, P.; Suryapranata, H.; Luca, G. De

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) elevation has been largely addressed in the past as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, uric acid has not clearly emerged as independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Several studies in literature have assessed sex-related

  4. Quantifying the effect of sorbic acid, heat and combination of both on germination and outgrowth of Bacillus subtilis spores at single cell resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.; Pieper, G.H.; ter Beek, A.; Vischer, N.O.E.; Smelt, J.P.P.M.; Manders, E.M.M.; Brul, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores are a problem for the food industry as they are able to survive preservation processes. The spores often reside in food products, where their inherent protection against various stress treatments causes food spoilage. Sorbic acid is widely used as a weak acid preservative in

  5. Lack of effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids on intestinal peptide release and adipokines in healthy female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Naverud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  6. Site-specific antibodies distinguish single amino acid substitutions in position 57 in HLA-DQ beta-chain alleles associated with insulin-dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atar, D; Dyrberg, T; Michelsen, Birgitte

    1989-01-01

    The HLA-DQ beta-chain gene shows a close association with susceptibility or resistance to autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and it has been suggested that the amino acid in position 57 may be of pathogenetic importance. To study the expression of the IDDM associated HLA-DQ beta......-chain alleles, we immunized rabbits with 12 to 13 amino acid long peptides representing HLA-DQw7 and -DQw8 allelic sequences, differing only by one amino acid in position 57 being aspartic acid (Asp) and alanine (Ala), respectively. Immunoblot analysis of lymphoblastoid cells showed that several antisera...... amino acid substitutions in predetermined positions of allelic HLA-DQ beta-chain gene products. Such sera should become useful to detect and investigate HLA associated susceptibility to autoimmune diseases in man....

  7. Photoassisted vapor generation in the presence of organic acids for ultrasensitive determination of Se by electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry following headspace single-drop microextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, Raul; Garcia, Monica; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of selenium at the pg/mL level by electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry using in situ photogeneration of Se vapors, headspace sequestration onto an aqueous microdrop containing Pd(II) and subsequent injection in a graphite tube. Several organic acids (formic, oxalic, acetic, citric and ethylenediaminetetraacetic) have been tried for photoreduction of Se(IV) into volatile Se compounds under UV irradiation. Experimental variables such as UV irradiation time, organic acid concentration, Pd(II) concentration in the drop, sample and drop volumes, extraction time and pH were fully optimized. Low-molecular weight acids such as formic and acetic provided optimal photogeneration of volatile Se species at a 0.6 mol/L concentration. Citric and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid allowed to use a concentration as low as 1 mmol/L, but extraction times were longer than for formic and acetic acids. Photogeneration of (CH 3 ) 2 Se from Se(IV) in the presence of acetic acid provided a detection limit of 20 pg/mL, a preconcentration factor of nearly 285 and a precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, of 4%. Analytical performance seemed to depend not only on the photogeneration efficiency obtained with each acid but also on the stability of the vapors in the headspace. The method showed a high freedom from interferences caused by saline matrices, but interferences were observed for transition metals at a relatively low concentration

  8. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Third Transmembrane Region Has Opposite Impacts on the Selectivity of the Parasiticides Fluralaner and Ivermectin for Ligand-Gated Chloride Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yunosuke; Fuse, Toshinori; Yamato, Kohei; Asahi, Miho; Nakahira, Kunimitsu; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2017-11-01

    Fluralaner (Bravecto) is a recently marketed isoxazoline ectoparasiticide. This compound potently inhibits GABA-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and less potently glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in insects. The mechanism underlying this selectivity is unknown. Therefore, we sought to identify the amino acid residues causing the low potency of fluralaner toward GluCls. We examined the fluralaner sensitivity of mutant housefly ( Musca domestica ) GluCls in which amino acid residues in the transmembrane subunit interface were replaced with the positionally equivalent amino acids of Musca GABACls. Of these amino acids, substitution of an amino acid (Leu315) in the third transmembrane region (TM3) with an aromatic amino acid dramatically enhanced the potency of fluralaner in the GluCls. In stark contrast to the enhancement of fluralaner potency, this mutation eliminated the activation of currents and the potentiation but not the antagonism of glutamate responses that are otherwise all elicited by the macrolide parasiticide ivermectin (IVM). Our findings indicate that the amino acid Leu315 in Musca GluCls plays significant roles in determining the selectivity of fluralaner and IVM for these channels. Given the high sequence similarity of TM3, this may hold true more widely for the GluCls and GABACls of other insect species. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Effect of the integrated approach of yoga therapy on platelet count and uric acid in pregnancy: A multicenter stratified randomized single-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jayashree

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Antenatal integrated yoga from the twelfth week is safe and effective in promoting a healthy progression of platelets and uric acid in women with high-risk pregnancy, pointing to healthy hemodilution and better physiological adaptation.

  10. Modulation of postprandial lipaemia by a single meal containing a commonly consumed interesterified palmitic acid-rich fat blend compared to a non-interesterified equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Wendy L.; Iqbal, Sara; Li, Helen; Gray, Robert; Berry, Sarah E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interesterification of palm stearin and palm kernal (PSt/PK) is widely used by the food industry to create fats with desirable functional characteristics for applications in spreads and bakery products, negating the need for trans fatty acids. Previous studies have reported reduced postprandial lipaemia, an independent risk factor for CVD, following interesterified (IE) palmitic and stearic acid-rich fats that are not currently widely used by the food industry. The current study inves...

  11. Single step synthesis of gold-amino acid composite, with the evidence of the catalytic hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reaction, for the electrochemical recognition of Serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Meenakshi; Siwal, Samarjeet; Nandi, Debkumar; Mallick, Kaushik

    2016-03-01

    A composite architecture of amino acid and gold nanoparticles has been synthesized using a generic route of 'in-situ polymerization and composite formation (IPCF)' [1,2]. The formation mechanism of the composite has been supported by a model hydrogen atom (H•≡H++e-) transfer (HAT) type of reaction which belongs to the proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism. The 'gold-amino acid composite' was used as a catalyst for the electrochemical recognition of Serotonin.

  12. Treatability of cheese whey for single-cell protein production in nonsterile systems: Part I. Optimal condition for lactic acid fermentation using a microaerobic sequencing batch reactor (microaerobic SBR) with immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 2265 and microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkoondee, Sarawut; Kuntiya, Ampin; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Techapun, Charin; Kawee-Ai, Arthitaya; Seesuriyachan, Phisit

    2016-05-18

    Cheese whey contains a high organic content and causes serious problems if it is released into the environment when untreated. This study aimed to investigate the optimum condition of lactic acid production using the microaerobic sequencing batch reactor (microaerobic SBR) in a nonsterile system. The high production of lactic acid was achieved by immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 2265 to generate an acidic pH condition below 4.5 and then to support single-cell protein (SCP) production in the second aerobic sequencing batch reactor (aerobic SBR). A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days and a whey concentration of 80% feeding gave a high lactic acid yield of 12.58 g/L, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 62.38%, and lactose utilization of 61.54%. The microbial communities in the nonsterile system were dominated by members of lactic acid bacteria, and it was shown that the inoculum remained in the system up to 330 days.

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study Singles Out SCD and LEPR as the Two Main Loci Influencing Intramuscular Fat Content and Fatty Acid Composition in Duroc Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Freixedes, Roger; Gol, Sofia; Pena, Ramona N; Tor, Marc; Ibáñez-Escriche, Noelia; Dekkers, Jack C M; Estany, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition affect the organoleptic quality and nutritional value of pork. A genome-wide association study was performed on 138 Duroc pigs genotyped with a 60k SNP chip to detect biologically relevant genomic variants influencing fat content and composition. Despite the limited sample size, the genome-wide association study was powerful enough to detect the association between fatty acid composition and a known haplotypic variant in SCD (SSC14) and to reveal an association of IMF and fatty acid composition in the LEPR region (SSC6). The association of LEPR was later validated with an independent set of 853 pigs using a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide. The SCD gene is responsible for the biosynthesis of oleic acid (C18:1) from stearic acid. This locus affected the stearic to oleic desaturation index (C18:1/C18:0), C18:1, and saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids content. These effects were consistently detected in gluteus medius, longissimus dorsi, and subcutaneous fat. The association of LEPR with fatty acid composition was detected only in muscle and was, at least in part, a consequence of its effect on IMF content, with increased IMF resulting in more SFA, less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and greater SFA/PUFA ratio. Marker substitution effects estimated with a subset of 65 animals were used to predict the genomic estimated breeding values of 70 animals born 7 years later. Although predictions with the whole SNP chip information were in relatively high correlation with observed SFA, MUFA, and C18:1/C18:0 (0.48-0.60), IMF content and composition were in general better predicted by using only SNPs at the SCD and LEPR loci, in which case the correlation between predicted and observed values was in the range of 0.36 to 0.54 for all traits. Results indicate that markers in the SCD and LEPR genes can be useful to select for optimum fatty acid profiles of pork.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Singles Out SCD and LEPR as the Two Main Loci Influencing Intramuscular Fat Content and Fatty Acid Composition in Duroc Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Ros-Freixedes

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF content and fatty acid composition affect the organoleptic quality and nutritional value of pork. A genome-wide association study was performed on 138 Duroc pigs genotyped with a 60k SNP chip to detect biologically relevant genomic variants influencing fat content and composition. Despite the limited sample size, the genome-wide association study was powerful enough to detect the association between fatty acid composition and a known haplotypic variant in SCD (SSC14 and to reveal an association of IMF and fatty acid composition in the LEPR region (SSC6. The association of LEPR was later validated with an independent set of 853 pigs using a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide. The SCD gene is responsible for the biosynthesis of oleic acid (C18:1 from stearic acid. This locus affected the stearic to oleic desaturation index (C18:1/C18:0, C18:1, and saturated (SFA and monounsaturated (MUFA fatty acids content. These effects were consistently detected in gluteus medius, longissimus dorsi, and subcutaneous fat. The association of LEPR with fatty acid composition was detected only in muscle and was, at least in part, a consequence of its effect on IMF content, with increased IMF resulting in more SFA, less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and greater SFA/PUFA ratio. Marker substitution effects estimated with a subset of 65 animals were used to predict the genomic estimated breeding values of 70 animals born 7 years later. Although predictions with the whole SNP chip information were in relatively high correlation with observed SFA, MUFA, and C18:1/C18:0 (0.48-0.60, IMF content and composition were in general better predicted by using only SNPs at the SCD and LEPR loci, in which case the correlation between predicted and observed values was in the range of 0.36 to 0.54 for all traits. Results indicate that markers in the SCD and LEPR genes can be useful to select for optimum fatty acid profiles of pork.

  15. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the FADS1 Gene is Associated with Plasma Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles and Might Explain Gender Difference in Body Fat Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huilan; Zhang, Lichao; Zhu, Chaonan; Yang, Fei; Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Shankuan; Ma, Xiaoguang

    2017-03-31

    Genotyping of the rs174547 polymorphism in the fatty acid desaturase 1 gene (FADS1) shows that it is associated with the FA composition of plasma phospholipids and lipid metabolic indices among several ethnic groups. However, this association requires further confirmation in the Chinese population, and little is known about the effect of polymorphisms in fatty acid-related genes on body fat distribution. Anthropometric measurements of 951 Chinese adults aged 18-79 were obtained and body fat distribution was estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The FA composition of plasma phospholipids was measured by gas chromatography. Multiple linear regression assessed whether the rs174547 genotype was associated with FA composition, body fat distribution, and metabolic traits in additive, dominant, and recessive models. The rs174547 C minor allele was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic acid, lower arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, as well as lower delta-6-desaturase and delta-5-desaturase activity. Female C allele carriers had lower android fat percentages and lower levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, while male C allele carriers had lower gynoid fat percentages and higher triglyceride after adjusting for age, income, BMI, behavioral risk factors, and regional fat percentages. An association of FADS1 rs174547 with the FA composition of plasma phospholipids was identified among this Chinese adult population. The association with body fat distribution and lipid metabolic indices differed between men and women, which might explain sexual differences in body fat distribution and lipid metabolism.

  16. Synthesis of [11C]palmitic acid for PET imaging using a single molecular sieve 13X cartridge for reagent trapping, radiolabeling and selective purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor-Coarasa, Alejandro; Kelly, James M; Babich, John W

    2015-08-01

    Radiolabeled fatty acids are valuable metabolic tracers for PET imaging. Carbon-11 is widely used in clinical PET studies due to the prevalence of facile techniques enabling the incorporation of [(11)C]CO2 and [(11)C]CH3 into molecules and a short half-life (20.4 min) that translates into low patient dose. However, the short half-life considerably limits the time for radiosynthesis. Furthermore, the majority of the syntheses of [(11)C]palmitic acid in common use employ high starting [(11)C]CO2 activities and/or expensive equipment. [(11)C]CO2 was trapped with greater than 99.99% efficiency by a three stage cartridge packed with molecular sieve 13X, 100-120 mesh. The labeling of n-pentadecylmagnesium bromide took place in 5 min in the cartridge, and the [(11)C]palmitic acid product was selectively eluted in ethanol following alkaline and acidic washes of the column. The system reliably produced more than 925 MBq (25 mCi) of [(11)C]palmitic acid suitable for human use from 7.4 GBq (200 mCi) of [(11)C]CO2 in 8 min from end-of-bombardment. We have exploited the properties of the inexpensive molecular sieve 13X to develop a miniature, disposable and leak tight "gas capture" system for the rapid labeling and purification of [(11)C]fatty acids in good yield and >99% radiochemical purity. The rapidity of the synthesis and purification allows small [(11)C]CO2 starting activities to be used, and with no requirement for expensive synthesis equipment or facilities, the system can be implemented in any radiopharmaceutical center. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid and corticoid injections in osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint: results of a 6-month single-masked randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, Jordi; Rotés-Sala, Delfin; Segalés, Nuria; Montañes, Francisco-Jose; Orellana, Cristobal; Llorente-Onaindia, Jone; Mojal, Sergi; Padró, Isabel; Benito, Pere

    2015-03-01

    The study aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid and betamethasone in the management of patients with osteoarthritis of the thumb. Eighty-eight evaluable patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the thumb (Kellgren-Lawrence grade II-III) received ultrasound-guided intra-articular treatment with hyaluronic acid (48) or betamethasone (40). In total, 3 local injections were scheduled at 7-day intervals. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days. In both study groups, the pain Visual Analogue Scale and Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis scores decreased significantly during follow-up compared to baseline. There were no significant differences between the groups. However, at 90 days, the functional score showed a trend towards greater clinical improvement in the hyaluronic acid group (P 0.071). A subanalysis of patients with Functional Index score≥5 and Visual Analogue Scale score≥3 at baseline showed a significantly higher median functionality score in the hyaluronic acid group (P 0.005 at 90 days and P 0.020 at 180 days). Further limiting analysis to a baseline pain score≥5 showed significantly greater improvement in functionality score (P 0.004 at 180 days), which was already apparent after the second intra-articular injection at 14 days (P 0.028). In this patient subset, the mean pain score also improved significantly at 180 days (P 0.02). Both hyaluronic acid and betamethasone were effective and well-tolerated for the management of rhizarthrosis. Hyaluronic acid was more effective over time and more efficiently improved functionality and pain in patients with more severe symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Single center experience with endoscopic subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection as first line treatment in 1,551 children with intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Prem; Kutasy, Balazs; Colhoun, Eric; Hunziker, Manuela

    2012-10-01

    In recent years the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid has become an established alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and the surgical management of vesicoureteral reflux. We determined the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid as first line treatment for high grade vesicoureteral reflux. Between 2001 and 2010, 1,551 children (496 male, 1,055 female, median age 1.6 years) underwent endoscopic correction of intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid soon after the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux on initial voiding cystourethrogram. Vesicoureteral reflux was unilateral in 761 children and bilateral in 790. Renal scarring was detected in 369 (26.7%) of the 1,384 patients who underwent dimercapto-succinic acid imaging. Reflux grade in the 2,341 ureters was II in 98 (4.2%), III in 1,340 (57.3%), IV in 818 (34.9%) and V in 85 (3.6%). Followup ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months after the outpatient procedure, and renal ultrasound was performed annually thereafter. Patients were followed for 3 months to 10 years (median 5.6 years). Vesicoureteral reflux resolved after the first, second and third endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in 2,039 (87.1%), 264 (11.3%) and 38 (1.6%) ureters, respectively. Febrile urinary tract infections developed during followup in 69 (4.6%) patients. None of the patients in the series needed reimplantation of ureters or experienced any significant complications. Our results confirm the safety and efficacy of the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in the eradication of high grade vesicoureteral reflux. We recommend this 15-minute outpatient procedure as the first line of treatment for high grade vesicoureteral reflux. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of pediatric vesicoureteral reflux using endoscopic injection of hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel: intermediate-term experience by a single surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Michael H; Madden-Fuentes, Ramiro J; Lindsay, Nicholas E; Roth, David R

    2010-07-01

    Endoscopic injection of non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel is an increasingly recognized treatment option for vesicoureteral reflux. The procedure is minor compared with open surgery and, when successful, avoids the need for long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. We present data from 3 years of using non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel to treat children with vesicoureteral reflux. Pediatric patients aged 16 years with uncomplicated primary vesicoureteral reflux were recruited for endoscopic treatment with non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel. A follow-up voiding cystourethrogram was scheduled at 2 weeks after treatment, and vesicoureteral reflux resolution was defined as grade 0. Repeat non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel treatment was offered to patients with persistent vesicoureteral reflux. Of 178 patients treated, 12 were lost to follow-up or yet to undergo post-treatment voiding cystourethrogram. The 166 remaining patients (efficacy population) had a mean age of 4.21 years (range: 0-16), and the median reflux grade was 3 (range: 1-5). Vesicoureteral reflux was resolved in 81.9% of patients and 86.4% of ureters after initial endoscopic treatment with non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel. The overall reflux resolution rate for patients increased to 89.6% after a second treatment in 19 patients, and 90.2% after a third treatment in 1 patient. No adverse events were reported. Five patients underwent open ureteral reimplantation after failed endoscopic injections. Endoscopic treatment with non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel is effective in a high proportion of children with vesicoureteral reflux and, in our opinion, should be considered as a first-line treatment option. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Single Stage Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assignment of the C-5 Uronic Acid Stereochemistry in Heparan Sulfate Tetrasaccharides using Electron Detachment Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyekum, Isaac; Zong, Chengli; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans presents many challenges, due to the high degree of structural heterogeneity arising from their non-template biosynthesis. Complete structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans necessitates the unambiguous assignments of sulfo modifications and the C-5 uronic acid stereochemistry. Efforts to develop tandem mass spectrometric-based methods for the structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans have focused on the assignment of sulfo positions. The present work focuses on the assignment of the C-5 stereochemistry of the uronic acid that lies closest to the reducing end. Prior work with electron-based tandem mass spectrometry methods, specifically electron detachment dissociation (EDD), have shown great promise in providing stereo-specific product ions, such as the B3 ´ -CO2, which has been found to distinguish glucuronic acid (GlcA) from iduronic acid (IdoA) in some HS tetrasaccharides. The previously observed diagnostic ions are generally not observed with 2- O-sulfo uronic acids or for more highly sulfated heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides. A recent study using electron detachment dissociation and principal component analysis revealed a series of ions that correlate with GlcA versus IdoA for a set of 2- O-sulfo HS tetrasaccharide standards. The present work comprehensively investigates the efficacy of these ions for assigning the C-5 stereochemistry of the reducing end uronic acid in 33 HS tetrasaccharides. A diagnostic ratio can be computed from the sum of the ions that correlate to GlcA to those that correlate to IdoA. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. A single-amino-acid substitution in the HA protein changes the replication and pathogenicity of the 2009 pandemic A (H1N1 influenza viruses in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Chunmei

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The novel pandemic A (H1N1 virus was first identified in Mexico in April 2009 and since then it spread world wide over a short period of time. Although the virus infection is generally associated with mild disease and a relatively low mortality, it is projected that mutations in specific regions of the viral genome, especially within the receptor binding domain of the hemagglutinin (HA protein could result in more virulent virus stains, leading to a more severe pandemic. Results Here, we found that a single amino acid substitution of Asp-to-Gly at position 222 in the HA protein of the A (H1N1 virus occurred after two passage propagation in the allantoic cavities of chicken embryonated eggs, and this single residue variation dramatically increased the viral replication ability in MDCK cells and pathogenicity in BALB/c mice. Conclusions A substitution of Asp-to-Gly at position 222 in the HA protein was prone to occur under positive selection pressures, and this single amino acid mutation could dramatically increase the virus replication ability in vitro and pathogenicity in vivo. Our finding offers a better understanding of the transmission and evolution of the 2009 pandemic A (H1N1 virus and brings attention to further potentially severe influenza pandemic that may result from cross-host evolution of the influenza viruses.

