WorldWideScience

Sample records for single ion engine

  1. Engineering of electronic properties of single layer graphene by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Ashish; Tripathi, Ambuj; Tyagi, Chetna; Avasthi, D. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, swift heavy ion irradiation induced effects on the electrical properties of single layer graphene are reported. The modulation in minimum conductivity point in graphene with in-situ electrical measurement during ion irradiation was studied. It is found that the resistance of graphene layer decreases at lower fluences up to 3 × 1011 ions/cm2, which is accompanied by the five-fold increase in electron and hole mobilities. The ion irradiation induced increase in electron and hole mobilities at lower fluence up to 1 × 1011 ions/cm2 is verified by separate Hall measurements on another irradiated graphene sample at the selected fluence. In contrast to the adverse effects of irradiation on the electrical properties of materials, we have found improvement in electrical mobility after irradiation. The increment in mobility is explained by considering the defect annealing in graphene after irradiation at a lower fluence regime. The modification in carrier density after irradiation is also observed. Based on findings of the present work, we suggest ion beam irradiation as a useful tool for tuning of the electrical properties of graphene.

  2. Single rotor turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  3. Single Cathode Ion Thruster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Objective is to design an electrostatic ion thruster that is more efficient, simpler, and lower cost than the current gridded ion thruster. Initial objective is to...

  4. Near-term, 100-kW class ion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A design approach for large area, high power ion engines is presented. This approach conceptually divides a single engine into a combination of smaller discharge chambers (or segments) configured to operate as a single large area engine. This segmented ion thruster (SIT) approach is shown to enable the immediate development of 100-kW class argon ion engines for operation at a specific impulse of 10,000 s. A combination of six 30-cm diameter ion chambers operating as a single engine can process over 100 kW. Such a segmented ion engine could be built today and would operate from a single power processor unit. The segmented engine design approach may also enable the development of megawatt class ion engines. Potential benefits of the segmented ion thruster design include: mitigation of the span-to-gap problem central to the development of large area, high power ion engines; reduction in hollow cathode emission current requirements; improved fault tolerance; and reduced vacuum system pumping speed requirements for engine development testing.

  5. SMART-1 ion engine fired successfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Close-up view of SMART-1's stationary plasma thruster hi-res Size hi-res: 257 kb Credits: ESA 2002. Illustration by Medialab. Close-up view of SMART-1's stationary plasma thruster Electrons attracted into the discharge chamber collide with xenon atoms from the propellant gas supply, making charged atoms (ions). Current-carrying coils, inside and outside the doughnut-shaped discharge chamber, sustain a magnetic field oriented like the spokes of a wheel. By the Hall effect, ions and electrons swerving in opposite directions in the magnetic field create an electric field. This expels the xenon ions in a propulsive jet. Other emitted electrons then neutralize the xenon, producing the blue jet. Engineers at ESOC, the European Space Agency's control centre in Darmstadt, Germany, sent a command to begin the firing test, which lasted for one hour. This was similar to a trial performed on Earth before SMART-1 was launched. Several months ago, the ion engine, or Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEPP) system, had been placed in a vacuum chamber on the ground and its functions and operation were measured. Now in space and in a true vacuum, the ion engine actually worked better than in the test on ground and has nudged SMART-1 a little closer to the Moon. This is the first time that Europe flies an electric primary propulsion in space, and also the first European use of this particular type of ion engine, called a 'Hall-effect' thruster. The SEPP consists of a single ion engine fuelled by xenon gas and powered by solar energy. The ion engine will accelerate SMART-1 very gradually to cause the spacecraft to travel in a series of spiralling orbits - each revolution slightly further away from the Earth - towards the Moon. Once captured by the Moon's gravity, SMART-1 will move into ever-closer orbits of the Moon. As part of one of the overall mission objectives to test this new SEPP technology, the data will now be analysed to see how much acceleration was achieved and how

  6. Surface engineering by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Bjarne Roger

    1995-01-01

    Awidespread commercial applica tion iof particle accelerators is for ion implantation. Accelerator beams are used for ion implantation into metals, alloying a thin surface layer with foreign atoms to concentrations impossible to achieve by thermal processes, making for dramatic improvements in hardness and in resistance to wear and corrosion. Traditional hardening processes require high temperatures causing deformation; ion implantation on the other hand is a ''cold process'', treating the finished product. The ionimplanted layer is integrated in the substrate, avoiding the risk of cracking and delamination from normal coating processes. Surface properties may be ''engineered'' independently of those of the bulk material; the process does not use environmentally hazardous materials such as chromium in the surface coating. The typical implantation dose required for the optimum surface properties of metals is around 2 x 10 17 ion/cm 2 , a hundred times the typical doses for semiconductor processing. When surface areas of more than a few square centimetres have to be treated, the implanter must therefore be able to produce high beam currents (5 to 10 mA) to obtain an acceptable treatment time. Ion species used include nitrogen, boron, carbon, titanium, chromium and tantalum, and beam energies range from 50 to 200 keV. Since most components are three dimensional, it must be possible to rotate and tilt them in the beam, and control beam position over a large area. Examples of industrial applications are: - surface treatment of prostheses (hip and knee joints) to reduce wear of the moving parts, using biocompatible materials; - ion implantation into high speed ball bearings to protect against the aqueous corrosion in jet engines (important for service helicopters on oil rigs); - hardening of metal forming and cutting tools; - reduction of corrosive wear of plastic moulding tools, which are expensive to produce

  7. Divergent Field Annular Ion Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work investigates an approach that would allow an annular ion engine geometry to achieve ion beam currents approaching the Child-Langmuir limit. In this...

  8. Divergent Field Annular Ion Engine, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work investigates an approach that would allow an annular ion engine geometry to achieve ion beam currents approaching the Child-Langmuir limit. In this...

  9. Single-molecule magnet engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Bendix, Jesper; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2014-01-01

    Tailoring the specific magnetic properties of any material relies on the topological control of the constituent metal ion building blocks. Although this general approach does not seem to be easily applied to traditional inorganic bulk magnets, coordination chemistry offers a unique tool...... to delicately tune, for instance, the properties of molecules that behave as "magnets", the so-called single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Although many interesting SMMs have been prepared by a more or less serendipitous approach, the assembly of predesigned, isolatable molecular entities into higher nuclearity...... complexes constitutes an elegant and fascinating strategy. This Feature article focuses on the use of building blocks or modules (both terms being used indiscriminately) to direct the structure, and therefore also the magnetic properties, of metal ion complexes exhibiting SMM behaviour. This journal is...

  10. Engineered ion channels as emerging tools for chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michael; Yang, Jerry

    2013-12-17

    Over the last 25 years, researchers have developed exogenously expressed, genetically engineered, semi-synthetic, and entirely synthetic ion channels. These structures have sufficient fidelity to serve as unique tools that can reveal information about living organisms. One of the most exciting success stories is optogenetics: the use of light-gated channels to trigger action potentials in specific neurons combined with studies of the response from networks of cells or entire live animals. Despite this breakthrough, the use of molecularly engineered ion channels for studies of biological systems is still in its infancy. Historically, researchers studied ion channels in the context of their own function in single cells or in multicellular signaling and regulation. Only recently have researchers considered ion channels and pore-forming peptides as responsive tools to report on the chemical and physical changes produced by other biochemical processes and reactions. This emerging class of molecular probes has a number of useful characteristics. For instance, these structures can greatly amplify the signal of chemical changes: the binding of one molecule to a ligand-gated ion channel can result in flux of millions of ions across a cell membrane. In addition, gating occurs on sub-microsecond time scales, resulting in fast response times. Moreover, the signal is complementary to existing techniques because the output is ionic current rather than fluorescence or radioactivity. And finally, ion channels are also localized at the membrane of cells where essential processes such as signaling and regulation take place. This Account highlights examples, mostly from our own work, of uses of ion channels and pore-forming peptides such as gramicidin in chemical biology. We discuss various strategies for preparing synthetically tailored ion channels that range from de novo designed synthetic molecules to genetically engineered or simply exogenously expressed or reconstituted wild

  11. Single ion dynamics in molten sodium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, O.; Trullas, J. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Demmel, F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-28

    We present a study on the single ion dynamics in the molten alkali halide NaBr. Quasielastic neutron scattering was employed to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions at three temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations using rigid and polarizable ion models have been performed in parallel to extract the sodium and bromide single dynamics and ionic conductivities. Two methods have been employed to derive the ion diffusion, calculating the mean squared displacements and the velocity autocorrelation functions, as well as analysing the increase of the line widths of the self-dynamic structure factors. The sodium diffusion coefficients show a remarkable good agreement between experiment and simulation utilising the polarisable potential.

  12. Single-ion nonlinear mechanical oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Glickman, Y.; Dallal, Y.; Keselman, A.; Ozeri, R.

    2010-01-01

    We study the steady-state motion of a single trapped ion oscillator driven to the nonlinear regime. Damping is achieved via Doppler laser cooling. The ion motion is found to be well described by the Duffing oscillator model with an additional nonlinear damping term. We demonstrate here the unique ability of tuning both the linear as well as the nonlinear damping coefficients by controlling the laser-cooling parameters. Our observations pave the way for the investigation of nonlinear dynamics on the quantum-to-classical interface as well as mechanical noise squeezing in laser-cooling dynamics.

  13. Quantum Control Engineering with Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biercuk, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Technologies fundamentally enabled by quantum mechanics are poised to transform a broad range of applications from computation to precision metrology over the coming decades. This talk will introduce a new field of research which is seeing concepts from control engineering translated to the domain of quantum mechanics in an effort to realize the full potential of engineered quantum technologies. We focus on understanding the physics underlying controlled quantum dynamics in the presence of rapidly fluctuating time-dependent Hamiltonians, leveraging the unique capabilities provided by trapped ions as a model quantum system. Our results introduce and experimentally validate generalized filter-transfer functions which cast arbitrary quantum control operations on qubits as noise spectral filters. We demonstrate the utility of these constructs for directly predicting the evolution of a quantum state in a realistic noisy environment, for developing novel robust control and sensing protocols, and for improving the stability of atomic clocks. This work demonstrates how quantum control can be leveraged to overcome some of the most challenging problems in quantum engineering, and even provide totally new functionality to quantum systems.

  14. A segmented ion engine design for solar electric propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A new ion engine design, called a segmented ion engine, is described which is capable of reducing the required ion source life time for small body rendezvous missions from 18,000 h to about 8,000 h. The use of SAND ion optics for the engine accelerator system makes it possible to substantially reduce the cost of demonstrating the required engine endurance. It is concluded that a flight test of a 5-kW xenon ion propulsion system on the ELITE spacecraft would enormously reduce the cost and risk of using ion propulsion on a planetary vehicle by addressing systems level issues associated with flying a spacecraft radically different from conventional planetary vehicles.

  15. Watching Single Proteins Using Engineered Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movileanu, Liviu

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in the area of single-molecule detection of proteins with nanopores show a great promise in fundamental science, bionanotechnology and proteomics. In this mini-review, I discuss a comprehensive array of examinations of protein detection and characterization using protein and solid-state nanopores. These investigations demonstrate the power of the single-molecule nanopore measurements to reveal a broad range of functional, structural, biochemical and biophysical features of proteins, such as their backbone flexibility, enzymatic activity, binding affinity as well as their concentration, size and folding state. Engineered nanopores in organic materials and in inorganic membranes coupled with surface modification and protein engineering might provide a new generation of sensing devices for molecular biomedical diagnosis. PMID:24370252

  16. Towards single Ce ion detection in a bulk crystal for the development of a single-ion qubit readout scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was concerned with investigating the relevant spectroscopic properties of Ce ions randomly doped in an Y2SiO5 crystal at low temperatures (around 4 K), in order to develop a technique and an experimental set-up to detect the fluorescence photons emitted by a single Ce ion. The aim of the work was to determine whether a single Ce ion (referred to as the readout ion) can be used as a local probe to sense the quantum state of a neighbouring single-ion qubit via ...

  17. Engineering of microorganisms towards recovery of rare metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Div. of Applied Life Sciences

    2010-06-15

    The bioadsorption of metal ions using microorganisms is an attractive technology for the recovery of rare metal ions as well as removal of toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In initial attempts, microorganisms with the ability to accumulate metal ions were isolated from nature and intracellular accumulation was enhanced by the overproduction of metal-binding proteins in the cytoplasm. As an alternative, the cell surface design of microorganisms by cell surface engineering is an emerging strategy for bioadsorption and recovery of metal ions. Cell surface engineering was firstly applied to the construction of a bioadsorbent to adsorb heavy metal ions for bioremediation. Cell surface adsorption of metal ions is rapid and reversible. Therefore, adsorbed metal ions can be easily recovered without cell breakage, and the bioadsorbent can be reused or regenerated. These advantages are suitable for the recovery of rare metal ions. Actually, the cell surface display of a molybdate-binding protein on yeast led to the enhanced adsorption of molybdate, one of the rare metal ions. An additional advantage is that the cell surface display system allows high-throughput screening of protein/peptide libraries owing to the direct evaluation of the displayed protein/peptide without purification and concentration. Therefore, the creation of novel metal-binding protein/ peptide and engineering of microorganisms towards the recovery of rare metal ions could be simultaneously achieved. (orig.)

  18. Coherent Control of a Single Trapped Rydberg Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Gerard; Pokorny, Fabian; Zhang, Chi; Bodart, Quentin; Hennrich, Markus

    2017-12-01

    Trapped Rydberg ions are a promising novel approach to quantum computing and simulations. They are envisaged to combine the exquisite control of trapped ion qubits with the fast two-qubit Rydberg gates already demonstrated in neutral atom experiments. Coherent Rydberg excitation is a key requirement for these gates. Here, we carry out the first coherent Rydberg excitation of an ion and perform a single-qubit Rydberg gate, thus demonstrating basic elements of a trapped Rydberg ion quantum computer.

  19. Emission of ions and charged soot particles by aircraft engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorokin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model which examines the formation and evolution of chemiions in an aircraft engine is proposed. This model which includes chemiionisation, electron thermo-emission, electron attachment to soot particles and to neutral molecules, electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, ion-soot interaction, allows the determination of the ion concentration at the exit of the combustor and at the nozzle exit of the engine. It also allows the determination of the charge of the soot particles. For the engine considered, the upper limit for the ion emission index EIi is of the order of (2-5 x1016 ions/kg-fuel if ion-soot interactions are ignored and the introduction of ion-soot interactions lead about to a 50% reduction. The results also show that most of the soot particles are either positively or negatively charged, the remaining neutral particles representing approximately 20% of the total particles. A comparison of the model results with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines during the SULFUR experiments (Schumann, 2002 shows an excellent agreement.

  20. Swift heavy ions for materials engineering and nanostructuring

    CERN Document Server

    Avasthi, Devesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Ion beams have been used for decades for characterizing and analyzing materials. Now energetic ion beams are providing ways to modify the materials in unprecedented ways. This book highlights the emergence of high-energy swift heavy ions as a tool for tailoring the properties of materials with nanoscale structures. Swift heavy ions interact with materials by exciting/ionizing electrons without directly moving the atoms. This opens a new horizon towards the 'so-called' soft engineering. The book discusses the ion beam technology emerging from the non-equilibrium conditions and emphasizes the power of controlled irradiation to tailor the properties of various types of materials for specific needs.

  1. Single ion counting with a MCP (microchannel plate) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawara, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shinichi; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibamura, Eido

    1996-07-01

    In this study, a single-ion-counting method using alpha-particle-impact ionization of Ar atoms is demonstrated and the preliminary {epsilon}{sub mcp} for Ar ions with incident energies of 3 to 4.7 keV is determined. The single-ion counting by the MCP is aimed to be performed under experimental conditions as follows: (1) A signal from the MCP is reasonably identified as incidence of single Ar-ion. (2) The counting rate of Ar ions is less than 1 s{sup -1}. (3) The incident Ar ions are not focused on a small part of an active area of the MCP, namely, {epsilon}{sub mcp} is determined with respect to the whole active area of the MCP. So far, any absolute detection efficiency has not been reported under these conditions. (J.P.N.)

  2. Automated parallel recordings of topologically identified single ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Ryuji; Tsuji, Yutaro; Sato, Koji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Hirano, Minako; Ide, Toru; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Although ion channels are attractive targets for drug discovery, the systematic screening of ion channel-targeted drugs remains challenging. To facilitate automated single ion-channel recordings for the analysis of drug interactions with the intra- and extracellular domain, we have developed a parallel recording methodology using artificial cell membranes. The use of stable lipid bilayer formation in droplet chamber arrays facilitated automated, parallel, single-channel recording from reconstituted native and mutated ion channels. Using this system, several types of ion channels, including mutated forms, were characterised by determining the protein orientation. In addition, we provide evidence that both intra- and extracellular amyloid-beta fragments directly inhibit the channel open probability of the hBK channel. This automated methodology provides a high-throughput drug screening system for the targeting of ion channels and a data-intensive analysis technique for studying ion channel gating mechanisms.

  3. Single track regime in ion implanted polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licciardello, A.; Puglisi, O.; Calcagno, L.; Foti, G.

    1988-05-01

    The molecular weight distribution (MWD) of nearly monodisperse polystyrene thin films is heavily affected by ion bombardment. The main effect is an increase of the MW and is detectable at fluences as low as 10/sup 11/ ions cm/sup -2/ for 400 keV Ar/sup +/ bombardment. A statistical model, here outlined for the first time, allows us the predict the size distribution of these high MW components. From the analysis of the MWD curves one can extract useful information concerning the lateral dimensions of the ion tracks.

  4. Current Density Measurements of an Annular-Geometry Ion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Rohit; Patterson, Michael J.; Herman, Daniel A.; Foster, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of the annular-geometry ion engine, or AGI-Engine, has been shown to have many potential benefits when scaling electric propulsion technologies to higher power. However, the necessary asymmetric location of the discharge cathode away from thruster centerline could potentially lead to non-uniformities in the discharge not present in conventional geometry ion thrusters. In an effort to characterize the degree of this potential non-uniformity, a number of current density measurements were taken on a breadboard AGI-Engine. Fourteen button probes were used to measure the ion current density of the discharge along a perforated electrode that replaced the ion optics during conditions of simulated beam extraction. Three Faraday probes spaced apart in the vertical direction were also used in a separate test to interrogate the plume of the AGI-Engine during true beam extraction. It was determined that both the discharge and the plume of the AGI-Engine are highly uniform, with variations under most conditions limited to +/-10% of the average current density in the discharge and +/-5% of the average current density in the plume. Beam flatness parameter measured 30 mm from the ion optics ranged from 0.85 - 0.95, and overall uniformity was shown to generally increase with increasing discharge and beam currents. These measurements indicate that the plasma is highly uniform despite the asymmetric location of the discharge cathode.

  5. A compact source for bunches of singly charged atomic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murböck, T.; Schmidt, S.; Andelkovic, Z.; Birkl, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Vogel, M.

    2016-04-01

    We have built, operated, and characterized a compact ion source for low-energy bunches of singly charged atomic ions in a vacuum beam line. It is based on atomic evaporation from an electrically heated oven and ionization by electron impact from a heated filament inside a grid-based ionization volume. An adjacent electrode arrangement is used for ion extraction and focusing by applying positive high-voltage pulses to the grid. The method is particularly suited for experimental environments which require low electromagnetic noise. It has proven simple yet reliable and has been used to produce μs-bunches of up to 106 Mg+ ions at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. We present the concept, setup and characterizing measurements. The instrument has been operated in the framework of the SpecTrap experiment at the HITRAP facility at GSI/FAIR to provide Mg+ ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions by laser-cooled 24Mg+.

  6. Single-piston alternative to Stirling engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushenkov, Maxim; Sprenkeler, Martin; Kronberg, Alexander; Kirillov, Valeriy

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analysis of an unconventional heat engine. ► The engine has a number of advantages compared to state-of-the-art Stirling engines. ► The engine can to be fuelled with “difficult” fuels and used for micro-CHP systems. ► The energy conversion efficiency can be as high as 40–50%. ► A prototype of the engine was demonstrated. -- Abstract: Thermodynamic analysis of an unconventional heat engine was performed. The engine studied has a number of advantages compared to state-of-the-art Stirling engines. The main advantage of the engine proposed is its simplicity. A power piston is integral with a displacer and a heat regenerator. It allows solving the problem of the high-temperature sealing of the piston and the displacer typical of all types of Stirling engines. In addition the design proposed provides ideal use of the displacer volume eliminating heat losses from outside gas circuit. Both strokes of the piston are working ones in contrary to any other types of piston engines. The engine can be considered as maintenance-free as it has no piston rings or any other rubbing components requiring lubrication. The only seal is contactless and wear free. It is located in the cold part of the cylinder. As a result the leakage rate in operation can be one-two orders of magnitude as small as that in Stirling engines. Balancing of the engine is much easy compared to Stirling engines with two reciprocating masses because of the only moving part inside the engine cylinder. The engine suits ideally to be fuelled with “difficult” fuels such as bio oil and can be used as a prime mover for micro-CHP systems. The thermodynamic model developed incorporates non-ideal features of the cycle, such as specific regenerator efficiency, dead volumes and other geometrical parameters of the engine. The model shows that the energy efficiency is highly sensitive to regenerator performance. For realistic geometric and operating parameters and the

  7. Anisotropic Lithium Ion Conductivity in Single-Ion Diblock Copolymer Electrolyte Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aissou, Karim; Mumtaz, Muhammad; Usluer, Özlem; Pécastaings, Gilles; Portale, Giuseppe; Fleury, Guillaume; Cloutet, Eric; Hadziioannou, Georges

    Well-defined single-ion diblock copolymers consisting of a Li-ion conductive poly(styrenesulfonyllithium(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) (PSLiTFSI) block associated with a glassy polystyrene (PS) block have been synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization.

  8. Conduction in ion implanted single crystal diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunn, J.D.; Parikh, N.R.; Swanson, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    We have implanted sodium, phosphorus and arsenic into single crystal type IIa diamond as possible n-type dopants. Particular emphasis was applied to the implantation of sodium at different temperatures and doses; combined implantation energies of 55,80 and 120 keV were used to provide a uniformly doped layer over approximately 100 nm depth. The implanted layers exhibited semiconducting behavior with a single exponential activation energy between 0.40 and 0.48 eV, as determined by temperature dependent resistance measurements. A sample implanted to a concentration of 5.10 19 Na + /cm 3 at 550 degrees C exhibited a single activation energy of 0.415 eV over a temperature range from 25 to 500 degrees C. Thermal annealing above 900 degrees C was found to remove implantation damage as measured by optical absorption and RBS/channeling. However, concomitant increases in the resistance and the activation energy were observed. Implantation of 22 Ne was used to introduce a damage density equivalent to the 23 Na implant, while not introducing an electrically active species. The activation energy and electrical resistance were similar but higher than those produced by implantation with sodium. We conclude that the electrical properties of the Na-implanted samples were at least partly due to electrically active Na, but that residual implantation damage was still important

  9. Localization Spectroscopy of a Single Ion in an Optical Lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, Olivier Philippe Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The work reported in this thesis primarily focuses on studies of the dynamics of a single laser-cooled ion, simultaneously confined in the harmonic potential of a linear Paul trap and a rapidly varying periodic potential – a so-called optical lattice – generated from an optical standing-wave. Bes......The work reported in this thesis primarily focuses on studies of the dynamics of a single laser-cooled ion, simultaneously confined in the harmonic potential of a linear Paul trap and a rapidly varying periodic potential – a so-called optical lattice – generated from an optical standing...... calibration and analysis of the detection system, several theoretical simulations of the expected dynamics and associated optical response of the ion were undertaken. Finally, a new laser source based on second harmonic generation was developed in order to perform laser-cooling of Ca+ ions, and to serve...

  10. Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Bing-Xi [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Jiao, Yang [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Guan, Jing [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Wang, Lei [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2015-07-01

    The rutile single crystals were implanted by 200 keV He{sup +} ions with a series fluence and annealed at different temperatures to investigate the blistering behavior. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, optical microscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to characterize the implantation induced lattice damage and blistering. It was found that the blistering on rutile surface region can be realized by He{sup +} ion implantation with appropriate fluence and the following thermal annealing.

  11. Integration of an ion engine on the Communications Technology Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W. F.; Finke, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    An ion engine subsystem intended for satellite stationkeeping tasks is described. Ion thrusters are chosen to perform the task because the specific impulse is at least an order of magnitude higher than the commonly used reaction control jets. The higher the value of specific impulse, the greater the total impulse that can be attained for a given weight of propellant, hence cost benefits result. The integration, subsystem testing, and the operating plans for the ion engine experiment to be flown in 1975 on the Canadian Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) are described. The subsystem is designed to demonstrate north-south stationkeeping, attitude control by means of thrust vectoring, long-term space storage and restart capability, and compatibility with a high powered communications transponder.

  12. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical miles...

  13. Single Ion Trapping for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, Samuel J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-03-28

    In the last decade, a variety of neutrino oscillation experiments have established that there is a mass difference between neutrino flavors, without determining the absolute neutrino mass scale. The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay (EXO) will search for the rare decays of xenon to determine the absolute value of the neutrino mass. The experiment uses a novel technique to minimize backgrounds, identifying the decay daughter product in real time using single ion spectroscopy. Here, we describe single ion trapping and spectroscopy compatible with the EXO detector. We extend the technique of single ion trapping in ultrahigh vacuum to trapping in xenon gas. With this technique, EXO will achieve a neutrino mass sensitivity of {approx_equal} .010 eV.

  14. Ion Source Multiplexing on a Single Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-03-06

    We present the simple approach for the combination of different ion sources on a single mass spectrometer without any interference between them. Each ion source can be positioned as far as 1 m from the mass spectrometer; ions are transported by the means of flexible copper tubes, which are connected, to the separate inlet capillaries. Special valves enable switching channels on and off. Using this approach, we successfully combined native electrospray ionization (ESI), regular ESI, β-electrons ionization, and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) of thermally desorbed vapors of petroleum on a single mass spectrometer. In addition, separate channels allow infusing internal calibration mixture or performing ion molecular reactions in one channel and using the other as a reference. Using this idea, we have developed an original sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH MS) approach in which peptide ions are transported in different channels, one of which is heated to high temperature so that ions are thermally fragmented, and the other channel ensures the presence of nonfragmented ions in the spectrum. Also, we demonstrated the possibility to perform gas phase H/D exchange reaction in one channel and using another as reference. Use of valves makes it possible to exclude any interference between them. Thus, we have demonstrated the possibility to create a multichannel system in which ions would be transported through several inlet tubes in which different ion molecular reactions such as Paternò-Büchi, ozonation, or H/D exchange will occur. Comparison of mass spectra recorded when different channels are open will provide structural and chemical information about unknown species.

  15. Modification of ion implanted or irradiated single crystal sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yin; Zhang Chonghong; Wang Zhiguang; Zhao Zhiming; Yao Cunfeng; Zhou Lihong; Jin Yunfan

    2006-01-01

    Single crystal sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ) samples were implanted at 600 K by He, Ne and Ar ions with energy of 110 keV to doses ranging from 5 x 10 16 to 2 x 10 17 ion/cm 2 or irradiated at 320 K by 208 Pb 27+ ion with energy of 1.1 MeV/u to the fluences ranging from 1 x 10 12 to 5 x 10 14 ion/cm 2 . The modification of structure and optical properties induced by ion implantation or irradiation were analyzed by using photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FTIR) spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. The PL measurements showed that absorption peaks located at 375, 413 and 450 nm appeared in all the implanted or irradiated samples, the PL intensities reached up to the maximum for the 5 x 10 16 ion/cm 2 implanted samples. After Pb-ion irradiation, a new peak located at 390 nm formed. TEM analyses showed that small size voids (1-2 nm) with high density were formed in the region from the surface till to about 100 nm in depth and also large size Ne-bubble formed in the Ne-doped region. Form the obtained FTIR spectra, it was found that Pb-ion irradiation induced broadening of the absorption band in 460-510 cm -1 and position shift of the absorption band in 1000-1300 cm -1 towards to high wavenumber. The possible damage mechanism in single crystal sapphire induced by energetic ion implantation or irradiation was briefly discussed. (authors)

  16. Ion Engine Plume Interaction Calculations for Prototypical Prometheus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Myron J.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Katz, Ira; Randolph, Tom; Dougherty, Ryan; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2005-01-01

    Prometheus 1 is a conceptual mission to demonstrate the use of atomic energy for distant space missions. The hypothetical spacecraft design considered in this paper calls for multiple ion thrusters, each with considerably higher beam energy and beam current than have previously flown in space. The engineering challenges posed by such powerful thrusters relate not only to the thrusters themselves, but also to designing the spacecraft to avoid potentially deleterious effects of the thruster plumes. Accommodation of these thrusters requires good prediction of the highest angle portions of the main beam, as well as knowledge of clastically scattered and charge exchange ions, predictions for grid erosion and contamination of surfaces by eroded grid material, and effects of the plasma plume on radio transmissions. Nonlinear interactions of multiple thrusters are also of concern. In this paper we describe two- and three-dimensional calculations for plume structure and effects of conceptual Prometheus 1 ion engines. Many of the techniques used have been validated by application to ground test data for the NSTAR and NEXT ion engines. Predictions for plume structure and possible sputtering and contamination effects will be presented.

  17. Performance Evaluation of the T6 Ion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, John Steven; Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.; Wallace, Neil C.; Simpson, Huw

    2010-01-01

    The T6 ion engine is a 22-cm diameter, 4.5-kW Kaufman-type ion thruster produced by QinetiQ, Ltd., and is baselined for the European Space Agency BepiColombo mission to Mercury and is being qualified under ESA sponsorship for the extended range AlphaBus communications satellite platform. The heritage of the T6 includes the T5 ion thruster now successfully operating on the ESA GOCE spacecraft. As a part of the T6 development program, an engineering model thruster was subjected to a suite of performance tests and plume diagnostics at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The engine was mounted on a thrust stand and operated over its nominal throttle range of 2.5 to 4.5 kW. In addition to the typical electrical and flow measurements, an E x B mass analyzer, scanning Faraday probe, thrust vector probe, and several near-field probes were utilized. Thrust, beam divergence, double ion content, and thrust vector movement were all measured at four separate throttle points. The engine performance agreed well with published data on this thruster. At full power the T6 produced 143 mN of thrust at a specific impulse of 4120 seconds and an efficiency of 64%; optimization of the neutralizer for lower flow rates increased the specific impulse to 4300 seconds and the efficiency to nearly 66%. Measured beam divergence was less than, and double ion content was greater than, the ring-cusp-design NSTAR thruster that has flown on NASA missions. The measured thrust vector offset depended slightly on throttle level and was found to increase with time as the thruster approached thermal equilibrium.

  18. Single domain antibodies in tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, E.D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate the potential of VHH in tissue engineering applications, with a focus on bone and cartilage tissue regeneration. After a general introduction to this thesis in chapter 1, the selection of VHH targeting growth factors is described in chapter 2. VHH were selected to target growth factors relevant in skeletal tissue engineering and VHH were found to modulate BMP activity with high affinity. Chapter 3 describes the immobilization of VHH and its potential t...

  19. Surface noise analysis using a single-ion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniilidis, N.; Gerber, S.; Bolloten, G.; Ramm, M.; Ransford, A.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Talukdar, I.; Häffner, H.

    2014-06-01

    We use a single-ion electric-field noise sensor in combination with in situ surface treatment and analysis tools, to investigate the relationship between electric-field noise from metal surfaces in vacuum and the composition of the surface. These experiments are performed in a setup that integrates ion trapping capabilities with surface analysis tools. We find that treatment of an aluminum-copper surface with energetic argon ions significantly reduces the level of room-temperature electric-field noise, but the surface does not need to be atomically clean to show noise levels comparable to those of the best cryogenic traps. The noise levels after treatment are low enough to allow fault-tolerant trapped-ion quantum information processing on a microfabricated surface trap at room temperature.

  20. Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Emily; Baek, So-Young; Blain, Matthew; Stick, Daniel; Gaultney, Daniel; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2013-09-01

    We trap individual 171Yb+ ions in a surface trap microfabricated on a silicon substrate, and demonstrate a complete set of high fidelity single qubit operations for the hyperfine qubit. Trapping times exceeding 20 min without laser cooling, and heating rates as low as 0.8 quanta ms-1, indicate stable trapping conditions in these microtraps. A coherence time of more than 1 s, high fidelity qubit state detection and single qubit rotations are demonstrated. The observation of low heating rates and demonstration of high quality single qubit gates at room temperature are critical steps toward scalable quantum information processing in microfabricated surface traps.

  1. Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, Emily; Baek, So-Young; Gaultney, Daniel; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang; Blain, Matthew; Stick, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We trap individual 171 Yb + ions in a surface trap microfabricated on a silicon substrate, and demonstrate a complete set of high fidelity single qubit operations for the hyperfine qubit. Trapping times exceeding 20 min without laser cooling, and heating rates as low as 0.8 quanta ms −1 , indicate stable trapping conditions in these microtraps. A coherence time of more than 1 s, high fidelity qubit state detection and single qubit rotations are demonstrated. The observation of low heating rates and demonstration of high quality single qubit gates at room temperature are critical steps toward scalable quantum information processing in microfabricated surface traps. (paper)

  2. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  3. Single domain antibodies in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, E.D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate the potential of VHH in tissue engineering applications, with a focus on bone and cartilage tissue regeneration. After a general introduction to this thesis in chapter 1, the selection of VHH targeting growth factors is described in chapter 2. VHH were

  4. Processing-property relationship in ion-exchanged ESP (engineered stress profile) glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Junwu

    2003-06-01

    A novel two-step ion exchange process was recently proposed to produce Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass. Important characteristics of ESP glass include high strength, relatively low strength variability and high surface damage resistance. It has been found that the mechanical reliability of ESP glass is mainly dependent on the processing conditions. Therefore, the primary objective of the current thesis is to quantitatively study the relationship between the mechanical properties of ESP glasses and the ion exchange processing conditions. Based on this relationship, processing conditions can be determined for any particular requirement of mechanical behavior for ion exchanged glass. To establish a property-processing relationship in ESP glasses, it is necessary to predict the stress profile in ion exchanged glass from the processing conditions. Since the residual stress profile in ion exchanged glass is mainly caused by the K/Na ion exchange and the stress relaxation, the diffusion process and the stress relaxation behavior of glass were studied. The K2O concentration profiles in singe-step and two-step ion exchanged soda lime silicate (SLS) glasses were calculated and found to be in a good agreement with the measured concentration profiles. The uniaxial compressive stress relaxation behavior of the SLS glass in the current thesis at typical ion exchange temperatures was studied. Since the surface composition in ion exchanged glass is significantly different from the composition of untreated glass, this composition difference could cause significant difference in glass properties including viscosity and stress relaxation. Therefore, properties of glasses with different K/Na ratios were studied, and empirical equations were obtained to estimate glass properties from the glass composition. Given the diffusion coefficient, surface concentration, composition-dependent dilation coefficient and stress relaxation data, residual stress profiles in ion-exchanged glasses

  5. Enriching lanthanide single-ion magnetism through symmetry and axiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep K; Murugavel, Ramaswamy

    2018-04-10

    Rapidly growing modern information technology demands energy and cost efficient tools that can efficiently store and process a large amount of data. However, the miniaturization technology that was being used to boost the performance of the electronic devices, keeping up with the pace as estimated by Moore's law, is reaching its limit. To overcome these challenges, several alternative routes that can eventually mimic the modern electronics fabrication using silicon have been proposed. Single molecule magnets (SMMs), being considered as one of the potential alternatives, have gone through significant progress and the focus has shifted from the use of polynuclear clusters to mononuclear complexes in the last few years. The recent frenzy in the field of SMMs is driven by a better understanding of the effects of crystal field (CF) and molecular symmetry on the magnetic properties, especially in the case of mononuclear paramagnetic complexes, apart from other controlling factors. This has led to the advent of highly anisotropic single-ion magnets (SIMs) with magnetic blocking temperatures as high as 60 K and anisotropic energy barriers over 1800 K. This article overviews our recent research in the light of the emergence of the importance of CF and symmetry in 4f ion based single-ion magnets (SIMs), especially in the context of SIMs with D5h symmetry, apart from commenting on the synthetic efforts adopted to place these metal ions in unusual coordination geometries.

