Sample records for single isolated convective

  1. Single-mode theory of diffusive layers in thermohaline convection (United States)

    Gough, D. O.; Toomre, J.


    A two-layer configuration of thermohaline convection is studied, with the principal aim of explaining the observed independence of the buoyancy-flux ratio on the stability parameter when the latter is large. Temperature is destabilizing and salinity is stabilizing, so diffusive interfaces separate the convecting layers. The convection is treated in the single-mode approximation, with a prescribed horizontal planform and wavenumber. Surveys of numerical solutions are presented for a selection of Rayleigh numbers R, stability parameters lambda and horizontal wavenumbers. The solutions yield a buoyancy flux ratio chi that is insensitive to lambda, in accord with laboratory experiments. However chi increases with increasing R, in contradiction to laboratory observations.

  2. Single Cell Isolation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu


    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that the heterogeneity of individual cells within a genetically identical population can be critical to their peculiar function and fate. Conventional cell based assays mainly analysis the average responses from a population cells, while the difference within individual cells may often be masked. The cell size, RNA transcripts and protein expression level are quite different within individual cells and these variations are key point to answer the problems in cancer, neurobiology, stem cell biology, immunology and developmental biology. To better understand the cell-to-cell variations, the single cell analysis can provide much more detailed information which may be helpful for therapeutic decisions in an increasingly personalized medicine. In this review, we will focus on the recent development in single cell analysis, including methods used in single cell isolation, analysis and some application examples. The review provides the historical background to single cell analysis, discusses limitations, and current and future possibilities in this exciting field of research.

  3. Visualization of Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Single Sphere using the Electroplating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Young; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    The natural convective flows on outer sphere rise along surface. At top of sphere, the flows are lifted-up plume shape. For laminar flows, the local heat transfer shows maximum at the bottom of sphere and a monotonic decreases as flows approached to the top. The laminar natural convection heat transfer on a single sphere has been studied experimentally and numerically by several researchers. However, relatively less study has been performed for turbulent flows as it requires large facilities to achieve high Rayleigh numbers. The flows, which occur transition, is hard to experiment because of unstable. This study tried measurement of heat transfer and visualization external natural convection on a single sphere. The basic idea is that the plating patterns of copper on the sphere in mass transfer system will reveal the amount of heat transfer according to angular distance from the bottom. This study simulated natural convection on a single sphere and performed a mass transfer experiment using heat and mass transfer analogy concept. For visualization experiment, streak form plating pattern was observed. In this case, it seems that turbulence sets on the top of sphere and increases local heat transfer.

  4. Technologies for Single-Cell Isolation. (United States)

    Gross, Andre; Schoendube, Jonas; Zimmermann, Stefan; Steeb, Maximilian; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter


    The handling of single cells is of great importance in applications such as cell line development or single-cell analysis, e.g., for cancer research or for emerging diagnostic methods. This review provides an overview of technologies that are currently used or in development to isolate single cells for subsequent single-cell analysis. Data from a dedicated online market survey conducted to identify the most relevant technologies, presented here for the first time, shows that FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorting) respectively Flow cytometry (33% usage), laser microdissection (17%), manual cell picking (17%), random seeding/dilution (15%), and microfluidics/lab-on-a-chip devices (12%) are currently the most frequently used technologies. These most prominent technologies are described in detail and key performance factors are discussed. The survey data indicates a further increasing interest in single-cell isolation tools for the coming years. Additionally, a worldwide patent search was performed to screen for emerging technologies that might become relevant in the future. In total 179 patents were found, out of which 25 were evaluated by screening the title and abstract to be relevant to the field.

  5. Marangoni Convection Assisted Single Molecule Detection with Nanojet Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Chang, Te-Wei; Wang, Xinhao; Mahigir, Amirreza; Veronis, Georgios; Liu, Gang Logan; Gartia, Manas Ranjan


    Many single-molecule (SM) label-free techniques such as scanning probe microscopies (SPM) and magnetic force spectroscopies (MFS) provide high resolution surface topography information, but lack chemical information. Typical surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) systems provide chemical information on the analytes, but lack spatial resolution. In addition, a challenge in SERS sensors is to bring analytes into the so-called "hot spots" (locations where the enhancement of electromagnetic field amplitude is larger than 10 3 ). Previously described methods of fluid transport around hot spots like thermophoresis, thermodiffusion/Soret effect, and electrothermoplasmonic flow are either too weak or detrimental in bringing new molecules to hot spots. Herein, we combined the resonant plasmonic enhancement and photonic nanojet enhancemnet of local electric field on nonplanar SERS structures, to construct a stable, high-resolution, and below diffraction limit platform for single molecule label-free detection. In addition, we utilize Marangoni convection (mass transfer due to surface tension gradient) to bring new analytes into the hotspot. An enhancement factor of ∼3.6 × 10 10 was obtained in the proposed system. Rhodamine-6G (R6G) detection of up to a concentration of 10 -12 M, an improvement of two orders of magnitude, was achieved using the nanojet effect. The proposed system could provide a simple, high throughput SERS system for single molecule analysis at high spatial resolution.

  6. On the Initiation of an Isolated Convective Storm Near the Central Urban Area of Beijing Metropolitan Region (United States)

    LI, H.; Cui, X.; Zhang, D. L.


    An isolated heavy-rain-producing convective storm was unexpectedly initiated in the early afternoon of 9 August 2011 near the central urban area of Beijing metropolitan region (BMR), which occurred at some distance from BMR's northwestern mountains and two pre-existing mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) to the north and west, respectively. An observational analysis shows the presence of large-scale quasi-geostrophic conditions but a favorable regional environment for the convective initiation (CI) of storms, including conditional instability, a low-level southerly flow and high-θe (equivalent potential temperature) area. A nested-grid (4/1.333 km) cloud-resolving model simulation of the case is performed to examine the CI of the storm. Results reveal that the growth of the mixed boundary layer, enhanced by the urban heat island (UHI) effects, accounts for the formation of a thin layer of clouds at the boundary-layer top at the CI site. However, this storm may not take place without sustained low-level convergence of high-θe air between a southerly flow and a northerly flow ahead of a cold outflow boundary associated with the northern MCS. The latter is driven by the latent heating of the shallow layer of clouds during the earlier CI stage and then a cold mesohigh associated with the northern MCS. The results indicate the important roles of the urban effects, mountain morphology, and convectively generated pressure perturbations in determining the CI location and timing of isolated convective storms over the BMR during the summer months.

  7. Effectiveness of convective drying to conserve indigenous yeasts with high volatile profile isolated from algerian fermented raw bovine milk (Rayeb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract Yeasts Candida tropicalis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saprochaete suaveolens and Trichosporon coremiiforme were isolated and identified by physiological, biochemical tests with API 20C AUX system and molecular methods by restriction fragment analysis of PCR-amplified 28S-rRNA from Algerian fermented raw bovine milk (Rayeb. Selected yeasts S. suaveolens, I. orientalis, K. marxianus and W. anomalus produced esters and higher esters which can exert a pertinent influence on the sensory characteristics of Rayeb. Viability of S. suaveolens and W. anomalus using three methods of drying (freeze-drying, convective drying, and spray-drying and during 4 months of storage at 4 °C and 25 °C in the darkness was studied. Immediately after each drying method, high survival was obtained using freeze-drying followed by convective drying in rice cakes and spray-drying respectively. During storage at 4 °C, convective drying provided better survival of yeast cultures of S. suaveolens and W. anomalus than freeze-drying. At 25 °C of storage, convective and freeze-dried yeast cultures showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 2 months of storage. Spray-dried yeast cultures had the greatest loss of viable count during the 3 months of storage at 25 °C.

  8. Can the heat transfer coefficients for single-phase flow and for convective flow boiling be equivalent? (United States)

    Dorao, C. A.; Drewes, S.; Fernandino, M.


    During the past few decades, heat transfer during convective flow boiling inside pipes has been widely studied with the goal of unveiling the physics of the process. Different heat transfer mechanisms have been suggested based on different assumptions. This fact has resulted in a large number of models including different dimensionless numbers and in some cases up to a dozen of adjusted parameters. Here, we show that the convective flow boiling heat transfer coefficient is equivalent to the one for single-phase flow when the influence of the vapour velocity is taken into account.

  9. A note on similarity in single-phase and porous-medium natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyall, H.G.


    The similarity laws for single-phase and porous-medium natural convection are developed. For single-phase flow Nu = Nu(Ra) implies that inertial effects are negligible, while Nu = Nu(Ra.Pr) implies that viscous effects are. The first correlation is adequate for Pr>10, while the second applies for Pr<0.01. For intermediate values of Pr, a more general correlation, Nu = Nu(Ra,Pr) is necessary. For a porous-medium, if inertial effects and dispersion are negligible, Nu* = Nu*(Ra*). However dispersion will only be negligible if the ratio of grain size d to the width of the region L is very small (d/L<< l). If this condition does not hold it is necessary to model d/L. If inertial effects are significant, i.e. the Reynolds number is too large for Darcy's law to apply, a group containing the effective Prandtl number, Pr*, also needs to be modelled for similarity. (author)

  10. Silicon Dioxide Thin Film Mediated Single Cell Nucleic Acid Isolation (United States)

    Bogdanov, Evgeny; Dominova, Irina; Shusharina, Natalia; Botman, Stepan; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Patrushev, Maksim


    A limited amount of DNA extracted from single cells, and the development of single cell diagnostics make it necessary to create a new highly effective method for the single cells nucleic acids isolation. In this paper, we propose the DNA isolation method from biomaterials with limited DNA quantity in sample, and from samples with degradable DNA based on the use of solid-phase adsorbent silicon dioxide nanofilm deposited on the inner surface of PCR tube. PMID:23874571

  11. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribando, R.J.


    A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for a single-phase natural convection test in an experimental sodium loop. The test was conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium loop at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during the test was typical of decay heat levels. The test chosen for analysis in this paper was one of seven natural convection runs conducted in the facility using a variety of initial conditions and testing parameters. Specifically, in this test the bypass line was open to simulate a parallel heated assembly and the test was begun with a pump coastdown from a small initial forced flow. The computer program used to analyze the test, LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection) is an ORNL-developed, fast-running, one-dimensional, single-phase, finite-difference model used for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop

  12. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribando, R.J.


    A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for a single-phase natural convection test in an experimental sodium loop. The test was conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium loop at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during the test was typical of decay heat levels. The test chosen for analysis in this paper was one of seven natural convection runs conducted in the facility using a variety of initial conditions and testing parameters. Specifically, in this test the bypass line was open to simulate a parallel heated assembly and the test was begun with a pump coastdown from a small initial forced flow. The computer program used to analyze the test, LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection) is an ORNL-developed, fast-running, one-dimensional, single-phase, finite-difference model used for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop.

  13. On the prediction of single-phase forced convection heat transfer in narrow rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghione, Alberto; Noel, Brigitte; Vinai, Paolo; Demazière, Christophe


    In this paper, selected heat transfer correlations for single-phase forced convection are assessed for the case of narrow rectangular channels. The work is of interest in the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), which is a research reactor under construction at CEA-Cadarache (France). In order to evaluate the validity of the correlations, about 300 tests from the SULTAN-JHR database were used. The SULTAN-JHR program was carried out at CEA-Grenoble and it includes different kinds of tests for two different vertical rectangular channels with height of 600 mm and gap of 1.51 and 2.16 mm. The experimental conditions range between 2 - 9 bar for the pressure; 0.5 - 18 m/s for the coolant velocity and 0.5 - 7.5 MW/m 2 for the heat flux (whose axial distribution is uniform). Forty-two thermocouples and eight pressure taps were placed at several axial locations, measuring wall temperature and pressure respectively. The analysis focused on turbulent flow with Reynolds numbers between 5.5 x 10 3 - 2.4 x 10 5 and Prandtl numbers between 1.5 - 6. It was shown that standard correlations as the Dittus-Boelter and Seider-Tate significantly under-estimate the heat transfer coefficient, especially at high Reynolds number. Other correlations specifically designed for narrow rectangular channels were also taken into account and compared. The correlation of Popov-Petukhov in the form suggested by Siman-Tov still under-estimates the heat transfer coefficient, even if slight improvements could be seen. A better agreement for the tests with gap equal to 2.16 mm could be found with the correlation of Ma and the one of Liang. However the heat transfer coefficient when the gap is equal to 1.51 mm could not be predicted accurately. Furthermore these correlations were based on data at low Reynolds numbers (up to 13000) and low heat flux, so the use of them for SULTAN-JHR may be questionable. According to the authors’ knowledge, existing models of heat transfer

  14. Distribution and Variability of Satellite-Derived Signals of Isolated Convection Initiation Events Over Central Eastern China (United States)

    Huang, Yipeng; Meng, Zhiyong; Li, Jing; Li, Wanbiao; Bai, Lanqiang; Zhang, Murong; Wang, Xi


    This study combined measurements from the Chinese operational geostationary satellite Fengyun-2E (FY-2E) and ground-based weather radars to conduct a statistical survey of isolated convection initiation (CI) over central eastern China (CEC). The convective environment in CEC is modulated by the complex topography and monsoon climate. From May to August 2010, a total of 1,630 isolated CI signals were derived from FY-2E using a semiautomated method. The formation of these satellite-derived CI signals peaks in the early afternoon and occurs with high frequency in areas with remarkable terrain inhomogeneity (e.g., mountain, water, and mountain-water areas). The high signal frequency areas shift from northwest CEC (dry, high altitude) in early summer to southeast CEC (humid, low altitude) in midsummer along with an increasing monthly mean frequency. The satellite-derived CI signals tend to have longer lead times (the time difference between satellite-derived signal formation and radar-based CI) in the late morning and afternoon than in the early morning and night. During the early morning and night, the distinction between cloud top signatures and background terrestrial radiation becomes less apparent, resulting in delayed identification of the signals and thus short and even negative lead times. A decline in the lead time is observed from May to August, likely due to the increasing cloud growth rate and warm-rain processes. Results show increasing lead times with increasing landscape elevation, likely due to more warm-rain processes over the coastal sea and plain, along with a decreasing cloud growth rate from hill and mountain to the plateau.

  15. Single layer solar drying behaviour of Citrus aurantium leaves under forced convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Mohamed, L.; Lahsasni, S. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Marrakech (Morocco). Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et des Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales; Unite de Chimie Agroalimentaire, Marrakech (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences Semlalia; Kouhila, M.; Jamali, A. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Marrakech (Morocco). Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et des Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales; Kechaou, N. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (Tunisia); Mahrouz, M. [Unite de Chimie Agroalimentaire, Marrakech (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences Semlalia


    Convective solar drying experiments in thin layers of Citrus aurantium leaves grown in Marrakech, morocco, were conducted. An indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for the experiments. The air temperature was varied from 50 to 60{sup o}C; the relative humidity from 41% to 53%; and the drying air flow rate from 0.0277 to 0.0833 m{sup 3}/s. Thirteen statistical models, which are semi-theoretical and/or empirical, were tested for fitting the experimental data. A nonlinear regression analysis using a statistical computer program was used to evaluate the constants of the models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to be the most suitable for describing the solar drying curves of Citrus aurantium leaves with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.99998, chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) of 4.664 x 10{sup -6} and MBE of 4.8381 x 10{sup -4}. (author)

  16. Isolating and moving single atoms using silicon nanocrystals (United States)

    Carroll, Malcolm S.


    A method is disclosed for isolating single atoms of an atomic species of interest by locating the atoms within silicon nanocrystals. This can be done by implanting, on the average, a single atom of the atomic species of interest into each nanocrystal, and then measuring an electrical charge distribution on the nanocrystals with scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) or electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) to identify and select those nanocrystals having exactly one atom of the atomic species of interest therein. The nanocrystals with the single atom of the atomic species of interest therein can be sorted and moved using an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The method is useful for forming nanoscale electronic and optical devices including quantum computers and single-photon light sources.

  17. Effect of Convection on the Isothermal Coupled Peritectic Solidification in the Single Crystal Superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jiho; Sung, Changhoon; Lee, Jehyun [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jongho [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co. Ltd, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Seongmoon [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)


    The γ/γ´ two-phase growth commonly observed at γ interdendritic regions in Ni-base superalloys is known to be the eutectic microstructure. However, it is still unclear whether this is due to a eutectic or peritectic reaction. Directional solidification experiments of the Ni-base superalloy CMSX-10 were performed at low solidification rates in order to induce the coupled growth of γ/γ´ phases and to investigate their growth behavior. The γ and γ´ phases were found to grow simultaneously, maintaining an isothermal interface. Directional solidification experiments in a thin tube (0.8 mm ID) suggest that convection enhances the formation of two phase peritectic growth with a planar interface and the γ/γ´ might be the couped peritectic.

  18. Single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a nearly uniform heat flux boundary condition in microchannels

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Man


    A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, is utilized to study single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a waferbond-and-etch- back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors are encapsulated in a thin composite membrane capping the microchannels, thus allowing experimentally good control of the thermal boundary conditions. A three-dimensional physical model has been constructed to facilitate numerical simulations of the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that upstream the cold working fluid absorbs heat, while, within the current operating conditions, downstream the warmer working fluid releases heat. The Nusselt number is computed numerically and compared with experimental and analytical results. The wall Nusselt number in a microchannel can be estimated using classical analytical solutions only over a limited range of the Reynolds number, Re: both the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 4 for Re < 1, while the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 0 and 5.3, respectively, for Re > 100. The experimentally estimated Nusselt number for forced convection is highly sensitive to the location of the temperature measurements used in calculating the Nusselt number. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Convective transfers; Transferts convectifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accary, G.; Raspo, I.; Bontoux, P. [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ. Paul Cezanne, CNRS, Lab. MSNM-GP UMR 6181, 13 - Marseille (France); Zappoli, B. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France); Polidori, G.; Fohanno, S. [Laboratoire de Thermomecanique, 51 - Reims (France); Hirata, S.C.; Goyeau, B.; Gobin, D. [Paris-6 et Paris-11 Univ., FAST-UMR CNRS 7608, 91 - Orsay (France); Cotta, R.M. [UFRJ/LTTC/PEM/EE/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Perrin, L.; Reulet, P.; Micheli, F.; Millan, P. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 31 - Toulouse (France); Menard, V. [France Telecom R and D, 22 - Lannion (France); Benkhelifa, A.; Penot, F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d' Aerotechnique (ENSMA), Lab. d' Etudes Thermiques, UMR CNRS 6608, 86 - Poitiers (France); Ng Wing Tin, M.; Haquet, J.F.; Journeau, C. [CEA Cadarache (DEN/DTN/STRI/LMA), Lab. d' Essais pour la Maitrise des Accidents Graves, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Naffouti, T.; Hammani, M.; Ben Maad, R. [Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Lab. d' Energetique et des Transferts Thermique et Massique, Dept. de Physique, Tunis (Tunisia); Zinoubi, J. [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Nabeul (Tunisia); Menard, V.; Le Masson, S.; Nortershauser, D. [France Telecom R and D, 22 - Lannion (France); Stitou, A.; Perrin, L.; Millan, P. [ONERA, 31 - Toulouse (France)


    exchange coefficient of a mobile cylinder impacted by a water jet - study of single-phase forced convection; second order modeling of the thermal field of an homogenous turbulence; numerical study of the effect of a periodical disturbance on the dynamical structure of the flow downstream of a descending step; numerical study of flows and heat transfers inside the air gap of a rotating machine; dynamical and thermal characteristics of boundary layers inside a turbulent Poiseuille flow with low flow rate ratio downstream of a T-junction; study of convective transfers at the inlet of a cylindrical tube with a low shape ratio (L/D = 8); experimental study of convective transfers in a rotor/stator system subjected to a air flux; correction of the strength and heat flux transferred by a moving cylinder between two parallel planes in Stokes-type regime; algebraic model for the forecasting of turbulent heat fluxes. (J.S.)

  20. Can isolated single black holes produce X-ray novae? (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Teraki, Yuto; Ioka, Kunihito


    Almost all black holes (BHs) and BH candidates in our Galaxy have been discovered as soft X-ray transients, so-called X-ray novae. X-ray novae are usually considered to arise from binary systems. Here, we propose that X-ray novae are also caused by isolated single BHs. We calculate the distribution of the accretion rate from interstellar matter to isolated BHs, and find that BHs in molecular clouds satisfy the condition of the hydrogen-ionization disc instability, which results in X-ray novae. The estimated event rate is consistent with the observed one. We also check an X-ray novae catalogue (Corral-Santana et al.) and find that 16/59 ˜ 0.27 of the observed X-ray novae are potentially powered by isolated BHs. The possible candidates include IGR J17454-2919, XTE J1908-094, and SAX J1711.6-3808. Near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic follow-ups can exclude companion stars for a BH census in our Galaxy.

  1. Effects of rolling on single-phase water forced convective heat transfer characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yanming; Gao Puzhen; Huang Zhen


    A series of single-phase forced circulation tests in a vertical tube with rolling motion were performed in order to investigate effects of rolling motion on thermal-hydraulic characteristics. The amplitudes of the rolling motion in the tests were 10 degree, 15 degree and 20 degree. The rolling periods were 7.5 s, 10 s, 15 s and 20 s. The Reynolds number was from 6000 to 15000. Heat transfer in the test tube is bated by the rolling motion. As the test-bed rolling more acutely, the heat transfer coefficient of the test tube becomes smaller when the mass flow rate in the test tube is a constant. The heat transfer coefficient calculated by the formula which is for stable state doesn't fit very well with that from experiments. At last a formula for calculating heat transfer in rolling motion was introduced. (authors)

  2. Isolated and Single Pedestrians and Pedestrian Groups on Sidewalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pinna


    Full Text Available Walking freedom can define the quality of an urban area, but this freedom is conditioned by various factors. The research objective is to study pedestrian behavior on sidewalks. Data are collected during on site surveys by means of concealed camcorders. For each pedestrian many factors are observed, such as gender, age, direction, distractions, transport of objects, etc., which could influence pedestrian behavior. Data processing allows the identification of mathematical models describing the average pedestrian’s behavior, subdivided for user type (isolated, single, group. In general, the mean walking pedestrian speed decreases depending on user type (in a linear manner if age class grows for isolated pedestrians, while with the square of age for other user types, of gender, and of facing type. Models obtained for the different pedestrian types were compared to understand the differences in speeds, underlining that pedestrian interferences play a significant role in defining behavior and, therefore, speed. The results support the idea that, to define a smooth pedestrian speed as an indicator of the “walkability” of a path, in addition to considering the path and user’s characteristics, it is also necessary to define the type of user for which the infrastructure is designed.

  3. Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hohenegger


    Full Text Available Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM. Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle.

    Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.

  4. Isolated EWiRaC: A New Low-Stress Single-Stage Isolated PFC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Bergendorff, Stefan Pihl; Petersen, Lars


    A new PFC-family of Efficient Wide Range Converters named EWiRaC was recently introduced. EWiRaC has a major advantage in terms of efficiency at low-line and handles challenges like inrush current limiting as an integrated part of the conversion scheme. The main objective of this paper is to inve......A new PFC-family of Efficient Wide Range Converters named EWiRaC was recently introduced. EWiRaC has a major advantage in terms of efficiency at low-line and handles challenges like inrush current limiting as an integrated part of the conversion scheme. The main objective of this paper...... is to investigate the performance of an isolated EWiRaC (I-EWiRaC) in a single-stage PFC configuration....

  5. A Single Switch Dual Output Non-Isolated Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel; Munk-Nielsen, Stig


    There are many applications for high gain dc-dc converters. In several of these applications galvanic isolation is not required, but there are some safety issues regarding missing isolation and leakage current. Usage of a half-bridge inverter and a dual dc-link may solve this issues. In this pape...

  6. Observing Convective Aggregation (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita


    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  7. Assessment of thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat of nanofluids in single phase laminar indernal forced convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.


    Nanofluids are considered for improving the heat exchange in forced convective flow. In literature, the benefit of nanofluids compared to the corresponding base fluid is represented by several figures-of-merit in which the heat transfer benefit and the cost of pumping the fluid are considered. These

  8. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography


    Böing, Anita N.; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk


    Background: Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively.Aim: To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids.Methods: Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet...

  9. Convective Propagation Characteristics Using a Simple Representation of Convective Organization (United States)

    Neale, R. B.; Mapes, B. E.


    Observed equatorial wave propagation is intimately linked to convective organization and it's coupling to features of the larger-scale flow. In this talk we a use simple 4 level model to accommodate vertical modes of a mass flux convection scheme (shallow, mid-level and deep). Two paradigms of convection are used to represent convective processes. One that has only both random (unorganized) diagnosed fluctuations of convective properties and one with organized fluctuations of convective properties that are amplified by previously existing convection and has an explicit moistening impact on the local convecting environment We show a series of model simulations in single-column, 2D and 3D configurations, where the role of convective organization in wave propagation is shown to be fundamental. For the optimal choice of parameters linking organization to local atmospheric state, a broad array of convective wave propagation emerges. Interestingly the key characteristics of propagating modes are the low-level moistening followed by deep convection followed by mature 'large-scale' heating. This organization structure appears to hold firm across timescales from 5-day wave disturbances to MJO-like wave propagation.

  10. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight DNA from single dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    For studying genetic diversity in populations of predatory coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera), our attempts to isolate high quality DNA from individual adult beetle using several previously reported protocols and even modifications were quite unsuccessful as the insect size was small ...

  11. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight DNA from single dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For studying genetic diversity in populations of predatory coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera), our attempts to isolate high quality DNA from individual adult beetle using several previously reported protocols and even modifications were quite unsuccessful as the insect size was small ...

  12. Isolation of Kupffer Cells and Hepatocytes from a Single Mouse Liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparicio-Vergara, Marcela; Tencerova, Michaela; Morgantini, Cecilia


    one viable hepatic cellular fraction from a single mouse; either parenchymal (hepatocytes) or non-parenchymal cells (i.e., Kupffer cells or hepatic stellate cells). Here, we describe a method to isolate both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells from a single mouse liver, thereby providing the unique......Liver perfusion is a common technique used to isolate parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells for in vitro experiments. This method allows hepatic cells to be separated based on their size and weight, by centrifugation using a density gradient. To date, other methods allow the isolation of only...... advantage of studying different liver cell types that have been isolated from the same organism....

  13. Multiflash X ray with Image Detanglement for Single Image Isolation (United States)


    conceived and developed to capture multiple flash X-rays on a single film or phosphor screen and digitally detangle the resulting image into separate images...capability was conceived and developed to capture multiple flash X-rays on a single film or phosphor screen and digitally detangle the resulting radiograph (ORAD); and 2) an appropriate averaging of the value of the pixels within the exposed region-of-interest on the ORAD needs to be

  14. Isolated paroxysmal dysarthria caused by a single demyelinating midbrain lesion. (United States)

    Codeluppi, Luca; Bigliardi, Guido; Chiari, Annalisa; Meletti, Stefano


    Paroxysmal dysarthria is an unusual condition characterised by brief episodes of dysarthria with the sudden onset and frequent recurrence. It has been mainly reported in multiple sclerosis and an association with midbrain lesions has been claimed; however, most of the reported patients had multiple brain alterations so it was difficult to associate this symptom with a specific lesion site. We illustrate the cases of two patients with an isolated demyelinating midbrain lesion presenting paroxysmal dysarthria as the only symptom; both participants had oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid and an unremarkable follow-up. Both patients had benefit from carbamazepine treatment, similarly to previously reported cases. Our report confirms that a demyelinating midbrain lesion is sufficient to provoke paroxysmal dysarthria. It is noteworthy that an erroneous diagnosis of psychogenic disorders was initially made in both cases, highlighting the importance not to underestimate isolated paroxysmal symptoms in clinical practice.

  15. Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. (United States)

    Chomczynski, P; Sacchi, N


    A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.

  16. Relationships among North American and Japanese Laetiporus isolates inferred from molecular phylogenetics and single-spore incompatibility reactions (United States)

    Mark T. Banik; Daniel L. Lindner; Yuko Ota; Tsutomu. Hattori


    Relationships were investigated among North American and Japanese isolates of Laetiporus using phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences and single-spore isolate incompatibility. Single-spore isolate pairings revealed no significant compatibility between North American and Japanese isolates. ITS analysis revealed 12 clades within the core ...

  17. The effects of isolated single umbilical artery on first and second trimester aneuploidy screening test parameters. (United States)

    Tulek, Firat; Kahraman, Alper; Taskin, Salih; Ozkavukcu, Esra; Soylemez, Feride


    Reliability of first and second trimester screening tests largely depends on accurate estimation of maternal serum marker values. Reduced reliability could lead redundant invasive tests or misdiagnosis. Adjustments of serum marker values for confounding factors like insulin-dependent diabetes, maternal weight or maternal rhesus status are essential. We aimed to investigate whether isolated single umbilical artery alters first and second trimester test parameters or not. Routine detailed obstetric ultrasonographies performed were retrospectively screened for this study. Among spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancies, women who were found to have single umbilical artery without any additional structural anomalies or aneuploidies were selected. First and second trimester screening test results were accessible for 98 and 102 of the cases with isolated single umbilical artery, respectively. Among first trimester screening test parameters, PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) MoMs were found significantly higher in isolated single umbilical artery group. AFP MoMs were found significantly elevated in isolated single umbilical artery group in second trimester quadruple tests. Existence of single umbilical artery could alter the estimation of MoM values of maternal serum markers. Reliability of prenatal screening tests could be improved by adjusting these parameters in accordance with isolated single umbilical artery.

  18. Dielectrophoretic immobilisation of nanoparticles as isolated singles in regular arrays (United States)

    Knigge, Xenia; Wenger, Christian; Bier, Frank F.; Hölzel, Ralph


    We demonstrate the immobilisation of polystyrene nanoparticles on vertical nano-electrodes by means of dielectrophoresis. The electrodes have diameters of 500 nm or 50 nm, respectively, and are arranged in arrays of several thousand electrodes, allowing many thousands of experiments in parallel. At a frequency of 15 kHz, which is found favourable for polystyrene, several occupation patterns are observed, and both temporary and permanent immobilisation is achieved. In addition, a histogram method is applied, which allows to determine the number of particles occupying the electrodes. These results are validated with scanning electron microscopy images. Immobilising exactly one particle at each electrode tip is achieved for electrode tip diameters with half the particle size. Extension of this system down to the level of single molecules is envisaged, which will avoid ensemble averaging at still statistically large sample sizes.

  19. Heat convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiji, L.M. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the following ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters. (orig.)

  20. Heat Convection (United States)

    Jiji, Latif M.

    Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the follow ing ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters.

  1. Single Spore Isolation as a Simple and Efficient Technique to obtain fungal pure culture (United States)

    Noman, E.; Al-Gheethi, AA; Rahman, N. K.; Talip, B.; Mohamed, R.; H, N.; Kadir, O. A.


    The successful identification of fungi by phenotypic methods or molecular technique depends mainly on the using an advanced technique for purifying the isolates. The most efficient is the single spore technique due to the simple requirements and the efficiency in preventing the contamination by yeast, mites or bacteria. The method described in the present work is depends on the using of a light microscope to transfer one spore into a new culture medium. The present work describes a simple and efficient procedure for single spore isolation to purify of fungi recovered from the clinical wastes.

  2. Label-free isolation and deposition of single bacterial cells from heterogeneous samples for clonal culturing


    J. Riba; T. Gleichmann; S. Zimmermann; R. Zengerle; P. Koltay


    The isolation and analysis of single prokaryotic cells down to 1??m and less in size poses a special challenge and requires micro-engineered devices to handle volumes in the picoliter to nanoliter range. Here, an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP) was applied for automated and label-free isolation and deposition of bacterial cells encapsulated in 35?pl droplets by inkjet-like printing. To achieve this, dispenser chips to generate micro droplets have been fabricated with nozzles 20??m in size....

  3. Single CD271 marker isolates mesenchymal stem cells from human dental pulp. (United States)

    Alvarez, Ruth; Lee, Hye-Lim; Hong, Christine; Wang, Cun-Yu


    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising tool in regenerative medicine due to their capacity to differentiate into multiple lineages. In addition to MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BMSCs), adult MSCs are isolated from craniofacial tissues including dental pulp tissues (DPs) using various stem cell surface markers. However, there has been a lack of consensus on a set of surface makers that are reproducibly effective at isolating putative multipotent dental mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs). In this study, we used different combinations of surface markers (CD51/CD140α, CD271, and STRO-1/CD146) to isolate homogeneous populations of DMSCs from heterogeneous dental pulp cells (DPCs) obtained from DP and compared their capacity to undergo multilineage differentiation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that 27.3% of DPCs were CD51(+)/CD140α(+), 10.6% were CD271(+), and 0.3% were STRO-1(+)/CD146(+). Under odontogenic conditions, all three subsets of isolated DMSCs exhibited differentiation capacity into odontogenic lineages. Among these isolated subsets of DMSCs, CD271(+) DMSCs demonstrated the greatest odontogenic potential. While all three combinations of surface markers in this study successfully isolated DMSCs from DPCs, the single CD271 marker presents the most effective stem cell surface marker for identification of DMSCs with high odontogenic potential. Isolated CD271(+) DMSCs could potentially be utilized for future clinical applications in dentistry and regenerative medicine.

  4. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature. (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre


    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Congenital heart defects in newborns with apparently isolated single gastrointestinal malformation: A retrospective study. (United States)

    Schierz, Ingrid Anne Mandy; Pinello, Giuseppa; Giuffrè, Mario; La Placa, Simona; Piro, Ettore; Corsello, Giovanni


    Congenital gastrointestinal system malformations/abdominal wall defects (GISM) may appear as isolated defects (single or complex), or in association with multiple malformations. The high incidence of association of GISM and congenital heart defects (CHD) in patients with syndromes and malformative sequences is known, but less expected is the association of apparently isolated single GISM and CHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of CHD in newborns with isolated GISM, and the possibility to modify the diagnostic-therapeutic approach just before the onset of cardiac symptoms or complications. Anamnestic, clinical, and imaging data of newborns requiring abdominal surgery for GISM, between 2009 and 2014, were compared with a control group of healthy newborns. Distribution of GISM and cardiovascular abnormalities were analyzed, and risk factors for adverse outcomes were identified. Seventy-one newborns with isolated GISM were included in this study. More frequent GISM were intestinal rotation and fixation disorders. CHD were observed in 15.5% of patients, augmenting their risk for morbidity. Risk factors for morbidity related to sepsis were identified in central venous catheter, intestinal stoma, and H2-inhibitor-drugs. Moreover, 28.2% of newborns presented only functional cardiac disorders but an unexpectedly higher mortality. The high incidence of congenital heart disease in infants with apparently isolated GISM confirms the need to perform an echocardiographic study before surgery to improve perioperative management and prevent complications such as sepsis and endocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coupled dynamic analysis of a single gimbal control moment gyro cluster integrated with an isolation system (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Li, Dongxu; Jiang, Jianping


    Control moment gyros (CMGs) are widely used as actuators for attitude control in spacecraft. However, micro-vibrations produced by CMGs will degrade the pointing performance of high-sensitivity instruments on-board the spacecraft. This paper addresses dynamic modelling and performs an analysis on the micro-vibration isolation for a single gimbal CMG (SGCMG) cluster. First, an analytical model was developed to describe both the coupled SGCMG cluster and the multi-axis isolation system that can express the dynamic outputs. This analytical model accurately reflects the mass and inertia properties, the gyroscopic effects and flexible modes of the coupled system, which can be generalized for isolation applications of SGCMG clusters. Second, the analytical model was validated using MSC.NASTRAN software based on the finite element technique. The dynamic characteristics of the coupled system are affected by the mass distribution and the gyroscopic effects of the SGCMGs. The gyroscopic effects produced by the rotary flywheel will stiffen or soften several of the structural modes of the coupled system. In addition, the gyroscopic effect of each SGCMG can interact with or counteract that of others, which induce vibration modes coupled together. Finally, the performance of the passive isolation was analysed. It was demonstrated that the gyroscopic effects should be considered in isolation studies on SGCMG clusters; otherwise, the isolation performance will be underestimated if they are ignored.

  7. Improved and Reproducible Flow Cytometry Methodology for Nuclei Isolation from Single Root Meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Cristina Ribeiro Silva


    Full Text Available Root meristems have increasingly been target of cell cycle studies by flow cytometric DNA content quantification. Moreover, roots can be an alternative source of nuclear suspension when leaves become unfeasible and for chromosome analysis and sorting. In the present paper, a protocol for intact nuclei isolation from a single root meristem was developed. This proceeding was based on excision of the meristematic region using a prototypical slide, followed by short enzymatic digestion and mechanical isolation of nuclei during homogenization with a hand mixer. Such parameters were optimized for reaching better results. Satisfactory nuclei amounts were extracted and analyzed by flow cytometry, producing histograms with reduced background noise and CVs between 3.2 and 4.1%. This improved and reproducible technique was shown to be rapid, inexpensive, and simple for nuclear extraction from a single root tip, and can be adapted for other plants and purposes.

  8. Small angle neutron scattering study of isolated single wall carbon nano tubes in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, Chang-Woo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Choi, Sung-Min; Kline, Steven R.


    As an effort to provide more practical approaches to a wide range of potential applications of carbon nano tubes, we report a new type of noncovalently functionalized isolated single-walled carbon nano tube(SWNT) which is easily dispersible in water by only ten minutes of mild vortex mixing. The structure and quality of dispersion have been investigated using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique

  9. Concurrent Isolation of 3 Distinct Cardiac Stem Cell Populations From a Single Human Heart Biopsy. (United States)

    Monsanto, Megan M; White, Kevin S; Kim, Taeyong; Wang, Bingyan J; Fisher, Kristina; Ilves, Kelli; Khalafalla, Farid G; Casillas, Alexandria; Broughton, Kathleen; Mohsin, Sadia; Dembitsky, Walter P; Sussman, Mark A


    The relative actions and synergism between distinct myocardial-derived stem cell populations remain obscure. Ongoing debates on optimal cell population(s) for treatment of heart failure prompted implementation of a protocol for isolation of multiple stem cell populations from a single myocardial tissue sample to develop new insights for achieving myocardial regeneration. Establish a robust cardiac stem cell isolation and culture protocol to consistently generate 3 distinct stem cell populations from a single human heart biopsy. Isolation of 3 endogenous cardiac stem cell populations was performed from human heart samples routinely discarded during implantation of a left ventricular assist device. Tissue explants were mechanically minced into 1 mm 3 pieces to minimize time exposure to collagenase digestion and preserve cell viability. Centrifugation removes large cardiomyocytes and tissue debris producing a single cell suspension that is sorted using magnetic-activated cell sorting technology. Initial sorting is based on tyrosine-protein kinase Kit (c-Kit) expression that enriches for 2 c-Kit + cell populations yielding a mixture of cardiac progenitor cells and endothelial progenitor cells. Flowthrough c-Kit - mesenchymal stem cells are positively selected by surface expression of markers CD90 and CD105. After 1 week of culture, the c-Kit + population is further enriched by selection for a CD133 + endothelial progenitor cell population. Persistence of respective cell surface markers in vitro is confirmed both by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Three distinct cardiac cell populations with individualized phenotypic properties consistent with cardiac progenitor cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells can be successfully concurrently isolated and expanded from a single tissue sample derived from human heart failure patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Specific single-cell isolation and genomic amplification of uncultured microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lasken, R.S.


    We in this study describe a new method for genomic studies of individual uncultured prokaryotic organisms, which was used for the isolation and partial genome sequencing of a soil archaeon. The diversity of Archaea in a soil sample was mapped by generating a clone library using group-specific pri......We in this study describe a new method for genomic studies of individual uncultured prokaryotic organisms, which was used for the isolation and partial genome sequencing of a soil archaeon. The diversity of Archaea in a soil sample was mapped by generating a clone library using group......-specific primers in combination with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profile. Intact cells were extracted from the environmental sample, and fluorescent in situ hybridization probing with Cy3-labeled probes designed from the clone library was subsequently used to detect the organisms...... of interest. Single cells with a bright fluorescent signal were isolated using a micromanipulator and the genome of the single isolated cells served as a template for multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using the Phi29 DNA polymerase. The generated MDA product was afterwards used for 16S rRNA gene...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Haghighi-Manesh


    Full Text Available Fish protein isolate wastage and ultra filtered cheese whey were used as substrates for fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus to produce single cell protein, under batch and aerobic condition in which pH and temperature were adjusted to 4.5 and 35°C. The produced biomass was analyzed for protein content in different periods of time during fermentation. About 82% and 75% of total protein was produced in the first 18 h of 96 h fermentation of ultra filtered cheese whey and protein isolate wastage respectively, which can be an indication of the exponential phase of the yeast growth. The results of biomass yield measurements during 96 h process also confirm this finding. Moreover, since ultra filtered cheese whey was higher in single cell protein yield, solubility, water holding capacity, water absorption and power of biological and chemical oxygen demand reduction, and also was lower in foam overrun and stability than fish protein isolate wastage, it was selected as the suitable substrate for single cell protein production.

  12. National Convective Weather Diagnostic (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  13. Convective heater (United States)

    Thorogood, Robert M.


    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  14. High step-up isolated efficient single switch DC-DC converter for renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gopi


    Full Text Available In this paper, an isolated high step-up single switch DC-DC converter for renewable energy source is proposed. In the proposed converter high step-up voltage is obtained by single power switching technique that operates low duty cycle with isolated transformer inductors and switched capacitors and power diodes. The disadvantage of conventional converters is that it has high duty ratio and high voltage stress on power devices with less efficiency. The proposed converter eliminates the switching losses and recycles the leakage energy which includes reverse recovery energy of the power diode by using passive clamp circuit. To achieve high output voltage gain, the isolated transformer primary terminal and secondary terminal are connected in series during switching operation. PSIM software has been used for simulation. Simulation circuit is analyzed at 40Vdc/400Vdc, 200 W and this operation is validated by implementing in the hardware model at 12Vdc/120Vdc, 60 W.

  15. Single isolated hadron response and determination of the jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vivarelli, I; The ATLAS collaboration


    The response of single isolated hadrons in the ATLAS calorimeter is measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC. Isolated tracks with a momentum between 0.5 to 10-20 GeV are selected in the rapidity region up to 2.3. Adjacent energy deposits collected in calorimeter clusters are summed together in a cone of size R=0.2. The measured calorimeter cluster energy sum is compared to the track momentum. Data are in compared in detail to Monte Carlo simulation based on the Geant4 tool-kit and to test-beam measurements. The response to hadrons at low momenta is described by the Monte Carlo simulation with an accuracy of a few percent. Together with test-beam data the results of the single isolated hadron analysis can be used to get a first estimate of the jet energy scale uncertainty in the ATLAS detector.

  16. Wavelet methodology to improve single unit isolation in primary motor cortex cells. (United States)

    Ortiz-Rosario, Alexis; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A


    The proper isolation of action potentials recorded extracellularly from neural tissue is an active area of research in the fields of neuroscience and biomedical signal processing. This paper presents an isolation methodology for neural recordings using the wavelet transform (WT), a statistical thresholding scheme, and the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm. The effectiveness of five different mother wavelets was investigated: biorthogonal, Daubachies, discrete Meyer, symmetric, and Coifman; along with three different wavelet coefficient thresholding schemes: fixed form threshold, Stein's unbiased estimate of risk, and minimax; and two different thresholding rules: soft and hard thresholding. The signal quality was evaluated using three different statistical measures: mean-squared error, root-mean squared, and signal to noise ratio. The clustering quality was evaluated using two different statistical measures: isolation distance, and L-ratio. This research shows that the selection of the mother wavelet has a strong influence on the clustering and isolation of single unit neural activity, with the Daubachies 4 wavelet and minimax thresholding scheme performing the best. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Vibration isolation systems, considered as systems with single degree of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebilila Mohammed


    Full Text Available The research considers and analyzes vibration isolation systems, whose design schemes are single degree of freedom systems, including nonlinear elements - displacement limiter and viscous damper. Presented are calculation formulas in closed form for linear systems in operational modes (for harmonic and impulse loads, algorithms and examples of calculation of linear and nonlinear systems in operational and transient modes. The calculation method and the above dependences are written using the transfer (TF and impulse response functions (IRF of linear dynamical systems and dependencies that determine the relationship between these functions. The effectiveness of 2 options of vibration isolation systems in transient modes is analyzed. There is significant reduction of load from the equipment to the supporting structures in the starting-stopping modes by the use of displacement limiter.

  18. Heat, Moisture, and Momentum Budgets of Isolated Deep Midlatitude and Tropical Convective Clouds as Diagnosed from Three-Dimensional Model Output. Part I: Control Experiments. (United States)

    Schlesinger, Robert E.


    This project uses a three-dimensional anelastic cloud model with a simple ice phase parameterization to evaluate the feedback between isolated deep convective clouds and their near surroundings. The horizontal Reynolds averaging approach of Anthes is adopted to diagnose the vertical profiles of the individual budget terms for heat, moisture, and horizontal momentum, as well as the resultant effects of each budget as defined by apparent sources or sinks. The averaging area, 33.75 km on a side, is comparable to one grid cell for typical mesoscale numerical weather prediction models.Two comparative simulations are run, one for a severe Oklahoma thunderstorm in strong vertical wind shear and the other for a tropical Atlantic cumulonimbus in much weaker shear. The midlatitude cloud evolves to a vigorous quasi-steady mature stage with several supercell characteristics including an erect large-diameter updraft, a strong and vertically extensive mesolow, and a well-developed highly asymmetric cold pool that spreads rapidly. In contrast, the tropical updraft is much narrower and slower with a shallow weak midlevel mesolow, leans markedly downshear, and evolves early into slow decay modulated by bubblelike pulsations, while the cold pool is weak and quasi-circular and spreads slowly.There are several similarities between corresponding budgets in the two runs. Most notably: 1) The heat and moisture budgets are dominated by condensation, which is maximized in the midtroposphere. 2) The horizontal pressure gradient force dominates the momentum budget. 3) Vertical eddy transport (flux divergence) is highly important to each budget. Thermodynamically, it acts to mainly cool and dry the lower troposphere, while warming and moistening the upper troposphere, though with a lower crossover level for moisture than for heat. 4) The altitudes of the peak apparent heat sources are determined by the vertical eddy transport of heat. 5) Net evaporation has 40% as much amplitude as the

  19. Bidispersive-inclined convection (United States)

    Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian


    A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934

  20. Isolation of dimorphic chloroplasts from the single-cell C4 species Bienertia sinuspersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung Shiu-Cheung


    Full Text Available Abstract Three terrestrial plants are known to perform C4 photosynthesis without the dual-cell system by partitioning two distinct types of chloroplasts in separate cytoplasmic compartments. We report herein a protocol for isolating the dimorphic chloroplasts from Bienertia sinuspersici. Hypo-osmotically lysed protoplasts under our defined conditions released intact compartments containing the central chloroplasts and intact vacuoles with adhering peripheral chloroplasts. Following Percoll step gradient purification both chloroplast preparations demonstrated high homogeneities as evaluated from the relative abundance of respective protein markers. This protocol will open novel research directions toward understanding the mechanism of single-cell C4 photosynthesis.

  1. Shape of isolated domains in lithium tantalate single crystals at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Baturin, I. S.; Chezganov, D. S.; Lobov, A. I.; Smirnov, M. M.


    The shape of isolated domains has been investigated in congruent lithium tantalate (CLT) single crystals at elevated temperatures and analyzed in terms of kinetic approach. The obtained temperature dependence of the growing domain shape in CLT including circular shape at temperatures above 190 °C has been attributed to increase of relative input of isotropic ionic conductivity. The observed nonstop wall motion and independent domain growth after merging in CLT as opposed to stoichiometric lithium tantalate have been attributed to difference in wall orientation. The computer simulation has confirmed applicability of the kinetic approach to the domain shape explanation

  2. Deciphering Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Evolutionary Trends in Isolates of the Cydia pomonella granulovirus. (United States)

    Wennmann, Jörg T; Radtke, Pit; Eberle, Karolin E; Gueli Alletti, Gianpiero; Jehle, Johannes A


    Six complete genome sequences of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) isolates from Mexico (CpGV-M and CpGV-M1), England (CpGV-E2), Iran (CpGV-I07 and CpGV-I12), and Canada (CpGV-S) were aligned and analyzed for genetic diversity and evolutionary processes. The selected CpGV isolates represented recently identified phylogenetic lineages of CpGV, namely, the genome groups A to E. The genomes ranged from 120,816 bp to 124,269 bp. Several common differences between CpGV-M, -E2, -I07, -I12 and -S to CpGV-M1, the first sequenced and published CpGV isolate, were highlighted. Phylogenetic analysis based on the aligned genome sequences grouped CpGV-M and CpGV-I12 as the most derived lineages, followed by CpGV-E2, CpGV-S and CpGV-I07, which represent the most basal lineages. All of the genomes shared a high degree of co-linearity, with a common setup of 137 (CpGV-I07) to 142 (CpGV-M and -I12) open reading frames with no translocations. An overall trend of increasing genome size and a decrease in GC content was observed, from the most basal lineage (CpGV-I07) to the most derived (CpGV-I12). A total number of 788 positions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined and used to create a genome-wide SNP map of CpGV. Of the total amount of SNPs, 534 positions were specific for exactly one of either isolate CpGV-M, -E2, -I07, -I12 or -S, which allowed the SNP-based detection and identification of all known CpGV isolates.

  3. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography (United States)

    Böing, Anita N.; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk


    Background Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively. Aim To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids. Methods Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet concentrates, was loaded on a sepharose CL-2B column to perform size-exclusion chromatography (SEC; n=3). Fractions were collected and analysed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and protein were measured in each fraction. Results Fractions 9–12 contained the highest concentrations of particles larger than 70 nm and platelet-derived vesicles (46%±6 and 61%±2 of totals present in all collected fractions, respectively), but less than 5% of HDL and less than 1% of protein (4.8%±1 and 0.65%±0.3, respectively). HDL was present mainly in fractions 18–20 (32%±2 of total), and protein in fractions 19–21 (36%±2 of total). Compared to the starting material, recovery of platelet-derived vesicles was 43%±23 in fractions 9–12, with an 8-fold and 70-fold enrichment compared to HDL and protein. Conclusions SEC efficiently isolates extracellular vesicles with a diameter larger than 70 nm from platelet-free supernatant of platelet concentrates. Application SEC will improve studies on the dimensional, structural and functional properties of extracellular vesicles. PMID:25279113

  4. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography. (United States)

    Böing, Anita N; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E; Coumans, Frank A W; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk


    Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively. To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids. Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet concentrates, was loaded on a sepharose CL-2B column to perform size-exclusion chromatography (SEC; n=3). Fractions were collected and analysed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and protein were measured in each fraction. Fractions 9-12 contained the highest concentrations of particles larger than 70 nm and platelet-derived vesicles (46%±6 and 61%±2 of totals present in all collected fractions, respectively), but less than 5% of HDL and less than 1% of protein (4.8%±1 and 0.65%±0.3, respectively). HDL was present mainly in fractions 18-20 (32%±2 of total), and protein in fractions 19-21 (36%±2 of total). Compared to the starting material, recovery of platelet-derived vesicles was 43%±23 in fractions 9-12, with an 8-fold and 70-fold enrichment compared to HDL and protein. SEC efficiently isolates extracellular vesicles with a diameter larger than 70 nm from platelet-free supernatant of platelet concentrates. Application SEC will improve studies on the dimensional, structural and functional properties of extracellular vesicles.

  5. Isolation and Epitope Mapping of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Single-Domain Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendrick B. Turner


    Full Text Available Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs, derived from the heavy chain only antibodies found in camelids such as llamas have the potential to provide rugged detection reagents with high affinities, and the ability to refold after denaturation. We have isolated and characterized sdAbs specific to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB which bind to two distinct epitopes and are able to function in a sandwich immunoassay for toxin detection. Characterization of these sdAbs revealed that each exhibited nanomolar binding affinities or better.  Melting temperatures for the sdAbs ranged from approximately 60 °C to over 70 °C, with each demonstrating at least partial refolding after denaturation and several were able to completely refold. A first set of sdAbs was isolated by panning the library using adsorbed antigen, all of which recognized the same epitope on SEB. Epitope mapping suggested that these sdAbs bind to a particular fragment of SEB (VKSIDQFLYFDLIYSI containing position L45 (underlined, which is involved in binding to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC. Differences in the binding affinities of the sdAbs to SEB and a less-toxic vaccine immunogen, SEBv (L45R/Y89A/Y94A were also consistent with binding to this epitope. A sandwich panning strategy was utilized to isolate sdAbs which bind a second epitope. This epitope differed from the initial one obtained or from that recognized by previously isolated anti-SEB sdAb A3. Using SEB-toxin spiked milk we demonstrated that these newly isolated sdAbs could be utilized in sandwich-assays with each other, A3, and with various monoclonal antibodies.

  6. Isolation and functional interrogation of adult human prostate epithelial stem cells at single cell resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yang Hu


    Full Text Available Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers. Knockdown of KRT13 or PRAC1 reduced sphere formation and symmetric self-renewal highlighting their role in stem cell maintenance. Pathways analysis identified ribosome biogenesis and membrane estrogen-receptor signaling enriched in stem cells with NF-ĸB signaling enriched in progenitors; activities that were biologically confirmed. Further, bioassays identified heightened autophagy flux and reduced metabolism in stem cells relative to progenitors. These approaches similarly identified stem-like cells from prostate cancer specimens and prostate, breast and colon cancer cell lines suggesting wide applicability. Together, the present studies isolate and identify unique characteristics of normal human prostate stem cells and uncover processes that maintain stem cell homeostasis in the prostate gland.

  7. Detection of isolated protein-bound metal ions by single-particle cryo-STEM. (United States)

    Elad, Nadav; Bellapadrona, Giuliano; Houben, Lothar; Sagi, Irit; Elbaum, Michael


    Metal ions play essential roles in many aspects of biological chemistry. Detecting their presence and location in proteins and cells is important for understanding biological function. Conventional structural methods such as X-ray crystallography and cryo-transmission electron microscopy can identify metal atoms on protein only if the protein structure is solved to atomic resolution. We demonstrate here the detection of isolated atoms of Zn and Fe on ferritin, using cryogenic annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (cryo-STEM) coupled with single-particle 3D reconstructions. Zn atoms are found in a pattern that matches precisely their location at the ferroxidase sites determined earlier by X-ray crystallography. By contrast, the Fe distribution is smeared along an arc corresponding to the proposed path from the ferroxidase sites to the mineral nucleation sites along the twofold axes. In this case the single-particle reconstruction is interpreted as a probability distribution function based on the average of individual locations. These results establish conditions for detection of isolated metal atoms in the broader context of electron cryo-microscopy and tomography.

  8. Evaporative and Convective Instabilities for the Evaporation of a Binary Mixture in a Bilayer System (United States)

    Guo, Weidong; Narayanan, Ranga


    Evaporative convection in binary mixtures arises in a variety of industrial processes, such as drying of paint and coating technology. There have been theories devoted to this problem either by assuming a passive vapor layer or by isolating the vapor fluid dynamics. Previous work on evaporative and convective instabilities in a single component bilayer system suggests that active vapor layers play a major role in determining the instability of the interface. We have investigated the evaporation convection in binary mixtures taking into account the fluid dynamics of both phases. The liquid mixture and its vapor are assumed to be confined between two horizontal plates with a base state of zero evaporation but with linear vertical temperature profile. When the vertical temperature gradient reaches a critical value, the evaporative instability, Rayleigh and Marangoni convection set in. The effects of vapor and liquid depth, various wave numbers and initial composition of the mixture on the evaporative and convective instability are determined. The physics of the instability are explained and detailed comparison is made between the Rayleigh, Marangoni and evaporative convection in pure component and those in binary mixtures.

  9. A geometric approach for fault detection and isolation of stator short circuit failure in a single asynchronous machine

    KAUST Repository

    Khelouat, Samir


    This paper deals with the problem of detection and isolation of stator short-circuit failure in a single asynchronous machine using a geometric approach. After recalling the basis of the geometric approach for fault detection and isolation in nonlinear systems, we will study some structural properties which are fault detectability and isolation fault filter existence. We will then design filters for residual generation. We will consider two approaches: a two-filters structure and a single filter structure, both aiming at generating residuals which are sensitive to one fault and insensitive to the other faults. Some numerical tests will be presented to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  10. An Inert Continuous Microreactor for the Isolation and Analysis of a Single Microbial Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Rosenthal


    Full Text Available Studying biological phenomena of individual cells is enabled by matching the scales of microbes and cultivation devices. We present a versatile, chemically inert microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC device for biological and chemical analyses of isolated microorganisms. It is based on the Envirostat concept and guarantees constant environmental conditions. A new manufacturing process for direct fusion bonding chips with functional microelectrodes for selective and gentle cell manipulation via negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP was generated. The resulting LOC system offered a defined surface chemistry and exceptional operational stability, maintaining its structural integrity even after harsh chemical treatment. The microelectrode structures remained fully functional after thermal bonding and were proven to be efficient for single-cell trapping via nDEP. The microfluidic network consisted solely of glass, which led to enhanced chip reusability and minimized interaction of the material with chemical and biological compounds. We validated the LOC for single-cell studies with the amino acid secreting bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. Intracellular l-lysine production dynamics of individual bacteria were monitored based on a genetically encoded fluorescent nanosensor. The results demonstrate the applicability of the presented LOC for pioneering chemical and biological studies, where robustness and chemically inert surfaces are crucial parameters for approaching fundamental biological questions at a single-cell level.