  2. A single substitution in amino acid 184 of the NP protein alters the replication and pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we found that exchanging the NP genes of recombinant avian influenza viruses (AIVs) affected viral replication and altered host gene expression and mean death times in chickens infected with these viruses. Five amino acids at positions 22, 184, 400, 406, and 423 were different between th...

  3. The single-biopsy approach in determining protein synthesis in human slow-turning-over tissue: use of flood-primed, continuous infusion of amino acid tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Reitelseder, Søren; Dideriksen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rate is determined conventionally by obtaining two or more tissue biopsies during a primed, continuous infusion of a stable isotopically labeled amino acid. The purpose of the present study was to test whether tracer priming given as a flooding dose, thereby securin...

  4. Topical Hyaluronic Acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Oh, Julia L.; Arriaga, Lisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kelly, Patrick; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yu, T. Kuan, E-mail: tkyu@houstonprecisioncc.com [Houston Precision Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of {>=}Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis. Results: The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only 1ne patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid-based gel for reducing the development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop.

  5. Lack of Effects of a Single High-Fat Meal Enriched with Vegetable n-3 or a Combination of Vegetable and Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Intestinal Peptide Release and Adipokines in Healthy Female Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C W; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-01-01

    Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  6. Serogrouping single colonies of beta-hemolytic streptococci from primary throat culture plates with nitrous acid extraction and Phadebact streptococcal reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifkin, M; Interval, G

    1980-10-01

    The serogrouping of isolated beta-hemolytic streptococcal colonies from throat cultures by a micronitrous acid extraction method employing Phadebact Streptotoccus Test reagents was compared with results obtained with the direct-plate Phadebact procedure and the autoclave and Streptomyces albus enzyme-lysozyme extraction methods. These data were compared with those from the Lancefield grouping obtained with a capillary precipitin test. The micronitrous acid extraction method was modified to yield an uncomplicated method that provides specific coagglutination responses from one beta-hemolytic streptococcal colony that may be collected from a primary blood agar plate either on the end of an applicator stick or from a sweep of an inoculating loop from mixed growth.

  7. Determination of carboxylic acids, carbohydrates and metals in different tomato cultivars by HPLC-ICP-AES in a single chromatographic run

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Paredes, Eduardo; Maestre, Salvador E.; Prats Moya, Soledad; Todolí Torró, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    Póster presentado en European Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistry 2007, 18-23 February 2007, Taormina, Italy The determination of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and metals is a subject of great interest in the field of food science because their presence and concentration can influence on food quality. Besides the study of the profiles of these compounds can permit the discrimination between different varieties of a product. Unfortunately, the usually employed chromatograph...

  8. Walking a Fine Line with Sucrose Phosphorylase: Efficient Single-Step Biocatalytic Production of l-Ascorbic Acid 2-Glucoside from Sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiminchi, Rama Krishna; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2017-07-18

    The 2-O-α-d-glucoside of l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) is a highly stabilized form of vitamin C, with important industrial applications in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceuticals. AA-2G is currently produced through biocatalytic glucosylation of l-ascorbic acid from starch-derived oligosaccharides. Sucrose would be an ideal substrate for AA-2G synthesis, but it lacks a suitable transglycosidase. We show here that in a narrow pH window (pH 4.8-6.0, with sharp optimum at pH 5.2), sucrose phosphorylases catalyzed the 2-O-α-glucosylation of l-ascorbic acid from sucrose with high efficiency and perfect site-selectivity. Optimized synthesis with the enzyme from Bifidobacterium longum at 40 °C gave a concentrated product (155 g L -1 ; 460 mm), from which pure AA-2G was readily recovered in ∼50 % overall yield, thus providing the basis for advanced production. The peculiar pH dependence is suggested to arise from a "reverse-protonation" mechanism in which the catalytic base Glu232 on the glucosyl-enzyme intermediate must be protonated for attack on the anomeric carbon from the 2-hydroxyl of the ionized l-ascorbate substrate. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Structural basis for cyclization specificity of two Azotobacter type III polyketide synthases: a single amino acid substitution reverses their cyclization specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Ryutaro; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Ozawa, Hiroki; Funa, Nobutaka; Katsuyama, Yohei; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2013-11-22

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) show diverse cyclization specificity. We previously characterized two Azotobacter type III PKSs (ArsB and ArsC) with different cyclization specificity. ArsB and ArsC, which share a high sequence identity (71%), produce alkylresorcinols and alkylpyrones through aldol condensation and lactonization of the same polyketomethylene intermediate, respectively. Here we identified a key amino acid residue for the cyclization specificity of each enzyme by site-directed mutagenesis. Trp-281 of ArsB corresponded to Gly-284 of ArsC in the amino acid sequence alignment. The ArsB W281G mutant synthesized alkylpyrone but not alkylresorcinol. In contrast, the ArsC G284W mutant synthesized alkylresorcinol with a small amount of alkylpyrone. These results indicate that this amino acid residue (Trp-281 of ArsB or Gly-284 of ArsC) should occupy a critical position for the cyclization specificity of each enzyme. We then determined crystal structures of the wild-type and G284W ArsC proteins at resolutions of 1.76 and 1.99 Å, respectively. Comparison of these two ArsC structures indicates that the G284W substitution brings a steric wall to the active site cavity, resulting in a significant reduction of the cavity volume. We postulate that the polyketomethylene intermediate can be folded to a suitable form for aldol condensation only in such a relatively narrow cavity of ArsC G284W (and presumably ArsB). This is the first report on the alteration of cyclization specificity from lactonization to aldol condensation for a type III PKS. The ArsC G284W structure is significant as it is the first reported structure of a microbial resorcinol synthase.

  10. Additivity of the Stabilization Effect of Single Amino Acid Substitutions in Triple Mutants of Recombinant Formate Dehydrogenase from the Soybean Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, A A; Kargov, I S; Kleimenov, S Yu; Savin, S S; Tishkov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the amino acid substitutions Ala267Met and Ala267Met/Ile272Val (Alekseeva et al., Biochemistry, 2012), Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser (Alekseeva et al., Prot. Eng. Des. Select, 2012) in recombinant formate dehydrogenase from soya Glycine max (SoyFDH) lead to a significant (up to 30-100 times) increase in the thermal stability of the enzyme. The substitutions Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser were introduced into double mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val by site-directed mutagenesis. Combinations of three substitutions did not lead to a noticeable change in the catalytic properties of the mutant enzymes. The stability of the resultant triple mutants was studied through thermal inactivation kinetics and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal stability of the new mutant SoyFDHs was shown to be much higher than that of their precursors. The stability of the best mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val/Phe290Asp turned out to be comparable to that of the most stable wild-type formate dehydrogenases from other sources. The results obtained with both methods indicate a great synergistic contribution of individual amino acid substitutions to the common stabilization effect.

  11. Interaction of formic and acetic acid with ice surfaces between 187 and 227 K. Investigation of single species- and competitive adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hessberg, P; Pouvesle, N; Winkler, A K; Schuster, G; Crowley, J N

    2008-05-07

    The physical adsorption of formic (HC(O)OH) and acetic (CH(3)C(O)OH) acid on ice was measured as a function of concentration and temperature. At low concentrations, the gas-ice interaction could be analysed by applying Langmuir adsorption isotherms to determine temperature dependent partition constants, K(Lang). Using temperature independent saturation coverages (N(max)) of (2.2 +/- 0.5) x 10(14) molecule cm(-2) and (2.4 +/- 0.6) x 10(14) molecule cm(-2) for HC(O)OH and CH(3)C(O)OH, respectively, we derive K(Lang)(HC(O)OH) = 1.54 x 10(-24) exp (6150/T) and K(Lang)(CH(3)C(O)OH) = 6.55 x 10(-25) exp (6610/T) cm(3) molecule(-1). Via a van't Hoff analysis, adsorption enthalpies were obtained for HC(O)OH and CH(3)C(O)OH. Experiments in which both acids or HC(O)OH and methanol interacted with the ice surface simultaneously were adequately described by competitive adsorption kinetics. The results are compared to previous measurements and used to calculate the equilibrium partitioning of these trace gases to ice surfaces under conditions relevant to the atmosphere.

  12. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  13. Docosahexanoic Acid Plus Vitamin D Treatment Improves Features of NAFLD in Children with Serum Vitamin D Deficiency: Results from a Single Centre Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Della Corte

    Full Text Available There are no licensed treatments for non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in adults or children. In NAFLD, several studies have shown a benefit of omega-3 fatty acid treatment on lipid profile, insulin-sensitivity and hepatic steatosis and it has also been suggested that Vitamin D treatment has potential antifibrotic properties in liver disease.To date, however, there are no studies that have tested the combination of Docosahexanoic acid (DHA and vitamin D treatment which may benefit the whole spectrum of disease in NAFLD. Our aim therefore, was to test the effect of daily DHA (500 mg plus vitamin D (800 IU treatment, in obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD and vitamin D deficiency, in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.The 41/43 patients completed the study (18-treatment, 23-placebo. At 12 months: i the main outcome was liver histology improvement, defined by NAS; ii the secondary outcome was amelioration of metabolic parameters.DHA plus vitamin D treatment reduced the NAFLD Activity Score (NAS, in the treatment group (5.4 v1.92; p<0.001 for baseline versus end of study. There was no change in fibrosis score, but a reduction of the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC and fibrillar collagen content was noted (3.51±1.66 v. 1.59±1.37; p = 0.003 in treatment group. Moreover, the triglycerides (174.5 vs. 102.15 mg/dl, ALT (40.25 vs. 24.5 UI/l and HOMA-IR (4.59 vs. 3.42 were all decreased with treatment.DHA plus vitamin D treatment improved insulin-resistance, lipid profile, ALT and NAS. There was also decreased HSC activation and collagen content with treatment.

  14. Single crystal EPR of the mixed-ligand complex of copper(II) with L-glutamic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline: a study on the narrowing of the hyperfine structure by exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Nicolás I; Franco, Vanina G; Ferroni, Felix M; Baggio, Ricardo; Passeggi, Mario C G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2012-12-20

    We report an EPR study at X- and Q-bands of polycrystalline and single crystal samples of the mixed copper(II) complex with L-glutamic acid (glu) and 1,10-phenantroline (phen), [Cu(glu)(phen)(H(2)O)](+) NO(3)(-)·2(H(2)O). The polycrystalline sample spectrum at Q-band showed well resolved g(∥ )and g(⊥) features and partially solved hyperfine structure at g(∥), typical for weakly exchange coupled systems. This is confirmed from the angular variation of the EPR spectra which shows for certain magnetic field orientations a partially solved hyperfine structure characteristic of weak exchange, whereas a single Lorentzian line corresponding to strong exchange is observed for others. Analysis and simulation of the single crystal EPR spectra were performed using the random frequency modulation model of Anderson. Numerical simulations of the angular variation of the EPR spectra showed that the narrowing of the hyperfine structure is due to an exchange-mediated mechanism in which transitions between any pair of lines are equally likely. The exchange interaction responsible for this process is mediated by hydrophobic interactions between two phen molecules and a mixed chemical path of the type CuA-O(ap)H···O-C-O(eq)-CuB, for which we evaluated an average isotropic exchange parameter |J| ≈ 25 × 10(-4) cm(-1).

  15. A Single-Amino-Acid Substitution at Position 225 in Hemagglutinin Alters the Transmissibility of Eurasian Avian-Like H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Tao, Shiyu; Liu, Liling; Kong, Huihui; Ma, Shujie; Meng, Fei; Suzuki, Yasuo; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Hualan

    2017-11-01

    Efficient transmission from human to human is the prerequisite for an influenza virus to cause a pandemic; however, the molecular determinants of influenza virus transmission are still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the molecular basis for transmission of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses by comparing two viruses that are genetically similar but differ in their transmissibility in guinea pigs: the A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 virus (GX/18) is highly transmissible by respiratory droplet in guinea pigs, whereas the A/swine/Heilongjiang/27/2012 virus (HLJ/27) does not transmit in this animal model. We used reverse genetics to generate a series of reassortants and mutants in the GX/18 background and tested their transmissibility in guinea pigs. We found that a single-amino-acid substitution of glycine (G) for glutamic acid (E) at position 225 (E225G) in the HA1 protein completely abolished the respiratory droplet transmission of GX/18, whereas the substitution of E for G at the same position (G225E) in HA1 enabled HLJ/27 to transmit in guinea pigs. We investigated the underlying mechanism and found that viruses bearing 225E in HA1 replicated more rapidly than viruses bearing 225G due to differences in assembly and budding efficiencies. Our study indicates that the amino acid 225E in HA1 plays a key role in EAH1N1 swine influenza virus transmission and provides important information for evaluating the pandemic potential of field influenza virus strains. IMPORTANCE Efficient transmission among humans is a prerequisite for a novel influenza virus to cause a human pandemic. Transmissibility of influenza viruses is a polygenic trait, and understanding the genetic determinants for transmissibility will provide useful insights for evaluating the pandemic potential of influenza viruses in the field. Several amino acids in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza viruses have been shown to be important for transmissibility, usually by

  16. Single amino acid insertions in extracellular loop 2 of Bombyx mori ABCC2 disrupt its receptor function for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Aa toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shiho; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Noda, Hiroaki; Endo, Haruka; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    In a previous report, seven Cry1Ab-resistant strains were identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; these strains were shown to have a tyrosine insertion at position 234 in extracellular loop 2 of the ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2). This insertion was confirmed to destroy the receptor function of BmABCC2 and confer the strains resistance against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. However, these strains were susceptible to Cry1Aa. In this report, we examined the mechanisms of the loss of receptor function of the transporter by expressing mutations in Sf9 cells. After replacement of one or two of the five amino acid residues in loop 2 of the susceptible BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_S] with alanine, cells still showed susceptibility, retaining the receptor function. Five mutants with single amino acid insertions at position 234 in BmABCC2 were also generated, resulting in loop 2 having six amino acids, which corresponds to replacing the tyrosine insertion in the resistant BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y)] with another amino acid. All five mutants exhibited loss of function against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence in loop 2 is less important than the loop size (five vs. six amino acids) or loop structure for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac activity. Several domain-swapped mutant toxins were then generated among Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac, which are composed of three domains. Swapped mutants containing domain II of Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac did not kill Sf9 cells expressing BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y), suggesting that domain II of the Cry toxin is related to the interaction with the receptor function of BmABCC2. This also suggests that different reactions against Bt-toxins in some B. mori strains, that is, Cry1Ab resistance or Cry1Aa susceptibility, are attributable to structural differences in domain II of Cry1A toxins. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Intact Protein Analysis at 21 Tesla and X-Ray Crystallography Define Structural Differences in Single Amino Acid Variants of Human Mitochondrial Branched-Chain Amino Acid Aminotransferase 2 (BCAT2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lissa C.; Håkansson, Maria; Walse, Björn; Nilsson, Carol L.

    2017-09-01

    Structural technologies are an essential component in the design of precision therapeutics. Precision medicine entails the development of therapeutics directed toward a designated target protein, with the goal to deliver the right drug to the right patient at the right time. In the field of oncology, protein structural variants are often associated with oncogenic potential. In a previous proteogenomic screen of patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM) tumor materials, we identified a sequence variant of human mitochondrial branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase 2 as a putative factor of resistance of GBM to standard-of-care-treatments. The enzyme generates glutamate, which is neurotoxic. To elucidate structural coordinates that may confer altered substrate binding or activity of the variant BCAT2 T186R, a 45 kDa protein, we applied combined ETD and CID top-down mass spectrometry in a LC-FT-ICR MS at 21 T, and X-Ray crystallography in the study of both the variant and non-variant intact proteins. The combined ETD/CID fragmentation pattern allowed for not only extensive sequence coverage but also confident localization of the amino acid variant to its position in the sequence. The crystallographic experiments confirmed the hypothesis generated by in silico structural homology modeling, that the Lys59 side-chain of BCAT2 may repulse the Arg186 in the variant protein (PDB code: 5MPR), leading to destabilization of the protein dimer and altered enzyme kinetics. Taken together, the MS and novel 3D structural data give us reason to further pursue BCAT2 T186R as a precision drug target in GBM. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. A Single Amino Acid Substitution Prevents Recognition of a Dominant Human Aquaporin-4 Determinant in the Context of HLA-DRB1*03:01 by a Murine TCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Benjamine; Hussain, Rehana; Miller-Little, William A.; Herndon, Emily; Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Eagar, Todd N.; Lewis, Robert; Healey, Don; Vernino, Steven; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Stüve, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Background Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is considered a putative autoantigen in patients with Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoinflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). HLA haplotype analyses of patients with NMO suggest a positive association with HLA-DRB1* 03:01. We previously showed that the human (h) AQP4 peptide 281–300 is the dominant immunogenic determinant of hAQP4 in the context of HLA-DRB1*03:01. This immunogenic peptide stimulates a strong Th1 and Th17 immune response. AQP4281-300-specific encephalitogenic CD4+ T cells should initiate CNS inflammation that results in a clinical phenotype in HLA-DRB1*03:01 transgenic mice. Methods Controlled study with humanized experimental animals. HLA-DRB1*03:01 transgenic mice were immunized with hAQP4281-300, or whole-length hAQP4 protein emulsified in complete Freund’s adjuvant. Humoral immune responses to both antigens were assessed longitudinally. In vivo T cell frequencies were assessed by tetramer staining. Mice were followed clinically, and the anterior visual pathway was tested by pupillometry. CNS tissue was examined histologically post-mortem. Flow cytometry was utilized for MHC binding assays and to immunophenotype T cells, and T cell frequencies were determined by ELISpot assay. Results Immunization with hAQP4281-300 resulted in an in vivo expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, and an immunoglobulin isotype switch. HLA-DRB1*03:01 TG mice actively immunized with hAQP4281-300, or with whole-length hAQP4 protein were resistant to developing a neurological disease that resembles NMO. Experimental mice show no histological evidence of CNS inflammation, nor change in pupillary responses. Subsequent analysis reveals that a single amino acid substitution from aspartic acid in hAQP4 to glutamic acid in murine (m)AQP4 at position 290 prevents the recognition of hAQP4281-300 by the murine T cell receptor (TCR). Conclusion Induction of a CNS inflammatory autoimmune disorder by active immunization of

  19. Pure neuritic leprosy: Resolving diagnostic issues in acid fast bacilli (AFB)-negative nerve biopsies: A single centre experience from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Monalisa; Uppin, Megha S; Challa, Sundaram; Meena, A K; Kaul, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Demonstration of lepra bacilli is essential for definite or unequivocal diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) on nerve biopsy. However, nerves always do not show bacilli owing to the changes of previous therapy or due to low bacillary load in tuberculoid forms. In absence of granuloma or lepra bacilli, other morphologic changes in endoneurium and perineurium can be of help in making a probable diagnosis of PNL and treating the patient with multidrug therapy. Forty-six biopsies of PNL were retrospectively reviewed and histologic findings were compared with 25 biopsies of non leprosy neuropathies (NLN) including vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The distribution of endoneurial infiltrate and fibrosis, perineurial thickening, and myelin abnormalities were compared between PNL and NLN biopsies and analyzed by Chi-square test. Out of 46 PNL casses, 24 (52.17 %) biopsies were negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB). In these cases, the features which favor a diagnosis of AFB-negative PNL were endoneurial infiltrate (51.1%), endoneurial fibrosis (54.2%), perineurial thickening (70.8%), and reduced number of myelinated nerve fibers (75%). Nerve biopsy is an efficient tool to diagnose PNL and differentiate it from other causes of NLN. In absence of AFB, the diagnosis of PNL is challenging. In this article, we have satisfactorily evaluated the various hisopthological features and found that endoneurial inflammation, dense fibrosis, and reduction in the number of myelinated nerve fibers are strong supportive indicators of PNL regardless of AFB positivity.