  6. Single Gold Nanorod Charge Modulation in an Ion Gel Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sean S E; Wei, Xingzhan; McKenzie, Thomas G; Funston, Alison M; Mulvaney, Paul

    2016-11-09

    A reliable and reproducible method to rapidly charge single gold nanocrystals in a solid-state device is reported. Gold nanorods (Au NRs) were integrated into an ion gel capacitor, enabling them to be charged in a transparent and highly capacitive device, ideal for optical transmission. Changes in the electron concentration of a single Au NR were observed with dark-field imaging spectroscopy via localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) shifts in the scattering spectrum. A time-resolved, laser-illuminated, dark-field system was developed to enable direct measurement of single particle charging rates with time resolution below one millisecond. The added sensitivity of this new approach has enabled the optical detection of fewer than 110 electrons on a single Au NR. Single wavelength resonance shifts provide a much faster, more sensitive method for all surface plasmon-based sensing applications.

  7. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  8. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-10-04

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  9. Scaling properties in single collision model of light ion reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukanic, J.; Simovic, R.

    2004-01-01

    Light ion reflection from solids in the keV energy region has been studied within the single collision model. Particle and energy reflection coefficients as functions of the scaled transport cross section have been calculated numerically by utilizing the exact scattering function for the Kr-C potential and analytically with an effective power approximation for the same potential. The obtained analytical formulae approximate very accurately to the numerical results. Comparison of the calculated reflection coefficients with the experimental data and computer simulations for different light ion-heavy target combinations shows that the scaled transport cross section remains a convenient scaling parameter in the single collision domain, as adopted previously in multiple collision theory

  10. Single event upsets caused by solar energetic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylka, A.J.; Adams, J.H. Jr.; Boberg, P.R.; Smith, E.C.

    1996-01-01

    The authors calculate single event upset (SEU) rates due to protons, alphas, and heavier ions in two satellite systems for the major solar particle events of 1989--92, using a new and complete analysis of GOES proton data and high-energy heavy-ion fluences from the University of Chicago Cosmic Ray Telescope on IMP-8. These measurements cover the entire range of energies relevant to SEU studies and therefore overcome shortcomings of previous studies, which relied upon theoretical or semi-empirical estimates of high-energy heavy-ion spectra. They compare the results to the observed SEU rates in these events. The SEU rates in one device were overwhelmingly dominated by protons. However, even after taking into account uncertainties in the ground-test cross-section data, the authors find that at least ∼45% of the SEUs in the other device must have been caused by heavy ions. The results demonstrate that both protons and heavy ions must be considered in order to make a reliable assessment of SEU vulnerabilities. Furthermore, the GOES/Chicago database of solar particle events provides a basis for making accurate solar particle SEU calculations and credible worst-case estimates. In particular, measurements of the historic solar particle events of October 1989 are used in worst week and worst day environment models in CREME96, a revision of NRL's Cosmic Ray Effects on MicroElectronics code

  11. Conduction Mechanisms and Structure of Ionomeric Single-Ion Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Ralph H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Maranas, Janna K. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Runt, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Winey, Karen I. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Our team has designed using DFT (Gaussian) and synthesized low glass transition temperature single-ion conductors that are either polyanions that conduct small cations Li+, Na+, Cs+ or polycations that conduct small anions F-, OH-, Br-. We utilize a wide range of complimentary experimental materials characterization tools to understand ion transport; differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelasticity, X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. The glass transition temperature Tg needs to be as low as possible to facilitate ion transport, so the nonionic parts of the polymer need to be polar, flexible and have strong solvation interactions with the ions. The lowest Tg we have managed for polyanions conducting Li+ is -60 °C. In contrast, polysiloxanes with PEO side chains and tetrabutylphosphonium cationic side groups have Tg ≈ -75 °C that barely increases with ion content, as anticipated by DFT. A survey of all polyanions in the literature suggests that Tg < -80 °C is needed to achieve the 10-4 S/cm conductivity needed for battery separators.

  12. Applications of heavy ion microprobe for single event effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Sierawski, Brian; Warren, Kevin M.; Porter, Mark; Wilkinson, Jeff; Marshall, Paul W.; Niu, Guofu; Cressler, John D.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Tipton, Alan; Weller, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    The motion of ionizing-radiation-induced rogue charge carriers in a semiconductor can create unwanted voltage and current conditions within a microelectronic circuit. If sufficient unwanted charge or current occurs on a sensitive node, a variety of single event effects (SEEs) can occur with consequences ranging from trivial to catastrophic. This paper describes the application of heavy ion microprobes to assist with calibration and validation of SEE modeling approaches

  13. Toward Molecular 4f Single-Ion Magnet Qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kasper S; Ariciu, Ana-Maria; McAdams, Simon; Weihe, Høgni; Bendix, Jesper; Tuna, Floriana; Piligkos, Stergios

    2016-05-11

    Quantum coherence is detected in the 4f single-ion magnet (SIM) Yb(trensal), by isotope selective pulsed EPR spectroscopy on an oriented single crystal. At X-band, the spin-lattice relaxation (T1) and phase memory (Tm) times are found to be independent of the nuclei bearing, or not, a nuclear spin. The observation of Rabi oscillations of the spin echo demonstrates the possibility to coherently manipulate the system for more than 70 rotations. This renders Yb(trensal), a sublimable and chemically modifiable SIM, an excellent candidate for quantum information processing.

  14. Sculpting ion channel functional expression with engineered ubiquitin ligases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Scott A; Morgenstern, Travis

    2017-01-01

    The functional repertoire of surface ion channels is sustained by dynamic processes of trafficking, sorting, and degradation. Dysregulation of these processes underlies diverse ion channelopathies including cardiac arrhythmias and cystic fibrosis. Ubiquitination powerfully regulates multiple steps in the channel lifecycle, yet basic mechanistic understanding is confounded by promiscuity among E3 ligase/substrate interactions and ubiquitin code complexity. Here we targeted the catalytic domain of E3 ligase, CHIP, to YFP-tagged KCNQ1 ± KCNE1 subunits with a GFP-nanobody to selectively manipulate this channel complex in heterologous cells and adult rat cardiomyocytes. Engineered CHIP enhanced KCNQ1 ubiquitination, eliminated KCNQ1 surface-density, and abolished reconstituted K+ currents without affecting protein expression. A chemo-genetic variation enabling chemical control of ubiquitination revealed KCNQ1 surface-density declined with a ~ 3.5 hr t1/2 by impaired forward trafficking. The results illustrate utility of engineered E3 ligases to elucidate mechanisms underlying ubiquitin regulation of membrane proteins, and to achieve effective post-translational functional knockdown of ion channels. PMID:29256394

  15. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1 Ion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2008-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 minutes in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included a deep cold soak of the engine to temperatures of -168 C and thermal cycling from -120 to 203 C. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in some engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. In general, the NEXT PM1 engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. After resolution of the findings from this test program the hardware environmental qualification program can proceed with confidence.

  16. Choice of an ion engine for the Communications Technology Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W. F.; Bens, A. R.; Bassett, D. A.; Lovell, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the spacecraft is to space qualify a number of components for the next generation of communications satellites. The state of development of ion thrusters has reached a point where at least three types of engine may be considered for integration on spacecraft. The proposed methods of stationkeeping require that the thruster operate with a duty cycle of somewhat less than 12 hours in a 24 hour period. Several possible mounting positions for the thrusters were considered during the conceptual design phase. It is concluded that an experimental ion thruster subsystem may be incorporated in the communication satellite and used to demonstrate, at a minimum, north-south stationkeeping of the spacecraft in synchronous orbit.

  17. Design of a single ion facility and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The use of micro-irradiation techniques in radiobiology is not new; however, the current techniques take advantage of recent developments in particle delivery, focussing detection, image processing, cell recognition and computer control. These developments have generally come from other fields, for example microbeam elemental analysis techniques and single-event upset testing of semiconductor devices. Also in radiation biology there have been important advances in developments of individual cell assays, which allow a wide range of endpoints to be studied with good accuracy at low doses. Many of the studies that are planned involve following the responses of individual cells after a programmed exposure to charged-particle traversals. To probe the radiation sensitivity of a single cell and/or its constituents with a submicron resolution several developments are needed. The essential parameters of the proposed system can be summarised as follows: a focussed beam of ions of 300nm or less at the cell; a reliable (close to 100%) single ion detection; a fast beam switch to prevent second hits; a target holder adapted for the irradiation of wet cells and a fully automated system for cell recognition and single hits. 1 fig.

  18. Band gap engineering for graphene by using Na+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, S. J.; Lee, P. R.; Kim, J. G.; Ryu, M. T.; Park, H. M.; Chung, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the noble electronic properties of graphene, its industrial application has been hindered mainly by the absence of a stable means of producing a band gap at the Dirac point (DP). We report a new route to open a band gap (E g ) at DP in a controlled way by depositing positively charged Na + ions on single layer graphene formed on 6H-SiC(0001) surface. The doping of low energy Na + ions is found to deplete the π* band of graphene above the DP, and simultaneously shift the DP downward away from Fermi energy indicating the opening of E g . The band gap increases with increasing Na + coverage with a maximum E g ≥0.70 eV. Our core-level data, C 1s, Na 2p, and Si 2p, consistently suggest that Na + ions do not intercalate through graphene, but produce a significant charge asymmetry among the carbon atoms of graphene to cause the opening of a band gap. We thus provide a reliable way of producing and tuning the band gap of graphene by using Na + ions, which may play a vital role in utilizing graphene in future nano-electronic devices.

  19. View of the firing of a single engine OMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    View of a single engine orbital maneuvering system (OMS) firing on the Discovery. The payload bay is open and the protective canisters for the AUSSAT communications satellite (open) and the ASC-1 are visible. A cloudy Earth's horizon can be seen above the orbiter.

  20. Single-ion quantum lock-in amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Keselman, Anna; Ozeri, Roee

    2011-05-05

    Quantum metrology uses tools from quantum information science to improve measurement signal-to-noise ratios. The challenge is to increase sensitivity while reducing susceptibility to noise, tasks that are often in conflict. Lock-in measurement is a detection scheme designed to overcome this difficulty by spectrally separating signal from noise. Here we report on the implementation of a quantum analogue to the classical lock-in amplifier. All the lock-in operations--modulation, detection and mixing--are performed through the application of non-commuting quantum operators to the electronic spin state of a single, trapped Sr(+) ion. We significantly increase its sensitivity to external fields while extending phase coherence by three orders of magnitude, to more than one second. Using this technique, we measure frequency shifts with a sensitivity of 0.42 Hz Hz(-1/2) (corresponding to a magnetic field measurement sensitivity of 15 pT Hz(-1/2)), obtaining an uncertainty of less than 10 mHz (350 fT) after 3,720 seconds of averaging. These sensitivities are limited by quantum projection noise and improve on other single-spin probe technologies by two orders of magnitude. Our reported sensitivity is sufficient for the measurement of parity non-conservation, as well as the detection of the magnetic field of a single electronic spin one micrometre from an ion detector with nanometre resolution. As a first application, we perform light shift spectroscopy of a narrow optical quadrupole transition. Finally, we emphasize that the quantum lock-in technique is generic and can potentially enhance the sensitivity of any quantum sensor. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  1. Engineering the thermal conductivity along an individual silicon nanowire by selective helium ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunshan; Liu, Dan; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Liyan; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Burch, Matthew J.; Kim, Songkil; Hao, Hanfang; Pickard, Daniel S.; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.

    2017-06-01

    The ability to engineer the thermal conductivity of materials allows us to control the flow of heat and derive novel functionalities such as thermal rectification, thermal switching and thermal cloaking. While this could be achieved by making use of composites and metamaterials at bulk length-scales, engineering the thermal conductivity at micro- and nano-scale dimensions is considerably more challenging. In this work, we show that the local thermal conductivity along a single Si nanowire can be tuned to a desired value (between crystalline and amorphous limits) with high spatial resolution through selective helium ion irradiation with a well-controlled dose. The underlying mechanism is understood through molecular dynamics simulations and quantitative phonon-defect scattering rate analysis, where the behaviour of thermal conductivity with dose is attributed to the accumulation and agglomeration of scattering centres at lower doses. Beyond a threshold dose, a crystalline-amorphous transition was observed.

  2. Engineering the thermal conductivity along an individual silicon nanowire by selective helium ion irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunshan; Liu, Dan; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Liyan; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Unocic, Raymond R; Burch, Matthew J; Kim, Songkil; Hao, Hanfang; Pickard, Daniel S; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L

    2017-06-27

    The ability to engineer the thermal conductivity of materials allows us to control the flow of heat and derive novel functionalities such as thermal rectification, thermal switching and thermal cloaking. While this could be achieved by making use of composites and metamaterials at bulk length-scales, engineering the thermal conductivity at micro- and nano-scale dimensions is considerably more challenging. In this work, we show that the local thermal conductivity along a single Si nanowire can be tuned to a desired value (between crystalline and amorphous limits) with high spatial resolution through selective helium ion irradiation with a well-controlled dose. The underlying mechanism is understood through molecular dynamics simulations and quantitative phonon-defect scattering rate analysis, where the behaviour of thermal conductivity with dose is attributed to the accumulation and agglomeration of scattering centres at lower doses. Beyond a threshold dose, a crystalline-amorphous transition was observed.

  3. Photodynamic membrane damage at the level of single ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, L; Stark, G

    1997-07-05

    Illumination of cellular membranes by visible light in the presence of appropriate photosensitizers is known to inactivate specific ionic pathways and to increase the unspecific leak conductance of the membranes. While previous studies have concentrated on the macroscopic ionic currents, the present study separates the two phenomena at the microscopic level. Using opossum kidney (OK) cells as epithelial model system and photofrin II as sensitizer, the patch-clamp technique in inside-out configuration has been applied to show the inactivation of single ion channels immediately after start of illumination and the subsequent strong increase of the leak conductance. Inactivation is shown for two kinds of channels: the large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channel (maxi-K(Ca)) and the stretch-activated nonselective cation channel (SA-cat).

  4. A Method for Turbocharging Four-Stroke Single Cylinder Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos

    2014-11-01

    Turbocharging is not conventionally used with single cylinder engines due to the timing mismatch between when the turbo is powered and when it can deliver air to the cylinder. The proposed solution involves a fixed, pressurized volume - which we call an air capacitor - on the intake side of the engine between the turbocharger and intake valves. The capacitor acts as a buffer and would be implemented as a new style of intake manifold with a larger volume than traditional systems. This talk will present the flow analysis used to determine the optimal size for the capacitor, which was found to be four to five times the engine capacity, as well as its anticipated contributions to engine performance. For a capacitor sized for a one-liter engine, the time to reach operating pressure was found to be approximately two seconds, which would be acceptable for slowly accelerating applications and steady state applications. The air density increase that could be achieved, compared to ambient air, was found to vary between fifty percent for adiabatic compression and no heat transfer from the capacitor, to eighty percent for perfect heat transfer. These increases in density are proportional to, to first order, the anticipated power increases that could be realized. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374.

  5. Single-ion and single-chain magnetism in triangular spin-chain oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikh, Md. Motin; Caignaert, Vincent; Perez, Olivier; Raveau, Bernard; Hardy, Vincent

    2017-05-01

    S r4 -xC axM n2Co O9 oxides (x =0 and x =2 ) are found to exhibit magnetic responses typical of single-chain magnets (SCMs) and single-ion magnets (SIMs), two features generally investigated in coordination polymers or complexes. The compound x =0 appears to be a genuine SCM, in that blocking effects associated with slow spin dynamics yield remanence and coercivity in the absence of long-range ordering (LRO). In addition, SIM signatures of nearly identical nature are detected in both compounds, coexisting with SCM in x =0 and with LRO in x =2 . It is also observed that a SCM response can be recovered in x =2 after application of magnetic field. These results suggest that purely inorganic systems could play a valuable role in the topical issue of the interplay among SIM, SCM, and LRO phenomena in low-dimensional magnetism.

  6. Precise Thrust Actuation by a Micro RF Ion Engine, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a radio-frequency discharge, gridded micro ion engine that produces µN level of thrust precisely adjustable over a wide dynamic thrust...

  7. Lithium-ion battery materials and engineering current topics and problems from the manufacturing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gulbinska, Malgorzata K

    2014-01-01

    Gaining public attention due, in part,  to their potential application as energy storage devices in cars, Lithium-ion batteries have encountered widespread demand, however, the understanding of lithium-ion technology has often lagged behind production. This book defines the most commonly encountered challenges from the perspective of a high-end lithium-ion manufacturer with two decades of experience with lithium-ion batteries and over six decades of experience with batteries of other chemistries. Authors with years of experience in the applied science and engineering of lithium-ion batterie

  8. Engineering bispecificity into a single albumin-binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Nilvebrant

    Full Text Available Bispecific antibodies as well as non-immunoglobulin based bispecific affinity proteins are considered to have a very high potential in future biotherapeutic applications. In this study, we report on a novel approach for generation of extremely small bispecific proteins comprised of only a single structural domain. Binding to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α was engineered into an albumin-binding domain while still retaining the original affinity for albumin, resulting in a bispecific protein composed of merely 46 amino acids. By diversification of the non albumin-binding side of the three-helix bundle domain, followed by display of the resulting library on phage particles, bispecific single-domain proteins were isolated using selections with TNF-α as target. Moreover, based on the obtained sequences from the phage selection, a second-generation library was designed in order to further increase the affinity of the bispecific candidates. Staphylococcal surface display was employed for the affinity maturation, enabling efficient isolation of improved binders as well as multiparameter-based sortings with both TNF-α and albumin as targets in the same selection cycle. Isolated variants were sequenced and the binding to albumin and TNF-α was analyzed. This analysis revealed an affinity for TNF-α below 5 nM for the strongest binders. From the multiparameter sorting that simultaneously targeted TNF-α and albumin, several bispecific candidates were isolated with high affinity to both antigens, suggesting that cell display in combination with fluorescence activated cell sorting is a suitable technology for engineering of bispecificity. To our knowledge, the new binders represent the smallest engineered bispecific proteins reported so far. Possibilities and challenges as well as potential future applications of this novel strategy are discussed.

  9. Engineering in the energy sector. The single market and the engineering sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodrigues, A.

    1993-01-01

    Projects with large infrastructures, particularly those in the field of energy, provide a strong boost to certain industrial sectors in the country. In the case of Spain, the policy of direct management 'by components' of these projects - hydroelectric power plants, petrochemical plants, thermoelectric plants and nuclear power plants - adopted by the electric utility owners has furthered not only the local equipment manufacturing industry but also the engineering sector. At present, with full implementation of the Single Market in sight, it is particularly interesting for Spain to continue building up a powerful engineering sector, increasing its size and usefulness, and extending its traditional areas of action to other technologies, more on the lines of engineering and consulting firms in the USA than in the rest of Europe. The intention is to endow our equipment and construction companies with the skills necessary to enable them to compete with large European conglomerates in their respective sectors. The structure of these conglomerates usually contains engineering capabilities which are not habitual in our industry. Examples are given, showing how this model has been used to compete and win awards for important international projects. A specific analysis has been made of the position of Spanish engineering and industry in nuclear power generation projects in the former Soviet Union and East European countries, in which large investments are expected to be made. (author)

  10. Demonstration of Single-Barium-Ion Sensitivity for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A. D.; Jones, B. J. P.; Nygren, D. R.; Adams, C.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Guenette, R.; Hafidi, K.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Johnston, S.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Repond, J.; Renner, J.; Riordan, S.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.; NEXT Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double-beta decay of Xe 136 is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba++ ) resolution at a transparent scanning surface is demonstrated. A single-step photobleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with superresolution (˜2 nm ), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9 σ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double-beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers.

  11. Demonstration of Single-Barium-Ion Sensitivity for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A. D.; Jones, B. J. P.; Nygren, D. R.; Adams, C.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Guenette, R.; Hafidi, K.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Johnston, S.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Repond, J.; Renner, J.; Riordan, S.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2018-03-01

    A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba$^{++}$) resolution at a transparent scanning surface has been demonstrated. A single-step photo-bleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with super-resolution ($\\sim$2~nm), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9~$\\sigma$ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers.

  12. Engineering Single-Atom Cobalt Catalysts toward Improved Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gang; Yu, Pengfei; Chen, Hangrong; Wen, Jianguo; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Nian; Li, Qianru; Zhao, Wanpeng; Xie, Bing; Li, Tao; Shi, Jianlin

    2018-04-01

    The development of cost-effective catalysts to replace noble metal is attracting increasing interests in many fields of catalysis and energy, and intensive efforts are focused on the integration of transition-metal sites in carbon as noble-metal-free candidates. Recently, the discovery of single-atom dispersed catalyst (SAC) provides a new frontier in heterogeneous catalysis. However, the electrocatalytic application of SAC is still subject to several theoretical and experimental limitations. Further advances depend on a better design of SAC through optimizing its interaction with adsorbates during catalysis. Here, distinctive from previous studies, favorable 3d electronic occupation and enhanced metal-adsorbates interactions in single-atom centers via the construction of nonplanar coordination is achieved, which is confirmed by advanced X-ray spectroscopic and electrochemical studies. The as-designed atomically dispersed cobalt sites within nonplanar coordination show significantly improved catalytic activity and selectivity toward the oxygen reduction reaction, approaching the benchmark Pt-based catalysts. More importantly, the illustration of the active sites in SAC indicates metal-natured catalytic sites and a media-dependent catalytic pathway. Achieving structural and electronic engineering on SAC that promotes its catalytic performances provides a paradigm to bridge the gap between single-atom catalysts design and electrocatalytic applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Novel, Solvent-Free, Single Ion Conductive Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florjanczyk, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    This project report concerns studies on the synthesis of new polymer electrolytes for application in lithium and lithium-ion batteries characterized by limited participation of anions in the transport...

  14. Features of polyatomic ion emission under sputtering of a silicon single crystal by Au sub m sup - cluster ions

    CERN Document Server

    Akhunov, S; Rasulev, U K

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies of the emission of secondary cluster Si sub n sup + ions (n=1-11) and polyatomic Si sub n X sub l Y sub k sup + ions (X, Y are Au, B, C, N), as well as doubly charged Si sup 2 sup + ions under bombardment of single crystalline silicon by cluster Au sub m sup - (m=1-5) ions with energy E sub 0 =4-18 keV have been carried out. High non-additivity enhancement of the yield of the Si sub n sup + ions and most polyatomic ones has been observed with an increase of the number of atoms in the projectiles. For Si sup 2 sup + ions the negative non-additive effect has been observed. The increase in the yield of impurity-containing cluster Si sub n X sup + ions allows for an increase by a factor of 100-1000 for the sensitivity of the SIMS analysis of the Au, B, C, N impurities in Si with the use of cluster ions as primary and secondary ones.

  15. Spatially-Resolved Beam Current and Charge-State Distributions for the NEXT Ion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, James E.; Diamant, Kevin D.; Crofton, Mark W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Plume characterization tests with the 36-cm NEXT ion engine are being performed at The Aerospace Corporation using engineering-model and prototype-model thrusters. We have examined the beam current density and xenon charge-state distribution as functions of position on the accel grid. To measure the current density ratio j++/j+, a collimated Eprobe was rotated through the plume with the probe oriented normal to the accel electrode surface at a distance of 82 cm. The beam current density jb versus radial position was measured with a miniature planar probe at 3 cm from the accel. Combining the j++/j+ and jb data yielded the ratio of total Xe+2 current to total Xe+1 current (J++/J+) at forty operating points in the standard throttle table. The production of Xe+2 and Xe+3 was measured as a function of propellant utilization to support performance and lifetime predictions for an extended throttle table. The angular dependence of jb was measured at intermediate and far-field distances to assist with plume modeling and to evaluate the thrust loss due to beam divergence. Thrust correction factors were derived from the total doubles-to-singles current ratio and from the far-field divergence data

  16. Development of a keV single-ion-implanter for nanofabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Jamieson, D.N.; Hopf, T.; Tamanyan, G.; Spizziri, P.; Pakes, C.; Andresen, S.E.; Hudson, F.; Gauja, E.; Dzurak, A.; Clark, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional methods of doping semiconductors have a difficulty meeting the demand for high precision doping due to large statistical fluctuations in the numbers of dopant atoms introduced in the ever shrinking volume in micro- and nano-electronics devices, especially when the fabrication process approaches the nanometre scale. The statistical fluctuations in doping semiconductors for the fabrication of devices with a very small feature size may lead to inconsistent and unreliable performance. This paper describes the adaptation of a commercial ion implanter into a single-ion-implantation system for the accurate delivery of dopants into a nanometre or micrometre area in a silicon substrate. All the implanted ions can be accurately counted with near 100% certainty through online detection using the silicon substrate itself as an ion detector. A variety of ion species including B + , N + , P + at the energy range of 10-15 keV can be delivered in the single ion implantation system. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  17. Optimization of ECR singly-charged ion sources for the radioactive ion beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Jardin, P; Gaubert, G; Pacquet, J Y; Drobert, T; Cornell, J; Barue, C; Canet, C; Dupuis, M; Flambard, J L; Lecesne, N; Leherissier, P; Lemagnen, F; Leroy, R

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the transformation time of atoms into ions were carried out with two 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) in the case of the simple ionization of He, Ne, Ar and Kr gases. The effect of the plasma volume, of the dead volumes and of the ionization efficiency are presented. Some rules are deduced for the design of the next ECRIS dedicated to radioactive ion production with noble gases.

  18. A single-chain TALEN architecture for genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-03-04

    Transcription-activator like effector nucleases (TALENs) are tailor-made DNA endonucleases and serve as a powerful tool for genome engineering. Site-specific DNA cleavage can be made by the dimerization of FokI nuclease domains at custom-targeted genomic loci, where a pair of TALENs must be positioned in close proximity with an appropriate orientation. However, the simultaneous delivery and coordinated expression of two bulky TALEN monomers (>100 kDa) in cells may be problematic to implement for certain applications. Here, we report the development of a single-chain TALEN (scTALEN) architecture, in which two FokI nuclease domains are fused on a single polypeptide. The scTALEN was created by connecting two FokI nuclease domains with a 95 amino acid polypeptide linker, which was isolated from a linker library by high-throughput screening. We demonstrated that scTALENs were catalytically active as monomers in yeast and human cells. The use of this novel scTALEN architecture should reduce protein payload, simplify design and decrease production cost.

  19. Ion beam induced single phase nanocrystalline TiO2 formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukade, Deepti A.; Tribedi, L. C.; Bhattacharyya, Varsha

    2014-06-01

    Single phase TiO2 nanostructures are fabricated by oxygen ion implantation (60 keV) at fluence ranging from 1×1016 ions/cm2 to 1×1017 ions/cm2 in titanium thin films deposited on fused silica substrate and subsequent thermal annealing in argon atmosphere. GAXRD and Raman spectroscopy study reveals formation of single rutile phases of TiO2. Particle size is found to vary from 29 nm to 35 nm, establishing nanostructure formation. Nanostructure formation is also confirmed by the quantum confinement effect manifested by the blueshift of the UV-vis absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra show peaks corresponding to TiO2 rutile phase and reveal the presence of oxygen defects due to implantation. The controlled synthesis of single phase nanostructure is attributed to ion induced defects and post-implantation annealing. It is observed that the size of the nanostructures formed is strongly dependent on the ion fluence.

  20. Development of heavy-ion irradiation technique for single-event in semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Norio; Akutsu, Takao; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Naitoh, Ichiro; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Agematsu, Takashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Nashiyama, Isamu

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion irradiation technique has been developed for the evaluation of single-event effects on semiconductor devices. For the uniform irradiation of high energy heavy ions to device samples, we have designed and installed a magnetic beam-scanning system in a JAERI cyclotron beam course. It was found that scanned area was approximately 4 x 2 centimeters and that the deviation of ion fluence from the average value was less than 7%. (author)

  1. Action of age-hardening on the copper single crystals after ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kul'ment'eva, O.P.; Kul'ment'ev, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    High-dose implantation (up to (1-5)·10 17 cm -2 ) of tantalum ions into a copper single crystal of (100), (110) and (111) orientation has been investigated. Modified properties just after ion implantation and subsequent age-hardening during ten years were studied. It was shown that ion implantation and subsequent masstransfer process results in sufficient long-term stable changes of the microhardness. (authors)

  2. Production of multi-, oligo- and single-pore membranes using a continuous ion beam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Apel, P. Yu.; Ivanov, O.; Lizunov, N. E.; Mamonova, T. I.; Nechaev, A. N.; Olejniczak, K.; Vacík, Jiří; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 365, DEC (2015), s. 641-645 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ion beam * irradiation * ion track * etching * single nanopore Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2015

  3. Lattice location of platinum ions implanted into single crystal zirconia and their annealing behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, D.X. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Academia Sinica, Shanghai, SH (China). Shanghai Inst. of Nuclear Research; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Single crystal samples of (100) oriented cubic zirconia stabilised with 9.5 mol % yttria were implanted with platinum ions, using a metal vapour vacuum arc (MEVVA) high current ion implanter, to a nominal dose of 1x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The implanted samples were annealed isothermally in air ambient at 1200 deg C, from 1-24 hours. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Channeling (RBSC) of 2 MeV He ions are employed to determine depth distributions of ion damage, Pt ions and substitutionality of Pt ions before and after annealing. The damage behaviour, Pt migration and lattice location are discussed in terms of metastable phase formation and solid solubility considerations. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  5. Secondary electron emission from boron-doped diamond under ion impact: Applications in single-ion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, T.; Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Prawer, S.; Legge, G.J.; Butler, J.E.; Vestyck, D.J. , Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The secondary electron emission from a 2 μm thick boron-doped diamond film under ion (4.6 endash 7.7 MeV He + )impact is reported. The yield under ions impact is found to be remarkably high, stable over a period of many months, and independent of which side of the film (i.e., growth or substrate side) is exposed to the ion flux. By taking advantage of the high secondary-electron yield, the passage of each ion through the film could be detected with an efficiency of close to 100%, which to the best of our knowledge is the highest efficiency recorded to date for any thin-film window. This finding has an immediate application in single-ion irradiation systems where a thin vacuum window is required to allow extraction of an ion beam from the vacuum into air and at the same time offer 100% efficiency for the detection of the passage of the ion through the window. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Scanning probe microscopy of single Au ion implants in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vines, L.; Monakhov, E.; Maknys, K.; Svensson, B.G.; Jensen, J.; Hallen, A.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied 5 MeV Au 2+ ion implantation with fluences between 7 x 10 7 and 2 x 10 8 cm -2 in Si by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The DLTS measurements show formation of electrically active defects such as the two negative charge states of the divacancy (V 2 (=/-) and V 2 (-/0)) and the vacancy-oxygen (VO) center. It is observed that the intensity of the V 2 (=/-) peak is lower compared to that of V 2 (-/0) by a factor of 5. This has been attributed to a highly localized distribution of the defects along the ion tracks, which results in trapping of the carriers at V 2 (-/0) and incomplete occupancy of V 2 (=/-). The SCM measurements obtained in a plan view show a random pattern of regions with a reduced SCM signal for the samples implanted with fluence above 2 x 10 8 cm -2 . The reduced SCM signal is attributed to extra charges associated with acceptor states, such as V 2 (-/0), formed along the ion tracks in the bulk Si. Indeed, the electron emission rate from the V 2 (-/0) state is in the range of 10 kHz at room temperature, which is well below the probing frequency of the SCM measurements, resulting in 'freezing' of electrons at V 2 (-/0)

  7. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Omichi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  8. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  9. Reverse engineering of an affinity-switchable molecular interaction characterized by atomic force microscopy single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmetti, Dario; Bartels, Frank Wilco; Becker, Anke; Decker, Björn; Eckel, Rainer; McIntosh, Matthew; Mattay, Jochen; Plattner, Patrik; Ros, Robert; Schäfer, Christian; Sewald, Norbert

    2008-02-19

    Tunable and switchable interaction between molecules is a key for regulation and control of cellular processes. The translation of the underlying physicochemical principles to synthetic and switchable functional entities and molecules that can mimic the corresponding molecular functions is called reverse molecular engineering. We quantitatively investigated autoinducer-regulated DNA-protein interaction in bacterial gene regulation processes with single atomic force microscopy (AFM) molecule force spectroscopy in vitro, and developed an artificial bistable molecular host-guest system that can be controlled and regulated by external signals (UV light exposure and thermal energy). The intermolecular binding functionality (affinity) and its reproducible and reversible switching has been proven by AFM force spectroscopy at the single-molecule level. This affinity-tunable optomechanical switch will allow novel applications with respect to molecular manipulation, nanoscale rewritable molecular memories, and/or artificial ion channels, which will serve for the controlled transport and release of ions and neutral compounds in the future.

  10. The method and equipment for the investigation of ions orienting transmission through thin single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Soroka, V Y; Maznij, Y O

    2003-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to solve the task of angular distribution measurement of intensity strongly differentiated ions fluxes. Channeling effect makes this problem a regular feature of experimental study of ions orientating transmission through thin single crystals. The approach is based on the use of ions additional scattering by an amorphous (polycrystalline) target after passing through single crystal. The additional target manipulator is joined with the principal target chamber equipment with three-axis goniometer. The manipulator allows to move an additional target in the vicinity of the accelerator beam within the limits of +- 3 sup 0 in all directions and allows to measure the angular distribution of scattered ions with the accuracy of 1 min. The method and equipment were tested at the single ended electrostatic accelerator (EG-5) using a proton beam. At present the measurements have been resumed at the tandem accelerator (EG-10) of the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of U...