  11. Transfer doping of single isolated nanodiamonds, studied by scanning probe microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolker, Asaf; Kalish, Rafi; Saguy, Cecile


    The transfer doping of diamond surfaces has been applied in various novel two-dimensional electronic devices. Its extension to nanodiamonds (ND) is essential for ND-based applications in many fields. In particular, understanding the influence of the crystallite size on transfer doping is desirable. Here, we report the results of a detailed study of the electronic energetic band structure of single, isolated transfer-doped nanodiamonds with nanometric resolution using a combination of scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy measurements. The results show how the band gap, the valence band maximum, the electron affinity and the work function all depend on the ND’s size and nanoparticle surface properties. The present analysis, which combines information from both scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy, should be applicable to any nanoparticle or surface that can be measured with scanning probe techniques. (paper)

  12. New Method to Disaggregate and Analyze Single Isolated Helminthes Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nava-Castro


    Full Text Available In parasitology, particularly in helminthes studies, several methods have been used to look for the expression of specific molecules, such as RT-PCR, western blot, 2D-electrophoresis, and microscopy, among others. However, these methods require homogenization of the whole helminth parasite, preventing evaluation of individual cells or specific cell types in a given parasite tissue or organ. Also, the extremely high interaction between helminthes and host cells (particularly immune cells is an important point to be considered. It is really hard to obtain fresh parasites without host cell contamination. Then, it becomes crucial to determine that the analyzed proteins are exclusively from parasitic origin, and not a consequence of host cell contamination. Flow cytometry is a fluorescence-based technique used to evaluate the expression of extra-and intracellular proteins in different type cells, including protozoan parasites. It also allows the isolation and recovery of single-cell populations. Here, we describe a method to isolate and obtain purified helminthes cells.

  13. Genotyping of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in DNA Isolated from Serum Using Sequenom MassARRAY Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess V Clendenen

    Full Text Available Large epidemiologic studies have the potential to make valuable contributions to the assessment of gene-environment interactions because they prospectively collected detailed exposure data. Some of these studies, however, have only serum or plasma samples as a low quantity source of DNA.We examined whether DNA isolated from serum can be used to reliably and accurately genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using Sequenom multiplex SNP genotyping technology. We genotyped 81 SNPs using samples from 158 participants in the NYU Women's Health Study. Each participant had DNA from serum and at least one paired DNA sample isolated from a high quality source of DNA, i.e. clots and/or cell precipitates, for comparison.We observed that 60 of the 81 SNPs (74% had high call frequencies (≥95% using DNA from serum, only slightly lower than the 85% of SNPs with high call frequencies in DNA from clots or cell precipitates. Of the 57 SNPs with high call frequencies for serum, clot, and cell precipitate DNA, 54 (95% had highly concordant (>98% genotype calls across all three sample types. High purity was not a critical factor to successful genotyping.Our results suggest that this multiplex SNP genotyping method can be used reliably on DNA from serum in large-scale epidemiologic studies.

  14. Molecular Genetic Characterization of Individual Cancer Cells Isolated via Single-Cell Printing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Riba

    Full Text Available Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity may impact disease outcome. Gold standard for dissecting clonal heterogeneity are single-cell analyses. Here, we present an efficient workflow based on an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP device for the study of gene variants in single cancer cells. To allow for precise cell deposition into microwells the SCP was equipped with an automatic dispenser offset compensation, and the 384-microwell plates were electrostatically neutralized. The ejection efficiency was 99.7% for fluorescent beads (n = 2304 and 98.7% for human cells (U-2 OS or Kasumi-1 cancer cell line, acute myeloid leukemia [AML] patient; n = 150. Per fluorescence microscopy, 98.8% of beads were correctly delivered into the wells. A subset of single cells (n = 81 was subjected to whole genome amplification (WGA, which was successful in all cells. On empty droplets, a PCR on LINE1 retrotransposons yielded no product after WGA, verifying the absence of free-floating DNA in SCP-generated droplets. Representative gene variants identified in bulk specimens were sequenced in single-cell WGA DNA. In U-2 OS, 22 of 25 cells yielded results for both an SLC34A2 and TET2 mutation site, including cells harboring the SLC34A2 but not the TET2 mutation. In one cell, the TET2 mutation analysis was inconclusive due to allelic dropout, as assessed via polymorphisms located close to the mutation. Of Kasumi-1, 23 of 33 cells with data on both the KIT and TP53 mutation site harbored both mutations. In the AML patient, 21 of 23 cells were informative for a TP53 polymorphism; the identified alleles matched the loss of chromosome arm 17p. The advanced SCP allows efficient, precise and gentle isolation of individual cells for subsequent WGA and routine PCR/sequencing-based analyses of gene variants. This makes single-cell information readily accessible to a wide range of applications and can provide insights into clonal heterogeneity that were indeterminable solely by

  15. National Convective Weather Forecast (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NCWF is an automatically generated depiction of: (1) current convection and (2) extrapolated signficant current convection. It is a supplement to, but does NOT...

  16. Archival Isolates Confirm a Single Topotype of West Nile Virus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bixing Huang


    Full Text Available West Nile virus is globally wide-spread and causes significant disease in humans and animals. The evolution of West Nile virus Kunjin subtype in Australia (WNVKUN was investigated using archival samples collected over a period of 50 years. Based on the pattern of fixed amino acid substitutions and time-stamped molecular clock analyses, a single long-term lineage (or topotype was inferred. This implies that a bottleneck exists such that regional strains eventually die out and are replaced with strains from a single source. This was consistent with current hypotheses regarding the distribution of WNVKUN, whereby the virus is enzootic in northern Australia and is disseminated to southern states by water-birds or mosquitoes after flooding associated with above average rainfall. In addition, two previous amino acid changes associated with pathogenicity, an N-Y-S glycosylation motif in the envelope protein and a phenylalanine at amino acid 653 in the RNA polymerase, were both detected in all isolates collected since the 1980s. Changes primarily occurred due to stochastic drift. One fixed substitution each in NS3 and NS5, subtly changed the chemical environment of important functional groups, and may be involved in fine-tuning RNA synthesis. Understanding these evolutionary changes will help us to better understand events such as the emergence of the virulent strain in 2011.

  17. Quantitative and Isolated Measurement of Far-Field Light Scattering by a Single Nanostructure (United States)

    Kim, Donghyeong; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Jinhyung; Ee, Ho-Seok; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Park, Hong-Gyu; Seo, Min-Kyo


    Light scattering by nanostructures has facilitated research on various optical phenomena and applications by interfacing the near fields and free-propagating radiation. However, direct quantitative measurement of far-field scattering by a single nanostructure on the wavelength scale or less is highly challenging. Conventional back-focal-plane imaging covers only a limited solid angle determined by the numerical aperture of the objectives and suffers from optical aberration and distortion. Here, we present a quantitative measurement of the differential far-field scattering cross section of a single nanostructure over the full hemisphere. In goniometer-based far-field scanning with a high signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 27.4 dB, weak scattering signals are efficiently isolated and detected under total-internal-reflection illumination. Systematic measurements reveal that the total and differential scattering cross sections of a Au nanorod are determined by the plasmonic Fabry-Perot resonances and the phase-matching conditions to the free-propagating radiation, respectively. We believe that our angle-resolved far-field measurement scheme provides a way to investigate and evaluate the physical properties and performance of nano-optical materials and phenomena.

  18. Tropical deep convective cloud morphology (United States)

    Igel, Matthew R.

    integrated to form a more comprehensive theory for deep convective anvil responses to SST. An investigation into the physical shape and size of mature, oceanic, tropical, deep convective clouds is conducted. Mean cloud objects are discussed. For single-core clouds, the mean cloud has an anvil width of 95 km, a pedestal width of 11 km, and an anvil thickness of 6.4 km. The number of identified convective cores within pedestal correlates well with certain length scales and morphological attributes of cloud objects. As the number of cores increases, so does the size of the mean cloud object. Pedestal width is shown to regress linearly to anvil width when a 2/3rd power scaling is applied to pedestal width. This result implies continuous but retarded growth of anvils with growing pedestals and equivalence in the mass flux convecting through the pedestal and into the anvil. Trends in cloud scales with cloud base and top heights are investigated to shed light on related convective parameterization assumptions and on convective transport, respectively. Many of the results obtained using the CloudSat methodology are also examined with a large-domain radiative-convective equilibrium numerical simulation and are found to exhibit similar trends when modeled. Finally, various CloudSat sampling issues are discussed in several appendices. Utilizing the CloudSat cloud object database, an examination of the sensitivity of oceanic, mature, deep convective cloud morphology to environmental characteristics is conducted. Convective available potential energy (CAPE), aerosol optical depth, mid-level vertical velocity, and troposphere deep shear are all included as meteorological measures. The sensitivity of various aspects of convective morphology to each one of these environmental characteristics is assessed individually. The results demonstrate that clouds tend to be invigorated by higher CAPE, aerosol amount, and upward mid-level vertical velocity. Stronger shear tends to make clouds wider but

  19. Load dependency in force-length relations in isolated single cardiomyocytes. (United States)

    Iribe, Gentaro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Naruse, Keiji


    The previously reported pressure-volume (PV) relationship in frog hearts shows that end-systolic PV relation (ESPVR) is load dependent, whereas ESPVR in canine hearts is load independent. To study intrinsic cardiac mechanics in detail, it is desirable to study mechanics in a single isolated cardiomyocyte that is free from interstitial connective tissue. Previous single cell mechanics studies used a pair of carbon fibers (CF) attached to the upper surface of opposite cell ends to stretch cells. These studies showed that end-systolic force-length (FL) relation (ESFLR) is load independent. However, the range of applicable mechanical load using the conventional technique is limited because of weak cell-CF attachment. Therefore, the behavior of ESFLR in single cells under physiologically possible conditions of greater load is not yet well known. To cover wider loading range, we contrived a new method to hold cell-ends more firmly using two pairs of CF attached to both upper and bottom surfaces of cells. The new method allowed stretching cells to 2.2 μm or more in end-diastolic sarcomere length. ESFLR virtually behaves in a load independent manner only with end-diastolic sarcomere length less than 1.95 μm. It exhibited clear load dependency with higher preload, especially with low afterload conditions. Instantaneous cellular elastance curves showed that decreasing afterload enhanced relaxation and slowed time to peak elastance, as previously reported. A simulation study of a mathematical model with detailed description of thin filament activation suggested that velocity dependent thin filament inactivation is crucial for the observed load dependent behaviors and previously reported afterload dependent change in Ca(2+) transient shape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Linezolid minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates at a single Japanese center. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Motoyasu; Nagata, Nobuhiko; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Koichi; Takata, Tohru; Tanihara, Shinichi; Kamimura, Hidetoshi


    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether linezolid minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep occurred in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), over a recent 5-year period at a single Japanese center. A total of 453 MRSA and 195 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates recovered from inpatients from April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2013 were analyzed. The MIC of linezolid was determined by automated Vitek-2 system. The modal MIC, MIC range, MIC50 and MIC90 (MICs required to inhibit the growth of 50% and 90% of organisms, respectively), geometric mean MIC and percentages of susceptible and resistant isolates were evaluated for each fiscal year. None of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to linezolid. Isolates with an MIC of >1 µg/mL were more common in the MSSA samples than in the MRSA samples (91.3% versus 38.2%, plinezolid geometric mean MIC increased by 0.403 µg/mL (from 1.178 in 2008 to 1.582 in 2012) in the MRSA isolates (p=0.006, r(2)=0.945 according to a linear regression analysis) over the 5-year period; however, no increase was observed in the MSSA isolates. The frequency of MRSA isolates with an MIC of 1 µg/mL decreased (from 76.3% in 2008 to 35.4% in 2012) and the isolates with MICs of >1 µg/mL increased over time (from 23.7% in 2008 to 64.6% in 2012). This report demonstrates the occurrence of linezolid MIC creep, as determined using the geometric mean MIC, in MRSA clinical isolates at a single Japanese center.

  1. Reliable genotyping of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) using DNA isolated from a single faecal pellet. (United States)

    Wedrowicz, Faye; Karsa, Mawar; Mosse, Jennifer; Hogan, Fiona E


    The koala, an Australian icon, has been added to the threatened species list. Rationale for the listing includes proposed declines in population size, threats to populations (e.g. disease) and loss and fragmentation of habitat. There is now an urgent need to obtain accurate data to assess the status of koala populations in Australia, to ensure the long-term viability of this species. Advances in genetic techniques have enabled DNA analysis to study and inform the management of wild populations; however, sampling of individual koalas is difficult in tall, often remote, eucalypt forest. The collection of faecal pellets (scats) from the forest floor presents an opportunistic sampling strategy, where DNA can be collected without capturing or even sighting an individual. Obtaining DNA via noninvasive sampling can be used to rapidly sample a large proportion of a population; however, DNA from noninvasively collected samples is often degraded. Factors influencing DNA quality and quantity include environmental exposure, diet and methods of sample collection, storage and DNA isolation. Reduced DNA quality and quantity can introduce genotyping errors and provide inaccurate DNA profiles, reducing confidence in the ability of such data to inform management/conservation strategies. Here, we present a protocol that produces a reliable individual koala genotype from a single faecal pellet and highlight the importance of optimizing DNA isolation and analysis for the species of interest. This method could readily be adapted for genetic studies of mammals other than koalas, particularly those whose diet contains high proportions of volatile materials that are likely to induce DNA damage. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Theoretical study to determine the heat transfer by forced convection coefficient in an empirical correlation in single phase, for annular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera A, E.


    In the heat transfer studies by forced convection, we have few data about behavior of the fluids in an annular channel heated by a concentric pipe, such date is necessary to know the heat transfer coefficient that establish the interchange of energy and the thermic properties of the fluid with the geometry of the flow. In this work the objective, was to compare some empirical correlations that we needed for determinate the heat transfer coefficient for annular channels, where we obtained similar at the theoretical results of an experiment made by Miller and Benforado. It is important to know such coefficients because we can determinate the heat quantity transmitted to a probe zone, in which we simulate a nuclear fuel element that developed huge heat quantity that must be dispersed in short time. We give theoretical data of the heat forced transfer convection and we analyzed the phenomena in annular channels given some empirical correlations employed by some investigators and we analyzed each one. (Author)

  3. Dynamical behaviour of natural convection in closed loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhard, P.


    A one dimensional model is presented together with experiments, which describe the natural convective flow in closed loops heated at the bottom and cooled in the upper semicircle. Starting from a single loop, mechanical and thermal coupling with a second loop is discussed. The experiments and the theoretical model both concurrently demonstrate that the investigated natural convection is clearly influenced by non-linear effects. Beside the variety of stable steady flows there are extensive subcritical ranges of convective flow. In these parameter ranges subcritical instabilities of the steady state flow could occur in the presence of finite amplitude disturbances. However, the supercritical, global unstable range is characterized by chaotic histories of the variables of state. Non-symmetric heating generates an imperfect bifurcation out of the steady solution with zero velocity in the loop. This effect stabilizes the flow in the preferred direction. The flow in the opposite direction only remains stable in a small isolated interval of the heating parameter. Furthermore the calculations with the model equations demonstrate that a stable periodic behaviour of the flow is possible in a small parameter window. However, it has not been possible to verify this particular effect in the experiments conducted to date. (orig./GL) [de

  4. From isolated light-harvesting complexes to the thylakoid membrane: a single-molecule perspective (United States)

    Gruber, J. Michael; Malý, Pavel; Krüger, Tjaart P. J.; Grondelle, Rienk van


    The conversion of solar radiation to chemical energy in plants and green algae takes place in the thylakoid membrane. This amphiphilic environment hosts a complex arrangement of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes that absorb light and transfer the excitation energy to photochemically active reaction centers. This efficient light-harvesting capacity is moreover tightly regulated by a photoprotective mechanism called non-photochemical quenching to avoid the stress-induced destruction of the catalytic reaction center. In this review we provide an overview of single-molecule fluorescence measurements on plant light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) of varying sizes with the aim of bridging the gap between the smallest isolated complexes, which have been well-characterized, and the native photosystem. The smallest complexes contain only a small number (10-20) of interacting chlorophylls, while the native photosystem contains dozens of protein subunits and many hundreds of connected pigments. We discuss the functional significance of conformational dynamics, the lipid environment, and the structural arrangement of this fascinating nano-machinery. The described experimental results can be utilized to build mathematical-physical models in a bottom-up approach, which can then be tested on larger in vivo systems. The results also clearly showcase the general property of biological systems to utilize the same system properties for different purposes. In this case it is the regulated conformational flexibility that allows LHCs to switch between efficient light-harvesting and a photoprotective function.

  5. Solar Surface Magneto-Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Stein


    Full Text Available We review the properties of solar magneto-convection in the top half of the convection zones scale heights (from 20 Mm below the visible surface to the surface, and then through the photosphere to the temperature minimum. Convection is a highly non-linear and non-local process, so it is best studied by numerical simulations. We focus on simulations that include sufficient detailed physics so that their results can be quantitatively compared with observations. The solar surface is covered with magnetic features with spatial sizes ranging from unobservably small to hundreds of megameters. Three orders of magnitude more magnetic flux emerges in the quiet Sun than emerges in active regions. In this review we focus mainly on the properties of the quiet Sun magnetic field. The Sun’s magnetic field is produced by dynamo action throughout the convection zone, primarily by stretching and twisting in the turbulent downflows. Diverging convective upflows and magnetic buoyancy carry magnetic flux toward the surface and sweep the field into the surrounding downflow lanes where the field is dragged downward. The result is a hierarchy of undulating magnetic Ω- and U-loops of different sizes. New magnetic flux first appears at the surface in a mixed polarity random pattern and then collects into isolated unipolar regions due to underlying larger scale magnetic structures. Rising magnetic structures are not coherent, but develop a filamentary structure. Emerging magnetic flux alters the convection properties, producing larger, darker granules. Strong field concentrations inhibit transverse plasma motions and, as a result, reduce convective heat transport toward the surface which cools. Being cooler, these magnetic field concentrations have a shorter scale height and become evacuated. The field becomes further compressed and can reach strengths in balance with the surrounding gas pressure. Because of their small internal density, photons escape from deeper in

  6. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böing, Anita N.; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk


    Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete

  7. Geometric parameters determination of a single vapor bubble growth and heat transfer associated: non condensable influence on the onset of convective instabilities; Determination des caracteristiques geometriques de la croissance d'une bulle de vapeur et des transferts de chaleur associes: influence des incondensables sur le declenchement d'instabilites convectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthes, M.; Reynard, Ch.; Santini, R.; Tadrist, L. [Laboratoire Institut Universitaire des Systemes Thermiques Industriels (IUSTI), CNRS UMR 6595, DME, 13 - Marseille (France)


    We present here an experimental work of a single vapor bubble growth in a subcooled liquid bulk (FC-72) at atmospheric pressure. The vapor bubble grows on a downward facing heating element (at constant heating power) on an artificial nucleation site located in the centre of the heated surface. Bubble dynamics are studied thanks to image proceeding. The temporal evolution of geometric parameters, such as diameter, height, volume and shape, are measured. The analysis of some parameters enables us to determine the influence of the heating power on the heat and mass transfers. Moreover an observation, using a shadowgraphy method, of the different modes of convective instabilities is presented. The non condensable gas influence on the occurrence of the instability is discussed. (authors)

  8. Observation of Single Isolated Electrons of High Transverse Momentum in Events with Missing Transverse Energy at the CERN pp Collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.


    We report the results of a search for single isolated electrons of high transverse momentum at the CERN collider. Above 15 GeV/c, four events are found having large missing transverse energy along a direction opposite in azimuth to that of the high-pT electron. Both the configuration of the events...

  9. Single Cystosorus Isolate Production and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Characterization of the Obligate Biotroph Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea. (United States)

    Qu, Xinshun; Christ, Barbara J


    ABSTRACT Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea causes powdery scab in potatoes and is distributed worldwide. Genetic studies of this pathogen have been hampered due, in part, to its obligate parasitism and the lack of molecular markers for this pathogen. In this investigation, a single cystosorus inoculation technique was developed to produce large amounts of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea plasmodia or zoosporangia in eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptycanthum) roots from which DNA was extracted. Cryopreservation of zoosporangia was used for long-term storage of the isolates. S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were developed from randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments. Cystosori of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea were used for RAPD assays and putative pathogen-specific RAPD fragments were cloned and sequenced. The fragments were screened for specificity by Southern hybridization and subsequent DNA sequence BLAST search. Four polymorphic S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea-specific probes containing repetitive elements, and one containing single copy DNA were identified. These RFLP probes were then used to analyze 24 single cystosorus isolates derived from eight geographic locations in the United States and Canada. Genetic variation was recorded among, but not within, geographic locations. Cluster analysis separated the isolates into two major groups: group I included isolates originating from western North America, with the exception of those from Colorado, and group II included isolates originating from eastern North America and from Colorado. The techniques developed in this study, i.e., production of single cystosorus isolates of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea and development of RFLP markers for this pathogen, provide methods to further study the genetic structure of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea.

  10. High Performance Harmonic Isolation By Means of The Single-phase Series Active Filter Employing The Waveform Reconstruction Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Hava, Ahmet M.


    This paper proposes the Waveform Reconstruction Method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase Series Active Filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...... current sampling delay reduction method (SDRM), a single-phase SAF compensated system provides higher harmonic isolation performance and higher stability margins compared to the system using conventional synchronous reference frame based methods. The analytical, simulation, and experimental studies of a 2...

  11. Patterns of granular convection and separation in narrow vibration bed (United States)

    Liu, Chuanping; Wu, Ping; Wang, Li; Tong, Lige; Yin, Shaowu


    Granular convection/separation of single and binary component particles are studied in a narrow vibration bed, respectively. With filling the single light particles (molecular sieve beads), the bed exhibits five different states successively by increasing the vibration frequency f from 15Hz to 70 Hz (vibration strength Γ>3), as the global convection, symmetrical heap, unsymmetrical heap, local convection and pseudo solid. Comparatively, the granular bed of the single heavy particles (steel beads) is only in pseudo solid state at the above vibration condition. By filling binary component particles (molecular sieve and same size steel beads) instead of the single component, the bed shows similar convection state with that of the single molecular sieve beads, and the heavy steel beads are aggregated in the centre of convention roll as a core. Varying the initial distribution of binary component particles, the final convection and separation are not influenced, although the aggregation process of steel beads changes.

  12. Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps militaris from Multi-Ascospore Isolates and Their Single Ascospore Progeny Strains (United States)

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo


    Interest in commercial cultivation and product development of Cordyceps species has shown a recent increase. Due to its biochemical and pharmacological effects, Cordyceps militaris, commonly known as orange caterpillar fungus, is being investigated with great interest. Cultivation of C. militaris has been practiced on a large scale in order to fulfill a demand for scientific investigation and product development. Isolates of C. militaris can be easily established from both spores and tissue. For isolation of spores, ascospores released from mature stromata are trapped in sterile medium. Multi-ascospore isolates, as well as combinations of single ascospore strains, are used for production of fruiting bodies. Progeny ascospore strains can be isolated from artificial fruiting bodies, thus, the cycle of fruiting body production can be continued for a long period of time. In this study, we examined fruiting body production from multi-ascospore isolates and their progeny strains for three generations. F1 progeny strains generally produced a larger number of fruiting bodies, compared with their mother multi-ascospore isolates; however, F2 and F3 progeny strains produced fewer fruiting bodies. Optimum preservation conditions could help to increase the vitality of the progeny strains. In order to retain the fruiting ability of the strains, further testing of various methods of preservation and different methods for isolation should be performed. PMID:22870051

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Single Outpatient Clinic in Panama City Exhibit Wide Genetic Diversity (United States)

    Sambrano, Dilcia; Correa, Ricardo; Almengor, Pedro; Domínguez, Amada; Vega, Silvio; Goodridge, Amador


    Understanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis biodiversity and transmission is significant for tuberculosis control. This short report aimed to determine the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates from an outpatient clinic in Panama City. A total of 62 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped by 12 loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and Spoligotyping. Forty-five (72.6%) of the isolates showed unique MIRU-VNTR genotypes, and 13 (21%) of the isolates were grouped into four clusters. Four isolates showed polyclonal MIRU-VNTR genotypes. The MIRU-VNTR Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index reached 0.988. The Spoligotyping analysis revealed 16 M. tuberculosis families, including Latin American-Mediterranean, Harlem, and Beijing. These findings suggest a wide genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates at one outpatient clinic. A detailed molecular epidemiology survey is now warranted, especially following second massive immigration for local Panama Canal expansion activities. PMID:24865686

  14. Single step biotransformation of corn oil phytosterols to boldenone by a newly isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Eisa


    Full Text Available A new potent Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate capable for biotransformation of corn oil phytosterol (PS to 4-androstene-3, 17-dione (AD, testosterone (T and boldenone (BOL was identified by phenotypic analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequential statistical strategy was used to optimize the biotransformation process mainly concerning BOL using Factorial design and response surface methodology (RSM. The production of BOL in single step microbial biotransformation from corn oil phytosterols by P. aeruginosa was not previously reported. Results showed that the pH concentration of the medium, (NH42SO4 and KH2PO4 were the most significant factors affecting BOL production. By analyzing the statistical model of three-dimensional surface plot, BOL production increased from 36.8% to 42.4% after the first step of optimization, and the overall biotransformation increased to 51.9%. After applying the second step of the sequential statistical strategy BOL production increased to 53.6%, and the overall biotransformation increased to 91.9% using the following optimized medium composition (g/l distilled water (NH42SO4, 2; KH2PO4, 4; Na2HPO4. 1; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.3; NaCl, 0.1; CaCl2·2H2O, 0.1; FeSO4·7H2O, 0.001; ammonium acetate 0.001; Tween 80, 0.05%; corn oil 0.5%; 8-hydroxyquinoline 0.016; pH 8; 200 rpm agitation speed and incubation time 36 h at 30 °C. Validation experiments proved the adequacy and accuracy of model, and the results showed the predicted value agreed well with the experimental values.

  15. Isolated single umbilical artery poses neonates at increased risk of long-term respiratory morbidity. (United States)

    Beharier, Ofer; Sheiner, Eyal; Sergienko, Ruslan; Landau, Daniela; Szaingurten-Solodkin, Irit; Walfisch, Asnat


    To investigate whether children born with isolated single umbilical artery (iSUA) at term are at an increased risk for long-term pediatric hospitalizations due to respiratory morbidity. Design: a population-based cohort study compared the incidence of long-term, pediatric hospitalizations due to respiratory morbidity in children born with and without iSUA at term. Soroka University Medical Center. all singleton pregnancies of women who delivered between 1991 and 2013. hospitalization due to respiratory morbidity. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate cumulative incidence of respiratory morbidity. A Cox hazards model analysis was used to establish an independent association between iSUA and pediatric respiratory morbidity of the offspring while controlling for clinically relevant confounders. The study included 232,281 deliveries. 0.3% were of newborns with iSUA (n = 766). Newborns with iSUA had a significantly higher rate of long-term respiratory morbidity compared to newborns without iSUA (7.6 vs 5.5%, p = 0.01). Using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve, newborns with iSUA had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of respiratory hospitalizations (log rank = 0.006). In the Cox model, while controlling for the maternal age, gestational age, and birthweight, iSUA at term was found to be an independent risk factor for long-term respiratory morbidity (adjusted HR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.08-1.81; p = 0.012). Newborns with iSUA are at an increased risk for long-term respiratory morbidity.

  16. Isolation and characterization of anti c-met single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies. (United States)

    Qamsari, Elmira Safaie; Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Bagheri, Salman; Riazi-Rad, Farhad; Younesi, Vahid; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Sepideh Safaei; Baradaran, Behzad; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Yousefi, Mehdi


    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Met is the cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) involved in invasive growth programs during embryogenesis and tumorgenesis. There is compelling evidence suggesting important roles for c-Met in colorectal cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and survival. Hence, a molecular inhibitor of an extracellular domain of c-Met receptor that blocks c-Met-cell surface interactions could be of great thera-peutic importance. In an attempt to develop molecular inhibitors of c-Met, single chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display libraries Tomlinson I + J against a specific synthetic oligopeptide from the extracellular domain of c-Met receptor were screened; selected scFv were then characterized using various immune techniques. Three c-Met specific scFv (ES1, ES2, and ES3) were selected following five rounds of panning procedures. The scFv showed specific binding to c-Met receptor, and significantly inhibited proliferation responses of a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116). Moreover, anti- apoptotic effects of selected scFv antibodies on the HCT-116 cell line were also evaluated using Annexin V/PI assays. The results demonstrated rates of apoptotic cell death of 46.0, 25.5, and 37.8% among these cells were induced by use of ES1, ES2, and ES3, respectively. The results demonstrated ability to successfully isolate/char-acterize specific c-Met scFv that could ultimately have a great therapeutic potential in immuno-therapies against (colorectal) cancers.

  17. Isolation of a Highly Thermal Stable Lama Single Domain Antibody Specific for Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano-González Joseline


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelids and sharks possess a unique subclass of antibodies comprised of only heavy chains. The antigen binding fragments of these unique antibodies can be cloned and expressed as single domain antibodies (sdAbs. The ability of these small antigen-binding molecules to refold after heating to achieve their original structure, as well as their diminutive size, makes them attractive candidates for diagnostic assays. Results Here we describe the isolation of an sdAb against Staphyloccocus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB. The clone, A3, was found to have high affinity (Kd = 75 pM and good specificity for SEB, showing no cross reactivity to related molecules such as Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA, Staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED, and Shiga toxin. Most remarkably, this anti-SEB sdAb had an extremely high Tm of 85°C and an ability to refold after heating to 95°C. The sharp Tm determined by circular dichroism, was found to contrast with the gradual decrease observed in intrinsic fluorescence. We demonstrated the utility of this sdAb as a capture and detector molecule in Luminex based assays providing limits of detection (LODs of at least 64 pg/mL. Conclusion The anti-SEB sdAb A3 was found to have a high affinity and an extraordinarily high Tm and could still refold to recover activity after heat denaturation. This combination of heat resilience and strong, specific binding make this sdAb a good candidate for use in antibody-based toxin detection technologies.

  18. Isolation of Panels of Llama Single-Domain Antibody Fragments Binding All Nine Neuraminidase Subtypes of Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Koch


    Full Text Available Avian influenza A virus comprises sixteen hemagglutinin (HA and nine neuraminidase (NA subtypes (N1–N9. To isolate llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs against all N subtypes, four llamas were immunized with mixtures of influenza viruses. Selections using influenza virus yielded predominantly VHHs binding to the highly immunogenic HA and nucleoprotein. However, selection using enzymatically active recombinant NA (rNA protein enabled us to isolate NA binding VHHs. Some isolated VHHs cross-reacted to other N subtypes. These were subsequently used for the capture of N subtypes that could not be produced as recombinant protein (rN6 or were enzymatically inactive (rN1, rN5 in phage display selection, yielding novel VHHs. In total we isolated 188 NA binding VHHs, 64 of which were expressed in yeast. Most VHHs specifically recognize a single N subtype, but some VHHs cross-react with other N-subtypes. At least one VHH bound to all N subtypes, except N4, identifying a conserved antigenic site. Thus, this work (1 describes methods for isolating NA binding VHHs, (2 illustrates the suitability of llama immunization with multiple antigens for retrieving many binders against different antigens and (3 describes 64 novel NA binding VHHs, including a broadly reactive VHH, which can be used in various assays for influenza virus subtyping, detection or serology.

  19. A continuous and prognostic convection scheme based on buoyancy, PCMT (United States)

    Guérémy, Jean-François; Piriou, Jean-Marcel


    A new and consistent convection scheme (PCMT: Prognostic Condensates Microphysics and Transport), providing a continuous and prognostic treatment of this atmospheric process, is described. The main concept ensuring the consistency of the whole system is the buoyancy, key element of any vertical motion. The buoyancy constitutes the forcing term of the convective vertical velocity, which is then used to define the triggering condition, the mass flux, and the rates of entrainment-detrainment. The buoyancy is also used in its vertically integrated form (CAPE) to determine the closure condition. The continuous treatment of convection, from dry thermals to deep precipitating convection, is achieved with the help of a continuous formulation of the entrainment-detrainment rates (depending on the convective vertical velocity) and of the CAPE relaxation time (depending on the convective over-turning time). The convective tendencies are directly expressed in terms of condensation and transport. Finally, the convective vertical velocity and condensates are fully prognostic, the latter being treated using the same microphysics scheme as for the resolved condensates but considering the convective environment. A Single Column Model (SCM) validation of this scheme is shown, allowing detailed comparisons with observed and explicitly simulated data. Four cases covering the convective spectrum are considered: over ocean, sensitivity to environmental moisture (S. Derbyshire) non precipitating shallow convection to deep precipitating convection, trade wind shallow convection (BOMEX) and strato-cumulus (FIRE), together with an entire continental diurnal cycle of convection (ARM). The emphasis is put on the characteristics of the scheme which enable a continuous treatment of convection. Then, a 3D LAM validation is presented considering an AMMA case with both observations and a CRM simulation using the same initial and lateral conditions as for the parameterized one. Finally, global

  20. CRUCIB: an axisymmetric convection code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, L.A.


    The CRUCIB code was written in support of an experimental program aimed at measurement of thermal diffusivities of refractory liquids. Precise values of diffusivity are necessary to realistic analysis of reactor safety problems, nuclear waste disposal procedures, and fundamental metal forming processes. The code calculates the axisymmetric transient convective motions produced in a right circular cylindrical crucible, which is surface heated by an annular heat pulse. Emphasis of this report is placed on the input-output options of the CRUCIB code, which are tailored to assess the importance of the convective heat transfer in determining the surface temperature distribution. Use is limited to Prandtl numbers less than unity; larger values can be accommodated by replacement of a single block of the code, if desired. (U.S.)

  1. Isolation of Microarray-Grade Total RNA, MicroRNA, and DNA from a Single PAXgene Blood RNA Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Voss, Thorsten


    We have developed a procedure for isolation of microRNA and genomic DNA in addition to total RNA from whole blood stabilized in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. The procedure is based on automatic extraction on a BioRobot MDx and includes isolation of DNA from a fraction of the stabilized blood......RNA was tested using spotted locked nucleic acid-based microarrays. We conclude that the yield and quality of total RNA, microRNA, and DNA from a single PAXgene blood RNA tube is sufficient for downstream microarray analysis....

  2. Characterization of viruses infecting potato plants from a single location in Shetland, an isolated scottish archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, R.J.; Shen, Xinyi; Reid, Alex


    Sequence data were obtained from 29 isolates of Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus V (PVV) and Potato virus X (PVX) infecting nine tubers from Shetland, one of the most remote inhabited islands in the United Kingdom. These isolates were sequenced in the coat protein region, ...

  3. Genome sequences of thirty Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from a single dairy farm and its associated off-site heifer raising facility (United States)

    Cattle are the primary reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the most frequently isolated serotype of enterohemorrhagic E. coli infections among humans in North America. To evaluate the diversity of E. coli O157:H7 isolates within a single dairy herd the genomes of 30 isolates collected over a 7-ye...

  4. On-chip single-copy real-time reverse-transcription PCR in isolated picoliter droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, N R; Wheeler, E; Lee-Houghton, L; Watkins, N; Nasarabadi, S; Hebert, N; Leung, P; Arnold, D; Bailey, C; Colston, B


    The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and RNA isolation, followed by reverse transcription, and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection in the trapped droplets has been developed. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a fused silica device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter-scale droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing thermal cycling for reverse transcription and subsequent PCR amplification without droplet motion. This combination of the established real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy RNA and virions from a complex environment, and will be useful in viral discovery and gene-profiling applications.

  5. Two ITS forms co-inhabiting a single genet of an isolate of Terfezia boudieri (Ascomycotina), a desert truffle. (United States)

    Aviram, Sharon; Roth-Bejerano, Nurit; Kagan-Zur, Varda


    Two fruit-bodies of Terfezia boudieri Chatin, each exhibiting a mixture of two ITS -RFLP profiles, were found in the Negev desert of Israel. A mycelial culture obtained from glebal out-growth maintained the double profile, as did proliferating cultures established using single hyphae isolated from the original cultures. The main difference between the two ITS variants lies in a 21 bp deletion in the smaller variant. The question whether both variants are contained within a single nucleus or occupy different nuclei sharing the same cytoplasm is discussed.

  6. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group


    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian


    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Mal...

  7. High-throughput de novo screening of receptor agonists with an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system. (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Tatematsu, Kenji; Iijima, Masumi; Niimi, Tomoaki; Maturana, Andrés D; Fujii, Ikuo; Kondo, Akihiko; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi


    Reconstitution of signaling pathways involving single mammalian transmembrane receptors has not been accomplished in yeast cells. In this study, intact EGF receptor (EGFR) and a cell wall-anchored form of EGF were co-expressed on the yeast cell surface, which led to autophosphorylation of the EGFR in an EGF-dependent autocrine manner. After changing from EGF to a conformationally constrained peptide library, cells were fluorescently labeled with an anti-phospho-EGFR antibody. Each cell was subjected to an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system that analyzed the fluorescent intensity of each cell and automatically retrieved each cell with the highest fluorescence. In ~3.2 × 10(6) peptide library, we isolated six novel peptides with agonistic activity of the EGFR in human squamous carcinoma A431 cells. The combination of yeast cells expressing mammalian receptors, a cell wall-anchored peptide library, and an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system might facilitate a rational approach for de novo drug screening.

  8. Solar Surface Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordlund Åke


    Full Text Available We review the properties of solar convection that are directly observable at the solar surface, and discuss the relevant underlying physics, concentrating mostly on a range of depths from the temperature minimum down to about 20 Mm below the visible solar surface.The properties of convection at the main energy carrying (granular scales are tightly constrained by observations, in particular by the detailed shapes of photospheric spectral lines and the topology (time- and length-scales, flow velocities, etc. of the up- and downflows. Current supercomputer models match these constraints very closely, which lends credence to the models, and allows robust conclusions to be drawn from analysis of the model properties.At larger scales the properties of the convective velocity field at the solar surface are strongly influenced by constraints from mass conservation, with amplitudes of larger scale horizontal motions decreasing roughly in inverse proportion to the scale of the motion. To a large extent, the apparent presence of distinct (meso- and supergranulation scales is a result of the folding of this spectrum with the effective “filters” corresponding to various observational techniques. Convective motions on successively larger scales advect patterns created by convection on smaller scales; this includes patterns of magnetic field, which thus have an approximately self-similar structure at scales larger than granulation.Radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of solar surface convection can be used as 2D/3D time-dependent models of the solar atmosphere to predict the emergent spectrum. In general, the resulting detailed spectral line profiles agree spectacularly well with observations without invoking any micro- and macroturbulence parameters due to the presence of convective velocities and atmosphere inhomogeneities. One of the most noteworthy results has been a significant reduction in recent years in the derived solar C, N, and O abundances with

  9. Isolation and characterization of a single-stranded DNA virus infecting the marine diatom Chaetoceros sp. strain SS628-11 isolated from western Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Kimura

    Full Text Available Diatoms are significant organisms for primary production in the earth's aquatic environment. Hence, their dynamics are an important focus area in current studies. Viruses are a great concern as potential factors of diatom mortality, along with other physical, chemical, and biological factors. We isolated and characterized a new diatom virus (Csp07DNAV that lyses the marine planktonic diatom Chaetoceros sp. strain SS628-11. This paper examines the physiological, morphological, and genomic characteristics of Csp07DNAV. The virus was isolated from a surface water sample that was collected at Hiroshima Bay, Japan. It was icosahedral, had a diameter of 34 nm, and accumulated in the nuclei of host cells. Rod-shaped virus particles also coexisted in the host nuclei. The latent period and burst size were estimated to be <12 h and 29 infectious units per host cell, respectively. Csp07DNAV had a closed circular single-stranded DNA genome (5,552 nucleotides, which included a double-stranded region and 3 open reading frames. The monophyly of Csp07DNAV and other Bacilladnavirus group single-stranded DNA viruses was supported by phylogenetic analysis that was based on the amino acid sequence of each virus protein. On the basis of these results, we considered Csp07DNAV to be a new member of the genus Bacilladnavirus.

  10. Evaluation of a Single Procedure Allowing the Isolation of Enteropathogenic Yersinia along with Other Bacterial Enteropathogens from Human Stools (United States)

    Savin, Cyril; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth


    Enteropathogenic Yersinia are among the most frequent agents of human diarrhea in temperate and cold countries. However, the incidence of yersiniosis is largely underestimated because of the peculiar growth characteristics of pathogenic Yersinia, which make their isolation from poly-contaminated samples difficult. The use of specific procedures for Yersinia isolation is required, but is expensive and time consuming, and therefore is not systematically performed in clinical pathology laboratories. A means to circumvent this problem would be to use a single procedure for the isolation of all bacterial enteropathogens. Since the Statens Serum Institut enteric medium (SSI) has been reported to allow the growth at 37°C of most Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia, our study aimed at evaluating its performances for Yersinia isolation, as compared to the commonly used Yersinia-specific semi-selective Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin medium (CIN) incubated at 28°C. Our results show that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis growth was strongly inhibited on SSI at 37°C, and therefore that this medium is not suitable for the isolation of this species. All Yersinia enterocolitica strains tested grew on SSI, while some non-pathogenic Yersinia species were inhibited. The morphology of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI allowed their differentiation from various other Gram-negative bacteria commonly isolated from stool samples. However, in artificially contaminated human stools, the recovery of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI at 37°C was difficult and was 3 logs less sensitive than on CIN at 28°C. Therefore, despite its limitations, the use of a specific procedure (CIN incubated at 28°C) is still required for an efficient isolation of enteropathogenic Yersinia from stools. PMID:22911756

  11. Magneto-convection. (United States)

    Stein, Robert F


    Convection is the transport of energy by bulk mass motions. Magnetic fields alter convection via the Lorentz force, while convection moves the fields via the curl(v×B) term in the induction equation. Recent ground-based and satellite telescopes have increased our knowledge of the solar magnetic fields on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Magneto-convection modelling has also greatly improved recently as computers become more powerful. Three-dimensional simulations with radiative transfer and non-ideal equations of state are being performed. Flux emergence from the convection zone through the visible surface (and into the chromosphere and corona) has been modelled. Local, convectively driven dynamo action has been studied. The alteration in the appearance of granules and the formation of pores and sunspots has been investigated. Magneto-convection calculations have improved our ability to interpret solar observations, especially the inversion of Stokes spectra to obtain the magnetic field and the use of helioseismology to determine the subsurface structure of the Sun.

  12. Inner structural vibration isolation method for a single control moment gyroscope (United States)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Guo, Zixi; Zhang, Yao; Tang, Liang; Guan, Xin


    Assembling and manufacturing errors of control moment gyros (CMG) often generate high frequency vibrations which are detrimental to spacecrafts with high precision pointing requirement. In this paper, some design methods of vibration isolation between CMG and spacecraft is dealt with. As a first step, the dynamic model of the CMG with and without supporting isolation structures is studied and analyzed. Subsequently, the frequency domain analysis of CMG with isolation system is performed and the effectiveness of the designed system is ascertained. Based on the above studies, an adaptive design suitable with appropriate design parameters are carried out. A numerical analysis is also performed to understand the effectiveness of the system and the comparison made. The simulation results clearly indicate that when the ideal isolation structure was implemented in the spacecraft, the vibrations generated by the rotor were found to be greatly reduced, while the capacity of the output torque was not lost, which means that the isolation system will not affect the performance of attitude control.

  13. Scale analysis of convective clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Gryschka


    Full Text Available The size distribution of cumulus clouds due to shallow and deep convection is analyzed using satellite pictures, LES model results and data from the German rain radar network. The size distributions found can be described by simple power laws as has also been proposed for other cloud data in the literature. As the observed precipitation at ground stations is finally determined by cloud numbers in an area and individual sizes and rain rates of single clouds, the cloud size distributions might be used for developing empirical precipitation forecasts or for validating results from cloud resolving models being introduced to routine weather forecasts.

  14. Transition to finger convection in double-diffusive convection


    Kellner, M.; Tilgner, A.


    Finger convection is observed experimentally in an electrodeposition cell in which a destabilizing gradient of copper ions is maintained against a stabilizing temperature gradient. This double-diffusive system shows finger convection even if the total density stratification is unstable. Finger convection is replaced by an ordinary convection roll if convection is fast enough to prevent sufficient heat diffusion between neighboring fingers, or if the thermal buoyancy force is less than 1/30 of...

  15. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa


    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  16. Immediate primary anastomosis for isolated oesophageal atresia: A single-centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Uygun


    Full Text Available Background: Isolated oesophageal atresia without tracheo-oesophageal fistula represents a major challenge for most paediatric surgeons. Here, we present our experience with six neonates with isolated oesophageal atresia who successfully underwent immediate primary anastomosis using multiple Livaditis circular myotomy. Materials and Methods: All six neonates were gross type A isolated oesophageal atresia (6%, from among 102 neonates with oesophageal atresia, treated between January 2009 and December 2013. Five neonates were female; one was male. The mean birth weight was 2300 (range 1700-3100 g. Results: All six neonates successfully underwent immediate primary anastomosis using multiple myotomies (mean 3; range 2-4 within 10 (median 3 days after birth. The gap under traction ranged from 6 to 7 cm. One neonate died of a major cardiac anomaly. Another neonate was lost to follow-up after being well for 3 months. Three anastomotic strictures were treated with balloon dilatation, and four anastomotic leaks were treated conservatively. The mean duration of follow-up was 33 months. Conclusions: To treat isolated oesophageal atresia, an immediate primary anastomosis can be achieved using multiple myotomies. Although, this approach is associated with high complication rates, as are other similar approaches, these complications can be overcome.

  17. The Perinatal Outcomes of Asymptomatic Isolated Single Umbilical Artery in Full-term Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chi Mu


    Conclusion: SUA is a relatively rare finding. When a SUA is identified, the routine check of karyotyping and kidney sonography for possible chromosome and associated renal anomalies may be unnecessary. According to lighter placental weight probably causing the higher incidence of small for gestational age (SGA, pregnancies with isolated SUA should be carefully monitored for evidence of fetal growth restriction.

  18. Morphology of convection and mixing-length theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovay, K.G.


    It is pointed out that observations and numerical experiments are not the only way to determine the morphological characteristics of convection in different layer of stars. It is demonstrated that a sufficiently general formulation of mixing length theory (MLT) that incorporates the kinetic energy flux and the anisotropy of turbulence can be used to give reliable predictions concerning the morphology. Such an MLT, applied to a recent model of the solar convective zone (SCZ), shows that the morphology in the bulk of the SCZ is characterized by isolated fibrillar downflows. A topology reversal occurs a few hundred km below the photosphere, and the outer layers are characterized by isolated upflows and a cellular structure. If the SCZ has a thin lower boundary layer, then near it the structure becomes cellular again, but with isolated downflows. Unlike solar-type stars, convective stellar cores are probably not dominated by fibrillar isolated downflows, but rather by isolated upflows. 12 refs

  19. Mos1-mediated transgenesis to probe consequences of single gene mutations in variation-rich isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Tarailo-Graovac

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans, especially the N2 isolate, is an invaluable biological model system. Numerous additional natural C. elegans isolates have been shown to have unexpected genotypic and phenotypic variations which has encouraged researchers to use next generation sequencing methodology to develop a more complete picture of genotypic variations among the isolates. To understand the phenotypic effects of a genomic variation (GV on a single gene, in a variation-rich genetic background, one should analyze that particular GV in a well understood genetic background. In C. elegans, the analysis is usually done in N2, which requires extensive crossing to bring in the GV. This can be a very time consuming procedure thus it is important to establish a fast and efficient approach to test the effect of GVs from different isolates in N2. Here we use a Mos1-mediated single-copy insertion (MosSCI method for phenotypic assessments of GVs from the variation-rich Hawaiian strain CB4856 in N2. Specifically, we investigate effects of variations identified in the CB4856 strain on tac-1 which is an essential gene that is necessary for mitotic spindle elongation and pronuclear migration. We show the usefulness of the MosSCI method by using EU1004 tac-1(or402 as a control. or402 is a temperature sensitive lethal allele within a well-conserved TACC domain (transforming acidic coiled-coil that results in a leucine to phenylalanine change at amino acid 229. CB4856 contains a variation that affects the second exon of tac-1 causing a cysteine to tryptophan change at amino acid 94 also within the TACC domain. Using the MosSCI method, we analyze tac-1 from CB4856 in the N2 background and demonstrate that the C94W change, albeit significant, does not cause any obvious decrease in viability. This MosSCI method has proven to be a rapid and efficient way to analyze GVs.

  20. Mos1-mediated transgenesis to probe consequences of single gene mutations in variation-rich isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; Chen, Nansheng


    Caenorhabditis elegans, especially the N2 isolate, is an invaluable biological model system. Numerous additional natural C. elegans isolates have been shown to have unexpected genotypic and phenotypic variations which has encouraged researchers to use next generation sequencing methodology to develop a more complete picture of genotypic variations among the isolates. To understand the phenotypic effects of a genomic variation (GV) on a single gene, in a variation-rich genetic background, one should analyze that particular GV in a well understood genetic background. In C. elegans, the analysis is usually done in N2, which requires extensive crossing to bring in the GV. This can be a very time consuming procedure thus it is important to establish a fast and efficient approach to test the effect of GVs from different isolates in N2. Here we use a Mos1-mediated single-copy insertion (MosSCI) method for phenotypic assessments of GVs from the variation-rich Hawaiian strain CB4856 in N2. Specifically, we investigate effects of variations identified in the CB4856 strain on tac-1 which is an essential gene that is necessary for mitotic spindle elongation and pronuclear migration. We show the usefulness of the MosSCI method by using EU1004 tac-1(or402) as a control. or402 is a temperature sensitive lethal allele within a well-conserved TACC domain (transforming acidic coiled-coil) that results in a leucine to phenylalanine change at amino acid 229. CB4856 contains a variation that affects the second exon of tac-1 causing a cysteine to tryptophan change at amino acid 94 also within the TACC domain. Using the MosSCI method, we analyze tac-1 from CB4856 in the N2 background and demonstrate that the C94W change, albeit significant, does not cause any obvious decrease in viability. This MosSCI method has proven to be a rapid and efficient way to analyze GVs.

  1. Paired single cell co-culture microenvironments isolated by two-phase flow with continuous nutrient renewal. (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Heng; Kim, Hong Sun; Ingram, Patrick N; Nor, Jacques E; Yoon, Euisik


    Cancer-stromal cell interactions are a critical process in tumorigenesis. Conventional dish-based assays, which simply mix two cell types, have limitations in three aspects: 1) limited control of the cell microenvironment; 2) inability to study cell behavior in a single-cell manner; and 3) have difficulties in characterizing single cell behavior within a highly heterogeneous cell population (e.g. tumor). An innovative use of microfluidic technology is for improving the spatial resolution for single cell assays. However, it is challenging to isolate the paired interacting cells while maintaining nutrient renewal. In this work, two-phase flow was used as a simple isolation method, separating the microenvironment of each individual chamber. As nutrients in an isolated chamber are consumed by cells, media exchange is required. To connect the cell culture chamber to the media exchange layer, we demonstrated a 3D microsystem integration technique using vertical connections fabricated by deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE). Compared to previous approaches, the presented process allows area reduction of vertical connections by an order of magnitude, enabling compact 3D integration. A semi-permeable membrane was sandwiched between the cell culture layer and the media exchange layer. The selectivity of the semi-permeable membrane results in the retention of the signaling proteins within the chamber while allowing free diffusion of nutrients (e.g., glucose and amino acids). Thus, paracrine signals are accumulated inside the chamber without cross-talk between cells in other chambers. Utilizing these innovations, we co-cultured UM-SCC-1 (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma) cells and endothelial cells to simulate tumor proliferation enhancement in the vascular endothelial niche.

  2. Retrospective analysis of mortality and Candida isolates of 75 patients with candidemia: a single hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano R


    Full Text Available Ryuichi Hirano,1 Yuichi Sakamoto,2 Kumiko Kudo,1 Motoki Ohnishi31Department of Pharmacy, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 2Laboratory Medicine and Blood transfusion, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 3General Medicine, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, JapanAbstract: The mortality rate for candidemia is approximately 30%–60%. However, prognostic factors in patients with candidemia have not yet been elucidated in detail. The aim of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors for candidemia using the mortality rate and Candida isolates of patients with candidemia. Seventy-five patients with candidemia were analyzed between January 2007 and December 2013. The main outcome of this study was the 30-day mortality rate after the diagnosis of candidemia. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score (APACHE II score was measured in 34 patients (45.3%. Odds ratios (ORs for death due to candidemia were analyzed using a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. Twenty (26.6% patients died within 30 days of being diagnosed with candidemia. Non-survivors had a significantly higher APACHE II score (n=7, mean; 18.9±4.5 than that of survivors (n=27, mean; 14.0±5.0. Advanced age (OR =1.1, 95% confidence interval =1.01–1.23, P=0.04 was a significant risk factor for a high mortality rate, whereas removal of a central venous catheter (OR =0.03, 95% confidence interval =0.002–0.3, P=0.01 was associated with a lower mortality rate. Seventy-six Candida spp. were isolated from blood cultures: Candida albicans 28 (36.8%, Candida parapsilosis 23 (30.2%, Candida guilliermondii 16 (21.0%, Candida glabrata four (5.2%, Candida tropicalis two (2.6%, and Candida spp. three (3.9% that could not be identified. C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species in younger patients (<65 years, whereas C. albicans was the most frequently isolated in elderly patients (≥65 years

  3. Stability of cell-free DNA from maternal plasma isolated following a single centrifugation step. (United States)

    Barrett, Angela N; Thadani, Henna A; Laureano-Asibal, Cecille; Ponnusamy, Sukumar; Choolani, Mahesh


    Cell-free fetal DNA can be used for prenatal testing with no procedure-related risk to the fetus. However, yield of fetal DNA is low compared with maternal cell-free DNA fragments, resulting in technical challenges for some downstream applications. To maximize the fetal fraction, careful blood processing procedures are essential. We demonstrate that fetal fraction can be preserved using a single centrifugation step followed by postage of plasma to the laboratory for further processing. Digital PCR was used to quantify copies of total, maternal, and fetal DNA present in single-spun plasma at time points over a two-week period, compared with immediately processed double-spun plasma, with storage at room temperature, 4°C, and -80°C representing different postage scenarios. There was no significant change in total, maternal, or fetal DNA copy numbers when single-spun plasma samples were stored for up to 1 week at room temperature and 2 weeks at -80°C compared with plasma processed within 4 h. Following storage at 4°C no change in composition of cell-free DNA was observed. Single-spun plasma can be transported at room temperature if the journey is expected to take one week or less; shipping on dry ice is preferable for longer journeys. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Episodic release of renin from single isolated superfused rat afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O


    Doubts have been raised about the involvement of an exocytotic event in the renin release process. This motivated the development of a technique which permitted the study of renin release from one single superfused rat afferent arteriole with a time resolution of 20 seconds. By using this technique...

  5. An experimental study on single phase convection heat transfer and pressure drop in two brazed plate heat exchangers with different chevron shapes and hydraulic diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Bae; Park, Chang Yong


    An experimental study on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics was performed at single phase flow in two Brazed plate heat exchangers (BPHEs) with different geometries. The corrugation density of one of the BPHE (Type II) was two times as high as that of the other BPHE (Type I). The hydraulic diameter of the type II BPHE was 2.13 mm, which was 38 % smaller than that of the type I BPHE. Also, the cross section shape of the flow channels for the type II BPHE was different from that for conventional BPHEs due to the unusual corrugation patterns and brazing points. The experimental conditions for temperatures were varied from 4.6 °C to 49.1 °C, and for mass flow rates were changed from 0.07 kg/s to 1.24 kg/s. The measured results showed that pressure drop in the type II BPHE was about 110 % higher than that in the type I BPHE. Nu of the type II was higher than that of the type I BPHE and the enhancement became larger with the increase of Re at the ranges above 800. New correlations for fF and Nu were proposed by this study and their prediction accuracy could be improved by considering the surface enlargement factor in the correlations. The performance evaluation of the two BPHEs was performed by (j/f F 1 /3 ) which represented the ratio of heat transfer and pressure drop performance. Also, a new parameter, the capacity compactness of PHE, was proposed and it presented the PHE capacity per unit volume and unit log mean temperature difference. The comparison showed that the two BPHEs had similar values of the (j/f F 1 /3 ), whereas they had significantly different values of the capacity compactness. The capacity compactness of the type II BPHE was 1.5 times higher than that for the type I BPHE.