  20. A single amino acid substitution in isozyme GST mu in Triclabendazole resistant Fasciola hepatica (Sligo strain) can substantially influence the manifestation of anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, V; Estein, S; Ortiz, P; Luchessi, P; Solana, V; Solana, H

    2015-12-01

    The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis in human and domestic ruminants. Economic losses due to this infection are estimated in U$S 2000-3000 million yearly. The most common method of control is the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, there is an increased concern about the growing appearance of F. hepatica resistance to Triclabendazole (TCBZ), an anthelmintic with activity over adult and young flukes. F. hepatica has eight Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) isozymes, which are enzymes involved in the detoxification of a wide range of substrates through chemical conjugation with glutathione. In the present work we identified and characterized the GST mu gene isolated from the TCBZ-susceptible and TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica strains. Total RNA was transcribed into cDNA by reverse transcription and a 657 bp amplicon corresponding to the GST mu gene was obtained. The comparative genetic analysis of the GST mu gene of the TCBZ susceptible strain (Cullompton) and TCBZ resistant strain (Sligo) showed three nucleotide changes and one amino acid change at position 143 in the GST mu isozyme of the TCBZ-resistant strain. These results have potential relevance as they contribute better understand the mechanisms that generate resistance to anthelmintics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting Factors for Allogeneic Blood Transfusion and Excessive Postoperative Blood Loss after Single Low-Dosage Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Application in Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA application has become a popular method for perioperative blood loss (PBL reduction in total knee replacement (TKR. Nevertheless, through our knowledge, no previous studies had shown the correlation perioperative factors and the risk of excessive PBL or need of blood transfusion (BT after IA-TXA. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in patients underwent 299 primary TKRs, using IA-TXA, during 2-year period (2013-2014. Patient’s characteristic and perioperative data were reviewed and collected. PBL was measured as total hemoglobin loss (THL, estimated total blood loss (ETBL, and drainage volume per kg (DV/kg. Excessive PBL was defined as PBL that exceeded 90th percentile. Results. From multivariate analysis, low preoperative hemoglobin (Hb level and body mass index (BMI were the significant predictors of postoperative BT (p<0.0001 and 0.003, resp.. Excessive THL significant associated with preoperative Hb (p<0.0001. Excessive ETBL significantly associated with preoperative Hb, height, preoperative range-of-motion, and creatinine clearance (p<0.05 all. Low BMI and large prosthesis size were the significant predictors of excessive DV/kg (p=0.0001 and 0.002, resp.. Conclusions. Low preoperative Hb and BMI were the significant risks of postoperative transfusion after TKR with IA-TXA. Moreover, multiple perioperative factors could result in higher PBL.

  2. Structural insights into enzymatic activity and substrate specificity determination by a single amino acid in nitrilase from Syechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lujia; Yin, Bo; Wang, Chao; Jiang, Shuiqin; Wang, Hualei; Yuan, Y Adam; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-11-01

    Nitrilases are enzymes widely expressed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that utilize a Cys–Glu–Lys catalytic triad to hydrolyze non-peptide carbon–nitrogen bonds. Nitrilase from Syechocystis sp. Strain PCC6803 (Nit6803) shows hydrolysis activity towards a broad substrate spectrum, ranging from mononitriles to dinitriles and from aromatic nitriles to aliphatic nitriles. Yet, the structural principle of the substrate specificity of this nitrilase is still unknown. We report the crystal structure of Nit6803 at 3.1 Å resolution and propose a structural mechanism of substrate selection. Our mutagenesis data exhibited that the aromaticity of the amino acid at position 146 of Nit6803 is absolutely required for its nitrilase activity towards any substrates tested. Moreover, molecular docking and dynamic simulation analysis indicated that the distance between the sulfhydryl group of the catalytic cysteine residue and the cyano carbon of the substrate plays a crucial role in determining the nitrilase catalytic activity of Nit6803 and its mutants towards different nitrile substrates.

  3. The use of single dose of sodium citrate as a prophylaxis against acid aspiration syndrome in obstetric patients undergoing caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S K; Elegbe, E O

    1991-12-01

    The effectiveness of sodium citrate as a prophylaxis against acid aspiration syndrome was studied in 3 groups of obstetric patients. Group I was the control group which consisted of 20 patients in established labour who were not likely to require caesarean section. No antacid had been given to these patients. Group II consisted of 20 patients who underwent elective caesarean section, while Group III consisted of another 20 patients who underwent emergency caesarean section. Group II and III were given 30ml of 0.3M sodium citrate as soon as they arrived in the operation theatre. The gastric content was aspirated after the induction of anaesthesia and at the end of surgery just before extubation. The volume was measured and a sample sent for pH analysis. Sodium citrate was found to increase the gastric pH significantly in both Group II and III patients when compared with Group I patients who underwent emergency caesarean section. We conclude that 30ml of 0.3M sodium citrate is effective in increasing gastric pH though it tends to be associated with an increase in gastric volume.

  4. The effect of metal ions as co-catalysts on acidic ionic liquid catalyzed single-step saccharification of corn stover in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiredu, Bernard; Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2015-01-01

    The effects of adding Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+) Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and La(3+) chlorides as co-catalysts to 1-(1-propylsulfonic)-3-methylimidazolium chloride acidic ionic liquid catalyzed saccharification of corn stover in aqueous medium was studied at 140-170 °C, by measuring the total reducing sugar (TRS) and glucose yields. The samples with Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+) as co-catalysts produced higher TRS yields compared to the sample without the metal ions. The Mn(2+) produced the highest catalytic effect enhancements and produced TRS yields of 68.0%, 72.9%, 90.2% and 87.9% at 140, 150, 160 and 170 °C respectively; whereas the corn stover samples without the Mn(2+) produced TRS yields of 42.9%, 52.3%, 54.4% and 53.5% at the same four temperatures. At higher temperatures of 160 and 170 °C, all metal ions studied produced significant enhancements in glucose yields, except Cr(3+). The addition of La(3+) as a co-catalyst produced the highest glucose yield improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term results after endoscopic VUR-treatment using dextranomer / hyaluronic acid copolymer – 5-year experience in a single-center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Joerg; Werther, Maren; Alloussi, Saladin H.; Aufderklamm, Stefan; Gakis, Georgios; Todenhöfer, Tilman; Stenzl, Arnulf

    2011-01-01

    Background A number of bulking agents have been used for the endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux in children. We present our long-term results of endoscopic use of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux®) for VUR treatment in children. Patients and methods Between 2004 and 2008, 21 children underwent endoscopic subureteral injection of Deflux® in 30 ureters as an outpatient procedure. Twelve children had unilateral reflux (2 duplicated systems) and nine had bilateral reflux. Median age was 5-years (6-months to 14.9-years). Six weeks postoperatively, a voiding cystourethrogram was performed. This study examined the disappearance of VUR and urinary tract infection (UTI) in the long-term follow-up as well as QoL (questionnaire of the parents). Results No intra- or postoperative complications had been noticed. In 25 ureters (83%), VCUG showed no VUR 6-weeks postoperatively. Three children received a 2nd injection (two successful). After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, 27 ureters in 17 children (90%) had no urinary tract infection and VUR. The questionnaire results in regard to quality of life (QoL) were very good in the successfully treated children and the parents would choose the same treatment option again. Conclusion Subureteral injection of Deflux® for children with VUR is an effective treatment option with a low complication rate. PMID:24578870

  6. Aptameric Recognition-Modulated Electroactivity of Poly(4-Styrenesolfonic Acid)-Doped Polyaniline Films for Single-Shot Detection of Tetrodotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomo, Gertrude; Waryo, Tesfaye T.; Sunday, Christopher E.; Baleg, Abd A.; Baker, Priscilla G.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2015-01-01

    The work being reported is the first electrochemical sensor for tetrodotoxin (TTX). It was developed on a glassy carbon electrodes (C) that was modified with poly(4-styrenesolfonic acid)-doped polyaniline film (PANI/PSSA). An amine-end functionalized TTX-binding aptamer, 5′-NH2-AAAAATTTCACACGGGTGCCTCGGCTGTCC-3′ (NH2-Apt), was grafted via covalent glutaraldehyde (glu) cross-linking. The resulting aptasensor (C//PANI+/PSSA-glu-NH2-Apt) was interrogated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in sodium acetate buffer (NaOAc, pH 4.8) before and after 30 min incubation in standard TTX solutions. Both CV and EIS results confirmed that the binding of the analyte to the immobilized aptamer modulated the electrochemical properties of the sensor: particularly the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of the PANI+/PSSA film, which served as a signal reporter. Based on the Rct calibration curve of the TTX aptasensor, the values of the dynamic linear range (DLR), sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor were determined to be 0.23–1.07 ng·mL−1 TTX, 134.88 ± 11.42 Ω·ng·mL−1 and 0.199 ng·mL−1, respectively. Further studies are being planned to improve the DLR as well as to evaluate selectivity and matrix effects in real samples. PMID:26370994

  7. A single amino acid substitution in the S1 and S2 Spike protein domains determines the neutralization escape phenotype of SARS-CoV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuki, Yu-ya; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Takagi, Hirotaka; Oshima, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Mizukoshi, Fuminori; Terahara, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamaoka, Shoji; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko

    2008-07-01

    In response to SARS-CoV infection, neutralizing antibodies are generated against the Spike (S) protein. Determination of the active regions that allow viral escape from neutralization would enable the use of these antibodies for future passive immunotherapy. We immunized mice with UV-inactivated SARS-CoV to generate three anti-S monoclonal antibodies, and established several neutralization escape mutants with S protein. We identified several amino acid substitutions, including Y442F and V601G in the S1 domain and D757N and A834V in the S2 region. In the presence of each neutralizing antibody, double mutants with substitutions in both domains exhibited a greater growth advantage than those with only one substitution. Importantly, combining two monoclonal antibodies that target different epitopes effected almost complete suppression of wild type virus replication. Thus, for effective passive immunotherapy, it is important to use neutralizing antibodies that recognize both the S1 and S2 regions.

  8. Two-step irradiance schedule versus single-dose cold compress for pain control during 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy of condyloma acuminatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaonan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Bin

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two-step irradiance schedule in relieving pain during PDT of CA. The study was a prospective, controlled trial of 141 CA patients who were randomly divided into Group A (two-step irradiance schedule) and Group B (single-dose cold compress). The numeric rating scales (NRS) of patients' pain were recorded at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes during each PDT. The efficacy of PDT and NRS scores of patients in the two groups were compared. There was no significant difference in gender, age, lesion site, and disease course between the two groups (P > 0.05). In addition, the cure rate of patients in the two groups was not significantly different (97.1% vs. 95.8%, χ 2  = 0.000, P = 1.000). However, the NRS scores at different time points and number of PDT sessions were significantly different (F = 198.233 and 165.224, respectively, P two-step irradiance schedule could more significantly reduce the patients' pain degree during treatment, especially for vulva and crissum. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:908-912, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. SMA CARNIVAL TRIAL PART II: a prospective, single-armed trial of L-carnitine and valproic acid in ambulatory children with spinal muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T Kissel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence have suggested that valproic acid (VPA might benefit patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. The SMA CARNIVAL TRIAL was a two part prospective trial to evaluate oral VPA and L-carnitine in SMA children. Part 1 targeted non-ambulatory children ages 2-8 in a 12 month cross over design. We report here Part 2, a twelve month prospective, open-label trial of VPA and L-carnitine in ambulatory SMA children. METHODS: This study involved 33 genetically proven type 3 SMA subjects ages 3-17 years. Subjects underwent two baseline assessments over 4-6 weeks and then were placed on VPA and L-carnitine for 12 months. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes included safety, adverse events and the change at 6 and 12 months in motor function assessed using the Modified Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Extend (MHFMS-Extend, timed motor tests and fine motor modules. Secondary outcomes included changes in ulnar compound muscle action potential amplitudes (CMAP, handheld dynamometry, pulmonary function, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scores. RESULTS: Twenty-eight subjects completed the study. VPA and carnitine were generally well tolerated. Although adverse events occurred in 85% of subjects, they were usually mild and transient. Weight gain of 20% above body weight occurred in 17% of subjects. There was no significant change in any primary outcome at six or 12 months. Some pulmonary function measures showed improvement at one year as expected with normal growth. CMAP significantly improved suggesting a modest biologic effect not clinically meaningful. CONCLUSIONS: This study, coupled with the CARNIVAL Part 1 study, indicate that VPA is not effective in improving strength or function in SMA children. The outcomes used in this study are feasible and reliable, and can be employed in future trials in SMA. TRIAL REGSITRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00227266.

  10. Effect of milk fermentation by kefir grains and selected single strains of lactic acid bacteria on the survival of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuamule, C L S; Wiid, I J; van Helden, P D; Tanner, M; Witthuhn, R C

    2016-01-18

    Mycobacterium bovis that causes Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) can be transmitted to humans thought consumption of raw and raw fermented milk products from diseased animals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in popular traditional milk products in Africa produce anti-microbial compounds that inhibit some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. M. bovis BCG is an attenuated non-pathogenic vaccine strain of M. bovis and the aim of the study was to determine the effect of the fermentation process on the survival of M. bovis BCG in milk. M. bovis BCG at concentrations of 6 log CFU/ml was added to products of kefir fermentation. The survival of M. bovis BCG was monitored at 12-h intervals for 72 h by enumerating viable cells on Middlebrook 7H10 agar plates enriched with 2% BD BACTEC PANTA™. M. bovis BCG was increasingly reduced in sterile kefir that was fermented for a period of 24h and longer. In the milk fermented with kefir grains, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei or Lactobacillus casei, the viability of M. bovis BCG was reduced by 0.4 logs after 24h and by 2 logs after 48 h of fermentation. No viable M. bovis BCG was detected after 60 h of fermentation. Results from this study show that long term fermentation under certain conditions may have the potential to inactivate M. bovis BCG present in the milk. However, to ensure safety of fermented milk in Africa, fermentation should be combined with other hurdle technologies such as boiling and milk pasteurisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of acute branched-chain amino acid supplementation on recovery from a single bout of hypertrophy exercise in resistance-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mark; Whelan, Kieran; Jeffries, Owen; Burt, Dean; Howe, Louis; Patterson, Stephen David

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage among experienced resistance-trained athletes. In a double-blind matched-pairs design, 16 resistance-trained participants, routinely performing hypertrophy training, were randomly assigned to a BCAA (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8) group. The BCAAs were administered at a dosage of 0.087 g/kg body mass, with a 2:1:1 ratio of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The participants performed 6 sets of 10 full-squats at 70% 1-repetition maximum to induce muscle damage. All participants were diet-controlled across the study. Creatine kinase, peak isometric knee-extensor force, perceived muscle soreness, and countermovement jump (CMJ) height were measured immediately before (baseline) and at 1 h, 24 h, and 48 h postexercise. There were large to very large time effects for all measurements between baseline and 24-48 h. Between-group comparisons, expressed as a percentage of baseline, revealed differences in isometric strength at 24-h (placebo ∼87% vs. BCAA ∼92%; moderate, likely), CMJ at 24 h (placebo ∼93% vs. BCAA ∼96%; small, likely), and muscle soreness at both 24 h (placebo ∼685% vs. BCAA ∼531%; small, likely) and 48 h (placebo ∼468% vs. BCAA ∼350%; small, likely). Acute supplementation of BCAAs (0.087 g/kg) increased the rate of recovery in isometric strength, CMJ height, and perceived muscle soreness compared with placebo after a hypertrophy-based training session among diet-controlled, resistance-trained athletes. These findings question the need for longer BCAA loading phases and highlight the importance of dietary control in studies of this type.

  12. Single Amino Acid Substitution N659D in HIV-2 Envelope Glycoprotein (Env) Impairs Viral Release and Hampers BST-2 Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrasne, François E; Lombard, Catherine; Goubau, Patrick; Ruelle, Jean

    2016-10-14

    BST-2 or tetherin is a host cell restriction factor that prevents the budding of enveloped viruses at the cell surface, thus impairing the viral spread. Several countermeasures to evade this antiviral factor have been positively selected in retroviruses: the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) relies on the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to overcome BST-2 restriction. The Env gp36 ectodomain seems involved in this anti-tetherin activity, however residues and regions interacting with BST-2 are not clearly defined. Among 32 HIV-2 ROD Env mutants tested, we demonstrated that the asparagine residue at position 659 located in the gp36 ectodomain is mandatory to exert the anti-tetherin function. Viral release assays in cell lines expressing BST-2 showed a loss of viral release ability for the HIV-2 N659D mutant virus compared to the HIV-2 wild type virus. In bst-2 inactivated H9 cells, those differences were lost. Subtilisin treatment of infected cells demonstrated that the N659D mutant was more tethered at the cell surface. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments confirmed a direct molecular link between Env and BST-2 and highlighted an inability of the mutant to bind BST-2. We also tested a virus presenting a truncation of 109 amino acids at the C-terminal part of Env, a cytoplasmic tail partial deletion that is spontaneously selected in vitro. Interestingly, viral release assays and FRET experiments indicated that a full Env cytoplasmic tail was essential in BST-2 antagonism. In HIV-2 infected cells, an efficient Env-mediated antagonism of BST-2 is operated through an intermolecular link involving the asparagine 659 residue as well as the C-terminal part of the cytoplasmic tail.