  11. Recent developments in the United Kingdom in ion implantation equipment for engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    Harwell has been particularly active in the development and commercial exploitation of low-cost, rugged, reliable and simple-to-operate equipment for implantation of engineering components with gaseous ions, especially nitrogen. Laboratory experiments show this to reduce mild abrasive wear in a wide range of materials by factors typically 2-10, provided operating temperatures remain below about 400 deg C. The latest nitrogen ion implantation machine (the Tecvac 221 model) embodies a substantial degree of flexibility, with cable-mounted ion sources and demountable target chambers. This enables wide ranges of workpiece size and shape to be accommodated. The latest development at Harwell is the large 'Blue Tank' ion implantation machine, currently the biggest in the world. This can treat workpieces up to 2 metres maximum dimension and 1 tonne weight using a bucket-type ion source capable of generating 35 mA of nitrogen ion beam current over an 800 mm diameter treatment area. This machine enables increased flexibility and reduced unit treatment costs for nitrogen ion implantation. Uptake of nitrogen ion implantation in British industry is increasing steadily. Key market sectors include the plastics processing industry (for extrusion screws, moulds and dies), as well as many other engineering sectors. A useful accessory to ion implantation developed at Harwell in conjunction with Millspin Limited, monitors nitrogen ion dose colour changes in anodised tantalum which can be compared against a calibrated standard. Accuracies of around 20 % at 2.5 x 10 17 nitrogen ions.cm -2 dose are achievable. (J.P.N.)

  12. Most spin-1/2 transition-metal ions do have single ion anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jia; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan, E-mail: hxiang@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: mike-whangbo@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Koo, Hyun-Joo [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Xiang, Hongjun, E-mail: hxiang@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: mike-whangbo@ncsu.edu [Key Laboratory of Computational Physical Sciences (Ministry of Education), State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Kremer, Reinhard K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-09-28

    The cause for the preferred spin orientation in magnetic systems containing spin-1/2 transition-metal ions was explored by studying the origin of the easy-plane anisotropy of the spin-1/2 Cu{sup 2+} ions in CuCl{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, LiCuVO{sub 4}, CuCl{sub 2}, and CuBr{sub 2} on the basis of density functional theory and magnetic dipole-dipole energy calculations as well as a perturbation theory treatment of the spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin orientation observed for these spin-1/2 ions is not caused by their anisotropic spin exchange interactions, nor by their magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, but by the spin-orbit coupling associated with their crystal-field split d-states. Our study also predicts in-plane anisotropy for the Cu{sup 2+} ions of Bi{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} and Li{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}. The results of our investigations dispel the mistaken belief that magnetic systems with spin-1/2 ions have no magnetic anisotropy induced by spin-orbit coupling.

  13. Single photons, dileptons and hadrons from relativistic heavy ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The production of single photons in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS as measured by the WA98 experiment is analysed. A quark gluon plasma is assumed to be formed initially, which expands, cools, hadronizes, and undergoes freeze-out. A rich hadronic equation of state is used and the transverse expansion of the ...

  14. Single photons, dileptons and hadrons from relativistic heavy ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The production of single photons in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS as measured by the WA98 experiment is analysed. A quark gluon plasma is assumed to be formed initially, which expands, cools, hadronizes, and undergoes freeze-out. A rich hadronic equation of state is used and the transverse expansion of ...

  15. Single event simulation for memories using accelerated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakagawa, Y.; Shiono, N.; Mizusawa, T.; Sekiguchi, M.; Sato, K.; Sugai, I.; Hirao, Y.; Nishimura, J.; Hattori, T.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the error immunity of the LSI memories from cosmic rays in space, an irradiation test using accelerated heavy ions is performed. The sensitive regions for 64 K DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) and 4 K SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) are determined from the irradiation test results and the design parameters of the devices. The observed errors can be classified into two types. One is the direct ionization type and the other is the recoil produced error type. Sensitive region is determined for the devices. Error rate estimation methods for both types are proposed and applied to those memories used in space. The error rate of direct ionization exceeds the recoil type by 2 or 3 orders. And the direct ionization is susceptible to shield thickness. (author)

  16. Genetically engineered multivalent single chain antibody constructs for cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surinder Batra, Ph D

    2006-02-27

    its tumor: normal tissue ratio for improved therapeutic index, we engineered a variety antibody constructs. These constructs were evaluated using novel approaches like special radionuclides, pretargeting and optimization. Due to the smaller size, the engineered antibody molecules should penetrate better throughout a tumor mass, with less dose heterogeneity, than is the case with intact IgG. Multivalent scFvs with an appropriate radionuclide, therefore, hold promising prospects for cancer therapy and clinical imaging in MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) responses in patients against antibody-based therapy are usually directed against the immunoglobulin constant regions; however, anti-idiotypic responses can also be detected. The HAMA responses reduce the efficacy of treatment by removing the circulating antibody molecules, fragments, and possibly scFvs by altering the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibody. HAMA responses against divalent IgG, divalent Ig fragments, and possibly multimeric scFvs could cause immune complex formation with hypersensitivity or allergic reactions that could be harmful to patients. The use of small molecules, such as scFvs (monomeric as well as multimeric), with their shorter biological half-lives and the lack of the constant regions and humanized variable (binding regions) performed in our studies should reduce the development of HAMA. The generation of humanized and fully human scFvs should further reduce the development of HAMA. Specific accomplishments on the project are the production of large amounts of recombinant antibodies as they are required in large amounts for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A variety of single-chain Fv (scFv) constructs were engineered for the desired pharmacokinetic properties. Tetrameric and dimeric scFvs showed a two-fold advantage: (1) there was a considerable gain in avidity as compared to smaller fragments, and (2) the biological half-life was more

  17. Genetically engineered multivalent single chain antibody constructs for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surinder Batra

    2006-01-01

    increase its tumor: normal tissue ratio for improved therapeutic index, we engineered a variety antibody constructs. These constructs were evaluated using novel approaches like special radionuclides, pretargeting and optimization. Due to the smaller size, the engineered antibody molecules should penetrate better throughout a tumor mass, with less dose heterogeneity, than is the case with intact IgG. Multivalent scFvs with an appropriate radionuclide, therefore, hold promising prospects for cancer therapy and clinical imaging in MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) responses in patients against antibody-based therapy are usually directed against the immunoglobulin constant regions; however, anti-idiotypic responses can also be detected. The HAMA responses reduce the efficacy of treatment by removing the circulating antibody molecules, fragments, and possibly scFvs by altering the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibody. HAMA responses against divalent IgG, divalent Ig fragments, and possibly multimeric scFvs could cause immune complex formation with hypersensitivity or allergic reactions that could be harmful to patients. The use of small molecules, such as scFvs (monomeric as well as multimeric), with their shorter biological half-lives and the lack of the constant regions and humanized variable (binding regions) performed in our studies should reduce the development of HAMA. The generation of humanized and fully human scFvs should further reduce the development of HAMA. Specific accomplishments on the project are the production of large amounts of recombinant antibodies as they are required in large amounts for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A variety of single-chain Fv (scFv) constructs were engineered for the desired pharmacokinetic properties. Tetrameric and dimeric scFvs showed a two-fold advantage: (1) there was a considerable gain in avidity as compared to smaller fragments, and (2) the biological half-life was more

  18. Thermal Development Test of the NEXT PM1 Ion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R.; Snyder, John S.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) is a next-generation high-power ion propulsion system under development by NASA as a part of the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program. NEXT is designed for use on robotic exploration missions of the solar system using solar electric power. Potential mission destinations that could benefit from a NEXT Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) system include inner planets, small bodies, and outer planets and their moons. This range of robotic exploration missions generally calls for ion propulsion systems with deep throttling capability and system input power ranging from 0.6 to 25 kW, as referenced to solar array output at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU). Thermal development testing of the NEXT prototype model 1 (PM1) was conducted at JPL to assist in developing and validating a thruster thermal model and assessing the thermal design margins. NEXT PM1 performance prior to, during and subsequent to thermal testing are presented. Test results are compared to the predicted hot and cold environments expected missions and the functionality of the thruster for these missions is discussed.

  19. Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u 136Xe ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Mingdong; Zhang Qingxiang; Liu Jie; Wang Zhiguang; Jin Yunfan; Zhu Zhiyong; Zhen Honglou; Liu Changlong; Chen Xiaoxi; Wei Xinguo; Zhang Lin; Fan Youcheng; Zhu Zhourong; Zhang Yiting

    2002-01-01

    Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u 136 Xe ions in different batches of 32k x 8 bits static random access memory are studied. The incident angle dependences of the cross sections for single event upset and single event latch up are presented. The SEE cross sections are plotted versus energy loss instead of linear energy transfer value in sensitive region. The depth of sensitive volume and thickness of 'dead' layer above the sensitive volume are estimated

  20. Imaging large cohorts of single ion channels and their activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia eHiersemenzel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As calcium is the most important signaling molecule in neurons and secretory cells, amongst many other cell types, it follows that an understanding of calcium channels and their regulation of exocytosis is of vital importance. Calcium imaging using calcium dyes such as Fluo3, or FRET-based dyes that have been used widely has provided invaluable information, which combined with modeling has estimated the sub-types of channels responsible for triggering the exocytotic machinery as well as inferences about the relative distances away from vesicle fusion sites these molecules adopt. Importantly, new super-resolution microscopy techniques, combined with novel Ca2+ indicators and imaginative imaging approaches can now define directly the nanoscale locations of very large cohorts of single channel molecules in relation to single vesicles. With combinations of these techniques the activity of individual channels can be visualized and quantified using novel Ca2+ indicators. Fluorescently labeled specific channel toxins can also be used to localize endogenous assembled channel tetramers. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and other single-photon-resolution spectroscopic approaches offer the possibility to quantify protein-protein interactions between populations of channels and the SNARE protein machinery for the first time. Together with simultaneous electrophysiology, this battery of quantitative imaging techniques has the potential to provide unprecedented detail describing the locations, dynamic behaviours, interactions and conductance activities of many thousands of channel molecules and vesicles in living cells.

  1. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of

  2. Miniaturization of electrostatic ion engines by ionization and acceleration coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, P.; Tchonang, M. P.

    2011-08-01

    We introduce a thruster concept where the same electric field is responsible for both ionization of the neutrals and acceleration of the ions, by letting the propellant gas escape into a high-field region through a thin, hollow needle at high electric potential. Ionization occurs via the corona mechanism. The configuration is very similar to the FEEP, the difference being in the ionization mechanism and the use of gaseous propellant. Although tests showed that such a thruster only ionizes a small fraction of the neutral gas (concept thruster was tested, whose mass was decent agreement. The tests were only suitable for initial data collection and the thruster only moderately resembled a working design, hence data such as efficiency cannot yet be meaningfully stated.

  3. Laser spectroscopic investigation of singly and doubly charged thorium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielking, Johannes; Meier, David-Marcel; Glowacki, Przemyslaw; Okhapkin, Maksim V.; Peik, Ekkehard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The {sup 229}Th isotope possesses a unique, low-energy nuclear isomeric state at about 7.8(5) eV. This fact has stimulated the development of novel ideas in the borderland between atomic and nuclear physics, for example the use as an optical nuclear clock. Since the required precise information on the isomer energy is not yet available, it is intensely searched for using different experimental approaches. For the excitation of the nuclear isomer via electronic bridge or NEET processes, we plan to use two-photon laser excitation of high-lying electronic levels in Th{sup +}. We recently expanded our search range to higher energies and measured 38 previously unknown energy levels in the range from 7.8 eV to 8.7 eV. We also prepare to study the nuclear structure of the isomeric state in cooperation with the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium at LMU Munich, using trapped recoil ions, where the isomeric state is populated via α-decay from {sup 233}U. For this purpose we investigate the hyperfine structure of suitable transitions of Th{sup 2+}.

  4. Transmission of Fast Highly Charged Ions through a Single Glass Macrocapillary and Polycarbonate Nanocapillary Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyad, A. M.; Dassanayake, B. S.; Keerthisinghe, D.; DeSilva, G. G.; Elkafrawy, T.; Kayani, N.; Tanis, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    Transmission of 3 MeV protons and 16 MeV O5+ ions through a single glass macrocapillary and a polycarbonate nanocapillary foil has been investigated. Results show that 3 MeV protons transmit through the capillary and the foils with little or no energy loss, while 16 MeV O5+ ions show transmission through the capillary and the foil with energy losses that vary with the tilt angle, and there are also changes in the charge state.

  5. Characterization of strained InGaAs single quantum well structures by ion beam methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.M.; Chan, K.T.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated strained InGaAs single quantum well structures using MeV ion beam methods. The structural properties of these structures, including composition and well size, have been studied. It has been found that the composition obtained by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and particle-induced x-ray emission techniques agrees very well with that obtained by the ion channeling method

  6. Effect of 120 MeV Ag9+ ion irradiation of YCOB single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun Kumar, R.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2012-09-01

    Single crystals of yttrium calcium oxy borate (YCOB) grown from boron-tri-oxide flux were subjected to swift heavy ion irradiation using silver Ag9+ ions from the 15 UD Pelletron facility at Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi. The crystals were irradiated at 1 × 1013, 5 × 1013 and 1 × 1014 ions/cm2 fluences at room temperature and with 5 × 1013 ions/cm2 fluence at liquid nitrogen temperature. The pristine and the irradiated samples were characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence studies. From the characterization studies performed on the samples, it is inferred that the crystals irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature had fewer defects compared to the crystals irradiated at room temperature and the defects increased when the ion fluence was increased at room temperature.

  7. SINGLE AND DOUBLE IMPRINTED POLYMER FOR SELECTIVE RECOGNITION OF Cd(II IONS IN AQUEOUS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Birlik ÖZKÜTÜK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of a new single and double-imprinted polymeric material for the separation of Cd(II ions in aqueous solutions. Chitosan has choosen as the Cd(II metal complexing big polymer for single and double imprinted polymers. In the synthesis of single imprinted polymer, Cd(II-complexed chitosan has crosslinked by epichlorohydrin. In the synthesis of double imprinted polymer, Cd(II-complexed chitosan was reacted with 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. Then, the polymeric beads have crosslinked with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS. The imprinted cadmium ions have removed from the polymeric matrix by 0.1M HNO3 (to prepare Cd(II templates. Optimum pH for rebinding of Cd(II on the single and double-imprinted polymers was 7.0. Equilibrium binding time and sorbent capacity have been found as 120 and 60 min, 342 and 172 mg g-1 for single and double imprinted polymers, respectively. In selectivity studies, it has been found that double imprinted results in increased affinity of the material toward Cd(II ion over other competitor metal ions with the same charge. The prepared single and double-imprinted polymers have repeatedly used and regenerated for thirty times without a significant decrease in polymer binding affinities.

  8. Ion beam synthesis of buried single crystal erbium silicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golanski, A.; Feenstra, R.; Galloway, M.D.; Park, J.L.; Pennycook, S.J.; Harmon, H.E.; White, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    High doses (10 16 --10 17 /cm 2 ) of 170 keV Er + were implanted into single-crystal left-angle 111 right-angle Si at implantation temperatures between 350 degree C and 520 degree C. Annealing at 800 degree C in vacuum following the implant, the growth and coalescence of ErSi 2 precipitates leads to a buried single crystalline ErSi 2 layer. This has been studied using Rutherford backscattering/channeling, X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional TEM and resistance versus temperature measurements. Samples implanted at 520 degree C using an Er dose of 7 x 10 16 /cm 2 and thermally annealed were subsequently used as seeds for the mesoepitaxial growth of the buried layer during a second implantation and annealing process. Growth occurs meso-epitaxially along both interfaces through beam induced, defect mediated mobility of Er atoms. The crystalline quality of the ErSi 2 layer strongly depends on the temperature during the second implantation. 12 refs., 4 figs

  9. Quantum ion-acoustic oscillations in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S.A. [Kyoto Univ., Katsura (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). National Centre for Physics; Iqbal, Z. [University of Management and Technology, Sialkot (Pakistan); Wazir, Z. [Riphah International Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Basic Sciences; Rehman, Aman ur [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-08-01

    Quantum ion-acoustic oscillations in single-walled carbon nanotubes are studied by employing a quantum hydrodynamics model. The dispersion equation is obtained by Fourier transformation, which exhibits the existence of quantum ion-acoustic wave affected by change of density balance due to presence of positive or negative heavy species as stationary ion clusters and wave potential at equilibrium. The numerical results are presented, and the role of quantum degeneracy, nanotube geometry, electron exchange-correlation effects, and concentration and polarity of heavy species on wave dispersion is pointed out for typical systems of interest.

  10. Quantum Ion-Acoustic Oscillations in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S. A.; Iqbal, Z.; Wazir, Z.; Aman-ur-Rehman

    2016-05-01

    Quantum ion-acoustic oscillations in single-walled carbon nanotubes are studied by employing a quantum hydrodynamics model. The dispersion equation is obtained by Fourier transformation, which exhibits the existence of quantum ion-acoustic wave affected by change of density balance due to presence of positive or negative heavy species as stationary ion clusters and wave potential at equilibrium. The numerical results are presented, and the role of quantum degeneracy, nanotube geometry, electron exchange-correlation effects, and concentration and polarity of heavy species on wave dispersion is pointed out for typical systems of interest.

  11. Feasibility of Observing and Characterizing Single Ion Strikes in Microelectronic Components.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bufford, Daniel Charles [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The transient degradation of semiconductor device performance under irradiation has long been an issue of concern. A single high-energy charged particle can degrade or permanently destroy the microelectronic component, potentially altering the course or function of the systems. Disruption of the the crystalline structure through the introduction of quasi-stable defect structures can change properties from semiconductor to conductor. Typically, the initial defect formation phase is followed by a recovery phase in which defect-defect or defect-dopant interactions modify the characteristics of the damaged structure. In this LDRD Express, in-situ ion irradiation transmission microscopy (TEM) in-situ TEM experiments combined with atomistic simulations have been conducted to determine the feasibility of imaging and characterizing the defect structure resulting from a single cascade in silicon. In-situ TEM experiments have been conducted to demonstrate that a single ion strike can be observed in Si thin films with nanometer resolution in real time using the in-situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope (I3TEM). Parallel to this experimental effort, ion implantation has been numerically simulated using Molecular Dynamics (MD). This numerical framework provides detailed predictions of the damage and follow the evolution of the damage during the first nanoseconds. The experimental results demonstrate that single ion strike can be observed in prototypical semiconductors.

  12. Single-ion and pair-interaction potentials near simple metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.N.; Barrera, R.G.; Cleveland, C.L.; Landman, U.

    1983-01-01

    Presented is a model for semi-infinite simple metals which does not require crystalline order or a single species, and thus is applicable to problems of defect energetics near the surface and random-alloy surfaces as well as ideal metal surfaces. The formulation is based on the use of ionic pseudopotentials and linear-response theory. An expression for the total energy is obtained which depends explicitly on ionic species and position. This expression is decomposed into a density-dependent term and single-ion and ionic pair-interaction potential terms. The single-ion potentials oscillate about a constant bulk value, with the magnitude of the oscillation decreasing rapidly away from the surface. The interaction between pairs of ions near the surface is shown to be a noncentral force interaction which differs significantly from the central-force bulk pair potential. The effect of quantum interference in the response of the semi-infinite electron gas to the ions is seen in both the single-ion and the pair-interaction potentials. Results are presented for the simple metals sodium, potassium, and rubidium

  13. Feasibility of Observing and Characterizing Single Ion Strikes in Microelectronic Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Bufford, Daniel Charles

    2015-01-01

    The transient degradation of semiconductor device performance under irradiation has long been an issue of concern. A single high-energy charged particle can degrade or permanently destroy the microelectronic component, potentially altering the course or function of the systems. Disruption of the the crystalline structure through the introduction of quasi-stable defect structures can change properties from semiconductor to conductor. Typically, the initial defect formation phase is followed by a recovery phase in which defect-defect or defect-dopant interactions modify the characteristics of the damaged structure. In this LDRD Express, in-situ ion irradiation transmission microscopy (TEM) in-situ TEM experiments combined with atomistic simulations have been conducted to determine the feasibility of imaging and characterizing the defect structure resulting from a single cascade in silicon. In-situ TEM experiments have been conducted to demonstrate that a single ion strike can be observed in Si thin films with nanometer resolution in real time using the in-situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope (I 3 TEM). Parallel to this experimental effort, ion implantation has been numerically simulated using Molecular Dynamics (MD). This numerical framework provides detailed predictions of the damage and follow the evolution of the damage during the first nanoseconds. The experimental results demonstrate that single ion strike can be observed in prototypical semiconductors.

  14. Exchange interaction of strongly anisotropic tripodal erbium single-ion magnets with metallic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreiser, Jan; Wäckerlin, Christian; Ali, Md. Ehesan

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of Er(trensal) single-ion magnets deposited in ultrahigh vacuum onto metallic surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the molecular structure is preserved after sublimation, and that the molecules are physisorbed on Au(111) while they are chemisorbed....... Furthermore XMCD indicates a weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the single-ion magnets and the ferromagnetic Ni/Cu(100) substrate. For the latter case, spin-Hamiltonian fits to the XMCD M(H) suggest a significant structural distortion of the molecules. Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals...

  15. Xenon gas field ion source from a single-atom tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Chun-Yueh; Chang, Wei-Tse; Li, Po-Chang; Fu, Tsu-Yi; Chang, Chia-Seng; Tsong, T. T.; Hwang, Ing-Shouh

    2017-06-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) systems have become powerful diagnostic and modification tools for nanoscience and nanotechnology. Gas field ion sources (GFISs) built from atomic-size emitters offer the highest brightness among all ion sources and thus can improve the spatial resolution of FIB systems. Here we show that the Ir/W(111) single-atom tip (SAT) can emit high-brightness Xe+ ion beams with a high current stability. The ion emission current versus extraction voltage was analyzed from 150 K up to 309 K. The optimal emitter temperature for maximum Xe+ ion emission was ˜150 K and the reduced brightness at the Xe gas pressure of 1 × 10-4 torr is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of a Ga liquid metal ion source, and four to five orders of magnitude higher than that of a Xe inductively coupled plasma ion source. Most surprisingly, the SAT emitter remained stable even when operated at 309 K. Even though the ion current decreased with increasing temperature, the current at room temperature (RT) could still reach over 1 pA when the gas pressure was higher than 1 × 10-3 torr, indicating the feasibility of RT-Xe-GFIS for application to FIB systems. The operation temperature of Xe-SAT-GFIS is considerably higher than the cryogenic temperature required for the helium ion microscope (HIM), which offers great technical advantages because only simple or no cooling schemes can be adopted. Thus, Xe-GFIS-FIB would be easy to implement and may become a powerful tool for nanoscale milling and secondary ion mass spectroscopy.

  16. Tuning Electronic Structure of Single Layer MoS2through Defect and Interface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Huang, Shengxi; Ji, Xiang; Adepalli, Kiran; Yin, Kedi; Ling, Xi; Wang, Xinwei; Xue, Jianmin; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Kong, Jing; Yildiz, Bilge

    2018-03-27

    Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have emerged in recent years as a special group of two-dimensional materials and have attracted tremendous attention. Among these TMD materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) has shown promising applications in electronics, photonics, energy, and electrochemistry. In particular, the defects in MoS 2 play an essential role in altering the electronic, magnetic, optical, and catalytic properties of MoS 2 , presenting a useful way to engineer the performance of MoS 2 . The mechanisms by which lattice defects affect the MoS 2 properties are unsettled. In this work, we reveal systematically how lattice defects and substrate interface affect MoS 2 electronic structure. We fabricated single-layer MoS 2 by chemical vapor deposition and then transferred onto Au, single-layer graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and CeO 2 as substrates and created defects in MoS 2 by ion irradiation. We assessed how these defects and substrates affect the electronic structure of MoS 2 by performing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies, and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy measurements. Molecular dynamics and first-principles based simulations allowed us to conclude the predominant lattice defects upon ion irradiation and associate those with the experimentally obtained electronic structure. We found that the substrates can tune the electronic energy levels in MoS 2 due to charge transfer at the interface. Furthermore, the reduction state of CeO 2 as an oxide substrate affects the interface charge transfer with MoS 2 . The irradiated MoS 2 had a faster hydrogen evolution kinetics compared to the as-prepared MoS 2 , demonstrating the concept of defect controlled reactivity in this phase. Our findings provide effective probes for energy band and defects in MoS 2 and show the importance of defect engineering in tuning the functionalities of MoS 2 and other TMDs in electronics, optoelectronics, and

  17. Single-photon emission correlated to double-electron capture by bare ions: background processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafrawy, T.; Warczak, A.; Simon, A.; Tanis, J. A.

    2013-09-01

    Radiative single- and double-electron capture are one-step processes where a single target electron or two target electrons, respectively, are captured to a bound state of a highly charged projectile with the simultaneous emission of a single photon. In ion-atom collisions, several background processes are likely to contribute to these processes and may interfere with the measured x-rays due to radiative single and double capture. In this study, possible contributions from radiative electron capture to the continuum, secondary electron bremsstrahlung, the two-step process of independent double radiative electron capture, as well as radiative- combined with nonradiative-electron capture are taken into account based on our analysis of the data for 2.21 MeV u-1 F9+ ions colliding with a thin carbon foil.

  18. Structural and optical properties of Cd2+ ion on the growth of sulphamic acid single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajyalakshmi, S.; Rao, Valluru Srinivasa; Reddy, P. V. S. S. S. N.; Krishna, V. Y. Rama; Samatha, K.; Rao, K. Ramachandra

    2016-05-01

    Transparent single crystals of Cadmium doped Sulphamic acid (SA) was grown by Conventional slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) which had the size of 13 × 8 × 7 mm3. The grown single crystals have been characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction UV-visible Spectral studies and Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency and the results were discussed. The lattice parameters of the grown Cd2+ ion doped SA crystal are confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and belong to orthorhombic system. Optical transmittance of the crystal was recorded using UV-vis NIR spectrophotometer with its lower cut off wavelength around 259nm. SHG measurements indicate that the SHG efficiency of the grown Cd2+ ion doped SA crystal at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm is approximately equal to KDP.

  19. Study of single and binary ion plasma expansion into laboratory-generated plasma wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, K.H. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Plasma expansion into the wake of a large rectangular plate immersed in a collisionless, supersonic plasma was investigated in laboratory experiments. The experimental conditions address both single ion and binary ion plasma flows for the case of a body whose size is large in comparison with the Debye length, when the potential difference between the body and the plasma is relatively small. A new plasma source was developed to generate equi-velocity, binary ion plasma flows, which allows access to new parameter space that have previously been unavailable for laboratory studies. Specifically, the new parameters are the ionic mass ratio and the ionic component density ratio. In a series of experiments, a krypton-neon plasma is employed where the ambient density ratio of neon to krypton is varied more than an order of magnitude. The expansion in both the single ion and binary ion plasma cases is limited to early times, i.e., a few ion plasma periods, by the combination of plasma density, plasma drift speed, and vacuum chamber size, which prevented detailed comparison with self-similar theory

  20. Ion beam induced single phase nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukade, Deepti A. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400098 (India); Tribedi, L.C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bhattacharyya, Varsha, E-mail: varsha.b1.physics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2014-06-15

    Single phase TiO{sub 2} nanostructures are fabricated by oxygen ion implantation (60 keV) at fluence ranging from 1×10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} to 1×10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} in titanium thin films deposited on fused silica substrate and subsequent thermal annealing in argon atmosphere. GAXRD and Raman spectroscopy study reveals formation of single rutile phases of TiO{sub 2}. Particle size is found to vary from 29 nm to 35 nm, establishing nanostructure formation. Nanostructure formation is also confirmed by the quantum confinement effect manifested by the blueshift of the UV–vis absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra show peaks corresponding to TiO{sub 2} rutile phase and reveal the presence of oxygen defects due to implantation. The controlled synthesis of single phase nanostructure is attributed to ion induced defects and post-implantation annealing. It is observed that the size of the nanostructures formed is strongly dependent on the ion fluence.

  1. Single-photon source engineering using a Modal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    Solid-state sources of single indistinguishable photons are of great interest for quantum information applications. The semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a host material represents an attractive platform to realize such a single-photon source (SPS). A near-unity efficiency, defined as the num...... nanowire SPSs...

  2. Experimental Evaluation of a Method for Turbocharging Four-Stroke, Single Cylinder, Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    Turbocharging an engine increases specific power, improves fuel economy, reduces emissions, and lowers cost compared to a naturally aspirated engine of the same power output. These advantages make turbocharging commonplace for multi-cylinder engines. Single cylinder engineers are not commonly turbocharged due to the phase lag between the exhaust stroke, which powers the turbocharger, and the intake stroke, when air is pumped into the engine. Our proposed method of turbocharging single cylinder engines is to add an ``air capacitor'' to the intake manifold, an additional volume that acts as a buffer to store compressed air between the exhaust and intake strokes, and smooth out the pressure pulses from the turbocharger. This talk presents experimental results from a single cylinder, turbocharged diesel engine fit with various sized air capacitors. Power output from the engine was measured using a dynamometer made from a generator, with the electrical power dissipated with resistive heating elements. We found that intake air density increases with capacitor size as theoretically predicted, ranging from 40 to 60 percent depending on heat transfer. Our experiment was able to produce 29 percent more power compared to using natural aspiration. These results validated that an air capacitor and turbocharger may be a simple, cost effective means of increasing the power density of single cylinder engines.

  3. Ion mass dependence for low energy channeling in single-wall nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Monte Carlo (MC) simulation program has been used to study ion mass dependence for the low energy channeling of natural- and pseudo-Ar ions in single-wall nanotubes. The MC simulations show that the channeling critical angle Ψ C obeys the (E) -1/2 and the (M 1 ) -1/2 rules, where E is the incident energy and M 1 is the ion mass. The reason for this may be that the motion of the channeled (or de-channeled) ions should be correlated with both the incident energy E and the incident momentum (2M 1 E) 1/2 , in order to obey the conservation of energy and momentum

  4. Heavy doping of CdTe single crystals by Cr ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Volodymyr D.; Böttger, Roman; Heller, Rene; Zhou, Shengqiang; Bester, Mariusz; Cieniek, Bogumil; Mroczka, Robert; Lopucki, Rafal; Sagan, Piotr; Kuzma, Marian

    2018-03-01

    Implantation of bulk CdTe single crystals with high fluences of 500 keV Cr+ ions was performed to achieve Cr concentration above the equilibrium solubility limit of this element in CdTe lattice. The structure and composition of the implanted samples were studied using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to characterize the incorporation of chromium into the host lattice and to investigate irradiation-induced damage build-up. It was found that out-diffusion of Cr atoms and sputtering of the targets alter the depth distribution and limit concentration of the projectile ions in the as-implanted samples. Appearance of crystallographically oriented, metallic α-Cr nanoparticles inside CdTe matrix was found after implantation, as well as a strong disorder at the depth far beyond the projected range of the implanted ions.

  5. Magnetic anisotropy of a Co-II single ion magnet with distorted trigonal prismatic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yan; Bodenstein, Tilmann; Fink, Karin

    2016-01-01

    (methanylylidene)) bis(2-methoxyphenol) coordinates to Co(II) does indeed lead to enhanced single-ion behaviour as has previously been predicted. Synthesis of the compound, structural information, and static as well as dynamic magnetic data are presented along with an analysis using quantum chemical ab initio......The single ion magnetic properties of Co(II) are affected by the details of the coordination geometry of the ion. Here we show that a geometry close to trigonal prismatic which arises when the ligand 6,6'-((1Z)-((piperazine-1,4-diylbis(propane-3,1-diyl)) bis(azanylylidene)) bis...... calculations. Though the complex shows a slight deviation from an ideal trigonal prismatic coordination, the zero-field splitting as well as the g-tensor are strongly axial with D = -41 cm(-1) and E

  6. Development of noise-suppressed detector for single ion hit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takuro; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Tamotsu; Hirao, Toshio; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A noise-suppressed detector for single ion detection has been developed, and combined with the heavy ion microbeam apparatus. This detector consists of a pair of micro channel plates (MCP`s) and a very thin carbon foil. The detection signal is formed by the coincidence of the signals from these MCP`s, so that this detector and the coincidence measurement unit can reduce miscounting in the circuit. The detection efficiency for 15 MeV heavy ions was evaluated to be comparable to that of a silicon surface-barrier detector (SSD) and the miscounting rate was 4 orders lower than the noise rate of a single MCP. The rise time of the detection signal was also estimated. (author)

  7. Surface structure modification of single crystal graphite after slow, highly charged ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaher, I.; Akcöltekin, S.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Manil, B.; Dey, K. R.; Been, T.; Boduch, P.; Rothard, H.; Schleberger, M.; Lebius, H.

    2018-04-01

    Single crystal graphite was irradiated by slow, highly charged ions. The modification of the surface structure was studied by means of Low-Energy Electron Diffraction. The observed damage cross section increases with the potential energy, i.e. the charge state of the incident ion, at a constant kinetic energy. The potential energy is more efficient for the damage production than the kinetic energy by more than a factor of twenty. Comparison with earlier results hints to a strong link between early electron creation and later target atom rearrangement. With increasing ion fluence, the initially large-scale single crystal is first transformed into μ m-sized crystals, before complete amorphisation takes place.

  8. Production of multi-, oligo- and single-pore membranes using a continuous ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, P.Yu., E-mail: apel@nrmail.jinr.ru [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Dubna International University, Universitetskaya Str. 19, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, O.M.; Lizunov, N.E.; Mamonova, T.I.; Nechaev, A.N. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Olejniczak, K. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina Str. 7, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Vacik, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute, ASCR, v.v.i., 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Dmitriev, S.N. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Ion track membranes (ITM) have attracted significant interest over the past two decades due to their numerous applications in physical, biological, chemical, biochemical and medical experimental works. A particular feature of ITM technology is the possibility to fabricate samples with a predetermined number of pores, including single-pore membranes. The present report describes a procedure that allowed for the production of multi-, oligo- and single-pore membranes using a continuous ion beam from an IC-100 cyclotron. The beam was scanned over a set of small diaphragms, from 17 to ∼1000 μm in diameter. Ions passed through the apertures and impinged two sandwiched polymer foils, with the total thickness close to the ion range in the polymer. The foils were pulled across the ion beam at a constant speed. The ratio between the transport speed and the scanning frequency determined the distance between irradiation spots. The beam intensity and the aperture diameters were adjusted such that either several, one or no ions passed through the diaphragms during one half-period of scanning. After irradiation, the lower foil was separated from the upper foil and was etched to obtain pores 6–8 μm in diameter. The pores were found using a color chemical reaction between two reagents placed on opposite sides of the foil. The located pores were further confirmed using SEM and optical microscopy. The numbers of tracks in the irradiation spots were consistent with the Poisson statistics. Samples with single or few tracks obtained in this way were employed to study fine phenomena in ion track nanopores.