  6. Discontinuous genetic variation among mesophilic Naegleria isolates: further evidence that N. gruberi is not a single species. (United States)

    Robinson, B S; Christy, P; Hayes, S J; Dobson, P J


    Naegleria isolates which are currently placed in the type species N. gruberi display great genetic, physiological and morphological heterogeneity. There are two possible interpretations of the nature of this species--that N. gruberi is a species complex or that it is a single continuously variable species. To distinguish between these alternatives, allelic states were determined for 33 loci in 74 new isolates selected to represent wide geographic sources and diverse temperature limits for growth. The results were compared with data for culture collection strains of N. gruberi and other species in the genus. The isolates formed a discontinuous series of clusters, separated by genetic distances similar to those separating the better-characterised taxa N. fowleri, N. lovaniensis, N. jadini, N. australiensis australiensis and N. australiensis italica. Culture collection strains assigned to N. gruberi fell into six distinct clusters, while other clusters were not represented by reference strains. The data are most consistent with the interpretation that N. gruberi is a group of several distinct species, each equivalent to the recently described species in the genus. Naegleria andersoni andersoni and N. andersoni jamiesoni also formed two distinct clusters, equivalent to species. Characteristics temperature limits for growth show that the mesophilic species are ecological as well as genetic entities.

  7. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group. (United States)

    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian


    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Malaysia and were confirmed by In-house TTS1-PCR. Isolates were subjected for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to explore their genotypic diversity and to investigate for possible clonal clustering of a certain sequence type. Patient's clinical information was examined to investigate for clinical correlation among the different genotypes. In spite of small sample set, MLST results indicated predictive results; considerable genotypic diversity, predominance and novelty among B. pseudomallei collected over a single geographically-located population in Malaysia. Massive genotypic heterogeneity was observed; 8 different sequence types with predominance of sequence type 54 and discovery of two novel sequence types. However, no clear pathogenomic or organ tropism clonal relationships were predicted.

  8. Two alphapartitiviruses co-infecting a single isolate of the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. (United States)

    Lyu, Ruiling; Zhang, Yi; Tang, Qing; Li, Yangyi; Cheng, Jiasen; Fu, Yanping; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Daohong; Xie, Jiatao


    Seven dsRNA segments were detected from a single Rhizoctonia solani strain HG81. From the full-length cDNA sequences of four smaller dsRNA segments, the genomes of two related partitiviruses, designated as Rhizoctonia solani partitivirus 3 (RsPV3) and RsPV4, were determined. The genomes of RsPV3 and RsPV4 are both composed of two separate dsRNA segments, with each segment possessing a single open reading frame (ORF). ORF1 from RsPV3 and RsPV4 encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, while ORF2 of RsPV3 and RsPV4 encodes a putative capsid protein. RsPV3 and RsPV4 share high sequence identity with viruses classified within the genus Alphapartitivirus, family Partitiviridae.

  9. Mathematical models of convection

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Victor K; Goncharova, Olga N; Pukhnachev, Vladislav V


    Phenomena of convection are abundant in nature as well as in industry. This volume addresses the subject of convection from the point of view of both, theory and application. While the first three chapters provide a refresher on fluid dynamics and heat transfer theory, the rest of the book describes the modern developments in theory. Thus it brings the reader to the ""front"" of the modern research. This monograph provides the theoretical foundation on a topic relevant to metallurgy, ecology, meteorology, geo-and astrophysics, aerospace industry, chemistry, crystal physics, and many other fiel

  10. Elevation in heat shock protein 72 mRNA following contractions in isolated single skeletal muscle fibers. (United States)

    Stary, Creed M; Walsh, Brandon J; Knapp, Amy E; Brafman, David; Hogan, Michael C


    The purpose of the present study was 1) to develop a stable model for measuring contraction-induced elevations in mRNA in single skeletal muscle fibers and 2) to utilize this model to investigate the response of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) mRNA following an acute bout of fatiguing contractions. Living, intact skeletal muscle fibers were microdissected from lumbrical muscle of Xenopus laevis and either electrically stimulated for 15 min of tetanic contractions (EX; n=26) or not stimulated to contract (REST; n=14). The relative mean developed tension of EX fibers decreased to 29+/-7% of initial peak tension at the stimulation end point. Following treatment, individual fibers were allowed to recover for 1 (n=9), 2 (n=8), or 4 h (n=9) prior to isolation of total cellular mRNA. HSP72, HSP60, and cardiac alpha-actin mRNA content were then assessed in individual fibers using quantitative PCR detection. Relative HSP72 mRNA content was significantly (Pelevated at the 2-h postcontraction time point relative to REST fibers when normalized to either HSP60 (18.5+/-7.5-fold) or cardiac alpha-actin (14.7+/-4.3-fold), although not at the 1- or 4-h time points. These data indicate that 1) extraction of RNA followed by relative quantification of mRNA of select genes in isolated single skeletal muscle fibers can be reliably performed, 2) HSP60 and cardiac alpha-actin are suitable endogenous normalizing genes in skeletal muscle following contractions, and 3) a significantly elevated content of HSP72 mRNA is detectable in skeletal muscle 2 h after a single bout of fatiguing contractions, despite minimal temperature changes and without influence from extracellular sources.

  11. Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of isolated Mn12-Ph Single Molecule Magnets (United States)

    Reaves, K.; Han, P.; Iwaya, K.; Hitosugi, T.; Packwood, D.; Katzgraber, H. G.; Zhao, H.; Dunbar, K. R.; Kim, K.; Teizer, W.


    We study Mn12O12(C6H5COO)16(H2O)4 (Mn12-Ph) single-molecule magnets on a Cu(111) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures (T a strong bias voltage dependence within the molecular interior. The qualitative features of these I vs.V curves differ by spatial location in several intriguing ways (e.g. fixed junction impedance with increasing bias voltages). We explore these normalized I vs. V curves and present a phenomenological explanation for the observed behaviors, corresponding to the physical and electronic structure within the molecule. Funding from WPI-AIMR.

  12. CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...

  13. Utilization of indigenously isolated single strain starter cultures for the production of sourdough bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saeed


    Full Text Available Sourdoughs were prepared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T0 and indigenously isolated starter cultures i.e Lactobacillus brevis (T1, Lactobacillus fermentum (T2 and Lactobacillus plantarum (T3. Breads were prepared from all sourdoughs samples in triplicate and analyzed for pH, Total Titratable Acidity (TTA, loaf volume, microbial characteristics (total plate count and fungal count and sensory profile (internal and external in triplicate. The breads prepared from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T0 exhibited the highest pH with the lowest TTA while T1 showed the lowest pH with the highest TTA. The T0 breads got the highest values for loaf volume followed by T1. The breads produced with the addition of hetero-fermentative starter cultures (T1 and T2 showed resistance against the growth of the contaminating microorganisms. In the sensory evaluation, the breads produced with T1 ranked the best for color (crust and crumb, taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability by the panelists. 

  14. Single species biofilm-forming ability of root canal isolates on gutta-percha points. (United States)

    Takemura, Naoki; Noiri, Yuichiro; Ehara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Takashi; Noguchi, Nobuo; Ebisu, Shigeyuki


    The participation of bacterial biofilms in the over-filled gutta-percha points associated with refractory periapical periodontitis has recently been reported. This study investigated the initial biofilm-forming ability of root canal isolates (Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sanguis, Strep. intermedius, Strep. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Propionibacterium acnes, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia) on gutta-percha points in vitro. Each bacterial strain was suspended in 100% cell culture medium or in culture medium containing 4.5, 45 or 90% (vol/vol) serum. The bacterial suspensions were then co-incubated anaerobically with gutta-percha points for 7 d. The gutta-percha points were processed for scanning electron microscopic observation and examined for biofilm presence and thickness. E. faecalis, Strep. sanguis, Strep. intermedius, Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus biofilms were generated on the surfaces of the specimens incubated in culture medium supplemented with 45 or 90% (vol/vol) serum. The E. faecalis and Strep. sanguis biofilms were significantly thicker than those of Strep. intermedius, Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus. No biofilms were detected on the specimens incubated with F. nucleatum, Prop. acnes, Porph. gingivalis and Prev. intermedia. These findings suggest that Gram-positive facultative anaerobes have the ability to colonize and form extracellular matrices on gutta-percha points, while serum plays a crucial role in biofilm formation. Copyright Eur J Oral Sci, 2004.

  15. Convective overshooting in stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrássy, R.


    Numerous observations provide evidence that the standard picture, in which convective mixing is limited to the unstable layers of a star, is incomplete. The mixing layers in real stars are significantly more extended than what the standard models predict. Some of the observations require changing

  16. Stochasticc convection parameterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrestijn, J.


    Clouds are chaotic, difficult to predict, but above all, magnificent natural phenomena. There are different types of clouds: stratus, a layer of clouds that may produce drizzle, cirrus, clouds in the higher parts of the atmosphere, and cumulus, clouds that arise in convective updrafts. Thermals,

  17. Microencapsulated 3-Dimensional Sensor for the Measurement of Oxygen in Single Isolated Pancreatic Islets (United States)

    Khalil, Gamal; Sweet, Ian R.; Shen, Amy Q.


    Background Oxygen consumption reflects multiple processes in pancreatic islets including mechanisms contributing to insulin secretion, oxidative stress and viability, providing an important readout in studies of islet function, islet viability and drug testing. Due to the scarcity, heterogeneity, and intrinsic kinetic properties of individual islets, it would be of great benefit to detect oxygen consumption by single islets. We present a novel method we have developed to image oxygen in single islets. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a microfluidics system, individual islets and a fluorescent oxygen-sensitive dye were encased within a thin alginate polymer layer. Insulin secretion by the encapsulated islets was normal. Fluorescent signal from the encased dye, detected using a standard inverted fluorescence microscope and digital camera, was stable and proportional to the amount of oxygen in the media. When integrated into a perifusion system, the sensing system detected changes in response to metabolic substrates, mitochondrial poisons, and induced-oscillations. Glucose responses averaged 30.1±7.1% of the response to a metabolic inhibitor (cyanide), increases were observed in all cases (n = 6), and the system was able to resolve changes in oxygen consumption that had a period greater than 0.5 minutes. The sensing system operated similarly from 2–48 hours following encapsulation, and viability and function of the islets were not significantly affected by the encapsulation process. Conclusions/Significance An oxygen-dependent dye situated around and within a pancreatic islet encapsulated by a thin layer of alginate was sensitive to changes in oxygen consumption, and was not harmful to the function or viability of islets over the course of two days. The microcapsule-based sensing method is particularly suited to assessing the effects of compounds (dose responses and time courses) and chronic changes occurring over the course of days. The approach should be

  18. Peribulbar block in equine isolated heads. Development of a single needle technique and tomographic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vanessa rabbogliatti


    Full Text Available Peribulbar block (PPB has been used in humans as a safer alternative to retrobulbar block (RBB. PBB, depends on the diffusion of anaesthetic solution into the muscle across the connective tissue and it is performed introducing the needle within the extraconal space. The advantages are fewer complications and palpebral akinesia. In Veterinary Medicine few studies describe this technique in dogs (Ahn J 2013 and cats (Shilo-Benjamini et al. 2013. Based on literature the aim of the study is to determinate, in equine specimens, feasibility of inferior PBB with single needle injection, by using contrast medium (CM, and to evaluate thought Computed Tomography (CT the distribution around the optic nerve (degrees. PBB was performed in 6 orbits. The mixture injected consisted of 20 ml of physiological solution and iodinated CM at 25%. Each periorbital area underwent three CT scans. A basal acquisition to assess the needle position before the injection, a second and third scan were performed immediately after injection, and after application of pressure on the periorbital surface area to promote CM diffusion. The needle position was measured from the tip to the optic nerve with a mean distance of 2,27 mm ± 0,28. The mean volume distribution before pressure application was 23,56 cm3 ± 2,58 and after pressure application was 27,56 cm3 ± 4,8.  The CM distribution, was defined (Nouvellon et al. 2010 “successful” in 4 orbits (>270° and “inadequate” in 2 orbits (<180°. The present study demonstrates feasibility of inferior PBB by single injection in horses for its simple and practical execution. Inferior PPB is a potential alternative to systemic administration of neuromuscular blocking agents for ophthalmic surgery. However, this approach needs to be evaluate in clinical trials to assess its feasibility and effectiveness in clinical practice for standing procedures.

  19. Single cell proteomics using frog (Xenopus laevis) blastomeres isolated from early stage embryos, which form a geometric progression in protein content


    Sun, Liangliang; Dubiak, Kyle M.; Peuchen, Elizabeth H.; Zhang, Zhenbin; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W.; Dovichi, Norman J.


    Single cell analysis is required to understand cellular heterogeneity in biological systems. We propose that single cells (blastomeres) isolated from early stage invertebrate, amphibian, or fish embryos are ideal model systems for the development of technologies for single cell analysis. For these embryos, although cell cleavage is not exactly symmetric, the content per blastomere decreases roughly by half with each cell division, creating a geometric progression in cellular content. This pro...

  20. Isolation and characterization of subgenomic DNAs encapsidated in 'single' T = 1 isometric particles of Maize streak virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, Carolina G.; Javier Ortiz, G.; Padron, Eric; Bean, Samantha J.; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Boulton, Margaret I.


    'Single' T = 1 isometric particles of Maize streak virus (MSV) have been isolated from infected maize leaves. Biochemical and genetic characterizations show that these particles contain subgenomic (sg) MSV DNA encapsidated by the MSV coat protein. The largest sg DNA is 1.56 kb, slightly larger than half genome size, although sg DNAs as small as 0.2 kb were also cloned. The sg DNAs are not infectious, and they do not appear to play a role in the pathogenicity of MSV. This is the first report of sg DNAs for MSV and, to our knowledge, the first time that encapsidated sg DNAs have been characterized at the sequence level for any geminivirus. These data will assist in our investigations into the role of genomic DNA in the formation of the unique geminate capsid architecture of the Geminiviridae

  1. Characterizing the degree of convective clustering using radar reflectivity and its application to evaluating model simulations (United States)

    Cheng, W. Y.; Kim, D.; Rowe, A.; Park, S.


    Despite the impact of mesoscale convective organization on the properties of convection (e.g., mixing between updrafts and environment), parameterizing the degree of convective organization has only recently been attempted in cumulus parameterization schemes (e.g., Unified Convection Scheme UNICON). Additionally, challenges remain in determining the degree of convective organization from observations and in comparing directly with the organization metrics in model simulations. This study addresses the need to objectively quantify the degree of mesoscale convective organization using high quality S-PolKa radar data from the DYNAMO field campaign. One of the most noticeable aspects of mesoscale convective organization in radar data is the degree of convective clustering, which can be characterized by the number and size distribution of convective echoes and the distance between them. We propose a method of defining contiguous convective echoes (CCEs) using precipitating convective echoes identified by a rain type classification algorithm. Two classification algorithms, Steiner et al. (1995) and Powell et al. (2016), are tested and evaluated against high-resolution WRF simulations to determine which method better represents the degree of convective clustering. Our results suggest that the CCEs based on Powell et al.'s algorithm better represent the dynamical properties of the convective updrafts and thus provide the basis of a metric for convective organization. Furthermore, through a comparison with the observational data, the WRF simulations driven by the DYNAMO large-scale forcing, similarly applied to UNICON Single Column Model simulations, will allow us to evaluate the ability of both WRF and UNICON to simulate convective clustering. This evaluation is based on the physical processes that are explicitly represented in WRF and UNICON, including the mechanisms leading to convective clustering, and the feedback to the convective properties.

  2. Convective heat transfer on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arx, A.V. von; Delgado, A. Jr.


    An examination was made into the feasibility of using convective heat transfer on Mars to reject the waste heat from a Closed Brayton Cycle. Forced and natural convection were compared to thermal radiation. For the three radiator configurations studied, it was concluded that thermal radiation will yield the minimum mass and forced convection will result in the minimum area radiator. Other issues such as reliability of a fan motor were not addressed. Convective heat transfer on Mars warrants further investigation. However, the low density of the Martian atmosphere makes it difficult to utilize convective heat transfer without incurring a weight penalty

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphism isolated from a novel EST dataset in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). (United States)

    Mercati, Francesco; Riccardi, Paolo; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Falavigna, Agostino; Sunseri, Francesco


    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) are abundant and evenly distributed co-dominant molecular markers in plant genomes. SSRs are valuable for marker assisted breeding and positional cloning of genes associated traits of interest. Although several high throughput platforms have been developed to identify SNP and SSR markers for analysis of segregant plant populations, breeding in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) has been limited by a low content of such markers. In this study massively parallel GS-FLX pyro-sequencing technology (454 Life Sciences) has been used to sequence and compare transcriptome from two genotypes: a rust tolerant male (1770) and a susceptible female (G190). A total of 122,963 and 99,368 sequence reads, with an average length of 245.7bp, have been recovered from accessions 1770 and 190 respectively. A computational pipeline has been used to predict and visually inspect putative SNPs and SSR sequences. Analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) slim annotation assignments for all assembled uniscripts indicated that the 24,403 assemblies represent genes from a broad array of functions. Further, over 1800 putative SNPs and 1000 SSRs were detected. One hundred forty-four SNPs together with 60 selected SSRs were validated and used to develop a preliminary genetic map by using a large BC(1) population, derived from 1770 and G190. The abundance of SNPs and SSRs provides a foundation for the development of saturated genetic maps and their utilization in assisted asparagus breeding programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Photon scattering by isolated isotopic impurities in single crystals of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, D.T.


    Thermal conductivity measurements of oriented single crystals of hexagonal close-packed 4 He have been made in order to study the scattering of phonons by isotopic impurities. The samples, all grown at a constant pressure of 85.1 atmospheres, contained 3 He concentrations ranging from less than 10 - 6 to 2 x 10 - 5 . Apparatus and techniques have been developed which allow the growth of crystals at preferred orientations: c-axis orientations of 0 and 90 0 with respect to the direction of heat flow were chosen for this study. Quality and orientation of the sample crystals were determined from the thermal conductivity measurements themselves. In the 90 0 crystals an isotopic concentration of 2 x 10 - 5 reduces the thermal conductivity peak by a factor of 2.8. A model using the dominant phonon approximation to define an average isotope cross section for phonon scattering fits these data well. The cross section thus obtained is larger than can be explained by scattering from the mass defect alone, and provides a measure of the lattice distortion accompanying an isotopic substitution. Relevant theories are examined in the light of these results. The data for 0 0 crystals are consistent with the same cross section if samples displaying the same effective phonon mean free path in the low temperature limit are compared. Variations in this limiting mean free path are attributed to specular reflection of phonons at the sample chamber walls. At the lowest 3 He concentrations Poiseuille flow of phonons causes a peak in the effective mean free path a factor of 4.6 higher than the low temperature limit

  5. Isolation of anti-toxin single domain antibodies from a semi-synthetic spiny dogfish shark display library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Ellen R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shark heavy chain antibody, also called new antigen receptor (NAR, consists of one single Variable domain (VH, containing only two complementarity-determining regions (CDRs. The antigen binding affinity and specificity are mainly determined by these two CDRs. The good solubility, excellent thermal stability and complex sequence variation of small single domain antibodies (sdAbs make them attractive alternatives to conventional antibodies. In this report, we construct and characterize a diversity enhanced semi-synthetic NAR V display library based on naturally occurring NAR V sequences. Results A semi-synthetic shark sdAb display library with a complexity close to 1e9 was constructed. This was achieved by introducing size and sequence variations in CDR3 using randomized CDR3 primers of three different lengths. Binders against three toxins, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, ricin, and botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A complex toxoid, were isolated from panning the display library. Soluble sdAbs from selected binders were purified and evaluated using direct binding and thermal stability assays on the Luminex 100. In addition, sandwich assays using sdAb as the reporter element were developed to demonstrate their utility for future sensor applications. Conclusion We demonstrated the utility of a newly created hyper diversified shark NAR displayed library to serve as a source of thermal stable sdAbs against a variety of toxins.

  6. Convection and stellar oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarslev, Magnus Johan


    energy exchange between convection and pulsations, i.e. the modal part of the surface effect. Studying excitation and damping mechanisms requires a non-adiabatic treatment. A major part of my research has been modelling damping rates of red giant stars observed by {\\Kp}. The basis for the non...... atmospheres to replace the outer layers of stellar models. The additional turbulent pressure and asymmetrical opacity effects in the atmosphere model, compared to convection in stellar evolution models, serve to expand the atmosphere. The enlarged acoustic cavity lowers the pulsation frequencies bringing them....... However, the effects are barely prominent enough to be distinguishable with today's observational precision. But it does provide means of determining the mixing-length and enables consistent patching. The previously mentioned investigations are based on adiabatic frequency calculations, which neglect...

  7. Convection heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian


    Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.

  8. Radiative-convective equilibrium model intercomparison project (United States)

    Wing, Allison A.; Reed, Kevin A.; Satoh, Masaki; Stevens, Bjorn; Bony, Sandrine; Ohno, Tomoki


    RCEMIP, an intercomparison of multiple types of models configured in radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE), is proposed. RCE is an idealization of the climate system in which there is a balance between radiative cooling of the atmosphere and heating by convection. The scientific objectives of RCEMIP are three-fold. First, clouds and climate sensitivity will be investigated in the RCE setting. This includes determining how cloud fraction changes with warming and the role of self-aggregation of convection in climate sensitivity. Second, RCEMIP will quantify the dependence of the degree of convective aggregation and tropical circulation regimes on temperature. Finally, by providing a common baseline, RCEMIP will allow the robustness of the RCE state across the spectrum of models to be assessed, which is essential for interpreting the results found regarding clouds, climate sensitivity, and aggregation, and more generally, determining which features of tropical climate a RCE framework is useful for. A novel aspect and major advantage of RCEMIP is the accessibility of the RCE framework to a variety of models, including cloud-resolving models, general circulation models, global cloud-resolving models, single-column models, and large-eddy simulation models.

  9. Impact of a single session of intermittent pneumatic leg compressions on skeletal muscle and isolated artery gene expression in rats. (United States)

    Roseguini, Bruno T; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Newcomer, Sean C; Laughlin, M H


    Intermittent pneumatic leg compressions (IPC) have proven to be an effective noninvasive approach for treatment of patients with claudication, but the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits remain elusive. In the present study, a rodent model of claudication produced by bilateral ligation of the femoral artery was used to investigate the acute impact of a single session of IPC (150 min) on hemodynamics, skeletal muscle (tibialis anterior), and isolated collateral artery (perforating artery) expression of a subset of genes associated with inflammation and vascular remodeling. In addition, the effect of compression frequency (15 vs. 3 compressions/min) on the expression of these factors was studied. In ligated animals, IPC evoked an increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CXCL1) mRNA (P < 0.01) and immunostaining (P < 0.05), as well as a minor increase in VEGF immunostaining in the muscle endomysium 150 min postintervention. Further, collateral arteries from these animals showed an increased expression of MCP-1 (approximately twofold, P = 0.02). These effects were most evident in the group exposed to the high-frequency protocol (15 compressions/min). In contrast, IPC in sham-operated control animals evoked a modest initial upregulation of VEGF (P = 0.01), MCP-1 (P = 0.02), and CXCL1 (P = 0.03) mRNA in the muscle without concomitant changes in protein levels. No changes in gene expression were observed in arteries isolated from sham animals. In conclusion, IPC acutely up-regulates the expression of important factors involved in vascular remodeling in the compressed muscle and collateral arteries in a model of hindlimb ischemia. These effects appear to be dependent on the compression frequency, such that a high compression frequency (15 compressions/min) evokes more consistent and robust effects compared with the frequency commonly employed clinically to treat patients with claudication (3

  10. Whole Genome and Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analyses of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Associated with an Outbreak Linked to Cheese, United States, 2013 (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Carleton, Heather; Timme, Ruth; Melka, David; Muruvanda, Tim; Wang, Charles; Kastanis, George; Katz, Lee S.; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Moore, Terence; Stones, Robert; Blankenship, Joseph; Salter, Monique; Parish, Mickey; Hammack, Thomas S.; Evans, Peter S.; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol A.; Brown, Eric W.


    ABSTRACT Epidemiological findings of a listeriosis outbreak in 2013 implicated Hispanic-style cheese produced by company A, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were performed on clinical isolates and representative isolates collected from company A cheese and environmental samples during the investigation. The results strengthened the evidence for cheese as the vehicle. Surveillance sampling and WGS 3 months later revealed that the equipment purchased by company B from company A yielded an environmental isolate highly similar to all outbreak isolates. The whole genome and core genome multilocus sequence typing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses results were compared to demonstrate the maximum discriminatory power obtained by using multiple analyses, which were needed to differentiate outbreak-associated isolates from a PFGE-indistinguishable isolate collected in a nonimplicated food source in 2012. This unrelated isolate differed from the outbreak isolates by only 7 to 14 SNPs, and as a result, the minimum spanning tree from the whole genome analyses and certain variant calling approach and phylogenetic algorithm for core genome-based analyses could not provide differentiation between unrelated isolates. Our data also suggest that SNP/allele counts should always be combined with WGS clustering analysis generated by phylogenetically meaningful algorithms on a sufficient number of isolates, and the SNP/allele threshold alone does not provide sufficient evidence to delineate an outbreak. The putative prophages were conserved across all the outbreak isolates. All outbreak isolates belonged to clonal complex 5 and serotype 1/2b and had an identical inlA sequence which did not have premature stop codons. IMPORTANCE In this outbreak, multiple analytical approaches were used for maximum discriminatory power. A PFGE-matched, epidemiologically unrelated isolate had high genetic similarity to the outbreak

  11. Biodegradation of benzalkonium chlorides singly and in mixtures by a Pseudomonas sp. isolated from returned activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B9 (Canada); Topp, Edward, E-mail: Ed.Topp@AGR.GC.CA [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON N5V 4T3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Scott, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Scott@AGR.GC.CA [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON N5V 4T3 (Canada); Sumarah, Mark, E-mail: [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON N5V 4T3 (Canada); Macfie, Sheila M., E-mail: [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Ray, Madhumita B., E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B9 (Canada)


    Highlights: • Pseudomonas sp. degraded two benzalkonium chlorides: BDDA and BDTA. • Although BDTA biodegraded at low concentration, it inhibited the degradation of BDDA. • For BDDA, two transformation products indicate two sites of bacterial activity. • {sup 14}C-labelled BDDA was mineralized to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} within 300 h. - Abstract: Bactericidal cationic surfactants such as quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely detected in the environment, and found at mg kg{sup −1} concentrations in biosolids. Although individual QACs are amenable to biodegradation, it is possible that persistence is increased for mixtures of QACs with varying structure. The present study evaluated the biodegradation of benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (BDDA) singly and in the presence of benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BDTA) using Pseudomonas sp., isolated from returned activated sludge. Growth was evaluated, as was biodegradation using {sup 14}C and HPLC-MS methods. BDTA was more toxic to growth of Pseudomonas sp. compared to BDDA, and BDTA inhibited BDDA biodegradation. The benzyl ring of [U-{sup 14}C-benzyl] BDDA was readily and completely mineralized. The detection of the transformation products benzyl methyl amine and dodecyl dimethyl amine in spent culture liquid was consistent with literature. Overall, this study demonstrates the antagonistic effect of interactions on biodegradation of two widely used QACs suggesting further investigation on the degradation of mixture of QACs in wastewater effluents and biosolids.

  12. Biodegradation of benzalkonium chlorides singly and in mixtures by a Pseudomonas sp. isolated from returned activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain; Topp, Edward; Scott, Andrew; Sumarah, Mark; Macfie, Sheila M.; Ray, Madhumita B.


    Highlights: • Pseudomonas sp. degraded two benzalkonium chlorides: BDDA and BDTA. • Although BDTA biodegraded at low concentration, it inhibited the degradation of BDDA. • For BDDA, two transformation products indicate two sites of bacterial activity. • 14 C-labelled BDDA was mineralized to 14 CO 2 within 300 h. - Abstract: Bactericidal cationic surfactants such as quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely detected in the environment, and found at mg kg −1 concentrations in biosolids. Although individual QACs are amenable to biodegradation, it is possible that persistence is increased for mixtures of QACs with varying structure. The present study evaluated the biodegradation of benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (BDDA) singly and in the presence of benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BDTA) using Pseudomonas sp., isolated from returned activated sludge. Growth was evaluated, as was biodegradation using 14 C and HPLC-MS methods. BDTA was more toxic to growth of Pseudomonas sp. compared to BDDA, and BDTA inhibited BDDA biodegradation. The benzyl ring of [U- 14 C-benzyl] BDDA was readily and completely mineralized. The detection of the transformation products benzyl methyl amine and dodecyl dimethyl amine in spent culture liquid was consistent with literature. Overall, this study demonstrates the antagonistic effect of interactions on biodegradation of two widely used QACs suggesting further investigation on the degradation of mixture of QACs in wastewater effluents and biosolids.

  13. Single Cell Oil Production from Hydrolysates of Inulin by a Newly Isolated Yeast Papiliotrema laurentii AM113 for Biodiesel Making. (United States)

    Wang, Guangyuan; Liu, Lin; Liang, Wenxing


    Microbial oils are among the most attractive alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. In this study, a newly isolated yeast strain, AM113 of Papiliotrema laurentii, was identified as a potential lipid producer, which could accumulate a large amount of intracellular lipids from hydrolysates of inulin. P. laurentii AM113 was able to produce 54.6% (w/w) of intracellular oil in its cells and 18.2 g/l of dry cell mass in a fed-batch fermentation. The yields of lipid and biomass were 0.14 and 0.25 g per gram of consumed sugar, respectively. The lipid productivity was 0.092 g of oil per hour. Compositions of the fatty acids produced were C 14:0 (0.9%), C 16:0 (10.8%), C 16:1 (9.7%), C 18:0 (6.5%), C 18:1 (60.3%), and C 18:2 (11.8%). Biodiesel obtained from the extracted lipids could be burnt well. This study not only provides a promising candidate for single cell oil production, but will also probably facilitate more efficient biodiesel production.

  14. Modelling of stellar convection (United States)

    Kupka, Friedrich; Muthsam, Herbert J.


    The review considers the modelling process for stellar convection rather than specific astrophysical results. For achieving reasonable depth and length we deal with hydrodynamics only, omitting MHD. A historically oriented introduction offers first glimpses on the physics of stellar convection. Examination of its basic properties shows that two very different kinds of modelling keep being needed: low dimensional models (mixing length, Reynolds stress, etc.) and "full" 3D simulations. A list of affordable and not affordable tasks for the latter is given. Various low dimensional modelling approaches are put in a hierarchy and basic principles which they should respect are formulated. In 3D simulations of low Mach number convection the inclusion of then unimportant sound waves with their rapid time variation is numerically impossible. We describe a number of approaches where the Navier-Stokes equations are modified for their elimination (anelastic approximation, etc.). We then turn to working with the full Navier-Stokes equations and deal with numerical principles for faithful and efficient numerics. Spatial differentiation as well as time marching aspects are considered. A list of codes allows assessing the state of the art. An important recent development is the treatment of even the low Mach number problem without prior modification of the basic equation (obviating side effects) by specifically designed numerical methods. Finally, we review a number of important trends such as how to further develop low-dimensional models, how to use 3D models for that purpose, what effect recent hardware developments may have on 3D modelling, and others.

  15. Convective Lyapunov spectra (United States)

    Kenfack Jiotsa, Aurélien; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro


    We generalize the concept of the convective (or velocity-dependent) Lyapunov exponent from the maximum rate Λ(v) to an entire spectrum Λ(v, n). Our results are derived by following two distinct computational protocols: (i) Legendre transform within the chronotopic approach (Lepri et al 1996 J. Stat. Phys. 82 1429); (ii) by letting evolve an ensemble of initially localized perturbations. The two approaches turn out to be mutually consistent. Moreover, we find the existence of a phase transition: above a critical value n = nc of the integrated density of exponents, the zero-velocity convective exponent is strictly smaller than the corresponding Lyapunov exponent. This phenomenon is traced back to a change of concavity of the so-called temporal Lyapunov spectrum for n > nc, which, therefore, turns out to be a dynamically invariant quantity. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.

  16. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility and major clones of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex isolates from a single hospital in Korea over 7 years. (United States)

    Park, Young Kyoung; Jung, Sook-In; Park, Kyong-Hwa; Kim, Dae Hun; Choi, Ji Young; Kim, Su Hwan; Ko, Kwan Soo


    Acinetobacter species have emerged as opportunistic nosocomial pathogens in intensive care units. Epidemic spread and outbreaks of multidrug-resistant or carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections have been described worldwide. Species distribution, antimicrobial resistance and genotypes were investigated for Acinetobacter species isolates collected from a single institution in Korea over 7 years. Two hundred and eighty-seven Acinetobacter species isolates were collected from patients with bloodstream infections in one Korean hospital from 2003 to 2010. Most of them belonged to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex (94.4 %). The most frequently isolated species was A. baumannii (44.2 %), followed by Acinetobacter nosocomialis (formerly Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU) (34.1 %). The proportion of A. baumannii increased significantly from 2008 to 2010 (40.4 to 50.0 %). From 2008, imipenem and meropenem resistance rates increased significantly compared with 2003-2007 (12.9 % and 20.5 %, respectively, to 41.4 % and 41.5 %, respectively). An increased carbapenem resistance rate between the two periods was identified more clearly amongst A. baumannii isolates. Polymyxin-resistant A. baumannii isolates emerged in 2008-2010, despite the availability of few isolates. The increase of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii might be due to the substitution of main clones. Although ST92 and ST69 were the most prevalent clones amongst A. baumannii in 2003-2007 (47.8 % and 15.9 %, respectively), ST75 and ST138 had increased in 2008-2010 (39.7 % and 25.9 %, respectively). Although ST92 showed moderate resistance to carbapenems, most ST75 and ST138 isolates were resistant to carbapenems. All ST75 and ST138 isolates, but only one ST92 isolate, contained the bla(OXA-23-like) gene. Increased carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter species and A. baumannii isolates might be due to the expansion of specific carbapenem-resistant clones.

  17. Relationships between Convective Strength and Anvil Development based on AIRS-CloudSat Joint Dataset (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Protopapadaki, S.; Stubenrauch, C.; Luo, Z. J.; Stephens, G. L.


    This study is a follow-up to a previous publication by Protopapadaki et al (2017), which discovered an interesting tendency: during the mature stage of convective systems, stronger/deeper convective cores tend to have larger fractions of thin cirrus coverage. This tendency was found over continental, oceanic, single- and multi-core convective systems, which made the result robust. This tendency is a key to understanding atmospheric radiative budgets and climate feedbacks, since thin cirrus has a warming effect on the atmosphere. However, the analysis was limited to the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). For example, convective core, thick cirrus, and thin cirrus were categorized by AIRS emissivity, the proxy of convective strength/depth was based on AIRS minimum temperature within the convective core, and the definition of maturity stage was based on the fraction of convective core. Therefore, it is necessary to test if a similar tendency can be seen by other instruments such as CloudSat. In this study, different proxies of convective strength/depth, and a different definition of life stage of convective systems are introduced by the joint analysis of CloudSat, AIRS, and geostationary satellite observations, to investigate the relationship between convective depth/strength and the fraction of thin as well as thick cirrus. Finally, net heating rate is analyzed over convective cores, thick cirrus, and thin cirrus to understand what role they play in controlling the energy budget in the atmosphere.

  18. Is Convection Sensitive to Model Vertical Resolution and Why? (United States)

    Xie, S.; Lin, W.; Zhang, G. J.


    Model sensitivity to horizontal resolutions has been studied extensively, whereas model sensitivity to vertical resolution is much less explored. In this study, we use the US Department of Energy (DOE)'s Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) atmosphere model to examine the sensitivity of clouds and precipitation to the increase of vertical resolution of the model. We attempt to understand what results in the behavior change (if any) of convective processes represented by the unified shallow and turbulent scheme named CLUBB (Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals) and the Zhang-McFarlane deep convection scheme in ACME. A short-term hindcast approach is used to isolate parameterization issues from the large-scale circulation. The analysis emphasizes on how the change of vertical resolution could affect precipitation partitioning between convective- and grid-scale as well as the vertical profiles of convection-related quantities such as temperature, humidity, clouds, convective heating and drying, and entrainment and detrainment. The goal is to provide physical insight into potential issues with model convective processes associated with the increase of model vertical resolution. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Isolated single coronary artery (RII-B type presenting as an inferior wall myocardial infarction: A rare clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur C. Thummar


    Full Text Available Isolated single coronary artery without other congenital cardiac anomalies is very rare among the different variations of anomalous coronary patterns. The prognosis in patients with single coronary varies according to the anatomic distribution and associated coronary atherosclerosis. If the left main coronary artery travels between the aorta and pulmonary arteries, it may be a cause of sudden cardiac death. We present multimodality images of a single coronary artery, in which the whole coronary system originated by a single trunk from the right sinus of Valsalva with inter-arterial course of left main coronary artery. This rare type of single coronary artery was classified as RII-B type according to Lipton's scheme of classification. A significant flow-limiting lesions were found in the right coronary artery that was successfully treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.

  20. Effects of mefloquine on cardiac contractility and electrical activity in vivo, in isolated cardiac preparations, and in single ventricular myocytes (United States)

    Coker, Susan J; Batey, Andrew J; Lightbown, Ian D; Díaz, Mary E; Eisner, David A


    To examine the possible cardiotoxicity of the antimalarial drug mefloquine, increasing doses (0.3–30 mg kg−1) were given i.v. to anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Mefloquine did not alter ECG intervals significantly but gradually increased systolic blood pressure (at 3 mg kg−1) then had a depressor effect (at 10 mg kg−1). Death due to profound hypotension, probably resulting from cardiac contractile failure or AV block, occurred after either 10 mg kg−1 (2/6) or 30 mg kg−1 (4/6) mefloquine. In isolated cardiac preparations mefloquine (3–100 μM) did not alter the effective refractory period but at the higher concentrations resting tension increased. Developed tension was reduced by 100 μM mefloquine in left atria (from 5.8±1.7 to 2.2±0.4 mN) whereas in papillary muscles although 30 μM mefloquine reduced developed tension (from 2.6±0.5 to 1.1±0.1 mN) subsequent addition of 100 μM caused a marked, but not sustained, positive inotropic effect (from 1.2±0.1 to 3.8±0.8 mN). In single ventricular myocytes, mefloquine (10 μM) shortened action potential duration (e.g. APD90 from 285±29 to 141±12 ms) and reduced the amplitude of the systolic Ca2+ transient. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the L-type Ca2+ current. These results indicate that the main adverse effect of mefloquine on the heart is a negative inotropic action. This action can be explained by blockade of L-type Ca2+ channels. PMID:10694239

  1. Experimental study of thermocapillary convection in a germanium melt (United States)

    Gorbunov, Leonid A.


    The present paper is dedicated to the experimental investigation of thermocapillary convection (TCC) in semiconductor melts. The investigation showed that in the process of single crystal growth under terrestrial conditions TCC could be compared to thermogravity convection (TGC) for a number of semiconductor melts such as Ge, Si, GaAs. But in comparatively thin layers with H container radius) it can dominate over TGC. The experiments were conducted with a Ge melt. Oxide particle tracers were used to measure the melt motion rate. The results obtained emphasize the significance of TCC in the process of single crystal growth under terrestrial conditions.

  2. Development of a simplified RT-PCR without RNA isolation for rapid detection of RNA viruses in a single small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén). (United States)

    Xu, Qiufang; Liu, Haoqiu; Yuan, Pingping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Qingqing; Jiang, Xuanli; Zhou, Yijun


    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is an important pest of cereal crops and acts as a transmission vector for multiple RNA viruses. Rapid diagnosis of virus in the vector is crucial for efficient forecast and control of viral disease. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for virus detection. The traditional RT-PCR contains a RNA isolation step and is widely used for virus detection in insect. However, using the traditional RT-PCR for detecting RNA virus in individual SBPHs becomes challenging because of the expensive reagents and laborious procedure associated with RNA isolation when processing a large number of samples. We established a simplified RT-PCR method without RNA isolation for RNA virus detection in a single SBPH. This method is achieved by grinding a single SBPH in sterile water and using the crude extract directly as the template for RT-PCR. The crude extract containing the virus RNA can be prepared in approximately two minutes. Rice stripe virus (RSV), rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Himetobi P virus (HiPV) were successfully detected using this simplified method. The detection results were validated by sequencing and dot immunobinding assay, indicating that this simplified method is reliable for detecting different viruses in insects. The evaluation of the sensitivity of this method showed that both RSV and HiPV can be detected when the cDNA from the crude extract was diluted up to 10 3 fold. Compared to the traditional RT-PCR with RNA isolation, the simplified RT-PCR method greatly reduces the sample processing time, decreases the detection cost, and improves the efficiency by avoiding RNA isolation. A simplified RT-PCR method is developed for rapid detection of RNA virus in a single SBPH without the laborious RNA isolation step. It offers a convenient alternative to the traditional RT-PCR method.

  3. Convection in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A


    This book provides a user-friendly introduction to the topic of convection in porous media The authors as- sume that the reader is familiar with the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but otherwise the book is self-contained The book will be useful both as a review (for reference) and as a tutorial work, suitable as a textbook in a graduate course or seminar The book brings into perspective the voluminous research that has been performed during the last two decades The field has recently exploded because of worldwide concern with issues such as energy self-sufficiency and pollution of the environment Areas of application include the insulation of buildings and equipment, energy storage and recovery, geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactor engineering, and the storage of heat-generating materials such as grain and coal Geophysical applications range from the flow of groundwater around hot intrusions to the stability of snow against avalanches

  4. Convection in Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A


    Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routine mathematics and the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The book will be of use not only to researchers and practicing engineers as a review and reference, but also to graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features approximately 1,750 new references and covers current research in nanofluids, cellular porous materials, strong heterogeneity, pulsating flow, and more. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 250-page reference list Cited over 2300 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction for those entering the field and as a comprehensive reference for experienced researchers Features new sections on nanofluids, carbon dioxide sequestration, and applications...

  5. Internal Wave Generation by Convection (United States)

    Lecoanet, Daniel Michael

    In nature, it is not unusual to find stably stratified fluid adjacent to convectively unstable fluid. This can occur in the Earth's atmosphere, where the troposphere is convective and the stratosphere is stably stratified; in lakes, where surface solar heating can drive convection above stably stratified fresh water; in the oceans, where geothermal heating can drive convection near the ocean floor, but the water above is stably stratified due to salinity gradients; possible in the Earth's liquid core, where gradients in thermal conductivity and composition diffusivities maybe lead to different layers of stable or unstable liquid metal; and, in stars, as most stars contain at least one convective and at least one radiative (stably stratified) zone. Internal waves propagate in stably stratified fluids. The characterization of the internal waves generated by convection is an open problem in geophysical and astrophysical fluid dynamics. Internal waves can play a dynamically important role via nonlocal transport. Momentum transport by convectively excited internal waves is thought to generate the quasi-biennial oscillation of zonal wind in the equatorial stratosphere, an important physical phenomenon used to calibrate global climate models. Angular momentum transport by convectively excited internal waves may play a crucial role in setting the initial rotation rates of neutron stars. In the last year of life of a massive star, convectively excited internal waves may transport even energy to the surface layers to unbind them, launching a wind. In each of these cases, internal waves are able to transport some quantity--momentum, angular momentum, energy--across large, stable buoyancy gradients. Thus, internal waves represent an important, if unusual, transport mechanism. This thesis advances our understanding of internal wave generation by convection. Chapter 2 provides an underlying theoretical framework to study this problem. It describes a detailed calculation of the

  6. Resistance to colistin associated with a single amino acid change in protein PmrB among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates of worldwide origin. (United States)

    Jayol, Aurélie; Poirel, Laurent; Brink, Adrian; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Yilmaz, Mesut; Nordmann, Patrice


    A series of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recovered from different countries was investigated in order to evaluate the involvement of the PmrA/PmrB two-component system in this resistance. Six isolates possessed a mutated PmrB protein, which is encoded by the pmrB gene, part of the pmrCAB operon involved in lipopolysaccharide modification. The same amino acid substitution (Thr157Pro) in PmrB was identified in the six isolates. The six isolates belonged to four distinct clonal groups, recovered in South Africa (sequence type 14 [ST14]), Turkey (ST101), and Colombia (ST258 and ST15). Three out of the four clones produced a carbapenemase, OXA-181, OXA-48, or KPC-3, while a single isolate did not produce any carbapenemase. Expression assays revealed an overexpression of the pmrA (70-fold), pmrB (70-fold), pmrC (170-fold), and pmrK (40-fold) genes in the pmrB-mutated isolate compared to expression of the pmrB wild-type isogenic K. pneumoniae isolate, confirming that the PmrB substitution was responsible for increased expression levels of those genes. Complementation assays leading to the expression of a wild-type PmrB protein restored the susceptibility to colistin in all isolates, confirming that the substitution in PmrB was responsible for the resistance phenotype. This study identified a key amino acid located in the PmrB protein as being responsible for the overexpression of pmrCAB and pmrHFIJKLM operons, leading to resistance to colistin. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Calibrating convective properties of solar-like stars in the Kepler field of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonaca, A.; Tanner, J.D.; Basu, S.; Chaplin, W.J.; Metcalfe, T.S.; Monteiro, M.J.P.F.G.; Ballot, J.; Bedding, T.R.; Bonanno, A.; Broomhall, A.M.; Bruntt, H.; Campante, T.L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Corsaro, E.; Elsworth, Y.; García, R.A.; Hekker, S.; Karoff, C.; Kjeldsen, H.; Mathur, S.; Régulo, C.; Roxburgh, I.; Stello, D.; Trampedach, R.; Barclay, T.; Burke, C.J.; Caldwell, D.A.


    Stellar models generally use simple parameterizations to treat convection. The most widely used parameterization is the so-called mixing-length theory where the convective eddy sizes are described using a single number, α, the mixing-length parameter. This is a free parameter, and the general

  8. The convection patterns in microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korneta, W.; Lopez Quintela, M.A.; Fernandez Novoa, A.


    The Rayleigh-Benard convection in the microemulsion consisting of water (7.5%), cyclohexan (oil-61.7%) and diethylenglycolmonobutylether (surfactant-30.8%) is studied from the onset of convection to the phase separation. The five classes of convection patterns are observed and recorded on the video: localized travelling waves, travelling waves, travelling waves and localized steady rolls, steady rolls and steady polygons. The Fourier transforms and histograms of these patterns are presented. The origin of any pattern is discussed. The intermittent behaviour close to the phase separation was observed. Possible applications of the obtained results are suggested. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  9. Convection-enhanced water evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Weon


    Full Text Available Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive evaporation in nanoliter water droplets. This suggests that convection of water vapor would enhance water evaporation at nanoliter scales, for instance, on microdroplets or inside nanochannels.

  10. Coupled Michigan MHD - Rice Convection Model Results (United States)

    de Zeeuw, D.; Sazykin, S.; Wolf, D.; Gombosi, T.; Powell, K.


    A new high performance Rice Convection Model (RCM) has been coupled to the adaptive-grid Michigan MHD model (BATSRUS). This fully coupled code allows us to self-consistently simulate the physics in the inner and middle magnetosphere. A study will be presented of the basic characteristics of the inner and middle magnetosphere in the context of a single coupled-code run for idealized storm inputs. The analysis will include region-2 currents, shielding of the inner magnetosphere, partial ring currents, pressure distribution, magnetic field inflation, and distribution of pV^gamma.

  11. Tornado funnel-shaped cloud as convection in a cloudy layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zavolgenskiy


    Full Text Available Analytical model of convection in a thick horizontal cloud layer with free upper and lower boundaries is constructed. The cloud layer is supposed to be subjected to the Coriolis force due to the cloud rotation, which is a typical condition for tornado formation. It is obtained that convection in such system can look as just one rotating cell in contrast to the usual many-cells Benard convection. The tornado-type vortex is different from spatially periodic convective cells because their amplitudes vanish with distance from the vortex axis. The lower boundary at this convection can substantially move out of the initially horizontal cloud layer forming a single vertical vortex with intense upward and downward flows. The results are also applicable to convection in water layer with negative temperature gradient.

  12. Simulation of Thermomagnetic Convection in a Cavity Using the Lattice Boltzmann Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Hadavand


    Full Text Available Thermomagnetic convection in a differentially heated square cavity with an infinitely long third dimension is numerically simulated using the single relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (LBM. This problem is of considerable interest when dealing with cooling of microelectronic devices, in situations where natural convection does not meet the cooling requirements, and forced convection is not viable due to the difficulties associated with pumping a ferrofluid. Therefore, circulation is achieved by imposing a magnetic field, which is created and controlled by placing a dipole at the bottom of the enclosure. The magnitude of the magnetic force is controlled by changing the electrical current through the dipole. In this study, the effects of combined natural convection and magnetic convection, which is commonly known as “thermomagnetic convection,” are analysed in terms of the flow modes and heat transfer characteristics of a magnetic fluid.

  13. Experimental study on convective boiling heat transfer in narrow-gap annulus tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Zhao Jianfu; Tang Zemei; Hu Wenrui; Zhou Fangde


    Since convective boiling or highly subcooled single-phase forced convection in micro-channels is an effective cooling mechanism with a wide range of applications, more experimental and theoretical studies are required to explain and verify the forced convection heat transfer phenomenon in narrow channels. In this experimental study, authors model the convective boiling behavior of water with low latent heat substance Freon 113 (R-113), with the purpose of saving power consumption and visualizing experiments. Both heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics were measured in subcooled and saturated concentric narrow gap forced convection boiling. Data were obtained to qualitatively identify the effects of gap size, pressure, flow rate and wall superheat on boiling regimes and the transition between various regimes. Some significant differences from unconfined forced convection boiling were found, and also, the flow patterns in narrow vertical annulus tubes have been studied quantitatively. (authors)

  14. Convectively driven superfluid turbulence in dilute solutions of 3He in superfluid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, R.E.; Haucke, H.; Wheatley, J.


    A dilute solution of 3 He in superfluid 4 He usually behaves as a single component classical fluid in the context of hydrodynamic convection. However, certain convective states can be excited which do not seem to exist in classical convection. These states are characterized by noisy temperature fluctuations and a pronounced decrease in thermal conductance relative to the classical convecting states. Critical convective flow fields are observed analogous to critical velocities for superfluid turbulence in pipes. The magnitude of the average critical velocities for these two types of superfluid turbulence are in good agreement. Also, a quantitative estimate of energy dissipation due to the interaction of normal fluid and quantized vortex lines appears to account for the large decrease in thermal heat transport for the turbulent states. These states are identified as states of convectively driven superfluid turbulence. 23 refs., 5 figs

  15. Deep Convection in the Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McWilliams, James


    ... mechanism of water mass transformation. The resultant newly mixed deep water masses form a component of the thermohaline circulation, and hence it is essential to understand the deep convection process if the variability of the meridional...

  16. Convective heat flow probe (United States)

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.


    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  17. Convection-enhanced water evaporation


    B. M. Weon; J. H. Je; C. Poulard


    Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL) water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive) evaporation in nanoliter water droplet...

  18. Aspiration in head and neck cancer patients: a single centre experience of clinical profile, bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivity pattern. (United States)

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Sirsath, Nagesh T; Subramanyam, Jayshree R; Govind, Babu K; Lokanatha, D; Shenoy, Ashok M


    Most patients with head and neck cancer have dysphagia and are at increased risk of having aspiration and subsequent pneumonia. It can cause prolonged hospitalization, treatment delay and/or interruption and mortality in cancer patients. The treatment of these infections often relies on empirical antibiotics based on local microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The aim of present study is to analyse respiratory tract pathogens isolated by sputum culture in head and neck cancer patients undergoing treatment at a tertiary cancer centre in South India who presented with features of aspiration. The study is carried out to establish empirical antibiotic policy for head and neck cancer patients who present with features of aspiration. This was a retrospective study. The study included sputum samples sent for culture and sensitivity from January 2011 to December 2012. Analysis of microbiologic species isolated in sputum specimen and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the bacterial isolates was performed. A detailed study of case files of all patients was done to find out which is the most common site prone for producing aspiration. There were 47 (31.54 %) gram positive isolates and 102 (68.45 %) gram negative isolates. The most common bacterial isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.50 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.77 %) and Haemophilus influenzae (15.43 %). Levofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic with excellent activity against both gram positive and gram negative isolates. Most patients with aspiration had laryngeal cancer (34.89 %). Aspiration pneumonia was present in 14 (9.39 %) patients. Gram negative bacteria are common etiologic agents in head and neck cancer patients presenting with features of aspiration. Levofloxacin should be started as empirical antibiotic in these patients while awaiting sputum culture sensitivity report. As aspiration in head and neck cancer is an underreported event such institutional antibiotic sensitivity

  19. Wind reversals in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontenele Araujo Junior, F.; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef


    The phenomenon of irregular cessation and subsequent reversal of the large-scale circulation in turbulent Rayleigh-Be´nard convection is theoretically analyzed. The force and thermal balance on a single plume detached from the thermal boundary layer yields a set of coupled nonlinear equations, whose

  20. Microfluidic device for DNA amplification of single cancer cells isolated from whole blood by self-seeding microwells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yoon Sun; Rho, Hoon Suk; Stevens, Michiel; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie


    Self-seeding microwell chips can sort single cells into 6400 wells based on cell size and their identity verified by immunofluorescence staining. Here, we developed a microfluidic device in which these single cells can be placed, lysed and their DNA amplified for further interrogation. Whole blood

  1. Enhanced Emission from Single Isolated Gold Quantum Dots Investigated Using Two-Photon-Excited Fluorescence Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy. (United States)

    Abeyasinghe, Neranga; Kumar, Santosh; Sun, Kai; Mansfield, John F; Jin, Rongchao; Goodson, Theodore


    New approaches in molecular nanoscopy are greatly desired for interrogation of biological, organic, and inorganic objects with sizes below the diffraction limit. Our current work investigates emergent monolayer-protected gold quantum dots (nanoclusters, NCs) composed of 25 Au atoms by utilizing two-photon-excited fluorescence (TPEF) near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) at single NC concentrations. Here, we demonstrate an approach to synthesize and isolate single NCs on solid glass substrates. Subsequent investigation of the NCs using TPEF NSOM reveals that, even when they are separated by distances of several tens of nanometers, we can excite and interrogate single NCs individually. Interestingly, we observe an enhanced two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section for single Au 25 NCs that can be attributed to few-atom local field effects and to local field-induced microscopic cascading, indicating their potential for use in ultrasensitive sensing, disease diagnostics, cancer cell therapy, and molecular computers. Finally, we report room-temperature aperture-based TPEF NSOM imaging of these NCs for the first time at 30 nm point resolution, which is a ∼5-fold improvement compared to the previous best result for the same technique. This report unveils the unique combination of an unusually large TPA cross section and the high photostability of Au NCs to (non-destructively) investigate stable isolated single NCs using TPEF NSOM. This is the first reported optical study of monolayer-protected single quantum clusters, opening some very promising opportunities in spectroscopy of nanosized objects, bioimaging, ultrasensitive sensing, molecular computers, and high-density data storage.

  2. Thermal computations for electronics conductive, radiative, and convective air cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Gordon


    IntroductionPrimary mechanisms of heat flowConductionApplication example: Silicon chip resistance calculationConvectionApplication example: Chassis panel cooled by natural convectionRadiationApplication example: Chassis panel cooled only by radiation 7Illustrative example: Simple thermal network model for a heat sinked power transistorIllustrative example: Thermal network circuit for a printed circuit boardCompact component modelsIllustrative example: Pressure and thermal circuits for a forced air cooled enclosureIllustrative example: A single chip package on a printed circuit board-the proble

  3. Vancomycin-resistant vanB-type Enterococcus faecium isolates expressing varying levels of vancomycin resistance and being highly prevalent among neonatal patients in a single ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Guido


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vancomycin-resistant isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are of special concern and patients at risk of acquiring a VRE colonization/infection include also intensively-cared neonates. We describe here an ongoing high prevalence of VanB type E. faecium in a neonatal ICU hardly to identify by routine diagnostics. Methods During a 10 months’ key period 71 E. faecium isolates including 67 vanB-type isolates from 61 patients were collected non-selectively. Vancomycin resistance was determined by different MIC methods (broth microdilution, Vitek® 2 including two Etest® protocols (McFarland 0.5/2.0. on Mueller-Hinton/Brain Heart Infusion agars. Performance of three chromogenic VRE agars to identify the vanB type outbreak VRE was evaluated (BrillianceTM VRE agar, chromIDTM VRE agar, CHROMagarTM VRE. Isolates were genotyped by SmaI- and CeuI-macrorestriction analysis in PFGE, plasmid profiling, vanB Southern hybridisations as well as MLST typing. Results Majority of vanB isolates (n = 56, 79% belonged to a single ST192 outbreak strain type showing an identical PFGE pattern and analyzed representative isolates revealed a chromosomal localization of a vanB2-Tn5382 cluster type. Vancomycin MICs in cation-adjusted MH broth revealed a susceptible value of ≤4 mg/L for 31 (55% of the 56 outbreak VRE isolates. Etest® vancomycin on MH and BHI agars revealed only two vanB VRE isolates with a susceptible result; in general Etest® MIC results were about 1 to 2 doubling dilutions higher than MICs assessed in broth and values after the 48 h readout were 0.5 to 1 doubling dilutions higher for vanB VRE. Of all vanB type VRE only three, three and two isolates did not grow on BrillianceTM VRE agar, chromIDTM VRE agar and CHROMagarTM VRE, respectively. Permanent cross contamination via the patients’ surrounding appeared as a possible risk factor for permanent VRE colonization/infection. Conclusions Low level expression of van

  4. Identification of the specificity of isolated phage display single-chain antibodies using yeast two-hybrid screens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Nicolaj; Ditzel, Henrik


    A method is described for the identification of the antigen recognised by an scFv isolated from an antibody phage display library using selection against a complex mixture of proteins (e.g. intact cells, purified cell surface membranes, and tissue sections). The method takes advantage of a yeast ...