  13. A single site in human β-hexosaminidase A binds both 6-sulfate-groups on hexosamines and the sialic acid moiety of GM2 ganglioside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rohita; Bukovac, Scott; Callahan, John; Mahuran, Don

    2010-01-01

    Human β-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) (αβ) is composed of two subunits whose primary structures are ~60% identical. Deficiency of either subunit results in severe neurological disease due to the storage of GM2 ganglioside; Tay–Sachs disease, α deficiency, and Sandhoff disease, β deficiency. Whereas both subunits contain active sites only the α-site can efficiently bind negatively charged 6-sulfated hexosamine substrates and GM2 ganglioside. We have recently identified the αArg424 as playing a critical role in the binding of 6-sulfate-containing substrates, and βAsp452 as actively inhibiting their binding. To determine if these same residues affect the binding of the sialic acid moiety of GM2 ganglioside, an αArg424Gln form of Hex A was expressed and its kinetics analyzed using the GM2 activator protein:[3H]-GM2 ganglioside complex as a substrate. The mutant showed a ~3-fold increase in its Km for the complex. Next a form of Hex B (ββ) containing a double mutation, βAspLeu453 AsnArg (duplicating the α-aligning sequences), was expressed. As compared to the wild type (WT), the mutant exhibited a >30-fold increase in its ability to hydrolyze a 6-sulfated substrate and was now able to hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside when the GM2 activator protein was replaced by sodium taurocholate. Thus, this α-site is critical for binding both types of negatively charge substrates. PMID:12527415

  14. Collision-induced dissociation processes of protonated benzoic acid and related compounds: competitive generation of protonated carbon dioxide or protonated benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sihang; Pavlov, Julius; Attygalle, Athula B

    2017-04-01

    Upon activation in the gas phase, protonated benzoic acid (m/z 123) undergoes fragmentation by several mechanisms. In addition to the predictable water loss followed by a CO loss, the m/z 123 ion more intriguingly eliminates a molecule of benzene to generate protonated carbon dioxide (H - O +  ═ C ≡ O, m/z 45), or a molecule of carbon dioxide to yield protonated benzene (m/z 79). Experimental evidence shows that the incipient proton ambulates during the fragmentation processes. For the CO 2 or benzene loss, protonated benzoic acid transfers the charge-imparting proton initially to the ortho position and then to the ipso position to generate a transient species which dissociates to form an ion-neutral complex between benzene and protonated CO 2 . The formation of the m/z 45 ion is not a phenomenon unique to benzoic acid: spectra from protonated isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, trans-cinnamic acid and some aliphatic acids also displayed a peak for m/z 45. However, the m/z 45 peak is structurally diagnostic only for certain benzene polycarboxylic acids because the spectra of compounds with two carboxyl groups on adjacent ring carbons do not produce a peak at m/z 45. For the m/z 79 ion to be formed, an intramolecular reaction should take place in which protonated CO 2 within the ion-neutral complex acts as the attacking electrophile to transfer a proton to benzene. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A Single Amino Acid Difference within the α-2 Domain of Two Naturally Occurring Equine MHC Class I Molecules Alters the Recognition of Gag and Rev Epitopes by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Specific CTL1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Robert H.; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    Although CTL are critical for control of lentiviruses, including equine infectious anemia virus, relatively little is known regarding the MHC class I molecules that present important epitopes to equine infectious anemia virus-specific CTL. The equine class I molecule 7-6 is associated with the equine leukocyte Ag (ELA)-A1 haplotype and presents the Env-RW12 and Gag-GW12 CTL epitopes. Some ELA-A1 target cells present both epitopes, whereas others are not recognized by Gag-GW12-specific CTL, suggesting that the ELA-A1 haplotype comprises functionally distinct alleles. The Rev-QW11 CTL epitope is also ELA-A1-restricted, but the molecule that presents Rev-QW11 is unknown. To determine whether functionally distinct class I molecules present ELA-A1-restricted CTL epitopes, we sequenced and expressed MHC class I genes from three ELA-A1 horses. Two horses had the 7-6 allele, which when expressed, presented Env-RW12, Gag-GW12, and Rev-QW11 to CTL. The other horse had a distinct allele, designated 141, encoding a molecule that differed from 7-6 by a single amino acid within the α-2 domain. This substitution did not affect recognition of Env-RW12, but resulted in more efficient recognition of Rev-QW11. Significantly, CTL recognition of Gag-GW12 was abrogated, despite Gag-GW12 binding to 141. Molecular modeling suggested that conformational changes in the 141/Gag-GW12 complex led to a loss of TCR recognition. These results confirmed that the ELA-A1 haplotype is comprised of functionally distinct alleles, and demonstrated for the first time that naturally occurring MHC class I molecules that vary by only a single amino acid can result in significantly different patterns of epitope recognition by lentivirus-specific CTL. PMID:17082657

  16. Single valproic acid treatment inhibits glycogen and RNA ribose turnover while disrupting glucose-derived cholesterol synthesis in liver as revealed by the [U-C(6)]-d-glucose tracer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Richard D; Hansen, Deborah K; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Cross, Brandie M; Fatollahi, Javad J; Lagunero, F Tracy; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Boros, Laszlo G

    2009-09-01

    Previous genetic and proteomic studies identified altered activity of various enzymes such as those of fatty acid metabolism and glycogen synthesis after a single toxic dose of valproic acid (VPA) in rats. In this study, we demonstrate the effect of VPA on metabolite synthesis flux rates and the possible use of abnormal (13)C labeled glucose-derived metabolites in plasma or urine as early markers of toxicity. Female CD-1 mice were injected subcutaneously with saline or 600 mg/kg) VPA. Twelve hours later, the mice were injected with an intraperitoneal load of 1 g/kg [U-(13)C]-d-glucose. (13)C isotopomers of glycogen glucose and RNA ribose in liver, kidney and brain tissue, as well as glucose disposal via cholesterol and glucose in the plasma and urine were determined. The levels of all of the positional (13)C isotopomers of glucose were similar in plasma, suggesting that a single VPA dose does not disturb glucose absorption, uptake or hepatic glucose metabolism. Three-hour urine samples showed an increase in the injected tracer indicating a decreased glucose re-absorption via kidney tubules. (13)C labeled glucose deposited as liver glycogen or as ribose of RNA were decreased by VPA treatment; incorporation of (13)C via acetyl-CoA into plasma cholesterol was significantly lower at 60 min. The severe decreases in glucose-derived carbon flux into plasma and kidney-bound cholesterol, liver glycogen and RNA ribose synthesis, as well as decreased glucose re-absorption and an increased disposal via urine all serve as early flux markers of VPA-induced adverse metabolic effects in the host.

  17. A single amino acid mutation affects elicitor and expansins-like activities of cerato-platanin, a non-catalytic fungal protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Luti

    Full Text Available Cerato-platanin (CP is a non-catalytic, cysteine-rich protein, the first member of the cerato-platanin family. It is a single-domain protein with a double Ψ/β barrel domain resembling the D1 domain of plant and bacterial expansins. Similarly to expansins, CP shows a cell wall-loosening activity on cellulose and can be defined as an expanisin-like protein, in spite of the missing D2 domain, normally present in plant expansins. The weakening activity shown on cellulose may facilitate the CP-host interaction, corroborating the role of CP in eliciting plant defence response. Indeed, CP is an elicitor of primary defences acting as a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMP. So far, structure-function relationship study has been mainly performed on the bacterial BsEXLX1 expansin, probably due to difficulties in expressing plant expansins in heterologous systems. Here, we report a subcloning and purification method of CP in the engineered E. coli SHuffle cells, which proved to be suitable to obtain the properly folded and biologically active protein. The method also enabled the production of the mutant D77A, rationally designed to be inactive. The wild-type and the mutated CP were characterized for cellulose weakening activity and for PAMP activity (i.e. induction of Reactive Oxygen Species synthesis and phytoalexins production. Our analysis reveals that the carboxyl group of D77 is crucial for expansin-like and PAMP activities, thus permitting to establish a correlation between the ability to weaken cellulose and the capacity to induce defence responses in plants. Our results enable the structural and functional characterization of a mono-domain eukaryotic expansin and identify the essential role of a specific aspartic residue in cellulose weakening.

  18. Microvolume turbidimetry for rapid and sensitive determination of the acid labile sulfide fraction in waters after headspace single-drop microextraction with in situ generation of volatile hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla, I; Pena-Pereira, F; Gil, S; Costas, M; Bendicho, C

    2009-08-04

    In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of applying headspace single-drop microextraction with in-drop precipitation for the quantitative determination of the acid labile sulfide fraction (H2S, HS-, and S2- (free sulfide), amorphous FeS and some metal sulfide complexes-clusters as ZnS) in aqueous samples by microvolume turbidimetry. The methodology lies in the in situ hydrogen sulfide generation and subsequent sequestration into an alkaline microdrop containing ZnO(2)(2-) and exposed to the headspace above the stirred aqueous sample. The ZnS formed in the drop was then determined by microvolume turbidimetry. The optimum experimental conditions of the proposed method were: 2 microL of a microdrop containing 750 mg L(-1) Zn(II) in 1 mol L(-1) NaOH exposed to the headspace of a 20-mL aqueous sample stirred at 1600 rpm during 80 s after derivatization with 1 mL of 6 mol L(-1) HCl. An enrichment factor of 1710 was achieved in only 80 s. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 5-100 microg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.5 microg L(-1). The repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, was 5.8% (N = 9). Finally, the proposed methodology was successfully applied to the determination of the acid labile sulfide fraction in different natural water samples.

  19. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to evaporative light scattering detection for direct determination of underivatized amino acids: application to tea samples using carboxyled single-walled carbon nanotubes for sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouri, Mohamed; Salghi, Rachid; Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Angel

    2013-09-01

    An improved and efficient method for the determination of underivatized amino acids based on the use of CE coupled to evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD), involving carbon nanotubes, was successfully developed. Carboxyled single-walled carbon nanotubes were used for the first time to perform the clean-up of the analyzed samples, which were afterwards analyzed by CE-ELSD. White tea samples were used to demonstrate the usefulness of the CE-ELSD coupled methodology. A suitable interface, based on a triple tube design sprayer, was developed and successfully used for coupling both instruments. Parameters affecting the separation and determination, including the elimination of interferences, were studied and properly optimized. Under the optimized conditions good resolution was achieved for the separation of seven amino acids. The precision of the method, expressed as RSD, was found within the 3.5-5.3% range. The LOD obtained for the proposed method were in the 1.2-2.1 pg range and the LOQ, were in the 2.0-11.5 pg range, with injection pressure of 5 KPa for 20 s (15.3 nL). This method is simple, rapid, and selective compared with other conventional techniques. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Efficacy and safety of cross-linked hyaluronic acid single injection on osteoarthritis of the knee: a post-marketing phase IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashaireh K

    2015-04-01

    .36, the stiffness score was 0.42, and the physical performance score was 11.5. All side effects were local and transient, and included pain, swelling, and redness of the knee. Most side effects were treated.Conclusion: Hyaluronan should be encouraged as an alternative or adjunct treatment to oral analgesics to reduce their required doses, and delay potential future surgical intervention. Keywords: osteoarthritis, hyaluronic acid, intra-articular injection, Crespine® Gel

  1. Effects of elevated dissolved carbon dioxide and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, given singly and in combination, on steroidogenic and biotransformation pathways of Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preus-Olsen, Gunnhild; Olufsen, Marianne O; Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Letcher, Robert J; Arukwe, Augustine

    2014-10-01

    In the aquatic environments, the predicted changes in water temperature, pO2 and pCO2 could result in hypercapnic and hypoxic conditions for aquatic animals. These conditions are thought to affect several basic cellular and physiological mechanisms. Yet, possible adverse effects of elevated CO2 (hypercapnia) on teleost fish, as well as combined effects with emerging and legacy environmental contaminants are poorly investigated. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were divided into groups and exposed to three different water bath PFOS exposure regimes (0 (control), 100 and 200 μg L(-1)) for 5 days at 1h/day, followed by three different CO2-levels (normocapnia, moderate (0.3%) and high (0.9%)). The moderate CO2 level is the predicted near future (within year 2300) level, while 0.9% represent severe hypercapnia. Tissue samples were collected at 3, 6 and 9 days after initiated CO2 exposure. Effects on the endocrine and biotransformation systems were examined by analyzing levels of sex steroid hormones (E2, T, 11-KT) and transcript expression of estrogen responsive genes (ERα, Vtg-α, Vtg-β, ZP2 and ZP3). In addition, transcripts for genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (cyp1a and cyp3a) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) were analyzed. Hypercapnia alone produced increased levels of sex steroid hormones (E2, T, 11-KT) with concomitant mRNA level increase of estrogen responsive genes, while PFOS produced weak and time-dependent effects on E2-inducible gene transcription. Combined PFOS and hypercapnia exposure produced increased effects on sex steroid levels as compared to hypercapnia alone, with transcript expression patterns that are indicative of time-dependent interactive effects. Exposure to hypercapnia singly or in combination with PFOS produced modulations of the biotransformation and hypoxic responses that were apparently concentration- and time-dependent. Loading plots of principal component analysis (PCA) produced a significant

  2. Clinical and instrumental evaluation of a cross-linked hyaluronic acid filler dermal injection: effects on nasolabial folds skin biophysical parameters and augmentation from a single-dose, monocentric, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Serio, Mirko; Berardesca, Enzo

    2016-10-01

    When a hyaluronic acid dermal device to fill soft tissues is chosen, efficacy, safety and durability are key concerns. This is an open-label prospective study to instrumentally evaluate the effects of HA filler dermal injection on nasolabial folds skin biophysical parameters and augmentation. A single Italian site treated female subjects aged 40-55, for nasolabial folds, with a single standardized injection. The outcome was evaluated with objective quantitative measurements after 90 (T1) and 180 days (T2) from the injection comparing to baseline (T0) by means of Corneometer (skin hydration measurement), Cutometer (skin elasticity measurement), and Visioface devices for digital and UV computerized image analysis. Secondary endpoints were safety assessment, subject investigator satisfaction with the intervention. Assessment of aesthetic results included photographic documentation. The computerized image analysis confirmed the clinical assessment showing statistically significant reduction in nasolabial folds both at T1 and T2. Visioface® indexes showed a marked and statistical significant response. An excellent profile of satisfaction of the product at T2 from investigators and patients was recorded. Skin hydration and elasticity did not show significant changes. In our study, a standardized HA filler dermal injection on nasolabial folds did not influence skin biophysical parameters such as skin hydration and elasticity. Nasolabial folds showed a persistent and significative response at T2 confirmed by instrumental evaluation. The tolerability and safety profile of the product was excellent.

  3. The application of strand invasion phenomenon, directed by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) for the recognition of specific sequences of human endogenous retroviral HERV-W family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnik, Grzegorz; Bułdak, Łukasz; Ruczyński, Jarosław; Gąsior, Tomasz; Huzarska, Małgorzata; Belowski, Dariusz; Alenowicz, Magdalena; Mucha, Piotr; Rekowski, Piotr; Okopień, Bogusław

    2017-05-01

    The HERV-W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV-W-derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin-1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV-W members is highly desirable. A peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated technique for the discrimination between multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus and ERVWE1 sequence has been developed. The assay uses a PNA probe that, being fully complementary to the ERVWE1 but not to multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) template, shows high selective potential. Single-stranded DNA binding protein facilitates the PNA-mediated, sequence-specific formation of strand invasion complex and, consequently, local DNA unwinding. The target DNA may be then excluded from further analysis in any downstream process such as single-stranded DNA-specific exonuclease action. Finally, the reaction conditions have been optimized, and several PNA probes that are targeted toward distinct loci along whole HERV-W env sequences have been evaluated. We believe that PNA/single-stranded DNA binding protein-based application has the potential to selectively discriminate particular HERV-W molecules as they are at least suspected to play pathogenic role in a broad range of medical conditions, from psycho-neurologic disorders (multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia) and cancers (breast cancer) to that of an auto-immunologic background (psoriasis and lupus erythematosus). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Investigation on the growth, spectral, lifetime, mechanical analysis and third-order nonlinear optical studies of L-methionine admixtured D-mandelic acid single crystal: A promising material for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, P.; Sangeetha, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear optical bulk single crystal of L-methionine admixtured D-mandelic acid (LMDMA) has been grown by slow solvent evaporation technique using water as solvent at ambient temperature. The crystallized LMDMA single crystal subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirmed monoclinic system with the acentric space group P21. The FTIR analysis gives information about the modes of vibration in the various functional groups present in LMDMA. The UV-visible spectral analysis assessed the optical quality and linear optical properties such as extinction coefficient, reflectance, refractive index and from which optical conductivity and electric susceptibility were also evaluated. The frequency doubling efficiency was observed using Kurtz Perry powder technique. A multiple shot laser was utilized to evaluate the laser damage threshold energy of the crystal. Discrete thermodynamic properties were carried out by TG-DTA studies. The hardness, Meyer's index, yield strength, elastic stiffness constant, Knoop hardness, fracture toughness and brittleness index were analyzed using Vickers microhardness tester. Layer growth pattern and the surface defect were examined by chemical etching studies using optical microscope. Fluorescence emission spectrum was recorded and lifetime was also studied. The electric field response of crystal was investigated from the dielectric studies at various temperatures at different frequencies. The third-order nonlinear optical response in LMDMA has been investigated using Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm and nonlinear parameters such as refractive index (n2), absorption coefficient (β) and susceptibility (χ3) investigated extensively for they are in optical phase conjucation, high-speed optical switches and optical dielectric devices.

  5. Dual myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using thallium-201 and I-123-{beta}-methyl-i-pentadecanoic acid in patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Katsuya [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    Dual single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD) using {sup 123}I-{beta}-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) for myocardial fatty acid metabolism and {sup 201}thallium (Tl)-chloride for myocardial perfusion. The left ventricle was divided into 9 segments, and accumulation of the radiotracers was assessed visually for each segment to calculate defect score for each tracer. There was some degree of decrease in myocardial accumulation of both tracers in all DMD patients. Reduced accumulation was most common at the apex (BMIPP: 67%, Tl: 63%), followed by the posterior wall, lateral wall, and anterior wall. On the other hand, reduced accumulation was less common at the septum. BMIPP showed a higher accumulation than Tl in all segments but the septum. When BMIPP defect score was larger than Tl defect score, BMIPP defect score tended to increase during 4 years follow-up (p<0.042). However, when Tl defect score was larger than BMIPP defect score, an increase in Tl defect score was slight. A significant negative correlation was found between the sum of the BMIPP and Tl defect scores and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (r=0.66, p<0.0001). According to the histo-pathological study of two autopsied hearts, severe myocardial fibrosis was seen in segments with fixed perfusion defect. In addition, the mismatched segments of BMIPP defect score > Tl defect score revealed a slight fibrosis or normal myocardium. It can be concluded that the dual SPECT myocardial scintigraphy using BMIPP and Tl provides accurate information about disease progression of the heart in patients with DMD by detecting abnormalities of the myocardial metabolism of each substance, thereby enabling the assessment of left ventricular function. (author)

  6. Efecto de una sola dosis de ácido zoledrónico en un caso de enfermedad de Paget ósea Effect of a single dose of zoledronic acid in a case of Paget bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Sabán

    2010-10-01

    . We administered intravenous zoledronic acid (4 mg in a single dose. After this treatment we observed clinical and biochemical remission during four years and a significantly improvement in the scintigraphy. We report a case of Paget´s disease, resistant to pamidronate treatment in whom a single dose of zoledronic acid produced clinical and biochemical remission during 4 years and a significant improvement in the scintigraphic scan.

  7. Ex vivo gene editing of the dystrophin gene in muscle stem cells mediated by peptide nucleic acid single stranded oligodeoxynucleotides induces stable expression of dystrophin in a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik-Ahd, Farnoosh; Bertoni, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which result in the complete absence of dystrophin protein throughout the body. Gene correction strategies hold promise to treating DMD. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the ability of peptide nucleic acid single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (PNA-ssODNs) to permanently correct single-point mutations at the genomic level. In this study, we show that PNA-ssODNs can target and correct muscle satellite cells (SCs), a population of stem cells capable of self-renewing and differentiating into muscle fibers. When transplanted into skeletal muscles, SCs transfected with correcting PNA-ssODNs were able to engraft and to restore dystrophin expression. The number of dystrophin-positive fibers was shown to significantly increase over time. Expression was confirmed to be the result of the activation of a subpopulation of SCs that had undergone repair as demonstrated by immunofluorescence analyses of engrafted muscles using antibodies specific to full-length dystrophin transcripts and by genomic DNA analysis of dystrophin-positive fibers. Furthermore, the increase in dystrophin expression detected over time resulted in a significant improvement in muscle morphology. The ability of transplanted cells to return into quiescence and to activate upon demand was confirmed in all engrafted muscles following injury. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using gene editing strategies to target and correct SCs and further establish the therapeutic potential of this approach to permanently restore dystrophin expression into muscle of DMD patients. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Relationship Between Circulating Fatty Acids and Fatty Acid Ethanolamide Levels After a Single 2-h Dietary Fat Feeding in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats : Elevated levels of oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, linoleoylethanolamide, arachidonoylethanolamide and docosahexanoylethanolamide after a single 2 h dietary fat feeding in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatinsu, Anthonia O; Sihag, Jyoti; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies show that long term variations in dietary fat consumption impact circulating fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) concentrations, however, few studies have investigated short term effects of dietary fat feeding on FAE levels. The trial's objective was to explore the effect of acute feeding of varying amounts of dietary n-9 and n-3 fatty acids on plasma and organ levels of FAE. Sixty-four rats were assigned to four groups fed meals containing 40% of energy as either safflower oil (control), canola oil (CO), or DHA rich oil (DRO), each consumed as a bolus within a 2-h window. Plasma and tissue FAE levels were measured at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h following the bolus. FAE profiles over time exhibited patterns that were specific both to FAE and to dietary fat type provided. At 3 h, plasma and liver OEA levels were higher (p fat types impacts tissue levels of FAE within a short time frame, which could further influence the physiological roles of FAE on appetite regulation and energy expenditure.

  9. Characterization of hepatitis C virus recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 envelope proteins and identification of single amino acids in the E2 stem region important for entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas H R; Scheel, Troels K H; Ramirez, Santseharay

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2 play a key role in host cell entry and represent important targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we characterized HCV recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 complexes in vitro. Using genotype 1a/2a JFH1-based recombinants expressing 1a...... core-NS2, we exchanged E2 with functional isolate sequences of genotypes 1a (alternative isolate), 1b, and 2a. While the 1a-E2 exchange did not impact virus viability, the 2a-E2 recombinant was nonviable. After E2 exchange from three 1b isolates, long delays were observed before spread of infection....... For recovered 1b-E2 recombinants, single E2 stem region amino acid changes were identified at residues 706, 707, and 710. In reverse genetic studies, these mutations increased infectivity titers by ~100-fold, apparently without influencing particle stability or cell binding although introducing slight decrease...