  9. Potential of electric quadrupole transitions in radium isotopes for single-ion optical frequency standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions 7s (2)S(1/2)-(6)d (2)D(3/2), 6d (2)D(5/2) in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several

  10. Towards a Precise Measurement of Atomic Parity Violation in a Single Ra+ Ion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, K.; Giri, G. S.; Versolato, O. O.; Steadman, SG; Stephans, GSF; Taylor, FE

    2012-01-01

    In the singly charged Ra+ ion the contributions of the weak interactions to the atomic level energies are some 50 times larger than in the Cs atom. We report the results of laser spectroscopy experiments on Ra-209-214(+) isotopes in preparation of a precision atomic parity violation experiment.

  11. Dimer self-organization of impurity ytterbium ions in synthetic forsterite single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, V. F.; Sukhanov, A. A.; Dudnikova, V. B.; Zharikov, E. V.; Lis, D. A.; Subbotin, K. A.

    2017-07-01

    Paramagnetic centers formed by impurity Yb3+ ions in synthetic forsterite (Mg2SiO4) grown by the Czochralski technique are studied by X-band CW and pulsed EPR spectroscopy. These centers are single ions substituting magnesium in two different crystallographic positions denoted M1 and M2, and dimer associates formed by two Yb3+ ions in nearby positions M1. It is established that there is a pronounced mechanism favoring self-organization of ytterbium ions in dimer associates during the crystal growth, and the mechanism of the spin-spin coupling between ytterbium ions in the associate has predominantly a dipole-dipole character, which makes it possible to control the energy of the spin-spin interaction by changing the orientation of the external magnetic field. The structural computer simulation of cluster ytterbium centers in forsterite crystals is carried out by the method of interatomic potentials using the GULP 4.0.1 code (General Utility Lattice Program). It is established that the formation of dimer associates in the form of a chain parallel to the crystallographic axis consisting of two ytterbium ions with a magnesium vacancy between them is the most energetically favorable for ytterbium ions substituting magnesium in the position M1.

  12. Transport of ions and biomolecules through asymmetric single nanopores fabricated by heavy ion irradiation and chemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, R.; Siwy, Z.; Schiedt, B.; Toimil Molares, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the CRP 'Radiation Synthesis of Stimuli-responsive Membranes, Hydrogels and Adsorbents for Separation Purposes', GSI has worked on the production of polymeric single conical nanopores and the study of the ionic transport through these pores. To produce single-pore membranes, polyethylene teraphthalate (PET) and polyimide (PI) foils were first irradiated with GeV single heavy ions. By subsequent one-side etching, asymmetric nanopores were created. The diameter of the conical pores in PET varied between 4-20 nm at the small opening and several hundred nm at the large opening. In the case of PI, due to the higher bulk etching rate, the large aperture reached a few μm. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were measured at symmetric electrolyte conditions of KCl at various concentrations and pH values. It was found that conical nanopores with charged surfaces are cation selective, and show preferential cation flow (i.e. rectification) from the narrow entrance to the wide opening of the cone. Concentration and pH influence the rectification properties for both polymers was studied. The experimental results are in agreement with existing models. The transient transport properties of single PET and PI pores were also investigated. The ion current through PET nanopores fluctuates considerably, the fluctuation depending on the voltage, whereas PI nanopores display a stable current signal for KCl concentrations between 0.1 and 3 M, and pH values between 2 and 8. This different behavior has been attributed to the chemical structure of the two polymers influencing surface characteristics of the resulting nanopores. Finally, the application of polyimide conical nanopores as single-molecule-DNA sensors is being investigated. First results demonstrate their ability to detect individual plasmid DNA molecules. The nanopore sensor is also able to discriminate between DNA fragments of different lengths. (author)

  13. Deep level defects in 4H-SiC introduced by ion implantation: the role of single ion regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuović, Željko; Siegele, Rainer; Capan, Ivana; Brodar, Tomislav; Sato, Shin-Ichiro; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2017-11-29

    We characterized intrinsic deep level defects created in ion collision cascades which were produced by patterned implantation of single accelerated 2.0 MeV He and 600 keV H ions into n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers using a fast-scanning reduced-rate ion microbeam. The initial deep level transient spectroscopy measurement performed on as-grown material in the temperature range 150-700 K revealed the presence of only two electron traps, Z 1/2 (0.64 eV) and EH 6/7 (1.84 eV) assigned to the two different charge state transitions of the isolated carbon vacancy, V C (=/0) and (0/+). C-V measurements of as-implanted samples revealed the increasing free carrier removal with larger ion fluence values, in particular at depth corresponding to a vicinity of the end of an ion range. The first DLTS measurement of as-implanted samples revealed formation of additional deep level defects labelled as ET1 (0.35 eV), ET2 (0.65 eV) and EH3 (1.06 eV) which were clearly distinguished from the presence of isolated carbon vacancies (Z 1/2 and EH 6/7 defects) in increased concentrations after implantations either by He or H ions. Repeated C-V measurements showed that a partial net free-carrier recovery occurred in as-implanted samples upon the low-temperature annealing following the first DLTS measurement. The second DLTS measurement revealed the almost complete removal of ET2 defect and the partial removal of EH3 defect, while the concentrations of Z 1/2 and EH 6/7 defects increased, due to the low temperature annealing up to 700 K accomplished during the first temperature scan. We concluded that the ET2 and EH3 defects: (i) act as majority carrier removal traps, (ii) exhibit a low thermal stability and (iii) can be related to the simple point-like defects introduced by light ion implantation, namely interstitials and/or complex of interstitials and vacancies in both carbon and silicon sub-lattices.

  14. Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    A single-cylinder, four-stroke cycle diesel engine was operated on unstabilized water-in-fuel emulsions. Two prototype devices were used to produce the emulsions on-line with the engine. More than 350 test points were run with baseline diesel fuel an...

  15. Engineering an FMN-based iLOV protein for the detection of arsenic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Yuvaraj; Nadarajan, Saravanan Prabhu; Lee, Chong-Soon; Yun, Hyungdon

    2017-05-15

    Over the past few decades, genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been widely used as efficient probes to explore and investigate the roles of metal ions in biological processes. The discovery of small FMN-based fluorescent proteins, such as iLOV and FbFP, has enabled researchers to exploit these fluorescent reporter proteins for metal-sensing applications. In this study, we report the inherent binding properties of iLOV towards arsenic ions. The fluorescence quenching of iLOV was linearly related to the concentration of arsenic ions, and engineered proteins showed better sensitivity than the wild-type protein. Engineering key residues around the chromophore converted the iLOV protein into a highly sensitive sensor for As 3+ ions. iLOV N468S exhibited an improved binding affinity with a dissociation constant of 1.5 μM. Furthermore, the circular dichroism spectra indicated that the fluorescence quenching mechanism might be related to arsenic-protein complex formation. Thus, the reagentless sensing of arsenic can potentially be exploited to determine intracellular or environmental arsenic using a genetically encoded biosensing approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of H + ion implantation on structural, morphological, optical and dielectric properties of L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Kumar, P.; Bhagvannarayana, G.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2011-06-01

    L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate (LAHCl) single crystals have been implanted with 100 keV H + ions at different ion fluence ranging from 10 12 to 10 15 ions/cm 2. Implanted LAHCl single crystals have been investigated for property changes. Crystal surface and crystalline perfection of the pristine and implanted crystals were analyzed by atomic force microscope and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies, respectively. Optical absorption bands induced by colour centers, refractive index and birefringence, mechanical stability and dielectric constant of implanted crystals were studied at different ion fluence and compared with that of pristine LAHCl single crystal.

  17. Engineered two-dimensional Ising interactions in a trapped-ion quantum simulator with hundreds of spins

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britton, JW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available we set wr 2p 45 kHz so that the radial confinement is suf- ficiently weak that a cloud of ions relaxes into a single 2D plane (b 1). Upon Doppler laser cooling the ions? motional degrees of freedom (TCOM 1 mK) [30], the ions naturally form a 2D...

  18. Modification of mechanical properties of single crystal aluminum oxide by ion beam induced structural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensinger, W.; Nowak, R.; Horino, Y.; Baba, K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of ceramics is essentially determined by their surface qualities. As a surface modification technique, ion implantation provides the possibility to modify the mechanical properties of ceramics. Highly energetic ions are implanted into the near-surface region of a material and modify its composition and structure. Ions of aluminum, oxygen, nickel and tantalum were implanted into single-crystal α-aluminum oxide. Three-point bending tests showed that an increase in flexural strength of up to 30% could be obtained after implantation of aluminum and oxygen. Nickel and tantalum ion implantation increased the fracture toughness. Indentation tests with Knoop and Vickers diamonds and comparison of the lengths of the developed radial cracks showed that ion implantation leads to a reaction in cracking. The observed effects are assigned to radiation induced structural changes of the ceramic. Ion bombardment leads to radiation damage and formation of compressive stress. In case of tantalum implantation, the implanted near-surface zone becomes amorphous. These effects make the ceramic more resistant to fracture. (orig.)

  19. Sensitive detection of copper ions via ion-responsive fluorescence quenching of engineered porous silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jangsun; Hwang, Mintai P.; Choi, Moonhyun; Seo, Youngmin; Jo, Yeonho; Son, Jaewoo; Hong, Jinkee; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution has been a problem since the advent of modern transportation, which despite efforts to curb emissions, continues to play a critical role in environmental pollution. Copper ions (Cu2+), in particular, are one of the more prevalent metals that have widespread detrimental ramifications. From this perspective, a simple and inexpensive method of detecting Cu2+ at the micromolar level would be highly desirable. In this study, we use porous silicon nanoparticles (NPs), obtained via anodic etching of Si wafers, as a basis for undecylenic acid (UDA)- or acrylic acid (AA)-mediated hydrosilylation. The resulting alkyl-terminated porous silicon nanoparticles (APS NPs) have enhanced fluorescence stability and intensity, and importantly, exhibit [Cu2+]-dependent quenching of fluorescence. After determining various aqueous sensing conditions for Cu2+, we demonstrate the use of APS NPs in two separate applications - a standard well-based paper kit and a portable layer-by-layer stick kit. Collectively, we demonstrate the potential of APS NPs in sensors for the effective detection of Cu2+.

  20. Single Qubit Manipulation in a Microfabricated Surface Electrode Ion Trap (Open Access, Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    electrode ion trap with field compensation using a modulated Raman effect D T C Allcock, J A Sherman, D N Stacey et al. Spatially uniform single-qubit gate...in thermal states of motion G Kirchmair, J Benhelm, F Zähringer et al. Normal modes of trapped ions in the presence of anharmonic trap potentials J P...Qloaded = 280) [35]. New Journal of Physics 15 (2013) 093018 (http://www.njp.org/) 5 2.1 GHz Zeeman = 1.4 MHz/G 36 9. 5 nm HF = 12.6 GHz 171Yb+ 2P 1

  1. Changes in ion channel geometry resolved to sub-angstroem precision via single molecule mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Joseph W F; Kasianowicz, John J; Reiner, Joseph E [Semiconductor Electronics Division, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2010-11-17

    The ion channel formed by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin switches between multiple open conducting states. We describe a method for precisely estimating the changes in the ion channel geometry that correspond to these different states. Experimentally, we observed that the permeability of a single channel to differently sized poly(ethylene glycol) molecules depends on the magnitude of the open state conductance. A simple theory is proposed for determining changes in channel length of 4.2% and in cross-sectional area of - 0.4%.

  2. Single electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.

    1979-06-01

    The results of a Bevalac experiment to measure the single electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic (0.5 1 , and fully stripped, N 0 , ion beams emerging from the targets. Separate counters measured the number of ions in each charge state. The ratios N 1 /N 0 for different target thicknesses were fit to a simple growth curve to yield electron attachment and stripping cross sections. The data are compared to relativistic extrapolations of available theories. Clear evidence for two separate attachment processes, radiative and non-radiative, is found. Data are compared to a recently improved formulation for the stripping cross sections

  3. Single electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a Bevalac experiment to measure the single electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic (0.5 1 , and fully stripped, N 0 , ion beams emerging from the targets. Separate counters measured the number of ions in each charge state. The ratios N 1 /N 0 for different target thicknesses were fit to a simple growth curve to yield electron attachment and stripping cross sections. The data are compared to relativistic extrapolations of available theories. Clear evidence of two separate attachment processes, radiative and non-radiative, is found. Data are compared to a recently improved formulation for the stripping cross sections

  4. Magnetic Engine for the Single-Particle Landau Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Peña

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of the degeneracy factor in the energy levels of the well-known Landau problem for a magnetic engine. The scheme of the cycle is composed of two adiabatic processes and two isomagnetic processes, driven by a quasi-static modulation of external magnetic field intensity. We derive the analytical expression of the relation between the magnetic field and temperature along the adiabatic process and, in particular, reproduce the expression for the efficiency as a function of the compression ratio.

  5. The tensile effect on crack formation in single crystal silicon irradiated by intense pulsed ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guoying; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Haowen; Cui, Xiaojun; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Xiaofu; Yu, Xiao; Le, Xiaoyun

    2017-10-01

    Improving antifatigue performance of silicon substrate is very important for the development of semiconductor industry. The cracking behavior of silicon under intense pulsed ion beam irradiation was studied by numerical simulation in order to understand the mechanism of induced surface peeling observed by experimental means. Using molecular dynamics simulation based on Stillinger Weber potential, tensile effect on crack growth and propagation in single crystal silicon was investigated. Simulation results reveal that stress-strain curves of single crystal silicon at a constant strain rate can be divided into three stages, which are not similar to metal stress-strain curves; different tensile load velocities induce difference of single silicon crack formation speed; the layered stress results in crack formation in single crystal silicon. It is concluded that the crack growth and propagation is more sensitive to strain rate, tensile load velocity, stress distribution in single crystal silicon.

  6. Supersonic plasma beams with controlled speed generated by the alternative low power hybrid ion engine (ALPHIE) for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, L.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Donoso, J. M.; Damba, J.; Tierno, S. P.; Alamillo-Gamboa, E.; Castillo, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of supersonic ion beams from the alternative low power hybrid ion engine (ALPHIE) are discussed. This simple concept of a DC powered plasma accelerator that only needs one electron source for both neutral gas ionization and ion beam neutralization is also examined. The plasma production and space charge neutralization processes are thus coupled in this plasma thruster that has a total DC power consumption of below 450 W, and uses xenon or argon gas as a propellant. The operation parameters of the plasma engine are studied in the laboratory in connection with the ion energy distribution function obtained with a retarding-field energy analyzer. The ALPHIE plasma beam expansion produces a mesothermal plasma flow with two-peaked ion energy distribution functions composed of low and high speed ion groups. The characteristic drift velocities of the fast ion groups, in the range 36.6-43.5 Km/s, are controlled by the acceleration voltage. These supersonic speeds are higher than the typical ion sound velocities of the low energy ion group produced by the expansion of the plasma jet. The temperatures of the slow ion population lead to ion Debye lengths longer than the electron Debye lengths. Furthermore, the electron impact ionization can coexist with collisional ionization by fast ions downstream the grids. Finally, the performance characteristics and comparisons with other plasma accelerator schemes are also discussed.

  7. Damage evolution in Xe-ion irradiated rutile (TiO2) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.; Sickafus, K.E.; Evans, C.R.; Nastasi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Rutile (TiO 2 ) single crystals with (110) orientation were irradiated with 360 keV Xe 2+ ions at 300 K to fluences ranging from 2 x 10 19 to 1 x 10 20 Xe/m 2 . Irradiated samples were analyzed using: (1) Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy combined with ion channeling analysis (RBS/C); and (2) cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Upon irradiation to a fluence of 2 x 10 19 Xe/m 2 , the sample thickness penetrated by the implanted ions was observed to consist of three distinct layers: (1) a defect-free layer at the surface (thickness about 12 nm) exhibiting good crystallinity; (2) a second layer with a low density of relatively large-sized defects; and (3) a third layer consisting of a high concentration of small defects. After the fluence was increased to 7 x 10 19 Xe/m 2 , a buried amorphous layer was visible by XTEM. The thickness of the amorphous layer was found to increase with increasing Xe ion fluence. The location of this buried amorphous layer was found to coincide with the measured peak in the Xe concentration (measured by RBS/C), rather than with the theoretical maximum in the displacement damage profile. This observation suggests the implanted Xe ions may serve as nucleation sites for the amorphization transformation. The total thickness of the damaged microstructure due to ion irradiation was always found to be much greater than the projected range of the Xe ions. This is likely due to point defect migration under the high stresses induced by ion implantation

  8. Experimental investigations of a single cylinder genset engine with common rail fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Paras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance and emissions characteristics of compression ignition (CI engines are strongly dependent on quality of fuel injection. In an attempt to improve engine combustion, engine performance and reduce the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder constant speed genset engine, a common rail direct injection (CRDI fuel injection system was deployed and its injection timings were optimized. Results showed that 34°CA BTDC start of injection (SOI timings result in lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and smoke opacity. Advanced injection timings showed higher cylinder peak pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate due to relatively longer ignition delay experienced.

  9. Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zaid, M.

    2004-01-01

    A single cylinder Diesel engine study of water-in-Diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the effect of water emulsification on the engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Emulsified Diesel fuels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 water/Diesel ratios by volume, were used in a single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine, operating at 1200-3300 rpm. The results indicate that the addition of water in the form of emulsion improves combustion efficiency. The engine torque, power and brake thermal efficiency increase as the water percentage in the emulsion increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for 20% water emulsion is approximately 3.5% over the use of Diesel for the engine speed range studied. The proper brake specific fuel consumption and gases exhaust temperature decrease as the percentage of water in the emulsion increases

  10. Single-column ion chromatography with determination of hydrazoic acid produced in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guilan; Tan Shuping

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of hydrazine and its derivative with ammonium metavanadate may produce hydrazoic acid (HN 3 ). A single-column ion chromatography is used for the determination of HN 3 after neutralizing the rest acid in the sample with sodium hydroxide. Chromatography separation of HN 3 is carried out on a 25 cm x 0.46 cm (inside diameter) stainless steel column packed with Vydac IC302 ion Chromatography packing. The eluent is 1 mmol/L o-phthalic acid, and the ion is detected by conductivity detector. The detection limit in the presence chromatography is 5 μg/mL, the linear range is from 5 to 201 μg/mL, the linear correlation coefficient is 0.9994, respectively. The analysis accuracy is 2% for standard sample, and the detection limit is 51 μg/mL for HN 3 in the real sample. (authors)

  11. Single-photon source engineering using a Modal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    as the number of detected photons by the collection optics per trigger, is desired, and to obtain this high efficiency the photonic environment must be engineered [1] such that all the emitted light couples to the collection optics. A recent design approach is based on a quantum dot placed inside a photonic...... nanowire (Fig. 1). This structure does not feature a cavity but instead relies on a geometrical screening effect to efficiently couple photons to the fundamental waveguide mode. Furthermore, the photonic nanowire SPS implements a bottom metal mirror and exploits tapering strategies based on conical tapers...... to ensure efficient in- and out-coupling. However, the performance of the photonic nanowire SPS depends critically on the geometrical parameters, and exact optical simulations of the scattering coefficients of the fundamental waveguide mode are required to obtain a detailed understanding of the various...

  12. Charging the quantum capacitance of graphene with a single biological ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yung Yu; Pham, Ted D; Zand, Katayoun; Li, Jinfeng; Burke, Peter J

    2014-05-27

    The interaction of cell and organelle membranes (lipid bilayers) with nanoelectronics can enable new technologies to sense and measure electrophysiology in qualitatively new ways. To date, a variety of sensing devices have been demonstrated to measure membrane currents through macroscopic numbers of ion channels. However, nanoelectronic based sensing of single ion channel currents has been a challenge. Here, we report graphene-based field-effect transistors combined with supported lipid bilayers as a platform for measuring, for the first time, individual ion channel activity. We show that the supported lipid bilayers uniformly coat the single layer graphene surface, acting as a biomimetic barrier that insulates (both electrically and chemically) the graphene from the electrolyte environment. Upon introduction of pore-forming membrane proteins such as alamethicin and gramicidin A, current pulses are observed through the lipid bilayers from the graphene to the electrolyte, which charge the quantum capacitance of the graphene. This approach combines nanotechnology with electrophysiology to demonstrate qualitatively new ways of measuring ion channel currents.

  13. The single-ion anisotropy effects in the mixed-spin ternary-alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Erhan

    2018-04-01

    The effect of single-ion anisotropy on the thermal properties of the ternary-alloy in the form of ABpC1-p is investigated on the Bethe lattice (BL) in terms of exact recursion relations. The simulation on the BL consists of placing A atoms (spin-1/2) on the odd shells and randomly placing B (spin-3/2) or C (spin-5/2) atoms with concentrations p and 1 - p, respectively, on the even shells. The phase diagrams are calculated in possible planes spanned by the system parameters: temperature, single-ion anisotropy, concentration and ratio of the bilinear interaction parameters for z = 3 corresponding to the honeycomb lattice. It is found that the crystal field drives the system to the lowest possible state therefore reducing the temperatures of the critical lines in agreement with the literature.

  14. Modifying the properties of 4f single-ion magnets by peripheral ligand functionalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Ungur, Liviu; Sigrist, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We study the ligand-field splittings and magnetic properties of three ErIII single-ion magnets which differ in the peripheral ligand sphere but exhibit similar first coordination spheres by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and SQUID magnetometry. The INS spectra of the three compounds are profo......We study the ligand-field splittings and magnetic properties of three ErIII single-ion magnets which differ in the peripheral ligand sphere but exhibit similar first coordination spheres by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and SQUID magnetometry. The INS spectra of the three compounds...... allows for the extraction of the sign and magnitude of all symmetry-allowed Stevens parameters. The parameter values and the energy spectrum derived from INS are compared to the results of state-of-the-art ab initio CASSCF calculations. Temperature-dependent alternating current (ac) susceptibility...... measurements suggest that the magnetisation relaxation in the investigated temperature range of 1.9 K

  15. Combustion Property Analysis and Control System for the Dynamics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding to global environment problems in recent year, the technology for reducing fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission of engine was needed. Simulation of transient engine response is needed to predict engine performance that frequently experience rapid changes of speed. The aim of this research is to develop a non-linear dynamic control model for direct injection single cylinder diesel engine which can simulate engine performance under transient conditions. In this paper, the combustion model with multistage injection and conducted experiments in the transient conditions to clarify the combustion characteristics was proposed. In order to perform the analysis of acceleration operation characteristics, it was built a Model Predictive Control (MPC to reproduce the characteristic values of the exhaust gas and fuel consumption from the control parameters in particular. Finally, MPC is an effective method to perform the analysis of characteristic in diesel engine under transient conditions.

  16. Baseline performance and emissions data for a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezelick, R. A.; Mcfadden, J. J.; Ream, L. W.; Barrows, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive fuel consumption, mean effective cylinder pressure, and emission test results for a supercharged, single-cylinder, direct-injected, four-stroke-cycle, diesel test engine are documented. Inlet air-to-exhaust pressure ratios were varied from 1.25 to 3.35 in order to establish the potential effects of turbocharging techniques on engine performance. Inlet air temperatures and pressures were adjusted from 34 to 107 C and from 193 to 414 kPa to determine the effects on engine performance and emissions. Engine output ranged from 300 to 2100 kPa (brake mean effective pressure) in the speed range of 1000 to 3000 rpm. Gaseous and particulate emission rates were measured. Real-time values of engine friction and pumping loop losses were measured independently and compared with motored engine values.

  17. Investigating change of properties in gallium ion irradiation patterned single-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Quan, E-mail: wangq@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Dong, Jinyao; Bai, Bing [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xie, Guoxin [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-10-14

    Besides its excellent physical properties, graphene promises to play a significant role in electronics with superior properties, which requires patterning of graphene for device integration. Here, we presented the changes in properties of single-layer graphene before and after patterning using gallium ion beam. Combined with Raman spectra of graphene, the scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) image confirmed that a metal–insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. The changes in work function and Raman spectra of graphene indicated that the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. The patterning width of graphene presented an increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate. - Highlights: • The scanning capacitance microscopy image confirmed a metal–insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. • The changes indicated the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. • The patterning width of graphene presented a increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate.

  18. Investigating change of properties in gallium ion irradiation patterned single-layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Quan; Dong, Jinyao; Bai, Bing; Xie, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    Besides its excellent physical properties, graphene promises to play a significant role in electronics with superior properties, which requires patterning of graphene for device integration. Here, we presented the changes in properties of single-layer graphene before and after patterning using gallium ion beam. Combined with Raman spectra of graphene, the scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) image confirmed that a metal–insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. The changes in work function and Raman spectra of graphene indicated that the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. The patterning width of graphene presented an increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate. - Highlights: • The scanning capacitance microscopy image confirmed a metal–insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. • The changes indicated the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. • The patterning width of graphene presented a increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate.

  19. Single-crate stand-alone CAMAC control system for a negative ion source test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, R.C.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1979-01-01

    A single-crate CAMAC system was configured to control a negative ion source development facility at ORNL and control software was written for the crate microcomputer. The software uses inputs from a touch panel and a shaft encoder to control the various operating parameters of the test facility and uses the touch panel to display the operating status. Communication to and from the equipment at ion source potential is accomplished over optical fibers from an ORNL-built CAMAC module. A receiver at ion source potential stores the transmitted data and some of these stored values are then used to control discrete parameters of the ion source (i.e., power supply on or off). Other stored values are sent to a multiplexed digital-to-analog converter to provide analog control signals. A transmitter at ion source potential transmits discrete status information and several channels of analog data from an analog-to-digital converter back to the ground-potential receiver where it is stored to be read and displayed by the software

  20. Impact of temperature on single event upset measurement by heavy ions in SRAM devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tianqi; Geng Chao; Zhang Zhangang; Gu Song; Tong Teng; Xi Kai; Hou Mingdong; Liu Jie; Zhao Fazhan; Liu Gang; Han Zhengsheng

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of single event upset (SEU) measurement both in commercial bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) has been investigated by experiment in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). For commercial bulk SRAM, the SEU cross section measured by 12 C ions is very sensitive to the temperature. The temperature test of SEU in SOI SRAM was conducted by 209 Bi and 12 C ions, respectively, and the SEU cross sections display a remarkable growth with the elevated temperature for 12 C ions but keep constant for 209 Bi ions. The impact of temperature on SEU measurement was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. It is revealed that the SEU cross section is significantly affected by the temperature around the threshold linear energy transfer of SEU occurrence. As the SEU occurrence approaches saturation, the SEU cross section gradually exhibits less temperature dependency. Based on this result, the experimental data measured in HIRFL was analyzed, and then a reasonable method of predicting the on-orbit SEU rate was proposed. (semiconductor devices)

  1. Not Only Enthalpy: Large Entropy Contribution to Ion Permeation Barriers in Single-File Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Portella, Guillem; Hub, Jochen S.; Vesper, Martin D.; de Groot, Bert L.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of channel length on the barrier for potassium ion permeation through single-file channels has been studied by means of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Using series of peptidic gramicidin-like and simplified ring-structured channels, both embedded in model membranes, we obtained two distinct types of behavior: saturation of the central free energy barriers for peptidic channels and a linear increase in simplified ring-structured channels with increasing channel length. The...

  2. The rise of 3-d single-ion magnets in molecular magnetism: towards materials from molecules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jamie M; Harriman, Katie L M; Murugesu, Muralee

    2016-04-21

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) that contain one spin centre (so-called single-ion magnets) theoretically represent the smallest possible unit for spin-based electronic devices. The realisation of this and related technologies, depends on first being able to design systems with sufficiently large energy barriers to magnetisation reversal, U eff , and secondly, on being able to organise these molecules into addressable arrays. In recent years, significant progress has been made towards the former goal - principally as a result of efforts which have been directed towards studying complexes based on highly anisotropic lanthanide ions, such as Tb(iii) and Dy(iii). Since 2013 however, and the remarkable report by Long and co-workers of a linear Fe(i) system exhibiting U eff = 325 K, single-ion systems of transition metals have undergone something of a renaissance in the literature. Not only do they have important lessons to teach us about anisotropy and relaxation dynamics in the quest to enhance U eff , the ability to create strongly coupled spin systems potentially offers access to a whole of host of 1, 2 and 3-dimensional materials with interesting structural and physical properties. This perspective summarises recent progress in this rapidly expanding sub-genre of molecular magnetism from the viewpoint of the synthetic chemist, with a particular focus on the lessons that have so far been learned from single-ion magnets of the d-block, and, the future research directions which we feel are likely to emerge in the coming years.

  3. A generalized Jaynes-Cummings model: The relativistic parametric amplifier and a single trapped ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda-Guillén, D., E-mail: dojedag@ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Cómputo, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Bátiz esq. Av. Miguel Othón de Mendizábal, Col. Lindavista, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Mota, R. D. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Unidad Culhuacán, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Santa Ana No. 1000, Col. San Francisco Culhuacán, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04430 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Granados, V. D. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    We introduce a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model and study some of its properties. We obtain the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of this model by using the tilting transformation and the squeezed number states of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. As physical applications, we connect this new model to two important and novelty problems: the relativistic parametric amplifier and the quantum simulation of a single trapped ion.

  4. V79 cell survival after a single lithium ion nuclear traversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, M.; Buonanno, M.; Campajola, L.; Durante, M.; Grossi, G.; Publiese, G.; Scampoli, P.; Gialanella, G.; Manti, L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Biological studies on the effects of low doses of densely ionising radiation are highly influenced by the stochastic character of the energy deposition events. For several end-points, including clonogenic survival, to follow-up individual cells that have undergone an exactly determined number of charged particle traversals is highly desirable. While RBE-LET curves have been measured after conventional 'broad beam' irradiation with several ions of varying energies, the probability of cell survival after a single charged particle traversal has only been determined for accelerated protons and alpha particles, whereas the ability of single particle traversals at higher LET to cause clonogenic death is yet unknown. Recently, low dose studies have also shown phenomena of high interest, such as the hypersensitivity/induced radioresistance(HS/IRR) adaptive responses. However, for particles of high LET, even a single nuclear traversal may deliver an average dose to a single cell that may be beyond the dose region of the HS/IRR response. We ave set up an experimental apparatus for the determination of the inactivation cross section after an exactly known number of accelerated Lithium ions traversals (210 keV/micron when hitting the cell surface). Using a bio-stack approach (Pugliese et al, IJRB Oct;72(4):397-407 1997) LR115 thin nuclear track detectors have been employed for the direct visualisation of Lithium ion traversals in V79 cells nuclei that are labeled with Hoechst 33258. A computer software has been designed and implemented to control micro-meter movements of a motorised Marzhauser stage, mounted on a fluorescent microscope, for the acquisition of individual attached cell coordinates, type of traversal, as well as for re-visiting the registered coordinates for analysis of survivors. The V79 cell survival experiment after exactly known numbers of Lithium ions traversals is in progress, along with a classical 'broad beam' survival assay

  5. Heavy Ion Irradiation Fluence Dependence for Single-Event Upsets of NAND Flash Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Ladbury, Raymond; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Seidleck, Christina; LaBel, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the single-event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the Micron 16 nm NAND flash, and found the single-event upset (SEU) cross section varied inversely with fluence. The SEU cross section decreased with increasing fluence. We attribute the effect to the variable upset sensitivities of the memory cells. The current test standards and procedures assume that SEU follow a Poisson process and do not take into account the variability in the error rate with fluence. Therefore, heavy ion irradiation of devices with variable upset sensitivity distribution using typical fluence levels may underestimate the cross section and on-orbit event rate.

  6. Anisotropy effect of crater formation on single crystal silicon surface under intense pulsed ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Yu, Xiao; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Haowen; Cui, Xiaojun; Liang, Guoying; Yu, Xiang; Huang, Wanying; Shahid, Ijaz; Zhang, Xiaofu; Yan, Sha; Le, Xiaoyun

    2018-04-01

    Due to the induced extremely fast thermal and dynamic process, Intense Pulsed Ion Beam (IPIB) is widely applied in material processing, which can bring enhanced material performance and surface craters as well. To investigate the craters' formation mechanism, a specific model was built with Finite Element Methods (FEM) to simulate the thermal field on irradiated single crystal silicon. The direct evidence for the existence of the simulated 6-fold rotational symmetric thermal distribution was provided by electron microscope images obtained on single crystal silicon. The correlation of the experiment and simulation is of great importance to understand the interaction between IPIB and materials.

  7. Towards radiocarbon dating of single foraminifera with a gas ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, L.; Lippold, J.; Molnár, M.; Schulz, H.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate shells from foraminifera are often analysed for radiocarbon to determine the age of deep-sea sediments or to assess radiocarbon reservoir ages. However, a single foraminiferal test typically contains only a few micrograms of carbon, while most laboratories require more than 100 μg for radiocarbon dating with an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system. The collection of the required amount of foraminifera for a single analyses is therefore time consuming and not always possible. Here, we present a convenient method to measure the radiocarbon content of foraminifera using an AMS system fitted with a gas ion source. CO2 is liberated from 150 to 1150 μg of carbonate in septum sealed vials by acid decomposition of the carbonate. The CO2 is collected on a zeolite trap and subsequently transferred to a syringe from where it is delivered to the ion source. A sample of 400 μg (50 μg C) typically gives a 12C- ion source current of 10-15 μA over 20 min, yielding a measurement precision of less than 7 per mil for a modern sample. Using this method, we were able to date a single 560 μg Cibicides pseudoungerianus test at 14,030 ± 160 radiocarbon years. Only a minor modification to our existing gas handling system was required and the system is fully automatable to further reduce the effort involved for sample preparation.

  8. Towards radiocarbon dating of single foraminifera with a gas ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, L.; Lippold, J.; Molnár, M.; Schulz, H.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate shells from foraminifera are often analysed for radiocarbon to determine the age of deep-sea sediments or to assess radiocarbon reservoir ages. However, a single foraminiferal test typically contains only a few micrograms of carbon, while most laboratories require more than 100 μg for radiocarbon dating with an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system. The collection of the required amount of foraminifera for a single analyses is therefore time consuming and not always possible. Here, we present a convenient method to measure the radiocarbon content of foraminifera using an AMS system fitted with a gas ion source. CO 2 is liberated from 150 to 1150 μg of carbonate in septum sealed vials by acid decomposition of the carbonate. The CO 2 is collected on a zeolite trap and subsequently transferred to a syringe from where it is delivered to the ion source. A sample of 400 μg (50 μg C) typically gives a 12 C − ion source current of 10–15 μA over 20 min, yielding a measurement precision of less than 7 per mil for a modern sample. Using this method, we were able to date a single 560 μg Cibicides pseudoungerianus test at 14,030 ± 160 radiocarbon years. Only a minor modification to our existing gas handling system was required and the system is fully automatable to further reduce the effort involved for sample preparation.