  5. Cloud's Center of Gravity – a compact approach to analyze convective cloud development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koren


    Full Text Available As cloud resolving models become more detailed, with higher resolution outputs, it is often complicated to isolate the physical processes that control the cloud attributes. Moreover, due to the high dimensionality and complexity of the model output, the analysis and interpretation of the results can be very complicated. Here we suggest a novel approach to convective cloud analysis that yields more insight into the physical and temporal evolution of clouds, and is compact and efficient. The different (3-D cloud attributes are weighted and projected onto a single point in space and in time, that has properties of, or similar to, the Center Of Gravity (COG. The location, magnitude and spread of this variable are followed in time. The implications of the COG approach are demonstrated for a study of aerosol effects on a warm convective cloud. We show that in addition to reducing dramatically the dimensionality of the output, such an approach often enhances the signal, adds more information, and makes the physical description of cloud evolution clearer, allowing unambiguous comparison of clouds evolving in different environmental conditions. This approach may also be useful for analysis of cloud data retrieved from surface or space-based cloud radars.

  6. Enhanced object-based tracking algorithm for convective rain storms and cells (United States)

    Muñoz, Carlos; Wang, Li-Pen; Willems, Patrick


    This paper proposes a new object-based storm tracking algorithm, based upon TITAN (Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis and Nowcasting). TITAN is a widely-used convective storm tracking algorithm but has limitations in handling small-scale yet high-intensity storm entities due to its single-threshold identification approach. It also has difficulties to effectively track fast-moving storms because of the employed matching approach that largely relies on the overlapping areas between successive storm entities. To address these deficiencies, a number of modifications are proposed and tested in this paper. These include a two-stage multi-threshold storm identification, a new formulation for characterizing storm's physical features, and an enhanced matching technique in synergy with an optical-flow storm field tracker, as well as, according to these modifications, a more complex merging and splitting scheme. High-resolution (5-min and 529-m) radar reflectivity data for 18 storm events over Belgium are used to calibrate and evaluate the algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of the original TITAN. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm can better isolate and match convective rainfall entities, as well as to provide more reliable and detailed motion estimates. Furthermore, the improvement is found to be more significant for higher rainfall intensities. The new algorithm has the potential to serve as a basis for further applications, such as storm nowcasting and long-term stochastic spatial and temporal rainfall generation.

  7. Synthesis of micro-sized shell-isolated 3D plasmonic superstructures for in situ single-particle SERS monitoring (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Jingjing; Ji, Ji; Liu, Baohong


    A single-particle SERS system enabling real-time and in situ observation of Au-catalyzed reactions has been developed. Both the catalytic activity and the SERS effect are coupled into a single bi-functional 3D superstructure comprising Au nanosatellites self-assembled onto a shell-insulated Ag microflower core, which eliminates the interference from photocatalysis.A single-particle SERS system enabling real-time and in situ observation of Au-catalyzed reactions has been developed. Both the catalytic activity and the SERS effect are coupled into a single bi-functional 3D superstructure comprising Au nanosatellites self-assembled onto a shell-insulated Ag microflower core, which eliminates the interference from photocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the synthesis and characterization of the Ag@SiO2@Au superstructures (SEM and TEM images, UV/vis and SERS spectra). See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00278a

  8. Single test isolated lupus anticoagulant positivity is associated with increased plasma levels of inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, S A; Nybo, M; Laustrup, H


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a single positive test for lupus anticoagulant (LA) is associated with levels of inflammatory markers and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, independent of autoimmune disease, thrombophilia and occurrence of other antiphospholipid antibodies. METHODS: In a ...

  9. A simple, fast, and inexpensive CTAB-PVP-silica based method for genomic DNA isolation from single, small insect larvae and pupae. (United States)

    Huanca-Mamani, W; Rivera-Cabello, D; Maita-Maita, J


    In this study, we report a modified CTAB-PVP method combined with silicon dioxide (silica) treatment for the extraction of high quality genomic DNA from a single larva or pupa. This method efficiently obtains DNA from small specimens, which is difficult and challenging because of the small amount of starting tissue. Maceration with liquid nitrogen, phenol treatment, and the ethanol precipitation step are eliminated using this methodology. The A260/A280 absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 1.8, suggesting that the DNA is pure and can be used for further molecular analysis. The quality of the isolated DNA permits molecular applications and represents a fast, cheap, and effective alternative method for laboratories with low budgets.

  10. The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on. (United States)

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Sacchi, Nicoletta


    Since its introduction, the 'single-step' method has become widely used for isolating total RNA from biological samples of different sources. The principle at the basis of the method is that RNA is separated from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution containing guanidinium thiocyanate, sodium acetate, phenol and chloroform, followed by centrifugation. Under acidic conditions, total RNA remains in the upper aqueous phase, while most of DNA and proteins remain either in the interphase or in the lower organic phase. Total RNA is then recovered by precipitation with isopropanol and can be used for several applications. The original protocol, enabling the isolation of RNA from cells and tissues in less than 4 hours, greatly advanced the analysis of gene expression in plant and animal models as well as in pathological samples, as demonstrated by the overwhelming number of citations the paper gained over 20 years.

  11. Improving microphysics in a convective parameterization: possibilities and limitations (United States)

    Labbouz, Laurent; Heikenfeld, Max; Stier, Philip; Morrison, Hugh; Milbrandt, Jason; Protat, Alain; Kipling, Zak


    The convective cloud field model (CCFM) is a convective parameterization implemented in the climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2. It represents a population of clouds within each ECHAM-HAM model column, simulating up to 10 different convective cloud types with individual radius, vertical velocities and microphysical properties. Comparisons between CCFM and radar data at Darwin, Australia, show that in order to reproduce both the convective cloud top height distribution and the vertical velocity profile, the effect of aerodynamic drag on the rising parcel has to be considered, along with a reduced entrainment parameter. A new double-moment microphysics (the Predicted Particle Properties scheme, P3) has been implemented in the latest version of CCFM and is compared to the standard single-moment microphysics and the radar retrievals at Darwin. The microphysical process rates (autoconversion, accretion, deposition, freezing, …) and their response to changes in CDNC are investigated and compared to high resolution CRM WRF simulations over the Amazon region. The results shed light on the possibilities and limitations of microphysics improvements in the framework of CCFM and in convective parameterizations in general.

  12. Convection naturelle dans un milieu poreux multicouche


    Ould-Amer, Yacine; Slama, Saoussène


    International audience; Dans la présente étude, nous nous sommes intéressés à la convection naturelle dans une cavité carrée poreuse multicouche. Chaque couche de milieu poreux (trois dans la présente étude) est considérée homogène, isotrope et saturée par un seul fluide. Cette enceinte est supposée être chauffée à des températures différentes le long des parois latérales, les deux autres sont isolés. Dans le but de généraliser les résultats, les équations gouvernantes sont mises sous forme a...

  13. Aspiration in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Centre Experience of Clinical Profile, Bacterial Isolates and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern


    Lakshmaiah, K. C.; Sirsath, Nagesh T.; Subramanyam, Jayshree R.; Govind, Babu K.; Lokanatha, D.; Shenoy, Ashok M.


    Most patients with head and neck cancer have dysphagia and are at increased risk of having aspiration and subsequent pneumonia. It can cause prolonged hospitalization, treatment delay and/or interruption and mortality in cancer patients. The treatment of these infections often relies on empirical antibiotics based on local microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The aim of present study is to analyse respiratory tract pathogens isolated by sputum culture in head and neck cancer pati...

  14. A novel tertiary prep-HPLC method for the isolation of single amino acids for AMS-radiocarbon measurement. (United States)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Koudelka, Tomas; Tholey, Andreas; Dreves, Alexander


    AMS-radiocarbon measurements of amino acids can potentially provide more reliable radiocarbon dates than bulk collagen analysis. Nonetheless, the applicability of such an approach is often limited by the low-throughput of existing isolation methods and difficulties in determining the contamination introduced during the separation process. A novel tertiary prep-HPLC amino acid isolation method was developed that relies on the combustion of eluted material without requiring any additional chemical steps. Amino acid separation was carried out using a gradient mix of pure water and phosphoric acid with an acetonitrile step in-between runs to remove hydrophobic molecules from the separation column. The amount of contaminant carbon and its 14 C content were determined from two-point measurements of collagen samples of known 14 C content. The amount of foreign carbon due to the isolation process was estimated at 4±1μg and its 14 C content was 0.43±0.01 F 14 C. Radiocarbon values corrected for carbon contamination have only a minor increase in uncertainties. For Holocene samples, this corresponds to an added uncertainty typically smaller than 10 14 Cyears. The developed method can be added to routine AMS measurements without implying significant operational changes and offers a level of measurement uncertainty that is suitable for many archaeological, ecological, environmental, and biological applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Isolation and individual electrical stimulation of single smooth-muscle cells from the urinary bladder of the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glerum (Jacobus); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); J.C. Romijn (Johannes); D.J. Griffiths (Derek)


    textabstractIn contrast to striated muscle, measurements on strips of smooth muscle cannot be uniquely interpreted in terms of an array of contractile units. Therefore scaling down to the single-cell level is necessary to gain detailed understanding of the contractile process in this type of muscle.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gavrilenkov


    Full Text Available Identified and analyzed the relationship of the intensity convective drying and air pollution emissions of heat. The ways to reduce the thermal pollution of the atmosphere at convective drying.

  17. Experimental investigation on the natural convection flow in pool boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok, E-mail: [Thermal Hydraulics Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111 Daedeok-daero989beongil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Eok [Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Sung Uk; Lee, Seung Tae; Euh, Dong-Jin [Thermal Hydraulics Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111 Daedeok-daero989beongil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • The velocity field measurements conducted on the subject of a single and two-phase natural convection flow. • Experimental results show a large natural convection flow at the region above the heater rod. • The thermal stratification is shown at the region below the heater rod. • The results contribute to provide the benchmark data of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code. - Abstract: In the present study, the key thermal hydraulic phenomena within a passive condensate cooling tank (PCCT) of a small-scale pool test rig with a single heater rod are experimentally investigated. The volumetric scaling ratio of the test rig is 1/910 the size of the passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) condensing heat removal assessment loop (PASCAL), which is a PAFS performance evaluation test facility. The two-dimensional velocity vector fields that occur as the water level decreases are experimentally investigated in a pool that contains a horizontal heater rod. The 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement technique is adopted to determine the velocity vector field of the natural convection flow. The experimental results indicate that a large natural convection flow occurs above the heater rod and that thermal stratification occurs below the heater rod. The thermal stratification and the stagnant region begin to disappear when the pool temperature reaches approximately 90 °C. The experimental results can provide benchmark data to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations of thermal hydraulic phenomena that occur in a pool with a heat source.

  18. Experimental investigation on the natural convection flow in pool boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok; Kim, Dong Eok; Ryu, Sung Uk; Lee, Seung Tae; Euh, Dong-Jin


    Highlights: • The velocity field measurements conducted on the subject of a single and two-phase natural convection flow. • Experimental results show a large natural convection flow at the region above the heater rod. • The thermal stratification is shown at the region below the heater rod. • The results contribute to provide the benchmark data of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code. - Abstract: In the present study, the key thermal hydraulic phenomena within a passive condensate cooling tank (PCCT) of a small-scale pool test rig with a single heater rod are experimentally investigated. The volumetric scaling ratio of the test rig is 1/910 the size of the passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) condensing heat removal assessment loop (PASCAL), which is a PAFS performance evaluation test facility. The two-dimensional velocity vector fields that occur as the water level decreases are experimentally investigated in a pool that contains a horizontal heater rod. The 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement technique is adopted to determine the velocity vector field of the natural convection flow. The experimental results indicate that a large natural convection flow occurs above the heater rod and that thermal stratification occurs below the heater rod. The thermal stratification and the stagnant region begin to disappear when the pool temperature reaches approximately 90 °C. The experimental results can provide benchmark data to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations of thermal hydraulic phenomena that occur in a pool with a heat source

  19. A numerical model of localized convection cells of Euglena suspensions (United States)

    Iima, Makoto; Shoji, Erika; Yamaguchi, Takayuki


    Suspension of Euglena gracilis shows localized convection cells when it is illuminated form below with strong light intensity. Experiments in an annular container shows that there are two elementary localized structures. One consists of a pair of convection cells and a single region where number density of Euglena is high. The other consists a localized traveling wave. Based on the measurements of the flux of number density, we propose a model of bioconvection incorporating lateral phototaxis effect proportional to the light intensity gradient. Using pseudo spectral method, we performed numerical simulation of this model. We succeed in reproducing one of the localized structures, a convection pair with single region of high number density. Also, when the aspect ratio is large, there are a parameter region where the localized structure and conductive state are both stable, which is suggested by experiments. Spatial distribution of the number density implies that the accumulation of microorganism due to the convective flow causes such bistability. CREST(PJ74100011) and KAKENHI(26400396).

  20. Stationary thermal convection in a viscoelastic ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroze, D., E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D 55021 Mainz (Germany); Instituto de Alta Investigacion, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Martinez-Mardones, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Perez, L.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Bernardo OHiggins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Rojas, R.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)


    We report theoretical and numerical results on convection for a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid. We focus in the stationary convection for idealized boundary conditions. We obtain explicit expressions of convective thresholds in terms of the control parameters of the system. Close to bifurcation, the coefficients of the corresponding amplitude equation are determined analytically. Finally, the secondary instabilities are performed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliinyk O. S.


    Full Text Available Diphtheria toxin is an exoantigen of Corynebacterium diphtheriae that inhibits protein synthesis and kills sensitive cells. The aim of this study was to obtain human recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv antibodies against receptor-binding B subunit of diphtheria toxin. 12 specific clones were selected after three rounds of a phage display naїve (unimmunized human antibody library against recombinant B-subunit. scFv DNA inserts from these 12 clones were digested with MvaI, and 6 unique restriction patterns were found. Single-chain antibodies were expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-blue. The recombinant proteins were characterized by immunoblotting of bacterial extracts and detection with an anti-E-tag antibody. The toxin B-subunit-binding function of the single-chain antibody was shown by ELISA. The affinity constants for different clones were found to be from 106 to 108 М–1. Due to the fact, that these antibody fragments recognized epitopes in the receptor-binding Bsubunit of diphtheria toxin, further studies are interesting to evaluate their toxin neutralization properties and potential for therapeutic applications. Obtained scFv-antibodies can also be used for detection and investigation of biological properties of diphtheria toxin.

  2. Detection of rifampin resistance patterns in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Iran by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Nasr Isfahani


    Full Text Available Mutations in the rpoB locus confer conformational changes leading to defective binding of rifampin (RIF to rpoB and consequently resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP was established as a rapid screening test for the detection of mutations in the rpoB gene, and direct sequencing has been unambiguously applied to characterize mutations. A total of 37 of Iranian isolates of M. tuberculosis, 16 sensitive and 21 resistant to RIF, were used in this study. A 193-bp region of the rpoB gene was amplified and PCR-SSCP patterns were determined by electrophoresis in 10% acrylamide gel and silver staining. Also, 21 samples of 193-bp rpoB amplicons with different PCR-SSCP patterns from RIFr and 10 from RIFs were sequenced. Seven distinguishable PCR-SSCP patterns were recognized in the 21 Iranian RIFr strains, while 15 out of 16 RIFs isolates demonstrated PCR-SSCP banding patterns similar to that of sensitive standard strain H37Rv. However one of the sensitive isolates demonstrated a different pattern. There were seen six different mutations in the amplified region of rpoB gene: codon 516(GAC/GTC, 523(GGG/GGT, 526(CAC/TAC, 531(TCG/TTG, 511(CTG/TTG, and 512(AGC/TCG. This study demonstrated the high specificity (93.8% and sensitivity (95.2% of PCR-SSCP method for detection of mutation in rpoB gene; 85.7% of RIFr strains showed a single mutation and 14.3% had no mutations. Three strains showed mutations caused polymorphism. Our data support the common notion that rifampin resistance genotypes are generally present mutations in codons 531 and 526, most frequently found in M. tuberculosis populations regardless of geographic origin.

  3. The transition from natural convection to thermomagnetic convection of a magnetic fluid in a non-uniform magnetic field (United States)

    Szabo, Peter S. B.; Früh, Wolf-Gerrit


    Magnetic fluid flow and heat transfer by natural and thermomagnetic convection was studied numerically in a square enclosure. The aim was to investigate the transition from natural convection to thermomagnetic convection by exploring situations where buoyancy and the Kelvin body force would be opposing each other such that the magnetic effects would in some cases be the dominant factor throughout the domain and in other cases only in a part of the fluid. The numerical model coupled the solution of the magnetostatic field equation with the heat and fluid flow equations to simulate the fluid flow under a realistic magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet. The results suggest that the domain of influence over the flow field is largely aligned with the domain of dominance of the respective driving force. The result is that the transition from a single buoyancy-driven convection cell to a single thermomagnetically driven cell is via a two-cell structure and that the local effect on the flow field leads to a global effect on the heat transfer with a minimum of the Nusselt number in the transition region.

  4. Increasing single and multi-antibiotic resistance in Shigella species isolated from shigellosis patients in Sana'a, Yemen. (United States)

    Al-Moyed, Khaled A; Harmal, Nabil S; Al-Harasy, Abdulilah H; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A


    The epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility of Shigella species changes over time. Updated susceptibility knowledge is necessary for appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment. Thus, this research aimed to study these changes in 2 time periods with an interval of 10 years. Two hundreds and three Shigella strains, isolated from stool samples of diarrheic patients at the Central Health Laboratory in Sana'a, Yemen in 2 time periods (1993 and 2003) with a 10-year interval, were examined for serotyping and drug resistance pattern. Resistance patterns of the strains to 12 commonly used antimicrobial agents and minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antibiotics were tested. Shigella flexneri (60%) was found to be the most common isolate of the total Shigella species, followed by Shigella dysenteriae (28.6%) and Shigella boydii (11.3%). In Shigella flexneri strains, Shigella flexneri 3 (30.5%) was the most prevalent serotype, followed by Shigella flexneri 6 (17.2%), and Shigella flexneri 1 (12.3%). All strains were found equally susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin, but more than 80% of the strains of 2003 were resistant to tetracycline, co-trimoxazole, and 52% of the same strains were resistant to ampicillin. Resistance to chloramphenicol was found in 61%, cefuroxime in 56.2%, and cephradine, 52% of the strains. Overall, Shigella species showed statistically significant increase in resistance against tetracycline, cephradine, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, and aztreonam (pYemen. Almost 55.2% of the strains were resistant to 4 drugs. This is one of the first studies reporting epidemiological pattern of Shigella species in Sana'a, Yemen with regard to serotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns. Based on these antibiotic resistance pattern findings, it is suggested that the commonly in use antibiotics including ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol should not be used for empirical

  5. Isolation of Single-Domain Antibody Fragments That Preferentially Detect Intact (146S Particles of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus for Use in Vaccine Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M. Harmsen


    Full Text Available Intact (146S foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDVs can dissociate into specific (12S viral capsid degradation products. FMD vaccines normally consist of inactivated virions. Vaccine quality is dependent on 146S virus particles rather than 12S particles. We earlier isolated two llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs that specifically recognize 146S particles of FMDV strain O1 Manisa and shown their potential use in quality control of FMD vaccines during manufacturing. These 146S-specific VHHs were specific for particular O serotype strains and did not bind strains from other FMDV serotypes. Here, we describe the isolation of 146S-specific VHHs against FMDV SAT2 and Asia 1 strains by phage display selection from llama immune libraries. VHHs that bind both 12S and 146S particles were readily isolated but VHHs that bind specifically to 146S particles could only be isolated by phage display selection using prior depletion for 12S particles. We obtained one 146S-specific VHH—M332F—that binds to strain Asia 1 Shamir and several VHHs that preferentially bind 146S particles of SAT2 strain SAU/2/00, from which we selected VHH M379F for further characterization. Both M332F and M379F did not bind FMDV strains from other serotypes. In a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA employing unlabeled and biotinylated versions of the same VHH M332F showed high specificity for 146S particles but M379F showed lower 146S-specificity with some cross-reaction with 12S particles. These ELISAs could detect 146S particle concentrations as low as 2.3–4.6 µg/l. They can be used for FMD vaccine quality control and research and development, for example, to identify virion stabilizing excipients.

  6. VHF/UHF radar observations of tropical mesoscale convective systems over southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore Kumar


    Full Text Available Several campaigns have been carried out to study the convective systems over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, using VHF and UHF radars. The height-time sections of several convective systems are investigated in detail to study reflectivity, turbulence and vertical velocity structure. Structure and dynamics of the convective systems are the main objectives of these campaigns. The observed systems are classified into single- and multi-cell systems. It has been observed that most of the convective systems at this latitude are multi-cellular in nature. Simultaneous VHF and UHF radar observations are used to classify the observed precipitating systems as convective, intermediary and stratiform regions. Composite height profiles of vertical velocities in these regions were obtained and the same were compared with the profiles obtained at other geographical locations. These composite profiles of vertical velocity in the convective regions have shown their peaks in the mid troposphere, indicating that the maximum latent heat is being released at those heights. These profiles are very important for numerical simulations of the convective systems, which vary significantly from one geographical location to the other. Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Mesoscale meteorology; Convective processes – Radio science (Remote sensing

  7. Elevation in heat shock protein 72 mRNA following contractions in isolated single skeletal muscle fibers


    Stary, Creed M.; Walsh, Brandon J.; Knapp, Amy E.; Brafman, David; Hogan, Michael C.


    The purpose of the present study was 1) to develop a stable model for measuring contraction-induced elevations in mRNA in single skeletal muscle fibers and 2) to utilize this model to investigate the response of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) mRNA following an acute bout of fatiguing contractions. Living, intact skeletal muscle fibers were microdissected from lumbrical muscle of Xenopus laevis and either electrically stimulated for 15 min of tetanic contractions (EX; n = 26) or not stimulated ...

  8. A transilient matrix for moist convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.


    A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

  9. Evaluating lane-by-lane gap-out based signal control for isolated intersection under stop-line, single and multiple advance detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Keerthi Kancharla


    Full Text Available In isolated intersection’s actuated signal control, inductive loop detector layout plays a crucial role in providingthe vehicle information to the signal controller. Based on vehicle actuations at the detector, the green time is extended till a pre-defined threshold gap-out occurs. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA proposed various guidelines for detec-tor layouts on low-speed and high-speed approaches. This paper proposes single and multiple advance detection schemes for low-speed traffic movements, that utilizes vehicle actuations from advance detectors located upstream of the stop-line, which are able to detect spill-back queues. The proposed detection schemes operate with actuated signal control based on lane-by-lane gap-out criteria. The performance of the proposed schemes is compared with FHWA’s stop-line and single advance detection schemes in the VISSIM simulation tool. Results have shown that the proposed single advance detection schemes showed improved performance in reducing travel time delay and average number of stops per vehicle under low volumes while the multiple advance detection scheme performed well under high volumes.

  10. A study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species. (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Szczerba-Turek, Anna; Platt-Samoraj, Aleksandra; Michalczyk, Maria; Szweda, Wojciech


    Y. enterocolitica is the causative agent of yersiniosis. The objective of the article was a study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ystB gene fragments of 88 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from wild boar, roe deer, red deer and wild ducks. HRM analysis revealed 14 different melting profiles - 4 of them were defined as regular genotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4), whereas 10 as variations. 24 of the examined Y. enterocolitica strains were classified as G1, 18 strains as a G2, 21 strains as a G3, and 15 strains as a G4. Nucleotide sequences classified as G1 revealed 100% similarity with the Y. enterocolitica D88145.1 sequence (NCBI). Analysis of G2 revealed one point mutation - transition T111A. One mutation was also found in G3, but SNP was placed in a different gene region - transition G193A. Two SNPs - transitions G92C and T111A - were identified in G4. Direct sequencing of 10 variations revealed 5 new variants of the ystB nucleotide sequence: V1 - transition G129A (3 strains); V2 - transitions T111A and G193A (2 strains); V3 - transitions C118T and G193A (1 strain); V4 - transitions C141A and G193A (2 strains); and V5 characterized by 19 SNPs: G83A, T93A, A109G, G114T, C116T, A123G, T134C, T142G, T144C, A150C, G162A, T165G, T170G, T174A, T177G, G178A, A179G, A184G and G193A (2 strains). The predominant genotype in isolates from wild ducks was G1; in red deer G2; in wild boar G3; in roe deer G1 and G4. The proposed HRM method could be used to analyze Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from different sources, including humans.

  11. Seismic Constraints on Interior Solar Convection (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; DeRosa, Marc L.


    We constrain the velocity spectral distribution of global-scale solar convective cells at depth using techniques of local helioseismology. We calibrate the sensitivity of helioseismic waves to large-scale convective cells in the interior by analyzing simulations of waves propagating through a velocity snapshot of global solar convection via methods of time-distance helioseismology. Applying identical analysis techniques to observations of the Sun, we are able to bound from above the magnitudes of solar convective cells as a function of spatial convective scale. We find that convection at a depth of r/R(solar) = 0.95 with spatial extent l < 30, where l is the spherical harmonic degree, comprise weak flow systems, on the order of 15 m/s or less. Convective features deeper than r/R(solar) = 0.95 are more difficult to image due to the rapidly decreasing sensitivity of helioseismic waves.

  12. Development of the self-learning machine for creating models of microprocessor of single-phase earth fault protection devices in networks with isolated neutral voltage above 1000 V (United States)

    Utegulov, B. B.; Utegulov, A. B.; Meiramova, S.


    The paper proposes the development of a self-learning machine for creating models of microprocessor-based single-phase ground fault protection devices in networks with an isolated neutral voltage higher than 1000 V. Development of a self-learning machine for creating models of microprocessor-based single-phase earth fault protection devices in networks with an isolated neutral voltage higher than 1000 V. allows to effectively implement mathematical models of automatic change of protection settings. Single-phase earth fault protection devices.

  13. Forced-convection boiling tests performed in parallel simulated LMR fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, S.D.; Carbajo, J.J.; Levin, A.E.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Wantland, J.L.


    Forced-convection tests have been carried out using parallel simulated Liquid Metal Reactor fuel assemblies in an engineering-scale sodium loop, the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety facility. The tests, performed under single- and two-phase conditions, have shown that for low forced-convection flow there is significant flow augmentation by thermal convection, an important phenomenon under degraded shutdown heat removal conditions in an LMR. The power and flows required for boiling and dryout to occur are much higher than decay heat levels. The experimental evidence supports analytical results that heat removal from an LMR is possible with a degraded shutdown heat removal system.

  14. Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.


    To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15 day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy shows that control runs have significant positive contributions to organization from radiation and negative contributions from surface fluxes and transport, similar to idealized runs once they become aggregated. Despite identical lateral boundary conditions for all experiments in each case, systematic differences in mean column water vapor (CWV), CWV distribution shape, and CWV autocorrelation length scale are found between the different sensitivity runs, particularly for those without interactive radiation, showing that there are at least some similarities in sensitivities to these feedbacks in both idealized and realistic simulations (although the organization of precipitation shows less sensitivity to interactive radiation). The magnitudes and signs of these systematic differences are consistent with a rough equilibrium between (1) equalization due to advection from the lateral boundaries and (2) disaggregation due to the absence of interactive radiation, implying disaggregation rates comparable to those in idealized runs with aggregated initial conditions and noninteractive radiation. This points to a plausible similarity in the way that radiation feedbacks maintain aggregated convection in both idealized simulations and the real world.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding the processes that lead to the organization of tropical rainstorms is an important challenge for weather

  15. Network model of free convection within internally heated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, P.W.


    A hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) may result in the formation of an internally heated debris bed. Considerable attention has been given to postulated mechanisms by which such beds may be cooled. It is the purpose of the work described to demonstrate a method for computing the heat transfer from such a bed to the overlying sodium pool due to single-phase, free convection

  16. Cryogenic helium gas convection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.J.


    This is a report prepared by a group interested in doing research in thermal convection using the large scale refrigeration facilities available at the SSC Laboratories (SSCL). The group preparing this report consists of Michael McAshan at SSCL, Robert Behringer at Duke University, Katepalli Sreenivasan at Yale University, Xiao-Zhong Wu at Northern Illinois University and Russell Donnelly at the University of Oregon, who served as Editor for this report. This study reports the research and development opportunities in such a project, the technical requirements and feasibility of its construction and operation, and the costs associated with the needed facilities and support activities. The facility will be a unique national resource for studies of high-Reynolds-number and high-Rayleigh-number and high Rayleigh number turbulence phenomena, and is one of the six items determined as suitable for potential funding through a screening of Expressions of Interest. The proposed facility is possible only because of the advanced cryogenic technology available at the SSCL. Typical scientific issues to be addressed in the facility will be discussed. It devolved during our study, that while the main experiment is still considered to be the thermal convection experiment discussed in our original Expression of Interest, there are now a very substantial set of other, important and fundamental experiments which can be done with the large cryostat proposed for the convection experiment. We believe the facility could provide several decades of front-line research in turbulence, and shall describe why this is so

  17. The Continental Drift Convection Cell (United States)

    Whitehead, J. A.; Behn, M. D.


    Continents on Earth periodically assemble to form supercontinents, and then break up again into smaller continental blocks (the Wilson Cycle). Highly developed but realistic numerical models cannot resolve if continents respond passively to mantle convection or whether they modulate flow. Our simplified numerical model addresses this problem: A thermally insulating continent floats on a stress-free surface for infinite Prandtl number cellular convection with constant material properties in a chamber 8 times longer than its depth. The continent moves back and forth across the chamber driven by a "continental drift convection cell" of a form not previously described. Subduction exists at the upstream end with cold slabs dipping at an angle beneath the moving continent. Fluid moves with the continent in the upper region of this cell with return flow near the bottom. Many continent/subduction regions on Earth have these features. The drifting cell enhances vertical heat transport by approximately 30% compared to a fixed continent, especially at the core-mantle boundary, and significantly decreases lateral mantle temperature differences. However, continent drift or fixity has smaller effects on profiles of horizontally averaged temperature. Although calculations are done at Rayleigh numbers lower than expected for Earth's mantle (2x105 and 106), the drift speed extrapolates to reasonable Wilson Cycle speeds for larger Ra.

  18. Synergistic Effects of Honey and Propolis toward Drug Multi-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Escherichia Coli and Candida Albicans Isolates in Single and Polymicrobial Cultures (United States)

    AL-Waili, Noori; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Attal, Y.; Salom, Khelod


    Background: Propolis and honey are natural bee products with wide range of biological and medicinal properties. The study investigated antimicrobial activity of ethyl alcohol extraction of propolis collected from Saudi Arabia (EEPS) and from Egypt (EEPE), and their synergistic effect when used with honey. Single and polymicrobial cultures of antibiotic resistant human pathogens were tested. Material and methods; Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus),), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans (C.albicans) were cultured in 10-100% (v/v) honey diluted in broth, or 0.08-1.0% (weight/volume) EEPS and EEPE diluted in broth. Four types of polymicrobial cultures were prepared by culturing the isolates with each other in broth (control) and broth containing various concentrations of honey or propolis. Microbial growth was assessed on solid plate media after 24 h incubation. Results; EEPS and EEPE inhibited antibiotic resistant E.coli, and S.aureus, and C.albicans in single and polymicrobial cultures. S.aureus became more susceptible when it was cultured with E.coli or C.albicans or when all cultured together. C.albicans became more susceptible when it was cultured with S.aureus or with E.coli and S. aureus together. The presence of ethyl alcohol or honey potentiated antimicrobial effect of propolis toward entire microbes tested in single or polymicrobial cultures. EEPS had lower MIC toward E.coli and C.albicans than EEPE. When propolis was mixed with honey, EEPS showed lower MIC than EEPE. In addition, honey showed lower MIC toward entire microbes when mixed with EEPS than when it was mixed with EEPE. Conclusion; 1) propolis prevents the growth of the microorganisms in single and mixed microbial cultures, and has synergistic effect when used with honey or ethyl alcohol, 2) the antimicrobial property of propolis varies with geographical origin, and 3) this study will pave the way to isolate active ingredients from honey and propolis to be further tested individually or

  19. Measurement of the temperature of density maximum of water solutions using a convective flow technique


    Cawley, M.F.; McGlynn, D.; Mooney, P.A.


    A technique is described which yields an accurate measurement of the temperature of density maximum of fluids which exhibit such anomalous behaviour. The method relies on the detection of changes in convective flow in a rectangular cavity containing the test fluid.The normal single-cell convection which occurs in the presence of a horizontal temperature gradient changes to a double cell configuration in the vicinity of the density maximum, and this transition manifests itself in changes in th...

  20. Isolating the Roles of Different Forcing Agents in Global Stratospheric Temperature Changes Using Model Integrations with Incrementally Added Single Forcings (United States)

    Aquila, V.; Swartz, W. H.; Waugh, D. W.; Colarco, P. R.; Pawson, S.; Polvani, L. M.; Stolarski, R. S.


    Satellite instruments show a cooling of global stratospheric temperatures over the whole data record (1979-2014). This cooling is not linear and includes two descending steps in the early 1980s and mid-1990s. The 1979-1995 period is characterized by increasing concentrations of ozone depleting substances (ODS) and by the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichon (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991). The 1995-present period is characterized by decreasing ODS concentrations and by the absence of major volcanic eruptions. Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations increase over the whole time period. In order to isolate the roles of different forcing agents in the global stratospheric temperature changes, we performed a set of AMIP-style simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We find that in our model simulations the cooling of the stratosphere from 1979 to present is mostly driven by changes in GHG concentrations in the middle and upper stratosphere and by GHG and ODS changes in the lower stratosphere. While the cooling trend caused by increasing GHGs is roughly constant over the satellite era, changing ODS concentrations cause a significant stratospheric cooling only up to the mid-1990s, when they start to decrease because of the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Sporadic volcanic events and the solar cycle have a distinct signature in the time series of stratospheric temperature anomalies but do not play a statistically significant role in the long-term trends from 1979 to 2014. Several factors combine to produce the step-like behavior in the stratospheric temperatures: in the lower stratosphere, the flattening starting in the mid-1990s is due to the decrease in ozone-depleting substances; Mount Pinatubo and the solar cycle cause the abrupt steps through the aerosol-associated warming and the volcanically induced ozone depletion. In the middle and upper stratosphere, changes in solar irradiance are largely

  1. Characterization of isolates of Citrus tristeza virus by sequential analyses of enzyme immunoassays and capillary electrophoresis-single-strand conformation polymorphisms. (United States)

    Licciardello, G; Raspagliesi, D; Bar-Joseph, M; Catara, A


    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the causal agent of tristeza disease, which is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus crops worldwide. This paper describes a method for the rapid detection and genotyping of naturally spreading CTV isolates. This method uses ELISA or dot-blot immunological tests to detect trees infected with CTV. The reaction wells or membrane spots for which there is a positive reaction are sequentially treated by (i) washing and elution of viral RNA from the trapped samples, (ii) one-step synthesis of cDNA and PCR and (iii) automated fluorescence-based capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) analysis of amplification products. Comparative CE-SSCP results are presented for CTV RNA extracted directly from infected leaves and ELISA plates or from membranes. In the analyses of all of these RNA samples, the p18, p27 and p23 CTV genes were targeted for amplification. Specific profiles of forward and reverse strands were obtained from a group of eight CTV isolates collected in Sicily, each with distinct biological characteristics, which were analyzed using the conventional two-step procedure (immunological detection followed by CE-SSCP molecular characterization after RNA isolation) or in a continuous process of ELISA/CE-SSCP or dot-blot/CE-SSCP starting from infected plant material. The combined method is simple, highly sensitive and reproducible, thus allowing the processing of numerous field samples for a variety of epidemiological needs. The sequential processing of an ELISA or dot-blot/ELISA followed by CE-SSCP is expected to allow the rapid detection of recent CTV infections along with the simultaneous characterization of the genetic diversity and structure of the population of newly invading CTV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-nucleotide polymorphism typing analysis for molecular subtyping ofSalmonellaTennessee isolates associated with the 2007 nationwide peanut butter outbreak in the United States. (United States)

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Boxrud, David; Rankin, Shelly; Downe, Francis; Lovchik, Judith; Gibson, Jim; Erdman, Matt; Saeed, A Mahdi


    In 2007, a nationwide Salmonella Tennessee outbreak occurred via contaminated peanut butter. Here, we developed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-typing method for S . Tennessee to determine the clonal subtypes of S . Tennessee that were associated with the peanut butter outbreak. One seventy-six S . Tennessee isolates from various sources, including humans, animals, food, and the environment, were analyzed by using the SNP technique. Eighty-four representative SNP markers were selected by comparing the sequences of three representative S . Tennessee strains with different multi-locus sequence typing and variable number tandem repeats from our collection. The set of eighty-four SNP markers showed 100% typeability for the 176 strains, with the nucleotide diversity ranging from 0.011 to 0.107 (mean = 0.049 ± 0.018, median = 0.044) for each marker. Among the four clades and nine subtypes generated by the SNP typing, subtype 1, which comprised 142 S . Tennessee strains, was the most predominant. The dominance of single-strain clones in subtype 1 revealed that S . Tennessee is highly clonal regardless of outbreak-association, source, or period of isolation, suggesting the presence of an S . Tennessee strain prototype. Notably, a minimum 18 SNP set was able to determine clonal S . Tennessee strains with similar discrimination power, potentially allowing more rapid and economic strain genotyping for both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The SNP-typing method described here might aid the investigation of the epidemiology and microevolution of pathogenic bacteria by discriminating between outbreak-related and sporadic clinical cases. In addition, this approach enables us to understand the population structure of the bacterial subtypes involved in the outbreak.

  3. A single mask process for the realization of fully-isolated, dual-height MEMS metallic structures separated by narrow gaps (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Kim, Minsoo; Allen, Mark G.


    Multi-height metallic structures are of importance for various MEMS applications, including master molds for creating 3D structures by nanoimprint lithography, or realizing vertically displaced electrodes for out-of-plane electrostatic actuators. Normally these types of multi-height structures require a multi-mask process with increased fabrication complexity. In this work, a fabrication technology is presented in which fully-isolated, dual-height MEMS metallic structures separated by narrow gaps can be realized using a self-aligned, single-mask process. The main scheme of this proposed process is through-mold electrodeposition, where two photoresist mold fabrication steps and two electrodeposition steps are sequentially implemented to define the thinner and thicker structures in the dual-height configuration. The process relies on two self-aligned steps enabled by the electrodeposited thinner structures: a wet-etching of the seed layer utilizing the thinner structure as an etch-mask to electrically isolate the thinner and the thicker structures, and a backside UV lithography utilizing the thinner structure as a lithographic mask to create a high-aspect-ratio mold for the thicker structure through-mold electrodeposition. The latter step requires the metallic structures to be fabricated on a transparent substrate. Test structures with differences in aspect ratio are demonstrated to showcase the capability of the process.

  4. Determining Best Method for Estimating Observed Level of Maximum Convective Detrainment based on Radar Reflectivity (United States)

    Carletta, N.; Mullendore, G. L.; Xi, B.; Feng, Z.; Dong, X.


    Convective mass transport is the transport of mass from near the surface up to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) by a deep convective updraft. This transport can alter the chemical makeup and water vapor balance of the UTLS, which can affect cloud formation and the radiative properties of the atmosphere. It is therefore important to understand the exact altitudes at which mass is detrained from convection. The purpose of this study is to improve upon previously published methodologies for estimating the level of maximum detrainment (LMD) within convection using data from individual radars. Three methods were used to identify the LMD and validated against dual-Doppler derived vertical mass divergence fields. The best method for locating the LMD was determined to be the method that uses a horizontal reflectivity texture-based technique to determine convective cores and a multi-layer echo identification to determine anvil locations. The methodology was found to work in many but not all cases. The methodology works best when applied to convective systems with mature updrafts, and is most accurate with convective lines and single cells. A time lag is present in the reflectivity based LMD compared to the vertical mass divergence based LMD because the reflectivity method is dependent on anvil growth. This methodology was then applied to archived NEXRAD 3D mosaic radar data. The regions of analysis were chosen to coincide with the observation regions for the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3): the Colorado Foothills, Southern Plains (OK/TX), and Southeast US (AL). These three regions provide a wide variety of convection. The dates analyzed were from May and June of 2012 so the results can be compared to future DC3 studies. The variability of detrainment heights for the early convective season for these different geographical regions will be presented.

  5. The convection electric field in auroral substorms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.


    Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) electric field and ion drift data are used in a statistical study of the ionospheric convection electric field in bulge-type auroral substorms. Thirty-one individual DE 2 substorm crossings were carefully selected and organized by the use of global auroral images obtained...... this database enabled us to compile a model of the ionospheric convection electric field. The characteristics of the premidnight convection reversal show a pronounced local time dependency. Far west of the surge it is a fairly well defined point reversal or convection shear. Approaching the surge and within...... the surge it is a region of weak electric fields increasing in width toward midnight that separates regions of equatorward and poleward electric fields. Therefore we adopt the term Harang region rather than the Harang discontinuity for the premidnight convection reversal. A relatively narrow convection...

  6. Non-Boussinesq Dissolution-Driven Convection in Porous Media (United States)

    Amooie, M. A.; Soltanian, M. R.; Moortgat, J.


    Geological carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers has been increasingly recognized as a feasible technology to stabilize the atmospheric carbon concentrations and subsequently mitigate the global warming. Solubility trapping is one of the most effective storage mechanisms, which is associated initially with diffusion-driven slow dissolution of gaseous CO2 into the aqueous phase, followed by density-driven convective mixing of CO2 throughout the aquifer. The convection includes both diffusion and fast advective transport of the dissolved CO2. We study the fluid dynamics of CO2 convection in the underlying single aqueous-phase region. Two modeling approaches are employed to define the system: (i) a constant-concentration condition for CO2 in aqueous phase at the top boundary, and (ii) a sufficiently low, constant injection-rate for CO2 from top boundary. The latter allows for thermodynamically consistent evolution of the CO2 composition and the aqueous phase density against the rate at which the dissolved CO2 convects. Here we accurately model the full nonlinear phase behavior of brine-CO2 mixture in a confined domain altered by dissolution and compressibility, while relaxing the common Boussinesq approximation. We discover new flow regimes and present quantitative scaling relations for global characters of spreading, mixing, and dissolution flux in two- and three-dimensional media for the both model types. We then revisit the universal Sherwood-Rayleigh scaling that is under debate for porous media convective flows. Our findings confirm the sublinear scaling for the constant-concentration case, while reconciling the classical linear scaling for the constant-injection model problem. The results provide a detailed perspective into how the available modeling strategies affect the prediction ability for the total amount of CO2 dissolved in the long term within saline aquifers of different permeabilities.

  7. Convective-diffusive transport in protein crystal growth (United States)

    Lin, H.; Rosenberger, F.; Alexander, J. I. D.; Nadarajah, A.


    Particular interest in the role of convection in protein crystallization has arisen since some protein single crystals of improved structural quality have been obtained under reduced gravity conditions. We have numerically modeled the time-dependent diffusive-convective transport in an isothermal protein crystal growth system at standard and zero gravity (1 g and 0 g). In the 2D model used, a rectangular crystal of fixed dimensions 400 μm × 600 μm is positioned at the bottom of a 1 mm high and 6 mm wide growth cell. The aqueous solution contains protein and precipitant. For the dependence of the crystal growth rate on interfacial supersaturation, experimental data for lysozyme are used. The repartitioning of water and precipitant at the growing interface is based on experimental segregation data for lysozyme: NaCl, and on complete rejection for a fictitious system in which lysozyme and precipitant have the same diffusivity. The results show that even in the small cell employed, protein concentration nonuniformities and gravity-driven solutal convection can be significant. The calculated convection velocities are of the same order of magnitude as those found in earlier experiments. As expected, convective transport enhances the growth rates. However, even when diffusion dominates mass transport, i.e. at 0 g, lysozyme crystal growth remains kinetically limited. Irrespective of the diffusivity of the precipitant, due to the low growth rates, the precipitant distribution in the solution remains rather uniform even at 0 g, unless strong coupling between precipitant and protein fluxes is assumed. The salt distribution in the crystal is predicted to be non-uniform at both 1 g and 0 g, as a consequence of protein depletion in the solution.

  8. Self-aggregation of convection in long channel geometry (United States)

    Wing, Allison; Cronin, Timothy


    Self-aggregation is the spontaneous transition in numerical simulations from randomly distributed convection to organized convection despite homogeneous boundary conditions. We explore the influence of domain geometry on the mechanisms and temperature-dependence of self-aggregation of tropical convection. Specifically, the System for Atmospheric Modeling is used to perform 3-d simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium in a non-rotating framework, with interactive radiation and surface fluxes and fixed sea surface temperature. The results of simulations employing a highly elongated 3-d channel domain, in which self-aggregation takes the form of multiple moist and dry bands, are compared to that of a square domain, in which self-aggregation takes the form of a single moist cluster. For both domain types, and across a range of temperatures, we characterize the fundamental physical mechanisms that lead to self-aggregation as well as its growth rate and spatial scale. The variance budget equation for the vertically integrated frozen moist static energy is used to quantify the mechanisms governing self-aggregation and characterize its time scale. We find that diabatic processes dominate the evolution of self-aggregation in the elongated channel simulations. In contrast, in the square domain simulations, similar diabatic processes dominate the initial stages of aggregation but up-gradient advection by the circulation plays a role in the later stages. Self-aggregation occurs across a much wider range of temperatures with elongated channel geometry than with square geometry. As the sea surface temperature is increased in the channel simulations, the aggregated state is characterized by smaller spatial scales and more regularity. An advantage of the channel geometry is that a separation distance between convectively active regions can be defined, which is a prerequisite for developing a spatial scaling theory.

  9. Transitions Between Convective Patterns in Chemical Fronts


    Wu, Y.; Vasquez, D. A.; Edwards, Boyd F.; Wilder, J. W.


    We present a theory for the transition from nonaxisymmetric to axisymmetric convection in iodate-arsenous acid reaction fronts propagating in a vertical slab. The transition takes place away from the onset of convection, where a convectionless flat front becomes unstable to a nonaxisymmetric convective front. The transition is studied by numerically solving a reaction-diffusion equation coupled with nonlinear hydrodynamics in a two-dimensional slab.

  10. Natural convection with combined driving forces (United States)

    Ostrach, S.


    The problem of free and natural convection with combined driving forces is considered in general and all possible configurations are identified. Dimensionless parameters are discussed in order to help categorize the various problems, and existing work is critically evaluated. Four distinct cases are considered for conventional convection and for the situation when the body force and the density gradient are parallel but opposed. Considerable emphasis is given to unstable convection in horizontal layers.

  11. Convection of Moist Saturated Air: Analytical Study


    Robert Zakinyan; Arthur Zakinyan; Roman Ryzhkov; Kristina Avanesyan


    In the present work, the steady-state stationary thermal convection of moist saturated air in a lower atmosphere has been studied theoretically. Thermal convection was considered without accounting for the Coriolis force, and with only the vertical temperature gradient. The analytical solution of geophysical fluid dynamics equations, which generalizes the formulation of the moist convection problem, is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The stream function is derived in the Boussinesq appr...

  12. New patterns of centrifugally driven thermal convection


    Jaletzky, M.; Busse, F. H.


    An experimental study is described of convection driven by thermal buoyancy in the annular gap between two corotating coaxial cylinders, heated from the outside and cooled from the inside. Steady convection patterns of the hexaroll and of the knot type are observed in the case of high Prandtl number fluids, for which the Coriolis force is sufficiently small. Oblique rolls and phase turbulence in the form of irregular patterns of convection can also be observed in wide regions of the parameter...

  13. Improving the simulation of convective dust storms in regional-to-global models (United States)

    Foroutan, Hosein; Pleim, Jonathan E.


    Convective dust storms have significant impacts on atmospheric conditions and air quality and are a major source of dust uplift in summertime. However, regional-to-global models generally do not accurately simulate these storms, a limitation that can be attributed to (1) using a single mean value for wind speed per grid box, i.e., not accounting for subgrid wind variability and (2) using convective parametrizations that poorly simulate cold pool outflows. This study aims to improve the simulation of convective dust storms by tackling these two issues. Specifically, we incorporate a probability distribution function for surface wind in each grid box to account for subgrid wind variability due to dry and moist convection. Furthermore, we use lightning assimilation to increase the accuracy of the convective parameterization and simulated cold pool outflows. This updated model framework is used to simulate a massive convective dust storm that hit Phoenix, AZ, on 6 July 2011. The results show that lightning assimilation provides a more realistic simulation of precipitation features, including timing and location, and the resulting cold pool outflows that generated the dust storm. When those results are combined with a dust model that accounts for subgrid wind variability, the prediction of dust uplift and concentrations are considerably improved compared to the default model results. This modeling framework could potentially improve the simulation of convective dust storms in global models, regional climate simulations, and retrospective air quality studies.

  14. Natural convection heat transfer coefficient for newborn baby - Thermal manikin assessed convective heat loses (United States)

    Ostrowski, Ziemowit; Rojczyk, Marek


    The energy balance and heat exchange for newborn baby in radiant warmer environment are considered. The present study was performed to assess the body dry heat loss from an infant in radiant warmer, using copper cast anthropomorphic thermal manikin and controlled climate chamber laboratory setup. The total body dry heat losses were measured for varying manikin surface temperatures (nine levels between 32.5 °C and 40.1 °C) and ambient air temperatures (five levels between 23.5 °C and 29.7 °C). Radiant heat losses were estimated based on measured climate chamber wall temperatures. After subtracting radiant part, resulting convective heat loses were compared with computed ones (based on Nu correlations for common geometries). Simplified geometry of newborn baby was represented as: (a) single cylinder and (b) weighted sum of 5 cylinders and sphere. The predicted values are significantly overestimated relative to measured ones by: 28.8% (SD 23.5%) for (a) and 40.9% (SD 25.2%) for (b). This showed that use of adopted general purpose correlations for approximation of convective heat losses of newborn baby can lead to substantial errors. Hence, new Nu number correlating equation is proposed. The mean error introduced by proposed correlation was reduced to 1.4% (SD 11.97%), i.e. no significant overestimation. The thermal manikin appears to provide a precise method for the noninvasive assessment of thermal conditions in neonatal care.

  15. Titan Balloon Convection Model, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Vodinchar


    Full Text Available We describe the large-scale model geodynamo, which based on indirect data of inhomogeneities in the density of the Earth’s core. Convection structure is associated with spherical harmonic Y24 , which defines the basic poloidal component of velocity. Coriolis drift of this mode determines the toroidal component of velocity. Thus, 6 convective cells are formed. The model takes into account the feedback effect of the magnetic field on convection. It was ascertained that the model contains stable regimes of field generation. The velocity of convection and the dipole component of the magnetic field are close to the observed ones.

  17. Characterizing Convection in Stellar Atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Joel; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Robinson, Frank


    We perform 3D radiative hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of convection in the superadiabatic layer of stars. The simulations show differences in both the stratification and turbulent quantities for different types of stars. We extract turbulent pressure and eddy sizes, as well as the T-τ relation for different stars and find that they are sensitive to the energy flux and gravity. We also show that contrary to what is usually assumed in the field of stellar atmospheres, the structure and gas dynamics of simulations of turbulent atmospheres cannot be parameterized with T eff and log(g) alone.

  18. Variations of Cloud and Radiative Properties of Boundary-layer and Deep Convective Systems with Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man


    Gridded monthly-mean satellite data contain compositing information from different cloud system types and clear-sky environments. To isolate the variations of cloud physical properties of an individual cloud system type with its environment, orbital data are needed. In this study, we will analyze the variations of cloud and radiative properties of boundary-layer clouds and deep convective cloud systems with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. We use Terra-CERES (Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System) Level 2 data to classify distinct cloud objects defined by cloud-system types (deep convection, boundary-layer cumulus, stratocumulus and overcast clouds), sizes, geographic locations, and matched large-scale environments. This analysis method identifies a cloud object as a contiguous region of the Earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. It determines the shape and size of the cloud object from the satellite data and the cloud-system selection criteria. The statistical properties of the identified cloud objects are analyzed in terms of probability density functions (PDFs) of a single property or joint PDFs between two properties. The SST anomalies are defined as the differences from five-year annual-cycle means. Individual cloud objects are sorted into one of five equal size subsets, with the matched SST anomalies ranging from the most negative to the most positive values, for a given size category of deep convective cloud objects, boundary-layer cumulus, stratocumulus and overcast cloud objects. The PDFs of cloud and radiative properties for deep convective cloud objects (between 30 S and 30 N) are found to largely similar among the five SST anomaly subsets except for the lowest SST anomaly subset. The different characteristics from this SST anomaly subset may be related to some cloud objects resulting from equatorward movement of extratropical cloud systems. This result holds true for all three different size categories (measured by equivalent

  19. Temporal response of laser power standards with natural convective cooling. (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Gan, Haiyong; Yu, Jing; Zang, Erjun


    Laser power detectors with natural convective cooling are convenient to use and hence widely applicable in a power range below 150 W. However, the temporal response characteristics of the laser power detectors need to be studied in detail for accurate measurement. The temporal response based on the absolute laser power standards with natural convective cooling is studied through theoretical analysis, numerical simulations, and experimental verifications. Our results show that the response deviates from a single exponential function and that an ultimate response balance is difficult to achieve because the temperature rise of the heat sink leads to continuous increase of the response. To determine the measurement values, an equal time reading method is proposed and validated by the laser power calibrations.

  20. Is tropopause folding promoting or suppressing deep convection? First results from TROSIAD (United States)

    Antonescu, B.; Vaughan, G.; Schultz, D. M.


    Wales was developed based on the MST radar data. Tropopause folds can be identified in the wind speed plots, coinciding with maxima in wind shear and echo power. A total of 231 tropopause folds events were identified. By combining the severe-storm and tropopause-fold climatologies 76 convective storms were associated with tropopause folds. About half of these cases (42%) were observed on the western side of an upper level trough, a region in which the convection is in generally considered as being suppressed. As an exemplification of entangled effects of tropopause folds on convection, two case studies are presented. The first event took place on 24 May 2006, when a cold front has passed over the UK, and convection was associated with moist air moving north-eastward over Wales, and becoming instable when the tropopause due to the presence of dry air in the tropopause fold above. In the second case on 2 December 2006, again associated with the passage of a cold front, the tropopause fold reached a lower attitude in comparison with the first case, suppressing convection. We also studied the morphology of the storms associated with tropopause folds, and we found that 51% of the cases are associated with multicellular convective lines, 25% are isolated cells, and 24% are multicellular clusters.