  10. A family of uranyl-aromatic dicarboxylate (pht-, ipa-, tpa-) framework hybrid materials: photoluminescence, surface photovoltage and dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue; Wang, Che; Shi, Zhong-Feng; Song, Jian; Bai, Feng-Ying; Wang, Ji-Xiao; Xing, Yong-Heng

    2015-07-07

    Four uranyl complexes [(UO2)(pht)H2O]·H2O (pht = phthalic acid) (1), (UO2)2(Hipa)4(H2O)2 (Hipa = isophthalic acid) (2), (UO2)(tpa)(DMF)2 (tpa = terephthalic acid) (3) and (UO2)(box)2 (box = benzoic acid) (4) were synthesized by the reaction of UO2(CH3COO)2·2H2O as the metal source and phthalic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid or benzoic acid as the ligand. They were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis, XRD, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis. The structural analysis reveals that complex 1 exhibits a one-dimensional chain structure constructed by the building unit [(UO2)2(pht)4(H2O)2] and further extends the chain into a 2D supramolecular architecture by hydrogen bonding interactions. Complex 2 is a discrete [(UO2)2(Hipa)4(H2O)2] structure, and by the hydrogen bonding interaction, forms a 3D supramolecular structure. In complexes 3 and 4, adjacent uranyl polyhedra form a 1D chain through bridging terephthalic acid and benzoic acid, respectively. In order to extend their functional properties, their photoluminescence, surface photovoltage and dye adsorption properties have been studied.

  11. Single sheet iron oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Zhou

    activity. LDH single sheets have been reported to be effective sorbents, catalysts in electrochemical and photochemical reactions, and building thin films together with other nanomaterials for designing new functionalities. Here we focus on the delamination of FeII-FeIII LDHs into single sheet iron oxide...... was rapid compared to other iron oxides, reaching equilibrium within 60 minutes. Arsenic sorption and acid-base titration data could be successfully described with a 1pk Basic Stern Model (BSM). The point of zero charge was around 8. The intrinsic surface complexation equilibrium constants (log K...... became abundant at low pH. (3) Electrochemical reduction of chlorinated compounds using an SSI modified electrode. Here, the electrochemical reactivity of SSIs coated on indium tin oxide coated glass electrodes was investigated. Iron on the SSI modified electrode showed a typical Cyclic Voltammetry...

  12. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  13. Therapeutic effect of co-enzyme Q10 on idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: assessment by iodine-123 labelled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid myocardial single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-ih [Department of Internal Medicine, Nishiyodo Hospital, Nishiyodo (Japan); Sawada, Yoshihiro [Department of Internal Medicine, Nishiyodo Hospital, Nishiyodo (Japan); Fujiwara, Go [Department of Radiology, Nishiyodo Hospital, Nishiyodo (Japan); Chiba, Hiroshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Mimihara General Hospital, Mimihara (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Division of Tracer Kinetics, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-06-10

    It has been reported that myocardial mitochondrial function can be improved by the administration of co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Recently, iodine-123 labelled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) was developed for metabolic imaging using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). This study was conducted to determine whether the therapeutic effects of CoQ10 on idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy can be evaluated by BMIPP myocardial SPET. Fifteen patients, comprising 14 men and one woman (mean age: 64{+-}12 years), were examined. CoQ10 was administered at 30 mg/day for a period of 35.7{+-}12.4 days. BMIPP myocardial SPET was carried out before and after CoQ10 treatment. The count ratio of the heart (H) to the upper mediastinum (M) (H/M ratio) was calculated using a region of interest method with anterior planar imaging. Representative short-axis tomograms were divided into 27 segments (three slices x nine segments). Each segmental score was analysed semiquantitatively using a four-point scoring system (normal=0, mild low uptake=1, severe low uptake=2, defect=3). The H/M ratio showed a significant improvement, from 2.39{+-}0.39 to 2.54{+-}0.47, after treatment (P<0.05). The BMIPP total defect score after CoQ10 treatment was significantly decreased to 10.1{+-}4.3, compared to 13.9{+-}4.5 without CoQ10 treatment (P<0.001). However, the percent fractional shortening measured using echocardiography was not significantly different before and after CoQ treatment (19.2{+-}8.1 vs 19.7{+-}7.1). BMIPP myocardial SPET was confirmed to be sensitive in evaluating the therapeutic effects of CoQ10 in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. This method is unique, since the therapeutic effects can be estimated from the perspective of metabolic SPET imaging. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Two-step irradiance schedule versus single-dose tramadol sustained-release tablets for pain control during topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of condyloma acuminatum in Chinese patients: a randomized comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchepange, Uwesu O; Huang, Chun-Yan; Sun, Yi; Tu, Ya-Ting; Tao, Juan

    2014-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) offers promising results for the treatment of condyloma acuminatum. However, patients have to dwell with pain to benefit from this otherwise effective and safe "off-label" treatment modality. Several techniques have been explored to control ALA-PDT-induced pain, but the desperate search for a universally accepted method is still ongoing. This study compares the two-step irradiance approach with single-dose administration of 100 mg tramadol sustained-release tablets for pain induced by ALA-PDT of condyloma acuminatum in Chinese patients. Adult Chinese patients with condyloma acuminatum were enrolled in a randomized comparative study. Pain levels were compared using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) at pre-defined assessment points during and after irradiation. The pain was dominated by characteristics such as burning and pricking and was almost always local and superficial. The median pain scores were lower in the two-step irradiance group at 1 minute (U = 621.5, P = 0.002) but higher at 20 minutes (U = 585.5, P = 0.002). The median pain scores between the two groups did not differ significantly at other assessment points. The pain was moderate in both groups and peaked earlier in the analgesics group (median: 5 minutes) but later in the two-step irradiance group (median: 15 minutes). The pain was generally mild. The median pain scores were equal at each assessment point, except at 3 hours where the median was lower in the analgesics group (1.0) as compared with the two-step irradiance group (2.0) (U = 725.0, P = 0.056). Pain in the two-step irradiance protocol is irradiance-dependent. The two-step irradiance approach produces significant benefits over analgesics during the initial stages of therapy but analgesics offer significant benefits thereafter. There are potential benefits of combining the two approaches in minimizing ALA-PDT-induced pain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals

  15. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) with a deletion of 77 amino acids in NS3/NS3a protein is not virulent and a safe promising AHS Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Piet A; Maris-Veldhuis, Mieke A; Potgieter, Christiaan A; van Gennip, René G P

    2018-04-05

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a virus species in the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae. Currently, nine serotypes have been defined showing limited cross neutralization. AHSV is transmitted by species of Culicoides biting midges and causes African Horse Sickness (AHS) in equids with a mortality up to 95% in naïve domestic horses. AHS has become a serious threat for countries outside Africa, since endemic Culicoides species in moderate climates are competent vectors of closely related bluetongue virus. AHS outbreaks cause huge economic losses in developing countries. In the developed world, outbreaks will result in losses in the equestrian industry and will have an enormous emotional impact on owners of pet horses. Live-attenuated vaccine viruses (LAVs) have been developed, however, safety of these LAVs are questionable due to residual virulence, reversion to virulence, and risk on virulent variants by reassortment between LAVs or with field AHSV. Research aims vaccines with improved profiles. Reverse genetics has recently being developed for AHSV and has opened endless possibilities including development of AHS vaccine candidates, such as Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine. Here, virulent AHSV5 was recovered and its high virulence was confirmed by experimental infection of ponies. 'Synthetically derived' virulent AHSV5 with an in-frame deletion of 77 amino acids codons in genome segment 10 encoding NS3/NS3a protein resulted in similar in vitro characteristics as published NS3/NS3a knockout mutants of LAV strain AHSV4LP. In contrast to its highly virulent ancestor virus, this deletion AHSV5 mutant (DISA5) was completely safe for ponies. Two vaccinations with DISA5 as well as two vaccinations with DISA vaccine based on LAV strain AHSV4LP showed protection against lethal homologous AHSV. More research is needed to further improve efficacy, to explore the AHS DISA vaccine platform for all nine serotypes, and to study the vaccine profile

  16. Standardized Follow-up of Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Treated with a Single Intra-articular Injection of a Combination of Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid and Mannitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Conrozier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of this study is to obtain pilot data from daily practice conditions of a viscosupplement made of a cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA combined with mannitol in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA. Methods The data of 40 consecutive patients, 29 women and 11 men, who were prospectively followed up for 6 months, using a standardized procedure, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients have received a single intra-articular injection of H Anox-M-XL (4.4 mL, viscosupplement made of a cross-linked HA (16 mg/mL + mannitol (35 mg/mL, in the target knee. The primary outcome was safety. The secondary end points included 3- and 6-month change in the WOMAC pain (0–50 and WOMAC total (0–240 and patient's global assessment (PGA. Patient's self-assessment of treatment efficacy (0–3 and analgesic consumption were obtained at months 3 and 6. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed. Results Mean (SD age was 60.7 (13.9 years, and mean BMI was 28.6 (5.0. Kellgren–Lawrence radiological grade was I/II and III/IV in 13 and 27 of the subjects, respectively. The average WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores at baseline were 21.5 (9.8 and 89.9 (42.8, respectively. Thirty-nine patients completed the follow-up. HAnox-M-XL was well tolerated; two patients experienced knee pain after injection, which resolved within three days. No treatment-related severe adverse event was reported. Mean (SD variations in WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores were –8.2 (8.9 and –38.4 (35.6, respectively, at month 6 ( P = 0.001. PGA decreased from 5.5 (2.0 to 3.0 (2.2 ( P = 0.006. Efficacy was rated as good or very good in 76.9% of the cases. Most of the regular analgesics users decreased their consumption. Conclusion Treatment with one injection of 4.4 mL HAnox-M-XL is effective to alleviate KOA symptoms over six months, without safety concern. Controlled trials are needed to confirm these pilot data.

  17. Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of a Newly Developed Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) Versus Hyaluronic Acid on Pain and Function of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Ahangar, Azadeh Gharooee; Abadi, Porya Hassan; Mojgani, Parviz; Ahangar, Omid Gharooi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injection of a newly developed plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) versus hyaluronic acid (HA) on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee were assigned to receive 2 intra-articular injections of our newly developed PRGF in 3 weeks or 3 weekly injections of HA. Our primary outcome was the mean change from baseline until 2 and 6 months post intervention in scores of visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Lequesne index. We used analysis of variance for repeated-measures statistical test. Results: A total of 69 patients entered final analysis. The mean age of patients was 58.2 ± 7.41 years and 81.2% were women. In particular, total WOMAC index decreased from 42.9 ± 13.51 to 26.8 ± 13.45 and 24.4 ± 16.54 at 2 and 6 months in the newly developed PRGF group (within subjects P = .001), and from 38.8 ± 12.62 to 27.8 ± 11.01 and 27.4 ± 11.38 at 2 and 6 months in the HA group (within subjects P = .001), respectively (between subjects P = .631). There was no significant difference between PRGF and HA groups in patients’ satisfaction and minor complications of injection, whereas patients in HA group reported significantly lower injection-induced pain. Conclusions: In 6 months follow up, our newly developed PRGF and HA, both are effective options to decrease pain and improvement of function in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. PMID:29051707

  18. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoconstructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focuses on the design, synthesis, characterization, and development of spherical nucleic acid constructs as effective nanotherapeutic, single-entity agents for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and prostate cancers.

  19. Complete amino acid sequence of the human alpha 5 (IV) collagen chain and identification of a single-base mutation in exon 23 converting glycine 521 in the collagenous domain to cysteine in an Alport syndrome patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, J; Hertz, Jens Michael; Leinonen, A

    1992-01-01

    We have generated and characterized cDNA clones providing the complete amino acid sequence of the human type IV collagen chain whose gene has been shown to be mutated in X chromosome-linked Alport syndrome. The entire translation product has 1,685 amino acid residues. There is a 26-residue signal...... peptide, a 1,430-residue collagenous domain starting with a 14-residue noncollagenous sequence, and a Gly-Xaa-Yaa-repeat sequence interrupted at 22 locations, and a 229-residue carboxyl-terminal noncollagenous domain. The calculated molecular weight of the mature alpha 5(IV) chain is 158,303. Analysis...

  20. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Application of laser fluorimetry for determining the influence of a single amino-acid substitution on the individual photophysical parameters of a fluorescent form of a fluorescent protein mRFP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banishev, A. A.; Vrzheshch, E. P.; Shirshin, E. A.

    2009-03-01

    Individual photophysical parameters of the chromophore of a fluorescent protein mRFP1 and its two mutants (amino-acid substitution at position 66 - mRFP1/ Q66C and mRFP1/Q66S proteins) are determined. For this purpose, apart from conventional methods of fluorimetry and spectrophotometry, nonlinear laser fluorimetry is used. It is shown that the individual extinction coefficients of the chromophore of proteins correlate (correlation coefficient above 0.9) with the volume of the substituted amino-acid residue at position 66 (similar to the positions of the absorption, fluorescence excitation and emission maxima).

  1. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  2. Obeticholic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  3. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  4. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  5. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  6. Effects of trans-4-(aminomethyl) cyclohexanecarboxylic acid/potassium azeloyl diglycinate/niacinamide topical emulsion in Thai adults with melasma: a single-center, randomized, double-blind, controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Viyoch, Jarupa; Tengamnuay, Isaree; Phetdee, Khemjira; Tuntijarukorn, Punpimol; Waranuch, Neti

    2010-01-01

    Background: Melasma is an acquired hyperpigmentary disorder characterized by dark patches or macules located on the cheeks, forehead, upper lip, chin, and neck. Treatment of melasma involves the use of topical hypopigmenting agents such as hydroquinone, tretinoin, and azelaic acid and its derivatives.

  7. Acute bilateral uveitis and right macular edema induced by a single infusion of zoledronic acid for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis as a substitution for oral alendronate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiming; Wang, Rui; Liu, Lianyuan; Ma, Chunming; Lu, Qiang; Yin, Fuzai

    2016-02-11

    Zoledronic acid-induced uveitis (ZAIU) is rare but severe, and has been recently considered part of an acute phase reaction. Only 15 cases have been reported since 2005. Here we describe a case with macular edema, which is the first reported case observed after long-term alendronate tolerance. A 63-year-old Asian woman received her first intravenous zoledronic acid treatment for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis as a more convenient substitute for oral alendronate. Twenty-four hours later, bilateral eye irritations, periorbital swelling, blurred vision, and diplopia presented. The complete blood count and transaminase levels were normal, but the erythrocytic sedimentation, C-reactive protein, and serum C4 levels were elevated. On detailed ophthalmological examination, a diagnosis of bilateral acute uveitis and macular edema in the right eye was made. The ocular symptoms were not improved until administration of topical and oral steroids. Complete resolution was achieved. There was no rechallenge of bisphosphonates, and no recurrence at 6 months follow-up. Based on an extensive review, abnormal fundus is rarely reported, especially in cases of macular edema. Rechallenge with zoledronic acid in five cases induced no additional uveitis, and changing the medication to pamidronate in another patient was also tolerated. Interestingly, our patient suffered from uveitis soon after intravenous zoledronate exposure after a two-year tolerance to oral alendronate. This is the first report of zoledronic acid induced uveitis with macular edema after long-term alendronate tolerance. Prior oral alendronate may not entirely prevent ZAIU. Steroids are usually necessary in the treatment of ZAIU. Bisphosphonate rechallenge is not fully contraindicated, and prior steroid administration may be a more reasonable treatment choice according to the available evidence.

  8. Enhanced detection of amino acids in hydrophilic interaction chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with carboxylic acids as mobile phase additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dengyang; Hu, Xunxiu; Liu, Dantong; Du, Wencheng; Wang, Haibo; Guo, Mengzhe; Tang, Daoquan

    2017-06-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry technique has been widely used in the analysis of biological targets such as amino acids, peptides, and proteins. In this work, eight common single carboxylic acids or diacids, which contain different pKa have been investigated as the additives to the analysis of amino acids. As the results, carboxylic acid additive can improve the signal intensity of acidity amino acids such as Asp and Glu and the chromatographic separation of basic amino acids such as Arg, His, and Lys. In particular, the diacids have better performance than single acids. The proposed mechanism is that the diacid has hydrogen bond interaction with amino acids to reduce their polarity/amphiprotic characteristics. Besides, oxalic acid has been found having better enhancement than phthalic acid by overall consideration. Therefore, we successfully quantified the 15 amino acids in Sepia bulk pharmaceutical chemical by using oxalic acid as the additive.

  9. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  10. Compound list: valproic acid [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available valproic acid VPA 00005 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/valproic_acid....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/valproic_acid..._vivo/Liver/Single/valproic_acid.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.bioscienc...edbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/valproic_acid.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp:...//ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/valproic_acid.Rat.in_vivo.Kidne

  11. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  12. Effects of 6-month eicosapentaenoic acid treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin secretion ability, and concomitant endothelial dysfunction among newly-diagnosed impaired glucose metabolism patients with coronary artery disease. An open label, single blinded, prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takahiro; Tsubata, Hideo; Hashimoto, Naoko; Takabe, Michinori; Miyata, Taishi; Aoki, Kosuke; Yamashita, Soichiro; Oishi, Shogo; Osue, Tsuyoshi; Yokoi, Kiminobu; Tsukishiro, Yasue; Onishi, Tetsuari; Shimane, Akira; Taniguchi, Yasuyo; Yasaka, Yoshinori; Ohara, Takeshi; Kawai, Hiroya; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro

    2016-08-26

    Recent experimental studies have revealed that n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) regulate postprandial insulin secretion, and correct postprandial glucose and lipid abnormalities. However, the effects of 6-month EPA treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, insulin secretion, and concomitant endothelial dysfunction remain unknown in patients with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). We randomized 107 newly diagnosed IGM patients with CAD to receive either 1800 mg/day of EPA (EPA group, n = 53) or no EPA (n = 54). Cookie meal testing (carbohydrates: 75 g, fat: 28.5 g) and endothelial function testing using fasting-state flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were performed before and after 6 months of treatment. The primary outcome of this study was changes in postprandial glycemic and triglyceridemic control and secondary outcomes were improvement of insulin secretion and endothelial dysfunction. After 6 months, the EPA group exhibited significant improvements in EPA/arachidonic acid, fasting triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The EPA group also exhibited significant decreases in the incremental TG peak, area under the curve (AUC) for postprandial TG, incremental glucose peak, AUC for postprandial glucose, and improvements in glycometabolism categorization. No significant changes were observed for hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose levels. The EPA group exhibited a significant increase in AUC-immune reactive insulin/AUC-plasma glucose ratio (which indicates postprandial insulin secretory ability) and significant improvements in FMD. Multiple regression analysis revealed that decreases in the TG/HDL-C ratio and incremental TG peak were independent predictors of FMD improvement in the EPA group. EPA corrected postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia and insulin secretion ability. This amelioration of several metabolic abnormalities was accompanied by

  13. Spectroscopic study of jet-cooled heterodimers of salicylic acid with acetic and trifluoroacetic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmani, F.; Zehnacker-Rentien, A.

    1997-06-01

    The photophysical properties of the intermolecular hydrogen-bonded complexes of salicylic acid with acetic acid and trifluoroacetic acid have been investigated in a supersonic expansion. The fluorescence excitation spectra are characterized by a long harmonic progression upon a low frequency mode and their origin is blue-shifted with respect to that of pure salicylic acid. The emission spectra exhibit a single broad band peaking at 360 and 390 nm respectively for the complex with trifluoroacetic and acetic acids and are not dependent on the excitation wavelength. The results have been rationalized in terms of a single minimum energy curve in both the ground and excited states.