  9. Towards radiocarbon dating of single foraminifera with a gas ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, L., E-mail: wacker@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Lippold, J. [Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Molnar, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Schulz, H. [Institute for Geosciencies, University of Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Carbonate shells from foraminifera are often analysed for radiocarbon to determine the age of deep-sea sediments or to assess radiocarbon reservoir ages. However, a single foraminiferal test typically contains only a few micrograms of carbon, while most laboratories require more than 100 {mu}g for radiocarbon dating with an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system. The collection of the required amount of foraminifera for a single analyses is therefore time consuming and not always possible. Here, we present a convenient method to measure the radiocarbon content of foraminifera using an AMS system fitted with a gas ion source. CO{sub 2} is liberated from 150 to 1150 {mu}g of carbonate in septum sealed vials by acid decomposition of the carbonate. The CO{sub 2} is collected on a zeolite trap and subsequently transferred to a syringe from where it is delivered to the ion source. A sample of 400 {mu}g (50 {mu}g C) typically gives a {sup 12}C{sup -} ion source current of 10-15 {mu}A over 20 min, yielding a measurement precision of less than 7 per mil for a modern sample. Using this method, we were able to date a single 560 {mu}g Cibicides pseudoungerianus test at 14,030 {+-} 160 radiocarbon years. Only a minor modification to our existing gas handling system was required and the system is fully automatable to further reduce the effort involved for sample preparation.

  10. A Forest of Sub-1.5-nm-wide Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes over an Engineered Alumina Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Li, Meng; Patscheider, Jörg; Youn, Seul Ki; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2017-04-01

    A precise control of the dimension of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in their vertical array could enable many promising applications in various fields. Here, we demonstrate the growth of vertically aligned, single-walled CNTs (VA-SWCNTs) with diameters in the sub-1.5-nm range (0.98 ± 0.24 nm), by engineering a catalyst support layer of alumina via thermal annealing followed by ion beam treatment. We find out that the ion beam bombardment on the alumina allows the growth of ultra-narrow nanotubes, whereas the thermal annealing promotes the vertical alignment at the expense of enlarged diameters; in an optimal combination, these two effects can cooperate to produce the ultra-narrow VA-SWCNTs. According to micro- and spectroscopic characterizations, ion beam bombardment amorphizes the alumina surface to increase the porosity, defects, and oxygen-laden functional groups on it to inhibit Ostwald ripening of catalytic Fe nanoparticles effectively, while thermal annealing can densify bulk alumina to prevent subsurface diffusion of the catalyst particles. Our findings contribute to the current efforts of precise diameter control of VA-SWCNTs, essential for applications such as membranes and energy storage devices.

  11. Surface engineering with ion beams: from self-organized nanostructures to ultra-smooth surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, F.; Ziberi, B.; Schindler, A.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2008-01-01

    Low-energy ion-beam sputtering, i.e. the removal of atoms from a surface due to the impact of energetic ions or atoms, is an inherent part of numerous surface processing techniques. Besides the actual removal of material, this surface erosion process often results in a pronounced alteration of the surface topography. Under certain conditions, sputtering results in the formation of well-ordered patterns. This self-organized pattern formation is related to a surface instability between curvature-dependent sputtering that roughens the surface and smoothing by different surface relaxation mechanisms. If the evolution of surface topography is dominated by relaxation mechanisms, surface smoothing can occur. In this presentation the current status of self-organized pattern formation and surface smoothing by low-energy ion-beam erosion of Si and Ge is summarized. In detail it will be shown that a multitude of patterns as well as ultra-smooth surfaces can develop, particularly on Si surfaces. Additionally, the most important experimental parameters that control these processes are discussed. Finally, examples are given for the application of low-energy ion beams as a novel approach for passive optical device engineering for many advanced optical applications. (orig.)

  12. Designing Single-Ion Magnets and Phosphorescent Materials with 1-Methylimidazole-5-carboxylate and Transition-Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valdivia, Antonio A; Seco, Jose M; Cepeda, Javier; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio

    2017-11-20

    Detailed structural, magnetic, and photoluminescence (PL) characterization of four new compounds based on 1-methylimidazole-5-carboxylate (mimc) ligand and transition metal ions, namely [Ni(mimc) 2 (H 2 O) 4 ] (1), [Co(μ-mimc) 2 ] n (2), {[Cu 2 (μ-mimc) 4 (H 2 O)]·2H 2 O} n (3), and [Cd(μ-mimc) 2 (H 2 O)] n (4) is reported. The structural diversity found in the family of compounds derives from the coordination versatility of the ligand, which coordinates as a terminal ligand to give a supramolecular network of monomeric entities in 1 or acts as a bridging linker to build isoreticular 2D coordination polymers (CPs) in 2-4. Magnetic direct-current (dc) susceptibility data have been measured for compounds 1-3 to analyze the exchange interactions among paramagnetic centers, which have been indeed supported by calculations based on broken symmetry (BS) and density functional theory (DFT) methodology. The temperature dependence of susceptibility and magnetization data of 2 are indicative of easy-plane anisotropy (D = +12.9 cm -1 , E = +0.5 cm -1 ) that involves a bistable M s = ±1/2 ground state. Alternating-current (ac) susceptibility curves exhibit field-induced single-ion magnet (SIM) behavior that occurs below 14 K, which is characterized by two spin relaxation processes of distinct nature: fast relaxation of single ions proceeding through multiple mechanisms (U eff = 26 K) and a slow relaxation attributed to interactions along the polymeric crystal building. Exhaustive PL analysis of compound 4 in the solid state confirms low-temperature phosphorescent green emission consisting of radiative lifetimes in the range of 0.25-0.43 s, which explains the afterglow observed during about 1 s after the removal of the UV source. Time-dependent DFT and computational calculations to estimate phosphorescent vertical transitions have been also employed to provide an accurate description of the PL performance of this long-lasting phosphor.

  13. Fast detection of narcotics by single photon ionization mass spectrometry and laser ion mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudien, Robert; Schultze, Rainer; Wieser, Jochen

    2010-10-01

    In this contribution two analytical devices for the fast detection of security-relevant substances like narcotics and explosives are presented. One system is based on an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) with single photon ionization (SPI). This soft ionization technique, unlike electron impact ionization (EI), reduces unwanted fragment ions in the mass spectra allowing the clear determination of characteristic (usually molecular) ions. Their enrichment in the ion trap and identification by tandem MS investigations (MS/MS) enables the detection of the target substances in complex matrices at low concentrations without time-consuming sample preparation. For SPI an electron beam pumped excimer light source of own fabrication (E-Lux) is used. The SPI-ITMS system was characterized by the analytical study of different drugs like cannabis, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, and some precursors. Additionally, it was successfully tested on-site in a closed illegal drug laboratory, where low quantities of MDMA could be directly detected in samples from floors, walls and lab equipments. The second analytical system is based on an ion mobility (IM) spectrometer with resonant multiphoton ionization (REMPI). With the frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm), used for ionization, a selective and sensitive detection of aromatic compounds is possible. By application of suited aromatic dopants, in addition, also non-aromatic polar compounds are accessible by ion molecule reactions like proton transfer or complex formation. Selected drug precursors could be successfully detected with this device as well, qualifying it to a lower-priced alternative or useful supplement of the SPI-ITMS system for security analysis.

  14. Multiple output power supply circuit for an ion engine with shared upper inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Jr., Gilbert I. (Inventor); Phelps, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A power supply circuit for an ion engine suitable for a spacecraft is coupled to a bus having a bus input and a bus return. The power supply circuit has a first primary winding of a first transformer. An upper inverter circuit is coupled to the bus input and the first primary winding. The power supply circuit further includes a first lower inverter circuit coupled to the bus return and the first primary winding. The second primary winding of a second transformer is coupled to the upper inverter circuit. A second lower inverter circuit is coupled to the bus return and the second primary winding.

  15. Power supply circuit for an ion engine sequentially operated power inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Jr., Gilbert I. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A power supply circuit for an ion engine suitable for a spacecraft has a voltage bus having input line and a return line. The power supply circuit includes a pulse width modulation circuit. A plurality of bridge inverter circuits is coupled to the bus and the pulse width modulation circuit. The pulse width modulation circuit generates operating signals having a variable duty cycle. Each bridge inverter has a primary winding and a secondary winding. Each secondary winding is coupled to a rectifier bridge. Each secondary winding is coupled in series with another of the plurality of rectifier bridges.

  16. High voltage series resonant inverter ion engine screen supply. [SCR series resonant inverter for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Shank, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A high-voltage, high-power LC series resonant inverter using SCRs has been developed for an Ion Engine Power Processor. The inverter operates within 200-400Vdc with a maximum output power of 2.5kW. The inverter control logic, the screen supply electrical and mechanical characteristics, the efficiency and losses in power components, regulation on the dual feedback principle, the SCR waveforms and the component weight are analyzed. Efficiency of 90.5% and weight density of 4.1kg/kW are obtained.

  17. Electric propulsion. [pulsed plasma thruster and electron bombardment ion engine for MSAT attitude control and stationkeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    An alternative propulsion subsystem for MSAT is presented which has a potential of reducing the satellite weight by more than 15%. The characteristics of pulsed plasma and ion engines are described and used to estimate of the mass of the propellant and thrusters for attitude control and stationkeeping functions for MSAT. Preliminary estimates indicate that the electric propulsion systems could also replace the large momentum wheels necessary to counteract the solar pressure; however, the fine pointing wheels would be retained. Estimates also show that either electric propulsion system can save approximately 18% to 20% of the initial 4,000 kg mass. The issues that require further experimentation are mentioned.

  18. Broadband single-pulse CARS spectra in a fired internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, D; Marko, K A; Rimai, L

    1981-04-01

    The first known broadband single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements within the cylinder of a firing internal combustion engine are reported. Postcombustion temperature and carbon monoxide concentration are probed with 1-mm(3) spatial resolution and 10-nsec temporal resolution. Space- and time-resolved measurements, as presented here, are shown to be necessary for the study of fluctuating systems such as engines.

  19. Salinity tolerance in plants. Quantitative approach to ion transport starting from halophytes and stepping to genetic and protein engineering for manipulating ion fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim eVolkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ion transport is the fundamental factor determining salinity tolerance in plants. The Review starts from differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes. The comparison provides introductory information for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion fluxes. Further steps require knowledge about mechanisms of ion transport and individual genes of ion transport proteins. Initially, the Review describes methods to measure ion fluxes, the independent set of techniques ensures robust and reliable basement for quantitative approach. The Review briefly summarises current data concerning Na+ and K+ concentrations in cells, refers to primary thermodynamics of ion transport and gives special attention to individual ion channels and transporters. Simplified scheme of a plant cell with known transport systems at the plasma membrane and tonoplast helps to imagine the complexity of ion transport and allows to choose specific transporters for modulating ion transport. The complexity is enhanced by the influence of cell size and cell wall on ion transport. Special attention is given to ion transporters and to potassium and sodium transport by HKT, HAK, NHX and SOS1 proteins. Comparison between nonselective cation channels and ion transporters reveals potential importance of ion transporters and the balance between the two pathways of ion transport. Further on the Review describes in detail several successful attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to promising candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. Potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters using single point mutations is

  20. Experimental characterization of mass, work and heat flows in an air cooled, single cylinder engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Blanco, H.

    2004-01-01

    Small air cooled engines, although large in numbers, receive scant attention in the literature. Experimental data for a four stroke, air cooled, single cylinder engine are presented in this report. Air to fuel ratios, indicated and output power, exhaust composition and heat loss are determined to result in suitable thermal and mechanical efficiencies. The data obtained are discussed with the perspective obtained from other literature references. Exhaust composition figures appear reasonable, but the measurement of the transient exhaust flows is still a concern. Based on the measurements, a graph illustrating the different energy transformations in the engine is produced. Undergraduate students in the curriculum routinely use the engine and the present work allows one to conclude that the measurement approach produces reasonable results. These results could be used by engine modelers and others interested in this wide field of technology

  1. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olejniczak, Andrzej, E-mail: aolejnic@chem.uni.torun.pl [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Skuratov, Vladimir A. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-01

    The effect of irradiation with swift heavy ions on the structure and properties of carbon nanotubes was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. It was found that disordering of the system occurred mainly at the surface. No ordering phenomena have been observed over a whole range of both fluences and electronic stopping powers studied. The disorder parameter (i.e., the ratio of the D and G band intensities (I{sub D}/I{sub G})) increases non-linearly with the irradiation dose, showing a tendency to saturate at high fluences. The increase in the disorder parameter upon irradiation was proportional to the square root of the ion fluence. The radiation stability of the few-walled nanotubes was ca. 1.6 higher than that of the single-walled ones. The irradiation with both the Xe and Kr ions leads to essentially the same increase in the I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio with respect to the deposited electronic energy density. In the case of the Ar ion irradiation, the observed increase in the I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio is much lower, suggesting that the electronic stopping power threshold for defects creation in carbon nanotubes is lower than that for graphite.

  2. Trapped-ion anomalous diffusion coefficient on the basis of single mode saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Yuji; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Ogasawara, Masatada.

    1982-03-01

    Expressions of the anomalous diffusion coefficient due to the dissipative trapped ion instability (DTII) are derived for the case with and without the effect of magnetic shear. Derivation is made by taking into account of the single mode saturation of the DTII previously obtained numerically. In the absence of the shear effect, the diffusion coefficient is proportional to #betta#sub(i)a 2 (#betta#sub(i) is the effective collision frequency of the trapped ions and a is the minor radius of a torus) and is much larger than the neoclassical ion heat conductivity. In the presence of the shear effect, the diffusion coefficient is much smaller than the Kadomtsev and Pogutse's value and is the same order of magnitude as the neoclassical ion heat conductivity. Dependences of the diffusion coefficient on the temperature and on the total particle number density are rather complicated due to the additional spectral cut-off, which is introduced to regularize the short wavelength modes in the numerical analysis. (author)

  3. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Ruqun; Wei, Junzhe; Guo, Jinlong; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10 −3 s −1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10 −2 s −1 .

  4. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua, E-mail: gh-du@impcas.ac.cn; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Ruqun; Wei, Junzhe [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Guo, Jinlong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou (China); Chen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou (China)

    2016-03-15

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}.

  5. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Chen, Hao; Wei, Junzhe

    2016-03-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10-3 s-1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10-2 s-1.

  6. Scattering of atomic and molecular ions from single crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoest, J.M. van.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with analysis of crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe with Low Energy Ion scattering Spectroscopy (LEIS). Different atomic and molecular ions with fixed energies below 7 keV are scattered by a metal single crystal (with adsorbates). The energy and direction of the scattered particles are analysed for different selected charge states. In that way information can be obtained concerning the composition and atomic and electronic structure of the single crystal surface. Energy spectra contain information on the composition of the surface, while structural atomic information is obtained by direction measurements (photograms). In Ch.1 a description is given of the experimental equipment, in Ch.2 a characterization of the LEIS method. Ch.3 deals with the neutralization of keV-ions in surface scattering. Two different ways of data interpretation are presented. First a model is treated in which the observed directional dependence of neutralization action of the first atom layer of the surface is presented by a laterally varying thickness of the neutralizing layer. Secondly it is shown that the data can be reproduced by a more realistic, physical model based on atomic transition matrix elements. In Ch.4 the low energy hydrogen scattering is described. The study of the dissociation of H 2 + at an Ag surface r0230ted in a model based on electronic dissociation, initialized by electron capture into a repulsive (molecular) state. In Ch.5 finally the method is applied to the investigation of the surface structure of oxidized Fe. (Auth.)

  7. Electrochemical lithium-ion storage properties of quinone molecules encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yosuke; Tashiro, Kosuke; Hosoe, Kento; Al-Zubaidi, Ayar; Kawasaki, Shinji

    2016-04-21

    We investigated the electrochemical lithium-ion storage properties of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PhQ) molecules encapsulated in the inner hollow core of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The structural properties of the obtained encapsulated systems were characterized by electron microscopy, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. We found that almost all quinone molecules encapsulated in the SWCNTs can store Li-ions reversibly. Interestingly, the undesired capacity fading, which comes from the dissolution of quinone molecules into the electrolyte, was suppressed by the encapsulation. It was also found that the overpotential of AQ was decreased by the encapsulation, probably due to the high-electric conductivity of SWCNTs.

  8. Swift heavy ion induced modifications of single walled carbon nanotube thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishalli, E-mail: vishalli_2008@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Raina, K.K. [Materials Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, P.O. Box 32, Patiala 147004, Punjab (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Srivastava, Alok [Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Thin films of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were prepared by Langmuir–Blodgett method and irradiated with swift heavy ions, carbon and nickel each of energy 60 MeV. The ion beams have different electronic energy loss (S{sub e}) values and the samples were exposed to various irradiation doses. The irradiated films were characterized using Raman and optical absorption spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy results indicate the competing processes of defect creation and healing (annealing) of SWCNTs at lower fluences, while at higher fluences defect creation or damage dominates. In UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy we find that there is decrease in the intensity of characteristic peaks with every increasing fluence, indicating decrease in the optically active states with irradiation.

  9. Investigation on optical absorption properties of ion irradiated single walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishalli,, E-mail: vishalli-2008@yahoo.com; Dharamvir, Keya, E-mail: keya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Kaur, Ramneek; Raina, K. K. [Materials Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala (India); Avasthi, D. K. [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, ArunaAsaf Ali Marg, NewDelhi (India); Jeet, Kiran [Electron Microscopy and Nanoscience laboratory, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana (India)

    2015-08-28

    In the present study change in the optical absorption properties of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) under nickel ion (60 MeV) irradiation at various fluences has been investigated. Langmuir Blodgett technique is used to deposit SWCNT thin film of uniform thickness. AFM analysis shows a network of interconnected bundles of nanotubes. UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra indicate that the sample mainly contain SWCNTs of semiconducting nature. It has been found in absorption spectra that there is decrease in the intensity of the characteristic SWCNT peaks with increase in fluence. At fluence value 1×10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} there is almost complete suppression of the characteristic SWCNTs peaks.The decrease in the optical absorption with increase in fluence is due to the increase in the disorder in the system which leads to the decrease in optically active states.

  10. Energy transduction and signal averaging of fluctuating electric fields by a single protein ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdia-Baguena, C; Gomez, V; Cervera, J; Ramirez, P; Mafe, S

    2016-12-21

    We demonstrate the electrical rectification and signal averaging of fluctuating signals using a biological nanostructure in aqueous solution: a single protein ion channel inserted in the lipid bilayer characteristic of cell membranes. The conversion of oscillating, zero time-average potentials into directional currents permits charging of a load capacitor to significant steady-state voltages within a few minutes in the case of the outer membrane porin F (OmpF) protein, a bacterial channel of Escherichia coli. The experiments and simulations show signal averaging effects at a more fundamental level than the traditional cell and tissue scales, which are characterized by ensembles of many ion channels operating simultaneously. The results also suggest signal transduction schemes with bio-electronic interfaces and ionic circuits where soft matter nanodiodes can be coupled to conventional electronic elements.

  11. An efficient single-step scheme for manipulating quantum information of two trapped ions beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.F.; Nori, Franco

    2003-01-01

    Based on the exact conditional quantum dynamics for a two-ion system, we propose an efficient single-step scheme for coherently manipulating quantum information of two trapped cold ions by using a pair of synchronous laser pulses. Neither the auxiliary atomic level nor the Lamb-Dicke approximation are needed

  12. Chiral spin currents in a trapped-ion quantum simulator using Floquet engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graß, Tobias; Celi, Alessio; Pagano, Guido; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    The most typical ingredient of topologically protected quantum states is magnetic fluxes. In a system of spins, complex-valued interaction parameters give rise to a flux, if their phases do not add up to zero along a closed loop. Here we apply periodic driving, a powerful tool for quantum engineering, to a trapped-ion quantum simulator in order to generate such spin-spin interactions. We consider a simple driving scheme, consisting of a repeated series of locally quenched fields, and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by studying the dynamics of a small system. An emblematic hallmark of the flux, accessible in experiments, is the appearance of chiral spin currents. Strikingly, we find that in parameter regimes where, in the absence of fluxes, phonon excitations dramatically reduce the fidelity of the spin model simulation, the spin dynamics remains widely unaffected by the phonons when fluxes are present. Our work provides a realistic experimental recipe to engineer the minimal building block of a topological quantum system with a currently existing ion trap apparatus.

  13. Numerical simulation study into the effect of a single heavy ion on a sub-micron CMOS device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detcheverry, C.; Lorfevre, E.; Bruguier, G.; Palau, J.M.; Gasiot, J.; Ecoffet, R.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses coupling between the MEDICI component simulator and the SPICE circuit simulator to study single-event-upset phenomena caused by a single ion on a 0.6 μm CMOS device. Results conforming closely to experimental values were obtained by adopting an appropriate mesh size, a hydrodynamic charge transport model (rather than a diffusion-conduction model), and realistic simulation of photon-induced carrier generation, to accurately model the ion passage and trajectory. (authors)

  14. Engineering study for the treatment of spent ion exchange resin resulting from nuclear process applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1990-09-01

    This document is an engineering study of spent ion exchange resin treatment processes with the purpose of identifying one or more suitable treatment technologies. Classifications of waste considered include all classes of low-level waste (LLW), mixed LLW, transuranic (TRU) waste, and mixed TRU waste. A total of 29 process alternatives have been evaluated. Evaluation parameters have included economic parameters (both total life-cycle costs and capital costs), demonstrated operability, environmental permitting, operational availability, waste volume reduction, programmatic consistency, and multiple utilization. The results of this study suggest that there are a number of alternative process configurations that are suitable for the treatment of spent ion exchange resin. The determinative evaluation parameters were economic variables (total life-cycle cost or capital cost) and waste volume reduction. Immobilization processes are generally poor in volume reduction. Thermal volume reduction processes tend to have high capital costs. There are immobilization processes and thermal volume reduction processes that can treat all classifications of spent ion exchange resin likely to be encountered. 40 refs., 19 figs., 17 tabs

  15. Engineering design and study of the beam position accuracy in the "Riesenrad" ion gantry

    CERN Document Server

    Reimoser, S A

    2001-01-01

    Beams of carbon ions are particularly well suited for radiotherapy. Their physical properties allow the 3D-conformal tumour irradiation with a sub-millimetre precision, provided that the beam is delivered by a rotating gantry equipped with a pencil-beam scanning system. However, the expected size and weight of such a carbon-ion gantry together with the requirement to direct the beam to the patient with an extreme position accuracy has so far prevented its realisation and stimulated the search for alternative solutions. One of them, the "Riesenrad" ion gantry, is introduced in the present paper. In contrast to conventional isocentric gantries, the main bending magnet of the Riesenrad is placed on the axis of gantry rotation, hence minimising the moment of inertia of the mobile structure and maximising its rigidity. The treatment cabin is smoothly moved towards the desired treatment position by a system that is mechanically de-coupled from the gantry. The engineering design as well as some aspects of the beam t...

  16. Single-Qubit-Gate Error below 0.0001 in a Trapped Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    nuclear spins in liquid-state nuclear-magnetic resonance experiments [6] and with neutral atoms confined in optical lattices [7]; here we demonstrate...Single trapped ion 2.0(2)×10−5 Reference [6] (2009) Nuclear magnetic resonance 1.3(1)×10−4 Reference [7] (2010) Atoms in an optical lattice 1.4(1)×10...determined by comparing the qubit frequency measured in a Ramsey experiment with that of a Rabi experiment. Such back-to-back comparisons yielded values

  17. Machining with micro-size single crystalline diamond tools fabricated by a focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, X; Butler, D L; Lim, G C; Shaw, K C; Liu, K; Fong, W S; Zheng, H Y; Cheng, C K

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to understand the physics of micro-scale mechanical machining (henceforth referred to as 'micro-machining') with a micro-size tool using a five-axis ultra-precision machine. A micro-size single crystalline diamond (SCD) tool with sharp cutting edges fabricated by a focused ion beam (FIB) was employed to orthogonal-machine four materials (three polycrystalline metals with various grain sizes and one amorphous metal plating material). Since the wealth of knowledge of macro-machining cannot be successfully used in micro-machining, this study contributes to the understanding of the physics of mechanical machining with micro-size tools

  18. Rational Design of Lanthanoid Single-Ion Magnets: Predictive Power of the Theoretical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoví, José J; Duan, Yan; Morales, Roser; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Ruiz, Eliseo; Coronado, Eugenio

    2016-09-12

    We report two new single-ion magnets (SIMs) of a family of oxydiacetate lanthanide complexes with D3 symmetry to test the predictive capabilities of complete active space ab initio methods (CASSCF and CASPT2) and the semiempirical radial effective charge (REC) model. Comparison of the theoretical predictions of the energy levels, wave functions and magnetic properties with detailed spectroscopic and magnetic characterisation is used to critically discuss the limitations of these theoretical approaches. The need for spectroscopic information for a reliable description of the properties of lanthanide SIMs is emphasised. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Subattoampere current induced by single ions in silicon oxide layers of nonvolatile memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Larcher, L.; Visconti, A.; Bonanomi, M.

    2006-01-01

    A single ion impinging on a thin silicon dioxide layer generates a number of electron/hole pairs proportional to its linear energy transfer coefficient. Defects generated by recombination can act as a conductive path for electrons that cross the oxide barrier, thanks to a multitrap-assisted mechanism. We present data on the dependence of this phenomenon on the oxide thickness by using floating gate memory arrays. The tiny number of excess electrons stored in these devices allows for extremely high sensitivity, impossible with any direct measurement of oxide leakage current. Results are of particular interest for next generation devices

  20. Fracture analysis of surface exfoliation on single crystal silicon irradiated by intense pulsed ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Shahid, Ijaz; Yu, Xiao; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Haowen; Cui, Xiaojun; Liang, Guoying; Yu, Xiang; Huang, Wanying; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Gaolong; Zhang, Xiaofu; Le, Xiaoyun

    2017-12-01

    Surface exfoliation was observed on single crystal silicon surface irradiated by Intense Pulsed Ion Beam (IPIB). As the strong transient thermal stress impact induced by IPIB was mainly attributed to the exfoliation, a micro scale model combined with thermal conduction and linear elastic fracture mechanics was built to analyze the thermal stress distribution along the energy deposition process. After computation with finite element method, J integral parameter was applied as the criterion for crack development. It was demonstrated that the exfoliation initiation calls for specific material, crack depth and IPIB parameter. The results are potentially valuable for beam/target selection and IPIB parameter optimization.

  1. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of a single cylinder research engine working with biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldovanu Dan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to present the results of the CFD simulation of a DI single cylinder engine using diesel, biodiesel, or different mixture proportions of diesel and biodiesel and compare the results to a test bed measurement in the same functioning point. The engine used for verifying the results of the simulation is a single cylinder research engine from AVL with an open ECU, so that the injection timings and quantities can be controlled and analyzed. In Romania, until the year 2020 all the fuel stations are obliged to have mixtures of at least 10% biodiesel in diesel [14]. The main advantages using mixtures of biofuels in diesel are: the fact that biodiesel is not harmful to the environment; in order to use biodiesel in your engine no modifications are required; the price of biodiesel is smaller than diesel and also if we compare biodiesel production to the classic petroleum based diesel production, it is more energy efficient; biodiesel assures more lubrication to the engine so the life of the engine is increased; biodiesel is a sustainable fuel; using biodiesel helps maintain the environment and it keeps the people more healthy [1-3].

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption of uranium ions diluted in CdF2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, J.J.C.R.

    1976-08-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been studied in conection with the optical absortion spectra of Uranium ions diluted in CdF 2 single crystals. Analyses of the EPR and optical absorption spectra obtained experimentally, and a comparison with known results in the isomorfic CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 , allowed the identification of two paramagnetic centers associated with Uranium ions. These are the U(2+) ion in cubic symmetry having the triplet γ 5 as ground state, and the U(3+) ion in cubic symmetry having the dublet γ 6 as ground state. (Author) [pt

  3. Semiconductor laser engineering, reliability and diagnostics a practical approach to high power and single mode devices

    CERN Document Server

    Epperlein, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    This reference book provides a fully integrated novel approach to the development of high-power, single-transverse mode, edge-emitting diode lasers by addressing the complementary topics of device engineering, reliability engineering and device diagnostics in the same book, and thus closes the gap in the current book literature. Diode laser fundamentals are discussed, followed by an elaborate discussion of problem-oriented design guidelines and techniques, and by a systematic treatment of the origins of laser degradation and a thorough exploration of the engineering means to enhance the optical strength of the laser. Stability criteria of critical laser characteristics and key laser robustness factors are discussed along with clear design considerations in the context of reliability engineering approaches and models, and typical programs for reliability tests and laser product qualifications. Novel, advanced diagnostic methods are reviewed to discuss, for the first time in detail in book literature, performa...

  4. Numerical Simulations of Calcium Ions Spiral Wave in Single Cardiac Myocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Xing

    2010-04-01

    The calcium ions (Ca2+) spark is an elementary Ca2+ release event in cardiac myocytes. It is believed to buildup cell-wide Ca2+ signals, such as Ca2+ transient and Ca2+ wave, through a Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) mechanism. Here the excitability of the Ca2+ wave in a single cardiac myocyte is simulated by employing the fire-diffuse-fire model. By modulating the dynamic parameters of Ca2+ release and re-uptake channels, we find three Ca2+ signaling states in a single cardiac myocyte: no wave, plane wave, and spiral wave. The period of a spiral wave is variable in the different regimes. This study indicates that the spiral wave or the excitability of the system can be controlled through micro-modulation in a living excitable medium.

  5. Experimental Verification of a Jarzynski-Related Information-Theoretic Equality by a Single Trapped Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, T. P.; Yan, L. L.; Zhou, F.; Rehan, K.; Liang, D. F.; Chen, L.; Yang, W. L.; Ma, Z. H.; Feng, M.; Vedral, V.

    2018-01-01

    Most nonequilibrium processes in thermodynamics are quantified only by inequalities; however, the Jarzynski relation presents a remarkably simple and general equality relating nonequilibrium quantities with the equilibrium free energy, and this equality holds in both the classical and quantum regimes. We report a single-spin test and confirmation of the Jarzynski relation in the quantum regime using a single ultracold Ca40 + ion trapped in a harmonic potential, based on a general information-theoretic equality for a temporal evolution of the system sandwiched between two projective measurements. By considering both initially pure and mixed states, respectively, we verify, in an exact and fundamental fashion, the nonequilibrium quantum thermodynamics relevant to the mutual information and Jarzynski equality.

  6. High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keselman, A; Glickman, Y; Akerman, N; Kotler, S; Ozeri, R

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped 88 Sr + ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.

  7. High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keselman, A; Glickman, Y; Akerman, N; Kotler, S; Ozeri, R, E-mail: ozeri@weizmann.ac.il [Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.

  8. Conductometric determination of single pores in polyethyleneterephthalate irradiated by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, V.R.; Trofimov, V.V.; Doerschel, B.; Hermsdorf, D.; Vetter, J.; Danziger, M.

    2002-01-01

    Most of the previous works devoted to the problem of track formation processes did not pay enough attention to direct measurement of the appearance of every individual pore in an array of many pores induced by the irradiation of polymer films with ions. Such measurements are not easy to carry out due to the extremely high electric resistance in the moment of pore opening. In this work the analysis of films irradiated with low particle fluences up to 3.7·10 3 ions/cm 2 is described. Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) Hostaphan with a thickness of 20μm was used. The samples were irradiated with Bi ions of 11.4 MeV/amu energy. Using optimized etching conditions and computer aided data evaluation, we obtained results, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and model calculations. The measured increase of conductivity beginning from the breakthrough of a single track up to the next pore opening in dependence on the etching time and the number of opened pores confirm the assumed model. Thus, the developed 'track-by-track' method can be used effectively for description of the sequential appearance of individual pores in an electrolytic etching process

  9. Nanomechanical investigation of ion implanted single crystals - Challenges, possibilities and pitfall traps related to nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpaska, Lukasz

    2017-10-01

    Nanoindentation technique have developed considerably over last thirty years. Nowadays, commercially available systems offer very precise measurement in nano- and microscale, environmental noise cancelling (or at least noise suppressing), in situ high temperature indentation in controlled atmosphere and vacuum conditions and different additional options, among them dedicated indentation is one of the most popular. Due to its high precision, and ability to measure mechanical properties from very small depths (tens of nm), this technique become quite popular in the nuclear society. It is known that ion implantation (to some extent) can simulate the influence of neutron flux. However, depth of the material damage is very limited resulting in creation of thin layer of modified material over unmodified bulk. Therefore, only very precise technique, offering possibility to control depth of the measurement can be used to study functional properties of the material. For this reason, nanoindentation technique seems to be a perfect tool to investigate mechanical properties of ion implanted specimens. However, conducting correct nanomechanical experiment and extracting valuable mechanical parameters is not an easy task. In this paper a discussion about the nanoindentation tests performed on ion irradiated YSZ single crystal is presented. The goal of this paper is to discuss possible traps when studying mechanical properties of such materials and thin coatings.

  10. An investigation of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of Mn+2 ion in silver nitrate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.

    1974-01-01

    X-band EPR spectra of Mn +2 ion in AgNO 3 single crystals have been investigated as a function of temperature. Because of the small size of the fine structure constant 'a' and the large size of the hyperfine constant 'A' in this crystal, all electronic transitions are superimposed. For this reason, spectra consist of a group of six hyperfine components. The spectra appeared to be isotropic, although the symmetry of the host lattice is orthoromibc. This shows that the local symmetry of the paramagnetic ions is of cubic type. EPR signal disappears completely at -40 0 C. As the temperature is increased from this value the signal intensity increases steadily and reaches a maximum value at +40 0 C. If the temperature is raised further the signal tends to decrease. In other words in this crystal Mn +2 ion shows antiferromagnetic property below +40 0 C and paramagnetic property above +40 0 C. We also found that, in the antiferromagnetic region, the line width increases as the temperature is decreased. In the paramagnetic region the line width increases as the temperature is increased. Other spectral parameters A and g do not change with the temperature. Spectra obtained at room temperature and at different temperatures are also discussed. (Korkmaz, M.)

  11. Diode-like single-ion track membrane prepared by electro-stopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, P.Yu.; Korchev, Yu.E.; Siwy, Z.; Spohr, R.; Yoshida, M.