  1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Regulator-Encoding Genes Have an Additive Effect on Virulence Gene Expression in a Vibrio cholerae Clinical Isolate. (United States)

    Carignan, Bailey M; Brumfield, Kyle D; Son, Mike S


    Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the infectious disease cholera, which is characterized by vomiting and severe watery diarrhea. Recently, V. cholerae clinical isolates have demonstrated increased virulence capabilities, causing more severe symptoms with a much higher rate of disease progression than previously observed. We have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four virulence-regulatory genes (hapR, hns, luxO, and vieA) of a hypervirulent V. cholerae clinical isolate, MQ1795. Herein, all SNPs and SNP combinations of interest were introduced into the prototypical El Tor reference strain N16961, and the effects on the production of numerous virulence-related factors, including cholera toxin (CT), the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), and ToxT, were analyzed. Our data show that triple-SNP (hapR hns luxO and hns luxO vieA) and quadruple-SNP combinations produced the greatest increases in CT, TCP, and ToxT production. The hns and hns luxO SNP combinations were sufficient for increased TCP and ToxT production. Notably, the hns luxO vieA triple-SNP combination strain produced TCP and ToxT levels similar to those of MQ1795. Certain SNP combinations (hapR and hapR vieA) had the opposite effect on CT, TCP, and ToxT expression. Interestingly, the hns vieA double-SNP combination strain increased TCP production while decreasing CT production. Our findings suggest that SNPs identified in the four regulatory genes, in various combinations, are associated with increased virulence capabilities observed in V. cholerae clinical isolates. These studies provide insight into the evolution of highly virulent strains. IMPORTANCE Cholera, an infectious disease of the small intestine caused by the aquatic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, often results in vomiting and acute watery diarrhea. If left untreated or if the response is too slow, the symptoms can quickly lead to extreme dehydration and ultimately death of the patient. Recent anecdotal evidence of cholera

  2. Critical stability of almost adiabatic convection in a rapidly rotating thick spherical shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starchenko, S. V., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere, and Radiowave Propagation (Russian Federation); Kotelnikova, M. S. [Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics (Russian Federation)


    In this work, the convection equations in the almost adiabatic approximation is studied for which the choice of physical parameters is primarily based on possible applications to the hydrodynamics of the deep interiors of the Earth and planets and moons of the terrestrial group. The initial system of partial differential equations (PDEs) was simplified to a single second-order ordinary differential equation for the pressure or vertical velocity component to investigate the linear stability of convection. The critical frequencies, modified Rayleigh numbers, and distributions of convection are obtained at various possible Prandtl numbers and in different thick fluid shells. An analytical WKB-type solution was obtained for the case when the inner radius of the shell is much smaller than the outer radius and convective sources are concentrated along the inner boundary.

  3. Numerical investigation of convection-induced MHD waves interacting with a null point in 2D (United States)

    Tarr, Lucas A.; Linton, Mark G.; Leake, James


    We use the LaRe2D MHD code to investigate the propagation of waves in a 2D geometry that includes a quadrupolar magnetic field with a single nullpoint. The simulation box spans the upper convection zone to the corona (y=[-3Mm,35.4Mm] ) and includes a stratified atmosphere. We model the upper convection zone by introducing an energy flux at the lower boundary, an ad-hoc Newton-cooling term to simulate the effect of radiation at the photosphere (y=0), and an initial condition that includes density and internal energy perturbations throughout the convection zone. This sets up the superadiabatic temperature gradient necessary to sustain convection and generate waves. We discuss the dynamic properties of these waves as they propagate through the atmosphere and interact at topologically important features of the magnetic field. This work is funded by the Chief of Naval Research.

  4. Simultaneous isolation of emm89-type Streptococcus pyogenes strains with a wild-type or mutated covS gene from a single streptococcal toxic shock syndrome patient. (United States)

    Masuno, Katsuaki; Okada, Ryo; Zhang, Yan; Isaka, Masanori; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Shibata, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tadao


    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a re-emerging infectious disease in many developed countries. Recent studies have suggested that mutations in CovRS, a two-component regulatory system in Streptococcus pyogenes, play important roles in the pathogenesis of STSS. However, in vivo evidence of the significance of CovRS in human infections has not been fully demonstrated. We investigated five S. pyogenes strains isolated simultaneously from the pharynx, sputum, knee joint, cerebrospinal fluid and blood of a single STSS patient. All were emm89-type strains, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis revealed that the strains of pharynx and blood were isogenic. The growth rates of the strains from pharynx and sputum were faster than those of the other strains. Protein profiles of the culture supernatants of strains from the pharynx and sputum were also different from those of the other strains. Sequence analyses revealed that strains from the knee joint, cerebrospinal fluid and blood contained a single nucleotide difference in the covS coding region, resulting in one amino acid change, compared with the other strains. Introduction of a plasmid containing the covS gene from the pharynx strain to the blood strain increased the production of SpeB protein. This suggests that the one amino acid alteration in CovS was relevant to pathogenesis. This report supports the idea that mutated CovS plays important roles in vivo in the dissemination of S. pyogenes from the upper respiratory tract of human to aseptic tissues such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

  5. Convective mixing and accretion in white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, D.


    The evolution of convection zones in cooling white dwarfs with helium envelopes and outer hydrogen layers is calculated with a complete stellar evolution code. It is shown that white dwarfs of spectral type DB cannot be formed from DA stars by convective mixing. However, for cooler temperatures (Tsub(e) [de

  6. Quantifying the effect of water activity and storage temperature on single spore lag times of three moulds isolated from spoiled bakery products. (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gougouli, Maria; Onno, Bernard; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Membré, Jeanne-Marie


    The inhibitory effect of water activity (a w ) and storage temperature on single spore lag times of Aspergillus niger, Eurotium repens (Aspergillus pseudoglaucus) and Penicillium corylophilum strains isolated from spoiled bakery products, was quantified. A full factorial design was set up for each strain. Data were collected at levels of a w varying from 0.80 to 0.98 and temperature from 15 to 35°C. Experiments were performed on malt agar, at pH5.5. When growth was observed, ca 20 individual growth kinetics per condition were recorded up to 35days. Radius of the colony vs time was then fitted with the Buchanan primary model. For each experimental condition, a lag time variability was observed, it was characterized by its mean, standard deviation (sd) and 5 th percentile, after a Normal distribution fit. As the environmental conditions became stressful (e.g. storage temperature and a w lower), mean and sd of single spore lag time distribution increased, indicating longer lag times and higher variability. The relationship between mean and sd followed a monotonous but not linear pattern, identical whatever the species. Next, secondary models were deployed to estimate the cardinal values (minimal, optimal and maximal temperatures, minimal water activity where no growth is observed anymore) for the three species. That enabled to confirm the observation made based on raw data analysis: concerning the temperature effect, A. niger behaviour was significantly different from E. repens and P. corylophilum: T opt of 37.4°C (standard deviation 1.4°C) instead of 27.1°C (1.4°C) and 25.2°C (1.2°C), respectively. Concerning the a w effect, from the three mould species, E. repens was the species able to grow at the lowest a w (aw min estimated to 0.74 (0.02)). Finally, results obtained with single spores were compared to findings from a previous study carried out at the population level (Dagnas et al., 2014). For short lag times (≤5days), there was no difference between lag

  7. Magnetic Material Assessment of a Novel Ultra-High Step-Up Converter with Single Semiconductor Switch and Galvanic Isolation for Fuel-Cell Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel step-up converter is proposed, which has the particular features of single semiconductor switch, ultra-high conversion ratio, galvanic isolation, and easy control. Therefore, the proposed converter is suitable for the applications of fuel-cell power system. Coupled inductors and switched capacitors are incorporated in the converter to obtain an ultra-high voltage ratio that is much higher than that of a conventional high step-up converter. Even if the turns ratio of coupled inductor and duty ratio are only to be 1 and 0.5, respectively, the converter can readily achieve a voltage gain of up to 18. Owing to this outstanding performance, it can also be applied to any other low voltage source for voltage boosting. In the power stage, only one active switch is used to handle the converter operation. In addition, the leakage energy of the two couple inductors can be totally recycled without any snubber, which simplifies the control mechanism and improves the conversion efficiency. Magnetic material dominates the conversion performance of the converter. Different types of iron cores are discussed for the possibility to serve as a coupled inductor. A 200 W prototype with 400 V output voltage is built to validate the proposed converter. In measurement, it indicates that the highest efficiency can be up to 94%.

  8. A Polymer Encapsulation Strategy to Synthesize Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon-Nanosphere-Supported Metal Isolated-Single-Atomic-Site Catalysts. (United States)

    Han, Aijuan; Chen, Wenxing; Zhang, Shaolong; Zhang, Maolin; Han, Yunhu; Zhang, Jian; Ji, Shufang; Zheng, Lirong; Wang, Yu; Gu, Lin; Chen, Chen; Peng, Qing; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong


    A novel polymer encapsulation strategy to synthesize metal isolated-single-atomic-site (ISAS) catalysts supported by porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanospheres is reported. First, metal precursors are encapsulated in situ by polymers through polymerization; then, metal ISASs are created within the polymer-derived p-CN nanospheres by controlled pyrolysis at high temperature (200-900 °C). Transmission electron microscopy and N 2 sorption results reveal this material to exhibit a nanospheric morphology, a high surface area (≈380 m 2 g -1 ), and a porous structure (with micropores and mesopores). Characterization by aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure confirms the metal to be present as metal ISASs. This methodology is applicable to both noble and nonprecious metals (M-ISAS/p-CN, M = Co, Ni, Cu, Mn, Pd, etc.). In particular, the Co-ISAS/p-CN nanospheres obtained using this method show comparable (E 1/2 = 0.838 V) electrochemical oxygen reduction activity to commercial Pt/C with 20 wt% Pt loading (E 1/2 = 0.834 V) in alkaline media, superior methanol tolerance, and outstanding stability, even after 5000 cycles. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. True polar wander on convecting planets (United States)

    Rose, Ian Robert

    the characteristic size of moment of inertia anomalies decreases with higher Ra, but that the characteristic response time for TPW also decreases. These two effects approximately cancel. However, the orientation of the principal axes of the moment of inertia becomes less stable to perturbations at high Ra, thereby increasing the rate of TPW. Overall, I find that a more vigorously convecting planet is more likely to experience large TPW events. If early Earth had more vigorous convection, it may have experienced more TPW than present-day Earth. Flow induced by density anomalies in the mantle deflects free surfaces at the surface and the CMB, and the mass anomalies due to these deflections contribute to the moment of inertia. A full accounting of the moment of inertia anomalies must include these surface effects. Numerical models of mantle convection with a free surface have suffered from numerical sloshing instabilities. I analyze the sloshing instability by constructing a generalized eigenvalue problem for the relaxation time spectrum. The minimum relaxation time of the spectrum sets the maximum stable timestep. This analysis gives the first quantitative explanation for why existing techniques for stabilizing geodynamic simulations with a free surface work. I also use this perspective to construct an alternative stabilization scheme based on nonstandard finite differences. This scheme has a single parameter, given by an estimate of the minimum relaxation time, and allows for still larger timesteps. Finally, I develop a new method for analyzing apparent polar wander (APW) paths described by sequences of paleomagnetic poles. Existing techniques, such as spline fits and running means, do not fully account for the uncertainties in the position and timing of paleomagnetic pole paths. Furthermore, they impose regularization on the solution, and the resulting uncertainties are difficult to interpret. Our technique is an extension of paleomagnetic Euler pole (PEP) analysis. I

  10. Convective penetration in a young sun (United States)

    Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group


    To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.

  11. Convection of Moist Saturated Air: Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zakinyan


    Full Text Available In the present work, the steady-state stationary thermal convection of moist saturated air in a lower atmosphere has been studied theoretically. Thermal convection was considered without accounting for the Coriolis force, and with only the vertical temperature gradient. The analytical solution of geophysical fluid dynamics equations, which generalizes the formulation of the moist convection problem, is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The stream function is derived in the Boussinesq approximation with velocity divergence taken as zero. It has been shown that the stream function is asymmetrical in vertical direction contrary to the dry and moist unsaturated air convection. It has been demonstrated that the convection in moist atmosphere strongly depends on the vapor mass fraction gradient.

  12. Sequential introduction of single room isolation and hand hygiene campaign in the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in intensive care unit. (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent C C; Tai, Josepha W M; Chan, W M; Lau, Eric H Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Li, Iris W S; Ho, P L; Yuen, K Y


    After renovation of the adult intensive care unit (ICU) with installation of ten single rooms, an enhanced infection control program was conducted to control the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in our hospital. Since the ICU renovation, all patients colonized or infected with MRSA were nursed in single rooms with contact precautions. The incidence of MRSA infection in the ICU was monitored during 3 different phases: the baseline period (phase 1); after ICU renovation (phase 2) and after implementation of a hand hygiene campaign with alcohol-based hand rub (phase 3). Patients infected with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species were chosen as controls because they were managed in open cubicles with standard precautions. Without a major change in bed occupancy rate, nursing workforce, or the protocol of environmental cleansing throughout the study period, a stepwise reduction in ICU onset nonbacteraemic MRSA infection was observed: from 3.54 (phase 1) to 2.26 (phase 2, p = 0.042) and 1.02 (phase 3, p = 0.006) per 1000-patient-days. ICU onset bacteraemic MRSA infection was significantly reduced from 1.94 (phase 1) to 0.9 (phase 2, p = 0.005) and 0.28 (phase 3, p = 0.021) per 1000-patient-days. Infection due to ESBL-producing organisms did not show a corresponding reduction. The usage density of broad-spectrum antibiotics and fluoroquinolones increased from phase 1 to 3. However a significant trend improvement of ICU onset MRSA infection by segmented regression analysis can only be demonstrated when comparison was made before and after the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic. This suggests that the deaths of fellow healthcare workers from an occupational acquired infection had an overwhelming effect on their compliance with infection control measures. Provision of single room isolation facilities and promotion of hand hygiene practice are important. However compliance with

  13. Divergence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes could be driven by the host: diversity of Borrelia strains isolated from ticks feeding on a single bird (United States)


    Background The controversy surrounding the potential impact of birds in spirochete transmission dynamics and their capacity to serve as a reservoir has existed for a long time. The majority of analyzed bird species are able to infect larval ticks with Borrelia. Dispersal of infected ticks due to bird migration is a key to the establishment of new foci of Lyme borreliosis. The dynamics of infection in birds supports the mixing of different species, the horizontal exchange of genetic information, and appearance of recombinant genotypes. Methods Four Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains were cultured from Ixodes minor larvae and four strains were isolated from Ixodes minor nymphs collected from a single Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus). A multilocus sequence analysis that included 16S rRNA, a 5S-23S intergenic spacer region, a 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer, flagellin, p66, and ospC separated 8 strains into 3 distinct groups. Additional multilocus sequence typing of 8 housekeeping genes, clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB, and uvrA was used to resolve the taxonomic status of bird-associated strains. Results Results of analysis of 14 genes confirmed that the level of divergence among strains is significantly higher than what would be expected for strains within a single species. The presence of cross-species recombination was revealed: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto housekeeping gene nifS was incorporated into homologous locus of strain, previously assigned to B. americana. Conclusions Genetically diverse Borrelia strains are often found within the same tick or same vertebrate host, presenting a wide opportunity for genetic exchange. We report the cross-species recombination that led to incorporation of a housekeeping gene from the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain into a homologous locus of another bird-associated strain. Our results support the hypothesis that recombination maintains a majority of sequence polymorphism within Borrelia

  14. Complete Genome Sequences of Eight Helicobacter pylori Strains with Different Virulence Factor Genotypes and Methylation Profiles, Isolated from Patients with Diverse Gastrointestinal Diseases on Okinawa Island, Japan, Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology (United States)

    Shiroma, Akino; Teruya, Kuniko; Shimoji, Makiko; Nakano, Kazuma; Juan, Ayaka; Tamotsu, Hinako; Terabayashi, Yasunobu; Aoyama, Misako; Teruya, Morimi; Suzuki, Rumiko; Matsuda, Miyuki; Sekine, Akihiro; Kinjo, Nagisa; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Hirano, Takashi


    We report the complete genome sequences of eight Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with gastrointestinal diseases in Okinawa, Japan. Whole-genome sequencing and DNA methylation detection were performed using the PacBio platform. De novo assembly determined a single, complete contig for each strain. Furthermore, methylation analysis identified virulence factor genotype-dependent motifs. PMID:24744331

  15. Axisymmetric Marangoni convection in microencapsulation (United States)

    Subramanian, Pravin; Zebib, Abdelfattah; McQuillan, Barry


    Spherical shells used as laser targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments are made by microencapsulation. In one phase of manufacturing, the spherical shells contain a solvent (fluorobenzene (FB)) and a solute (polystyrene (PAMS)) in a water-FB environment. Evaporation of the FB results in the desired hardened plastic hollow spherical shells, 1-2 mm in diameter. Perfect sphericity is demanded for efficient fusion ignition and the observed surface roughness maybe driven by Marangoni instabilities due to surface tension dependence on the FB concentration (buoyant forces are negligible in this micro-scale problem). Here we model this drying process and compute nonlinear, time-dependent, axisymmetric, variable viscosity, infinite Schmidt number solutocapillary convection in the shells. Comparison with results from linear theory and available experiments are made.

  16. Convective evaporation of vertical films. (United States)

    Boulogne, François; Dollet, Benjamin


    Motivated by the evaporation of soap films, which has a significant effect on their lifetime, we performed an experimental study on the evaporation of vertical surfaces with model systems based on hydrogels. From the analogy between heat and mass transfer, we adopt a model describing the natural convection in the gas phase due to a density contrast between dry and saturated air. Our measurements show a good agreement with this model, both in terms of scaling law with the Grashof number and in terms of order of magnitude. We discuss the corrections to take into account, notably the contribution of edge effects, which have a small but visible contribution when lateral and bottom surface areas are not negligible compared to the main evaporating surface area.

  17. Actively convected liquid metal divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi


    The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem. (letter)

  18. Actively convected liquid metal divertor (United States)

    Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi


    The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem.

  19. Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.J.; Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Corradini, M.L.; Pernsteiner, A.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure was studied numerically and the results were compared with experiments. In both the numerical and experimental investigations, mist formation was observed to occur near the cooling wall, with significant droplet concentrations in the bulk. Large recirculation cells near the end of the condensing section were generated as the heavy noncondensing gas collecting near the cooling wall was accelerated downward. Near the top of the enclosure the recirculation cells became weaker and smaller than those below, ultimately disappearing near the top of the condenser. In the experiment the mist density was seen to be highest near the wall and at the bottom of the condensing section, whereas the numerical model predicted a much more uniform distribution. The model used to describe the formation of mist was based on a Modified Critical Saturation Model (MCSM), which allows mist to be generated once the vapor pressure exceeds a critical value. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and MCSM calculations were preformed, showing the experimental results to lie somewhere in between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium predictions of the numerical model. A single adjustable constant (indicating the degree to which equilibrium is achieved) is used in the model in order to match the experimental results.

  20. Compressible Convection Experiment using Xenon Gas in a Centrifuge (United States)

    Menaut, R.; Alboussiere, T.; Corre, Y.; Huguet, L.; Labrosse, S.; Deguen, R.; Moulin, M.


    We present here an experiment especially designed to study compressible convection in the lab. For significant compressible convection effects, the parameters of the experiment have to be optimized: we use xenon gaz in a cubic cell. This cell is placed in a centrifuge to artificially increase the apparent gravity and heated from below. With these choices, we are able to reach a dissipation number close to Earth's outer core value. We will present our results for different heating fluxes and rotation rates. We success to observe an adiabatic gradient of 3K/cm in the cell. Studies of pressure and temperature fluctuations lead us to think that the convection takes place under the form of a single roll in the cell for high heating flux. Moreover, these fluctuations show that the flow is geostrophic due to the high rotation speed. This important role of rotation, via Coriolis force effects, in our experimental setup leads us to develop a 2D quasigeostrophic compressible model in the anelastic liquid approximation. We test numerically this model with the finite element solver FreeFem++ and compare its results with our experimental data. In conclusion, we will present our project for the next experiment in which the cubic cell will be replace by a annulus cell. We will discuss the new expected effects due to this geometry as Rossby waves and zonal flows.

  1. Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian, E-mail:, E-mail: [Coordenacao dos Cursos de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Niceno, Bojan, E-mail: [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Nuclear Energy and Safety


    After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 15}. Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu{sub i}). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v{sup 2} -f (commonly called as v{sup 2}-f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)

  2. Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian; Niceno, Bojan


    After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10 8 to 10 15 . Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu i ). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v 2 -f (commonly called as v 2 -f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)

  3. Convective Replica-Exchange in Ergodic Regimes. (United States)

    Signorini, Giorgio F; Giovannelli, Edoardo; Spill, Yannick G; Nilges, Michael; Chelli, Riccardo


    In a recent article (J. Comput. Chem. 2013, 34, 132-140), convective replica-exchange (convective-RE) has been presented as an alternative to the standard even-odd transition scheme. Computations on systems of various complexity have shown that convective-RE may increase the number of replica round-trips in temperature space with respect to the standard exchange scheme, leading to a more effective sampling of energy basins. Moreover, it has been shown that the method may prevent the formation of bottlenecks in the diffusive walk of replicas through the space of temperature states. By using an ideal temperature-RE model and a classical harmonic-oscillator RE scheme, we study the performances of convective-RE when ergodicity is not broken and convergence of acceptance probabilities is attained. In this dynamic regime, the round-trip ratio between convective and standard-RE is at maximum ∼ 1.5, a value much smaller than that observed in nonergodic simulations. For large acceptance probabilities, the standard-RE outperforms convective-RE. Our observations suggest that convective-RE can safely be used in either ergodic or non-ergodic regimes; however, convective-RE is advantageous only when bottlenecks occur in the state-space diffusion of replicas, or when acceptance probabilities are globally low. We also show that decoupling of the state-space dynamics of the stick replica from the dynamics of the remaining replicas improves the efficiency of convective-RE at low acceptance probability regimes.

  4. Stimulation of Na+-alanine cotransport activates a voltage-dependent conductance in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney (United States)

    Robson, L; Hunter, M


    The swelling induced by Na+-alanine cotransport in proximal tubule cells of the frog kidney is followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD). This RVD is inhibited by gadolinium (Gd3+), an inhibitor of stretch-activated channels, but is independent of extracellular Ca2+. In this study, the whole cell patch clamp technique was utilized to examine the effect of Na+-alanine cotransport on two previously identified volume- and Gd3+-sensitive conductances. One conductance is voltage dependent and anion selective (GVD) whilst the other is voltage independent and cation selective (GVI). Addition of 5 mM L-alanine to the bathing solution increased the whole cell conductance and gave a positive (depolarizing) shift in the reversal potential (Vrev, equivalent to the membrane potential in current-clamped cells) consistent with activation of Na+-alanine cotransport. Vrev shifted from -36 ± 4·9 to +12·9 ± 4·2 mV (n= 15). In the presence of alanine, the total whole cell conductance had several components including the cotransporter conductance and GVD and GVI. These conductances were separated using Gd3+, which inhibits both GVD and GVI, and the time dependency of GVD. Of these two volume-sensitive conductances, L-alanine elicited a specific increase in GVD, whereas GVI was unaffected. The L-alanine-induced activation of GVD was significantly reduced when cells were incubated in a hypertonic bathing solution. In summary, in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney, on stimulation of Na+-alanine cotransport GVD is activated, while GVI is unaffected. Taken with other evidence, this suggests that GVD is activated by cell swelling, consequent upon alanine entry, and may play a role as an anion efflux pathway during alanine-induced volume regulation. PMID:10226159

  5. Granular convection driven by shearing inertial forces. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Liñán, G M; Nahmad-Molinari, Y


    Convection velocity measurements in vertically vibrated granular materials are presented. The convection velocity close to the walls grows quadratically with the difference between the maximum and critical, or excess, amplitude (proposed as a dynamic parameter to describe related problems) and it is shown numerically that the average bed-bottom relative velocity during the distancing between them, grows linearly with the squared as well. This is interpreted as the signature of an inertial shearing force or momentum transfer proportional to the bed-container relative velocity, acting mainly during the bed-plate distancing part of each cycle which leads to the formation of the convective flux.

  6. Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Barton; Schultz, Richard


    The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.

  7. Measuring Convective Mass Fluxes Over Tropical Oceans (United States)

    Raymond, David


    Deep convection forms the upward branches of all large-scale circulations in the tropics. Understanding what controls the form and intensity of vertical convective mass fluxes is thus key to understanding tropical weather and climate. These mass fluxes and the corresponding conditions supporting them have been measured by recent field programs (TPARC/TCS08, PREDICT, HS3) in tropical disturbances considered to be possible tropical storm precursors. In reality, this encompasses most strong convection in the tropics. The measurements were made with arrays of dropsondes deployed from high altitude. In some cases Doppler radar provided additional measurements. The results are in some ways surprising. Three factors were found to control the mass flux profiles, the strength of total surface heat fluxes, the column-integrated relative humidity, and the low to mid-tropospheric moist convective instability. The first two act as expected, with larger heat fluxes and higher humidity producing more precipitation and stronger lower tropospheric mass fluxes. However, unexpectedly, smaller (but still positive) convective instability produces more precipitation as well as more bottom-heavy convective mass flux profiles. Furthermore, the column humidity and the convective instability are anti-correlated, at least in the presence of strong convection. On spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers, the virtual temperature structure appears to be in dynamic balance with the pattern of potential vorticity. Since potential vorticity typically evolves on longer time scales than convection, the potential vorticity pattern plus the surface heat fluxes then become the immediate controlling factors for average convective properties. All measurements so far have taken place in regions with relatively flat sea surface temperature (SST) distributions. We are currently seeking funding for a measurement program in the tropical east Pacific, a region that exhibits strong SST gradients and

  8. Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Schultz, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.

  9. Design and Optimization of an Efficient (96.1% and Compact (2 kW/dm3 Bidirectional Isolated Single-Phase Dual Active Bridge AC-DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Everts


    Full Text Available The growing attention on plug-in electric vehicles, and the associated high-performance demands, have initiated a development trend towards highly efficient and compact on-board battery chargers. These isolated ac-dc converters are most commonly realized using two conversion stages, combining a non-isolated power factor correction (PFC rectifier with an isolated dc-dc converter.This, however, involves two loss stages and a relatively high component count, limiting the achievable efficiency and power density and resulting in high costs. In this paper, a single-stage converter approach is analyzed to realize a single-phase ac-dc converter, combining all functionalities into one conversion stage and thus enabling a cost-effective efficiency and power density increase. The converter topology consists of a quasi-lossless synchronous rectifier followed by an isolated dual active bridge (DAB dc-dc converter, putting a small filter capacitor in between. To show the performance potential of this bidirectional, isolated ac-dc converter, a comprehensive design procedure and multi-objective optimization with respect to efficiency and power density is presented, using detailed loss and volume models. The models and procedures are verified by a 3.7kW hardware demonstrator, interfacing a 400Vdc-bus with the single-phase 230V,50Hz utility grid. Measurement results indicate a state-of-the-art efficiency of 96.1% and power density of 2 kW/dm3, confirming the competitiveness of the investigated single-stage DAB ac-dc converter.

  10. Convection in complex shaped vessel; Convection dans des enceintes de forme complexe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 8 november 2000, the SFT (Societe Francaise de Thermique) organized a technical day on the convection in complex shaped vessels. Nine papers have been presented in the domains of the heat transfers, the natural convection, the fluid distribution, the thermosyphon effect, the steam flow in a sterilization cycle and the transformers cooling. Eight papers are analyzed in ETDE and one paper dealing with the natural convection in spent fuels depository is analyzed in INIS. (A.L.B.)

  11. Convective Radio Occultations Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondi, R. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States)


    Deep convective systems are destructive weather phenomena that annually cause many deaths and injuries as well as much damage, thereby accounting for major economic losses in several countries. The number and intensity of such phenomena have increased over the last decades in some areas of the globe. Damage is mostly caused by strong winds and heavy rain parameters that are strongly connected to the structure of the particular storm. Convection over land is usually stronger and deeper than over the ocean and some convective systems, known as supercells, also develop tornadoes through processes that remain mostly unclear. The intensity forecast and monitoring of convective systems is one of the major challenges for meteorology because in situ measurements during extreme events are too sparse or unreliable and most ongoing satellite missions do not provide suitable time/space coverage.

  12. Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.


    The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.

  13. Natural convection type BWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobimatsu, Toshimi.


    In a natural convection type BWR reactor, a mixed stream of steams and water undergo a great flow resistance. In particular, pressure loss upon passing from an upper plenum to a stand pipe and pressure loss upon passing through rotational blades are great. Then, a steam dryer comprising laminated dome-like perforated plates and a drain pipe for flowing down separated water to a downcomer are disposed above a riser. The coolants heated in the reactor core are boiled, uprise in the riser as a gas-liquid two phase flow containing voids, release steams containing droplets from the surface of the gas-liquid two phase, flow into the steam dryer comprising the perforated plates and are separated into a gas and a liquid. The dried steams flow to a turbine passing through a main steam pipe and the condensated droplets flow down through the drain pipe and the downcomer to the lower portion of the reactor core. In this way, the conventional gas-liquid separator can be saved without lowering the quality of steam drying to reduce the pressure loss and to improve the operation performance. (N.H.)

  14. Controlling arbitrary humidity without convection. (United States)

    Wasnik, Priyanka S; N'guessan, Hartmann E; Tadmor, Rafael


    In this paper we show a way that allows for the first time to induce arbitrary humidity of desired value for systems without convective flow. To enable this novelty we utilize a semi-closed environment in which evaporation is not completely suppressed. In this case, the evaporation rate is determined both by the outer (open) humidity and by the inner (semi-closed) geometry including the size/shape of the evaporating medium and the size/shape of the semi-closure. We show how such systems can be used to induce desired humidity conditions. We consider water droplet placed on a solid surface and study its evaporation when it is surrounded by other drops, hereon "satellite" drops and covered by a semi-closed hemisphere. The main drop's evaporation rate is proportional to its height, in agreement with theory. Surprisingly, however, the influence of the satellite drops on the main drop's evaporation suppression is not proportional to the sum of heights of the satellite drops. Instead, it shows proportionality close to the satellite drops' total surface area. The resultant humidity conditions in the semi-closed system can be effectively and accurately induced using different satellite drops combinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Added value of convection-permitting reanalyses (United States)

    Wahl, S.; Keller, J. D.; Ohlwein, C.; Hense, A.; Friederichs, P.; Crewell, S.


    Atmospheric reanalyses are a state-of-the-art tool to generate consistent and realistic state estimates of the atmospheric system. They are used for validation of meteorological and hydrological models, climate monitoring, and renewable energy applications, amongst others. Current reanalyses are mainly global, while regional reanalyses are emerging for North America, the polar region, and most recently for Europe. Due to the horizontal resolution used, deep convection is still parameterized even in the regional reanalyses. However, convective parameterization is a major source of errors and uncertainties in atmospheric models. Therefore, it is expected that convection permitting reanalysis systems are able to adequately simulate the mechanisms leading to high-impact weather, notably heavy precipitation and winds related to deep moist convection. A novel convective-scale regional reanalysis system for Central Europe (COSMO-REA2) has been developed by the Hans-Ertel Center for Weather Research - Climate Monitoring Branch. The system is based on the COSMO model and uses a nudging scheme for the assimilation of observational data. In addition, radar-derived rain rates are assimilated through a latent heat nudging scheme. With a horizontal grid-spacing of 2 km, the model parameterization for deep moist convective processes is turned off. As we expect the largest benefit of the convection-permitting system for precipitation, the evaluation focuses on this essential climate variable (ECV). Furthermore, precipitation is crucial for climate monitoring purposes, e.g., in the form of extreme precipitation which is an major cause of severe damages and societal costs in Europe. This study illustrates the added value of the convective-scale reanalysis compared to coarser gridded regional European and global reanalyses.

  16. Combined convective heat transfer from short cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosthuizen, P.H.; Paul, J.T.


    Considerable experimental evidence has been produced recently showing that the free convective heat transfer rate from horizontal circular cylinders becomes influenced by the length to diameter ratio L/D. The major aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the L/D ratio on the conditions under which buoyancy forces cause the heat transfer rate to start to deviate significantly from that existing in purely forced convection

  17. Numerical Study of a Convective Turbulence Encounter (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.


    A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The specific case was encountered during one of NASA's flight tests and was characterized by severe turbulence. The event was associated with overshooting convective turrets that contained low to moderate radar reflectivity. Model comparisons with observations are quite favorable. Turbulence hazard metrics are proposed and applied to the numerical data set. Issues such as adequate grid size are examined.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, F. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pierrehumbert, R. T., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)


    Condensible substances are nearly ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres. For the most familiar case—water vapor in Earth’s present climate—the condensible gas is dilute, in the sense that its concentration is everywhere small relative to the noncondensible background gases. A wide variety of important planetary climate problems involve nondilute condensible substances. These include planets near or undergoing a water vapor runaway and planets near the outer edge of the conventional habitable zone, for which CO{sub 2} is the condensible. Standard representations of convection in climate models rely on several approximations appropriate only to the dilute limit, while nondilute convection differs in fundamental ways from dilute convection. In this paper, a simple parameterization of convection valid in the nondilute as well as dilute limits is derived and used to discuss the basic character of nondilute convection. The energy conservation properties of the scheme are discussed in detail and are verified in radiative-convective simulations. As a further illustration of the behavior of the scheme, results for a runaway greenhouse atmosphere for both steady instellation and seasonally varying instellation corresponding to a highly eccentric orbit are presented. The latter case illustrates that the high thermal inertia associated with latent heat in nondilute atmospheres can damp out the effects of even extreme seasonal forcing.

  19. Driving forces: Slab subduction and mantle convection (United States)

    Hager, Bradford H.


    Mantle convection is the mechanism ultimately responsible for most geological activity at Earth's surface. To zeroth order, the lithosphere is the cold outer thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle. Subduction of cold dense lithosphere provides tha major source of negative buoyancy driving mantle convection and, hence, surface tectonics. There are, however, importnat differences between plate tectonics and the more familiar convecting systems observed in the laboratory. Most important, the temperature dependence of the effective viscosity of mantle rocks makes the thermal boundary layer mechanically strong, leading to nearly rigid plates. This strength stabilizes the cold boundary layer against small amplitude perturbations and allows it to store substantial gravitational potential energy. Paradoxically, through going faults at subduction zones make the lithosphere there locally weak, allowing rapid convergence, unlike what is observed in laboratory experiments using fluids with temperature dependent viscosities. This bimodal strength distribution of the lithosphere distinguishes plate tectonics from simple convection experiments. In addition, Earth has a buoyant, relatively weak layer (the crust) occupying the upper part of the thermal boundary layer. Phase changes lead to extra sources of heat and bouyancy. These phenomena lead to observed richness of behavior of the plate tectonic style of mantle convection.

  20. Statistics of convective collapse events in the photosphere and chromosphere observed with the HINODE SOT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, C.E.; de Wijn, A.G.; Centeno, R.; Lites, B.W.; Keller, C.U.


    Convective collapse, a theoretically predicted process that intensifies existing weak magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere, was first directly observed in a single event by Nagata et al. (2008) using the high resolution Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) of the Hinode satellite. Using the same space

  1. Statistics of convective collapse events in the photosphere and chromosphere observed with the Hinode SOT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, C.E.; de Wijn, A.G.; Centeno, R.; Lites, B.W.; Keller, C.U.


    Convective collapse, a theoretically predicted process that intensifies existing weak magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere, was first directly observed in a single event by Nagata et al. (2008, ApJ, 677, L145) using the high resolution Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) of the Hinode satellite. Using

  2. Entropy Production in Convective Hydrothermal Systems (United States)

    Boersing, Nele; Wellmann, Florian; Niederau, Jan


    Exploring hydrothermal reservoirs requires reliable estimates of subsurface temperatures to delineate favorable locations of boreholes. It is therefore of fundamental and practical importance to understand the thermodynamic behavior of the system in order to predict its performance with numerical studies. To this end, the thermodynamic measure of entropy production is considered as a useful abstraction tool to characterize the convective state of a system since it accounts for dissipative heat processes and gives insight into the system's average behavior in a statistical sense. Solving the underlying conservation principles of a convective hydrothermal system is sensitive to initial conditions and boundary conditions which in turn are prone to uncertain knowledge in subsurface parameters. There exist multiple numerical solutions to the mathematical description of a convective system and the prediction becomes even more challenging as the vigor of convection increases. Thus, the variety of possible modes contained in such highly non-linear problems needs to be quantified. A synthetic study is carried out to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in a finite porous layer heated from below. Various two-dimensional models are created such that their corresponding Rayleigh numbers lie in a range from the sub-critical linear to the supercritical non-linear regime, that is purely conductive to convection-dominated systems. Entropy production is found to describe the transient evolution of convective processes fairly well and can be used to identify thermodynamic equilibrium. Additionally, varying the aspect ratio for each Rayleigh number shows that the variety of realized convection modes increases with both larger aspect ratio and higher Rayleigh number. This phenomenon is also reflected by an enlarged spread of entropy production for the realized modes. Consequently, the Rayleigh number can be correlated to the magnitude of entropy production. In cases of moderate

  3. Finite element procedures for time-dependent convection-diffusion-reaction systems (United States)

    Tezduyar, T. E.; Park, Y. J.; Deans, H. A.


    New finite element procedures based on the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin formulations are developed for time-dependent convection-diffusion-reaction equations. These procedures minimize spurious oscillations for convection-dominated and reaction-dominated problems. The results obtained for representative numerical examples are accurate with minimal oscillations. As a special application problem, the single-well chemical tracer test (a procedure for measuring oil remaining in a depleted field) is simulated numerically. The results show the importance of temperature effects on the interpreted value of residual oil saturation from such tests.

  4. Ultimate regime of high Rayleigh number convection in a porous medium. (United States)

    Hewitt, Duncan R; Neufeld, Jerome A; Lister, John R


    Well-resolved direct numerical simulations of 2D Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a porous medium are presented for Rayleigh numbers Ra≤4×10(4) which reveal that, contrary to previous indications, the linear classical scaling for the Nusselt number, Nu~Ra, is attained asymptotically. The flow dynamics are analyzed, and the interior of the vigorously convecting system is shown to be increasingly well described as Ra→∞ by a simple columnar "heat-exchanger" model with a single horizontal wave number k and a linear background temperature field. The numerical results are approximately fitted by k~Ra(0.4).

  5. Convection and exchangers in variable regime; Convection et echangeurs en regime variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagui, F.; Abdelghani-Idrissi, M.A. [Rouen Univ. IUT, Centre de Developpement Durable, 76 - Mont Saint Aignan (France); Bagui, F. [Ecole d' Ingenieurs CESI, 76 - Mont Saint Aignan (France); Desmet, B.; Lalot, S.; Harmand, S. [Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis Univ., Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Maillet, D. [Institut National Polytechnique, INPL-UHP Nancy-1, LEMTA-CNRS UMR 7563, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)


    This session about convection and exchangers in variable regime gathers three articles dealing with: the transient regimes of tubular heat exchangers; heat exchangers and convection in non-permanent regime; and the limitations of the H coefficient: two short-time and short-scale examples. (J.S.)

  6. A numerical method for investigating crystal settling in convecting magma chambers (United States)

    Verhoeven, J.; Schmalzl, J.


    Magma chambers can be considered as thermochemically driven convection systems. We present a new numerical method that describes the movement of crystallized minerals in terms of active spherical particles in a convecting magma that is represented by an infinite Prandtl number fluid. The main part focuses on the results we obtained. A finite volume thermochemical convection model for two and three dimensions and a discrete element method, which is used to model granular material, are combined. The new model is validated with floating experiments using particles of different densities and an investigation of single and multiparticle settling velocities. The resulting velocities are compared with theoretical predictions by Stokes's law and a hindered settling function for the multiparticle system. Two fundamental convection regimes are identified in the parameter space that is spanned by the Rayleigh number and the chemical Rayleigh number, which is a measure for the density of the particles. We define the T regime that is dominated by thermal convection. Here the thermal driving force is strong enough to keep all particles in suspension. As the particles get denser, they start settling to the ground, which results in a C regime. The C regime is characterized by the existence of a sediment layer with particle-rich material and a suspension layer with few particles. It is shown that the presence of particles can reduce the vigor of thermal convection. In the frame of a parameter study we discuss the change between the regimes that is systematically investigated. We show that the so-called TC transition fits a power law. Furthermore, we investigate the settling behavior of the particles in vigorous thermal convection, which can be linked to crystal settling in magma chambers. We develop an analytical settling law that describes the number of settled particles against time and show that the results fit the observations from numerical and laboratory experiments.

  7. Unsteady Squeezing Flow of Carbon Nanotubes with Convective Boundary Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available Unsteady flow of nanofluids squeezed between two parallel plates is discussed in the presence of viscous dissipation. Heat transfer phenomenon is disclosed via convective boundary conditions. Carbon nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall are used as nanoparticles which are homogeneously distributed in the base fluid (water. A system of non-linear differential equations for the flow is obtained by utilizing similarity transformations through the conservation laws. Influence of various emerging parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles are sketched graphically and discussed comprehensively. Analyses of skin fraction coefficient and Nusselt number are also elaborated numerically. It is found out that velocity is smaller for squeezing parameter in the case of multi-wall carbon nanotubes when compared with single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  8. Simultaneous convection compensation and solvent suppression in biomolecular NMR diffusion experiments. (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Price, William S


    Thermal convection and high intensity solvent resonances can significantly hamper diffusion estimates in pulsed gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion experiments on biomolecule samples. To overcome these two problems, a new double functional NMR diffusion sequence, double echo PGSTE-WATERGATE, is presented. The new sequence provides excellent convection compensation and solvent suppression (with a suppression factor in excess of at least 10(5) in a single scan) in biomolecular NMR diffusion experiments. Due to its stimulated echo nature, the new sequence is much less susceptible to spin-spin relaxation than Hahn spin-echo based sequences. Furthermore, the new sequence is not susceptible to spin diffusion due to the application of bipolar pulsed gradients. The new sequence is also much easier to set up compared to previously developed stimulated echo based convection compensation and solvent suppression sequence. The utility of the new sequence is demonstrated on an aqueous lysozyme sample.

  9. Properties of convective motions in facular regions (United States)

    Kostik, R.; Khomenko, E. V.


    Aims: We study the properties of solar granulation in a facular region from the photosphere up to the lower chromosphere. Our aim is to investigate the dependence of granular structure on magnetic field strength. Methods: We used observations obtained at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife) using two different instruments: the Triple Etalon SOlar Spectrometer (TESOS) to measure velocity and intensity variations along the photosphere in the Ba ii 4554 Å line; and, simultaneously, the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP-II) to the measure Stokes parameters and the magnetic field strength at the lower photosphere in the Fe i 1.56 μm lines. Results: We find that the convective velocities of granules in the facular area decrease with magnetic field while the convective velocities of intergranular lanes increase with the field strength. Similar to the quiet areas, there is a contrast and velocity sign reversal taking place in the middle photosphere. The reversal heights depend on the magnetic field strength and are, on average, about 100 km higher than in the quiet regions. The correlation between convective velocity and intensity decreases with magnetic field at the bottom photosphere, but increases in the upper photosphere. The contrast of intergranular lanes observed close to the disk center is almost independent of the magnetic field strength. Conclusions: The strong magnetic field of the facular area seems to stabilize the convection and to promote more effective energy transfer in the upper layers of the solar atmosphere, since the convective elements reach greater heights.

  10. Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan


    It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.

  11. Topology Optimisation for Coupled Convection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe

    This thesis deals with topology optimisation for coupled convection problems. The aim is to extend and apply topology optimisation to steady-state conjugate heat transfer problems, where the heat conduction equation governs the heat transfer in a solid and is coupled to thermal transport in a sur......This thesis deals with topology optimisation for coupled convection problems. The aim is to extend and apply topology optimisation to steady-state conjugate heat transfer problems, where the heat conduction equation governs the heat transfer in a solid and is coupled to thermal transport...... in a surrounding uid, governed by a convection-diffusion equation, where the convective velocity field is found from solving the isothermal incompressible steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. Topology optimisation is also applied to steady-state natural convection problems. The modelling is done using stabilised...... finite element formulation is implemented in an object-oriented parallel finite element framework programmed in the C++ programming language, developed by the Top-Opt research group of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at The Technical University of Denmark. The presented work is seen...

  12. Orthogonal Simulation Experiment for Flow Characteristics of Ore in Ore Drawing and Influencing Factors in a Single Funnel Under a Flexible Isolation Layer (United States)

    Chen, Qingfa; Zhao, Fuyu; Chen, Qinglin; Wang, Yuding; Zhong, Yu; Niu, Wenjing


    A study on the flow characteristics of ore and factors that influence these characteristics is important to master ore flow laws. An orthogonal ore-drawing numerical model was established and the flow characteristics were explored. A weight matrix was obtained and the effect of the factors was determined. It was found that (1) the entire isolation-layer interface presents a Gaussian curve morphology and marked particles in each layer show a funnel morphology; (2) the drawing amount, Q, and the isolation layer half-width, W, are correlated positively with the fall depth, H, of the isolation layer; (3) factors that affect the characteristics sequentially include the particle friction coefficient, the interface friction coefficient, the isolation layer thickness, and the particle radius, and (4) the optimal combination is an isolation layer thickness of 0.005 m, an interface friction coefficient of 0.8, a particle friction coefficient of 0.2, and a particle radius of 0.007 m.

  13. Investigation of fimH Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (C640T and T591A in Uropathogenic E. coli Isolated from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Molaie


    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections are one of the most frequent health problems and Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is the major pathogen resulting UTIs. The severity of UTIs is caused by the expression of a large range of virulence factors.In this study, we evaluated the allelic frequency fimH gene, in UPECs isolated from patients with UTIs. This study also aimed to determine the roles of C640T and T591A SNPs of the fimH gene in the ability of UPEC to cause UTIs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 UPEC strains isolated from patients with UTIs were screened by PCR-RFLP for determining the prevalence of the C640T and T591A SNPs of fimH gene in UPEC strains isolated from patients referred to educational hospitals of Shahrekord. The genotyping of C640T and T591A SNPs was performed using Bme1390I and BseNI restriction enzymes, respectively through PCR-RFLP method. Results: There were no meaningful association between C640T and T591A SNPs of fimH gene and the ability of UPEC fimH variants to cause UTIs in the studied E. coli isolates. Conclusion: FimH is one of the most major virulence factors among UPECs which is confirmed in most E. coli isolates. Further studies are required to determine the association between different fimH gene SNPs of isolated UPECs from UTIs patients and the ability of UPEC fimH variants to cause UTIs.

  14. Using ARM observations to evaluate cloud and convection parameterizations and cloud-convection-radiation interactions in the GFDL general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, Leo J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Lin, Yanluan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Cooke, Will [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States)


    GFDL CM3 convective vertical velocities, parameterized because their scales are below those resolved in current climate models, have been compared with observations from DOE ARM. Single-column forcing has been used for this comparison for two time periods from TWP-ICE and three from MC3E. These are the first independent evaluations of the parameterized vertical velocities against observations. The results show that basic characteristics of the observations are captured by CM3 when forced with single-column observations and constrained to observed large-scale states. In many, but not all, cases, the parameterized vertical velocities exceed those observed, especially at higher levels in the clouds. Similar problems have been noted by others in cloud-resolving models. The results have important implications for cloud-aerosol interactions, which depend on vertical velocities, and likely pose constraints on entrainment by convection, which may be related to climate sensitivity.

  15. Topology of convection beneath the solar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.F.; Nordlund, A.


    It is shown that the topology of convection beneath the solar surface is dominated by effects of stratification. Convection in a strongly stratified medium has: (1) gentle expanding structureless warm upflows and (2) strong converging filamentary cool downdrafts. The horizontal flow topology is cellular, with a hierarchy of cell sizes. The small density scale height in the surface layers forces the formation of the solar granulation, which is a shallow surface phenomenon. Deeper layers support successively larger cells. The downflows of small cells close to the surface merge into filamentary downdrafts of larger cells at greater depths, and this process is likely to continue through most of the convection zone. Radiative cooling at the surface provides the entropy-deficient material which drives the circulation. 13 refs

  16. Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems. (United States)

    King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M


    Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems.

  17. Convective mixing in helium white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauclair, G.; Fontaine, G.


    The conditions under which convective mixing episodes take place between the helium envelopes and the underlying carbon layers in helium-rich white dwarfs are investigated. It is found that, for essentially any value of the initial helium content less than the maximum mass a helium convection zone can have, mixing does occur, and leads, in the vast majority of cases, to an almost pure carbon superficial composition. Mixing products that show only traces of carbon while retaining helium-dominated envelopes are possible only if the initial helium content is quite close to the maximum possible mass of the helium convection zone. In the presence of turbulence, this restriction could be relaxed, however, and the helium-rich lambda4670 stars may possibly be explained in this fashion

  18. The impact of convection in the West African monsoon region on global weather forecasts - explicit vs. parameterised convection simulations using the ICON model (United States)

    Pante, Gregor; Knippertz, Peter


    The West African monsoon is the driving element of weather and climate during summer in the Sahel region. It interacts with mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) and the African easterly jet and African easterly waves. Poor representation of convection in numerical models, particularly its organisation on the mesoscale, can result in unrealistic forecasts of the monsoon dynamics. Arguably, the parameterisation of convection is one of the main deficiencies in models over this region. Overall, this has negative impacts on forecasts over West Africa itself but may also affect remote regions, as waves originating from convective heating are badly represented. Here we investigate those remote forecast impacts based on daily initialised 10-day forecasts for July 2016 using the ICON model. One set of simulations employs the default setup of the global model with a horizontal grid spacing of 13 km. It is compared with simulations using the 2-way nesting capability of ICON. A second model domain over West Africa (the nest) with 6.5 km grid spacing is sufficient to explicitly resolve MCSs in this region. In the 2-way nested simulations, the prognostic variables of the global model are influenced by the results of the nest through relaxation. The nest with explicit convection is able to reproduce single MCSs much more realistically compared to the stand-alone global simulation with parameterised convection. Explicit convection leads to cooler temperatures in the lower troposphere (below 500 hPa) over the northern Sahel due to stronger evaporational cooling. Overall, the feedback of dynamic variables from the nest to the global model shows clear positive effects when evaluating the output of the global domain of the 2-way nesting simulation and the output of the stand-alone global model with ERA-Interim re-analyses. Averaged over the 2-way nested region, bias and root mean squared error (RMSE) of temperature, geopotential, wind and relative humidity are significantly reduced in

  19. Might electrical earthing affect convection of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budrikis, Z.L.


    Partial convection of light by moving media was predicted by Fresnel and verified by Fizeau, Zeeman and others. It is accepted as an important argument in favour of the Special Theory of Relativity. The suggestion is made here that the convection is partial only when the propagating medium is moved with respect to its electrically earthed surroundings and that it would be total if an earthed shield was co-moving with the medium. This is based on a reinterpretation of Maxwell's equations wherein they are seen as macroscopic relationships that are in each case valid only in respect of a particular inertial frame of reference, the local electrical earth frame. (Auth.)

  20. The driving force for magnetospheric convection (United States)

    Johnson, F. S.


    Viscously driven magnetospheric models, as well as a model involving interconnection between the geomagnetic field and the magnetic field in the solar wind, have been proposed to describe the driving force for magnetospheric convection. Lack of a satisfactory theory for the interconnection in the latter model and, in the case of the viscous interaction models, inadequacies in predicting the quantity of the driving force, make these two classes of models less than successful. Accordingly, a mechanically driven magnetospheric model is proposed: solar wind plasma enters the magnetosphere around the neutral points, covers the inner surface of the magnetopause and subsequently expands, driving convection as it escapes from the open tail.

  1. Basic theory behind parameterizing atmospheric convection


    Plant, R. S.; Fuchs, Z.; Yano, J. I.


    Last fall, a network of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST), called “Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models” (COST Action ES0905; see, organized a 10-day training course on atmospheric convection and its parameterization. The aim of the workshop, held on the island of Brac, Croatia, was to help young scientists develop an in-depth understanding of the core theory ...

  2. Topology Optimisation for Coupled Convection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Aage, Niels

    stabilised finite elements implemented in a parallel multiphysics analysis and optimisation framework DFEM [1], developed and maintained in house. Focus is put on control of the temperature field within the solid structure and the problems can therefore be seen as conjugate heat transfer problems, where heat...... conduction governs in the solid parts of the design domain and couples to convection-dominated heat transfer to a surrounding fluid. Both loosely coupled and tightly coupled problems are considered. The loosely coupled problems are convection-diffusion problems, based on an advective velocity field from...

  3. High Ra, high Pr convection with viscosity gradients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. High Ra, high Pr convection with viscosity gradients. Weak upward flow through mesh. Top fluid more viscous. Unstable layer Instability Convection.

  4. Growing vertical ZnO nanorod arrays within graphite: efficient isolation of large size and high quality single-layer graphene. (United States)

    Ding, Ling; E, Yifeng; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe


    We report a unique strategy for efficiently exfoliating large size and high quality single-layer graphene directly from graphite into DMF dispersions by growing ZnO nanorod arrays between the graphene layers in graphite.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khrustalyov


    Full Text Available A computer modeling process of three-dimensional forced convection proceeding from computation of thermodynamic parameters of pneumo basic buildings (pneumo supported structures is presented. The mathematical model of numerical computation method of temperature and velocity fields, pressure profile in the object is developed using the package Solid works and is provided by grid methods on specified software. Special Navier–Stokes, Clapeyron–Mendeleev, continuity and thermal-conductivity equations are used to calculate parameters in the building with four supply and exhaust channels. Differential equations are presented by algebraic equation systems, initial-boundary conditions are changed by differential conditions for mesh functions and their solutions are performed by algebraic operations. In this article the following is demonstrated: in pneumo basic buildings convective and heat flows are identical structures near the surfaces in unlimited space, but in single-multiply shells (envelopescirculation lines take place, geometrical sizes of which depend on thermal-physical characteristics of gas(airin envelopes, radiation reaction with heated surfaces of envelopes with  sphere, earth surface, neighboring buildings. Natural surveys of pneumo-basic buildings of different purposes were carried out in Minsk, in different cities of Belarus and Russia, including temperature fields of external and internal surfaces of air envelopes, relative humidity, thermal (heatflows, radiation characteristics and others.The results of research work are illustrated with diagrams of temperature, velocity, density and pressure dependent on coordinates and time.

  6. Oscillatory convection in low aspect ratio Czochralski melts (United States)

    Anselmo, A.; Prasad, V.; Koziol, J.; Gupta, K. P.


    Modeling of the crucible in bulk crystal growth simulations as a right circular cylinder may be adequate for high aspect ratio melts but this may be unrealistic when the melt height is low. Low melt height is a unique feature of a solid feed continuous Czochralski growth process for silicon single crystals currently under investigation. At low melt heights, the crucible bottom curvature has a dampening effect on the buoyancy-induced oscillations, a source of inhomogeneities in the grown crystal. The numerical results demonstrate how the mode of convection changes from vertical wall-dominated recirculating flows to Benard convection as the aspect ratio is lowered. This phenomenon is strongly dependent on the boundary condition at the free surface of the melt, which has been generally considered to be either adiabatic or radiatively cooled. A comparison of the flow oscillations in crucibles with and without curved bottoms at aspect ratios in the range of 0.25 to 0.50, and at realistic Grashof numbers (10 7 < Gr < 10 8) illustrate that changing the shape of the crucible may be an effective means of suppressing oscillations and controlling the melt flow.

  7. Thermal convection driven by acoustic field under microgravity


    Tanabe, Mitsuaki; 田辺 光昭


    Natural convection is suppressed in space environment due to the weightlessness. Only centrifugal force is utilized currently to drive gas-phase thermal convection in space. This paper presents an alternative way to drive thermal convection. From the investigation of combustion oscillation in rocket motors, a new thermal convection had been found in stationary acoustic fields. Analyzing the phenomena, acoustic radiation force is found to be the candidate driving force. With a simplified syste...

  8. Prédiction des structures convectives terrestres


    Bello , Léa


    Since its formation, the Earth is slowly cooling. The heat produced by the core and the radioactive decay in the mantle is evacuated toward the surface by convection. The evolving convective structures thereby created control a diversity of surface phenomena such as vertical motion of continents or sea level variation. The study presented here attempts to determine which convective structures can be predicted, to what extent and over what timescale. Because of the chaotic nature of convection...

  9. Natural convection flow between moving boundaries | Chepkwony ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laminar steady natural convection flow of viscous, incompressible fluid between two moving vertical plates is considered. It is assumed that the plates are moving in opposite direction with equal velocity. The two-point boundary value problem governing the flow is characterized by a non-dimensional parameter K. It is ...

  10. Oscillatory Convection in Rotating Liquid Metals (United States)

    Bertin, Vincent; Grannan, Alex; Aurnou, Jonathan


    We have performed laboratory experiments in a aspect ratio Γ = 2 cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr = 0 . 023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number varies from E = 4 ×10-5 to 4 ×10-6 and the Rayleigh number varies from Ra = 3 ×105 to 2 ×107 . Using heat transfer and temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes develop, coexisting with the inertial oscillatory modes in the bulk. When the strength of the buoyancy increases further, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr = 1 planetary and stellar dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, convection driven dynamo action in low Pr fluids can differ substantively than that occurring in typical Pr = 1 numerical models. Our results also suggest that low wavenumber, wall modes may be dynamically and observationally important in liquid metal dynamo systems. We thank the NSF Geophysics Program for support of this project.

  11. An Observational Investigation of Penetrative Convection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Lenschow, D. H.


    Data taken during the Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX) by the NCAR Electra aircraft have proven useful for investigating the structure of thermals penetrating into the turbulent inversion layer which caps the convective mixed layer. Variances, covariances, spectra and cospectra of poten...