  14. A single amino acid substitution in IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor AtMYC1 leads to trichome and root hair patterning defects by abolishing its interaction with partner proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhu, Dandan; Cui, Sujuan; Li, Xia; Cao, Ying; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-04-20

    Plant trichomes and root hairs are powerful models for the study of cell fate determination. In Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome and root hair initiation requires a combination of three groups of proteins, including the WD40 repeat protein transparent TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), R2R3 repeat MYB protein GLABRA1 (GL1), or werewolf (WER) and the IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein GLABRA3 (GL3) or enhancer of GLABRA3 (EGL3). The bHLH component acts as a docking site for TTG1 and MYB proteins. Here, we isolated a mutant showing defects in trichome and root hair patterning that carried a point mutation (R173H) in AtMYC1 that encodes the fourth member of IIIf bHLH family protein. Genetic analysis revealed partial redundant yet distinct function between AtMYC1 and GL3/EGL3. GLABRA2 (GL2), an important transcription factor involved in trichome and root hair control, was down-regulated in Atmyc1 plants, suggesting the requirement of AtMYC1 for appropriate GL2 transcription. Like its homologs, AtMYC1 formed a complex with TTG1 and MYB proteins but did not dimerized. In addition, the interaction of AtMYC1 with MYB proteins and TTG1 was abrogated by the R173H substitution in Atmyc1-1. We found that this amino acid (Arg) is conserved in the AtMYC1 homologs GL3/EGL3 and that it is essential for their interaction with MYB proteins and for their proper functions. Our findings indicate that AtMYC1 is an important regulator of trichome and root hair initiation, and they reveal a novel amino acid necessary for protein-protein interactions and gene function in IIIf subfamily bHLH transcription factors.

  15. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in IIIf Subfamily of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor AtMYC1 Leads to Trichome and Root Hair Patterning Defects by Abolishing Its Interaction with Partner Proteins in Arabidopsis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhu, Dandan; Cui, Sujuan; Li, Xia; Cao, Ying; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-01-01

    Plant trichomes and root hairs are powerful models for the study of cell fate determination. In Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome and root hair initiation requires a combination of three groups of proteins, including the WD40 repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), R2R3 repeat MYB protein GLABRA1 (GL1), or WEREWOLF (WER) and the IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein GLABRA3 (GL3) or ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3). The bHLH component acts as a docking site for TTG1 and MYB proteins. Here, we isolated a mutant showing defects in trichome and root hair patterning that carried a point mutation (R173H) in AtMYC1 that encodes the fourth member of IIIf bHLH family protein. Genetic analysis revealed partial redundant yet distinct function between AtMYC1 and GL3/EGL3. GLABRA2 (GL2), an important transcription factor involved in trichome and root hair control, was down-regulated in Atmyc1 plants, suggesting the requirement of AtMYC1 for appropriate GL2 transcription. Like its homologs, AtMYC1 formed a complex with TTG1 and MYB proteins but did not dimerized. In addition, the interaction of AtMYC1 with MYB proteins and TTG1 was abrogated by the R173H substitution in Atmyc1-1. We found that this amino acid (Arg) is conserved in the AtMYC1 homologs GL3/EGL3 and that it is essential for their interaction with MYB proteins and for their proper functions. Our findings indicate that AtMYC1 is an important regulator of trichome and root hair initiation, and they reveal a novel amino acid necessary for protein-protein interactions and gene function in IIIf subfamily bHLH transcription factors. PMID:22334670

  16. Novel phytoceramides containing fatty acids of diverse chain lengths are better than a single C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine to improve the physiological properties of human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh MJ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Myoung Jin Oh,1 Young Hoon Cho,1 So Yoon Cha,1 Eun Ok Lee,2 Jin Wook Kim,2 Sun Ki Kim,2 Chang Seo Park1 1Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Dongguk University, Chung-gu, Seoul, 2LCS Biotech, Gwonseon-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Ceramides in the human stratum corneum (SC are a mixture of diverse N-acylated fatty acids (FAs with different chain lengths. C24 is the major class of FAs of ceramides. However, there are also other classes of ceramides with diverse chain lengths of FAs, and these lengths generally range from C16 to C26. This study aimed to prepare several types of phytoceramide containing diverse chain lengths of N-acylated FAs and compare them with C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine (NP in terms of their effects on the physiological properties of the SC. We chose natural oils, such as horse fat oil, shea butter, sunflower oil, and a mixture of macadamia nut, shea butter, moringa, and meadowfoam seed oil, as sources of FAs and phytosphingosine as a sphingoid backbone to synthesize diverse phytoceramides. Each phytoceramide exhibited a distinctive formation of the lamellar structure, and their FA profiles were similar to those of their respective natural oil. The skin barrier properties, as analyzed in human skin, clearly demonstrated that all the phytoceramides improved the recovery rate of the damaged SC and enhanced hydration better than C18-ceramide NP did. In conclusion, natural oil-derived phytoceramides could represent a novel class of ceramides for cosmetic applications in the development of an ideal skin barrier moisturizer. Keywords: fatty acid, chain length, phytoceramide, skin barrier, natural oil

  17. Genetics Home Reference: fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acid 2-hydroxylase adds a single oxygen atom to a hydrogen atom at a particular point on a fatty acid ... direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Obstructive sleep ...

  18. Aristolochic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often used as herbal medicines or in other botanical products in the United States and abroad. Aristolochic ... individuals with kidney or renal disease who consumed botanical products containing aristolochic acids. Animal Studies The findings ...

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the FADS Gene Cluster but not the ELOVL2 Gene are Associated with Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition and Development of Allergy (in a Swedish Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Barman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA influences immune function and may affect the risk of allergy development. Long chain PUFAs are produced from dietary precursors catalyzed by desaturases and elongases encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes. In 211 subjects, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL2 gene were associated with allergy or PUFA composition in serum phospholipids in a Swedish birth-cohort sampled at birth and at 13 years of age; allergy was diagnosed at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs102275 and rs174448 (FADS gene cluster had decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord and adolescent serum and increased proportions of 20:3 n-6 in cord serum as well as a nominally reduced risk of developing atopic eczema, but not respiratory allergy, at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs17606561 in the ELOVL2 gene had nominally decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord serum but ELOVL polymorphisms (rs2236212 and rs17606561 were not associated with allergy development. Thus, reduced capacity to desaturase n-6 PUFAs due to FADS polymorphisms was nominally associated with reduced risk for eczema development, which could indicate a pathogenic role for long-chain PUFAs in allergy development.

  20. Novel phytoceramides containing fatty acids of diverse chain lengths are better than a single C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine to improve the physiological properties of human stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myoung Jin; Cho, Young Hoon; Cha, So Yoon; Lee, Eun Ok; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Sun Ki; Park, Chang Seo

    2017-01-01

    Ceramides in the human stratum corneum (SC) are a mixture of diverse N -acylated fatty acids (FAs) with different chain lengths. C24 is the major class of FAs of ceramides. However, there are also other classes of ceramides with diverse chain lengths of FAs, and these lengths generally range from C16 to C26. This study aimed to prepare several types of phytoceramide containing diverse chain lengths of N -acylated FAs and compare them with C18-ceramide N -stearoyl phytosphingosine (NP) in terms of their effects on the physiological properties of the SC. We chose natural oils, such as horse fat oil, shea butter, sunflower oil, and a mixture of macadamia nut, shea butter, moringa, and meadowfoam seed oil, as sources of FAs and phytosphingosine as a sphingoid backbone to synthesize diverse phytoceramides. Each phytoceramide exhibited a distinctive formation of the lamellar structure, and their FA profiles were similar to those of their respective natural oil. The skin barrier properties, as analyzed in human skin, clearly demonstrated that all the phytoceramides improved the recovery rate of the damaged SC and enhanced hydration better than C18-ceramide NP did. In conclusion, natural oil-derived phytoceramides could represent a novel class of ceramides for cosmetic applications in the development of an ideal skin barrier moisturizer.

  1. Single amino acid substitution in the methyltransferase domain of Paprika mild mottle virus replicase proteins confers the ability to overcome the high temperature-dependent Hk gene-mediated resistance in Capsicum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Katsutoshi; Johnishi, Kousuke; Hamada, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Hiromasa; Takeuchi, Shigeharu; Kobayashi, Kappei; Suzuki, Kazumi; Kiba, Akinori; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2009-03-01

    Capsicum plants harboring the Hk gene (Hk) show resistance to Paprika mild mottle virus (PaMMV) at 32 degrees C but not 24 degrees C. To identify the viral elicitor that activates the Hk-mediated resistance, several chimeric viral genomes were constructed between PaMMV and Tobacco mosaic virus-L. Infection patterns of these chimeric viruses in Hk-harboring plants revealed responsibility of PaMMV replicase genes for activation of the Hk-mediated resistance. The comparison of nucleotide sequence of replicase genes between PaMMV and PaHk1, an Hk-resistance-breaking strain of PaMMV, revealed that the adenine-to-uracil substitution at the nucleotide position 721 causes an amino acid change from threonine to serine at the 241st residue in the methyltransferase domain. Introduction of the A721U mutation into the replicase genes of parental PaMMV overcame the Hk resistance at 32 degrees C. The results indicate that Hk-mediated resistance is induced by PaMMV replicase proteins and that methyltransferase domain has a role in this elicitation.

  2. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the FADS Gene Cluster but not the ELOVL2 Gene are Associated with Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition and Development of Allergy (in a Swedish Birth Cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Malin; Nilsson, Staffan; Torinsson Naluai, Åsa; Sandin, Anna; Wold, Agnes E; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2015-12-03

    Exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influences immune function and may affect the risk of allergy development. Long chain PUFAs are produced from dietary precursors catalyzed by desaturases and elongases encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes. In 211 subjects, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL2 gene were associated with allergy or PUFA composition in serum phospholipids in a Swedish birth-cohort sampled at birth and at 13 years of age; allergy was diagnosed at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs102275 and rs174448 (FADS gene cluster) had decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord and adolescent serum and increased proportions of 20:3 n-6 in cord serum as well as a nominally reduced risk of developing atopic eczema, but not respiratory allergy, at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs17606561 in the ELOVL2 gene had nominally decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord serum but ELOVL polymorphisms (rs2236212 and rs17606561) were not associated with allergy development. Thus, reduced capacity to desaturase n-6 PUFAs due to FADS polymorphisms was nominally associated with reduced risk for eczema development, which could indicate a pathogenic role for long-chain PUFAs in allergy development.

  3. Acrylic acid obtaining from methanol and acetic acid in the presence of complex oxide catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Nebesnyi, Roman; Pikh, Zorian; Shpyrka, Iryna; Ivasiv, Volodymyr; Nebesna, Yulia; Fuch, Uliana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to research process of single-stage acrylic acid obtaining from methanol and acetic acid, namely: to develop effective catalysts for the process of methanol oxidation to formaldehyde with its further aldol condensation with acetic acid to acrylic acid, and to determine optimum conditions for the process. Complex oxide catalysts consisting of oxides of boron, phosphorus, tungsten and vanadium supported on the silica gel have been investigated. The effect of vanadium...

  4. The efficacy of 0.12% chlorhexidine versus 0.12% chlorhexidine plus hyaluronic acid mouthwash on healing of submerged single implant insertion areas: a short-term randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovesi, A; Barone, A; Toti, P; Covani, U

    2017-02-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the incidence of post-surgical adverse events at submerged implant sites as well as the antiplaque, antigingivitis and antistaining effects in the entire dentition of patients treated with two mouthwashes. The present randomized controlled clinical study considered 40 patients subjected to dental implant treatment. Two 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwashes were compared for 15 days: one with 0.1% hyaluronic acid (CHX⊗HYL group) and one without it (CHX group). Surgical outcome variables, and plaque, gingival, and staining indexes were recorded. Significant differences were found between the two rinses regarding the presence of oedema within 2 days after surgery (20% for the CHX⊗HYL group and 78% for the CHX group). No other significant differences were recorded between the two mouthwashes. No intergroup differences in plaque, staining and gingivitis indexes were registered. The intragroup analysis revealed that for the plaque and gingival indexes, the differences between the baseline values (before surgery) and those at 15 days were all found to be significant just for CHX⊗HYL rinse, with final values ranging from 0.18 to 0.23 for the plaque index and from 0.06 to 0.07 for the gingival index. The staining index increased for both mouthwash types with significant results (with final value of 0.19 and 0.31 for CHX⊗HYL and CHX groups, respectively). In the sites of patients subjected to dental implant placement, an additional anti-oedematigenous effect in early healing seemed to be disclosed for 0.12% CHX⊗HYL mouthwash. Regarding antiplaque and antigingivitis activities, HYL seemed to be ineffective. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Zoledronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert; Burkinshaw, Roger; Winter, Matthew; Neville-Webbe, Helen; Lester, Jim; Woodward, Emma; Brown, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Both bone metastases and fragility fractures due to bone loss result in considerable morbidity affecting quality of life and independence as well as placing complex demands on healthcare resources. Zoledronic acid is a widely used intravenous bisphosphonate that reduces this skeletal morbidity in both benign and malignant conditions. The incidence, clinical importance and prevention strategies to minimize side effects associated with the use of zoledronic acid are discussed with a particular focus on use in oncology where intensive monthly scheduling is required. This potentially increases the risk for adverse events over the 6-12 monthly administration used to treat benign bone diseases. A detailed understanding of the generally favorable safety profile of zoledronic acid, but particularly the potential for renal dysfunction and osteonecrosis of the jaw. When compared to many other therapies, especially in the cancer setting, the severity of adverse events related to zoledronic acid is generally mild and, with the exception of the acute phase response causing transient fever, myalgia and bone pain, side effects are infrequent. Thus, the benefits of treatment with zoledronic acid within its licensed indications almost always outweigh the risks.

  6. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is important. A diet based on a single plant item will not be adequate, but we no longer worry about pairing proteins (such ... Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of The National Academies. ...

  7. N-heterocyclic carboxylic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2,3-dicarboxylic acid) is solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Antibacterial activities of the complexes are evaluated by determining their capacity to inhibit the growth of E. coli 10536 (MIC) in a nutrient broth. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.), Vol. 112, No. 3, June 2000, p. 355. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

  8. An integrated in silico approach to analyze the involvement of single amino acid polymorphisms in FANCD1/BRCA2-PALB2 and FANCD1/BRCA2-RAD51 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, C George Priya; Nagasundaram, N

    2014-11-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive human disease characterized by genomic instability and a marked increase in cancer risk. The importance of FANCD1 gene is manifested by the fact that deleterious amino acid substitutions were found to confer susceptibility to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Attaining experimental knowledge about the possible disease-associated substitutions is laborious and time consuming. The recent introduction of genome variation analyzing in silico tools have the capability to identify the deleterious variants in an efficient manner. In this study, we conducted in silico variation analysis of deleterious non-synonymous SNPs at both functional and structural level in the breast cancer and FA susceptibility gene BRCA2/FANCD1. To identify and characterize deleterious mutations in this study, five in silico tools based on two different prediction methods namely pathogenicity prediction (SIFT, PolyPhen, and PANTHER), and protein stability prediction (I-Mutant 2.0 and MuStab) were analyzed. Based on the deleterious scores that overlap in these in silico approaches, and the availability of three-dimensional structures, structure analysis was carried out with the major mutations that occurred in the native protein coded by FANCD1/BRCA2 gene. In this work, we report the results of the first molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study performed to analyze the structural level changes in time scale level with respect to the native and mutated protein complexes (G25R, W31C, W31R in FANCD1/BRCA2-PALB2, and F1524V, V1532F in FANCD1/BRCA2-RAD51). Analysis of the MD trajectories indicated that predicted deleterious variants alter the structural behavior of BRCA2-PALB2 and BRCA2-RAD51 protein complexes. In addition, statistical analysis was employed to test the significance of these in silico tool predictions. Based on these predictions, we conclude that the identification of disease-related SNPs by in silico methods, in combination with MD

  9. A multicentre, randomized, single-blind, parallel-group study comparing the efficacy and tolerability of benzoyl peroxide 3%/clindamycin 1% with azelaic acid 20% in the topical treatment of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, M; Sebastian, M; Ress, C; Seidel, D; Hennig, M

    2016-06-01

    Mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris is treated with a range of mono- and combination therapies; however, clinical evidence is still required to optimize treatment recommendations. To compare the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a combination of benzoyl peroxide 3% and clindamycin 1% (BPO + CLN) with azelaic acid 20% (AzA) for the topical treatment of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. This was a randomized, assessor-blinded, parallel-group, multicentre study conducted in Germany. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acne vulgaris, aged 12-45 years, were randomized 1 : 1 to once-daily BPO + CLN gel or twice-daily AzA cream for up to 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the percentage change in inflammatory lesions from baseline at Week 4. Secondary endpoints included total and inflammatory lesion counts and tolerability assessments. For selected secondary endpoints, inductive statistical analysis was performed post hoc. Patient safety was assessed by adverse event (AE) monitoring. Efficacy was assessed in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population [patients using ≥1 dose of study medication (ITT), plus baseline and ≥1 post-baseline lesion count (n = 215)]. There was a statistically significant difference in the primary endpoint, with a median decrease of -52.6% for BPO + CLN (n = 107) vs.-38.8% for AzA (n = 108; P = 0.0004). There was also a greater difference in secondary lesion endpoints at Week 12, with a median decrease in inflammatory lesions of -78.8% and -65.3% and total lesions of -69.0% and -53.9% with BPO + CLN and AzA, respectively (both P < 0.0001). Tolerability was acceptable for both treatments. Overall, 55.6% (BPO + CLN) and 69.7% (AzA) of patients reported treatment-emergent AEs, and 15.7% and 35.8% of patients experienced application site reactions with BPO + CLN (24 events; 17 patients) and AzA (60 events; 39 patients) treatment, respectively (ITT population). BPO + CLN demonstrated greater efficacy than AzA in the treatment of mild

  10. A single amino acid substitution within the transmembrane domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein renders simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV(KU-1bMC33)) susceptible to rimantadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, David R; Gomez, Lisa M; Pacyniak, Erik; Miller, Jean-Marie; Hill, M Sarah; Stephens, Edward B

    2006-05-10

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the transmembrane domain (TM) of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of SHIV(KU-1bMC33) in macaques and that the TM domain of Vpu could be replaced with the M2 protein viroporin from influenza A virus. Recently, we showed that the replacement of the TM domain of Vpu with that of the M2 protein of influenza A virus resulted in a virus (SHIV(M2)) that was sensitive to rimantadine [Hout, D.R., Gomez, M.L., Pacyniak, E., Gomez, L.M., Inbody, S.H., Mulcahy, E.R., Culley, N., Pinson, D.M., Powers, M.F., Wong, S.W., Stephens, E.B., 2006. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV(KU-1bMC33)) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques. Virology 344, 541-558]. Based on previous studies of the M2 protein which have shown that the His-X-X-X-Trp motif within the M2 is essential to the function of the M2 proton channel, we have constructed a novel SHIV in which the alanine at position 19 of the TM domain was replaced with a histidine residue resulting in the motif His-Ile-Leu-Val-Trp. The SHIV(VpuA19H) replicated with similar kinetics as the parental SHIV(KU-1bMC33) and pulse-chase analysis revealed that the processing of viral proteins was similar to SHIV(KU-1bMC33). This SHIV(VpuA19H) virus was found to be more sensitive to the M2 ion channel blocker rimantadine than SHIV(M2). Electron microscopic examination of SHIV(VpuA19H)-infected cells treated with rimantadine revealed an accumulation of viral particles at the cell surface and within intracellular vesicles, which was similar to that previously observed to SHIV(M2)-infected cells treated with rimantadine. These data indicate that the Vpu protein of HIV-1 can be converted into a rimantadine-sensitive ion channel with the alteration of one amino acid and provide

  11. A single amino acid substitution within the transmembrane domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein renders simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIVKU-1bMC33) susceptible to rimantadine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hout, David R.; Gomez, Lisa M.; Pacyniak, Erik; Miller, Jean-Marie; Hill, M. Sarah; Stephens, Edward B.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the transmembrane domain (TM) of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of SHIV KU-1bMC33 in macaques and that the TM domain of Vpu could be replaced with the M2 protein viroporin from influenza A virus. Recently, we showed that the replacement of the TM domain of Vpu with that of the M2 protein of influenza A virus resulted in a virus (SHIV M2 ) that was sensitive to rimantadine [Hout, D.R., Gomez, M.L., Pacyniak, E., Gomez, L.M., Inbody, S.H., Mulcahy, E.R., Culley, N., Pinson, D.M., Powers, M.F., Wong, S.W., Stephens, E.B., 2006. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV KU-1bMC33 ) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques. Virology 344, 541-558]. Based on previous studies of the M2 protein which have shown that the His-X-X-X-Trp motif within the M2 is essential to the function of the M2 proton channel, we have constructed a novel SHIV in which the alanine at position 19 of the TM domain was replaced with a histidine residue resulting in the motif His-Ile-Leu-Val-Trp. The SHIV VpuA19H replicated with similar kinetics as the parental SHIV KU-1bMC33 and pulse-chase analysis revealed that the processing of viral proteins was similar to SHIV KU-1bMC33 . This SHIV VpuA19H virus was found to be more sensitive to the M2 ion channel blocker rimantadine than SHIV M2 . Electron microscopic examination of SHIV VpuA19H -infected cells treated with rimantadine revealed an accumulation of viral particles at the cell surface and within intracellular vesicles, which was similar to that previously observed to SHIV M2 -infected cells treated with rimantadine. These data indicate that the Vpu protein of HIV-1 can be converted into a rimantadine-sensitive ion channel with the alteration of one amino acid and provide

  12. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  13. Lipoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Tetikcok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid, which is defined as a miralce antioxidan, is used by many departments. Eventhough clinical using data are very limited , it is used in treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic, dermatology clinic, geriatric clinics. It has usage area for cosmetic purposes. Although there are reports there are the direction of the effectiveness in these areas, the works done are not enough. Today lipoic acid , used in many areas ,is evaluated as universal antioxidant [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 206-209

  14. Compound list: tannic acid [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tannic acid TAN 00093 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/tannic_acid....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/tannic_acid....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/tannic_acid...archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/tannic_acid.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  15. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  16. Single photon from a single trapped atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingjan, J.; Jones, M.P.A.; Beugnon, J.; Darquiee, B.; Bergamini, S.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum treatment of the interaction between atoms and light usually begins with the simplest model system: a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light wave. Here we demonstrate an elegant experimental realization of this system using an optically trapped single rubidium atom illuminated by resonant light pulses. We observe Rabi oscillations, and show that this system can be used as a highly efficient triggered source of single photons with a well-defined polarisation. In contrast to other sources based on neutral atoms and trapped ions, no optical cavity is required. We achieved a flux of single photons of about 10 4 s -1 at the detector, and observe complete antibunching. This source has potential applications for distributed atom-atom entanglement using single photons. (author)

  17. Salicylhydroxamic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to as topological indices, can be used for establishing QSAR of interest in pharmacology. A number of successful QSAR studies were made 4 based on Wms by means of which we can determine the ways in which the structural features of SHA and SHA derivatives influence the course of nucleic acid synthesis in a tumour ...