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of an asymmetric membrane in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is described, using a combination of chemical and electro-stopping. For this purpose, a single-ion-irradiated PET film is inserted into an electrolytic cell and etched from one side in 9 M sodium hydroxide while bathing the other side in a mixture of 2 M KCl and 2 M HCOOH (1:1 by volume), electrically retracting the OH - ions from the tip of the etch pit during pore break-through. When a preset current has been reached, the etch process is interrupted by replacing the etching solution with acidic 1 M potassium chloride solution. After etching, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic is determined under symmetric bathing conditions, immersing both sides of the membrane in KCl solutions of identical concentration (0.01-1 M) and pH (3-8). The I-V characteristic is strongly non-linear, comparable to that of an electrical diode. If the polarity during etching is reversed, pushing the OH - ions into the tip of the etch pit, the resulting pores are larger and the degree of asymmetry smaller. The importance of electro-stopping is compared with chemical stopping

  12. Conductometric determination of single pores in polyethyleneterephthalate irradiated by heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Oganesyan, V R; Dörschel, B; Hermsdorf, D; Trofimov, V V; Vetter, J

    2002-01-01

    Most of the previous works devoted to the problem of track formation processes did not pay enough attention to direct measurement of the appearance of every individual pore in an array of many pores induced by the irradiation of polymer films with ions. Such measurements are not easy to carry out due to the extremely high electric resistance in the moment of pore opening. In this work the analysis of films irradiated with low particle fluences up to 3.7 centre dot 10 sup 3 ions/cm sup 2 is described. Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) Hostaphan with a thickness of 20 mu m was used. The samples were irradiated with Bi ions of 11.4 MeV/amu energy. Using optimized etching conditions and computer aided data evaluation, we obtained results, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and model calculations. The measured increase of conductivity beginning from the breakthrough of a single track up to the next pore opening in dependence on the etching time and the number of opened pores confirm the assumed...

  13. Conductometric Determination of Single Pores in Polyethyleneterephthalate Irradiated by Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Oganesyan, V R; Dörschel, B; Vetter, J E; Danziger, M; Hermsdorf, D

    2002-01-01

    Most of previous works devoted to the problem of track formation processes did not pay enough attention to direct measurement of the appearance of every individual pore in an array of many pores induced by the irradiation of polymer films with ions. Such measurements are not easy to carry out due to the extremely high electric resistance in the moment of pore opening. In this work the analysis of films irradiated with low particle fluences up to 3.7\\cdot 10^{3} ions/cm^2 is described. Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) Hostaphan with a thickness of 20 m was used. The samples were irradiated with Bi ions of 11.4 MeV/amu energy. Using optimized etching conditions and computer aided data evaluation we obtained results, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and model calculations. The measured increase of conductivity beginning from the breakthrough of a single track up to the next pore opening in dependence on the etching time and the number of opened pores confirm the assumed model. Thus, the de...

  14. Development of the IFJ single ion hit facility for cells irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselov, O.; Polak, W.; Ugenskiene, R.; Hajduk, R.; Lebed, K.; Lekki, J.; Horwacik, T.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Maranda, S.; Pieprzyca, T.; Sarnecki, C.; Stachura, Z.; Szklarz, Z.; Styczen, J.

    2005-12-01

    In recent years a single ion hit facility (SIHF) has been constructed at the IFJ ion microprobe. The setup is used for the precise irradiations of living cells by a controlled number of ions. The facility allows investigations in various aspects of biomedical research, such as adaptive response, bystander effect, inverse dose-rate effect, low-dose hypersensitivity, etc. Those investigations have two very important requirements: (i) cells must be examined in their natural state and environment, i.e. without previously being killed, and preferentially, neither fixed nor stained, and (ii) a possibility of automatic irradiation of large number of cells with a computer recognition of their positions must be provided. This work presents some of the crucial features of the off-line and on-line optical systems, including self-developed software responsible for the automatic cell recognition. We also show several tests carried out to determine the efficiency of the whole setup and some segments. In conclusion, the results of our first irradiation measurements performed with living cells are demonstrated. (author)

  15. Designing Artificial Solid-Electrolyte Interphases for Single-Ion and High-Efficiency Transport in Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2017-09-21

    Substrates able to rectify transport of ions based on charge and/or size are ubiquitous in biological systems. Electrolytes and interphases that selectively transport electrochemically active ions are likewise of broad interest in all electrical energy storage technologies. In lithium-ion batteries, electrolytes with single- or near-single-ion conductivity reduce losses caused by ion polarization. In emergent lithium or sodium metal batteries, they maintain high conductivity at the anode and stabilize metal deposition by fundamental mechanisms. We report that 20- to 300-nm-thick, single-ion-conducting membranes deposited at the anode enable electrolytes with the highest combination of cation transference number, ionic conductivity, and electrochemical stability reported. By means of direct visualization we find that single-ion membranes also reduce dendritic deposition of Li in liquids. Galvanostatic measurements further show that the electrolytes facilitate long (3 mAh) recharge of full Li/LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells with high cathode loadings (3 mAh cm−2/19.9 mg cm−2) and at high current densities (3 mA cm−2).

  16. Combustion Model and Control Parameter Optimization Methods for Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a method to construct a combustion model and a method to optimize some control parameters of diesel engine in order to develop a model-based control system. The construction purpose of the model is to appropriately manage some control parameters to obtain the values of fuel consumption and emission as the engine output objectives. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was applied to construct combustion model with the polynomial model. Using the experimental data of a single cylinder diesel engine, the model of power, BSFC, NOx, and soot on multiple injection diesel engines was built. The proposed method succesfully developed the model that describes control parameters in relation to the engine outputs. Although many control devices can be mounted to diesel engine, optimization technique is required to utilize this method in finding optimal engine operating conditions efficiently beside the existing development of individual emission control methods. Particle swarm optimization (PSO was used to calculate control parameters to optimize fuel consumption and emission based on the model. The proposed method is able to calculate control parameters efficiently to optimize evaluation item based on the model. Finally, the model which added PSO then was compiled in a microcontroller.

  17. Persistent photoconductivity in hydrogen ion-implanted KNbO3 bulk single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, R.; Shinkawa, A.; Nishimura, T.; Tanuma, C.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.

    2017-06-01

    Persistent Photoconductivity (PPC) in hydorogen-ion implanted (001) oriented KNbO3 bulk single crystals (perovskite structure at room temperature; ferroelectric with a band gap of 3.16 eV) is studied in air at room temperature to prevent the crystallinity degradation caused by the phase transition. Hydrogen is implanted into KNbO3 bulk single crystals using the energy (the peak ion fluence) of 500 keV (5.0 × 1015 cm-2). The resistivity varies from ∼108 Ω/□ for an un-implanted KNbO3 sample to 2.3 × 105 Ω/□ for as-implanted one. suggesting the presence of donors consisting of hydrogen interstitial and oxygen vacancy. The PPC is clearly observed with ultraviolet and blue LEDs illumination rather than green and infrared, suggesting the release of electrons from the metastable conductive state below the conduction band relating to the charge states of the oxygen vacancy as observed in electron irradiated ZnO.

  18. Attitude Control Flight Experience: Coping with Solar Radiation and Ion Engines Leak Thrust in Hayabusa (MUSES-C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro; Kominato, Takashi; Shirakawa, Ken'ichi

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the attitude reorientation taking the advantage of solar radiation pressure without use of any fuel aboard. The strategy had been adopted to make Hayabusa spacecraft keep pointed toward the Sun for several months, while spinning. The paper adds the above mentioned results reported in Sedona this February showing another challenge of combining ion engines propulsion tactically balanced with the solar radiation torque with no spin motion. The operation has been performed since this March for a half year successfully. The flight results are presented with the estimated solar array panel diffusion coefficient and the ion engine's swirl torque.

  19. Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoguang; Hou Jun; Kerr, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by (1) sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li + salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li); (2) sulfonation of chloride end groups grafted on to prepolymers of polyacrylate ethers (PAE 8 -g-E n SO 3 Li, n = 2, 3). The highest conductivity at 25 deg. C of 2.0 x 10 -7 S cm -1 was obtained for the PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li with a salt concentration of EO/Li = 40. The conductivity of PAE 8 -g-E 3 SO 3 Li is lower than that of PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li at similar salt concentrations, which is related to the incomplete sulfonation of the grafted polymer that leads to a lower concentration of Li + . The addition of 50 wt.% of plasticizer, PC/EMC (1/1, v/v), to PAE 8 -g-E 2 SO 3 Li increases the ambient conductivity by three orders of magnitude, which is due to the increased ion mobility in a micro-liquid environment and an increase concentration of free ions as a result of the higher dielectric constant of the solvent. A symmetrical Li/Li cell with an electrolyte membrane consisting of 75 wt.% PC/EMC (1/1, v/v) was cycled at a current density of 100 μA cm -2 at 85 deg. C. The cycling profile showed no concentration polarization after a break-in period during the first few cycles, which was apparently due to reaction of the solvent at the lithium metal surface that reacted with lithium metal to form a stable SEI layer

  20. Ion assisted structural collapse of a single stranded DNA: A molecular dynamics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Soumadwip; Dixit, Himanshu; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi, E-mail: rajarshi@chem.iitb.ac.in

    2015-09-28

    Highlights: • The dynamics of a single-stranded DNA in presence of different concentrations of Mg{sup 2+} is investigated. • The initial DNA chain collapse is characterized by the formation of non-sequentially stacked base pairs. • The DNA chain re-swells at high concentrations of Mg{sup 2+} as a consequence of overcharging. - Abstract: The structure and dynamics of negatively charged nucleic acids strongly correlate with the concentration and charge of the oppositely charged counterions. It is well known that the structural collapse of DNA is favoured in the presence of additional salt, a source of excess oppositely charged ions. Under such conditions single stranded DNA adopts a collapsed coil like conformation, typically characterized by stacking base pairs. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulation, we demonstrate that in the presence of additional divalent salt (MgCl{sub 2}) single stranded DNA with base sequence 5′-CGCGAATTCGCG-3′ (Dickerson Drew dodecamer) initially collapses and then expands with increasing salt concentration. This is due to the overcharging induced DNA chain swelling, a dominant factor at a higher divalent salt concentration. In a nutshell, our simulations show how in the presence of divalent salt, non-sequential base stacking and overcharging competes and affect single stranded DNA dynamics unlike a monovalent salt.

  1. Event-shape-engineering study of charge separation in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fufang; Bryon, Jacob; Wen, Liwen; Wang, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Recent measurements of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions have indicated charge-separation signals perpendicular to the reaction plane, and have been related to the chiral magnetic effect (CME). However, the correlation signal is contaminated with the background caused by the collective motion (flow) of the collision system, and an effective approach is needed to remove the flow background from the correlation. We present a method study with simplified Monte Carlo simulations and a multi-phase transport model, and develop a scheme to reveal the true CME signal via event-shape engineering with the flow vector of the particles of interest. Supported by a grant (DE-FG02-88ER40424) from U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics

  2. Application of Freeze-Dried Powders of Genetically Engineered Microbial Strains as Adsorbents for Rare Earth Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Masuda, Reiko; Yamazaki, Yuki; Horiuchi, Kaoru; Miyashita, Mari; Kasahara, Jun; Tanaka, Tatsuhito; Yamamoto, Hiroki

    2016-10-12

    The adsorption behaviors of the rare earth metal ions onto freeze-dried powders of genetically engineered microbial strains were compared. Cell powders obtained from four kinds of strains, Bacillus subtilis 168 wild type (WT), lipoteichoic acid-defective (ΔLTA), wall teichoic acid-defective (ΔWTA), and cell wall hydrolases-defective (EFKYOJLp) strains, were used as an adsorbent of the rare earth metal ions at pH 3. The adsorption ability of the rare earth metal ions was in the order of EFKYOJLp > WT > ΔLTA > ΔWTA. The order was the same as the order of the phosphorus quantity of the strains. This result indicates that the main adsorption sites for the ions are the phosphate groups and the teichoic acids, LTA and WTA, that contribute to the adsorption of the rare earth metal ions onto the cell walls. The contribution of WTA was clearly greater than that of LTA. Each microbial powder was added to a solution containing 16 kinds of rare earth metal ions, and the removals (%) of each rare earth metal ion were obtained. The scandium ion showed the highest removal (%), while that of the lanthanum ion was the lowest for all the microbial powders. Differences in the distribution coefficients between the kinds of lanthanide ions by the EFKYOJLp and ΔWTA powders were greater than those of the other strains. Therefore, the EFKYOJLp and ΔWTA powders could be applicable for the selective extraction of the lanthanide ions. The ΔLTA powder coagulated by mixing with a rare earth metal ion, although no sedimentation of the WT or ΔWTA powder with a rare earth metal ion was observed under the same conditions. The EFKYOJLp powder was also coagulated, but its flocculating activity was lower than that of ΔLTA. The ΔLTA and EFKYOJLp powders have a long shape compared to those of the WT or ΔWTA strain. The shapes of the cells will play an important role in the sedimentation of the microbial powders with rare earth metal ions. As the results, three kinds of the genetically

  3. From Single Atoms to Engineered “Super-Atoms”: Interfacing Photons and Atoms in Free Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhen Miroshnychenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the development of laser cooling and trapping has revolutionized the field of quantum optics. Now we master techniques to control the quantum properties of atoms and light, even at a single atom and single photon level. Understanding and controlling interactions of atoms and light both on the microscopic single particle and on the macroscopic collective levels, are two of the very active directions of the current research in this field. The goal is to engineer quantum systems with tailored properties designed for specific applications. One of the ambitious applications on this way is interfacing quantum information for quantum communication and quantum computing. We summarize here theoretical ideas and experimental methods for interfacing atom-based quantum memories with single flying photons.

  4. Verifying Heisenberg's error-disturbance relation using a single trapped ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei; Yan, Leilei; Gong, Shijie; Ma, Zhihao; He, Jiuzhou; Xiong, Taiping; Chen, Liang; Yang, Wanli; Feng, Mang; Vedral, Vlatko

    2016-10-01

    Heisenberg's uncertainty relations have played an essential role in quantum physics since its very beginning. The uncertainty relations in the modern quantum formalism have become a fundamental limitation on the joint measurements of general quantum mechanical observables, going much beyond the original discussion of the trade-off between knowing a particle's position and momentum. Recently, the uncertainty relations have generated a considerable amount of lively debate as a result of the new inequalities proposed as extensions of the original uncertainty relations. We report an experimental test of one of the new Heisenberg's uncertainty relations using a single 40 Ca + ion trapped in a harmonic potential. By performing unitary operations under carrier transitions, we verify the uncertainty relation proposed by Busch, Lahti, and Werner (BLW) based on a general error-trade-off relation for joint measurements on two compatible observables. The positive operator-valued measure, required by the compatible observables, is constructed by single-qubit operations, and the lower bound of the uncertainty, as observed, is satisfied in a state-independent manner. Our results provide the first evidence confirming the BLW-formulated uncertainty at a single-spin level and will stimulate broad interests in various fields associated with quantum mechanics.

  5. Verifying Heisenberg’s error-disturbance relation using a single trapped ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei; Yan, Leilei; Gong, Shijie; Ma, Zhihao; He, Jiuzhou; Xiong, Taiping; Chen, Liang; Yang, Wanli; Feng, Mang; Vedral, Vlatko

    2016-01-01

    Heisenberg’s uncertainty relations have played an essential role in quantum physics since its very beginning. The uncertainty relations in the modern quantum formalism have become a fundamental limitation on the joint measurements of general quantum mechanical observables, going much beyond the original discussion of the trade-off between knowing a particle’s position and momentum. Recently, the uncertainty relations have generated a considerable amount of lively debate as a result of the new inequalities proposed as extensions of the original uncertainty relations. We report an experimental test of one of the new Heisenberg’s uncertainty relations using a single 40Ca+ ion trapped in a harmonic potential. By performing unitary operations under carrier transitions, we verify the uncertainty relation proposed by Busch, Lahti, and Werner (BLW) based on a general error–trade-off relation for joint measurements on two compatible observables. The positive operator-valued measure, required by the compatible observables, is constructed by single-qubit operations, and the lower bound of the uncertainty, as observed, is satisfied in a state-independent manner. Our results provide the first evidence confirming the BLW-formulated uncertainty at a single-spin level and will stimulate broad interests in various fields associated with quantum mechanics. PMID:28861461

  6. How to resolve microsecond current fluctuations in single ion channels: The power of beta distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A main ingredient for the understanding of structure/function correlates of ion channels is the quantitative description of single-channel gating and conductance. However, a wealth of information provided from fast current fluctuations beyond the temporal resolution of the recording system is often ignored, even though it is close to the time window accessible to molecular dynamics simulations. This kind of current fluctuations provide a special technical challenge, because individual opening/closing or blocking/unblocking events cannot be resolved, and the resulting averaging over undetected events decreases the single-channel current. Here, I briefly summarize the history of fast-current fluctuation analysis and focus on the so-called “beta distributions.” This tool exploits characteristics of current fluctuation-induced excess noise on the current amplitude histograms to reconstruct the true single-channel current and kinetic parameters. A guideline for the analysis and recent applications demonstrate that a construction of theoretical beta distributions by Markov Model simulations offers maximum flexibility as compared to analytical solutions. PMID:26368656

  7. Dependence of the structure of ion-modified NiTi single crystal layers on the orientation of irradiated surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletika, T. M.; Meisner, L. L.; Girsova, S. L.; Tverdokhlebova, A. V.; Meisner, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    The composition and structure of Si layers implanted into titanium nickelide single crystals with different orientations relative to the ion beam propagation direction have been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The role of the "soft" [111]B2 and "hard" [001]B2 NiTi orientations in the formation of the structure of ion-modified surface layer, as well as the defect structure of the surface layers of the single crystals, has been revealed. Orientation effects of selective sputtering and channeling of ions, which control the composition and thickness of the oxide and amorphous layers being formed, ion and impurity penetration depth, as well as the concentration profile of the Ni distribution over the surface, have been detected.

  8. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Satira, E-mail: Satira.Labib@duke-energy.com; King, Jeffrey, E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort.

  9. Quantum statistics of a single-atom Scovil-Schulz-DuBois heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Wen; Kim, Moochan B.; Agarwal, Girish S.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2017-12-01

    We study the statistics of the lasing output from a single-atom quantum heat engine, which was originally proposed by Scovil and Schulz-DuBois [H. E. D. Scovil and E. O. Schulz-DuBois, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 262 (1959), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.2.262]. In this heat engine model, a single three-level atom is coupled with an optical cavity and is in contact with a hot and a cold heat bath together. We derive a fully quantum laser equation for this heat engine model and obtain the photon number distribution both below and above the lasing threshold. With the increase of the hot bath temperature, the population is inverted and lasing light comes out. However, we notice that if the hot bath temperature keeps increasing, the atomic decay rate is also enhanced, which weakens the lasing gain. As a result, another critical point appears at a very high temperature of the hot bath, after which the output light become thermal radiation again. To avoid this double-threshold behavior, we introduce a four-level heat engine model, where the atomic decay rate does not depend on the hot bath temperature. In this case, the lasing threshold is much easier to achieve and the double-threshold behavior disappears.

  10. Coherent manipulation of three-qubit states in a molecular single-ion magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M. D.; Duan, Y.; Diosdado, B.; García-Ripoll, J. J.; Gaita-Ariño, A.; Giménez-Saiz, C.; Alonso, P. J.; Coronado, E.; Luis, F.

    2017-02-01

    We study the quantum spin dynamics of nearly isotropic Gd3 + ions entrapped in polyoxometalate molecules and diluted in crystals of a diamagnetic Y3 + derivative. The full energy-level spectrum and the orientations of the magnetic anisotropy axes have been determined by means of continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance experiments, using X-band (9-10 GHz) cavities and on-chip superconducting waveguides and 1.5-GHz resonators. The results show that seven allowed transitions between the 2 S +1 spin states can be separately addressed. Spin coherence T2 and spin-lattice relaxation T1 rates have been measured for each of these transitions in properly oriented single crystals. The results suggest that quantum spin coherence is limited by residual dipolar interactions with neighbor electronic spins. Coherent Rabi oscillations have been observed for all transitions. The Rabi frequencies increase with microwave power and agree quantitatively with predictions based on the spin Hamiltonian of the molecular spin. We argue that the spin states of each Gd3 + ion can be mapped onto the states of three addressable qubits (or, alternatively, of a d =8 -level "qudit"), for which the seven allowed transitions form a universal set of operations. Within this scheme, one of the coherent oscillations observed experimentally provides an implementation of a controlled-controlled-NOT (or Toffoli) three-qubit gate.

  11. The effect of Cu{sup II} ions in L-asparagine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Ricardo C., E-mail: santana@ufg.br; Gontijo, Henrique O.; Menezes, Arthur F.; Martins, José A.; Carvalho, Jesiel F., E-mail: carvalho@ufg.br

    2016-11-15

    We report the synthesis, crystal growth, and spectroscopic characterization of L-asparagine monohydrate (LAM) single crystals doped with CuII. The crystals were successfully grown by slow cooling from a supersaturated aqueous solution up to size of 16×12×2 mm{sup 3};the effect of copper impurities in the crystals morphology was discussed. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) was used to calculate the g and hyperfine coupling (A) tensors of the CuII ions (g{sub 1}=2.044, g{sub 2}=2.105, g{sub 3}=2.383and A{sub 1}≈0, A{sub 2}=35, A{sub 3}=108 Gauss). The EPR spectra for certain orientations of the magnetic field suggest that CuII ions are coordinated to two {sup 14}N atoms. Correlating the EPR and optical absorption results, the crystal field and the Cu{sup II} orbital bond parameters were calculated. The results indicate that the paramagnetic center occupies interstitial rhombic distorted site and the ground orbital state for the unpaired electron is the d(x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}).

  12. Non-destructive single-pass low-noise detection of ions in a beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Murböck, Tobias; Andelkovic, Zoran; Birkl, Gerhard; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Stahl, Stefan; Vogel, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    We have conceived, built, and operated a device for the non-destructive single-pass detection of charged particles in a beamline. The detector is based on the non-resonant pick-up and subsequent low-noise amplification of the image charges induced in a cylindrical electrode surrounding the particles' beam path. The first stage of the amplification electronics is designed to be operated from room temperature down to liquid helium temperature. The device represents a non-destructive charge counter as well as a sensitive timing circuit. We present the concept and design details of the device. We have characterized its performance and show measurements with low-energy highly charged ions (such as Ar13+) passing through one of the electrodes of a cylindrical Penning trap. This work demonstrates a novel approach of non-destructive, low noise detection of charged particles which is, depending on the bunch structure, suitable, e.g., for ion traps, low-energy beamlines or accelerator transfer sections.

  13. Luminescent single-ion magnets from Lanthanoid(III) complexes with monodentate ketone ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanetomo, Takuya; Ishida, Takayuki, E-mail: takayuki.ishida@uec.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We synthesized [Ln{sup III}(hfac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)(L)] (abbreviated as Ln-L; Ln = Gd, Tb, Eu; L = DTBK (di-t-butyl ketone), BP (benzophenone)), in which the carbonyl oxygen atom was coordinated to the Ln ion center, despite of such bulky substituents. Their crystal structures were determined by means of X-ray diffraction study. Gd-DTBK is completely isomorphous to the di-t-butyl nitroxide derivative and accordingly can be regarded as a model with the ligand spin masked. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements on Tb-DTBK and -BP showed frequency dependence, characteristic of single-ion magnets. They also displayed photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature. The quantum yields of the luminescence of Tb-DTBK and -BP (λ{sub ex} = 360 nm) were improved to 57 and 35%, respectively, from that of the starting material [TbI{sup III}(hfac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (28% at λ{sub ex} = 370 nm). Similarly, the quantum yields for Eu-DTBK and -BP were 8 and 15%, respectively, with λ{sub ex} = 400 nm, while that of the starting material [EuI{sup III}(hfac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] was 4% at λ{sub ex}=400 nm.

  14. Luminescent single-ion magnets from Lanthanoid(III) complexes with monodentate ketone ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanetomo, Takuya; Ishida, Takayuki

    2016-02-01

    We synthesized [LnIII(hfac)3(H2O)(L)] (abbreviated as Ln-L; Ln = Gd, Tb, Eu; L = DTBK (di-t-butyl ketone), BP (benzophenone)), in which the carbonyl oxygen atom was coordinated to the Ln ion center, despite of such bulky substituents. Their crystal structures were determined by means of X-ray diffraction study. Gd-DTBK is completely isomorphous to the di-t-butyl nitroxide derivative and accordingly can be regarded as a model with the ligand spin masked. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements on Tb-DTBK and -BP showed frequency dependence, characteristic of single-ion magnets. They also displayed photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature. The quantum yields of the luminescence of Tb-DTBK and -BP (λex = 360 nm) were improved to 57 and 35%, respectively, from that of the starting material [TbIIII(hfac)3(H2O)2] (28% at λex = 370 nm). Similarly, the quantum yields for Eu-DTBK and -BP were 8 and 15%, respectively, with λex = 400 nm, while that of the starting material [EuIIII(hfac)3(H2O)2] was 4% at λex=400 nm.

  15. Single Ion transient-IBIC analyses of semiconductor devices using a cryogenic temperature stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.; Legge, G.J.F.; Jagadish, C.

    1998-01-01

    A new Transient - IBIC data acquisition and analysis system at MARC is described. A discussion on the need for single ion control and temperature control is also given. The recorded signal is used as the trigger for beam pulsing. The new cryostatic temperature control stage is introduced. Data is presented on line profiles across the edge of a Au-Si junction collected over the temperature range of 25-300K using a developed C-V and I-V variable temperature stage incorporating a liquid helium cryostat. It demonstrates the potential improvements in spatial resolution in materials of long lifetime by mapping on timing windows around the prompt charge component in the charge transient

  16. A diode laser stabilization scheme for 40Ca+ single-ion spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, F.; Almendros, M.; Schuck, C.; Huwer, J.; Hennrich, M.; Eschner, J.

    2010-06-01

    We present a scheme for stabilizing multiple lasers at wavelengths between 795 and 866 nm to the same atomic reference line. A reference laser at 852 nm is stabilized to the Cs D2 line using a Doppler-free frequency modulation technique. Through transfer cavities, four lasers are stabilized to the relevant atomic transitions in 40Ca+. The rms linewidth of a transfer-locked laser is measured to be 123 kHz over 200 ms with respect to an independent atomic reference, the Rb D1 line. This stability is confirmed by the comparison of an excitation spectrum of a single 40Ca+ ion to an eight-level Bloch equation model. The long-term stability with respect to the same reference is measured to be 130 kHz over a period of 2 h. The high degree of stability is demonstrated by the measured Allan deviation around 10-11 between 1 and 100 s.

  17. A diode laser stabilization scheme for 40Ca+ single-ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, F; Almendros, M; Schuck, C; Huwer, J; Hennrich, M; Eschner, J

    2010-01-01

    We present a scheme for stabilizing multiple lasers at wavelengths between 795 and 866 nm to the same atomic reference line. A reference laser at 852 nm is stabilized to the Cs D 2 line using a Doppler-free frequency modulation technique. Through transfer cavities, four lasers are stabilized to the relevant atomic transitions in 40 Ca + . The rms linewidth of a transfer-locked laser is measured to be 123 kHz over 200 ms with respect to an independent atomic reference, the Rb D 1 line. This stability is confirmed by the comparison of an excitation spectrum of a single 40 Ca + ion to an eight-level Bloch equation model. The long-term stability with respect to the same reference is measured to be 130 kHz over a period of 2 h. The high degree of stability is demonstrated by the measured Allan deviation around 10 -11 between 1 and 100 s.

  18. Single Ion transient-IBIC analyses of semiconductor devices using a cryogenic temperature stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Jagadish, C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). School of Physics, Electronic Materials Engineering

    1998-06-01

    A new Transient - IBIC data acquisition and analysis system at MARC is described. A discussion on the need for single ion control and temperature control is also given. The recorded signal is used as the trigger for beam pulsing. The new cryostatic temperature control stage is introduced. Data is presented on line profiles across the edge of a Au-Si junction collected over the temperature range of 25-300K using a developed C-V and I-V variable temperature stage incorporating a liquid helium cryostat. It demonstrates the potential improvements in spatial resolution in materials of long lifetime by mapping on timing windows around the prompt charge component in the charge transient. 2 figs.

  19. Dynamics of a single ion in a perturbed Penning trap: Octupolar perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Martin; Salas, J. Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Imperfections in the design or implementation of Penning traps may give rise to electrostatic perturbations that introduce nonlinearities in the dynamics. In this paper we investigate, from the point of view of classical mechanics, the dynamics of a single ion trapped in a Penning trap perturbed by an octupolar perturbation. Because of the axial symmetry of the problem, the system has two degrees of freedom. Hence, this model is ideal to be managed by numerical techniques like continuation of families of periodic orbits and Poincare surfaces of section. We find that, through the variation of the two parameters controlling the dynamics, several periodic orbits emanate from two fundamental periodic orbits. This process produces important changes (bifurcations) in the phase space structure leading to chaotic behavior

  20. Focused ion beam milling of nanocavities in single colloidal particles and self-assembled opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldering, Leon A; Otter, A M; Husken, Bart H; Vos, Willem L

    2006-01-01

    We present a new method of realizing single nanocavities in individual colloidal particles on the surface of silicon dioxide artificial opals using a focused ion beam milling technique. We show that both the radius and the position of the nanocavity can be controlled with nanometre precision, to radii as small as 40 nm. The relation between the defect size and the milling time has been established. We confirmed that milling not only occurs on the surface of the spheres, but into and through them as well. We also show that an array of nanocavities can be fashioned. Structurally modified colloids have interesting potential applications in nanolithography, as well as in chemical sensing and solar cells, and as photonic crystal cavities

  1. Angle-resolved imaging of single-crystal materials with MeV helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathman, M.D.; Baumann, S.

    1992-01-01

    The simplest form of angle-resolved mapping for single-crystal materials is the creation of a channeling angular scan. Several laboratories have expanded this simple procedure to include mapping as a function of two independent tilts. These angle-resolved images are particularly suited to the assessment of crystal parameters including disorder, lattice location of impurities, and lattice stress. This paper will describe the use of the Charles Evans and Associates RBS-400 scattering chamber for acquisition, display, and analysis of angle-resolved images obtained from backscattered helium ions. Typical data acquisition times are 20 min for a ±2deg X-Y tilt scan with 2500 pixels (8/100deg resolution), and 10 nC per pixel. In addition, we will present a method for automatically aligning crystals for channeling measurements based on this imaging technology. (orig.)

  2. On the calculation of single ion activity coefficients in homogeneous ionic systems by application of the grand canonical ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The grand canonical ensemble has been used to study the evaluation of single ion activity coefficients in homogeneous ionic fluids. In this work, the Coulombic interactions are truncated according to the minimum image approximation, and the ions are assumed to be placed in a structureless...... of the individual ionic activity coefficients with respect to the total ionic concentration. This formula has previously been proposed on the basis of somewhat different considerations....

  3. Simulation study on single event burnout in linear doping buffer layer engineered power VDMOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yunpeng; Su Hongyuan; Hu Dongqing; Wu Yu; Jin Rui

    2016-01-01

    The addition of a buffer layer can improve the device's secondary breakdown voltage, thus, improving the single event burnout (SEB) threshold voltage. In this paper, an N type linear doping buffer layer is proposed. According to quasi-stationary avalanche simulation and heavy ion beam simulation, the results show that an optimized linear doping buffer layer is critical. As SEB is induced by heavy ions impacting, the electric field of an optimized linear doping buffer device is much lower than that with an optimized constant doping buffer layer at a given buffer layer thickness and the same biasing voltages. Secondary breakdown voltage and the parasitic bipolar turn-on current are much higher than those with the optimized constant doping buffer layer. So the linear buffer layer is more advantageous to improving the device's SEB performance. (paper)

  4. Ionization in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization: singly charged molecular ions are the lucky survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, M; Glückmann, M; Schäfer, J

    2000-01-01

    A new model for the ionization processes in UV matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) which accounts for the major phenomena observed is presented and discussed. The model retains elements of earlier approaches, such as photoionization and photochemical reactions, but it redefines these in the light of new working questions, most importantly why only singly charged ions are detected. Based on experimental evidence, the formation of singly and multiply charged clusters by a deficiency/excess of ions and also by photoionization and subsequent photochemical processes is pointed out to be the major ionization processes, which typically occur in parallel. The generation of electrons and their partial loss into the surrounding vacuum and solid, on the one hand, results in a positively charged ion-neutral plume facilitating a high overall ionization yield. On the other hand, these electrons, and also the large excess of protonated matrix ions in the negative ion mode, induce effective ion reneutralization in the plume. These neutralization processes are most effective for the highly charged cluster ions initially formed. Their fragmentation behaviour is evidenced in fast metastable fragmentation characteristics and agrees well with an electron capture dissociation mechanism and the enthalpy transfer upon neutralization forms the rationale for the prominent fragmentation and intense chemical noise accompanying successful MALDI. Within the course of the paper, cross-correlations with other desorption/ionization techniques and with earlier discussions on their mechanisms are drawn. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Design of a single cylinder optical access to the combustion engine Scania D12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Juergen

    2000-11-01

    In this work a maximum optical access to a diesel engine is developed. The combustion-process in the engine should be representative to the one in a standard engine, so the geometry of the combustion chamber is modified as little as possible. A Scania single cylinder, 2-litre engine was subjected to modifications allowing the optical access. Solutions to these problems are obtained by using the method of Product-Development, mainly based on the literature by Prof Dr.-Ing. Birkhofer at the Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany. An optical engine design of the Bowditch type was the chosen main working principle. This engine contains an extended cylinder, partly made of glass, a glass piston-crown and a mirror placed inside the extended piston. The laser sheet is led into the combustion chamber through the glass part of the cylinder, then gets reflected inside the combustion chamber and is led through the glass piston crown and via the mirror out of the engine. A redesign of the valve-train, using extended push-rods, is necessary. The demand to examine the combustion at Top-Dead-Centre (TDC) and the necessity of supporting the glass, give the reasons to do work on the cylinder head. This in return brings sealing problems, which have been solved. Another problem that occurs with that type of engine is that is has to run without oil-lubrication. Piston rings made of Rylon are used to solve this problem. A special feature of the engine that has been constructed here is that the inner surface of the glass may be cleaned without removing the cylinder head. This is obtained by a construction with a movable cylinder. In cleaning-state the cylinder is driven up and down together with the piston, while the head is supported by an outer structure. When running the engine, the cylinder is fixed to the structure. Furthermore this report contains the necessary calculations and integrity assessments on the critical parts of the construction. All calculations, except the

  6. Spectroscopy of single Pr3+ ion in LaF3 crystal at 1.5 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ippei; Yoshihiro, Tatsuya; Inagawa, Hironori; Fujiyoshi, Satoru; Matsushita, Michio

    2014-12-08

    Optical read-out and manipulation of the nuclear spin state of single rare-earth ions doped in a crystal enable the large-scale storage and the transport of quantum information. Here, we report the photo-luminescence excitation spectroscopy results of single Pr(3+) ions in a bulk crystal of LaF3 at 1.5 K. In a bulk sample, the signal from a single ion at the focus is often hidden under the background signal originating from numerous out-of-focus ions in the entire sample. To combine with a homemade cryogenic confocal microscope, we developed a reflecting objective that works in superfluid helium with a numerical aperture of 0.99, which increases the signal by increasing the solid angle of collection to 1.16π and reduces the background by decreasing the focal volume. The photo-luminescence excitation spectrum of single Pr(3+) was measured at a wing of the spectral line of the (3)H4 → (3)P0 transition at 627.33 THz (477.89 nm). The spectrum of individual Pr(3+) ions appears on top of the background of 60 cps as isolated peaks with intensities of 20-30 cps and full-width at half-maximum widths of approximately 3 MHz at an excitation intensity of 80 W cm(-2).