  12. Salinity transfer in bounded double diffusive convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yantao; van der Poel, Erwin; Ostilla Monico, Rodolfo; Sun, Chao; Verzicco, Roberto; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef


    The double diffusive convection between two parallel plates is numerically studied for a series of parameters. The flow is driven by the salinity difference and stabilised by the thermal field. Our simulations are directly compared with experiments by Hage & Tilgner (Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010,

  13. Mixed convection in a baffled grooved channel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A remarkable enhancement of heat transfer is observed in presence of baffle. The study has also pointed out that for optimal performance, the position and height of the baffle need to be adjusted depending on the direction of external flow. Keywords. Heat transfer; grooved channel; mixed convection; Richardson number;.

  14. Free convection film flows and heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Deyi


    Presents development of systematic studies for hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, and accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids. This book provides a system of analysis models with a developed velocity component method.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    This paper presents a numerical study of the time evolution of Marangoni convection in two V-shaped containers involved in the microgravity experiments reported in Hoefsloot et al.[7]. First the case of the triangular container with a plane gas/liquid interface is considered, next the container

  16. Terminal project heat convection in thin cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Corona, J.


    Heat convection in thin cylinders and analysis about natural convection for straight vertical plates, and straight vertical cylinders submersed in a fluid are presented some works carry out by different authors in the field of heat transfer. In the part of conduction, deduction of the equation of heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates by means of energy balance in a control volume is presented. Enthalpy and internal energy are used for the outlining of the equation and finally the equation in its vectorial form is obtained. In the convection part development to calculate the Nusselt number for a straight vertical plate by a forces analysis, an energy balance and mass conservation over a control volume is outlined. Several empiric correlations to calculate the Nusselt number and its relations with other dimensionless numbers are presented. In the experimental part the way in which a prototype rode is assembled is presented measurements of temperatures attained in steady state and in free convection for working fluids as air and water are showed in tables. Also graphs of Nusselt numbers obtained in the experimental way through some empiric correlations are showed (Author)

  17. Turbulent Convection and Pulsation Stability of Stars (United States)

    Xiong, Da-run


    The controversies about the excitation mechanism for low-temperature variables are reviewed: (1) Most people believe that γ Doradus variables are excited by the so-called convective blocking mechanism. Our researches show that the excitation of γ Doradus has no substantial difference from that of δ Scuti. They are two subgroups of a broader type of δ Stuti-γ Doradus stars: δ Scuti is the p-mode subgroup, while γ Doradus is the g-mode subgroup. (2) Most people believe that the solar and stellar solar-like oscillations are damped by convection, and they are driven by the so-called turbulent random excitation mechanism. Our researches show that convection is not solely a damping mechanism for stellar oscillations, otherwise it is unable to explain the Mira and Mira-like variables. By using our non-local and time-dependent theory of convection, we can reproduce not only the pulsationally unstable strip of δ Scuti and γ Doradus variables, but also the solar-like oscillation features of low-luminosity red giants and the Mira-like oscillation features of high-luminosity red giants.

  18. Theories for convection in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, Aa.


    A discussion of the fundamental differences between laboratory convection in a stellar atmosphere is presented. The shortcomings of laterally homogeneous model atmospheres are analysed, and the extent to which these shortcoming are avoided in the two-component representation is discussed. Finally a qualitative discussion on the scaling properties of stellar granulation is presented. (Auth.)

  19. Natural convection in horizontal fluid layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo-Antilla, A.J.


    The experimental work includes developing and using a thermal convection cell to obtain measurements of the heat flux and turbulent core temperature of a horizontal layer of fluid heated internally and subject to both stabilizing and destabilizing temperature differences. The ranges of Rayleigh numbers tested were 10 7 equal to or less than R/sub I/ equal to or less than 10 13 and -10 10 equal to or less than R/sub E/ equal to or less than 10 10 . Power integral methods were found to be adequate for interpolating and extrapolating the data. The theoretical work consists of the derivation, solution and use of the mean field equations for study of thermally driven convection in horizontal layers of infinite extent. The equations were derived by a separation of variables technique where the horizontal directions were described by periodic structures and the vertical being some function of z. The derivation resulted in a coupled set of momentum and energy equations. The equations were simplified by using the infinite Prandtl number limit and neglecting direct intermodal interaction. Solutions to these equations are used to predict the existence of multi-wavenumber flows at all supercritical Rayleigh numbers. Subsequent inspection of existing experimental photographs of convecting fluids confirms their existence. The onset of time dependence is found to coincide with the onset of the second convective mode. Each mode is found to consist of two wavenumbers and typically the velocity and temperature fields of the right modal branch are found to be out of phase

  20. Vortex convection in nonuniform compressible flow (United States)

    Szumowski, A. P.; Meier, G. E. A.


    Vortex convection in longitudinally nonuniform transonic flow fields was studied. Vortices moving in moderately accelerated flow are distinct in the subsonic and supersonic range. Due to the acceleration, the vortices of the Karman street separate continuously one from another. They form a series of periodically shedding individual vortices. The density distribution of the accelerated vortices stays circular. Vortices in subsonic stream (behind the shock wave in the divergent part of the Laval nozzle) impinging on an obstacle (in this case on the regulating valve) cause shock fronts which move upstream. In a subsonic stream flowing out from the convergent nozzle, the primary vortices inside the stream significantly perturb its boundaries and induce secondary vortices (at the boundaries). Flow patterns in a duct with a sudden enlargement of cross section are influenced by the vortices convected in the flow too. However, the observed perturbations of these patterns are relatively weak. The unsteady behaviour of the free stream is not only the effect of the vortex convection but also of the unsteady interactions with the boundaries, i.e., the adjusting valve and the test-section walls. However, the effect of the vortex convection is the stronger.

  1. Presentation on Tropical Mesoscale convective Systems and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Microphysics of deep convection. Fountain. (Water Vapor). Intrusion. (Ozone). Circulation. Mass and Energy. Budget. Thermal, Radiation and. Chemistry. Hydrological Cycle. Global ... 厂 Represented as time of overpass. 厂 Shallow: Short lived ... NEW Definition of WET & DRY Spell Introduced. Wind Shear. Temperature ...

  2. Crystal-Growing Crucible To Suppress Convection (United States)

    Richter, R.


    Platform under growth region stabilizes melt for more uniform crystal growth. In new crucible, platform just below growth interface so melt is too shallow to support convection. Critical depth for onset of pertinent instability calculated from heat flux through surface of melt, volume coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and kinematic viscosity.

  3. Natural convection inside an irregular porous cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Jorge I. LLagostera; Trevisan, Osvair Vidal


    Natural convection flow induced by heating from below in a irregular porous cavity is investigated numerically. The influence of the modified Rayleigh number and geometric ratios on heat transfer and fluid flow is studied. Global and local Nusselt for Rayleigh numbers covering the range 0 - 1600 and for several geometric ratios. The fluid flow and the temperature field are illustrated by contour maps. (author)

  4. Determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, D.; Bosman, F.; Peters, T.; Plasschaert, F.

    The value of the convective heat transfer coefficient (htc) is determined under different loading conditions by using a computer aided method. The thermal load has been applied mathematically as well as experimentally to the coronal surface of an axisymmetric tooth model. To verify the assumptions

  5. The 2016 revised World Health Organization definition of 'myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q)'; prognostic implications of single versus double cytogenetic abnormalities. (United States)

    Gurney, Mark; Patnaik, Mrinal M; Hanson, Curtis A; Litzow, Mark R; Al-Kali, Aref; Ketterling, Rhett P; Tefferi, Ayalew; Gangat, Naseema


    The definition of the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) subtype 'MDS with isolated del(5q)' was expanded to include cases with one additional non-chromosome 7 based cytogenetic abnormality in the 2016 revised World Health Organization classification. This study applied the revised definition to a large primary MDS cohort, and evaluated the prognostic impact of the additional cytogenetic abnormality. Seventy-two of 1067 patients (7%) met the 'MDS with isolated del(5q)' criteria, 11 (1%) of whom had an additional cytogenetic abnormality. There was no survival difference between patients in whom del(5q) occurred alone, compared to those with one additional cytogenetic abnormality (P = 0·52). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Influence of convective conditions on three dimensional mixed convective hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauf, A., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)


    The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.

  7. Testing particle filters on convective scale dynamics (United States)

    Haslehner, Mylene; Craig, George. C.; Janjic, Tijana


    Particle filters have been developed in recent years to deal with highly nonlinear dynamics and non Gaussian error statistics that also characterize data assimilation on convective scales. In this work we explore the use of the efficient particle filter (P.v. Leeuwen, 2011) for convective scale data assimilation application. The method is tested in idealized setting, on two stochastic models. The models were designed to reproduce some of the properties of convection, for example the rapid development and decay of convective clouds. The first model is a simple one-dimensional, discrete state birth-death model of clouds (Craig and Würsch, 2012). For this model, the efficient particle filter that includes nudging the variables shows significant improvement compared to Ensemble Kalman Filter and Sequential Importance Resampling (SIR) particle filter. The success of the combination of nudging and resampling, measured as RMS error with respect to the 'true state', is proportional to the nudging intensity. Significantly, even a very weak nudging intensity brings notable improvement over SIR. The second model is a modified version of a stochastic shallow water model (Würsch and Craig 2013), which contains more realistic dynamical characteristics of convective scale phenomena. Using the efficient particle filter and different combination of observations of the three field variables (wind, water 'height' and rain) allows the particle filter to be evaluated in comparison to a regime where only nudging is used. Sensitivity to the properties of the model error covariance is also considered. Finally, criteria are identified under which the efficient particle filter outperforms nudging alone. References: Craig, G. C. and M. Würsch, 2012: The impact of localization and observation averaging for convective-scale data assimilation in a simple stochastic model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.,139, 515-523. Van Leeuwen, P. J., 2011: Efficient non-linear data assimilation in geophysical

  8. International symposium on transient convective heat transfer: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The international symposium on convective heat transfer was held on 19-23 August 1996, in Cesme, Izmir, Turkey. The spesialists discussed forced convection, heat exchangers, free convection and multiphase media and phase change at the meeting. Almost 53 papers were presented in the meeting

  9. Probing the transition from shallow to deep convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Zhiming [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Gentine, Pierre [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)


    In this funded project we highlighted the components necessary for the transition from shallow to deep convection. In particular we defined a prototype of shallow to deep convection, which is currently being implemented in the NASA GISS model. We also tried to highlight differences between land and oceanic convection.

  10. Six-Year Retrospective Review of Hospital Data on Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Skin Infections from a Single Institution in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Stefanaki


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus isolated from Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI to various antibiotics. Material and Methods: All culture-positive results for S. aureus from swabs taken from patients presenting at one Greek hospital with a skin infection between the years 2010–2015 were examined retrospectively. Bacterial cultures, identification of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines and European Committee on Antimicrobial testing (EUCAST breakpoints. EUCAST breakpoints were applied if no CLSI were available. Results: Of 2069 S. aureus isolates identified, 1845 (88% were resistant to one or more antibiotics. The highest resistance was observed for benzylpenicillin (71.9%, followed by erythromycin (34.3%. Resistant strains to cefoxitin defined as MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus represented 21% of total isolates. Interestingly, resistance to fusidic acid was 22.9% and to mupirocin as high as 12.7%. Low rates were observed for minocycline, rifampicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT. Resistance to antibiotics remained relatively stable throughout the six-year period, with the exception of cefoxitin, fusidic acid and SXT. A high percentage of MRSA strains were resistant to erythromycin (60%, fusidic acid (46%, clindamycin (38% and tetracycline (35.5%. Conclusions: Special attention is required in prescribing appropriate antibiotic therapeutic regimens, particularly for MRSA. These data on the susceptibility of S. aureus may be useful for guiding antibiotic treatment.

  11. Physical balances in subseafloor hydrothermal convection cells (United States)

    Jupp, Tim E.; Schultz, Adam


    We use a simplified model of convection in a porous medium to investigate the balances of mass and energy within a subseafloor hydrothermal convection cell. These balances control the steady state structure of the system and allow scalings for the height, permeability, and residence time of the "reaction zone" at the base of the cell to be calculated. The scalings are presented as functions of (1) the temperature TD of the heat source driving the convection and (2) the total power output ΦU. The model is then used to illustrate how the nonlinear thermodynamic properties of water may impose the observed upper limit of ˜400°C on vent temperatures. The properties of water at hydrothermal conditions are contrasted with those of a hypothetical "Boussinesq fluid" for which temperature variations in fluid properties are either linearized or ignored. At hydrothermal pressures, water transports a maximum amount of energy by buoyancy-driven advection at ˜400°C. This maximum is a consequence of the nonlinear thermodynamic properties of water and does not arise for a simple Boussinesq fluid. Inspired by the "Malkus hypothesis" and by recent work on dissipative systems, we speculate that convection cells in porous media attain a steady state in which the upwelling temperature TU maximizes the total power output of the cell. If true, this principle would explain our observation (in previous numerical simulations) that water in hydrothermal convection cells upwells at TU ˜ 400°C when driven by a heat source above ˜500°C.

  12. Convective mass transfer around a dissolving bubble (United States)

    Duplat, Jerome; Grandemange, Mathieu; Poulain, Cedric


    Heat or mass transfer around an evaporating drop or condensing vapor bubble is a complex issue due to the interplay between the substrate properties, diffusion- and convection-driven mass transfer, and Marangoni effects, to mention but a few. In order to disentangle these mechanisms, we focus here mainly on the convective mass transfer contribution in an isothermal mass transfer problem. For this, we study the case of a millimetric carbon dioxide bubble which is suspended under a substrate and dissolved into pure liquid water. The high solubility of CO2 in water makes the liquid denser and promotes a buoyant-driven flow at a high (solutal) Rayleigh number (Ra˜104 ). The alteration of p H allows the concentration field in the liquid to be imaged by laser fluorescence enabling us to measure both the global mass flux (bubble volume, contact angle) and local mass flux around the bubble along time. After a short period of mass diffusion, where the boundary layer thickens like the square root of time, convection starts and the CO2 is carried by a plume falling at constant velocity. The boundary layer thickness then reaches a plateau which depends on the bubble cross section. Meanwhile the plume velocity scales like (dV /d t )1 /2 with V being the volume of the bubble. As for the rate of volume loss, we recover a constant mass flux in the diffusion-driven regime followed by a decrease in the volume V like V2 /3 after convection has started. We present a model which agrees well with the bubble dynamics and discuss our results in the context of droplet evaporation, as well as high Rayleigh convection.

  13. Sensitivity of Numerical Simulations of a Mesoscale Convective System to Ice Hydrometeors in Bulk Microphysical Parameterization (United States)

    Pu, Zhaoxia; Lin, Chao; Dong, Xiquan; Krueger, Steven K.


    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) and their associated cloud properties are the important factors that influence the aviation activities, yet they present a forecasting challenge in numerical weather prediction. In this study, the sensitivity of numerical simulations of an MCS over the US Southern Great Plains to ice hydrometeors in bulk microphysics (MP) schemes has been investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It is found that the simulated structure, life cycle, cloud coverage, and precipitation of the convective system as well as its associated cold pools are sensitive to three selected MP schemes, namely, the WRF single-moment 6-class (WSM6), WRF double-moment 6-class (WDM6, with the double-moment treatment of warm-rain only), and Morrison double-moment (MORR, with the double-moment representation of both warm-rain and ice) schemes. Compared with observations, the WRF simulation with WSM6 only produces a less organized convection structure with a short lifetime, while WDM6 can produce the structure and length of the MCS very well. Both simulations heavily underestimate the precipitation amount, the height of the radar echo top, and stratiform cloud fractions. With MORR, the model performs well in predicting the lifetime, cloud coverage, echo top, and precipitation amount of the convection. Overall results demonstrate the importance of including double-moment representation of ice hydrometeors along with warm-rain. Additional experiments are performed to further examine the role of ice hydrometeors in numerical simulations of the MCS. Results indicate that replacing graupel with hail in the MORR scheme improves the prediction of the convective structure, especially in the convective core region.

  14. Methods for characterizing convective cryoprobe heat transfer in ultrasound gel phantoms. (United States)

    Etheridge, Michael L; Choi, Jeunghwan; Ramadhyani, Satish; Bischof, John C


    While cryosurgery has proven capable in treating of a variety of conditions, it has met with some resistance among physicians, in part due to shortcomings in the ability to predict treatment outcomes. Here we attempt to address several key issues related to predictive modeling by demonstrating methods for accurately characterizing heat transfer from cryoprobes, report temperature dependent thermal properties for ultrasound gel (a convenient tissue phantom) down to cryogenic temperatures, and demonstrate the ability of convective exchange heat transfer boundary conditions to accurately describe freezing in the case of single and multiple interacting cryoprobe(s). Temperature dependent changes in the specific heat and thermal conductivity for ultrasound gel are reported down to -150 °C for the first time here and these data were used to accurately describe freezing in ultrasound gel in subsequent modeling. Freezing around a single and two interacting cryoprobe(s) was characterized in the ultrasound gel phantom by mapping the temperature in and around the "iceball" with carefully placed thermocouple arrays. These experimental data were fit with finite-element modeling in COMSOL Multiphysics, which was used to investigate the sensitivity and effectiveness of convective boundary conditions in describing heat transfer from the cryoprobes. Heat transfer at the probe tip was described in terms of a convective coefficient and the cryogen temperature. While model accuracy depended strongly on spatial (i.e., along the exchange surface) variation in the convective coefficient, it was much less sensitive to spatial and transient variations in the cryogen temperature parameter. The optimized fit, convective exchange conditions for the single-probe case also provided close agreement with the experimental data for the case of two interacting cryoprobes, suggesting that this basic characterization and modeling approach can be extended to accurately describe more complicated

  15. Turbulent solutal convection and surface patterning in solid dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.S.; Liu, Y.; Ecke, R.E.


    We describe experiments in which crystals of NaCl, KBr, and KCl are dissolved from below by aqueous solutions containing concentrations of the respective salts from zero concentration to near saturation. The solution near the solid-liquid interface is gravitationally unstable, producing turbulent hydrodynamic motion similar to thermal convection from a single surface cooled from above. The coupling of the fluid flow with the solid dissolution produces irregular patterns at the solid-liquid interface with a distribution of horizontal length scales. The dissolution mass flux and the pattern length scales are compared with a turbulent boundary layer model. Remarkable agreement is found, showing that the fluid motion controls both the dissolution rate and the interface patterning. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Using Jupiter's gravitational field to probe the Jovian convective dynamo. (United States)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald


    Convective motion in the deep metallic hydrogen region of Jupiter is believed to generate its magnetic field, the strongest in the solar system. The amplitude, structure and depth of the convective motion are unknown. A promising way of probing the Jovian convective dynamo is to measure its effect on the external gravitational field, a task to be soon undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. We calculate the gravitational signature of non-axisymmetric convective motion in the Jovian metallic hydrogen region and show that with sufficiently accurate measurements it can reveal the nature of the deep convection.

  17. Gregarious convection and radiative feedbacks in idealized worlds (United States)

    Mapes, B. E.


    What role does convection play in cloud feedbacks? What role does convective aggregation play in climate? A flurry of recent studies explores "self-aggregation" of moist convection in diverse simulations using explicit convection and interactive radiation. The implications involve upper level dry areas acting as infrared windows—the climate system's "radiator fins." A positive feedback maintains these: dry columns undergo radiative cooling which drives descent and further drying. If the resulting clumpiness of vapor and cloud fields depends systematically on global temperature, then convective organization could be a climate system feedback. How reconcilable and how relevant are these interesting but idealized studies?

  18. Magnetic Control of Convection during Protein Crystallization (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F. W.


    An important component in biotechnology, particularly in the area of protein engineering and rational drug design is the knowledge of the precise three-dimensional molecular structure of proteins. The quality of structural information obtained from X-ray diffraction methods is directly dependent on the degree of perfection of the protein crystals. As a consequence, the growth of high quality macromolecular Crystals for diffraction analyses has been the central focus for bio-chemists, biologists, and bioengineers. Macromolecular crystals are obtained from solutions that contain the crystallizing species in equilibrium with higher aggregates, ions, precipitants, other possible phases of the protein, foreign particles, the walls of container, and a likely host of other impurities. By changing transport modes in general, i.e., reduction of convection and Sedimentation as is achieved in "microgravity", we have been able to dramatically affect the movement and distribution of macromolecules in the fluid, and thus their transport, f o d o n of crystal nuclei, and adsorption to the crystal surface. While a limited number of high quality crystals from space flights have been obtained, as the recent National Research Council (NRC) review of the NASA microgravity crystallization program pointed out, the scientific approach and research in crystallization of proteins has been mainly empirical yielding inconclusive results. We postulate that we can reduce convection in ground-based experiments and we can understand the different aspects of convection control through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients. We postulate that limited convection in a magnetic field will provide the environment for the growth of high quality crystals. The approach exploits the variation of fluid magnetic susceptibility with counteracts on for this purpose and the convective damping is realized by appropriately positioning the crystal growth cell so that the magnetic susceptibility

  19. Convective equilibrium and mixing-length theory for stellarator reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.


    In high ..beta.. stellarator and tokamak reactors, the plasma pressure gradient in some regions of the plasma may exceed the critical pressure gradient set by ballooning instabilities. In these regions, convective cells break out to enhance the transport. As a result, the pressure gradient can rise only slightly above the critical gradient and the plasma is in another state of equilibrium - ''convective equilibrium'' - in these regions. Although the convective transport cannot be calculated precisely, it is shown that the density and temperature profiles in the convective region can still be estimated. A simple mixing-length theory, similar to that used for convection in stellar interiors, is introduced in this paper to provide a qualitative description of the convective cells and to show that the convective transport is highly efficient. A numerical example for obtaining the density and temperature profiles in a stellarator reactor is given.

  20. Behaviors and transitions along the path to magnetostrophic convection (United States)

    Grannan, A. M.; Vogt, T.; Horn, S.; Hawkins, E. K.; Aggarwal, A.; Aurnou, J. M.


    The generation of magnetic fields in planetary and stellar interiors are believed to be controlled primarily by turbulent convection constrained by Coriolis and Lorentz forces in their electrically conducting fluid layers. Yet relatively few laboratory experiments are capable of investigating the different regimes of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic convection. In this work, we perform one laboratory experiment in a cylinder at a fixed heat flux using the liquid metal gallium in order to investigate, sequentially: Rayleigh-Bènard convection without any imposed constraints, magnetoconvection with a Lorentz constraint imposed by vertical magnetic field, rotating convection with a Coriolis constraint imposed by rotation, and finally the magnetostrophic convective regime where both Coriolis and Lorentz are imposed and equal. Using an array of internal and external temperature probes, we show that each regime along the path to magnetostrophic convection is unique. The behaviors and transitions in the dominant modes of convection as well as their fundamental frequencies and wavenumbers are investigated.

  1. Convective equilibrium and mixing-length theory for stellarator reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.


    In high β stellarator and tokamak reactors, the plasma pressure gradient in some regions of the plasma may exceed the critical pressure gradient set by ballooning instabilities. In these regions, convective cells break out to enhance the transport. As a result, the pressure gradient can rise only slightly above the critical gradient and the plasma is in another state of equilibrium - ''convective equilibrium'' - in these regions. Although the convective transport cannot be calculated precisely, it is shown that the density and temperature profiles in the convective region can still be estimated. A simple mixing-length theory, similar to that used for convection in stellar interiors, is introduced in this paper to provide a qualitative description of the convective cells and to show that the convective transport is highly efficient. A numerical example for obtaining the density and temperature profiles in a stellarator reactor is given

  2. Impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch following aortic valve replacement on short-term survival: a retrospective single center analysis of 632 consecutive patients with isolated stented biological aortic valve replacement. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Grischa; Ogbamicael, Selam Abraham; Jochens, Arne; Frank, Derk; Lutter, Georg; Cremer, Jochen; Petzina, Rainer


    The impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) on short-term and long-term mortality remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of PPM and its impact on short-term survival in a large cohort of patients treated with isolated stented biological AVR in a single institution. We analyzed retrospectively data of 632 consecutive patients with aortic stenosis undergoing isolated stented biological AVR between January 2007 and February 2012 at our institution. PPM was defined as an indexed effective orifice area ≤ 0.85 cm(2)/m(2). Statistical analyses were performed to identify influencing variables on valve size implanted. Of the 632 patients investigated, 46% were females and mean age was 71.9 ± 10.4 years. PPM was observed in 93.8% (593 of 632 patients). In 71% of the patients, moderate (0.65-0.85 cm(2)/m(2)) PPM was present and in 22.8% severe (body mass index, and body surface area as simultaneous predictors of the valve size implanted (R(2)= 0.39). PPM had no discernable impact on short-term survival, although it was present in 93.8% of our patients following isolated stented biological AVR. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Polarimetric Radar Characteristics of Simulated and Observed Intense Convection Between Continental and Maritime Environment (United States)

    Matsui, T.; Dolan, B.; Tao, W. K.; Rutledge, S. A.; Iguchi, T.; Barnum, J. I.; Lang, S. E.


    This study presents polarimetric radar characteristics of intense convective cores derived from observations as well as a polarimetric-radar simulator from cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations from Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) May 23 case over Oklahoma and a Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) Jan 23 case over Darwin, Australia to highlight the contrast between continental and maritime convection. The POLArimetric Radar Retrieval and Instrument Simulator (POLARRIS) is a state-of-art T-matrix-Mueller-Matrix-based polarimetric radar simulator that can generate synthetic polarimetric radar signals (reflectivity, differential reflectivity, specific differential phase, co-polar correlation) as well as synthetic radar retrievals (precipitation, hydrometeor type, updraft velocity) through the consistent treatment of cloud microphysics and dynamics from CRMs. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is configured to simulate continental and maritime severe storms over the MC3E and TWP-ICE domains with the Goddard bulk 4ICE single-moment microphysics and HUCM spectra-bin microphysics. Various statistical diagrams of polarimetric radar signals, hydrometeor types, updraft velocity, and precipitation intensity are investigated for convective and stratiform precipitation regimes and directly compared between MC3E and TWP-ICE cases. The result shows MC3E convection is characterized with very strong reflectivity (up to 60dBZ), slight negative differential reflectivity (-0.8 0 dB) and near-zero specific differential phase above the freezing levels. On the other hand, TWP-ICE convection shows strong reflectivity (up to 50dBZ), slight positive differential reflectivity (0 1.0 dB) and differential phase (0 0.8 dB/km). Hydrometeor IDentification (HID) algorithm from the observation and simulations detect hail-dominant convection core in MC3E, while graupel-dominant convection core in TWP-ICE. This land-ocean contrast

  4. Nitric oxide augments single Ca(2+) channel currents via cGMP-dependent protein kinase in Kenyon cells isolated from the mushroom body of the cricket brain. (United States)

    Kosakai, Kumiko; Tsujiuchi, Yuuki; Yoshino, Masami


    Behavioral and pharmacological studies in insects have suggested that the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling pathway is involved in the formation of long-term memory (LTM) associated with olfactory learning. However, the target molecules of NO and the downstream signaling pathway are still not known. In this study, we investigated the action of NO on single voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in the intrinsic neurons known as Kenyon cells within the mushroom body of the cricket brain, using the cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Application of the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) increased the open probability (NPO) of single Ca(2+) channel currents. This GSNO-induced increase was blocked by ODQ, a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, suggesting that the NO generated by GSNO acts via sGC to raise cGMP levels. The membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-Bro-cGMP also increased the NPO of single Ca(2+) channel currents. Pretreatment of cells with KT5823, a protein kinase G blocker, abolished the excitatory effect of GSNO. These results suggest that NO augments the activity of single Ca(2+) channels via the cGMP/PKG signaling pathway. To gain insight into the physiological role of NO, we examined the effect of GSNO on action potentials of Kenyon cells under current-clamp conditions. Application of GSNO increased the frequency of action potentials elicited by depolarizing current injections, indicating that NO acts as a modulator resulting in a stimulatory signal in Kenyon cells. We discuss the increased Ca(2+) influx through these Ca(2+) channels via the NO/cGMP signaling cascade in relation to the formation of olfactory LTM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Large Eddy Simulation of Air Escape through a Hospital Isolation Room Single Hinged Doorway--Validation by Using Tracer Gases and Simulated Smoke Videos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka E Saarinen

    Full Text Available The use of hospital isolation rooms has increased considerably in recent years due to the worldwide outbreaks of various emerging infectious diseases. However, the passage of staff through isolation room doors is suspected to be a cause of containment failure, especially in case of hinged doors. It is therefore important to minimize inadvertent contaminant airflow leakage across the doorway during such movements. To this end, it is essential to investigate the behavior of such airflows, especially the overall volume of air that can potentially leak across the doorway during door-opening and human passage. Experimental measurements using full-scale mock-ups are expensive and labour intensive. A useful alternative approach is the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modelling using a time-resolved Large Eddy Simulation (LES method. In this study simulated air flow patterns are qualitatively compared with experimental ones, and the simulated total volume of air that escapes is compared with the experimentally measured volume. It is shown that the LES method is able to reproduce, at room scale, the complex transient airflows generated during door-opening/closing motions and the passage of a human figure through the doorway between two rooms. This was a basic test case that was performed in an isothermal environment without ventilation. However, the advantage of the CFD approach is that the addition of ventilation airflows and a temperature difference between the rooms is, in principle, a relatively simple task. A standard method to observe flow structures is dosing smoke into the flow. In this paper we introduce graphical methods to simulate smoke experiments by LES, making it very easy to compare the CFD simulation to the experiments. The results demonstrate that the transient CFD simulation is a promising tool to compare different isolation room scenarios without the need to construct full-scale experimental models. The CFD model is

  6. Four Weeks in a Single-Leg Weight-Bearing Hip Spica Cast is Sufficient Treatment for Isolated Femoral Shaft Fractures in Children Aged 1 to 3 Years. (United States)

    Jaafar, Sami; Sobh, Ali; Legakis, Julie E; Thomas, Ronald; Buhler, Kelsey; Jones, Eric T


    Hip spica casting regimens for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in a pediatric population aged 1 to 3 years vary. Patient charts were reviewed to determine if there are any clinical differences between 3 and 4 weeks in an ambulatory single-leg hip spica (SLHS) cast versus 6 to 8 weeks in a standard double-leg, non-weight-bearing hip spica cast. The medical records of 109 patients with femoral shaft fractures treated with a hip spica casting from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011 were examined. After exclusions, 94 patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patient records were assessed, noting age, weight, type of cast, time in cast, and complications. All casts were applied by senior pediatric orthopaedic surgeons at a single institution. Two groups were evaluated: 59 patients in the SLHS group and 35 in the double-leg hip spica group. The 2 groups were demographically similar with an average age of 2 years, 70.2% of patients were male, 45.7% were black, and 35.1% were white. The average time to cast removal was 4.1 weeks for the single-leg group and 5.3 weeks for the double-leg group (Pshaft fractures in patients less than 4 years old can be treated in a weight-bearing SLHS casts for approximately 4 weeks with fewer alignment and skin complications. Level III-clinical retrospective comparative study.

  7. Convective Flow in an Aquifer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambaru Bhatta


    Full Text Available Here, we investigate weakly nonlinear hydrothermal two-dimensional convective flow in a horizontal aquifer layer with horizontal isothermal and rigid boundaries. We treat such a layer as a porous medium, where Darcy’s law holds, subjected to the conditions that the porous layer’s permeability and the thermal conductivity are variable in the vertical direction. This analysis is restricted to the case that the subsequent hydraulic resistivity and diffusivity have a small rate of change with respect to the vertical variable. Applying the weakly nonlinear approach, we derive various order systems and express their solutions. The solutions for convective flow quantities such as vertical velocity and the temperature that arise as the Rayleigh number exceeds its critical value are computed and presented in graphical form.

  8. Numerical Simulation of a Convective Turbulence Encounter (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.


    A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The numerical results show severe turbulence of similar scale and intensity to that encountered during the test flight. This turbulence is associated with buoyant plumes that penetrate the upper-level thunderstorm outflow. The simulated radar reflectivity compares well with that obtained from the aircraft's onboard radar. Resolved scales of motion as small as 50 m are needed in order to accurately diagnose aircraft normal load accelerations. Given this requirement, realistic turbulence fields may be created by merging subgrid-scales of turbulence to a convective-cloud simulation. A hazard algorithm for use with model data sets is demonstrated. The algorithm diagnoses the RMS normal loads from second moments of the vertical velocity field and is independent of aircraft motion.

  9. The influence of deep convection on HCHO and HO in the upper troposphere over Europe (United States)

    Bozem, Heiko; Pozzer, Andrea; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica; Williams, Jonathan; Lelieveld, Jos; Fischer, Horst


    Deep convection is an efficient mechanism for vertical trace gas transport from Earth's surface to the upper troposphere (UT). The convective redistribution of short-lived trace gases emitted at the surface typically results in a C-shaped profile. This redistribution mechanism can impact photochemical processes, e.g. ozone and radical production in the UT on a large scale due to the generally longer lifetimes of species like formaldehyde (HCHO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which are important HOx precursors (HOx = OH + HO2 radicals). Due to the solubility of HCHO and H2O2 their transport may be suppressed as they are efficiently removed by wet deposition. Here we present a case study of deep convection over Germany in the summer of 2007 within the framework of the HOOVER II project. Airborne in situ measurements within the in- and outflow regions of an isolated thunderstorm provide a unique data set to study the influence of deep convection on the transport efficiency of soluble and insoluble trace gases. Comparing the in- and outflow indicates an almost undiluted transport of insoluble trace gases from the boundary layer to the UT. The ratios of out : inflow of CO and CH4 are 0.94 ± 0.04 and 0.99 ± 0.01, respectively. For the soluble species HCHO and H2O2 these ratios are 0.55 ± 0.09 and 0.61 ± 0.08, respectively, indicating partial scavenging and washout. Chemical box model simulations show that post-convection secondary formation of HCHO and H2O2 cannot explain their enhancement in the UT. A plausible explanation, in particular for the enhancement of the highly soluble H2O2, is degassing from cloud droplets during freezing, which reduces the retention coefficient.

  10. Radial motion of isolated blobs and ELM filaments in SOL plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Fundamenski, W.; Bian, N.H.


    Radial convection of localized plasma filaments is apparently what dominates the cross-field transport of particles and heat through the scrape-off layer of magnetically confined plasmas. Here we present a theoretical investigation of the motion of such field-aligned structures based on electrostatic interchange dynamics. A two-field interchange model is studied by means of numerical simulations on a bi-periodic domain perpendicular to the magnetic field. The simulations are initialized with a blob-like structure on top of a uniform background plasma with no flow. It is demonstrated that such plasma filaments develop dipolar vorticity and electrostatic potential fields, resulting in rapid radial acceleration and formation of a steep front and a trailing wake. While the dynamical evolution strongly depends on the amount of collisional diffusion and viscosity, the structure travels a radial distance many times its initial size in all parameter regimes in the absence of parallel motions. For small collisional dissipation the structure is unstable to fragmentation by secondary instabilities, resulting in complex waveforms from single-point recordings even for an isolated structure. The plasma filament eventually decelerates due to dispersion by the convective flows. When sheath dissipation is included in the simulations, the radial velocity of isolated filaments is found to be significantly reduced. The results are discussed in the context of convective transport in scrape-off layer plasmas, comprising both blob-like structures in low confinement modes and edge localized mode filaments in unstable high confinement regimes. The favorable comparison with experimental measurements strongly indicates that electrostatic interchange motions is the salient mechanism underlying cross-field transport at the boundary of magnetically con ed plasmas. (author)

  11. Equilibrium Transport in Double-Diffusive Convection (United States)


    convection changes in other environments. External planetary systems, such as the atmospheric makeup of planets within our solar system, are...21) where ( fx ,fy) are the Floquet factors in x and y. Substituting Equation (21) in the linearized governing equations and collecting...the individual Fourier components reduces the stability problem to matrix form Equation (13). Maximizing the growth rates with respect to ( fx ,fy,m

  12. Natural convection cooling of spent fuels depository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menant, B.


    The operating CASCAD Facility was commissioned at Cadarache since 1990. Spent fuels are being storage for a 50 years period. The heat giving by the wastes is evacuated essentially by natural convection. The Trio U software is applied to the thermohydraulic operating of the system. The results allow to illustrate the installation and show system instabilities effects which appear at many scales. (A.L.B.)

  13. An experimental study of mixed convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, Manuel


    The aim of our study is to establish a reliable data base for improving thermal-hydraulic codes, in the field of turbulent flows with buoyancy forces. The flow considered is mixed convection in the Reynolds and Richardson number range: Re=10 3 to 6*10 4 and Ri=10 -4 to 1. Experiments are carried out in an upward turbulent flow between vertical parallel plates at different wall temperatures. Part 1 gives a detailed data base of turbulent mixed flow of free and forced convection. Part II presents the installation and the calibration system intended for probes calibration. Part III describes the measurement technique (constant-temperature probe and cold-wire probe) and the method for measuring the position of the hot-wire anemometer from the wall surface. The measurement accuracy is within 0.001 mm in the present system. Part IV relates the development of a method for near wall measurements. This correction procedure for hot-wire anemometer close to wall has been derived on the basis of a two-dimensional numerical study. The method permits to obtain a quantitative correction of the wall influence on hot-wires and takes into account the velocity profile and the effects the wall material has on the heat loss. Part V presents the experimental data obtained in the channel in forced and mixed convection. Results obtained in the forced convection regime serve as a verification of the measurement technique close to the wall and give the conditions at the entrance of the test section. The effects of the buoyancy force on the mean velocity and temperature profiles are confirmed. The buoyancy strongly affects the flow structure and deforms the distribution of mean velocity. The velocity profiles are asymmetric. The second section of part V gives an approach of analytical wall functions with buoyancy forces, on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the test section. (author) [fr

  14. Physiological functions at single-cell level of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditionally fermented cabbage in response to different pH conditions. (United States)

    Olszewska, Magdalena A; Kocot, Aleksandra M; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja


    Changes in pH are significant environmental stresses that may be encountered by lactobacilli during fermentation processes or passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the cell response of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditionally fermented cabbage subjected to acid/alkaline treatments at pH 2.5, 7.4 and 8.1, which represented pH conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Among six isolates, four species of Lactobacillus plantarum and two of Lactobacillus brevis were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The fluorescence-based strategy of combining carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and propidium iodine (PI) into a dual-staining assay was used together with epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment. The results showed that the cells maintained esterase activity and membrane integrity at pH 8.1 and 7.4. There was also no loss of culturability as shown by plate counts. In contrast, the majority of 2.5 pH-treated cells had a low extent of esterase activity, and experienced membrane perturbation. For these samples, an extensive loss of culturability was demonstrated. Comparison of the results of an in situ assessment with that of the conventional culturing method has revealed that although part of the stressed population was unable to grow on the growth media, it was deemed viable using a CFDA/PI assay. However, there was no significant change in the cell morphology among pH-treated lactobacilli populations. These analyses are expected to be useful in understanding the cell response of Lactobacillus strains to pH stress and may facilitate future investigation into functional and industrial aspects of this response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel single-stranded RNA virus isolated from a phytopathogenic filamentous fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, with similarity to hypo-like viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eZhang


    Full Text Available Here we report a biological and molecular characterization of a novel positive-sense RNA virus isolated from a field isolate (NW10 of a filamentous phytopathogenic fungus, the white root rot fungus that is designated as Rosellinia necatrix fusarivirus 1 (RnFV1. A recently developed technology using zinc ions allowed us to transfer RnFV1 to two mycelially incompatible Rosellinia necatrix strains. A biological comparison of the virus-free and -recipient isogenic fungal strains suggested that RnFV1 infects latently and thus has no potential as a virocontrol agent. The virus has an undivided positive-sense RNA genome of 6286 nucleotides excluding a poly (A tail. The genome possesses two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs: a large ORF1 that encodes polypeptides with RNA replication functions and a smaller ORF2 that encodes polypeptides of unknown function. A lack of coat protein genes was suggested by the failure of virus particles from infected mycelia. No evidence was obtained by Northern analysis or classical 5'-RACE for the presence of subgenomic RNA for the downstream ORF. Sequence similarities were found in amino-acid sequence between RnFV1 putative proteins and counterparts of a previously reported mycovirus, Fusarium graminearum virus 1 (FgV1. Interestingly, several related sequences were detected by BLAST searches of independent transcriptome assembly databases one of which probably represents an entire virus genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase showed that RnFV1, FgV1, and these similar sequences are grouped in a cluster distinct from distantly related hypoviruses. It is proposed that a new taxonomic family termed Fusariviridae be created to include RnFV1and FgV1.

  16. Investigation of the transition from forced to natural convection in the research reactor Munich II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skreba, S.; Adamek, J.; Unger, H.


    The new research reactor Munich II (FRM-II), which is under construction at the Technical University Munich, Germany, makes use of a newly developed compact reactor core consisting of a single fuel element, which is assembled of two concentric pipes. Between the fuel element's inner and outer pipe 113 involutely bent fuel plates are placed rotationally symmetric, forming 113 cooling channels of a constant width of 2.2 mm. After a shut down of the reactor, battery supported cooling pumps are started by the reactor safety system in order to remove the decay heat by a downwards directed forced flow. Three hours after they have been started, the cooling pumps are shut down and so-called 'natural convection flaps' are opened by their own weight. Through a flow path, which is provided by the opening of the natural convection flaps, the decay heat is given off to the water in the reactor pool after the direction of the flow has changed and an upwards directed natural convection flow has developed. At the Department for Nuclear and New Energy Systems of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, a test facility has been built in order to confirm the concept of the decay heat removal in the FRM-II, to acquire data of single and two phase natural convection flows and to detect the dry out in a narrow channel. The thermohydraulics of the FRM-II are simulated by an electrically heated test section, which represents one cooling channel of the fuel element. At first experiments have been performed, which simulated the transition from forced to natural convection in the core of the FRM-II, both at normal operation and at a complete loss of the decay heat removal pumps. In case of normal operation, the transition from forced to natural convection takes place single phased. If a complete loss of the active decay heat removal system occurs, the decay heat removal is ensured by a quasi-steady two phase flow. In a second test series minimum heat flux densities leading to pressure pulsations

  17. Environment and morphology of mesoscale convective systems associated with the Changma front during 9–10 July 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Jeong


    Full Text Available To understand the different environment and morphology for heavy rainfall during 9–10 July 2007, over the Korean Peninsula, mesoscale convective systems (MCSs that accompanied the Changma front in two different regions were investigated. The sub-synoptic conditions were analysed using mesoscale analysis data (MANAL, reanalysis data, weather charts and Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-IR data. Dual-Doppler radar observations were used to analyse the wind fields within the precipitation systems. During both the case periods, the surface low-pressure field intensified and moved northeastward along the Changma front. A low-level warm front gradually formed with an east-west orientation, and the cold front near the low pressure was aligned from northeast to southwest. The northern convective systems (meso-α-scale were embedded within an area of stratiform cloud north of the warm front. The development of low-level pressure resulted in horizontal and vertical wind shear due to cyclonic circulation. The wind direction was apparently different across the warm front. In addition, the southeasterly flow (below 4 km played an important role in generating new convective cells behind the prevailing convective cell. Each isolated southern convective cell (meso-β-scale moved along the line ahead of the cold front within the prefrontal warm sector. These convective cells developed when a strong southwesterly low-level jet (LLJ intensified and moisture was deeply advected into the sloping frontal zone. A high equivalent potential temperature region transported warm moist air in a strong southwesterly flow, where the convectively unstable air led to updraft and downdraft with a strong reflectivity core.

  18. Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Prediction of Convective Heat Transfer in Evaporative Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Méndez Ricardo


    Full Text Available Convective heat transfer prediction of evaporative processes is more complicated than the heat transfer prediction of single-phase convective processes. This is due to the fact that physical phenomena involved in evaporative processes are very complex and vary with the vapor quality that increases gradually as more fluid is evaporated. Power-law correlations used for prediction of evaporative convection have proved little accuracy when used in practical cases. In this investigation, neural-network-based models have been used as a tool for prediction of the thermal performance of evaporative units. For this purpose, experimental data were obtained in a facility that includes a counter-flow concentric pipes heat exchanger with R134a refrigerant flowing inside the circular section and temperature controlled warm water moving through the annular section. This work also included the construction of an inverse Rankine refrigeration cycle that was equipped with measurement devices, sensors and a data acquisition system to collect the experimental measurements under different operating conditions. Part of the data were used to train several neural-network configurations. The best neural-network model was then used for prediction purposes and the results obtained were compared with experimental data not used for training purposes. The results obtained in this investigation reveal the convenience of using artificial neural networks as accurate predictive tools for determining convective heat transfer rates of evaporative processes.

  19. Recent advances in computational-analytical integral transforms for convection-diffusion problems (United States)

    Cotta, R. M.; Naveira-Cotta, C. P.; Knupp, D. C.; Zotin, J. L. Z.; Pontes, P. C.; Almeida, A. P.


    An unifying overview of the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) as a computational-analytical approach for solving convection-diffusion problems is presented. This work is aimed at bringing together some of the most recent developments on both accuracy and convergence improvements on this well-established hybrid numerical-analytical methodology for partial differential equations. Special emphasis is given to novel algorithm implementations, all directly connected to enhancing the eigenfunction expansion basis, such as a single domain reformulation strategy for handling complex geometries, an integral balance scheme in dealing with multiscale problems, the adoption of convective eigenvalue problems in formulations with significant convection effects, and the direct integral transformation of nonlinear convection-diffusion problems based on nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Then, selected examples are presented that illustrate the improvement achieved in each class of extension, in terms of convergence acceleration and accuracy gain, which are related to conjugated heat transfer in complex or multiscale microchannel-substrate geometries, multidimensional Burgers equation model, and diffusive metal extraction through polymeric hollow fiber membranes. Numerical results are reported for each application and, where appropriate, critically compared against the traditional GITT scheme without convergence enhancement schemes and commercial or dedicated purely numerical approaches.

  20. A community benchmark for viscoplastic thermal convection in a 2-D square box (United States)

    Tosi, N.; Stein, C.; Noack, L.; Hüttig, C.; Maierová, P.; Samuel, H.; Davies, D. R.; Wilson, C. R.; Kramer, S. C.; Thieulot, C.; Glerum, A.; Fraters, M.; Spakman, W.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.


    Numerical simulations of thermal convection in the Earth's mantle often employ a pseudoplastic rheology in order to mimic the plate-like behavior of the lithosphere. Yet the benchmark tests available in the literature are largely based on simple linear rheologies in which the viscosity is either assumed to be constant or weakly dependent on temperature. Here we present a suite of simple tests based on nonlinear rheologies featuring temperature, pressure, and strain rate-dependent viscosity. Eleven different codes based on the finite volume, finite element, or spectral methods have been used to run five benchmark cases leading to stagnant lid, mobile lid, and periodic convection in a 2-D square box. For two of these cases, we also show resolution tests from all contributing codes. In addition, we present a bifurcation analysis, describing the transition from a mobile lid regime to a periodic regime, and from a periodic regime to a stagnant lid regime, as a function of the yield stress. At a resolution of around 100 cells or elements in both vertical and horizontal directions, all codes reproduce the required diagnostic quantities with a discrepancy of at most ˜3% in the presence of both linear and nonlinear rheologies. Furthermore, they consistently predict the critical value of the yield stress at which the transition between different regimes occurs. As the most recent mantle convection codes can handle a number of different geometries within a single solution framework, this benchmark will also prove useful when validating viscoplastic thermal convection simulations in such geometries.

  1. Anelastic Models of Fully-Convective Stars: Differential Rotation, Meridional Circulation and Residual Entropy (United States)

    Sainsbury-Martinez, Felix; Browning, Matthew; Miesch, Mark; Featherstone, Nicholas A.


    Low-Mass stars are typically fully convective, and as such their dynamics may differ significantly from sun-like stars. Here we present a series of 3D anelastic HD and MHD simulations of fully convective stars, designed to investigate how the meridional circulation, the differential rotation, and residual entropy are affected by both varying stellar parameters, such as the luminosity or the rotation rate, and by the presence of a magnetic field. We also investigate, more specifically, a theoretical model in which isorotation contours and residual entropy (σ‧ = σ ‑ σ(r)) are intrinsically linked via the thermal wind equation (as proposed in the Solar context by Balbus in 2009). We have selected our simulation parameters in such as way as to span the transition between Solar-like differential rotation (fast equator + slow poles) and ‘anti-Solar’ differential rotation (slow equator + fast poles), as characterised by the convective Rossby number and △Ω. We illustrate the transition from single-celled to multi-celled MC profiles, and from positive to negative latitudinal entropy gradients. We show that an extrapolation involving both TWB and the σ‧/Ω link provides a reasonable estimate for the interior profile of our fully convective stars. Finally, we also present a selection of MHD simulations which exhibit an almost unsuppressed differential rotation profile, with energy balances remaining dominated by kinetic components.

  2. Simulating North American mesoscale convective systems with a convection-permitting climate model (United States)

    Prein, Andreas F.; Liu, Changhai; Ikeda, Kyoko; Bullock, Randy; Rasmussen, Roy M.; Holland, Greg J.; Clark, Martyn


    Deep convection is a key process in the climate system and the main source of precipitation in the tropics, subtropics, and mid-latitudes during summer. Furthermore, it is related to high impact weather causing floods, hail, tornadoes, landslides, and other hazards. State-of-the-art climate models have to parameterize deep convection due to their coarse grid spacing. These parameterizations are a major source of uncertainty and long-standing model biases. We present a North American scale convection-permitting climate simulation that is able to explicitly simulate deep convection due to its 4-km grid spacing. We apply a feature-tracking algorithm to detect hourly precipitation from Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) in the model and compare it with radar-based precipitation estimates east of the US Continental Divide. The simulation is able to capture the main characteristics of the observed MCSs such as their size, precipitation rate, propagation speed, and lifetime within observational uncertainties. In particular, the model is able to produce realistically propagating MCSs, which was a long-standing challenge in climate modeling. However, the MCS frequency is significantly underestimated in the central US during late summer. We discuss the origin of this frequency biases and suggest strategies for model improvements.

  3. Natural convection of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate embedded in a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghalambaz, M.; Noghrehabadi, A.; Ghanbarzadeh, A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper, the natural convective flow of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate in a saturated Darcy porous medium is studied numerically. The governing equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables, and they are numerically solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method associated with the Gauss-Newton method. The effects of parametric variation of the Brownian motion parameter (Nb), thermophoresis parameter (Nt) and the convective heating parameter (Nc) on the boundary layer profiles are investigated. Furthermore, the variation of the reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number, as important parameters of heat and mass transfer, as a function of the Brownian motion, thermophoresis and convective heating parameters is discussed in detail. The results show that the thickness of the concentration profiles is much lower than the temperature and velocity profiles. For low values of the convective heating parameter (Nc), as the Brownian motion parameter increases, the non-dimensional wall temperature increases. However, for high values of Nc, the effect of the Brownian motion parameter on the non-dimensional wall temperature is not significant. As the Brownian motion parameter increases, the reduced Sherwood number increases and the reduced Nusselt number decreases. (author)

  4. Whole-mantle convection with tectonic plates preserves long-term global patterns of upper mantle geochemistry. (United States)

    Barry, T L; Davies, J H; Wolstencroft, M; Millar, I L; Zhao, Z; Jian, P; Safonova, I; Price, M


    The evolution of the planetary interior during plate tectonics is controlled by slow convection within the mantle. Global-scale geochemical differences across the upper mantle are known, but how they are preserved during convection has not been adequately explained. We demonstrate that the geographic patterns of chemical variations around the Earth's mantle endure as a direct result of whole-mantle convection within largely isolated cells defined by subducting plates. New 3D spherical numerical models embedded with the latest geological paleo-tectonic reconstructions and ground-truthed with new Hf-Nd isotope data, suggest that uppermost mantle at one location (e.g. under Indian Ocean) circulates down to the core-mantle boundary (CMB), but returns within ≥100 Myrs via large-scale convection to its approximate starting location. Modelled tracers pool at the CMB but do not disperse ubiquitously around it. Similarly, mantle beneath the Pacific does not spread to surrounding regions of the planet. The models fit global patterns of isotope data and may explain features such as the DUPAL anomaly and long-standing differences between Indian and Pacific Ocean crust. Indeed, the geochemical data suggests this mode of convection could have influenced the evolution of mantle composition since 550 Ma and potentially since the onset of plate tectonics.

  5. Isolation and cloning of exendin precursor cDNAs from single samples of venom from the Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) and the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). (United States)

    Chen, Tianbao; Kwok, Hangfai; Ivanyi, Craig; Shaw, Chris


    Reptile venoms are complex cocktails of bioactive molecules, including peptides. While the drug discovery potential of most species remains unrealized, many are endangered and afforded protection under international treaties. In this study, we describe how potential clinically important bioactive peptides and their corresponding mRNAs can be structurally characterized from single, small samples of reptile venom. The potential type-2 diabetes therapeutics, exendin-3 and exendin-4, from the Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) and the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum), respectively, have been characterized at both protein and nucleic acid levels to illustrate the efficacy of the technique and its contribution to biodiversity conservation.

  6. Single Beam Holography. (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan; Ruterbusch, Paul H.


    Discusses how holography can be used as part of undergraduate physics laboratories. The authors propose a single beam technique of holography, which will reduce the recording scheme as well as relax the isolation requirements. (HM)

  7. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.


    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  8. Final results of the CONDORS convective diffusion experiment (United States)

    Briggs, Gary A.


    The Convective Diffusion Observed by Remote Sensors (CONDORS) field experiment conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory used innovative techniques to obtain three-dimensional mappings of plume concentration fields, χ/ Q, of oil fog detected by lidar and “chaff” detected by Doppler radar. It included extensive meteorological measurements and, in 1983, tracer gases measured at a single sampling arc. Final results from ten hours of elevated and surface release data are summarized here. Many intercomparisons were made. Oil fog χ/ Q measured 40m above the arc are mostly in good agreement with SF 6 values, except in a few instances with large spacial inhomogeneities over short distances. After a correction scheme was applied to compensate for the effect of its settling speed, chaff ∫χ dy/Q agreed well with those of oil except in two cases of oil fog “hot spots”. Mass or frequency distribution vs. azimuth or elevation angle comparisons were made for chaff, oil, and wind, with mostly good agreements. Spacial standard deviations, σy and σz, of chaff and oil agree overall and are consistent at short range with velocity standard deviations σvand σw ≈ 0.6w* (the convective scale velocity), as measured at z>100m. Surface release σy is enhanced up to 60% at small x, consistent with the Prairie Grass measurements and with larger σv and reduced wind speed measured near the surface. Decreased σy at small dimensionless average times is also noted. Finally, convectively scaled ∫χ dy, C y, were plotted versus dimensionless x and z for oil, chaff, and corrected chaff for each 30 60 min period. Aggregated CONDORS C y fields compare well with laboratory tank and LES numerical simulations; surface-released oil fog compares expecially well with the tank experiments. However, large deviations from the norm occurred in individual averaging periods; these deviations correlated strongly with anomalies in measured ω distributions.

  9. Beat-to-Beat Variation in Periodicity of Local Calcium Releases Contributes to Intrinsic Variations of Spontaneous Cycle Length in Isolated Single Sinoatrial Node Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Monfredi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous, submembrane local Ca(2+ releases (LCRs generated by the sarcoplasmic reticulum in sinoatrial nodal cells, the cells of the primary cardiac pacemaker, activate inward Na(+/Ca(2+-exchange current to accelerate the diastolic depolarization rate, and therefore to impact on cycle length. Since LCRs are generated by Ca(2+ release channel (i.e. ryanodine receptor openings, they exhibit a degree of stochastic behavior, manifested as notable cycle-to-cycle variations in the time of their occurrence.The present study tested whether variation in LCR periodicity contributes to intrinsic (beat-to-beat cycle length variability in single sinoatrial nodal cells.We imaged single rabbit sinoatrial nodal cells using a 2D-camera to capture LCRs over the entire cell, and, in selected cells, simultaneously measured action potentials by perforated patch clamp.LCRs begin to occur on the descending part of the action potential-induced whole-cell Ca(2+ transient, at about the time of the maximum diastolic potential. Shortly after the maximum diastolic potential (mean 54±7.7 ms, n = 14, the ensemble of waxing LCR activity converts the decay of the global Ca(2+ transient into a rise, resulting in a late, whole-cell diastolic Ca(2+ elevation, accompanied by a notable acceleration in diastolic depolarization rate. On average, cells (n = 9 generate 13.2±3.7 LCRs per cycle (mean±SEM, varying in size (7.1±4.2 µm and duration (44.2±27.1 ms, with both size and duration being greater for later-occurring LCRs. While the timing of each LCR occurrence also varies, the LCR period (i.e. the time from the preceding Ca(2+ transient peak to an LCR's subsequent occurrence averaged for all LCRs in a given cycle closely predicts the time of occurrence of the next action potential, i.e. the cycle length.Intrinsic cycle length variability in single sinoatrial nodal cells is linked to beat-to-beat variations in the average period of individual LCRs each cycle.