  18. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  19. Nucleic acid-binding glycoproteins which solubilize nucleic acids in dilute acid: re-examination of the Ustilago maydis glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.; Champ, D.R.; Young, J.L.; Grant, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Holloman reported the isolation from Ustilago maydis of a glycoprotein which prevented the precipitation of nucleic acids in cold 5% trichloroacetic acid. Two glycoprotein fractions from U. maydis with this nucleic acid-solubilizing activity were isolated in our laboratory using improved purification procedures. The activity was not due to nuclease contamination. The glycoproteins are distinguished by: their ability to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose; their differential binding to double- and single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and to ribonucleic acid; their molecular weights (46,000 and 69,000); and the relative amounts present in growing versus nongrowing cells. Both fractions required sulfhydryl-reducing conditions for optimal yields, specific activity, and stability. Nucleic acid binding was cooperative, the minimum number of glycoproteins required to make a native T7 DNA molecule soluble in dilute acid being estimated at 2 and 15, respectively.

  20. Single base pair mutation analysis by PNA directed PCR clamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, H.; Nielsen, P.E.; Egholm, M.

    1993-01-01

    A novel method that allows direct analysis of single base mutation by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is described. The method utilizes the finding that PNAs (peptide nucleic acids) recognize and bind to their complementary nucleic acid sequences with higher thermal stability and specificity...

  1. Use of hexadeuterated valproic acid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acheampong, A.A.; Abbott, F.S.; Orr, J.M.; Ferguson, S.M.; Burton, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Di-[( 3,3,3- 2 H3]propyl)acetic acid, a hexadeuterated analogue of valproic acid, was synthesized and its pharmacokinetic properties compared with valproic acid. Concentrations of valproic acid and [ 2 H]valproic acid in serum and saliva were determined by GC-MS using selected-ion monitoring. Saliva drug levels were measured with good precision down to 0.1 microgram/mL. Kinetic equivalence of valproic acid and [ 2 H]valproic acid was demonstrated in a single-dose study in a human volunteer. An isotope effect was observed for omega-oxidation, but the difference in metabolism was not sufficient to make [ 2 H]valproic acid biologically nonequivalent. The application of [ 2 H]valproic acid to determine the kinetics of valproic acid under steady-state concentrations was evaluated in the same volunteer. The kinetic data obtained with [ 2 H]valproic acid was consistent with previously reported values for valproic acid including kinetic differences observed between single-dose and steady-state experiments. Saliva levels of valproic acid were found to give a good correlation with total serum valproic acid under multiple-dose conditions. A concentration dependence was found for the ratio of saliva valproic acid to free valproic acid in serum, low ratios being observed at high serum concentrations of valproic acid

  2. Levulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hachuła

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxopentanoic acid, C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762 Å. In the crystal, the molecules interact via O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent molecules as acceptors, forming C(7 chains along [20-1].

  3. Comparative efficacy of combination of 1 L polyethylene glycol, castor oil and ascorbic acid versus 2 L polyethylene glycol plus castor oil versus 3 L polyethylene glycol for colon cleansing before colonoscopy: Study protocol of a randomized, double-blind, single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xu; Chen, Wei-Qing; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Hui; Liu, Bang-Lun; Pi, Yuan-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Colonoscopy has been regarded as an important method of early diagnosing and treating gastrointestinal lesions; however adequate bowel preparation is critical one of many factors needed for successful colonoscopy. Although several modified or novel regimes have been developed, desired quality of bowel preparation has not yet been generated. Scattered evidences revealed that castor oil may have potential of effectively cleansing colon. It is noted that, however, prospective trial of exploring the value of castor oil in preparing bowel before colonoscopy is lacking. The aims of this study are to test the hypotheses that low dose castor oil (30 mL) may enhance potential of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and combination of low castor oil and ascorbic acid may halve the volume of PEG.This is a randomized, double-blind (endoscopist and assessor), single center trial with three-arm design. We will randomly assign 282 adult patients (≥18 years but castor oil or combination of 1 L PEG, 30 mL castor oil and 5 g ascorbic acid. The bowel preparation quality based on Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) is the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes include the first defecation time, total number of defecation, time of cecal intubation, detection rate of polyp and adenoma, willing to repeat the same regime, tolerance to regime, and adverse events.The study protocol has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committees of Chongqing University Cancer Hospital & Chongqing Cancer Institute & Chongqing Cancer Hospital & Chongqing Cancer Center (2017[107]). The results from this trial will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, and will be presented at national and international conferences.

  4. Growth features of ammonium hydrogen d-tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Ammonium hydrogen d-tartrate (d-AHT) single crystals were grown in silica gel. The growth fea- tures of these crystals with variation of parameters like specific gravity of the gel, gel pH, acid concentrations, concentration of the feed solution and gel age were studied in detail. Keywords. d-AHT single crystals; growth features ...

  5. Compound list: mefenamic acid [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mefenamic acid MEF 00084 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/mefenamic_aci...d.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/mefenamic_aci.../in_vivo/Liver/Single/mefenamic_acid.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosc...iencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/mefenamic_acid.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  6. Compound list: nicotinic acid [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nicotinic acid NIC 00081 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/nicotinic_aci...d.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/nicotinic_aci.../in_vivo/Liver/Single/nicotinic_acid.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosc...iencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/nicotinic_acid.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  7. Maleopimaric acid acetic acid solvate

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Yong-hong; Guo, Xiao-xin; Hu, Li-hong

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C24H32O5·C2H4O2, is a derivative of abietic acid. The two fused and unbridged cyclohexane rings have chair conformations and the anhydride ring is planar. Of the other three six-membered rings, two have boat conformations and one has a twist-boat conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  8. Removal of acidic or basic α-amino acids in water by poorly water soluble scandium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Jin, Shigeki; Ujihara, Tomomi

    2012-11-02

    To recognize α-amino acids with highly polar side chains in water, poorly water soluble scandium complexes with both Lewis acidic and basic portions were synthesized as artificial receptors. A suspension of some of these receptor molecules in an α-amino acid solution could remove acidic and basic α-amino acids from the solution. The compound most efficient at preferentially removing basic α-amino acids (arginine, histidine, and lysine) was the receptor with 7,7'-[1,3-phenylenebis(carbonylimino)]bis(2-naphthalenesulfonate) as the ligand. The neutral α-amino acids were barely removed by these receptors. Removal experiments using a mixed amino acid solution generally gave results similar to those obtained using solutions containing a single amino acid. The results demonstrated that the scandium complex receptors were useful for binding acidic and basic α-amino acids.

  9. Single amino acid radiocarbon dating of Upper Paleolithic modern humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Anat; McCullagh, James S. O.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Sinitsyn, Andrey A.; Hedges, Robert E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeological bones are usually dated by radiocarbon measurement of extracted collagen. However, low collagen content, contamination from the burial environment, or museum conservation work, such as addition of glues, preservatives, and fumigants to “protect” archaeological materials, have previously led to inaccurate dates. These inaccuracies in turn frustrate the development of archaeological chronologies and, in the Paleolithic, blur the dating of such key events as the dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Here we describe a method to date hydroxyproline found in collagen (∼10% of collagen carbon) as a bone-specific biomarker that removes impurities, thereby improving dating accuracy and confidence. This method is applied to two important sites in Russia and allows us to report the earliest direct ages for the presence of anatomically modern humans on the Russian Plain. These dates contribute considerably to our understanding of the emergence of the Mid-Upper Paleolithic and the complex suite of burial behaviors that begin to appear during this period. PMID:22517758

  10. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  11. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and ... conception and during early pregnancy . What Is Folic Acid? Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  12. Compositions and methods for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Werner, James; Martinez, Jennifer S.

    2016-11-22

    Described herein are nucleic acid based probes and methods for discriminating and detecting single nucleotide variants in nucleic acid molecules (e.g., DNA). The methods include use of a pair of probes can be used to detect and identify polymorphisms, for example single nucleotide polymorphism in DNA. The pair of probes emit a different fluorescent wavelength of light depending on the association and alignment of the probes when hybridized to a target nucleic acid molecule. Each pair of probes is capable of discriminating at least two different nucleic acid molecules that differ by at least a single nucleotide difference. The methods can probes can be used, for example, for detection of DNA polymorphisms that are indicative of a particular disease or condition.

  13. Solution (31)P NMR Study of the Acid-Catalyzed Formation of a Highly Charged {U24Pp12} Nanocluster, [(UO2)24(O2)24(P2O7)12](48-), and Its Structural Characterization in the Solid State Using Single-Crystal Neutron Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembowski, Mateusz; Olds, Travis A; Pellegrini, Kristi L; Hoffmann, Christina; Wang, Xiaoping; Hickam, Sarah; He, Junhong; Oliver, Allen G; Burns, Peter C

    2016-07-13

    The first neutron diffraction study of a single crystal containing uranyl peroxide nanoclusters is reported for pyrophosphate-functionalized Na44K6[(UO2)24(O2)24(P2O7)12][IO3]2·140H2O (1). Relative to earlier X-ray studies, neutron diffraction provides superior information concerning the positions of H atoms and lighter counterions. Hydrogen positions have been assigned and reveal an extensive network of H-bonds; notably, most O atoms present in the anionic cluster accept H-bonds from surrounding H2O molecules, and none of the surface-bound O atoms are protonated. The D4h symmetry of the cage is consistent with the presence of six encapsulated K cations, which appear to stabilize the lower symmetry variant of this cluster. (31)P NMR measurements demonstrate retention of this symmetry in solution, while in situ (31)P NMR studies suggest an acid-catalyzed mechanism for the assembly of 1 across a wide range of pH values.

  14. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule spectroscopy. (SMS), confocal microscopy,. FCS, sm-FRET, FLIM. 1 High-resolution spectrum re- fers to a spectrum consisting of very sharp lines. The sharp lines clearly display transitions to ...

  15. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE. February 2015. GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule ..... Resonance Energy. Transfer (FRET) is an elegant technique to measure the distance between a donor and an acceptor molecule. FRET refers to the.

  16. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct. Keywords. Nonlocality; single particle; hidden variables. PACS Nos 03.67.Ba; 03.65.Ta; 32.80.Lg; 07.79.Fc. 1. Introduction. Quantum nonlocality [2] for single particle is a subject of debate since the origin.

  17. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  18. Understanding Single Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  19. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  20. Copper-based coordination polymers from thiophene and furan dicarboxylates with high isosteric heats of hydrogen adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Jie; Lutz, Martin; Grzech, Anna; Mulder, Fokko M.; Dingemans, Theo J.

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembled Cu-based coordination polymers derived from thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (Cu-TDC) and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (Cu-FDC) were synthesized via a solvothermal method and their H2 adsorption behaviour was investigated and contrasted with isophthalic acid (Cu-m-BDC) and terephthalic

  1. Amino acid properties conserved in molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold R Rudnicki

    Full Text Available That amino acid properties are responsible for the way protein molecules evolve is natural and is also reasonably well supported both by the structure of the genetic code and, to a large extent, by the experimental measures of the amino acid similarity. Nevertheless, there remains a significant gap between observed similarity matrices and their reconstructions from amino acid properties. Therefore, we introduce a simple theoretical model of amino acid similarity matrices, which allows splitting the matrix into two parts - one that depends only on mutabilities of amino acids and another that depends on pairwise similarities between them. Then the new synthetic amino acid properties are derived from the pairwise similarities and used to reconstruct similarity matrices covering a wide range of information entropies. Our model allows us to explain up to 94% of the variability in the BLOSUM family of the amino acids similarity matrices in terms of amino acid properties. The new properties derived from amino acid similarity matrices correlate highly with properties known to be important for molecular evolution such as hydrophobicity, size, shape and charge of amino acids. This result closes the gap in our understanding of the influence of amino acids on evolution at the molecular level. The methods were applied to the single family of similarity matrices used often in general sequence homology searches, but it is general and can be used also for more specific matrices. The new synthetic properties can be used in analyzes of protein sequences in various biological applications.

  2. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  3. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  4. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  5. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different...... structures and properties have been proposed in the literature. The main aim of this paper is to provide a review of these PLLs. To this end, the single-phase PLLs are first classified into two major categories: 1) power-based PLLs (pPLLs), and 2) quadrature signal generation-based PLLs (QSG......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  6. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  7. Decontamination effectiveness of mixtures of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranzini, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study of the decontamination effectiveness of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA mixtures was conducted to assess whether oxalic acid could be removed from decontamination solutions to minimize corrosion. In loop experiments, radioactive specimens from two boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor were suspended in solutions of single acids or in mixtures of reagents at total reagent concentrations of less than 0.1 wt% under conditions similar to those used to decontaminate reactor systems. Rate constants for dissolution of oxides and decontamination factors were measured. Based on the results, it was concluded that under certain conditions, oxalic acid was the most effective reagent for the dissolution of oxides. It was also found, however, that conditions under which effective dissolution occurred in solutions of oxalic acid and/or citric acid were difficult to define and control. EDTA was found to be an effective reagent for dissolution of oxides such that rates of dissolution in EDTA containing solutions at 117 degrees Celsius were comparable to rates in oxalic acid containing solutions. At 90 degrees Celsius, EDTA acted synergistically with oxalic acid such that the rate of dissolution of oxides in citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions was higher than in citric-acid/EDTA solutions. The rates of dissolution of oxides were significantly reduced when 60 mg/kg of ferric ion was added to the citric-acid/oxalic-acid, citric-acid/EDTA and citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions. It was concluded that effective decontaminations of BWR and PWR systems could be achieved with mixtures of citric acid and EDTA

  8. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  9. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  10. Single photon ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)

  11. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  12. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Stresses of Single Parenting Page Content Article Body What are some ways ... way. Check your local library for books on parenting. Local hospitals, the YMCA, and church groups often ...

  13. A Single Atom Antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinter, Florian; Williams, Joshua B; Weller, Miriam; Waitz, Markus; Pitzer, Martin; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Schober, Carl; Kastirke, Gregor; Müller, Christian; Goihl, Christoph; Burzynski, Phillip; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Kalinin, Anton; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Schöffler, Markus S; Jahnke, Till; Dörner, Reinhard; Chiang, Ying-Chih; Gokhberg, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the smallest possible implementation of an antenna-receiver complex which consists of a single (helium) atom acting as the antenna and a second (neon) atom acting as a receiver. (paper)

  14. Single Beam Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan; Ruterbusch, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how holography can be used as part of undergraduate physics laboratories. The authors propose a single beam technique of holography, which will reduce the recording scheme as well as relax the isolation requirements. (HM)

  15. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M [Brookline, MA; Zhang, Kun [Brighton, MA

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  16. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  17. Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%. Biotechnology market of Polyunsaturated fatty acid is very promising for both foods and feeds, because the availability of abundant raw materials and suitable to develop in the tropics. This literature review discusses about the content of Polyunsaturated fatty acid in microalgae, omega-3, omega-6, Polyunsaturated fatty acid production processes, and applications in public health

  18. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  19. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  20. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  1. Uric acid - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  2. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  3. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  4. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  5. Single-Photon Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnenkamp, A.; Børkje, K.; Girvin, S. M.

    2011-08-01

    Optomechanics experiments are rapidly approaching the regime where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. We show that in this limit the power spectrum has multiple sidebands and that the cavity response has several resonances in the resolved-sideband limit. Using master-equation simulations, we also study the crossover from the weak-coupling many-photon to the single-photon strong-coupling regime. Finally, we find non-Gaussian steady states of the mechanical oscillator when multiphoton transitions are resonant. Our study provides the tools to detect and take advantage of this novel regime of optomechanics.

  6. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1983-01-01

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  7. Biocatalytic Single Enzyme Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kim, Jungbae

    2004-03-31

    As an innovative way of enzyme stabilization, we recently developed a new enzyme composite of nano-meter scale that we call "single-enzyme nanoparticles (SENs)" (9). Each enzyme molecule is surrounded with a porous composite organic/inorganic network of less than a few nanometers think. This approach represents a new type of enzyme-containing nanostructure. In experiments with perotease (chymotrypsin, CT), the activity of single enzyme nanoparticle form of the enzyme was greatly stabilized compared to the free form, without imposing a serious mass transfer limitation of substrates. In this chapter we will describe the synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of the new SENs.

  8. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions......LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...

  9. Quantitative analysis of copolymers : influence of the structure of the monomer on the ionization efficiency in electrospray ionization FTMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, S.; Mulder, B.; Duursma, M.C.; Boon, J.J.; Philipsen, H.J.A.; Velde, J.W.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Koster, de C.G.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the ionization efficiency on the measured copolymer sequence distribution is presented. Large differences in ionization efficiency were observed for mixtures of homopolyesters containing dipropoxylated bisphenol A/adipic acid and dipropoxylated bisphenol A/isophthalic acid and the

  10. Response of soybean seed germination to cadmium and acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting Ting; Wu, Peng; Wang, Li Hong; Zhou, Qing

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution and acid rain are the main environmental issues, and they often occur in the same agricultural region. Nevertheless, up to now, little information on the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain action on crops were presented. Here, we investigated the combined effect of Cd(2+) and acid rain on the seed germination of soybean. The results indicated that the single treatment with the low level of Cd(2+) (0.18, 1.0, 3.0 mg L(-1)) or acid rain (pH ≥3.0) could not affect the seed germination of soybean, which was resulted in the increased activities of peroxidase and catalase. The single treatment with the high concentration of Cd(2+) (>6 mg L(-1)) or acid rain at pH 2.5 decreased the activities of peroxidase and catalase, damaged the cell membrane and then decreased the seed germination of soybean. Meanwhile, the same toxic effect was observed in the combined treatment with Cd(2+) and acid rain, and the combined treatment had more toxic effect than the single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain. Thus, the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain had more potential threat to the seed germination of soybean than the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain.