  7. Supercharged two-cycle engines employing novel single element reciprocating shuttle inlet valve mechanisms and with a variable compression ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesen, Bernard (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to novel reciprocating shuttle inlet valves, effective with every type of two-cycle engine, from small high-speed single cylinder model engines, to large low-speed multiple cylinder engines, employing spark or compression ignition. Also permitting the elimination of out-of-phase piston arrangements to control scavenging and supercharging of opposed-piston engines. The reciprocating shuttle inlet valve (32) and its operating mechanism (34) is constructed as a single and simple uncomplicated member, in combination with the lost-motion abutments, (46) and (48), formed in a piston skirt, obviating the need for any complex mechanisms or auxiliary drives, unaffected by heat, friction, wear or inertial forces. The reciprocating shuttle inlet valve retains the simplicity and advantages of two-cycle engines, while permitting an increase in volumetric efficiency and performance, thereby increasing the range of usefulness of two-cycle engines into many areas that are now dominated by the four-cycle engine.

  8. Effect of giant plasmon excitations in single and double ionization of C60 in fast heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhane, Umesh; Kelkar, A.; Misra, D.; Kumar, Ajay; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2007-04-01

    Single and multiple ionization of C60 in collisions with highly charged fast oxygen ions have been studied using the recoil-ion time-of-flight technique. The dependence of multiple-ionization cross sections on projectile charge state (qp) was found to be drastically different from those for an atomic target, such as Ne. A model based on the giant dipole plasmon resonance explains quite well the observed qp dependence for the single- and-double-ionization cross sections. But the same model deviates for triple and quadruple ionizations.

  9. Single-electron capture collisions of ground and metastable Ne2+ ions with molecular gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A.; Abu-Haija, O.; Harris, J.; Elkafrawy, T.; Kayani, A.; Kamber, E. Y.

    2013-09-01

    Using the translational energy-gain spectroscopy technique, we have measured the energy-gain spectra and absolute total cross sections for single-electron capture in collisions of Ne2+ with N2, CO2 and H2O at laboratory impact energies between 50 and 400 eV and 0° scattering angles. In all the collision systems studied here, reaction channels have been observed which indicate the presence of the long-lived metastable states of (2s2 2p4 1D and 1S) in the Ne2+ incident beam. These measurements also indicate that capture from the metastable states into excited states of the projectile product ions is the most important inelastic process. Contributions from capture accompanied by the excitation and ionization of the target product are also detected. In addition, the energy dependence of the total single-electron capture cross sections is studied and found to slowly increase with increasing impact energy. The present data are compared with the theoretical calculations of the classical over the barrier, extended classical over the barrier and Landau-Zener models.

  10. Detection of isolated protein-bound metal ions by single-particle cryo-STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, Nadav; Bellapadrona, Giuliano; Houben, Lothar; Sagi, Irit; Elbaum, Michael

    2017-10-17

    Metal ions play essential roles in many aspects of biological chemistry. Detecting their presence and location in proteins and cells is important for understanding biological function. Conventional structural methods such as X-ray crystallography and cryo-transmission electron microscopy can identify metal atoms on protein only if the protein structure is solved to atomic resolution. We demonstrate here the detection of isolated atoms of Zn and Fe on ferritin, using cryogenic annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (cryo-STEM) coupled with single-particle 3D reconstructions. Zn atoms are found in a pattern that matches precisely their location at the ferroxidase sites determined earlier by X-ray crystallography. By contrast, the Fe distribution is smeared along an arc corresponding to the proposed path from the ferroxidase sites to the mineral nucleation sites along the twofold axes. In this case the single-particle reconstruction is interpreted as a probability distribution function based on the average of individual locations. These results establish conditions for detection of isolated metal atoms in the broader context of electron cryo-microscopy and tomography.

  11. Optical spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions doped in KLu(WO4)2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koubaa, T.; Dammak, M.; Pujol, M.C.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

    2015-01-01

    Europium single doped potassium lutetium tungstate Eu 3+ :KLu(WO 4 ) 2 single crystals have been grown with the top seeded solution growth slow cooling method. Their absorption spectra are studied in detail for principal light polarizations, E||N p , N m and N g at room and low temperatures. The absorption oscillator strengths parameters are calculated by means of the theory of f–f transition intensities for systems with anomalously strong configuration interaction and by Judd–Ofelt theory. The Ω t (t=2, 4, 6) intensity parameters, and the {O dk , O ck , Δ d , Δ c1 and Δ c2 } (k=1, 2, 3) ASCI parameters are calculated. The radiative transition rates A R , radiative lifetimes τ R , and fluorescent branching ratios β R associated with 5 D 0 – 7 F J transitions of Eu 3+ were determined. The calculated decay times are discussed and compared with experimental values. - Highlights: • Absorption spectra of Eu:KLuW are investigated with respect to principal light polarizations. • Spectroscopic properties of Eu:KLuW are modeled within conventional Judd–Ofelt and (ASCI) theories. • 5 D 0 multiplet shows the contribution of a NR processes and an ET between the Eu 3+ ions. • It is suggested that the Eu 3+ :KLuW is a potential host material for optical applications.

  12. A laser desorption-electron impact ionization ion trap mass spectrometer for real-time analysis of single atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E. A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Hanna, S. J.; Robb, D. B.; Hepburn, J. H.; Blades, M. W.; Bertram, A. K.

    2009-04-01

    A novel aerosol ion trap mass spectrometer combining pulsed IR laser desorption with electron impact (EI) ionization for single particle studies is described. The strengths of this instrument include a two-step desorption and ionization process to minimize matrix effects; electron impact ionization, a universal and well-characterized ionization technique; vaporization and ionization inside the ion trap to improve sensitivity; and an ion trap mass spectrometer for MSn experiments. The instrument has been used for mass spectral identification of laboratory generated pure aerosols in the 600 nm-1.1 [mu]m geometric diameter range of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic compounds, as well as for tandem mass spectrometry studies (up to MS3) of single caffeine particles. We investigate the effect of various operational parameters on the mass spectrum and fragmentation patterns. The single particle detection limit of the instrument was found to be a 325 nm geometric diameter particle (8.7 × 107 molecules or 22 fg) for 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Lower single particle detection limits are predicted to be attainable by modifying the EI pulse. The use of laser desorption-electron impact (LD-EI) in an ion trap is a promising technique for determining the size and chemical composition of single aerosol particles in real time.

  13. Reverse engineering of heavy-ion collisions: Unraveling initial conditions from anisotropic flow data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinskaya, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-Relativistic heavy-ion physics is a promising field of high energy physics connecting two fields: nuclear physics and elementary particle physics. Experimental achievements of the last years have provided an opportunity to study the properties of a new state of matter created in heavy-ion collisions called quark-gluon plasma. The initial state of two colliding nuclei is affected by fluctuations coming from wave- functions of nucleons. These fluctuations lead to the momentum anisotropy of the hadronic matter which is observed by the detectors. The system created in the collision behaves like a fluid, so the initial state is connected to the final state via hydrodynamic evolution. In this thesis we model the evolution with relativistic viscous hydrodynamics. Our results, combined with experimental data, give non trivial constraints on the initial state, thus achieving 'reverse engineering' of the heavy-ion collisions. The observable which characterizes the momentum anisotropy is the anisotropic flow v n . We present the first measurements of the first harmonic of the anisotropic flow called directed flow v 1 in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. We then perform the first viscous hydrodynamic modeling of directed flow and show that it is less sensitive to viscosity than higher harmonics. Comparison of these experimental data with the modeling allows to extract the values of the dipole asymmetry of the initial state, which provides constraints on the models of initial states. A prediction for directed flow v 1 in Au-Au collisions is also made for RHIC. We then perform a similar modeling of the second and third harmonics of the anisotropic flow, called respectively elliptic v 2 and triangular v 3 flow. A combined analysis of the elliptic and triangular flow data compared with viscous hydrodynamic calculations allows us to put constraints on initial ellipticity and triangularity of the system. These constraints are then used as a filter for different models of

  14. Analysis and optimization with ecological objective function of irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Ecological performance of a single resonance ESE heat engine with heat leakage is conducted by applying finite time thermodynamics. By introducing Nielsen function and numerical calculations, expressions about power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological objective function are derived; relationships between ecological objective function and power output, between ecological objective function and efficiency as well as between power output and efficiency are demonstrated; influences of system parameters of heat leakage, boundary energy and resonance width on the optimal performances are investigated in detail; a specific range of boundary energy is given as a compromise to make ESE heat engine system work at optimal operation regions. Comparing performance characteristics with different optimization objective functions, the significance of selecting ecological objective function as the design objective is clarified specifically: when changing the design objective from maximum power output into maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of efficiency is 4.56%, while the power output drop is only 2.68%; when changing the design objective from maximum efficiency to maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of power output is 229.13%, and the efficiency drop is only 13.53%. - Highlights: • An irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engine is studied. • Heat leakage between two reservoirs is considered. • Power output, efficiency and ecological objective function are derived. • Optimal performance comparison for three objective functions is carried out.

  15. Correlation of precursor and product ions in single-stage high resolution mass spectrometry. A tool for detecting diagnostic ions and improving the precursor elemental composition elucidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borràs, S. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, A., E-mail: anton.kaufmann@klzh.ch [Official Food Control Authority, Fehrenstrasse 15, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland); Companyó, R. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We are describing a technique to spot ions which are derived from each other. ► Single stage high resolution data is used. ► This “in silicon” technique is compared to conventional precursor scan. ► Some applications for this technique are presented. -- Abstract: Monitoring of common diagnostic fragments is essential for recognizing molecules which are members of a particular compound class. Up to now, unit resolving tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, operating in the precursor ion scan mode, have been typically used to perform such analysis. By means of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) a much more sensitive and selective detection can be achieved. However, using a single-stage HRMS instrument, there is no unequivocal link to the corresponding precursor ion, since such instrumentation does not permit a previous precursor selection. Thus, to address this limitation, an in silico approach to locate precursor ions, based on diagnostic fragments, was developed. Implemented as an Excel macro, the algorithm rapidly assembles and surveys exact mass data to provide a list of feasible precursor candidates according to the correlation of the chromatographic peak shape profile and other additional filtering criteria (e.g. neutral losses and isotopes). The macro was tested with two families of veterinary drugs, sulfonamides and penicillins, which are known to yield diagnostic product ions when fragmented. Data sets obtained from different food matrices (fish and liver), both at high and low concentration of the target compounds, were investigated in order to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the reported approach. Finally, other possible applications of this technique, such as the elucidation of elemental compositions based on product ions and corresponding neutral losses, were also presented and discussed.

  16. Structural and optical properties of Cd{sup 2+} ion on the growth of sulphamic acid single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajyalakshmi, S.; Samatha, K. [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003 (India); Rao, Valluru Srinivasa; Reddy, P. V. S. S. S. N.; Rao, K. Ramachandra, E-mail: drkrcr@gmail.com [Crystal Growth & Nano Science Research Center, Department of Physics, Govt. College (A), Rajahmundry-533 105 (India); Krishna, V. Y. Rama [Department of Engg. Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Transparent single crystals of Cadmium doped Sulphamic acid (SA) was grown by Conventional slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) which had the size of 13 × 8 × 7 mm{sup 3}. The grown single crystals have been characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction UV-visible Spectral studies and Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency and the results were discussed. The lattice parameters of the grown Cd{sup 2+} ion doped SA crystal are confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and belong to orthorhombic system. Optical transmittance of the crystal was recorded using UV-vis NIR spectrophotometer with its lower cut off wavelength around 259nm. SHG measurements indicate that the SHG efficiency of the grown Cd{sup 2+} ion doped SA crystal at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm is approximately equal to KDP.

  17. Study on performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine using exhaust gas recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Raman Lakshmipathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas re-circulation is a method used in compression ignition engines to control and reduce NOx emission. These emissions are controlled by reducing the oxygen concentration inside the cylinder and thereby reducing the flame temperature of the charge mixture inside the combustion chamber. In the present investigation, experiments were performed to study the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation on performance and emission characteristics in a four stroke single cylinder, water cooled and constant speed diesel engine. The experiments were performed to study the performance and emissions for different exhaust gas re-circulation ratios of the engine. Performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, total fuel consumption and emission parameters such as oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and smoke opacity were measured. Reductions in NOx and CO2 were observed but other emissions like HC, CO, and smoke opacity were found to have increased with the usage of exhaust gas re-circulation. The 15% exhaust gas re-circulation was found optimum for the engine in the aspects of performance and emission.

  18. Synchrotron Topographic and Diffractometer Studies of Buried Layered Structures Obtained by Implantation with Swift Heavy Ions in Silicon Single Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Zymierska, D.; Graeff, W.; Czosnyka, T.; Choinski, J.

    2006-01-01

    A distribution of crystallographic defects and deformation in silicon crystals subjected to deep implantation (20-50 μm) with ions of the energy of a few MeV/amu is studied. Three different buried layered structures (single layer, binary buried structure and triple buried structure) were obtained by implantation of silicon single crystals with 184 MeV argon ions, 29.7 MeV boron ions, and 140 MeV argon ions, each implantation at a fluency of 1x10 14 ions cm -2 . The implanted samples were examined by means of white beam X-ray section and projection topography, monochromatic beam topography and by recording local rocking curves with the beam restricted to 50 x 50 μm 2 . The experiment pointed to a very low level of implantation-induced strain (below 10 -5 ). The white beam Bragg case section experiment revealed a layer producing district black contrast located at a depth of the expected mean ion range. The presence of these buried layered structures in studied silicon crystals strongly affected the fringe pattern caused by curvature of the samples. In case of white beam projection and monochromatic beam topographs the implanted areas were revealed as darker regions with a very tiny grain like structure. One may interpret these results as the effect of considerable heating causing annihilation of point defects and formation of dislocation loops connected with point defect clusters. (author)

  19. Irradiation of zinc single crystal with 500 keV singly-charged carbon ions: surface morphology, structure, hardness, and chemical modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas Khaliq, M.; Butt, M. Z.; Saleem, Murtaza

    2017-07-01

    Cylindrical specimens of (1 0 4) oriented zinc single crystal (diameter  =  6 mm and length  =  5 mm) were irradiated with 500 keV C+1 ions with the help of a Pelletron accelerator. Six specimens were irradiated in an ultra-high vacuum (~10‒8 Torr) with different ion doses, namely 3.94  ×  1014, 3.24  ×  1015, 5.33  ×  1015, 7.52  ×  1015, 1.06  ×  1016, and 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-2. A field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was utilized for the morphological study of the irradiated specimens. Formation of nano- and sub-micron size rods, clusters, flower- and fork-like structures, etc, was observed. Surface roughness of the irradiated specimens showed an increasing trend with the ions dose. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) helped to determine chemical modifications in the specimens. It was found that carbon content varied in the range 22.86-31.20 wt.% and that oxygen content was almost constant, with an average value of 10.16 wt.%. The balance content was zinc. Structural parameters, i.e. crystallite size and lattice strain, were determined by Williamson-Hall analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the irradiated specimens. Both crystallite size and lattice strain showed a decreasing trend with the increasing ions dose. A good linear relationship between crystallite size and lattice strain was observed. Surface hardness depicted a decreasing trend with the ions dose and followed an inverse Hall-Petch relation. FTIR spectra of the specimens revealed that absorption bands gradually diminish as the dose of singly-charged carbon ions is increased from 3.94  ×  1014 ions cm-1 to 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-1. This indicates progressive deterioration of chemical bonds with the increase in ion dose.

  20. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakrajang, K.; Jeynes, J. C. G.; Merchant, M. J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N.; Thopan, P.; Yu, L. D.

    2013-07-01

    As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  1. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals: growth, domain engineering, characterization and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, domain engineered relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals, including (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT), (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and (1-x-y)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-yPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT), with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have triggered a revolution in electromechanical devices owing to their giant piezoelectric properties and ultra-high electromechanical coupling factors. Compared to traditional PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics, the piezoelectric coefficient d33 is increased by a factor of 5 and the electromechanical coupling factor k33 is increased from 90%. Many emerging rich physical phenomena, such as charged domain walls, multi-phase coexistence, domain pattern symmetries, etc., have posed challenging fundamental questions for scientists. The superior electromechanical properties of these domain engineered single crystals have prompted the design of a new generation electromechanical devices, including sensors, transducers, actuators and other electromechanical devices, with greatly improved performance. It took less than 7 years from the discovery of larger size PMN-PT single crystals to the commercial production of the high-end ultrasonic imaging probe “PureWave”. The speed of development is unprecedented, and the research collaboration between academia and industrial engineers on this topic is truly intriguing. It is also exciting to see that these relaxor-PT single crystals are being used to replace traditional PZT piezoceramics in many new fields outside of medical imaging. The new ternary PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, particularly the ones with Mn-doping, have laid a solid foundation for innovations in high power acoustic projectors and ultrasonic motors, hinting another revolution in underwater SONARs and miniature actuation devices. This article intends to provide a comprehensive review on the development of relaxor-PT single crystals, spanning material discovery, crystal growth

  2. Engineering evaluation of selective ion-exchange radioactive waste processing at Susquehanna Nuclear Power Plant: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    This final report describes the work performed of an engineering feasibility evaluation of the use and benefits of a selective ion exchange treatment process in the Susquehanna radwaste system. The evaluation addressed operability and processing capability concerns, radiological impacts of operating in the radwaste discharge mode, required hardware modifications to the radwaste and plant make-up systems, impacts on plant water quality limits and impacts on higher waste classifications. An economic analysis is also reported showing the economic benefit of the use of selective ion exchange. 1 ref., 4 figs., 13 tabs

  3. Influences of specific ions in groundwater on concrete degradation in subsurface engineered barrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Many disposal concepts currently show that concrete is an effective confinement material used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) at a number of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. Cement-based materials have properties for the encapsulation, isolation, or retardation of a variety of hazardous contaminants. The reactive chemical transport model of HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 was applied to simulate the effect of hydrogeochemical processes on concrete barrier degradation in an EBS which has been proposed to use in the LLW disposal site in Taiwan. The simulated results indicated that the main processes that are responsible for concrete degradation are the species induced from hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride. The EBS with the side ditch drainage system effectively discharges the infiltrated water and lowers the solute concentrations that may induce concrete degradation. The redox processes markedly influence the formations of the degradation materials. The reductive environment in the EBS reduces the formation of ettringite in concrete degradation processes. Moreover, the chemical conditions in the concrete barriers maintain an alkaline condition after 300 years in the proposed LLW repository. This study provides a detailed picture of the long-term evolution of the hydrogeochemical environment in the proposed LLW disposal site in Taiwan.

  4. Crash tests of three identical low-wing single-engine airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, C. B.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1983-01-01

    Three identical four place, low wing single engine airplane specimens with nominal masses of 1043 kg were crash tested under controlled free flight conditions. The tests were conducted at the same nominal velocity of 25 m/sec along the flight path. Two airplanes were crashed on a concrete surface (at 10 and 30 deg pitch angles), and one was crashed on soil (at a -30 deg pitch angle). The three tests revealed that the specimen in the -30 deg test on soil sustained massive structural damage in the engine compartment and fire wall. Also, the highest longitudinal cabin floor accelerations occurred in this test. Severe damage, but of lesser magnitude, occurred in the -30 deg test on concrete. The highest normal cabin floor accelerations occurred in this test. The least structural damage and lowest accelerations occurred in the 10 deg test on concrete.

  5. NASA Lewis Helps Company With New Single-Engine Business Turbojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Century Aerospace Corporation, a small company in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is developing a six-seat aircraft powered by a single turbofan engine for general aviation. The company had completed a preliminary design of the jet but needed analyses and testing to proceed with detailed design and subsequent fabrication of a prototype aircraft. NASA Lewis Research Center used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses to ferret out areas of excessive curvature in the inlet where separation might occur. A preliminary look at the results indicated very good inlet performance; and additional calculations, performed with vortex generators installed in the inlet, led to even better results. When it was initially determined that the airflow distortion pattern at the compressor face fell outside of the limits set by the engine manufacturer, the Lewis team studied possible solutions, selected the best, and provided recommendations. CFD results for the inlet system were so good that wind tunnel tests were unnecessary.

  6. Water softening by single-bowl ion exchange filter efficiency estimate and improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Kostygin, V. A.; Stolyarenko, G. S.; Kochetov, G. M.; Tugay, A. M.; Vashchenko, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of experimental investigations of the water softener in a laboratory installation of uninterruptible countercurrent ion exchange filter, which has a movable layer of ion exchange material. The installation provides for two simultaneous processes: counter ion sorption and regeneration of the sorbent with the processing capability of the sorbent in the regeneration zone by ultrasonic radiation.

  7. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-07-06

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  8. Possible wave formation and martensitic transformation of iron particles in copper single crystals during argon ion bombardment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thölén, Anders Ragnar; Li, Chang-Hai; Easterling, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    Thin single crystal copper specimens (thickness ~250 nm) containing coherent iron particles (diameter 40–50 nm) have been bombarded with argon ions (5, 80, and 330 keV). During this process some of the iron particles transform to martensite. The transformation was observed near the exposed surface...

  9. Fault Diagnosis for Engine Based on Single-Stage Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-Stage Extreme Learning Machine (SS-ELM is presented to dispose of the mechanical fault diagnosis in this paper. Based on it, the traditional mapping type of extreme learning machine (ELM has been changed and the eigenvectors extracted from signal processing methods are directly regarded as outputs of the network’s hidden layer. Then the uncertainty that training data transformed from the input space to the ELM feature space with the ELM mapping and problem of the selection of the hidden nodes are avoided effectively. The experiment results of diesel engine fault diagnosis show good performance of the SS-ELM algorithm.

  10. Ice Protection of Turbojet Engines by Inertia Separation of Water II : Single-offset-duct System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Glahn, Uwe

    1948-01-01

    Investigation of a single-offset-duct system designed to prevent entrance of water into a turbojet engine was conducted on a half-scale nacelle model. An investigation was made to determine ram-pressure recovery and radial velocity profiles at the compressor section and icing characteristics of such a duct system. At a design inlet velocity of 0.77, the maximum ram-pressure recovery attained with effective water-separating inlet was 77 percent, which is considerably less than attainable with a direct-ram inlet. Continuous heating of the accessory-housing surface would be required for inlets that have a small ice storage space.

  11. Nano-Engineered Materials for Rapid Rechargeable Space Rated Advanced Li-Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy, energy density...

  12. Nano-Engineered Materials for Rapid Rechargeable Space Rated Advanced Li-Ion Batteries, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy, energy density...

  13. Combined determination of copper ions and β-amyloid peptide by a single ratiometric electrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanyan; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Xiaodan; Peng, Qiwen; Zhou, Yi; Yin, Tianxiao; Liang, Yixin; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2017-12-18

    Copper ions (Cu 2+ ) play a critical role in biological processes and are directly involved in β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) aggregation, which is responsible for the occurrence and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, combined determination of Cu 2+ and Aβ in one analytical system is of great significance to understand the exact nature of the AD event. This work presents a novel ratiometric electrochemical biosensor for the dual determination of Cu 2+ and Aβ 1-42 . This unique sensor is based on a 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-bi functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (ABTS-PDDA/CNTs) composite. The inclusion of ABTS not only enhanced the sensitivity, but it also acted as an inner reference molecule to improve detection accuracy. The specific recognition of Cu 2+ was realized by neurokinin B (NKB) coatings on the ABTS-PDDA/CNTs surface to form a [Cu II (NKB) 2 ] complex with Cu 2+ . The ABTS-PDDA/CNTs-NKB modified electrode also displayed an excellent electrochemical response toward the Aβ 1-42 monomer, when a certain amount of the Aβ 1-42 monomer was added to Cu 2+ -contained PBS buffer, which was due to the release of Cu 2+ from the [Cu II (NKB) 2 ] complex through Aβ binding to Cu 2+ . Meanwhile, our work showed that Cu 2+ bound Aβ 1-42 was concentration-dependent. Consequently, the presented electrochemical approach was capable of quantifying two important biological species associated with AD by one single biosensor, with the detection limits of 0.04 μM for Cu 2+ and 0.5 ng mL -1 for Aβ 1-42 , respectively. Finally, the ratiometric electrode was successfully applied for monitoring Cu 2+ and Aβ 1-42 variations in plasma and hippocampus of normal and AD rats.

  14. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Jeynes, J.C.G.; Merchant, M.J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Center, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Recently completed nanobeam at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre was used. •3.8-MeV single and broad proton beams irradiated Chinese hamster cells. •Cell survival curves were measured and compared with 300-kV X-ray irradiation. •Single ion irradiation had a lower survival part at ultra-low dose. •It implies hypersensitivity, bystander effect and cell cycle phase of cell death. -- Abstract: As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  15. Rational design of single-ion magnets and spin qubits based on mononuclear lanthanoid complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoví, José J; Cardona-Serra, Salvador; Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Coronado, Eugenio; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Palii, Andrew

    2012-11-19

    Here we develop a general approach to calculating the energy spectrum and the wave functions of the low-lying magnetic levels of a lanthanoid ion submitted to the crystal field created by the surrounding ligands. This model allows us to propose general criteria for the rational design of new mononuclear lanthanoid complexes behaving as single-molecule magnets (SMMs) or acting as robust spin qubits. Three typical environments exhibited by these metal complexes are considered, namely, (a) square antiprism, (b) triangular dodecahedron, and (c) trigonal prism. The developed model is used to explain the properties of some representative examples showing these geometries. Key questions in this area, such as the chemical tailoring of the superparamagnetic energy barrier, tunneling gap, or spin relaxation time, are discussed. Finally, in order to take into account delocalization and/or covalent effects of the ligands, this point-charge model is complemented with ab initio calculations, which provide accurate information on the charge distribution around the metal, allowing for an explanation of the SMM behavior displayed by some sandwich-type organometallic compounds.

  16. A diode laser stabilization scheme for {sup 40}Ca{sup +} single-ion spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, F; Almendros, M; Schuck, C; Huwer, J; Hennrich, M; Eschner, J, E-mail: felix.rohde@icfo.e [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-06-14

    We present a scheme for stabilizing multiple lasers at wavelengths between 795 and 866 nm to the same atomic reference line. A reference laser at 852 nm is stabilized to the Cs D{sub 2} line using a Doppler-free frequency modulation technique. Through transfer cavities, four lasers are stabilized to the relevant atomic transitions in {sup 40}Ca{sup +}. The rms linewidth of a transfer-locked laser is measured to be 123 kHz over 200 ms with respect to an independent atomic reference, the Rb D{sub 1} line. This stability is confirmed by the comparison of an excitation spectrum of a single {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ion to an eight-level Bloch equation model. The long-term stability with respect to the same reference is measured to be 130 kHz over a period of 2 h. The high degree of stability is demonstrated by the measured Allan deviation around 10{sup -11} between 1 and 100 s.

  17. Core-satellites assembly of silver nanoparticles on a single gold nanoparticle via metal ion-mediated complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inhee; Song, Hyeon Don; Lee, Suseung; Yang, Young In; Kang, Taewook; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-07-25

    We report core-satellites (Au-Ag) coupled plasmonic nanoassemblies based on bottom-up, high-density assembly of molecular-scale silver nanoparticles on a single gold nanoparticle surface, and demonstrate direct observation and quantification of enhanced plasmon coupling (i.e., intensity amplification and apparent spectra shift) in a single particle level. We also explore metal ion sensing capability based on our coupled plasmonic core-satellites, which enabled at least 1000 times better detection limit as compared to that of a single plasmonic nanoparticle. Our results demonstrate and suggest substantial promise for the development of coupled plasmonic nanostructures for ultrasensitive detection of various biological and chemical analytes.

  18. Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hou Ming Dong; LiuJie; Wang Zhi Guang; Jin Yun Fan; Zhu Zhi Yong; Zhen Hong Lou; Liu Chang Long; Chen Xiao Xi; Wei Xin Guo; Zhang Li; Fan You Cheng; Zhu Zhou Rong; Zhang Yiting

    2002-01-01

    Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe ions in different batches of 32k x 8 bits static random access memory are studied. The incident angle dependences of the cross sections for single event upset and single event latch up are presented. The SEE cross sections are plotted versus energy loss instead of linear energy transfer value in sensitive region. The depth of sensitive volume and thickness of 'dead' layer above the sensitive volume are estimated

  19. A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

  20. Engineering and functional evaluation of a single-chain antibody against HIV-1 external glycoprotein gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H W; Cole, D; Jiang, W Z; Jin, H T; Fu, N; Chen, Z L; Jin, N Y

    2005-07-01

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein surface subunit gp120 is an attractive target for molecular intervention. This is because anti-HIV-1 gp120 neutralizing antibodies display the potential ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. The present investigation describes the construction of a genetically engineered single chain antibody (scFv102) against HIV-1 gp120, its expression and functional evaluation. The parental hybridoma cell line (102) produces an immunoglobulin directed against the conserved CD4-binding region of gp120. cDNAs encoding the variable regions of the heavy (V(H)) and light (V(L)) chains were prepared by reverse transcription PCR and linked together with an oligonucleotide encoding a linker peptide (Gly(4)Ser)(3) to produce a single chain antibody gene. The resulting DNA construct was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector (pET28) and recombinant scFv102 was expressed in Eserichia coli as an insoluble protein. The denatured scFv102 was refolded and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Purified scFv102 had the same specificity as the intact IgG in immuno-blotting assays and immuno-fluorescence (IF) detection, but ELISA analyses demonstrated the affinity of scFv102 to be 5-fold lower than that of the parental monoclonal antibody. In neutralization assays, scFv102 at concentrations lower than 40 microg/ml exhibited efficient interference with viral replication and inhibition of viral infection (90%) across a range of primary isolates of subtype B HIV-1. These results suggest that the constructed anti-HIV-1 gp120 scFv102 has good biological activity and can potentially be used for in vitro diagnostic and in vivo therapeutic applications.

  1. Diagnostics and Degradation Investigations of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes using Single Nanowire Electrochemical Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapati, Naveen Kumar Reddy

    Portable energy storage devices, which drive advanced technological devices, are improving the productivity and quality of our everyday lives. In order to meet the growing needs for energy storage in transportation applications, the current lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology requires new electrode materials with performance improvements in multiple aspects: (1) energy and power densities, (2) safety, and (3) performance lifetime. While a number of interesting nanomaterials have been synthesized in recent years with promising performance, accurate capabilities to probe the intrinsic performance of these high-performance materials within a battery environment are lacking. Most studies on electrode nanomaterials have so far used traditional, bulk-scale techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. These approaches give an ensemble-average estimation of the electrochemical properties of a battery electrode and does not provide a true indication of the performance that is intrinsic to its material system. Thus, new techniques are essential to understand the changes happening at a single particle level during the operation of a battery. The results from this thesis solve this need and study the electrical, mechanical and size changes that take place in a battery electrode at a single particle level. Single nanowire lithium cells are built by depositing nanowires in carefully designed device regions of a silicon chip using Dielectrophoresis (DEP). This work has demonstrated the assembly of several NW cathode materials like LiFePO 4, pristine and acid-leached alpha-MnO2, todorokite - MnO2, acid and nonacid-leached Na0.44MnO2. Within these materials, alpha-MnO2 was chosen as the model material system for electrochemical experiments. Electrochemical lithiation of pristine alpha-MnO 2 was performed inside a glove box. The volume, elasticity and conductivity changes were measured at each state-of-charge (SOC) to

  2. The Charging Process in a High-speed, Single-cylinder, Four-stroke Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Blake; Schecter, Harry; Taylor, E S

    1939-01-01

    Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations were made on an aircraft-type, single cylinder engine, in order to determine the physical nature of the inlet process, especially at high piston speeds. The engine was run at speeds from 1,500 to 2,600 r.p.m. (mean piston speeds of 1,370 to 2,380 feet per minute). Measurements were made of the cylinder pressure during the inlet stroke and of the power output and volumetric efficiency. Measurements were also made, with the engine not running, to determine the resistance and mass of air in the inlet valve port at various crank angles. Results of analysis indicate that mass has an appreciable effect, but friction plays the major part in restricting flow. The observed fact that the volumetric efficiency is considerably less than 100 percent is attributed to thermal effects. An estimate was made of the magnitude of these effects in the present case, and their general nature is discussed.

  3. Defect Engineering by Codoping in KCaI3 :Eu2 + Single-Crystalline Scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuntao; Li, Qi; Jones, Steven; Dun, Chaochao; Hu, Sheng; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Lindsey, Adam C.; Stand, Luis; Loyd, Matthew; Koschan, Merry; Auxier, John; Hall, Howard L.; Melcher, Charles L.

    2017-09-01

    Eu2 + -doped alkali or alkali earth iodide scintillators with energy resolutions ≤3 % at 662 keV promise the excellent discrimination ability for radioactive isotopes required for homeland-security and nuclear-nonproliferation applications. To extend their applications to x-ray imaging, such as computed tomography scans, the intense afterglow which delays the response time of such materials is an obstacle that needs to be overcome. However, a clear understanding of the origin of the afterglow and feasible solutions is still lacking. In this work, we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the physical insights of codoping-based defect engineering which can reduce the afterglow effectively in KCaI3:Eu2 + single-crystal scintillators. We illustrate that Sc3 + codoping greatly suppresses the afterglow, whereas Y3 + , Gd3 + , or La3 + codoping enhances the afterglow. Meanwhile, a light yield of 57 000 photons / MeV and an energy resolution of 3.4% at 662 keV can be maintained with the appropriate concentration of Sc3 + codoping, which makes the material promising for medical-imaging applications. Through our thermoluminescence techniques and density-functional-theory calculations, we are able to identify the defect structures and understand the mechanism by which codoping affects the scintillation performance of KCaI3:Eu2 + crystals. The proposed defect-engineering strategy is further validated by achieving afterglow suppression in Mg2 + codoped KCaI3:Eu2 + single crystals.

  4. Coordinated Engine-Start Control of Single-Motor P2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Respect to Different Driving Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangyang Xu; Xiaoxiao Wu; Mick Jordan; Peng Dong; Yang Liu

    2018-01-01

    To cut down the costs caused by the additional starter, single-motor P2 hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) make use of the driving motor to propel the vehicle as well as start the engine, and accordingly the engine-start control becomes more difficult. To satisfy the passengers’ demands, this paper developed different coordinated engine-start control strategies with respect to different situations. First, a detailed model for the single-motor P2 HEVs system was built and related parameters were ...