  10. Evaluation of a Mesoscale Convective System in Variable-Resolution CESM (United States)

    Payne, A. E.; Jablonowski, C.


    Warm season precipitation over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) follows a well observed diurnal pattern of variability, peaking at night-time, due to the eastward propagation of mesoscale convection systems that develop over the eastern slopes of the Rockies in the late afternoon. While most climate models are unable to adequately capture the organization of convection and characteristic pattern of precipitation over this region, models with high enough resolution to explicitly resolve convection show improvement. However, high resolution simulations are computationally expensive and, in the case of regional climate models, are subject to boundary conditions. Newly developed variable resolution global climate models strike a balance between the benefits of high-resolution regional climate models and the large-scale dynamics of global climate models and low computational cost. Recently developed parameterizations that are insensitive to the model grid scale provide a way to improve model performance. Here, we present an evaluation of the newly available Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals (CLUBB) parameterization scheme in a suite of variable-resolution CESM simulations with resolutions ranging from 110 km to 7 km within a regionally refined region centered over the SGP Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site. Simulations utilize the hindcast approach developed by the Department of Energy's Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT) for the assessment of climate models. We limit our evaluation to a single mesoscale convective system that passed over the region on May 24, 2008. The effects of grid-resolution on the timing and intensity of precipitation, as well as, on the transition from shallow to deep convection are assessed against ground-based observations from the SGP ARM site, satellite observations and ERA-Interim reanalysis.

  11. Archimedean Proof of the Physical Impossibility of Earth Mantle Convection


    Herndon, J. Marvin


    Eight decades ago, Arthur Holmes introducted the idea of mantle convection as a mechanism for continental drift. Five decades ago, continental drift was modified to become plate tectonics theory, which included mantle convection as an absolutely critical component. Using the submarine design and operation concept of "neutral buoyancy", which follows from Archimedes' discoveries, the concept of mantle convection is proven to be incorrect, concomitantly refuting plate tectonics, refuting all ma...

  12. Strategic Repositioning for Convection Business Case Study: AR Vendor


    Anindita, Pratisara Satwika; Toha, Mohamad


    The study aims to determine suitable position and strategy in order to reach superiority in convection business based on the company strengths and weaknesses. A study conducted in late 2012 at AR Vendor, a home-based convection company which focus on the t-shirt screen printing service. In response to the issue of the below average profit margin, the company has to rethink their position and strategy in handling the convection business environment. While AR Vendor business may growth in accor...

  13. Forced convection in nanoparticles doped nematics without reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakobyan, M.R.; Hakobyan, R.S.


    The problem of forced convection in the cell of nanoparticles doped nematic liquid crystal with both boundaries being free, plane and isotherm is discussed. These boundary conditions (offered by Rayleigh) allow to get simple and exact solution for boundary-value problem, from which its most important peculiarities can be clearly seen. Particularly, there appears a possibility to induce convection without reorientation of liquid crystal director. It was shown that nanoparticles could have significant influence on the convection

  14. Primary Issues of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin


    The computer code analyzing the system operating and transient behavior must distinguish flow conditions involved with convective heat transfer flow regimes. And the proper correlations must be supplied to those flow regimes. However the existing safety analysis codes are focused on the Light Water Reactor and they are skeptical to be applied to the GCRs (Gas Cooled Reactors). One of the technical issues raise by the development of the VHTR is the mixed convection, which occur when the driving forces of both forced and natural convection are of comparable magnitudes. It can be encountered as in channel of the stacked with fuel elements and a decay heat removal system and in VHTR. The mixed convection is not intermediate phenomena with natural convection and forced convection but independent complicated phenomena. Therefore, many researchers have been studied and some primary issues were propounded for phenomena mixed convection. This paper is to discuss some problems identified through reviewing the papers for mixed convection phenomena. And primary issues of mixed convection heat transfer were proposed respect to thermal hydraulic problems for VHTR. The VHTR thermal hydraulic study requires an indepth study of the mixed convection phenomena. In this study we reviewed the classical flow regime map of Metais and Eckert and derived further issues to be considered. The following issues were raised: (1) Buoyancy aided an opposed flows were not differentiated and plotted in a map. (2) Experimental results for UWT and UHF condition were also plotted in the same map without differentiation. (3) The buoyancy coefficient was not generalized for correlating with buoyancy coefficient. (4) The phenomenon analysis for laminarization and returbulization as buoyancy effects in turbulent mixed convection was not established. (5) The defining to transition in mixed convection regime was difficult

  15. Forced and free convection turbulent boundary layers in gas lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.


    Approximate expressions for the effect on optical path length through a turbulent vertical boundary layer caused by the combined presence of forced and free convection were obtained to first order in the asymptotic cases of dominant forced convection and dominant free convection. The effect in both cases is a reduction of the boundary-layer thickness. Characteristic scaling lengths are presented which aid in the optical analysis of the flowfield

  16. The Development of Geo-KOMPSAT-2A (GK-2A) Convective Initiation Algorithm over the Korea peninsular (United States)

    Kim, H. S.; Chung, S. R.; Lee, B. I.; Baek, S.; Jeon, E.


    The rapid development of convection can bring heavy rainfall that suffers a great deal of damages to society as well as threatens human life. The high accurate forecast of the strong convection is essentially demanded to prevent those disasters from the severe weather. Since a geostationary satellite is the most suitable instrument for monitoring the single cloud's lifecycle from its formation to extinction, it has been attempted to capture the precursor signals of convection clouds by satellite. Keeping pace with the launch of Geo-KOMPSAT-2A (GK-2A) in 2018, we planned to produce convective initiation (CI) defined as the indicator of potential cloud objects to bring heavy precipitation within two hours. The CI algorithm for GK-2A is composed of four stages. The beginning is to subtract mature cloud pixels, a sort of convective cloud mask by visible (VIS) albedo and infrared (IR) brightness temperature thresholds. Then, the remained immature cloud pixels are clustered as a cloud object by watershed techniques. Each clustering object is undergone 'Interest Fields' tests for IR data that reflect cloud microphysical properties at the current and their temporal changes; the cloud depth, updraft strength and production of glaciations. All thresholds of 'Interest fields' were optimized for Korean-type convective clouds. Based on scores from tests, it is decided whether the cloud object would develop as a convective cell or not. Here we show the result of case study in this summer over the Korea peninsular by using Himawari-8 VIS and IR data. Radar echo and data were used for validation. This study suggests that CI products of GK-2A would contribute to enhance accuracy of the very short range forecast over the Korea peninsular.

  17. Sequence Analysis of IncA/C and IncI1 Plasmids Isolated from Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Newport Using Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing. (United States)

    Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc; Hoffmann, Maria; Muruvanda, Tim; Luo, Yan; Payne, Justin; Meng, Kevin; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong


    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmids play an important role in disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes. To elucidate the antimicrobial resistance gene compositions in A/C incompatibility complex (IncA/C) plasmids carried by animal-derived MDR Salmonella Newport, and to investigate the spread mechanism of IncA/C plasmids, this study characterizes the complete nucleotide sequences of IncA/C plasmids by comparative analysis. Complete nucleotide sequencing of plasmids and chromosomes of six MDR Salmonella Newport strains was performed using PacBio RSII. Open reading frames were assigned using prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline (PGAP). To understand genomic diversity and evolutionary relationships among Salmonella Newport IncA/C plasmids, we included three complete IncA/C plasmid sequences with similar backbones from Salmonella Newport and Escherichia coli: pSN254, pAM04528, and peH4H, and additional 200 draft chromosomes. With the exception of canine isolate CVM22462, which contained an additional IncI1 plasmid, each of the six MDR Salmonella Newport strains contained only the IncA/C plasmid. These IncA/C plasmids (including references) ranged in size from 80.1 (pCVM21538) to 176.5 kb (pSN254) and carried various resistance genes. Resistance genes floR, tetA, tetR, strA, strB, sul, and mer were identified in all IncA/C plasmids. Additionally, bla CMY-2 and sugE were present in all IncA/C plasmids, excepting pCVM21538. Plasmid pCVM22462 was capable of being transferred by conjugation. The IncI1 plasmid pCVM22462b in CVM22462 carried bla CMY-2 and sugE. Our data showed that MDR Salmonella Newport strains carrying similar IncA/C plasmids clustered together in the phylogenetic tree using chromosome sequences and the IncA/C plasmids from animal-derived Salmonella Newport contained diverse resistance genes. In the current study, we analyzed genomic diversities and phylogenetic relationships among MDR Salmonella Newport using complete plasmids and chromosome

  18. A single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP)-derived quantitative variable to monitor the virulence of a Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) isolate during adaptation to the TC14 resistant wheat line. (United States)

    Delaunay, Agnes; Lacroix, Christelle; Morliere, Stephanie; Riault, Gerard; Chain, Florian; Trottet, Maxime; Jacquot, Emmanuel


    A standardized single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) procedure is proposed as an alternative to the time-consuming biological characterization of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) isolates. Using this procedure, six of 21 overlapping regions used to scan the viral genome gave patterns specific to '4E' (avirulent) or '4T' ('4E'-derived virulent) isolates. The calibration of samples and integration of SSCP patterns corresponding to the nucleotide region 1482-2023 allowed the estimation of P(T) values that reflect the proportions of a '4T'-specific band. Analysis of the biological (area under the pathogen progress curve) and molecular (P(T)) data suggested a positive linear relation between these variables. Moreover, sequence analysis of the nucleotide region 1482-2023 highlighted the presence of a nucleotide polymorphism (C/A(1835)) which can be considered as a candidate for virus-host interactions linked to the monitored virulence. According to these parameters, P(T) values associated with '4E'- and '4T'-derived populations show that: (i) long-term infection of a BYDV-PAV isolate on the 'TC14' resistant host leads to the fixation of virulent individuals in viral populations; and (ii) the introduction of susceptible hosts in successive 'TC14' infections results in the maintenance of low virulence of the populations. Thus, the presented study demonstrates that SSCP is a useful tool for monitoring viral populations during the host adaptation process. The described impact of host alternation provides new opportunities for the use of the 'TC14' resistance source in BYDV-resistant breeding programmes. This study is part of the global effort made by the scientific community to propose sustainable alternatives to the chemical control of this viral disease.

  19. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection (United States)

    Grigoriev, Vasiliy V.; Zakharov, Petr E.


    This paper considered Rayleigh-Benard convection (natural convection). This is a flow, which is formed in a viscous medium when heated from below and cooled from above. As a result, are formed vortices (convective cells). This process is described by a system of nonlinear differential equations in Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. As the governing parameters characterizing convection states Rayleigh number, Prandtl number are picked. The problem is solved by using finite element method with computational package FEniCS. Numerical results for different Rayleigh numbers are obtained. Studied integral characteristic (Nusselt number) depending on the Rayleigh number.

  20. Cumulus convection and the terrestrial water-vapor distribution (United States)

    Donner, Leo J.


    Cumulus convection plays a significant role in determining the structure of the terrestrial water vapor field. Cumulus convection acts directly on the moisture field by condensing and precipitating water vapor and by redistributing water vapor through cumulus induced eddy circulations. The mechanisms by which cumulus convection influences the terrestrial water vapor distribution is outlined. Calculations using a theory due to Kuo is used to illustrate the mechanisms by which cumulus convection works. Understanding of these processes greatly aids the ability of researchers to interpret the seasonal and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor by providing information on the nature of sources and sinks and the global circulation.

  1. Urban Influences on Convection and Lightning Over Houston

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gauthier, Michael L


    The research presented in this dissertation addresses a fundamental question regarding urban, ultimately anthropogenic, influences on convection as it relates to lightning production and precipitation structure...

  2. Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment ER2 MODIS Airborne Simulator (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX) 4 focused on the study of tropical cyclone (hurricane) development, tracking, intensification, and landfalling impacts...

  3. Natural convection in superposed fluid-porous layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Aniruddha


    Natural Convection in Composite Fluid-Porous Domains provides a timely overview of the current state of understanding on the phenomenon of convection in composite fluid-porous layers. Natural convection in horizontal fluid-porous layers has received renewed attention because of engineering problems such as post-accident cooling of nuclear reactors, contaminant transport in groundwater, and convection in fibrous insulation systems. Because applications of the problem span many scientific domains, the book serves as a valuable resource for a wide audience.

  4. Thermal convection thresholds in a Oldroyd magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, L.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Bernardo OHiggins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Bragard, J. [Departamento de Fisica y Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Laroze, D., E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D 55021 Mainz (Germany); Instituto de Alta Investigacion, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Martinez-Mardones, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Pleiner, H. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D 55021 Mainz (Germany)


    We report theoretical and numerical results on convection for a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid. The viscoelastic properties is given by the Oldroyd model. We obtain explicit expressions for the convective thresholds in terms of the parameters of the system in the case of idealized boundary conditions. We also calculate numerically the convective thresholds for the case of realistic boundary conditions. The effect of the Kelvin force and of the rheology on instability thresholds for a diluted suspensions are emphasized. - Research highlights: > We study the linear analysis of the convection in magnetic fluids. > The Rheological properties are given by the Oldroyd model. > The numerical results are performed by the Spectral method.

  5. Inside the supernova: A powerful convective engine (United States)

    Herant, Marc; Benz, Willy; Hix, W. Raphael; Fryer, Chris L.; Colgate, Stirling A.


    We present an extensive study of the inception of supernova explosions by following the evolution of the cores of two massive stars (15 and 25 Solar mass) in multidimension. Our calculations begin at the onset of core collapse and stop several hundred milliseconds after the bounce, at which time successful explosions of the appropriate magnitude have been obtained. Similar to the classical delayed explosion mechanism of Wilson, the explosion is powered by the heating of the envelope due to neutrinos emitted by the protoneutron star as it radiates the gravitational energy liberated by the collapse. However, as was shown by Herant, Benz, & Colgate, this heating generates strong convection outside the neutrinosphere, which we demonstrate to be critical to the explosion. By breaking a purely stratified hydrostatic equilibrium, convection moves the nascent supernova away from a delicate radiative equilibrium between neutrino emission and absorption, Thus, unlike what has been observed in one-dimensional calculations, explosions are rendered quite insensitive to the details of the physical input parameters such as neutrino cross sections or nuclear equation of state parameters. As a confirmation, our comparative one-dimensional calculations with identical microphysics, but in which convection cannot occur, lead to dramatic failures. Guided by our numerical results, we have developed a paradigm for the supernova explosion mechanism. We view a supernova as an open cycle thermodynamic engine in which a reservoir of low-entropy matter (the envelope) is thermally coupled and physically connected to a hot bath (the protoneutron star) by a neutrino flux, and by hydrodynamic instabilities. This paradigm does not invoke new or modified physics over previous treatments, but relies on compellingly straightforward thermodynamic arguments. It provides a robust and self-regulated explosion mechanism to power supernovae that is effective under a wide range of physical parameters.

  6. Isolation, incubation, and parallel functional testing and identification by FISH of rare microbial single-copy cells from multi-species mixtures using the combination of chemistrode and stochastic confinement. (United States)

    Liu, Weishan; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lucchetta, Elena M; Du, Wenbin; Ismagilov, Rustem F


    This paper illustrates a plug-based microfluidic approach combining the technique of the chemistrode and the principle of stochastic confinement, which can be used to i) starting from a mixture of cells, stochastically isolate single cells into plugs, ii) incubate the plugs to grow clones of the individual cells without competition among different clones, iii) split the plugs into arrays of identical daughter plugs, where each plug contained clones of the original cell, and iv) analyze each array by an independent technique, including cellulase assays, cultivation, cryo-preservation, Gram staining, and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Functionally, this approach is equivalent to simultaneously assaying the clonal daughter cells by multiple killing and non-killing methods. A new protocol for single-cell FISH, a killing method, was developed to identify isolated cells of Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus in one array of daughter plugs using a 16S rRNA probe, Pc196. At the same time, live copies of P. curdlanolyticus in another array were obtained for cultivation. Among technical advances, this paper reports a chemistrode that enables sampling of nanoliter volumes directly from environmental specimens, such as soil slurries. In addition, a method for analyzing plugs is described: an array of droplets is deposited on the surface, and individual plugs are injected into the droplets of the surface array to induce a reaction and enable microscopy without distortions associated with curvature of plugs. The overall approach is attractive for identifying rare, slow growing microorganisms and would complement current methods to cultivate unculturable microbes from environmental samples.

  7. Effect of rotation on ferro thermohaline convection

    CERN Document Server

    Sekar, R; Ramanathan, A


    The ferro thermohaline convection in a rotating medium heated from below and salted from above has been analysed. The solute is magnetic oxide, which modifies the magnetic field established as a perturbation. The effect of salinity has been included in magnetisation and in the density of the ferrofluid. The conditions for both stationary and oscillatory modes have been obtained using linear stability analysis and it has been found that stationary mode is favoured in comparison with oscillatory mode. The numerical and graphical results are presented. It has been observed that rotation stabilises the system.

  8. Measurement of natural convection by speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernekinck, U.; Merzkirch, W.


    The principle of speckle photography can be applied to the measurement of density variations in fluids. A modification of existing experimental arrangements allows for the measurement of large values of the light deflection angles as they may occur in heat and mass transfer situations. The method is demonstrated for the case of a helium jet exhausting into still air and the natural convective flow along a heated plate. The obtained data are compared with results measured with classical optical interferometers, and good agreement is found. The advantages of the new technique over the classical optical methods are briefly discussed. 11 references

  9. Natural convection between two concentric spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel-Roux, Marie


    After an overview of researches on natural convection in a confined or semi-confined environment, this research thesis reports the use of the Caltagirone and Mojtabi numerical model and the study of its validity for different values of the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. Results obtained with this model are compared with experimental ones. Thermal transfer curves are presented and discussed, as well as the different temperature fields numerically obtained, flow function fields, velocities in the fluid layer, and temperature profiles with respect to the Rayleigh number [fr

  10. Mixing in heterogeneous internally-heated convection (United States)

    Limare, A.; Kaminski, E. C.; Jaupart, C. P.; Farnetani, C. G.; Fourel, L.; Froment, M.


    Past laboratory experiments of thermo chemical convection have dealt with systems involving fluids with different intrinsic densities and viscosities in a Rayleigh-Bénard setup. Although these experiments have greatly improved our understanding of the Earth's mantle dynamics, they neglect a fundamental component of planetary convection: internal heat sources. We have developed a microwave-based method in order to study convection and mixing in systems involving two layers of fluid with different densities, viscosities, and internal heat production rates. Our innovative laboratory experiments are appropriate for the early Earth, when the lowermost mantle was likely enriched in incompatible and heat producing elements and when the heat flux from the core probably accounted for a small fraction of the mantle heat budget. They are also relevant to the present-day mantle if one considers that radioactive decay and secular cooling contribute both to internal heating. Our goal is to quantify how two fluid layers mix, which is still very difficult to resolve accurately in 3-D numerical calculations. Viscosities and microwave absorptions are tuned to achieve high values of the Rayleigh-Roberts and Prandtl numbers relevant for planetary convection. We start from a stably stratified system where the lower layer has higher internal heat production and density than the upper layer. Due to mixing, the amount of enriched material gradually decreases to zero over a finite time called the lifetime. Based on more than 30 experiments, we have derived a scaling law that relates the lifetime of an enriched reservoir to the layer thickness ratio, a, to the density and viscosity contrasts between the two layers, and to their two different internal heating rates in the form of an enrichment factor beta=1+2*a*H1/H, where H1 is the heating rate of the lower fluid and H is the average heating rate. We find that the lifetime of the lower enriched reservoir varies as beta**(-7/3) in the low

  11. Hamiltonian Description of Convective-cell Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Kolesnikov, R.A.


    The nonlinear statistical growth rate eq for convective cells driven by drift-wave (DW) interactions is studied with the aid of a covariant Hamiltonian formalism for the gyrofluid nonlinearities. A statistical energy theorem is proven that relates eq to a second functional tensor derivative of the DW energy. This generalizes to a wide class of systems of coupled partial differential equations a previous result for scalar dynamics. Applications to (i) electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient-driven modes at small ion temperature, and (ii) weakly electromagnetic collisional DW's are noted

  12. A case study of microphysical structures and hydrometeor phase in convection using radar Doppler spectra at Darwin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Luke, Edward; Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang


    To understand the microphysical processes that impact diabatic heating and cloud lifetimes in convection, we need to characterize the spatial distribution of supercooled liquid water. To address this observational challenge, vertically pointing active sensors at the Darwin Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site are used to classify cloud phase within a deep convective cloud in a shallow to deep convection transitional case. The cloud cannot be fully observed by a lidar due to signal attenuation. Thus we develop an objective method for identifying hydrometeor classes, including mixed-phase conditions, using k-means clustering on parameters that describe the shape of the Doppler spectra from vertically pointing Ka band cloud radar. This approach shows that multiple, overlapping mixed-phase layers exist within the cloud, rather than a single region of supercooled liquid, indicating complexity to how ice growth and diabatic heating occurs in the vertical structure of the cloud.

  13. Three-dimensional mixed convection flow of viscoelastic fluid with thermal radiation and convective conditions. (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Ashraf, Muhammad Bilal; Alsulami, Hamed H; Alhuthali, Muhammad Shahab


    The objective of present research is to examine the thermal radiation effect in three-dimensional mixed convection flow of viscoelastic fluid. The boundary layer analysis has been discussed for flow by an exponentially stretching surface with convective conditions. The resulting partial differential equations are reduced into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate transformations. The series solutions are developed through a modern technique known as the homotopy analysis method. The convergent expressions of velocity components and temperature are derived. The solutions obtained are dependent on seven sundry parameters including the viscoelastic parameter, mixed convection parameter, ratio parameter, temperature exponent, Prandtl number, Biot number and radiation parameter. A systematic study is performed to analyze the impacts of these influential parameters on the velocity and temperature, the skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number. It is observed that mixed convection parameter in momentum and thermal boundary layers has opposite role. Thermal boundary layer is found to decrease when ratio parameter, Prandtl number and temperature exponent are increased. Local Nusselt number is increasing function of viscoelastic parameter and Biot number. Radiation parameter on the Nusselt number has opposite effects when compared with viscoelastic parameter.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the present paper, the effect of solar radiation on automobiles has been studied by both experimentally and numerically. The numerical solution is done by an operation friendly and fast CFD code – SC/Tetra with a full scale model of a SM3 car and turbulence is modeled by the standard k-ε equation. Numerical analysis of the three-dimensional model predicts a detailed description of fluid flow and temperature distribution in the passenger compartment during both the natural convection due to the incoming solar radiation and mixed convection due to the flow from defrost nozzle and radiation. It can be seen that solar radiation is an important parameter to raise the compartment temperature above the ambient temperature during summer. During natural convection, the rate of heat transfer is fast at the initial period. In the mixed convection analyses, it is found that the temperature drops down to a comfortable range almost linearly at the initial stage. Experimental investigations are performed to determine the temperature contour on the windshield and the local temperature at a particular point for further validation of the numerical results.

  15. Changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the United States (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Prein, A. F.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Ikeda, K.; Liu, C.


    Novel high-resolution convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the US employing the pseudo-global warming approach are used to investigate changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in a future climate. Two continuous 13-year simulations were conducted using (1) ERA-Interim reanalysis and (2) ERA-Interim reanalysis plus a climate perturbation for the RCP8.5 scenario. The simulations adequately reproduce the observed precipitation diurnal cycle, indicating that they capture organized and propagating convection that most climate models cannot adequately represent. This study shows that weak to moderate convection will decrease and strong convection will increase in frequency in a future climate. Analysis of the thermodynamic environments supporting convection shows that both convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition (CIN) increase downstream of the Rockies in a future climate. Previous studies suggest that CAPE will increase in a warming climate, however a corresponding increase in CIN acts as a balancing force to shift the convective population by suppressing weak to moderate convection and provides an environment where CAPE can build to extreme levels that may result in more frequent severe convection. An idealized investigation of fundamental changes in the thermodynamic environment was conducted by shifting a standard atmospheric profile by ± 5 °C. When temperature is increased, both CAPE and CIN increase in magnitude, while the opposite is true for decreased temperatures. Thus, even in the absence of synoptic and mesoscale variations, a warmer climate will provide more CAPE and CIN that will shift the convective population, likely impacting water and energy budgets on Earth.

  16. Microstructural indicators of convection: insights from the Little Minch Sill Complex, Scotland (United States)

    Nicoli, Gautier; Holness, Marian; Neufeld, Jerome; Farr, Robert


    olivine-phyric magma and is characterised by both composite and single-injection bodies with significant accumulation of olivine on their lower margins. Comparison of the fining-upwards sequences in the picrodolerite/crinanite unit of the composite Shiant Isles Main Sill,and related single-injection sills on the Trotternish Peninsula, Skye, illustrate the ability of this method to distinguish between convecting and non-convecting magma bodies.

  17. Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitiashvili, I. N.; Mansour, N. N.; Wray, A. A. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kosovichev, A. G., E-mail: [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)


    We present results of realistic three-dimensional (3D) radiative hydrodynamic simulations of the outer layers of a moderate-mass star (1.47 M {sub ⊙}), including the full convection zone, the overshoot region, and the top layers of the radiative zone. The simulation results show that the surface granulation has a broad range of scales, from 2 to 12 Mm, and that large granules are organized in well-defined clusters, consisting of several granules. Comparison of the mean structure profiles from 3D simulations with the corresponding one-dimensional (1D) standard stellar model shows an increase of the stellar radius by ∼800 km, as well as significant changes in the thermodynamic structure and turbulent properties of the ionization zones. Convective downdrafts in the intergranular lanes between granulation clusters reach speeds of more than 20 km s{sup −1}, penetrate through the whole convection zone, hit the radiative zone, and form an 8 Mm thick overshoot layer. Contrary to semi-empirical overshooting models, our results show that the 3D dynamic overshoot region consists of two layers: a nearly adiabatic extension of the convection zone and a deeper layer of enhanced subadiabatic stratification. This layer is formed because of heating caused by the braking of the overshooting convective plumes. This effect has to be taken into account in stellar modeling and the interpretation of asteroseismology data. In particular, we demonstrate that the deviations of the mean structure of the 3D model from the 1D standard model of the same mass and composition are qualitatively similar to the deviations for the Sun found by helioseismology.

  19. Application of vertical micro-disk MHD electrode to the analysis of heterogeneous magneto-convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Hashiride, Makoto; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Nagai, Yutaka; Aogaki, Ryoichi


    With a micro-disk electrode in vertical magnetic fields, heterogeneous magneto-convection in vertical magnetic fields was quantitatively examined for the redox reaction of ferrocyanide-ferricyanide ions. It was concluded that the current density controlled by the magneto-convection is in proportion to the 1/3rd power of the product of the magnetic flux density and its gradient. Then, by using the same electrode system, the diffusion current induced by the vertical MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) flow was measured for the reduction of cuprous ions to copper atoms. The current density in this case was, as theoretically predicted, a function of the 1st power of the magnetic flux density. Finally, to visualize this characteristic flow pattern of the vertical MHD flow, copper electrodeposition onto the micro-disk electrode in a vertical magnetic field was performed; a typical morphological pattern of the deposit (single micro-mystery circle) was observed, as expected

  20. Study of natural convection heat transfer characteristics. (1) Influence of ventilation duct height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, Mitsuo; Iwaki, Chikako; Ikeda, Tatsumi; Morooka, Shinichi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nakada, Kotaro; Masaki, Yoshikazu


    Natural cooling system has been investigated in waste storage. It is important to evaluate the flow by natural draft enough to removal the decay heat from the waste. In this study, we carried out the fundamental experiment of ventilation duct height effect for natural convection on vertical cylindrical heater in atmospheric air. The scale of test facility is about 4m height with single heater. The heating value is varied in the range of 33-110W, where Rayleigh number is over 10 10 . Natural convection flow rate were calculated by measured velocity with thermo anemometer in the inlet duct. The temperature of the cylindrical heater wall and fluid were measured with thermocouples. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient difference between long duct and short duct is small in this experiment. (author)

  1. Ferrofluid convective heat transfer under the influence of external magnetic source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sheikholeslami


    Full Text Available Ferrofluid convective heat transfer in a cavity with sinusoidal cold wall is examined under the influence of external magnetic source. The working fluid is Fe3O4-water nanofluid. Single phase model is used to estimate the behavior of nanofluid. Vorticity stream function formulation is utilized to eliminate pressure gradient source terms. New numerical method is chosen namely Control volume base finite element method. Influences of Rayleigh, Hartmann numbers, amplitude of the sinusoidal wall and volume fraction of Fe3O4 on hydrothermal characteristics are presented. Results indicate that temperature gradient enhances as space between cold and hot walls reduces at low buoyancy force. Lorentz forces cause the nanofluid velocity to reduce and augment the thermal boundary layer thickness. Nusselt number augments with rise of buoyancy forces but it decreases with augment of Lorentz forces. Keywords: Nanofluid, Natural convection, Magnetic source, CVFEM, Sinusoidal wall

  2. Forced convective transition boiling: review of literature and comparison of prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, D.C.; Fung, K.K.


    This report reviews the published information on transition boiling heat transfer under forced convective conditions. It was found that transition boiling data have been obtained only within a limited range of conditions and many data are considered unreliable. The data do not permit the derivation of a correlation; however the parametric trends can be isolated from the data. Several authors have proposed correlations valid in the transition boiling region. Most of the correlations are valid only within a narrow range of conditions. A comparison with the data shows that in general agreement is poor. Hsu's correlation is tentatively recommended for low flows and pressures. (author)

  3. Mechanisms initiating deep convection over complex terrain during COPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kottmeier


    Full Text Available Precipitating convection in a mountain region of moderate topography is investigated, with particular emphasis on its initiation in response to boundary-layer and mid- and upper-tropospheric forcing mechanisms. The data used in the study are from COPS (Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study that took place in southwestern Germany and eastern France in the summer of 2007. It is found that the initiation of precipitating convection can be roughly classified as being due to either: (i surface heating and low-level flow convergence; (ii surface heating and moisture supply overcoming convective inhibition during latent and/or potential instability; or (iii mid-tropospheric dynamical processes due to mesoscale convergence lines and forced mean vertical motion. These phenomena have to be adequately represented in models in order to improve quantitative precipitation forecast. Selected COPS cases are analysed and classified into these initiation categories. Although only a subset of COPS data (mainly radiosondes, surface weather stations, radar and satellite data are used here, it is shown that convective systems are captured in considerable detail by sensor synergy. Convergence lines were observed by Doppler radar in the location where deep convection is triggered several hours later. The results suggest that in many situations, observations of the location and timing of convergence lines will facilitate the nowcasting of convection. Further on, forecasting of the initiation of convection is significantly complicated if advection of potentially convective air masses over changing terrain features plays a major role. The passage of a frontal structure over the Vosges - Rhine valley - Black Forest orography was accompanied by an intermediate suppression of convection over the wide Rhine valley. Further downstream, an intensification of convection was observed over the Black Forest due to differential surface heating, a convergence line

  4. Convective initiation in the vicinity of the subtropical Andes (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Houze, R.


    Extreme convection tends to form in the vicinity of mountain ranges, and the Andes in subtropical South America help spawn some of the most intense convection in the world. An investigation of the most intense storms for 11 years of TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data shows a tendency for squall lines to initiate and develop in this region with the canonical leading convective line/trailing stratiform structure. The synoptic environment and structures of the extreme convection and MCSs in subtropical South America are similar to those found in other regions of the world, especially the United States. In subtropical South America, however, the topographical influence on the convective initiation and maintenance of the MCSs is unique. A capping inversion in the lee of the Andes is important in preventing premature triggering. The Andes and other mountainous terrain of Argentina focus deep convective initiation in a narrow region. Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating mesoscale convective systems similar to those seen over the Great Plains of the U. S. and produces damaging tornadoes, hail, and floods across a wide agricultural region. Numerical simulations conducted with the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model extend the observational analysis and provide an objective evaluation of storm initiation, terrain effects, and development mechanisms. The simulated mesoscale systems closely resemble the storm structures seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar as well as the overall shape and character of the storms shown in GOES satellite data. A sensitivity experiment with different configurations of topography, including both decreasing and increasing the height of the Andes Mountains, provides insight into the significant influence of orography in focusing convective initiation in this region. Lee cyclogenesis and a strong low-level jet are modulated by the height of the Andes Mountains and directly affect the character

  5. Venusian Applications of 3D Convection Modeling (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Timary Annie


    This study models mantle convection on Venus using the 'cubed sphere' code OEDIPUS, which models one-sixth of the planet in spherical geometry. We are attempting to balance internal heating, bottom mantle viscosity, and temperature difference across Venus' mantle, in order to create a realistic model that matches with current planetary observations. We also have begun to run both lower and upper mantle simulations to determine whether layered (as opposed to whole-mantle) convection might produce more efficient heat transfer, as well as to model coronae formation in the upper mantle. Upper mantle simulations are completed using OEDIPUS' Cartesian counterpart, JOCASTA. This summer's central question has been how to define a mantle plume. Traditionally, we have defined a hot plume the region with temperature at or above 40% of the difference between the maximum and horizontally averaged temperature, and a cold plume as the region with 40% of the difference between the minimum and average temperature. For less viscous cases (1020 Pa?s), the plumes generated by that definition lacked vigor, displaying buoyancies 1/100th of those found in previous, higher viscosity simulations (1021 Pa?s). As the mantle plumes with large buoyancy flux are most likely to produce topographic uplift and volcanism, the low viscosity cases' plumes may not produce observable deformation. In an effort to eliminate the smallest plumes, we experimented with different lower bound parameters and temperature percentages.

  6. Forced convection heat transfer in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, A.


    An investigation of forced convection heat transfer in He II is conducted. The study includes both experimental and theoretical treatments of the problem. The experiment consists of a hydraulic pump and a copper flow tube, 3 mm in ID and 2m long. The system allows measurements of one-dimensional heat and mass transfer in He II. The heat transfer experiments are performed by applying heat at the midpoint along the length of the flow tube. Two modes of heat input are employed, i.e., step function heat input and square pulse heat input. The heat transfer results are discussed in terms of temperature distribution in the tube. The experimental temperature profiles are compared with numerical solutions of an analytical model developed from the He II energy equation. The bath temperature is set at three different values of 1.65, 1.80, and 1.95 K. The He II flow velocity is varied up to 90 cm/s. Pressure is monitored at each end of the flow tube, and the He II pressure drop is obtained for different flow velocities. Results indicate that He II heat transfer by forced convention is considerably higher than that by internal convection. The theoretical model is in close agreement with the experiment. He II pressure drop and friction factor are very similar to those of an ordinary fluid

  7. Convective diffusion in protein crystal growth (United States)

    Baird, J. K.; Meehan, E. J.; Xidis, A. L.; Howard, S. B.


    We considered a protein crystal in the form of a flat plate suspended in its parent solution so that the normal to the largest face was perpendicular to the acceleration due to gravity. For simplicity, the protein concentration in the solution adjacent to the plate was taken to be the equilibrium solubility. The bulk of the solution was supersaturated, however, which gave rise to a horizontal concentration gradient driving fluid toward the plate. We also took into account the diffusion of the dissolved protein with respect to the moving fluid. In the boundary layer next to the plate, we solved the Navier-Stokes equation and the equation for convective diffusion to determine the flow velocity and the protein mass flux. We found that, because of the convection, the local rate of growth of the plate varied strongly with depth. The variation was diminished by a factor of 1/30 when the local gravity was reduced from g to 10 -6g as occurs aboard the Space Shuttle in earth orbit. For an aqueous solution of lysozyme at a concentration of 40 mg/ml, the boundary layer at the top of a 1 mm high crystal has a thickness of 80 μm in earths gravity and 2570 μm in 10 -6g. We examined the optical transmission of the boundary layer and compared it with the "haloes" observed by Feher et al. about growing hemispherical crystals of lysozyme.

  8. Thermal Convection on an Ablating Target (United States)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva


    Modeling and analysis of thermal convection of a metallic targets subject to radiative flux is of relevance to various manufacturing processes as well as for the development of protective shields. The present work involves the computational modeling of metallic targets subject to high heat fluxes that are both steady and pulsed. Modeling of the ablation and associated fluid dynamics when metallic surfaces are exposed to high intensity pulsed laser fluence at normal atmospheric conditions is considered. The incident energy from the laser is partly absorbed and partly reflected by the surface during ablation and subsequent vaporization of the convecting melt also participates in the radiative exchange. The energy distribution during the process between the bulk and vapor phase strongly depends on optical and thermodynamic properties of the irradiated material, radiation wavelength, and laser pulse intensity and duration. Computational findings based on effective representation and prediction of the heat transfer, melting and vaporization of the targeting material as well as plume formation and expansion are presented and discussed in the context of various ablation mechanisms, variable thermo-physical and optical properties, plume expansion and surface geometry. Funded in part by U. S. Army ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ.

  9. Contrasting sensitivities of two cases of convective showers in the summertime UK to warm rain production (United States)

    Planche, Céline; Marsham, John; Carslaw, Ken; Mann, Graham; Wilkinson, Jonathan; Field, Paul


    The interaction of aerosols with clouds is known to significantly affect cloud dynamics and the patterns and intensity of precipitation. However, aerosol-cloud interactions are very poorly handled in low resolution climate and operational NWP models. For example, in the global operational NWP Met Office Unified Model (UM), simple land-sea contrasts in cloud droplet concentrations are specified. In reality, changes in cloud condensation nuclei affect warm rain production, which goes on to affect the ice production in mixed-phase convective clouds. It is important to establish the value of including such interactions in these models. In the framework of the ASCI (AeroSol Cloud Interactions) project, in which we are developing a coupled version of the UM with multi-moment bulk cloud and aerosol schemes, we consider the sensitivities of two UK case studies of mixed-phase convection to warm-rain production. A suite of (one way) nested models was used with grid lengths of 12, 4, 1, 0.333 and 0.1 km. This configuration allows us to evaluate the impacts of changing warm-rain production by autoconversion at very high resolution and evaluate the uncertainties in this impact according to the grid resolution. The two case studies were observed during the Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP) field campaign in southern England in 2005 and have contrasting characteristics. The first case is characterised by moderately intense convective showers forming throughout the day in a north-westerly airstream below an upper-level PV anomaly, with a shallow boundary layer and low freezing level. The second case is warmer with a deeper boundary layer with weaker winds and less shear, and is characterised by isolate convective cells, with one persistent stronger storm. The less organised convection in the second case requires a smaller grid-spacing than the more organised showers in the first case. The first case is almost insensitive to even very large changes in autoconversion, while

  10. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret


    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  11. Isolated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrom, Ph.; Winwland, D.


    The problem of electron g-factor measurement by means of an isolated electron is considered. The technique of the experiment performed at the Washington university is described. A single electron is enclosed in a homogeneous magnetic field which is superimposed by an electric field. The electric field configuration represents a Penning trap. The trap together with the enclosed electron forms an ''atom'' of macroscopic dimensions. The electron trajectory in the trap consists of three components. The electron quickly rotates over small loops (cyclotron motion), the centre of these loops slowly moves over a large circle (magistron motion). Meanwhile the electron oscillates back and forth along the trap axis. The electron motion in the atom field is quantized and the transitions between various types of motions correspond to definite radiation frequencies. At the anomal frequency the transition with spin flip is registered and the electron g-factor is measured. The value g=2.0023193044 is obtained with a probable error less than a unit of the last decimal digit.

  12. Solar wind effects on ionospheric convection: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, G.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Milan, S.E.


    ), and travelling convection vortices (TCVs). Furthermore, the large-scale ionospheric convection configuration has also demonstrated a strong correspondence to variations in the interplanetary medium and substorm activity. This report briefly discusses the progress made over the past decade in studies...

  13. Modelling of convection during solidification of metal and alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The role of convection during solidification is studied with the help of a mathematical model. The effect of various mush models on convection and consequent macrosegregation is examined with the help of numerical simulations. The predicted macrosegregation profiles are compared with published experimental data.

  14. Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Parsons, D [NCAR; Geerts, B [Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Wyoming


    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment is a large field campaign that is being supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with contributions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The overarching goal of the PECAN experiment is to improve the understanding and simulation of the processes that initiate and maintain convection and convective precipitation at night over the central portion of the Great Plains region of the United States (Parsons et al. 2013). These goals are important because (1) a large fraction of the yearly precipitation in the Great Plains comes from nocturnal convection, (2) nocturnal convection in the Great Plains is most often decoupled from the ground and, thus, is forced by other phenomena aloft (e.g., propagating bores, frontal boundaries, low-level jets [LLJ], etc.), (3) there is a relative lack of understanding how these disturbances initiate and maintain nocturnal convection, and (4) this lack of understanding greatly hampers the ability of numerical weather and climate models to simulate nocturnal convection well. This leads to significant uncertainties in predicting the onset, location, frequency, and intensity of convective cloud systems and associated weather hazards over the Great Plains.

  15. Transition to geostrophic convection: the role of the boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, R.P.J.; Ostilla-Monico, Rodolfo; van der Poel, Erwin; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef


    Rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection, the flow in a rotating fluid layer heated from below and cooled from above, is used to analyse the transition to the geostrophic regime of thermal convection. In the geostrophic regime, which is of direct relevance to most geo- and astrophysical flows, the system

  16. Using naive Bayes classifier for classification of convective rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    convective clouds using SEVIRI data. 1. Introduction ... needed to sup- port convective rain generation with the so-called ... Data and methods. 2.1 Satellite and radar data. The dataset used in this study is MSG/SEVIRI data and corresponding ground-based radar data. Aiming to achieve comparability of these types of data ...

  17. Temperature-dependent viscosity effects on free convection flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature-dependent viscosity effects on free convection flow over a vertical moving cylinder with constant axial velocity under consideration of radial ... Prandtl number, viscosity-variation parameter, thermal conductivity-variation parameter and magnetic parameter on free convection flow and heat transfer is discussed.

  18. Free Convective Flow of a Reacting Fluid between Vertical Porous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free Convective Flow of a Reacting Fluid between Vertical Porous Plates. ... written in dimensionless forms. The resulting second order equations are solved to obtain expressions for the velocity, temperature, mass transfer skin friction, and rate of heat transfer. Keywords: Convective flow, reacting fluid, vertical porous plates ...

  19. Link between convection and meridional gradient of sea surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A sensitivity analysis showed that the corresponding threshold for was 29°C. We hypothesise that the excess heating (∼1° C above the threshold for deep convection)required in the northern bay to trigger convection is because this excess in SST is what is required to establish the critical SST gradient.

  20. Dielectrophoretic Rayleigh-Bénard convection under microgravity conditions. (United States)

    Yoshikawa, H N; Tadie Fogaing, M; Crumeyrolle, O; Mutabazi, I


    Thermal convection in a dielectric fluid layer between two parallel plates subjected to an alternating electric field and a temperature gradient is investigated under microgravity conditions. A thermoelectric coupling resulting from the thermal variation of the electric permittivity of the fluid produces the dielectrophoretic (DEP) body force, which can be regarded as thermal buoyancy due to an effective gravity. This electric gravity can destabilize a stationary conductive state of the fluid to develop convection. The similarity of the DEP thermal convection with the Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) convection is examined by considering its behavior in detail by a linear stability theory and a two-dimensional direct numerical simulation. The results are analyzed from an energetic viewpoint and in the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation. The stabilizing effects of a thermoelectric feedback make the critical parameters different from those in the RB instability. The nonuniformity of the electric gravity arising from the finite variation of permittivity also affects the critical parameters. The characteristic constants of the GL equation are comparable with those for the RB convection. The heat transfer in the DEP convection is weaker than in the RB convection as a consequence of the feedback that impedes the convection.

  1. Heat removal by natural convection in a RPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, P.A.B. de


    In this paper natural convection in RPR reactor is analysed. The effect of natural convection valves size on cladding temperature is studied. The reactor channel heat transfer problem is solved using finite elements in a two-dimensional analysis. Results show that two valves with Φ = 0.16 m are suited to keep coolant and cladding temperatures below 73 0 C. (author) [pt

  2. Convection diagnosis and nowcasting for oceanic aviation applications (United States)

    Kessinger, Cathy; Donovan, Michael; Bankert, Richard; Williams, Earle; Hawkins, Jeffrey; Cai, Huaqing; Rehak, Nancy; Megenhardt, Daniel; Steiner, Matthias


    An oceanic convection diagnosis and nowcasting system is described whose domain of interest is the region between the southern continental United States and the northern extent of South America. In this system, geostationary satellite imagery are used to define the locations of deep convective clouds through the weighted combination of three independent algorithms. The resultant output, called the Convective Diagnosis Oceanic (CDO) product, is independently validated against space-borne radar and lighting products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite to ascertain the ability of the CDO to discriminate hazardous convection. The CDO performed well in this preliminary investigation with some limitations noted. Short-term, 1-hr and 2-hr nowcasts of convection location are performed within the Convective Nowcasting Oceanic (CNO) system using a storm tracker. The CNO was found to have good statistical performance at extrapolating existing storm positions. Current work includes the development and implementation of additional atmospheric features for nowcasting convection initiation and to improve nowcasting of mature convection evolution.

  3. Efficiency of Heat Transfer in Turbulent Rayleigh-Benard Convection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Pavel; Musilová, Věra; Skrbek, L.


    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2011), 014302:1-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200650902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : natural convection * thermal convection Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 7.370, year: 2011

  4. Stratiform Precipitation in Regions of Convection: A Meteorological Paradox?. (United States)

    Houze, Robert A., Jr.


    It was once generally thought that stratiform precipitation was something occurring primarily, if not exclusively, in middle latitudes-in baroclinic cyclones and fronts. Early radar observations in the Tropics, however, showed large radar echoes composed of convective rain alongside stratiform precipitation, with the stratiform echoes covering great areas and accounting for a large portion of the tropical rainfall. These observations seemed paradoxical, since stratiform precipitation should not have been occurring in the Tropics, where baroclinic cyclones do not occur. Instead it was falling from convection-generated clouds, generally thought to be too violent to be compatible with the layered, gently settling behavior of stratiform precipitation.In meteorology, convection is a dynamic concept; specifically, it is the rapid, efficient, vigorous overturning of the atmosphere required to neutralize an unstable vertical distribution of moist static energy. Most clouds in the Tropics are convection-generated cumulonimbus. These cumulonimbus clouds contain an evolving pattern of newer and older precipitation. The young portions of the cumulonimbus are too violent to produce stratiform precipitation. In young, vigorous convective regions of the cumulonimbus, precipitation particles increase their mass by collection of cloud water, and the particles fall out in heavy showers, which appear on radar as vertically oriented convective "cells." In regions of older convection, however, the vertical air motions are generally weaker, and the precipitation particles drift downward, with the particles increasing their mass by vapor diffusion. In these regions the radar echoes are stratiform, and typically these echoes occur adjacent to regions of younger convective showers. Thus, the stratiform and convective precipitation both occur within the same complex of convection-generated cumulonimbus cloud.The feedbacks of the apparent heat source and moisture sink of tropical

  5. Heat transfer of laminar mixed convection of liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, De-Yi


    This book presents a new algorithm to calculate fluid flow and heat transfer of laminar mixed convection. It provides step-by-step tutorial help to learn quickly how to set up the theoretical and numerical models of laminar mixed convection, to consider the variable physical properties of fluids, to obtain the system of numerical solutions, to create a series of formalization equations for the convection heat transfer by using a curve-fitting approach combined with theoretical analysis and derivation. It presents the governing ordinary differential equations of laminar mixed convection, equivalently transformed by an innovative similarity transformation with the description of the related transformation process. A system of numerical calculations of the governing ordinary differential equations is presented for the water laminar mixed convection. A polynomial model is induced for convenient and reliable treatment of variable physical properties of liquids. The developed formalization equations of mixed convec...

  6. Estimating Bulk Entrainment With Unaggregated and Aggregated Convection (United States)

    Becker, Tobias; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Hohenegger, Cathy; Stevens, Bjorn


    To investigate how entrainment is influenced by convective organization, we use the ICON (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic) model in a radiative-convective equilibrium framework, with a 1 km spatial grid mesh covering a 600 by 520 km2 domain. We analyze two simulations, with unaggregated and aggregated convection, and find that, in the lower free troposphere, the bulk entrainment rate increases when convection aggregates. The increase of entrainment rate with aggregation is caused by a strong increase of turbulence in the close environment of updrafts, masking other effects like the increase of updraft size and of static stability with aggregation. Even though entrainment rate increases with aggregation, updraft buoyancy reduction through entrainment decreases because aggregated updrafts are protected by a moist shell. Parameterizations that wish to represent mesoscale convective organization would need to model this moist shell.

  7. Neutral beam injection and plasma convection in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Hiroe, S.


    Injection of a neutral beam into a plasma in a magnetic field has been studied by means of numerical plasma simulations. It is found that, in the absence of a rotational transform, the convection electric field arising from the polarization charges at the edges of the beam is dissipated by turbulent plasma convection, leading to anomalous plasma diffusion across the magnetic field. The convection electric field increases with the beam density and beam energy. In the presence of a rotational transform, polarization charges can be neutralized by the electron motion along the magnetic field. Even in the presence of a rotational transform, a steady-state convection electric field and, hence, anomalous plasma diffusion can develop when a neutral beam is constantly injected into a plasma. Theoretical investigations on the convection electric field are described for a plasma in the presence of rotational transform. 11 refs., 19 figs

  8. The influence of convective current generator on the global current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Morozov


    Full Text Available The mathematical generalization of classical model of the global circuit with taking into account the convective current generator, working in the planetary boundary layer was considered. Convective current generator may be interpreted as generator, in which the electromotive force is generated by processes, of the turbulent transport of electrical charge. It is shown that the average potential of ionosphere is defined not only by the thunderstorm current generators, working at the present moment, but by the convective current generator also. The influence of the convective processes in the boundary layer on the electrical parameters of the atmosphere is not only local, but has global character as well. The numerical estimations, made for the case of the convective-unstable boundary layer demonstrate that the increase of the average potential of ionosphere may be of the order of 10% to 40%.

  9. Convection and segregation in a flat rotating sandbox (United States)

    Rietz, Frank; Stannarius, Ralf


    A flat box, almost completely filled with a mixture of granulate, is rotated slowly about its horizontal central axis. In this experiment, a regular vortex flow of the granular material is observed in the cell plane. These vortex structures have a superficial analogy to convection rolls in dissipative structures of ordinary liquids. Whereas in the latter, the origin of the convection can often be attributed to gradients e.g. of densities or surface tensions, there is no trivial explanation at present for the convection of the granulate in the rotating container. Despite the simplicity of the experiment, the underlying mechanisms for convection and segregation are difficult to extract. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental study of the patterns under various experimental conditions and propose a mechanism for the convection.

  10. Dynamics of mixed convective-stably-stratified fluids (United States)

    Couston, L.-A.; Lecoanet, D.; Favier, B.; Le Bars, M.


    We study the dynamical regimes of a density-stratified fluid confined between isothermal no-slip top and bottom boundaries (at temperatures Tt and Tb) via direct numerical simulation. The thermal expansion coefficient of the fluid is temperature dependent and chosen such that the fluid density is maximum at the inversion temperature Tb>Ti>Tt . Thus, the lower layer of the fluid is convectively unstable while the upper layer is stably stratified. We show that the characteristics of the convection change significantly depending on the degree of stratification of the stable layer. For strong stable stratification, the convection zone coincides with the fraction of the fluid that is convectively unstable (i.e., where T >Ti ), and convective motions consist of rising and sinking plumes of large density anomaly, as is the case in canonical Rayleigh-Bénard convection; internal gravity waves are generated by turbulent fluctuations in the convective layer and propagate in the upper layer. For weak stable stratification, we demonstrate that a large fraction of the stable fluid (i.e., with temperature T phenomenological description of the transition between the regimes of plume-dominated and entrainment-dominated convection through analysis of the differences in the heat transfer mechanisms, kinetic energy density spectra, and probability density functions for different stratification strengths. Importantly, we find that the effect of the stable layer on the convection decreases only weakly with increasing stratification strength, meaning that the dynamics of the stable layer and convection should be studied self-consistently in a wide range of applications.

  11. Mixed Convective Peristaltic Flow of Water Based Nanofluids with Joule Heating and Convective Boundary Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available Main objective of present study is to analyze the mixed convective peristaltic transport of water based nanofluids using five different nanoparticles i.e. (Al2O3, CuO, Cu, Ag and TiO2. Two thermal conductivity models namely the Maxwell's and Hamilton-Crosser's are used in this study. Hall and Joule heating effects are also given consideration. Convection boundary conditions are employed. Furthermore, viscous dissipation and heat generation/absorption are used to model the energy equation. Problem is simplified by employing lubrication approach. System of equations are solved numerically. Influence of pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature are discussed. Also the heat transfer rate at the wall is observed for considered five nanofluids using the two phase models via graphs.

  12. MHD Natural Convection with Convective Surface Boundary Condition over a Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Rashidi


    Full Text Available We apply the one parameter continuous group method to investigate similarity solutions of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD heat and mass transfer flow of a steady viscous incompressible fluid over a flat plate. By using the one parameter group method, similarity transformations and corresponding similarity representations are presented. A convective boundary condition is applied instead of the usual boundary conditions of constant surface temperature or constant heat flux. In addition it is assumed that viscosity, thermal conductivity, and concentration diffusivity vary linearly. Our study indicates that a similarity solution is possible if the convective heat transfer related to the hot fluid on the lower surface of the plate is directly proportional to (x--1/2 where x- is the distance from the leading edge of the solid surface. Numerical solutions of the ordinary differential equations are obtained by the Keller Box method for different values of the controlling parameters associated with the problem.

  13. Convective towers detection using GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, S.

    an important role since they lead to deep convective activity. With this work we want to investigate if severe storms leave a significant signature in radio occultation profiles in the tropical tropopause layer. The GPS radio occultation (RO) technique is useful for studying severe weather phenomena because...... the GPS signals penetrate through clouds and allow measurements of atmospheric profiles related to temperature, pressure, and water vapour with high vertical resolution. Using tropical cyclone best track database and data from different GPS RO missions (COSMIC, GRACE, CHAMP, SACC and GPSMET), we selected...... 1194 profiles in a time window of 3 hours and a space window of 300 km from the eye of the cyclone. We show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS RO signal is typically larger than the climatology above the tropopause. Comparisons with co-located radiosondes, climatology of tropopause altitudes...

  14. Imaging convection and magnetism in the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan


    This book reviews the field of helioseismology and its outstanding challenges and also offers a detailed discussion of the latest computational methodologies. The focus is on the development and implementation of techniques to create 3-D images of convection and magnetism in the solar interior and to introduce the latest computational and theoretical methods to the interested reader. With the increasing availability of computational resources, demand for greater accuracy in the interpretation of helioseismic measurements and the advent of billion-dollar instruments taking high-quality observations, computational methods of helioseismology that enable probing the 3-D structure of the Sun have increasingly become central. This book will benefit students and researchers with proficiency in basic numerical methods, differential equations and linear algebra who are interested in helioseismology.

  15. Convection patterns in a spherical fluid shell (United States)

    Feudel, F.; Bergemann, K.; Tuckerman, L. S.; Egbers, C.; Futterer, B.; Gellert, M.; Hollerbach, R.


    Symmetry-breaking bifurcations have been studied for convection in a nonrotating spherical shell whose outer radius is twice the inner radius, under the influence of an externally applied central force field with a radial dependence proportional to 1/r5. This work is motivated by the GeoFlow experiment, which is performed under microgravity condition at the International Space Station where this particular central force can be generated. In order to predict the observable patterns, simulations together with path-following techniques and stability computations have been applied. Branches of axisymmetric, octahedral, and seven-cell solutions have been traced. The bifurcations producing them have been identified and their stability ranges determined. At higher Rayleigh numbers, time-periodic states with a complex spatiotemporal symmetry are found, which we call breathing patterns.

  16. Design Aspects of the Rayleigh Convection Code (United States)

    Featherstone, N. A.


    Understanding the long-term generation of planetary or stellar magnetic field requires complementary knowledge of the large-scale fluid dynamics pervading large fractions of the object's interior. Such large-scale motions are sensitive to the system's geometry which, in planets and stars, is spherical to a good approximation. As a result, computational models designed to study such systems often solve the MHD equations in spherical geometry, frequently employing a spectral approach involving spherical harmonics. We present computational and user-interface design aspects of one such modeling tool, the Rayleigh convection code, which is suitable for deployment on desktop and petascale-hpc architectures alike. In this poster, we will present an overview of this code's parallel design and its built-in diagnostics-output package. Rayleigh has been developed with NSF support through the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics and is expected to be released as open-source software in winter 2017/2018.