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Detection Using Au-Decorated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Ju Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that Au-cluster-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs may be used to discriminate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP. Nanoscale Au clusters were formed on the side walls of carbon nanotubes in a transistor geometry using electrochemical deposition. The effect of Au cluster decoration appeared as hole doping when electrical transport characteristics were examined. Thiolated single-stranded probe peptide nucleic acid (PNA was successfully immobilized on Au clusters decorating single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWNT-FETs, resulting in a conductance decrease that could be explained by a decrease in Au work function upon adsorption of thiolated PNA. Although a target single-stranded DNA (ssDNA with a single mismatch did not cause any change in electrical conductance, a clear decrease in conductance was observed with matched ssDNA, thereby showing the possibility of SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism detection using Au-cluster-decorated SWNT-FETs. However, a power to discriminate SNP target is lost in high ionic environment. We can conclude that observed SNP discrimination in low ionic environment is due to the hampered binding of SNP target on nanoscale surfaces in low ionic conditions.

  12. A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and its association with incidence of type 2 diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, Stephen J; Koulman, Albert; Schulze, Matthias B; Kröger, Janine; Griffin, Julian L; Huerta, José M; Guevara, Marcela; Sluijs, Ivonne; Agudo, Antonio; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Chajes, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Feskens, Edith J M; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Gunter, Marc; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Melander, Olle; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Nilsson, Peter M; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Rolandsson, Olov; Sieri, Sabina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Forouhi, Nita G; Wareham, Nick J

    2017-01-01

    Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated.

  13. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Single Item Inventory Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends a fundamental result about single-item inventory systems. This approach allows more general performance measures, demand processes and order policies, and leads to easier analysis and implementation, than prior research. We obtain closed form expressions for the

  15. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...

  16. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by fo- cussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a

  17. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis; Camurri, Antonio; Costa, Cristina

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer and

  18. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Reidsma, Dennis; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Volpe, G; Kolkmeier, Jan; Camurri, A.; Kolkmeier, Jan; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer

  19. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  20. Single reusable spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design of a my single person reusable spacecraft. It can carry one person and it has to be dropped from an aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 - 45,000 feet. Can be...

  1. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! ... Author Affiliations. Kankan Bhattacharyya1. Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 India.

  2. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.

  3. Beyond the Single Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Yekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of world literature have the opportunity to help students explore the more complex reality behind the stereotypes that they often see in the media. If we don't encourage students to challenge one-dimensional "single stories" that characterize an entire people--whether Muslims, Russians, Mexicans, African Americans, Chinese,…

  4. Single Nutrients and Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    HA antibody re- sponses. sponse after the administration of Salmonella Rats fed a riboflavin-deficient diet showed pullorum antigens, although no...pools of thymi- rats with severe folic acid deficiency after dine triphosphate and deoxyadenosine tri- inoculation with formalinized R. tiphi in...antigens. with Salmonella typhimurium ( 15 1). Chevalier and Aschkenasy (147) found that Newberne and colleagues (152-155) also a 7% dietary content of

  5. End-joining long nucleic acid polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Hout, M.; Hage, S.; Dekker, C.; Dekker, N.H.

    2008-01-01

    Many experiments involving nucleic acids require the hybridization and ligation of multiple DNA or RNA molecules to form a compound molecule. When one of the constituents is single stranded, however, the efficiency of ligation can be very low and requires significant individually tailored

  6. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Len, E-mail: len@ksc.kwansei.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Toyoaki [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins.

  7. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Kobayashi, Toyoaki; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins

  8. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  9. A Comparative Study of the Radical-scavenging Activity of the Phenolcarboxylic Acids Caffeic Acid, p-Coumaric Acid, Chlorogenic Acid and Ferulic Acid, With or Without 2-Mercaptoethanol, a Thiol, Using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolcarboxylic acid antioxidants do not act in vivo as radical-scavengers in isolation, but rather together with GSH (glutathione, a coantioxidant, they constitute an intricate antioxidant network. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid with or without 2-mercaptoethanol (ME, as a substitute for GSH, was investigated by the induction period (IP method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, a source of alkyl radicals, R. and benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a source of peroxy radicals, PhCOO. using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Upon PhCOO. radical scavenging, the stoichiometric factors (n, number of free radical trapped by one mole of antioxidant for caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid were 2.4, 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9, whereas upon R. radical scavenging, the corresponding values were 1.3, 1.2, 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Antioxidants with n values close to 2 suggest the stepwise formation of semiquinone radicals and quinones. By contrast, those with n values close to 1 suggest the formation of dimers after single-electron oxidation, possibly due to recombination of corresponding aryloxy radicals. The ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (kinh/kp declined in the order chlorogenic acid > p-coumaric acid > ferulic acid > caffeic acid. The ratio of the observed IP for the phenolcarboxylic acid/2-mercapto-ethanol (ME mixture (1:1 molar ratio (A to the calculated IP (the simple sum of phenol acid antioxidant and ME (B was investigated. Upon R. scavenging, the caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid/ME mixture was A/B > 1, particularly the former was 1.2, suggesting a synergic effect. By contrast, upon PhCOO. scavenging, the corresponding mixture was A/B < 1, particularly the latter was 0.7, suggesting an antagonistic effect. Upon both radicals scavenging, the A/B for the ferulic acid or chlorogenic acid

  10. Watching single molecules dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amit Dinesh

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy, from ATP hydrolysis or ion flow, into mechanical motion. A variety of increasingly precise mechanical probes have been developed to monitor and perturb these motors at the single molecule level. Several outstanding questions can be best approached at the single molecule level. These include: how far does a motor progress per energy quanta consumed? how does its reaction cycle respond to load? how many productive catalytic cycles can it undergo per diffusional encounter with its track? and what is the mechanical stiffness of a single molecule connection? A dual beam optical trap, in conjunction with in vitro ensemble motility assays, has been used to characterize two members of the myosin superfamily: muscle myosin II and chick brain myosin V. Both move the helical polymer actin, but myosin II acts in large ensembles to drive muscle contraction or cytokinesis, while myosin V acts in small numbers to transport vesicles. An optical trapping apparatus was rendered sufficiently precise to identify a myosin working stroke with 1nm or so, barring systematic errors such as those perhaps due to random protein orientations. This and other light microscopic motility assays were used to characterize myosin V: unlike myosin II this vesicle transport protein moves through many increments of travel while remaining strongly bound to a single actin filament. The step size, stall force, and travel distance of myosin V reveal a remarkably efficient motor capable of moving along a helical track for over a micrometer without significantly spiraling around it. Such properties are fully consistent with the putative role of an organelle transport motor, present in small numbers to maintain movement over long ranges relative to cellular size scales. The contrast between myosin II and myosin V resembles that between a human running on the moon and one walking on earth, where the former allows for faster motion when in larger ensembles but for less

  11. Single Purpose Satellite Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Warren

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the need for tactically responsive space systems capable of supporting battlefield and fleet commanders. Terminology used to describe this category of satellite system varies according to organization or agency. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Lightsat, the Naval Space Command's SPINSAT, and the Air Force Space Command s TACSAT, are reviewed. The United State Space Command's space support mission IS addressed and the role single-purpose satellites can play ...

  12. Single rotor turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  13. Nanopore sensors for nucleic acid analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Jonathan J; Akeson, Mark; Marziali, Andre

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade, nanometre-scale pores have been explored as the basis for technologies to analyse and sequence single nucleic acid molecules. Most approaches involve using such a pore to localize single macromolecules and interact with them to garner some information on their composition. Though nanopore sensors cannot yet claim success at deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing, nanopore-based technologies offer one of the most promising approaches to single molecule detection and analysis. The majority of experimental work with nanopore detection of nucleic acids has involved the α-haemolysin (alpha-HL) ion channel a heptameric protein with a ∼2 nm diameter inner pore which allows translocation of single-stranded DNA. Analysis of externally induced ion current through the pore during its interaction with DNA can provide information about the DNA molecule, including length and base composition. This review focuses on alpha-HL and its applications to single-molecule detection. Modified alpha-HL and other biological and synthetic pores for macromolecule detection are also discussed, along with a brief summary of relevant theoretical work and numerical modelling of polymer-pore interaction. (topical review)

  14. Ascorbic acid in bronchial asthma | Anderson | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen White children with bronchial asthma were divided into two groups; one received standard antiasthma chemoprophylaxis (SAC) and the other SAC supplemented with 1 g ascorbic acid (Redoxon) given as a single daily dose for a 6-month period. In 10 patients the effects of ascorbic acid on exerciseinduced ...

  15. Theoretical studies of ethylnitrolic acid using Gaussian | Nikafshar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tautomerism of all possible forms of ethylnitrolic acid was investigated theoretically in various environment including gas phase, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water. The calculations were carried out at DFT/B3LYP and MP2 of theory singly. It was found that, form of B eythynitrolic acid is the most stable isomer ...

  16. Interactive Hangman Teaches Amino Acid Structures and Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Britney O.; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying…

  17. Nanopore analytics: sensing of single molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howorka, Stefan; Siwy, Zuzanna

    2009-08-01

    In nanopore analytics, individual molecules pass through a single nanopore giving rise to detectable temporary blockades in ionic pore current. Reflecting its simplicity, nanopore analytics has gained popularity and can be conducted with natural protein as well as man-made polymeric and inorganic pores. The spectrum of detectable analytes ranges from nucleic acids, peptides, proteins, and biomolecular complexes to organic polymers and small molecules. Apart from being an analytical tool, nanopores have developed into a general platform technology to investigate the biophysics, physicochemistry, and chemistry of individual molecules (critical review, 310 references).

  18. Combining eicosapentaenoic acid, decosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, using a fully crossed design, affect gene expression and eicosanoid secretion in salmon head kidney cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Elisabeth; He, Juyun; Espe, Marit; Chen, Liqiou; Araujo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Future feed for farmed fish are based on untraditional feed ingredients, which will change nutrient profiles compared to traditional feed based on marine ingredients. To understand the impact of oils from different sources on fish health, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were added to salmon head kidney cells, in a fully crossed design, to monitor their individual and combined effects on gene expression. Exposing salmon head kidney cells to single fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA) or decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), resulted in down-regulation of cell signaling pathway genes and specific fatty acid metabolism genes as well as reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) had no impact on gene transcription in this study, but reduced the cell secretion of PGE2. The combined effect of AA + EPA resulted in up-regulation of eicosanoid pathway genes and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Bclx (an inducer of apoptosis) and fatty acid translocase (CD36) as well as increased cell secretion of PGE2 into the media. Adding single fatty acids to salmon head kidney cells decreased inflammation markers in this model. The combination AA + EPA acted differently than the rest of the fatty acid combinations by increasing the inflammation markers in these cells. The concentration of fatty acid used in this experiment did not induce any lipid peroxidation responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Broumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

  20. Interactive Hangman teaches amino acid structures and abbreviations

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, BO; Sears, D; Clegg, DO

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 42(6):495-500, 2014. We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying structures, hints to the answers were written in "amino acid sentences" f...

  1. Isolation of aquatic yeasts with the ability to neutralize acidic media, from an extremely acidic river near Japan's Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuya, Daisuke; Hayashi, Takuya; Wang, Yu; Tanaka, Mami; Okai, Masahiko; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2017-07-01

    The Yukawa River is an extremely acidic river whose waters on the east foot of the Kusatu-Shirane Volcano (in Gunma Prefecture, Japan) contain sulfate ions. Here we isolated many acid-tolerant yeasts from the Yukawa River, and some of them neutralized an acidic R2A medium containing casamino acid. Candida fluviatilis strain CeA16 had the strongest acid tolerance and neutralizing activity against the acidic medium. To clarify these phenomena, we performed neutralization tests with strain CeA16 using casamino acid, a mixture of amino acids, and 17 single amino acid solutions adjusted to pH 3.0, respectively. Strain CeA16 neutralized not only acidic casamino acid and the mixture of amino acids but also some of the acidic single amino acid solutions. Seven amino acids were strongly decomposed by strain CeA16 and simultaneously released ammonium ions. These results suggest strain CeA16 is a potential yeast as a new tool to neutralize acidic environments. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Profiling of Omega 3 fatty acids from marine green algae Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami Seeralan; Murugesan S.; Narender Sivaswamy S

    2016-01-01

    The applications of Omega-3 fatty acids for human health are rapidly expanding, which necessitates exploring alternative sources of fish. Single cell oils are now widely accepted in the market place and there is a growing awareness of the health benefits of PUFAs, such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (ARA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The high prevalence of chronic diseases worldwide indicates the requirement for alternative sources of omega 3 f...

  3. Crystallization and mechanical properties of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jing; Iftekharul Haque, Rubaiyet; Larsen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes were purified and functionalized by nitric acid and octadecylamine. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the functionalization of the single-walled carbon nanotubes. Polyvinylidene flouride nanocomposites containing 1 wt......% purified or functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared by solution blending and injection molding. The dispersion of different carbon nanotubes in dimethylformamide and in polyvinylidene flouride has been investigated. Mechanical properties show that adding single-walled carbon nanotubes...

  4. Spectrally resolved single-molecule electrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, F.; Krishnan, M.

    2018-03-01

    Escape-time electrometry is a recently developed experimental technique that offers the ability to measure the effective electrical charge of a single biomolecule in solution with sub-elementary charge precision. The approach relies on measuring the average escape-time of a single charged macromolecule or molecular species transiently confined in an electrostatic fluidic trap. Comparing the experiments with the predictions of a mean-field model of molecular electrostatics, we have found that the measured effective charge even reports on molecular conformation, e.g., folded or disordered state, and non-uniform charge distribution in disordered proteins or polyelectrolytes. Here we demonstrate the ability to use the spectral dimension to distinguish minute differences in electrical charge between individual molecules or molecular species in a single simultaneous measurement, under identical experimental conditions. Using one spectral channel for referenced measurement, this kind of photophysical distinguishability essentially eliminates the need for accurate knowledge of key experimental parameters, otherwise obtained through intensive characterization of the experimental setup. As examples, we demonstrate the ability to detect small differences (˜5%) in the length of double-stranded DNA fragments as well as single amino acid exchange in an intrinsically disordered protein, prothymosin α.

  5. Always single and single again women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K G; Moon, S

    1997-04-01

    What is it like to be a single woman today? Are the experiences of women who have always been single different from those who find themselves single again after having been married? How can family therapists promote the development of single women both individually and relationally? The purpose of this phenomenological, multiple-case study was to investigate perceptions of being single among heterosexual single women between the ages of 30 and 65. Nine focus group interviews and a semistructured, mailed questionnaire were used to collect the data. Constant comparative analyses were used to develop the findings. The findings were organized around the most salient theme that emerged from the analyses: single women have unresolved or unrecognized ambivalences about being single. This overarching theme was supported by three subassertions: (a) single women are aware of both the advantages and the drawbacks of being single; (b) single women are ambivalent about the reasons for their singleness; (c) although content with being single, many women simultaneously experience feelings of loss and grief. Implications for the clinical practice of family therapy and future research on single women are discussed.

  6. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.

  7. On the growth of calcium tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    menon, especially those involved in the gel technique. With an aim of controlling nucleation and improving the size, in the present study, we have grown pure calcium tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals using calcium formate mixed with formic acid as the supernatant solution. The grown crystals have been characterized by ...

  8. Detection of polymorphisms in leptin gene using single strand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student

    Sachs B1 variant. Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 405-406. Barroso, A., Dunner, S. & Cañon, J., 1998. Technical note: detection of bovine kappa-casein variants A, B,. C and E by means of Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation ...

  9. Simultaneous acquisition of three NMR spectra in a single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reduce the acquisition time of high-dimensional NMR spectra for metabolomics.8 The different fast NMR methods and their combinations developed during the past decade for proteins and nucleic acids such as single-scan NMR spectroscopy (ultrafast NMR),9–13. HADMARD encoding,14 reduced dimensional (RD). 1091 ...

  10. Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid between B. rapa and Orychophragmus violaceus by rapid chromosome evolution and introgression ... The lines with high productivity showed not only a wide spectrum of phenotypes but also obvious variations in fatty acid profiles of seed oil and glucosinolate ...

  11. Biochemical aspects of single-node cuttings of Ricinodendron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ricinodendron heudelotii (Njansang) is a valuable multipurpose tree species retained for domestication in Central and Western African regions. To measure the ability of rooting in relation with biochemical changes, basal single-node leafy cuttings were treated with different concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and ...

  12. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel method of purification for single-walled carbon nanotubes, prepared by an arc-discharge method, is described. The method involves a combination of acid washing followed by high temperature hydrogen treatment to remove the metal nanoparticles and amorphous carbon present in the as-synthesized singlewalled ...

  13. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  14. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  15. Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M.; Mitra, Robi D.

    2010-08-31

    Disclosed are improved methods of making and using immobilized arrays of nucleic acids, particularly methods for producing replicas of such arrays. Included are methods for producing high density arrays of nucleic acids and replicas of such arrays, as well as methods for preserving the resolution of arrays through rounds of replication. Also included are methods which take advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays for increased sensitivity in detection of sequences on arrays. Improved methods of sequencing nucleic acids immobilized on arrays utilizing single copies of arrays and methods taking further advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays are disclosed. The improvements lead to higher fidelity and longer read lengths of sequences immobilized on arrays. Methods are also disclosed which improve the efficiency of multiplex PCR using arrays of immobilized nucleic acids.

  16. Simultaneous detection of dopamine, ascorbic acid, and uric acid at electrochemically pretreated carbon nanotube biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwarappan, Subbiah; Liu, Guodong; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2010-02-01

    In this work we have evaluated the performance of electrochemically pretreated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) toward the electrochemical detection of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid at physiological pH. Results indicated that the electrochemically pretreated SWCNTs showed a selective and enhanced electroanalytical response with minimal electrode fouling toward the detection of dopamine than their untreated counterparts. The observed behavior is attributed to the negatively charged layer present on the SWCNTs originating from the rupture of the basal plane present on the end caps following electrochemical pretreatment. The rupture of basal plane is evident from surface Raman measurements. The negatively charged surface selectively allows the cationic dopamine toward the electrode and repels the anionic ascorbate and uric acid when they coexist in the same solution under physiological pH. A limit of detection of about 15 nM is obtained with these electrodes for the detection of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid. The performance of electrochemically pretreated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was studied toward the electrochemical detection of dopamine. These SWCNTs showed a selective and enhanced response toward the detection of dopamine. A limit of detection of about 15 nM is obtained with these electrodes for the detection of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Levulinic acid production by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica using dilute sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hanseob; Jang, Soo-Kyeong; Hong, Chang-Young; Kim, Seon-Hong; Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Soo Min; Choi, Joon Weon; Choi, In-Gyu

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to produce a levulinic acid by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica and to investigate the effect of treatment parameter (reaction temperature range: 100-230°C; sulfuric acid (SA) concentration range: 0-2%) on the levulinic acid yield. After 1 st step acid-catalyzed treatment, most of the hemicellulosic C5 sugars (15.6gg/100gbiomass) were released into the liquid hydrolysate at the reaction temperature of 150°C in 1% SA; the solid fraction, which contained 53.5% of the C6 sugars, was resistant to further loss of C6 sugars. Subsequently, 2 nd step acid-catalyzed treatment of the solid fractions was performed under more severe conditions. Finally, 16.5g/100g biomass of levulinic acid was produced at the reaction temperature of 200°C in 2% SA, corresponding to a higher conversion rate than during single-step treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computer systems for annotation of single molecule fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David Charles; Severin, Jessica

    2016-07-19

    There are provided computer systems for visualizing and annotating single molecule images. Annotation systems in accordance with this disclosure allow a user to mark and annotate single molecules of interest and their restriction enzyme cut sites thereby determining the restriction fragments of single nucleic acid molecules. The markings and annotations may be automatically generated by the system in certain embodiments and they may be overlaid translucently onto the single molecule images. An image caching system may be implemented in the computer annotation systems to reduce image processing time. The annotation systems include one or more connectors connecting to one or more databases capable of storing single molecule data as well as other biomedical data. Such diverse array of data can be retrieved and used to validate the markings and annotations. The annotation systems may be implemented and deployed over a computer network. They may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interactions.

  19. Single photons on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangier, P.; Abram, I.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  20. Single-borehole techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Moser, H.; Trimborn, P.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.) [de