  17. Mixed convection in fluid superposed porous layers

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, John M


    This Brief describes and analyzes flow and heat transport over a liquid-saturated porous bed. The porous bed is saturated by a liquid layer and heating takes place from a section of the bottom. The effect on flow patterns of heating from the bottom is shown by calculation, and when the heating is sufficiently strong, the flow is affected through the porous and upper liquid layers. Measurements of the heat transfer rate from the heated section confirm calculations. General heat transfer laws are developed for varying porous bed depths for applications to process industry needs, environmental sciences, and materials processing. Addressing a topic of considerable interest to the research community, the brief features an up-to-date literature review of mixed convection energy transport in fluid superposed porous layers.

  18. Prediction of flow instability during natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhadi, Kazem


    The occurrence of flow excursion instability during passive heat removal for Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has been analyzed at low-pressure and low-mass rate of flow conditions without boiling taking place. Pressure drop-flow rate characteristics in the general case are determined upon a developed code for this purpose. The code takes into account variations of different pressure drop components caused by different powers as well as different core inlet temperatures. The analysis revealed the fact that the instability can actually occur in the natural convection mode for a range of powers per fuel plates at a predetermined inlet temperature with fixed geometry of the core. Low mass rate of flow and high sub-cooling are the two important conditions for the occurrence of static instability in the TRR. The calculated results are compared with the existing data in the literature. (author)

  19. Modes of convection in the magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, Wolfgang


    The flow of plasma in the Earth's magnetotail cannot reach a steady state, since adiabatic convection would lead to exceedingly high pressure of the associated magnetic flux tubes closer to the Earth, the so-called pressure catastrophe. The natural way to avoid the pressure catastrophe is to significantly reduce the flux tube volume by reconnection, and observations show a near-Earth reconnection line typically around 20-25 Earth radii down tail. Earthward flows from this reconnection line are rather bursty and typically seen outside of 10 Earth radii. At this point they are strongly braked by the here dominant dipolar magnetic field. The pressure gradients piled up by the flow lead to the substorm current wedge, and possibly other substorm phenomena observed in the Earth's ionosphere. When more and more flux tubes are piled up, the dipolarization front moves tailward and finally shuts off near-Earth reconnection

  20. The sensitivity of convective aggregation to diabatic processes in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium simulations (United States)

    Holloway, C. E.; Woolnough, S. J.


    Idealized explicit convection simulations of the Met Office Unified Model exhibit spontaneous self-aggregation in radiative-convective equilibrium, as seen in other models in previous studies. This self-aggregation is linked to feedbacks between radiation, surface fluxes, and convection, and the organization is intimately related to the evolution of the column water vapor field. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy (MSE), following Wing and Emanuel (2014), reveals that the direct radiative feedback (including significant cloud longwave effects) is dominant in both the initial development of self-aggregation and the maintenance of an aggregated state. A low-level circulation at intermediate stages of aggregation does appear to transport MSE from drier to moister regions, but this circulation is mostly balanced by other advective effects of opposite sign and is forced by horizontal anomalies of convective heating (not radiation). Sensitivity studies with either fixed prescribed radiative cooling, fixed prescribed surface fluxes, or both do not show full self-aggregation from homogeneous initial conditions, though fixed surface fluxes do not disaggregate an initialized aggregated state. A sensitivity study in which rain evaporation is turned off shows more rapid self-aggregation, while a run with this change plus fixed radiative cooling still shows strong self-aggregation, supporting a "moisture-memory" effect found in Muller and Bony (2015). Interestingly, self-aggregation occurs even in simulations with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of 295 and 290 K, with direct radiative feedbacks dominating the budget of MSE variance, in contrast to results in some previous studies.

  1. Engineering photochemical smog through convection towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.L.; Bossert, J.E.; Mroz, E.J.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jacobson, M.Z.; Turco, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Dept.


    Reverse convection towers have attracted attention as a medium for cleansing modern cities. Evaporation of an aqueous mist injected at the tower opening could generate electrical power by creating descent, and simultaneously scavenge unsightly and unhealthful particulates. The study offered here assesses the influence to tower water droplets on the photochemical component of Los Angeles type smog. The primary radical chain initiator OH is likely removed into aqueous phases well within the residence time of air in the tower, and then reacts away rapidly. Organics do not dissolve, but nighttime hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} depletes the nitrogen oxides. A lack of HOx would slow hydrocarbon oxidation and so also ozone production. Lowering of NOx would also alter ozone production rates, but the direction is uncertain. SO{sub 2} is available in sufficient quantities in some urban areas to react with stable oxidants, and if seawater were the source of the mist, the high pH would lead to fast sulfur oxidation kinetics. With an accommodation coefficient of 10{sup {minus}3}, however, ozone may not enter the aqueous phase efficiently. Even if ozone is destroyed or its production suppressed, photochemical recovery times are on the order of hours, so that tower processing must be centered on a narrow midday time window. The cost of building the number of structures necessary for this brief turnover could be prohibitive. The increase in humidity accompanying mist evaporation could be controlled with condensers, but might otherwise counteract visibility enhancements by recreating aqueous aerosols. Quantification of the divergent forcings convection towers must exert upon the cityscape would call for coupled three dimensional modeling of transport, microphysics, and photochemistry. 112 refs.

  2. Facilitating atmosphere oxidation through mantle convection (United States)

    Lee, K. K. M.; Gu, T.; Creasy, N.; Li, M.; McCammon, C. A.; Girard, J.


    Earth's mantle connects the surface with the deep interior through convection, and the evolution of its redox state will affect the distribution of siderophile elements, recycling of refractory isotopes, and the oxidation state of the atmosphere through volcanic outgassing. While the rise of oxygen in the atmosphere, i.e., the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) occurred 2.4 billion years ago (Ga), multiple lines of evidence point to oxygen production in the atmosphere well before 2.4 Ga. In contrast to the fluctuations of atmospheric oxygen, vanadium in Archean mantle lithosphere suggests that the mantle redox state has been constant for 3.5 Ga. Indeed, the connection between the redox state of the deep Earth and the atmosphere is enigmatic as is the effect of redox state on mantle dynamics. Here we show a redox-induced density contrast affects mantle convection and may potentially cause the oxidation of the upper mantle. We compressed two synthetic enstatite chondritic samples with identical bulk compositions but formed under different oxygen fugacities (fO2) to lower mantle pressures and temperatures and find Al2O3 forms its own phase separate from the dominant bridgmanite phase in the more reduced composition, in contrast to a more Al-rich, bridgmanite-dominated assemblage for a more oxidized starting composition. As a result, the reduced material is 1-1.5% denser than the oxidized material. Subsequent experiments on other plausible mantle compositions, which differ only in redox state of the starting glass materials, show similar results: distinct mineral assemblages and density contrasts up to 4%. Our geodynamic simulations suggest that such a density contrast causes a rapid ascent and accumulation of oxidized material in the upper mantle, with descent of the denser reduced material to the core-mantle boundary. The resulting heterogeneous redox conditions in Earth's interior may have contributed to the large low-shear velocity provinces in the lower mantle and the

  3. Electrical Resistivity Imaging and Hydrodynamic Modeling of Convective Fingering in a Sabkha Aquifer (United States)

    Van Dam, Remke; Eustice, Brian; Hyndman, David; Wood, Warren; Simmons, Craig


    Free convection, or fluid motion driven by density differences, is an important groundwater flow mechanism that can enhance transport and mixing of heat and solutes in the subsurface. Various issues of environmental and societal relevance are exacerbated convective mixing; it has been studied in the context of dense contaminant plumes, nuclear waste disposal, greenhouse gas sequestration, the impacts of sea level rise and saline intrusion on drinking water resources. The basic theory behind convective flow in porous media is well understood, but important questions regarding this process in natural systems remain unanswered. Most previous research on this topic has focused on theory and modeling, with only limited attention to experimental studies and field measurements. The few published studies present single snapshots, making it difficult to quantify transient changes in these systems. Non-invasive electrical methods have the potential to exploit the relation between solute concentrations and electrical conductance of a fluid, and thereby estimate fluid salinity differences in time and space. We present the results of a two-year experimental study at a shallow sabkha aquifer in the United Arab Emirates, about 50 km southwest of the city of Abu Dhabi along the coast of the Arabian Gulf, that was designed to explore the transient nature of free convection. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data documented the presence of convective fingers following a significant rainfall event. One year later, the complex fingering pattern had completely disappeared. This observation is supported by analysis of the aquifer solute budget as well as hydrodynamic modeling of the system. The transient dynamics of the gravitational instabilities in the modeling results are in agreement with the timing observed in the time-lapse ERT data. Our experimental observations and modeling are consistent with the hypothesis that the instabilities arose from a dense brine that infiltrated

  4. Characteristics of Extreme Summer Convection over equatorial America and Africa (United States)

    Zuluaga, M. D.; Houze, R.


    Fourteen years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) version 7 data for June-August show the temporal and spatial characteristics of extreme convection over equatorial regions of the American and African continents. We identify three types of extreme systems: storms with deep convective cores (contiguous convective 40 dBZ echoes extending ≥10 km in height), storms with wide convective cores (contiguous convective 40 dBZ echoes with areas >1,000 km2) and storms with broad stratiform regions (stratiform echo >50,000 km2). European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis is used to describe the environmental conditions around these forms of extreme convection. Storms with deep convective cores occur mainly over land: in the equatorial Americas, maximum occurrence is in western Mexico, Northern Colombia and Venezuela; in Africa, the region of maximum occurrence is a broad zone enclosing the central and west Sudanian Savanna, south of the Sahel region. Storms with wide convective radar echoes occur in these same general locations. In the American sector, storms with broad stratiform precipitation regions (typifying robust mesoscale convective systems) occur mainly over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the Colombia-Panama bight. In the African sector, storms with broad stratiform precipitation areas occur primarily over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean near the coast of West Africa. ECMWF reanalyses show how the regions of extreme deep convection associated with both continents are located mainly in regions affected by diurnal heating and influenced by atmospheric jets in regions with strong humidity gradients. Composite analysis of the synoptic conditions leading to the three forms of extreme convection provides insights into the forcing mechanisms in which these systems occur. These analyses show how the monsoonal flow directed towards the Andes slopes is mainly what concentrates the occurrence of extreme

  5. Potential of enhancing a natural convection loop with a thermomagnetically pumped ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aursand, Eskil; Gjennestad, Magnus Aa.; Lervåg, Karl Yngve, E-mail:; Lund, Halvor


    The feasibility of using a thermomagnetically pumped ferrofluid to enhance the performance of a natural convection cooling loop is investigated. First, a simplified analytical estimate for the thermomagnetic pumping action is derived, and then design rules for optimal solenoid and ferrofluid are presented. The design rules are used to set up a medium-scale (1 m, 10–1000 W) case study, which is modeled using a previously published and validated model (Aursand et al. [1]). The results show that the thermomagnetic driving force is significant compared to the natural convection driving force, and may in some cases greatly surpass it. The results also indicate that cooling performance can be increased by factors up to 4 and 2 in the single-phase and two-phase regimes, respectively, even when taking into the account the added heat from the solenoid. The performance increases can alternatively be used to obtain a reduction in heat-sink size by up to 75%. - Highlights: • We consider a thermomagnetically pumped ferrofluid for heat transfer. • The performance of the thermomagnetic pump is compared to natural convection. • The flow is simulated using a two-phase flow model. • The thermomagnetic driving force improves heat transfer significantly.

  6. Convection of wall shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Mills, David; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark


    The fluctuating wall shear stress is measured in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer of Reτ 1700 simultaneously with velocity measurements using either hot-wire anemometry or particle image velocimetry. These experiments elucidate the patterns of large scale structures in a single point measurement of the wall shear stress, as well as their convection velocity at the wall. The wall shear stress sensor is a CS-A05 one-dimensional capacitice floating element from Interdisciplinary Consulting Corp. It has a nominal bandwidth from DC to 5 kHz and a floating element size of 1 mm in the principal sensing direction (streamwise) and 0.2 mm in the cross direction (spanwise), allowing the large scales to be well resolved in the current experimental conditions. In addition, a two sensor array of CS-A05 aligned in the spanwise direction with streamwise separations O (δ) is utilized to capture the convection velocity of specific scales of the shear stress through a bandpass filter and peaks in the correlation. Thus, an average wall normal position for the corresponding convecting event can be inferred at least as high as the equivalent local streamwise velocity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.

  7. Perturbation of convection-permitting NWP forecasts for flash-flood ensemble forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vincendon


    Full Text Available Mediterranean intense weather events often lead to devastating flash-floods. Extending the forecasting lead times further than the watershed response times, implies the use of numerical weather prediction (NWP to drive hydrological models. However, the nature of the precipitating events and the temporal and spatial scales of the watershed response make them difficult to forecast, even using a high-resolution convection-permitting NWP deterministic forecasting. This study proposes a new method to sample the uncertainties of high-resolution NWP precipitation forecasts in order to quantify the predictability of the streamflow forecasts. We have developed a perturbation method based on convection-permitting NWP-model error statistics. It produces short-term precipitation ensemble forecasts from single-value meteorological forecasts. These rainfall ensemble forecasts are then fed into a hydrological model dedicated to flash-flood forecasting to produce ensemble streamflow forecasts. The verification on two flash-flood events shows that this forecasting ensemble performs better than the deterministic forecast. The performance of the precipitation perturbation method has also been found to be broadly as good as that obtained using a state-of-the-art research convection-permitting NWP ensemble, while requiring less computing time.

  8. A review of the theoretical basis for bulk mass flux convective parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Plant


    Full Text Available Most parameterizations for precipitating convection in use today are bulk schemes, in which an ensemble of cumulus elements with different properties is modelled as a single, representative entraining-detraining plume. We review the underpinning mathematical model for such parameterizations, in particular by comparing it with spectral models in which elements are not combined into the representative plume. The chief merit of a bulk model is that the representative plume can be described by an equation set with the same structure as that which describes each element in a spectral model. The equivalence relies on an ansatz for detrained condensate introduced by Yanai et al. (1973 and on a simplified microphysics. There are also conceptual differences in the closure of bulk and spectral parameterizations. In particular, we show that the convective quasi-equilibrium closure of Arakawa and Schubert (1974 for spectral parameterizations cannot be carried over to a bulk parameterization in a straightforward way. Quasi-equilibrium of the cloud work function assumes a timescale separation between a slow forcing process and a rapid convective response. But, for the natural bulk analogue to the cloud-work function, the relevant forcing is characterised by a different timescale, and so its quasi-equilibrium entails a different physical constraint. Closures of bulk parameterizations that use a parcel value of CAPE do not suffer from this timescale issue. However, the Yanai et al. (1973 ansatz must be invoked as a necessary ingredient of those closures.

  9. Convective Weather Forecast Accuracy Analysis at Center and Sector Levels (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar


    This paper presents a detailed convective forecast accuracy analysis at center and sector levels. The study is aimed to provide more meaningful forecast verification measures to aviation community, as well as to obtain useful information leading to the improvements in the weather translation capacity models. In general, the vast majority of forecast verification efforts over past decades have been on the calculation of traditional standard verification measure scores over forecast and observation data analyses onto grids. These verification measures based on the binary classification have been applied in quality assurance of weather forecast products at the national level for many years. Our research focuses on the forecast at the center and sector levels. We calculate the standard forecast verification measure scores for en-route air traffic centers and sectors first, followed by conducting the forecast validation analysis and related verification measures for weather intensities and locations at centers and sectors levels. An approach to improve the prediction of sector weather coverage by multiple sector forecasts is then developed. The weather severe intensity assessment was carried out by using the correlations between forecast and actual weather observation airspace coverage. The weather forecast accuracy on horizontal location was assessed by examining the forecast errors. The improvement in prediction of weather coverage was determined by the correlation between actual sector weather coverage and prediction. observed and forecasted Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM) data collected from June to September in 2007. CWAM zero-minute forecast data with aircraft avoidance probability of 60% and 80% are used as the actual weather observation. All forecast measurements are based on 30-minute, 60- minute, 90-minute, and 120-minute forecasts with the same avoidance probabilities. The forecast accuracy analysis for times under one-hour showed that the errors in

  10. Nocturnal offshore convection near the island of Corsica (United States)

    Barthlott, Christian; Adler, Bianca; Kalthoff, Norbert; Handwerker, Jan; Kohler, Martin; Wieser, Andreas


    In the region of Corsica, located in the western Mediterranean Sea, the mean daily lightning activity for late summer and autumn as an indicator for deep convection shows a distinct maximum in mid-afternoon and a secondary maximum in the night. During the night, most of the lightning activity is located offshore and near the island's coastline. Currently there are no observational data which could be used to explain this nocturnal offshore convection but understanding its formation mechanism is crucial for accurately forecasting the regional weather. In this work, we explore two possible mechanisms initiating nocturnal offshore convection: (i) convergence with subsequent lifting due to the interaction between drainage winds and the synoptic flow over the sea and (ii) dynamically induced lee-side convergence due to the island barrier effect. To this end, we perform numerical simulations with the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model at a convection-resolving horizontal grid spacing of 2.8 km. The analysis of two cases with different low-level wind directions reveals that the role of the island's drainage flow can either favour or hinder the development of deep convection. Furthermore, convective initiation is very sensitive to terrain elevation and model initialisation time and small changes of these features can decide whether deep convection occurs or not.

  11. Thermodynamic Environments Supporting Extreme Convection in Subtropical South America (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Trier, S. B.


    Extreme convection tends to form in the vicinity of mountain ranges, and the Andes in subtropical South America help spawn some of the most intense convection in the world. Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) similar to those seen over the U.S. Great Plains and produces damaging tornadoes, hail, and floods across a wide agricultural region. In recent years, studies on the nature of convection in subtropical South America using spaceborne radar data have elucidated key processes responsible for their extreme characteristics, including a strong relationship between the Andes topography and convective initiation. Building on previous work, an investigation of the thermodynamic environment supporting some of the deepest convection in the world will be presented. In particular, an analysis of the thermodynamic destabilization in subtropical South America, which considers the parcel buoyancy minimum for conditionally unstable air parcels, will be presented. Additional comparisons between the nocturnal nature and related diurnal cycle of MCSs in subtropical South America the U.S. Great Plains will provide insights into the processes controlling MCS initiation and upscale growth.

  12. Convective effects in a regulatory and proposed fire model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.


    Radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer in large fires. However, convection can be as much as 10 to 20 percent of the total heat transfer to an object in a large fire. The current radioactive material transportation packaging regulations include convection as a mode of heat transfer in the accident condition scenario. The current International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series 6 packaging regulation states ''the convection coefficient shall be that value which the designer can justify if the package were exposed to the specified fire''. The current Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) packaging regulation states ''when significant, convection heat input must be included on the basis of still, ambient air at 800 degrees C (1475 degrees F)''. Two questions that can arise in an analysts mind from an examination of the packaging regulations is whether convection is significant and whether convection should be included in the design analysis of a radioactive materials transportation container. The objective of this study is to examine the convective effects on an actual radioactive materials transportation package using a regulatory and a proposed thermal boundary condition

  13. Improved nowcasting of precipitation based on convective analysis fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haiden


    Full Text Available The high-resolution analysis and nowcasting system INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis developed at the Austrian national weather service provides three-dimensional fields of temperature, humidity, and wind on an hourly basis, and two-dimensional fields of precipitation rate in 15 min intervals. The system operates on a horizontal resolution of 1 km and a vertical resolution of 100–200 m. It combines surface station data, remote sensing data (radar, satellite, forecast fields of the numerical weather prediction model ALADIN, and high-resolution topographic data. An important application of the INCA system is nowcasting of convective precipitation. Based on fine-scale temperature, humidity, and wind analyses a number of convective analysis fields are routinely generated. These fields include convective boundary layer (CBL flow convergence and specific humidity, lifted condensation level (LCL, convective available potential energy (CAPE, convective inhibition (CIN, and various convective stability indices. Based on the verification of areal precipitation nowcasts it is shown that the pure translational forecast of convective cells can be improved by using a decision algorithm which is based on a subset of the above fields, combined with satellite products.

  14. Development of convective heat transfer correlations for common designs of solar dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shobhana; Kumar, Subodh


    Highlights: ► Separate experimental methods of h cpf evaluation are proposed for different dryers. ► Correlation for h cpf in terms of dimensionless numbers for each dryer is proposed. ► Single correlation for h cpf representing different dryer designs is also developed. ► Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is used to develop temperature dependent correlation. ► Close agreement of experimental and predicted h cpf validates proposed correlations. - Abstract: The knowledge of convective heat transfer coefficient h cpf (absorber plate to flowing air) is necessary to predict or evaluate thermal performance of any solar dryer. In order to determine h cpf , laboratory models of direct (cabinet), indirect and mixed mode solar dryer are designed and constructed to perform no-load steady state experiments for natural and forced air circulation. The dryers are operated under indoor simulation conditions for absorbed thermal energy and air flow rate for the range of 300–800 W/m 2 and 1–3 m/s, respectively. Separate methods depending on mode of heat utilisation are proposed for determination of h cpf for different dryers. Correlations of h cpf in terms of dimensionless numbers are developed for each dryer operating under natural and forced convection. Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is used to develop temperature dependent correlations. A close agreement between experimental and predicted h cpf values obtained from proposed correlations for natural convection dryers demonstrates their reliability. However, for forced convection dryers, there is a need to use temperature dependent Nu–Re correlation for more accurate results. The low uncertainty ranging from 0.3% to 0.8% in the determination of h cpf confirms the accuracy of experimental data obtained for various dryer designs operated under different conditions.

  15. CUTLASS/IMAGE observations of high-latitude convection features during substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Yeoman


    Full Text Available The CUTLASS Finland HF radar has been operational since February 1995. The radar frequently observes backscatter during the midnight sector from a latitude range 70–75° geographic, latitudes often associated with the polar cap. These intervals of backscatter occur during intervals of substorm activity, predominantly in periods of relatively quiet magnetospheric activity, with Kp during the interval under study being 2- and ΣKp for the day being only 8-. During August 1995 the radar ran in a high time resolution mode, allowing measurements of line-of-sight convection velocities along a single beam with a temporal resolution of 14 s, and measurement of a full spatial scan of line-of-sight convection velocities every four minutes. Data from such scans reveal the radar to be measuring return flow convection during the interval of substorm activity. For three intervals during the period under study, a reduction in the spatial extent of radar backscatter occurred. This is a consequence of D region HF absorption and its limited extent in the present study is probably a consequence of the high latitude of the substorm activity, with the electrojet centre lying between 67° and 71° geomagnetic latitude. The high time resolution beam of the radar additionally demonstrates that the convection is highly time dependent. Pulses of equatorward flow exceeding ~600 m s–1 are observed with a duration of ~5 min and a repetition period of ~8 min. Their spatial extent in the CUTLASS field of view was 400–500 km in longitude, and 300–400 km in latitude. Each pulse of enhanced equatorward flow was preceded by an interval of suppressed flow and enhanced ionospheric Hall conductance. The transient features are interpreted as being due to ionospheric current vortices associated with field aligned current pairs. The relationship between these observations and substorm phenomena in the magnetotail is discussed.

  16. Effect of forced convection on the collision and interaction between nanoparticles and ultramicroelectrode. (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Huang, Xinjian; Wang, Lishi


    Detection of nanoparticle (NP) collision events at ultramicroelectrode (UME) has emerged as a new methodology for the investigation of single NP in recent years. Although the method was widely employed, some fundamental knowledge such as how the NP moves to and interacts with the UME remain less understood. It was generally recognized that the recorded rate of collision was determined by diffusion that should follow Fick's first law. However, significant lower collision frequency compared with that of predicted by theory were frequently reported. Experiments carried out by us suggest that the collision frequency will increase dramatically if forced convection (stir or flow injection) is applied during detection. Furthermore, the collision frequency gradually increases to a maximum and then decreases, along with the increase of the convection intensity. This phenomenon is interpreted as follows: (a) there are two steps for a freely moving NP to generate a detectable collision signal. The first step is the move of NP from bulk solution to the surface of the UME which is mass transfer limited; the second step is the landing of NP on the surface of UME which is affected by many factors and is the critical step; (b) there is a barrier that must be overcame before the contact between freely moving NP and UME. Forced convection with moderate intensity can not only increase the mass transfer rate but also help to overcome this barrier and thus enhance the collision frequency; (c) the landing of NP on the surface of UME can be suppressed by stronger convections, because NP will be swept away by hydrodynamic force. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of forced convection heat transfer to supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, H.S.; Sakurai, Katsumi; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki


    The supercritical carbon dioxide flow has been visualized under forced convection by a Mach-Zehnder interferometry system. The forced convection heat transfer has been examined by an one-sided wall heater in the vertical rectangular test section. Temperature and density distributions of the heated carbon dioxide inside the test section have been calculated from the measured interferometry projections for the visible interferograms conditions. The relationship of the temperature distributions with the physical conditions has been analyzed to inspect the forced convection heat transfer of the supercritical carbon dioxide flow. (author)

  18. Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.


    In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...

  19. Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian


    This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.

  20. A study of aerosol indirect effects and feedbacks on convective precipitation (United States)

    Da Silva, Nicolas; Mailler, Sylvain; Drobinski, Philippe


    Atmospheric aerosols from natural and anthropogenic origin are present in the troposphere of the Mediterranean basin and continental Europe, occasionnally reaching very high concentrations in air masses with a strong content of aerosols related to mineral dust emissions, wildfires, or anthropogenic contamination [1]. On the other hand precipitations in the Mediterranean basin need to be understood precisely since drought and extreme precipitation events are a part of Mediterranean climate which can strongly affect the people and the economic activity in the Mediterranean basin [2]. The present study is a contribution to the investigations on the effects of aerosols on precipitation in the Mediterranean basin and continental Europe. For that purpose, we used the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) parameterized with the Thompson aerosol-aware microphysics schemes, performing two sensitivity simulations forced with two different aerosol climatologies during six months covering an entire summer season on a domain, covering the Mediterranean basin and continental Europe at 50 km resolution. Aerosols may affect atmospheric dynamics through their direct and semidirect radiative effects as well as through their indirect effects (through the changes of cloud microphysics). While it is difficult to disentangle these differents effects in reality, numerical modelling with the WRF model make it possible to isolate indirect effects by modifying them without affecting the direct or semidirect effects of aerosols in an attempt to examine the effect of aerosols on precipitations through microphysical effects only. Our first results have shown two opposite responses depending whether the precipitation are convective or large-scale. Since convective precipitations seem to be clearly inhibited by increased concentrations of cloud-condensation nuclei, we attempted to understand which processes and feedbacks are involved in this reduction of parameterized convective

  1. Results from the coupled Michigan MHD model and the Rice Convection Model (United States)

    de Zeeuw, D.; Sazykin, S.; Wolf, R.; Gombosi, T.; Powell, K.

    A new high performance Rice Convection Model (RCM) has been coupled to the adaptive-grid Michigan MHD model (BATSRUS). This fully coupled code allows us to self-consistently simulate the physics in the inner and middle magnetosphere. A study will be presented of the basic characteristics of the inner and middle magnetosphere in the context of a single coupled-code run with steady inputs. The analysis will include region-2 currents, shielding of the inner magnetosphere, partial ring currents, pressure distribution, magnetic field inflation, and distribution of pV^gamma. The coupled-code simulation will be compared with results from RCM runs and algorithms.

  2. Coupling between lower‐tropospheric convective mixing and low‐level clouds: Physical mechanisms and dependence on convection scheme (United States)

    Bony, Sandrine; Dufresne, Jean‐Louis; Roehrig, Romain


    Abstract Several studies have pointed out the dependence of low‐cloud feedbacks on the strength of the lower‐tropospheric convective mixing. By analyzing a series of single‐column model experiments run by a climate model using two different convective parametrizations, this study elucidates the physical mechanisms through which marine boundary‐layer clouds depend on this mixing in the present‐day climate and under surface warming. An increased lower‐tropospheric convective mixing leads to a reduction of low‐cloud fraction. However, the rate of decrease strongly depends on how the surface latent heat flux couples to the convective mixing and to boundary‐layer cloud radiative effects: (i) on the one hand, the latent heat flux is enhanced by the lower‐tropospheric drying induced by the convective mixing, which damps the reduction of the low‐cloud fraction, (ii) on the other hand, the latent heat flux is reduced as the lower troposphere stabilizes under the effect of reduced low‐cloud radiative cooling, which enhances the reduction of the low‐cloud fraction. The relative importance of these two different processes depends on the closure of the convective parameterization. The convective scheme that favors the coupling between latent heat flux and low‐cloud radiative cooling exhibits a stronger sensitivity of low‐clouds to convective mixing in the present‐day climate, and a stronger low‐cloud feedback in response to surface warming. In this model, the low‐cloud feedback is stronger when the present‐day convective mixing is weaker and when present‐day clouds are shallower and more radiatively active. The implications of these insights for constraining the strength of low‐cloud feedbacks observationally is discussed. PMID:28239438

  3. Tectonic predictions with mantle convection models (United States)

    Coltice, Nicolas; Shephard, Grace E.


    Over the past 15 yr, numerical models of convection in Earth's mantle have made a leap forward: they can now produce self-consistent plate-like behaviour at the surface together with deep mantle circulation. These digital tools provide a new window into the intimate connections between plate tectonics and mantle dynamics, and can therefore be used for tectonic predictions, in principle. This contribution explores this assumption. First, initial conditions at 30, 20, 10 and 0 Ma are generated by driving a convective flow with imposed plate velocities at the surface. We then compute instantaneous mantle flows in response to the guessed temperature fields without imposing any boundary conditions. Plate boundaries self-consistently emerge at correct locations with respect to reconstructions, except for small plates close to subduction zones. As already observed for other types of instantaneous flow calculations, the structure of the top boundary layer and upper-mantle slab is the dominant character that leads to accurate predictions of surface velocities. Perturbations of the rheological parameters have little impact on the resulting surface velocities. We then compute fully dynamic model evolution from 30 and 10 to 0 Ma, without imposing plate boundaries or plate velocities. Contrary to instantaneous calculations, errors in kinematic predictions are substantial, although the plate layout and kinematics in several areas remain consistent with the expectations for the Earth. For these calculations, varying the rheological parameters makes a difference for plate boundary evolution. Also, identified errors in initial conditions contribute to first-order kinematic errors. This experiment shows that the tectonic predictions of dynamic models over 10 My are highly sensitive to uncertainties of rheological parameters and initial temperature field in comparison to instantaneous flow calculations. Indeed, the initial conditions and the rheological parameters can be good enough

  4. Development of a system code with CFD capability for analyzing turbulent mixed convection in gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeon Il


    In order to demonstrate the accuracy of predictions in a turbulent mixed convection regime in which both inertia and buoyancy force compete with each other, we found out that assessments done using a single-dimensional system code with a recently updated heat transfer package have shown that this approach cannot give a reasonable prediction of the wall temperature in a case involving strong heating, where the regime falls into turbulent mixed convection regime. It has been known that the main reason of this deficiency comes from the degraded heat transfer in turbulent mixed convection regime, which is below that of convective heat transfer during turbulent forced convection. We investigated two mechanisms that cause this deterioration in convective heat transfer influenced by buoyancy: (1) modification of turbulence, also known as the direct (structural) effect, through the buoyancy-induced production of turbulent kinetic energy: and (2) an indirect (external) effect that occurs through modification of the mean flow. We investigated the Launder-Sharma model of turbulence whether it can appropriately represent the mechanisms causing the degraded heat transfer in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). We found out that this model can capture low Re effects such that a non-equilibrium turbulent boundary layer in turbulent mixed convection regime can be resolved. The model was verified and validated extensively initially with the commercial CFD code, Fluent with a user application package known as the User Defined Function (UDF). The results from this implementation were compared to a set of data that included (1) an experimental data commonly accepted as a standardized problem to verify a turbulent flow, (2) the results from a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) in a turbulent forced and mixed convection regime, (3) empirical correlations regarding the friction coefficient and the non-dimensional heat transfer coefficient, the Nusselt number for a turbulent forced

  5. On the determination of the neutral drag coefficient in the convective boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grachev, A.A.; Fairall, C.W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling


    Based on the idea that free convection can be considered as a particular case of forced convection, where the gusts driven by the large-scale eddies are scaled with the Deardorff convective velocity scale, a new formulation for the neutral drag coefficient, C-Dn, in the convective boundary layer ...

  6. Convectively driven flow past an infinite moving vertical cylinder with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , free convective flow over an infinite moving vertical cylinder under combined buoyancy effects of heat and mass transfer with thermal and mass stratifications. Laplace transform technique is adopted for finding solutions for velocity, ...

  7. Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation. (United States)

    King, Eric M; Aurnou, Jonathan M


    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, Pr rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium (Pr = 0.025) over a range of nondimensional buoyancy forcing (Ra) and rotation periods (E). Our primary diagnostic is the efficiency of convective heat transfer (Nu). In general, we find that the convective behavior of liquid metal differs substantially from that of moderate Pr fluids, such as water. In particular, a transition between rotationally constrained and weakly rotating turbulent states is identified, and this transition differs substantially from that observed in moderate Pr fluids. This difference, we hypothesize, may explain the different classes of magnetic fields observed on the Gas and Ice Giant planets, whose dynamo regions consist of Pr 1 fluids, respectively.

  8. Convective heat and mass transfer in rotating disk systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchuk, Igor V


    The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat and mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD.

  9. effect of chemical reaction on unsteady mhd free convective two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joseph et al.

    coefficient of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also tabulated and discussed appropriately. It was observed that the increase in chemical reaction coefficient/parameter suppresses both velocity and concentration profiles. Keywords: Chemical Reaction, MHD, Convective, Immiscible,. Unsteady.

  10. Simultaneous effects of Hall and convective conditions on peristaltic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stress fluid in an inclined asymmetric channel with convective conditions. Soret and Dufour and Hall effects are taken into account. Analysis has been carried out in a wave frame of reference. Expressions for velocity, pressure gradient, temperature ...

  11. Mixing properties of thermal convection in the earth's mantle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmalzl, J.T.


    The structure of mantle convection will greatly influence the generation and the survival of compositional heterogeneities. Conversely, geochemical observations can be used to obtain information about heterogeneities in the mantle and then, with certain model assumptions, information about the


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre


    We examine how metallicity affects convection and overshoot in the superadiabatic layer of main sequence stars. We present results from a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations with four metallicities (Z = 0.040, 0.020, 0.010, 0.001), and spanning a range in effective temperature (4950 eff < 6230). We show that changing the metallicity alters properties of the convective gas dynamics, and the structure of the superadiabatic layer and atmosphere. Our grid of simulations shows that the amount of superadiabaticity, which tracks the transition from efficient to inefficient convection, is sensitive to changes in metallicity. We find that increasing the metallicity forces the location of the transition region to lower densities and pressures, and results in larger mean and turbulent velocities throughout the superadiabatic region. We also quantify the degree of convective overshoot in the atmosphere, and show that it increases with metallicity as well.

  13. Radiation and chemical reaction effects on convective Rivlin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dimensional, laminar, boundary-layer free convective Rivlin-Ericksen flow of incompressible and electrically conducting fluids past a porous vertical plate with a periodic suction are discussed. The dimensionless governing equations of the flow ...

  14. Energy Transformation and Rearrangement Caused by Cumulus Convection, (United States)

    understanding of how clouds interact with and modify their environment, the goal being to aid in the formulation of realistic parameterization of cumulus convection in large-scale atmospheric models .

  15. Lattice Boltzmann model for melting with natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Christian; Parmigiani, Andrea; Chopard, Bastien; Manga, Michael; Bachmann, Olivier


    We develop a lattice Boltzmann method to couple thermal convection and pure-substance melting. The transition from conduction-dominated heat transfer to fully-developed convection is analyzed and scaling laws and previous numerical results are reproduced by our numerical method. We also investigate the limit in which thermal inertia (high Stefan number) cannot be neglected. We use our results to extend the scaling relations obtained at low Stefan number and establish the correlation between the melting front propagation and the Stefan number for fully-developed convection. We conclude by showing that the model presented here is particularly well-suited to study convection melting in geometrically complex media with many applications in geosciences

  16. Test of a new theory for stellar convection using helioseismology (United States)

    Paterno, L.; Ventura, R.; Canuto, V. M.; Mazzitelli, I.


    Two evolutionary models of the sun have been tested using helioseismological data. The two models use the same input microphysics (nuclear reaction rates, opacity, equation of state) and the same numerical evolutionary code, but differ in the treatment of turbulent convection. The first model employs the standard mixing - length theory of convection, while the second one employs a new turbulent convection model which overcomes some basic inconsistencies of the standard theory of convection. The test rests on the calculation of p-mode eigenfrequencies and on the comparison with the helioseismological data. The comparison shows an overall improvement of the eigenfrequencies calculated with the new model with respect to those calculated with the standard model, although it appears that both models still suffer from inaccuracies especially in the treatment of the surface layers.

  17. Performance of a convective, infrared and combined infrared- convective heated conveyor-belt dryer. (United States)

    El-Mesery, Hany S; Mwithiga, Gikuru


    A conveyor-belt dryer was developed using a combined infrared and hot air heating system that can be used in the drying of fruits and vegetables. The drying system having two chambers was fitted with infrared radiation heaters and through-flow hot air was provided from a convective heating system. The system was designed to operate under either infrared radiation and cold air (IR-CA) settings of 2000 W/m(2) with forced ambient air at 30 °C and air flow of 0.6 m/s or combined infrared and hot air convection (IR-HA) dryer setting with infrared intensity set at 2000 W/m(2) and hot at 60 °C being blown through the dryer at a velocity of 0.6 m/s or hot air convection (HA) at an air temperature of 60 °C and air flow velocity 0.6 m/s but without infrared heating. Apple slices dried under the different dryer settings were evaluated for quality and energy requirements. It was found that drying of apple (Golden Delicious) slices took place in the falling rate drying period and no constant rate period of drying was observed under any of the test conditions. The IR-HA setting was 57.5 and 39.1 % faster than IR-CA and HA setting, respectively. Specific energy consumption was lower and thermal efficiency was higher for the IR-HA setting when compared to both IR-CA and HA settings. The rehydration ratio, shrinkage and colour properties of apples dried under IR-HA conditions were better than for either IR-CA or HA.

  18. Role of radiative-convective feedbacks in tropical cyclogenesis in rotating radiative-convective equilibrium simulations (United States)

    Wing, A. A.; Camargo, S. J.; Sobel, A. H.


    "Self-aggregation" is a mode of convective organization found in idealized numerical simulations, in which there is a spontaneous transition from randomly distributed to organized convection despite homogeneous boundary conditions. Self-aggregation has primarily been studied in a non-rotating framework, but it has been hypothesized to be important to tropical cyclogenesis. In numerical simulations of tropical cyclones, a broad vortex or saturated column is often used to initialize the circulation. Here, we instead allow a circulation to develop spontaneously from a homogeneous environment in 3-d cloud-resolving simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium in a rotating framework, with interactive radiation and surface fluxes and fixed sea surface temperature. The goals of this study are two-fold: to study tropical cyclogenesis in an unperturbed environment free from the influence of a prescribed initial vortex or external disturbances, and to compare cyclogenesis to non-rotating self-aggregation. We quantify the feedbacks leading to tropical cyclogenesis using a variance budget equation for the vertically integrated frozen moist static energy. In the initial development of a broad circulation, the feedback processes are similar to the initial phase of non-rotating aggregation. Sensitivity tests in which the degree of interactive radiation is modified are also performed to determine the extent to which the radiative feedbacks that are essential to non-rotating self-aggregation are important for tropical cyclogenesis. Finally, we examine the evolution of the rotational and divergent flow, to determine the point at which rotation becomes important and the cyclogenesis process begins to differ from non-rotating aggregation.

  19. Thermal turbulent convection: thermal plumes and fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, M.


    In this study we investigate the phenomenon of thermal turbulent convection in new and unprecedented ways. The first system we studied experimentally is an infinite vertical channel, where a constant vertical mean gradient of temperature exists. Inside this channel the average mass flux is null. The results obtained from our measurements reveal that the flow is mainly inertial; indeed the dissipative coefficients (here the viscosity) play a role only to define a coherence length L. This length is the distance over which the thermal plumes can be considered as 'free falling' objects. The horizontal transport, of heat and momentum, is entirely due to fluctuations. The associated 'mixing length' is small compared to the channel width. In the other hand, the vertical heat transport is due to coherent structures: the heat plumes. Those objects were also investigated in a Lagrangian study of the flow in the bulk of a Rayleigh-Benard cell. The probe, which has the same density as the fluid used in this experiment, is a sphere of 2 cm in diameter with embarked thermometers and radio-emitter. The heat plumes transport it, which allows a statistical study of such objects. (author)

  20. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv


    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  1. Level of neutral buoyancy, deep convective outflow, and convective core: New perspectives based on 5 years of CloudSat data (United States)

    Takahashi, Hanii; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny; Stephens, Graeme L.


    This paper is the follow on to a previous publication by the authors, which investigated the relationship between the level of neutral buoyancy (LNB) determined from the ambient sounding and the actual outflow levels using mainly CloudSat observations. The goal of the current study is to provide a more complete characterization of LNB, deep convective outflow, and convective core, and the relationship among them, as well as the dependence on environmental parameters and convective system size. A proxy is introduced to estimate convective entrainment, namely, the difference between the LNB (based on the ambient sounding) and the actual outflow height. The principal findings are as follows: (1) Deep convection over the Warm Pool has larger entrainment rates and smaller convective cores than the counterpart over the two tropical land regions (Africa and Amazonia), lending observational support to a long-standing assumption in convection models concerning the negative relationship between the two parameters. (2) The differences in internal vertical structure of convection between the two tropical land regions and the Warm Pool suggest that deep convection over the two tropical land regions contains more intense cores. (3) Deep convective outflow occurs at a higher level when the midtroposphere is more humid and the convective system size is smaller. The convective system size dependence is postulated to be related to convective lifecycle, highlighting the importance of cloud life stage information in interpretation of snapshot measurements by satellite. Finally, implications of the study to global modeling are discussed.

  2. Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation


    King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.


    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, . Most analog models of planetary dynamos, however, use moderate fluids, and the systematic influence of reducing is not well understood. We perform rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium over a range of nondimensional bu...

  3. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.


    Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation

  4. Analysis and modeling of tropical convection observed by CYGNSS (United States)

    Lang, T. J.; Li, X.; Roberts, J. B.; Mecikalski, J. R.


    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a multi-satellite constellation that utilizes Global Positioning System (GPS) reflectometry to retrieve near-surface wind speeds over the ocean. While CYGNSS is primarily aimed at measuring wind speeds in tropical cyclones, our research has established that the mission may also provide valuable insight into the relationships between wind-driven surface fluxes and general tropical oceanic convection. Currently, we are examining organized tropical convection using a mixture of CYGNSS level 1 through level 3 data, IMERG (Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement), and other ancillary datasets (including buoys, GPM level 1 and 2 data, as well as ground-based radar). In addition, observing system experiments (OSEs) are being performed using hybrid three-dimensional variational assimilation to ingest CYGNSS observations into a limited-domain, convection-resolving model. Our focus for now is on case studies of convective evolution, but we will also report on progress toward statistical analysis of convection sampled by CYGNSS. Our working hypothesis is that the typical mature phase of organized tropical convection is marked by the development of a sharp gust-front boundary from an originally spatially broader but weaker wind speed change associated with precipitation. This increase in the wind gradient, which we demonstrate is observable by CYGNSS, likely helps to focus enhanced turbulent fluxes of convection-sustaining heat and moisture near the leading edge of the convective system where they are more easily ingested by the updraft. Progress on the testing and refinement of this hypothesis, using a mixture of observations and modeling, will be reported.

  5. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety


    Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation. Refs, figs, tabs.

  6. Evidence of Marangoni Convection Cells on Spherical Shells (United States)

    McQuillan, Barry


    1 and 2 mm OD plastic shells show surface bumps. The origin of the bumps are Marangoni convection cells created during the formation of the shells. The L mode number for these bumps is consistent with the mode number predicted from a calculation of Lebon and Pirotte. The bumps can be eliminated by suitable changes in the processing, changes which are guided by the presumption of Marangoni convection cells.

  7. Convection regime between canopy and air in a greenhouse


    Atarassi,Roberto Terumi; Folegatti,Marcos Vinicius; Brasil,René Porfírio Camponez do


    The use of covering materials in protected environments modifies the air movement close to the crop canopy compared to external environment, which changes the heat and mass transfer between canopy and air. Several researches have been made in greenhouses to estimate mass and heat flux using dimensionless numbers to characterize the type of convection (forced, free or mixed). The knowledge of which one is dominant allows simplifications and specific approaches. The dominant convection regime b...

  8. Convective parameters in fuel elements for research nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Martinez, C.D.


    The study of a prototype for the simulation of fuel elements for research nuclear reactors by natural convection in water is presented in this paper. This project is carry out in the thermofluids laboratory of National Institute of Nuclear Research. The fuel prototype has already been test for natural convection in air, and the first results in water are presented in this work. In chapter I, a general description of Triga Mark III is made, paying special atention to fuel-moderator components. In chapter II and III an approach to convection subject in its global aspects is made, since the intention is to give a general idea of the events occuring around fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. In chapter II, where an emphasis on forced convection is made, some basic concepts for forced convection as well as for natural convection are included. The subject of flow through cylinders is annotated only as a comparative reference with natural convection in vertical cylinders, noting the difference between used correlations and the involved variables. In chapter III a compilation of correlation found in the bibliography about natural convection in vertical cylinders is presented, since its geometry is the more suitable in the analysis of a fuel rod. Finally, in chapter IV performed experiments in the test bench are detailed, and the results are presented in form of tables and graphs, showing the used equations for the calculations and the restrictions used in each case. For the analysis of the prototypes used in the test bench, a constant and uniform flow of heat in the whole length of the fuel rod is considered. At the end of this chapter, the work conclusions and a brief explanation of the results are presented (Author)

  9. Detection of Mesoscale Vortices and Their Role in Subsequent Convection (United States)

    Paulus, M.


    Mid-level mesoscale vortices impact warm-season precipitation by initiating and focusing deep convection. Given their significance to forecasting, it is important to understand mesoscale vortices, their frequency, and their impact on subsequent convection in greater detail. This research was a pilot study to identify such vortices using two separate techniques. Vortices were identified through a subjective visual identification technique that relied mostly on composite radar reflectivity and satellite imagery, as well as through an objective algorithm applied to hourly 20-km Rapid Update Cycle model analyses. Vortices arising within organized convection, called mesoscale convective vortices (MCVs), as well as ones forming in the absence of convection (dry vortices) were identified over the central United States during an active period from 1-10 June 2009. Additionally, MCVs were identified that were responsible for triggering subsequent convection. The results from the subjective and objective methods were compared, and vortex characteristics such as duration were analyzed. The objective algorithm detected more vortices than expected, as well as an approximately equal distribution of dry and convective vortices. Approximately two-thirds of the MCVs detected by the algorithm were also detectable by the subjective, visual method. MCVs that triggered new convection accounted for less than half of all cases, while in general MCVs lasted longer than dry vortices. While extension of this research is necessary in order to apply to a more broad range of MCVs, these results demonstrate the potential of the methodology in identifying these vortices, which will potentially lead to a greater understanding of such systems.

  10. Modeling approaches to natural convection in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Yan


    This book provides an overview of the field of flow and heat transfer in porous medium and focuses on presentation of a generalized approach to predict drag and convective heat transfer within porous medium of arbitrary microscopic geometry, including reticulated foams and packed beds. Practical numerical methods to solve natural convection problems in porous media will be presented with illustrative applications for filtrations, thermal storage and solar receivers.

  11. Effect of a degree of rarefaction on Benard convection


    結城, 和久; 清水, 昭比古; Yuuki, Kazuhisa; Shimizu, Akihiko


    The Benard convection in a rarefied gas was simulated by two dimensional DSMC (Direct Simulation Monte Carlo) method. The simulation was performed by using a virtual gravity with temperature jump effect as external force acting on each sample molecule and the character and instability of convection was estimated for several Knudsen number Kn, which is a degree of rarefaction of the system, with temperature ratio Th/Tc being varied. It is shown that higher temperature ratio is necessary to for...

  12. Environmental Characteristics of Convective Systems During TRMM-LBA (United States)

    Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Rickenbach, Thomas; Roy, Biswadev; Pierce, Harold; Williams, Earle; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)


    In this paper, data collected from 51 days of continual upper atmospheric soundings and TOGA radar at ABRACOS Hill during the TRMM-LBA experiment are used to describe the mean thermodynamic and kinematic airmass properties of wet season convection over Rondonia, Brazil. Distinct multi-day easterly and westerly lower tropospheric wind regimes occurred during the campaign with contrasting airmass characteristics. Westerly wind periods featured modest CAPE (1000 J/kg), moist conditions (>90% RH) extending through 700 mb and shallow (900 mb) speed shear on the order of 10(exp -4)/s. This combination of characteristics promoted convective systems that featured a relatively large fraction of stratiform rainfall and weak convection nearly devoid of lightning. The environment is very similar to the general airmass conditions experienced during the Darwin, Australia monsoon convective regime. In contrast, easterly regime convective systems were more strongly electrified and featured larger convective rain rates and reduced stratiform rainfall fraction. These systems formed in an environment with significantly larger CAPE (1500 J/kg), drier lower and middle level humidities (in the lowest 1-2 km, thus contributing to a more explosive growth of convection. The time series of low- and mid-level averaged humidity exhibited marked variability between westerly and easterly regimes and was characterized by low frequency (i.e., multi-day to weekly) oscillations. The synoptic scale origins of these moisture fluctuations are examined, which include the effects of variable low-level airmass trajectories and upper-level, westward migrating cyclonic vortices. The results reported herein provide an environmental context for ongoing dual Doppler analyses and numerical modeling case studies of individual TRMM-LBA convective systems.

  13. Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozanoglu, Bulent; Zárate, Luis; Gómez-Mares, Mercedes; Casal, Joaquim


    Highlights: ► Experiments were carried out to analyze convection around a vertical jet fire. ► Convection heat transfer is enhanced increasing the flame length. ► Nusselt number grows with higher values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. ► In subsonic flames, Nusselt number increases with Froude number. ► Convection and radiation are equally important in causing a domino effect. - Abstract: The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice.

  14. Shear heating in creeping faults changes the onset of convection (United States)

    Tung, R.; Poulet, T.; Alevizos, S.; Veveakis, E.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.


    The interaction between mechanical deformation of creeping faults and fluid flow in porous media has an important influence on the heat and mass transfer processes in Earth sciences. Creeping faults can act as heat sources due to the effect of shear heating and as such could be expected to alter the conditions for hydrothermal convection. In this work, we provide a finite element-based numerical framework developed to resolve the problem of heat and mass transfer in the presence of creeping faults. This framework extends the analytical approach of the linear stability analysis (LSA) frequently used to determine the bifurcation criterion for onset of convection, allowing us to study compressible cases with the option of complex geometry and/or material inhomogeneities. We demonstrate the impact of creeping faults on the onset of convection and show that shear heating—expressed through its dimensionless group the Gruntfest number Gr—has exponential influence on the critical value of the Lewis number Le (inversely proportional to the Rayleigh number Ra) required for convection: Lec ˜ Lec0 eGr. In this expression, Lec0 is the critical value of Le in the absence of shear heating. This exponential scaling shows that shear heating increases the critical Lewis number and triggers hydrothermal convection at lower permeability than in situations without it. We also show that the effect of shear heating in a fault significantly alters the pattern of convection in and around the fault zone.

  15. Passively Enhancing Convection Heat Transfer Around Cylinder Using Shrouds (United States)

    Samaha, Mohamed A.; Kahwaji, Ghalib Y.


    Natural convection heat transfer around a horizontal cylinder has received considerable attention through decades since it has been used in several viable applications. However, investigations into passively enhancement of the free convective cooling using external walls and chimney effect are lacking. In this work, a numerical simulation to study natural convection from a horizontal cylinder configured with semicircular shrouds with an expended chimney is employed. The fluid flow and convective heat transfer around the cylinder are modeled. The bare cylinder is also simulated for comparison. The present study are aimed at improving our understanding of the parameters advancing the free convective cooling of the cylinder implemented with the shrouds configuration. For validation, the present results for the bare tube are compared with data reported in the literature. The numerical simulations indicate that applying the shrouds configuration with extended chimney to a tube promotes the convection heat transfer from the cylinder. Such a method is less expensive and simpler in design than other configurations (e.g. utilizing extended surfaces, fins), making the technology more practical for industrial productions, especially for cooling systems. Dubai Silicon Oasis Authority (DSOA) Grants.

  16. Using pattern recognition to infer parameters governing mantle convection (United States)

    Atkins, Suzanne; Valentine, Andrew P.; Tackley, Paul J.; Trampert, Jeannot


    The results of mantle convection simulations are fully determined by the input parameters and boundary conditions used. These input parameters can be for initialisation, such as initial mantle temperature, or can be constant values, such as viscosity exponents. However, knowledge of Earth-like values for many input parameters are very poorly constrained, introducing large uncertainties into the simulation of mantle flow. Convection is highly non-linear, therefore linearised inversion methods cannot be used to recover past configurations over more than very short periods of time, which makes finding both initial and constant simulation input parameters very difficult. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for making inferences about simulation input parameters from observations of the mantle temperature field after billions of years of convection. The method is fully probabilistic. We use prior sampling to construct probability density functions for convection simulation input parameters, which are represented using neural networks. Assuming smoothness, we need relatively few samples to make inferences, making this approach much more computationally tractable than other probabilistic inversion methods. As a proof of concept, we show that our method can invert the amplitude spectra of temperature fields from 2D convection simulations, to constrain yield stress, surface reference viscosity and the initial thickness of primordial material at the CMB, for our synthetic test cases. The best constrained parameter is yield stress. The reference viscosity and initial thickness of primordial material can also be inferred reasonably well after several billion years of convection.

  17. Cyclonic circulation of Saturn's atmosphere due to tilted convection (United States)

    Afanasyev, Y. D.; Zhang, Y.


    Saturn displays cyclonic vortices at its poles and the general atmospheric circulation at other latitudes is dominated by embedded zonal jets that display cyclonic circulation. The abundance of small-scale convective storms suggests that convection plays a role in producing and maintaining Saturn's atmospheric circulation. However, the dynamical influence of small-scale convection on Saturn's general circulation is not well understood. Here we present laboratory analogue experiments and propose that Saturn's cyclonic circulation can be explained by tilted convection in which buoyancy forces do not align with the planet's rotation axis. In our experiments—conducted with a cylindrical water tank that is heated at the bottom, cooled at the top and spun on a rotating table—warm rising plumes and cold sinking water generate small anticyclonic and cyclonic vortices that are qualitatively similar to Saturn's convective storms. Numerical simulations complement the experiments and show that this small-scale convection leads to large-scale cyclonic flow at the surface and anticyclonic circulation at the base of the fluid layer, with a polar vortex forming from the merging of smaller cyclonic storms that are driven polewards.

  18. On the mapping of ionospheric convection into the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Hoffman, R.A.


    Under steady state conditions and in the absence of parallel electric fields, ionospheric convection is a direct map of plasma and magnetic flux convection in the magnetosphere, and quantitative estimates can be obtained from the mapping along magnetic field lines of electrostatic ionospheric electric fields. The resulting magnetospheric electrostatic potential distribution then provides the convection electric field in various magnetospheric regions. We present a quantitative framework for the investigation of the applicability and limitations of this approach based on an analytical theory derived from first principles. Particular emphasis is on the role of parallel electric field regions and on inductive effects, such as expected during the growth and expansive phases of magnetospheric substorms. We derive quantitative estimates for the limits in which either effect leads to a significant decoupling between ionospheric and magnetospheric convection and provide an interpretation of ionospheric convection which is independent of the presence of inductive electric fields elsewhere in the magnetosphere. Finally, we present a study of the relation between average and instantaneous convection, using two periodic dynamical models. The models demonstrate and quantify the potential mismatch between the average electric fields in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere in strongly time-dependent cases that may exist even when they are governed entirely by ideal MHD

  19. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaan, R.E.


    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array

  20. Magnetic fields in non-convective regions of stars. (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jonathan; Spruit, Henk C


    We review the current state of knowledge of magnetic fields inside stars, concentrating on recent developments concerning magnetic fields in stably stratified (zones of) stars, leaving out convective dynamo theories and observations of convective envelopes. We include the observational properties of A, B and O-type main-sequence stars, which have radiative envelopes, and the fossil field model which is normally invoked to explain the strong fields sometimes seen in these stars. Observations seem to show that Ap-type stable fields are excluded in stars with convective envelopes. Most stars contain both radiative and convective zones, and there are potentially important effects arising from the interaction of magnetic fields at the boundaries between them; the solar cycle being one of the better known examples. Related to this, we discuss whether the Sun could harbour a magnetic field in its core. Recent developments regarding the various convective and radiative layers near the surfaces of early-type stars and their observational effects are examined. We look at possible dynamo mechanisms that run on differential rotation rather than convection. Finally, we turn to neutron stars with a discussion of the possible origins for their magnetic fields.