  5. Novel single-cell mega-size chambers for electrochemical etching of panorama position-sensitive polycarbonate ion image detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    2017-11-01

    A novel development is made here by inventing panorama single-cell mega-size electrochemical etching (MS-ECE) chamber systems for processing panorama position-sensitive mega-size polycarbonate ion image detectors (MS-PCIDs) of potential for many neutron and ion detection applications in particular hydrogen ions or proton tracks and images detected for the first time in polycarbonates in this study. The MS-PCID is simply a large polycarbonate sheet of a desired size. The single-cell MS-ECE invented consists of two large equally sized transparent Plexiglas sheets as chamber walls holding a MS-PCID and the ECE chamber components tightly together. One wall has a large flat stainless steel electrode (dry cell) attached to it which is directly in contact with the MS-PCID and the other wall has a rod electrode with two holes to facilitate feeding and draining out the etching solution from the wet cell. A silicon rubber washer plays the role of the wet cell to hold the etchant and the electrical insulator to isolate the dry cell from the wet cell. A simple 50 Hz-HV home-made generator provides an adequate field strength through the two electrodes across the MS-ECE chamber. Two panorama single-cell MS-ECE chamber systems (circular and rectangular shapes) constructed were efficiently applied to processing the MS-PCIDs for 4π ion emission image detection of different gases in particular hydrogen ions or protons in a 3.5 kJ plasma focus device (PFD as uniquely observed by the unaided eyes). The panorama MS-PCID/MS-ECE image detection systems invented are novel with high potential for many applications in particular as applied to 4π panorama ion emission angular distribution image detection studies in PFD space, some results of which are presented and discussed.

  6. Effect of H{sup +} ion implantation on structural, morphological, optical and dielectric properties of L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeetha, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Kumar, P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 10502, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Bhagvannarayana, G. [Materials Characterization Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Ramamurthi, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-06-15

    L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate (LAHCl) single crystals have been implanted with 100 keV H{sup +} ions at different ion fluence ranging from 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Implanted LAHCl single crystals have been investigated for property changes. Crystal surface and crystalline perfection of the pristine and implanted crystals were analyzed by atomic force microscope and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies, respectively. Optical absorption bands induced by colour centers, refractive index and birefringence, mechanical stability and dielectric constant of implanted crystals were studied at different ion fluence and compared with that of pristine LAHCl single crystal.

  7. Changes in ion channel geometry resolved to sub-ångström precision via single molecule mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Kasianowicz, John J.; Reiner, Joseph E.

    2010-11-01

    The ion channel formed by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin switches between multiple open conducting states. We describe a method for precisely estimating the changes in the ion channel geometry that correspond to these different states. Experimentally, we observed that the permeability of a single channel to differently sized poly(ethylene glycol) molecules depends on the magnitude of the open state conductance. A simple theory is proposed for determining changes in channel length of 4.2% and in cross-sectional area of - 0.4%.

  8. Strong coupling between a single nitrogen-vacancy spin and the rotational mode of diamonds levitating in an ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delord, T.; Nicolas, L.; Chassagneux, Y.; Hétet, G.

    2017-12-01

    A scheme for strong coupling between a single atomic spin and the rotational mode of levitating nanoparticles is proposed. The idea is based on spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers embedded in aspherical nanodiamonds levitating in an ion trap. We show that the asymmetry of the diamond induces a rotational confinement in the ion trap. Using a weak homogeneous magnetic field and a strong microwave driving we then demonstrate that the spin of the nitrogen-vacancy center can be strongly coupled to the rotational mode of the diamond.

  9. Experimental investigation of gasoline fumigation in a single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Z.; Durgun, O.; Bayram, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the presented study, the effects of gasoline fumigation have been investigated experimentally in a single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Gasoline has been introduced into the inlet air flow using an elementary carburetor and no other modification on the engine has been done. The effects of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% (by vol.) gasoline fumigation have been investigated experimentally at the speeds of (900-1600) (rpm) and at the selected compression ratios of (18-23). From the experimental results it is determined that by application of gasoline fumigation effective power output increases at the levels of 4-9%, effective efficiency increases by approximately 1.5-4% and specific fuel consumption decreases by approximately 1.5-4%. It is also determined that 4-6% fumigation ratio range is the most favorable percentage interval of gasoline at the selected compression ratios for this engine. Because cost of gasoline is higher than diesel fuel in Turkey as well as in many of the other countries and the decrease ratio of specific fuel consumption is low, gasoline fumigation is not economic for this engine. In the presented study, heat balance tests have also been performed for 18 and 21 compression ratios. The heat balance has been investigated experimentally in respect of effective power, heat rejected to the cooling water, heat lost through exhaust, and other losses (unaccounted-for losses). Heat lost through exhaust decreases until 4-6% gasoline fumigation ratios and after these fumigation ratios it starts to increase because of increasing exhaust gas temperature. Heat rejected to the cooling water decreases at low fumigation ratios, but at high fumigation ratios it increases. Other losses generally exhibit an increasing tendency at low fumigation ratios

  10. Coordinated Engine-Start Control of Single-Motor P2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Respect to Different Driving Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To cut down the costs caused by the additional starter, single-motor P2 hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs make use of the driving motor to propel the vehicle as well as start the engine, and accordingly the engine-start control becomes more difficult. To satisfy the passengers’ demands, this paper developed different coordinated engine-start control strategies with respect to different situations. First, a detailed model for the single-motor P2 HEVs system was built and related parameters were presented. Then, the coordinated engine-start control architecture for the internal combustion engine (ICE, engine disconnect clutch (EDC, electric motor (EM and 8-speed automatic transmission (AT was analyzed. Considering with the different driving situations, soft start strategy and dynamical start strategy are individually proposed. Through the simulation, the above control strategies were validated in accordance with their control objectives. Last, to optimize the trade-off between driving performance and riding comfort, some key parameters were further discussed. This work not only decreases the difficulty of engine-start control in the single-motor P2 HEVs but also is helpful to improve the quality of engine-start.

  11. Productivity Improvement for the SHX--SEN's Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Shiro; Ochi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Yumiyama, Toshio; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kurose, Takeshi; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ishikawa, Koji; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Equipment productivity is a critical issue for device fabrication. For ion implantation, productivity is determined both by ion current at the wafer and by utilization efficiency of the ion beam. Such improvements not only result in higher fabrication efficiency but also reduce consumption of both electrical power and process gases. For high-current ion implanters, reduction of implant area is a key factor to increase efficiency. SEN has developed the SAVING system (Scanning Area Variation Implantation with Narrower Geometrical pattern) to address this opportunity. In this paper, three variations of the SAVING system are introduced along with discussion of their effects on fab productivity.

  12. Reverse-engineering of gene networks for regulating early blood development from single-cell measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiangyong; Hu, Xiaohua; Zou, Xiufen; Tian, Tianhai

    2017-12-28

    Recent advances in omics technologies have raised great opportunities to study large-scale regulatory networks inside the cell. In addition, single-cell experiments have measured the gene and protein activities in a large number of cells under the same experimental conditions. However, a significant challenge in computational biology and bioinformatics is how to derive quantitative information from the single-cell observations and how to develop sophisticated mathematical models to describe the dynamic properties of regulatory networks using the derived quantitative information. This work designs an integrated approach to reverse-engineer gene networks for regulating early blood development based on singel-cell experimental observations. The wanderlust algorithm is initially used to develop the pseudo-trajectory for the activities of a number of genes. Since the gene expression data in the developed pseudo-trajectory show large fluctuations, we then use Gaussian process regression methods to smooth the gene express data in order to obtain pseudo-trajectories with much less fluctuations. The proposed integrated framework consists of both bioinformatics algorithms to reconstruct the regulatory network and mathematical models using differential equations to describe the dynamics of gene expression. The developed approach is applied to study the network regulating early blood cell development. A graphic model is constructed for a regulatory network with forty genes and a dynamic model using differential equations is developed for a network of nine genes. Numerical results suggests that the proposed model is able to match experimental data very well. We also examine the networks with more regulatory relations and numerical results show that more regulations may exist. We test the possibility of auto-regulation but numerical simulations do not support the positive auto-regulation. In addition, robustness is used as an importantly additional criterion to select candidate

  13. ions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (MP2 B2). In order to draw the final conclusion about the content of the isomers of pentaatomic ions in saturated vapor over cesium chloride, we have taken into account the entropy factor. We considered the isomerization reactions which are given below: Cs3Cl2. + (V-shaped) = Cs3Cl2. + (cyclic or bipyramidal). (1). Cs2Cl3.

  14. Single potential electrodeposition of nanostructured battery materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, James Matthew

    The increasing reliance on portable electronics is continuing to fuel research in the area of low power lithium-ion batteries, while a new surge in research for high power lithium-ion batteries has been sparked by the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). To compete with current lead-acid battery chemistry, a few of the shortcomings of lithium-ion battery chemistry need to be addressed. The three main drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries for this application are: (1) low power density, (2) safety, and (3) the high cost of manufacturing. This dissertation covers the development of a low cost fabrication technique for an alternative anode material with high surface area geometries. The anode material is safer than the conventional anode material in lithium-ion batteries and the high surface area geometries permit higher power densities to be achieved. Electrodeposition is an inexpensive alternative method for synthesizing materials for electronics, energy conversion and energy storage applications relative to traditional solid state techniques. These techniques led to expensive device fabrication. Unlike most solid state synthesis routes, electrodeposition can usually be performed from common solutions and at moderate conditions. Three other benefits of using electrodeposition are: (1) it allows precise control of composition and crystallinity, (2) it provides the ability to deposit on complex shapes, and (3) it can deposit materials with nanoscale dimensions. The use of electrodeposition for alternative anode materials results in the deposition of the material directly onto the current collector that is used for the battery testing and applications without the need of additional binders and with excellent electrical contact. While this improves the characterization of the material and lowers the weight of the non-active materials within a battery, it also allows the anode to be deposited onto current collectors with

  15. Determination of trace inorganic anions in weak acids by single-pump column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haibao; Chen, Huadong; Zhong, Yingying; Ren, Dandan; Qian, Yaling; Tang, Hongfang; Zhu, Yan

    2010-08-01

    Ion chromatography has been proposed for the determination of three common inorganic anions (chloride, nitrate, and sulfate) in nine weak acids (tartaric acid, citric acid, formic acid, acetic acid, metacetonic acid, butyric acid, butanedioic acid, hexafluorophosphoric acid, and salicylic acid) using a single pump, two valves, a single eluent, and a single conductivity detector. The present system uses ion exclusion, concentrator, and anion-exchange columns connected in series via 6-port and 10-port valves in a Dionex ICS-2100 ion chromatograph. The valves were switched for the determination of three inorganic anions from weak acids in a single chromatographic run. Sample matrices of weak acids with a series of concentrations can be investigated. Complete separations of the previously mentioned anions are demonstrated within 40 min. Under the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviation values ranged from 1.3 to 3.8%. The detection limits of the three inorganic anions (S/N = 3) were in the range of 0.3-1.7 microg/L. The recoveries were in the range of 75.2-117.6%. With this system, automation for routine analysis, short analysis time, and low cost can be achieved.

  16. Bidirectional Promoter Engineering for Single Cell MicroRNA Sensors in Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna L Sladitschek

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have emerged as important markers and regulators of cell identity. Precise measurements of cellular miRNA levels rely traditionally on RNA extraction and thus do not allow to follow miRNA expression dynamics at the level of single cells. Non-invasive miRNA sensors present an ideal solution but they critically depend on the performance of suitable ubiquitous promoters that reliably drive expression both in pluripotent and differentiated cell types. Here we describe the engineering of bidirectional promoters that drive the expression of precise ratiometric fluorescent miRNA sensors in single mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs and their differentiated derivatives. These promoters are based on combinations of the widely used CAG, EF1α and PGK promoters as well as the CMV and PGK enhancers. miR-142-3p, which is known to be bimodally expressed in mESCs, served as a model miRNA to gauge the precision of the sensors. The performance of the resulting miRNA sensors was assessed by flow cytometry in single stable transgenic mESCs undergoing self-renewal or differentiation. EF1α promoters arranged back-to-back failed to drive the robustly correlated expression of two transgenes. Back-to-back PGK promoters were shut down during mESC differentiation. However, we found that a back-to-back arrangement of CAG promoters with four CMV enhancers provided both robust expression in mESCs undergoing differentiation and the best signal-to-noise for measurement of miRNA activity in single cells among all the sensors we tested. Such a bidirectional promoter is therefore particularly well suited to study the dynamics of miRNA expression during cell fate transitions at the single cell level.

  17. Technology and engineering aspects of high power pulsed single longitudinal mode dye lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, V. S.; Mukherjee, Jaya; Gantayet, L. M.

    2015-09-01

    Tunable single mode pulsed dye lasers are capable of generating optical radiations in the visible range having very small bandwidths (transform limited), high average power (a few kW) at a high pulse repetition rate (a few tens of kHz), small beam divergence and relatively higher efficiencies. These dye lasers are generally utilized laser dyes dissolved in solvents such as water, heavy water, ethanol, methanol, etc. to provide a rapidly flowing gain medium. The dye laser is a versatile tool, which can lase either in the continuous wave (CW) or in the pulsed mode with pulse duration as small as a few tens of femtoseconds. In this review, we have examined the several cavity designs, various types of gain mediums and numerous types of dye cell geometries for obtaining the single longitudinal mode pulsed dye laser. Different types of cavity configuration, such as very short cavity, short cavity with frequency selective element and relatively longer cavity with multiple frequency selective elements were reviewed. These single mode lasers have been pumped by all kinds of pumping sources such as flash lamps, Excimer, Nitrogen, Ruby, Nd:YAG, Copper Bromide and Copper Vapor Lasers. The single mode dye lasers are either pumped transversely or longitudinally to the resonator axis. The pulse repletion rate of these pump lasers were ranging from a few Hz to a few tens of kHz. Physics technology and engineering aspects of tuning mechanism, mode hop free scanning and dye cell designs are also presented in this review. Tuning of a single mode dye laser with a resolution of a few MHz per step is a technologically challenging task, which is discussed here.

  18. Performance of a single nutating disk engine in the 2 to 500 kW power range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korakianitis, T.; Boruta, M.; Jerovsek, J.; Meitner, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    A new type of internal combustion engine with distinct advantages over conventional piston-engines and gas turbines in small power ranges is presented. The engine has analogies with piston engine operation, but like gas turbines it has dedicated spaces and devices for compression, burning and expansion. The engine operates on a modified limited-pressure thermodynamic cycle. The core of the engine is a nutating non-rotating disk, with the center of its hub mounted in the middle of a Z-shaped shaft. The two ends of the shaft rotate, while the disk nutates. The motion of the disk circumference prescribes a portion of a sphere. In the single-disk configuration a portion of the surface area of the disk is used for intake and compression, a portion is used to seal against a center casing, and the remaining portion is used for expansion and exhaust. The compressed air is admitted to an external accumulator, and then into an external combustion chamber before it is admitted to the power side of the disk. The external combustion chamber enables the engine to operate on a variable compression ratio cycle. Variations in cycle temperature ratio and compression ratio during normal operation enable the engine to effectively become a variable-cycle engine, allowing significant flexibility for optimizing efficiency or power output. The thermal efficiency is similar to that of medium sized diesel engines. For the same engine volume and weight this engine produces approximately twice the power of a two-stroke engine and four times the power of a four-stroke engine. The computed sea-level engine performance at design and off-design conditions in the 2 to 500 kW power range is presented.

  19. Cationized phenylalanine conformations characterized by IRMPD and computation for singly and doubly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunbar, R. C.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.

    2010-01-01

    Electrospray ionization produces phenylalanine (Phe) complexes of the alkali metal ion series, plus Ag+ and Ba2+. Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy using the FELIX free electron laser light source is used to characterize the conformations of the ions, in conjunction with

  20. Early Stage of Deformation under Nanoindenter Tip of Ion-irradiated Single Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Chan Sun; Jin, Hyung Ha; Kwon, Jun Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Ion irradiation has been used for almost 40 years to emulate the effect of neutrons. Ion irradiation has a number of advantages in terms of time and expenses compared to neutron irradiation. Ion irradiation is expected to greatly contribute to the development of Fusion and Gen IV materials. Ions have short penetration depth, and they induce continuously varying dose rate over the penetration depth. Although it depends on the energy and species of incident ions, the depth of ion-irradiated region is in general on the order of a few micron meters. Depth controlled probing technique is required to measure the mechanical properties of ion-irradiated layer, and nanoindentation is widely used. During nanoindentation, a hard tip with known properties is pressed into a material which has unknown properties. The depth of penetration and load on the indenter are recorded during loading and unloading. The initial Loading depth curve follows the Hertzian elastic solution, and at a certain load, a sudden displacement excursion occurs in indenter depth and then hardening follows. This is called 'Pop-in' event, and since residual impression can be found only after pop-ins, the pop-in is regarded as the onset of plasticity. The objectives of this research are to investigate the effects of ion irradiation on popins, and to examine dislocation nucleation and propagation at the onset of plasticity by using MD simulations

  1. Early Stage of Deformation under Nanoindenter Tip of Ion-irradiated Single Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chan Sun; Jin, Hyung Ha; Kwon, Jun Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Ion irradiation has been used for almost 40 years to emulate the effect of neutrons. Ion irradiation has a number of advantages in terms of time and expenses compared to neutron irradiation. Ion irradiation is expected to greatly contribute to the development of Fusion and Gen IV materials. Ions have short penetration depth, and they induce continuously varying dose rate over the penetration depth. Although it depends on the energy and species of incident ions, the depth of ion-irradiated region is in general on the order of a few micron meters. Depth controlled probing technique is required to measure the mechanical properties of ion-irradiated layer, and nanoindentation is widely used. During nanoindentation, a hard tip with known properties is pressed into a material which has unknown properties. The depth of penetration and load on the indenter are recorded during loading and unloading. The initial Loading depth curve follows the Hertzian elastic solution, and at a certain load, a sudden displacement excursion occurs in indenter depth and then hardening follows. This is called 'Pop-in' event, and since residual impression can be found only after pop-ins, the pop-in is regarded as the onset of plasticity. The objectives of this research are to investigate the effects of ion irradiation on popins, and to examine dislocation nucleation and propagation at the onset of plasticity by using MD simulations

  2. Potent neutralization of influenza A virus by a single-domain antibody blocking M2 ion channel protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Wei

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus poses serious health threat to humans. Neutralizing antibodies against the highly conserved M2 ion channel is thought to offer broad protection against influenza A viruses. Here, we screened synthetic Camel single-domain antibody (VHH libraries against native M2 ion channel protein. One of the isolated VHHs, M2-7A, specifically bound to M2-expressed cell membrane as well as influenza A virion, inhibited replication of both amantadine-sensitive and resistant influenza A viruses in vitro, and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, M2-7A showed blocking activity for proton influx through M2 ion channel. These pieces of evidence collectively demonstrate for the first time that a neutralizing antibody against M2 with broad specificity is achievable, and M2-7A may have potential for cross protection against a number of variants and subtypes of influenza A viruses.

  3. Optical planar waveguides in photo-thermal-refractive glasses fabricated by single- or double-energy carbon ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Shen, Xiao-Liang; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Guo, Hai-Tao; Lv, Peng; Liu, Chun-Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Ion implantation has demonstrated to be an efficient and reliable technique for the fabrication of optical waveguides in a diversity of transparent materials. Photo-thermal-refractive glass (PTR) is considered to be durable and stable holographic recording medium. Optical planar waveguide structures in the PTR glasses were formed, for the first time to our knowledge, by the C3+-ion implantation with single-energy (6.0 MeV) and double-energy (5.5+6.0 MeV), respectively. The process of the carbon ion implantation was simulated by the stopping and range of ions in matter code. The morphologies of the waveguides were recorded by a microscope operating in transmission mode. The guided beam distributions of the waveguides were measured by the end-face coupling technique. Comparing with the single-energy implantation, the double-energy implantation improves the light confinement for the dark-mode spectrum. The guiding properties suggest that the carbon-implanted PTR glass waveguides have potential for the manufacture of photonic devices.

  4. Junctionless Diode Enabled by Self-Bias Effect of Ion Gel in Single-Layer MoS2 Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Atif; Rathi, Servin; Park, Jinwoo; Lim, Dongsuk; Lee, Yoontae; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2017-08-16

    The self-biasing effects of ion gel from source and drain electrodes on electrical characteristics of single layer and few layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) field-effect transistor (FET) have been studied. The self-biasing effect of ion gel is tested for two different configurations, covered and open, where ion gel is in contact with either one or both, source and drain electrodes, respectively. In open configuration, the linear output characteristics of the pristine device becomes nonlinear and on-off ratio drops by 3 orders of magnitude due to the increase in "off" current for both single and few layer MoS 2 FETs. However, the covered configuration results in a highly asymmetric output characteristics with a rectification of around 10 3 and an ideality factor of 1.9. This diode like behavior has been attributed to the reduction of Schottky barrier width by the electric field of self-biased ion gel, which enables an efficient injection of electrons by tunneling at metal-MoS 2 interface. Finally, finite element method based simulations are carried out and the simulated results matches well in principle with the experimental analysis. These self-biased diodes can perform a crucial role in the development of high-frequency optoelectronic and valleytronic devices.

  5. Elucidating distinct ion channel populations on the surface of hippocampal neurons via single-particle tracking recurrence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Grzegorz; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Gajda, Janusz; Solé, Laura; Akin, Elizabeth J.; Tamkun, Michael M.; Krapf, Diego

    2017-12-01

    Protein and lipid nanodomains are prevalent on the surface of mammalian cells. In particular, it has been recently recognized that ion channels assemble into surface nanoclusters in the soma of cultured neurons. However, the interactions of these molecules with surface nanodomains display a considerable degree of heterogeneity. Here, we investigate this heterogeneity and develop statistical tools based on the recurrence of individual trajectories to identify subpopulations within ion channels in the neuronal surface. We specifically study the dynamics of the K+ channel Kv1.4 and the Na+ channel Nav1.6 on the surface of cultured hippocampal neurons at the single-molecule level. We find that both these molecules are expressed in two different forms with distinct kinetics with regards to surface interactions, emphasizing the complex proteomic landscape of the neuronal surface. Further, the tools presented in this work provide new methods for the analysis of membrane nanodomains, transient confinement, and identification of populations within single-particle trajectories.

  6. The Comparison of Engineering Properties Between Single and Double Layer Porous Asphalt made of Packing Gradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiman M. Y

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available is paper presents the comparison of engineering properties between single and double layer porous asphalt (SLPA and DLPA made of packing gradation. Three nominal maximum aggregate sizes (NMAS were tested each made up of 10, 14, and 20 mm for SLPA. While for the DLPA with 30, 20, and 15 mm top layer are made of 10 and 14 mm NMAS, with a base layer of 20 mm NMAS. Total thickness of all mixes is 70 mm. Binders used are 60/70 penetration base bitumen and polymer binder styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS. The result shows that the properties of SLPA mix namely permeability and resistance to abrasion loss decreases when the NMAS in SLPA decreases. The abrasion loss of DLPA mixes increases when the porous asphalt top layer thickness decreases, while drainage time value decreases. However, SLPA with 20 mm NMAS exhibits higher abrasion loss compared to all DLPA mixes.

  7. Numerical model of spray combustion in a single cylinder diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Luigi; Sequino, Luigi; Nigro, Giancarlo; Continillo, Gaetano; Vaglieco, Bianca Maria

    2017-11-01

    A numerical model is developed for predicting the pressure cycle from Intake Valve Closing (IVC) to the Exhaust Valve Opening (EVO) events. The model is based on a modified one-dimensional (1D) Musculus and Kattke spray model, coupled with a zero-dimensional (0D) non-adiabatic transient Fed-Batch reactor model. The 1D spray model provides an estimate of the fuel evaporation rate during the injection phenomenon, as a function of time. The 0D Fed-Batch reactor model describes combustion. The main goal of adopting a 0D (perfectly stirred) model is to use highly detailed reaction mechanisms for Diesel fuel combustion in air, while keeping the computational cost as low as possible. The proposed model is validated by comparing its predictions with experimental data of pressure obtained from an optical single cylinder Diesel engine.

  8. Molecular dynamics study of radiation damage and microstructure evolution of zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes under carbon ion incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Feida; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian; Chen, Da

    2016-07-01

    The radiation damage and microstructure evolution of different zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated under incident carbon ion by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The radiation damage of SWCNTs under incident carbon ion with energy ranging from 25 eV to 1 keV at 300 K showed many differences at different incident sites, and the defect production increased to the maximum value with the increase in incident ion energy, and slightly decreased but stayed fairly stable within the majority of the energy range. The maximum damage of SWCNTs appeared when the incident ion energy reached 200 eV and the level of damage was directly proportional to incident ion fluence. The radiation damage was also studied at 100 K and 700 K and the defect production decreased distinctly with rising temperature because radiation-induced defects would anneal and recombine by saturating dangling bonds and reconstructing carbon network at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the stability of a large-diameter tube surpassed that of a thin one under the same radiation environments.

  9. Investigations on heavy ion induced Single-Event Transients (SETs) in highly-scaled FinFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillardin, M.; Raine, M.; Paillet, P.; Adell, P.C.; Girard, S.; Duhamel, O.; Andrieu, F.; Barraud, S.; Faynot, O.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate Single-Event Transients (SET) in different designs of multiple-gate devices made of FinFETs with various geometries. Heavy ion experimental results are explained by using a thorough charge collection analysis of fast transients measured on dedicated test structures. Multi-level simulations are performed to get new insights into the charge collection mechanisms in multiple-gate devices. Implications for multiple-gate device design hardening are finally discussed.

  10. Tumor induction in mice after local irradiation with single doses of either carbon-ion beams or gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Ando, Yutaka; Kobashi, Gen

    2014-12-01

    To determine the dose-dependent relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for tumor prevalence in mice receiving single localized doses to their right leg of either carbon ions (15, 45 or 75 keV/μm) or 137Cs gamma rays. A total of 1647 female C3H mice were irradiated to their hind legs with a localized dose of either reference gamma rays or 15, 45 or 75 keV/μm carbon-ion beams. Irradiated mice were evaluated for tumors twice a month during their three-year life span, and the dimensions of any tumors found were measured with a caliper. The tumor induction frequency was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The incidence of tumors from 50 Gy of 45 keV/μm carbon ions was marginally higher than those from 50 Gy of gamma rays. However, 60 Gy of 15 keV/μm carbon ions induced significantly fewer tumors than did gamma rays. RBE values of 0.87 + 0.12, 1.29 + 0.08 or 2.06 + 0.39 for lifetime tumorigenesis were calculated for 15, 45 or 75 keV/μm carbon-ion beams, respectively. Fibrosarcoma predominated, with no Linear Energy Transfer (LET)-dependent differences in the tumor histology. Experiments measuring the late effect of leg skin shrinkage suggested that the carcinogenic damage of 15 keV/μm carbon ions would be less than that of gamma rays. We conclude that patients receiving radiation doses to their normal tissues would face less risk of secondary tumor induction by carbon ions of intermediate LET values compared to equivalent doses of photons.

  11. Determination and shaping of the ion-velocity distribution function in a single-ended Q machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1971-01-01

    An electrostatic energy analyzer with a resolution better than 0.03 eV was constructed. This analyzer was used to determine the ion-velocity distribution function at different densities and plate temperatures in a single-ended Q machine. In all regions good agreement with theoretical predictions...... based on simple, physical pictures is obtained. It is shown that within certain limits the velocity distribution function can be shaped; double-humped distribution functions have been obtained. The technique used here is suggested as an accurate method for determination of plasma densities within 10......% in single-ended Q machines...

  12. Detection of Engineered Copper Nanoparticles in Soil Using Single Particle ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Navratilova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory efforts rely on nanometrology for the development and implementation of laws regarding the incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs into industrial and consumer products. Copper is currently one of the most common metals used in the constantly developing and expanding sector of nanotechnology. The use of copper nanoparticles in products, such as agricultural biocides, cosmetics and paints, is increasing. Copper based ENMs will eventually be released to the environment through the use and disposal of nano-enabled products, however, the detection of copper ENMs in environmental samples is a challenging task. Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (spICP-MS has been suggested as a powerful tool for routine nanometrology efforts. In this work, we apply a spICP-MS method for the detection of engineered copper nanomaterials in colloidal extracts from natural soil samples. Overall, copper nanoparticles were successfully detected in the soil colloidal extracts and the importance of dwell time, background removal, and sample dilution for method optimization and recovery maximization is highlighted.

  13. A novel aptasensor based on single-molecule force spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection of mercury ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Michaelis, Monika; Wei, Gang; Colombi Ciacchi, Lucio

    2015-08-07

    We have developed a novel aptasensor based on single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) capable of detecting mercury ions (Hg(2+)) with sub-nM sensitivity. The single-strand (ss) DNA aptamer used in this work is rich in thymine (T) and readily forms T-Hg(2+)-T complexes in the presence of Hg(2+). The aptamer was conjugated to an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe, and the adhesion force between the probe and a flat graphite surface was measured by single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). The presence of Hg(2+) ions above a concentration threshold corresponding to the affinity constant of the ions for the aptamer (about 5 × 10(9) M(-1)) could be easily detected by a change of the measured adhesion force. With our chosen aptamer, we could reach an Hg(2+) detection limit of 100 pM, which is well below the maximum allowable level of Hg(2+) in drinking water. In addition, this aptasensor presents a very high selectivity for Hg(2+) over other metal cations, such as K(+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+), and Cd(2+). Furthermore, the effects of the ionic strength and loading rate on the Hg(2+) detection were evaluated. Its simplicity, reproducibility, high selectivity and sensitivity make our SMFS-based aptasensor advantageous with respect to other current Hg(2+) sensing methods. It is expected that our strategy can be exploited for monitoring the pollution of water environments and the safety of potentially contaminated food.

  14. When electrons meet molecular ions and what happens next: dissociative recombination from interstellar molecular clouds to internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of matter with its environment is the driving force behind the evolution of 99% of the observed matter in the universe. The majority of the visible universe exists in a state of weak ionization, the so called fourth state of matter: plasma. Plasmas are ubiquitous, from those occurring naturally; interstellar molecular clouds, cometary comae, circumstellar shells, to those which are anthropic in origin; flames, combustion engines and fusion reactors. The evolution of these plasmas is driven by the interaction of the plasma constituents, the ions, and the electrons. One of the most important subsets of these reactions is electron-molecular ion recombination. This process is significant for two very important reasons. It is an ionization reducing reaction, removing two ionised species and producing neutral products. Furthermore, these products may themselves be reactive radical species which can then further drive the evolution of the plasma. The rate at which the electron reacts with the ion depends on many parameters, for examples the collision energy, the internal energy of the ion, and the structure of the ion itself. Measuring these properties together with the manner in which the system breaks up is therefore critical if the evolution of the environment is to be understood at all. Several techniques have been developed to study just such reactions to obtain the necessary information on the parameters. In this paper the focus will be on one the most recently developed of these, the Ion Storage Ring, together with the detection tools and techniques used to extract the necessary information from the reaction. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Lithium ions in the van der Waals gap of Bi2Se3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludska, J.; Jakubec, I.; Karamazov, S.; Horak, J.; Uher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Insertion/extraction of lithium ions into/from Bi 2 Se 3 crystals was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The process of insertion is reflected in the appearance of two bands on voltammograms at ∼1.7 and ∼1.5 V, corresponding to the insertion of Li + ions into octahedral and tetrahedral sites of the van der Waals gap of these layered crystals. The process of extraction of Li + ions from the gap results in the appearance of four bands on the voltammograms. The bands 1 and 2 at ∼2.1 and ∼2.3 V correspond to the extraction of a part of Li + guest ions from the octahedral and tetrahedrals sites and this extraction has a character of a reversible intercalation/deintercalation process. A part of Li + ions is bound firmly in the crystal due to the formation of negatively charged clusters of the (LiBiSe 2 .Bi 3 Se 4 - ) type. A further extraction of Li + ions from the van der Waals gap is associated with the presence of bands 3 and 4 placed at ∼2.5 and ∼2.7 V on the voltammograms as their extraction needs higher voltage due to the influence of negative charges localized on these clusters. -- Graphical abstract: Insertion/extraction of lithium ions into/from Bi 2 Se 3 layered crystals was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The extraction of Li + results in the appearance of four bands on the voltammograms. The first two bands have a character of a reversible process. A part of Li + ions is bound firmly in the crystal due to the formation of negatively charged clusters of the (LiBiSe 2 .Bi 3 Se 4 - ) type. Their extraction needs higher voltage due to the negative charge. Display Omitted

  16. Nanometer-size surface modification produced by single, low energy, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Atomically flat surfaces of insulators have been bombarded with low energy, highly charged ions to search for nanometer-size surface modifications. It is expected that the high electron deficiency of highly charged ions will capture and/or remove many of the insulator's localized electrons when impacting on an insulating surface. The resulting local electron deficiency is expected to locally disintegrate the insulator through a open-quotes Coulomb explosionclose quotes forming nanometer-size craters. Xe ions with charge states between 10+ and 45+ and kinetic energies between 0 and 10 keV/q were obtained from the KSU-CRYEBIS, a CRYogenic Electron Beam Ion Source and directed onto various insulating materials. Mica was favored as target material as atomically flat surfaces can be obtained reliably through cleaving. However, the authors observations with an atomic force microscope have shown that mica tends to defoliate locally rather than disintegrate, most likely due to the small binding forces between adjacent layers. So far the authors measurements indicate that each ion produces one blister if the charge state is sufficiently high. The blistering does not seem to depend very much on the kinetic energy of the ions

  17. Biomacromolecule interactions and sensor engineering with single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xun

    The many unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have led interest in their research for a range of potential applications. It is well known that DNA molecules readily wrap around SWCNTs to create water soluble, and biocompatible hybrids (DNA-SWCNT). In concert with many recent studies into DNA molecules and custom materials design, the door is open for SWCNT engineering for biomedical applications. In recent years, SWCNT conjugates have been explored for a variety of applications from scaffolds, to drug delivery, to sensors and beyond. However, despite the amount of early enthusiasm and research, there currently is a limited number of SWCNT-based technologies in the commercial and medical realm. Major factors that contribute to this phenomenon include the heterogeneity of the material and subsequently the complexity of their properties especially in the biological context. The focus of this thesis is to begin addressing the latter for DNA-SWCNT on several fronts of the iterative process of biomaterials design including: material properties, sensor engineering, and cellular interactions. Despite the amount of research on applications of DNA-SWCNT, there is much contention on their exact surface organization. Through multiple complementary techniques and the development of novel analytical methods, a model of DNA-SWCNT surface structure was proposed. Next, DNA-SWCNT endocytosis was imaged. Pharmacological and genetic methods were used to study both the kinetics and mechanism of DNA-SWCNT cellular uptake. Once inside the cell, we took advantage of DNA-SWCNT properties and spatial locations of endosomes to create a sensor system that detects intracellular analyte concentrations with both spatial and temporal resolution. As current study of intracellular signaling often involve the study of time and population averaged cellular changes, this new tool to study single cell responses with spatial resolution can significantly improve our basic

  18. Plastic forming simulation analysis of marine engine crankshaft single-throw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Peipei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research object is for marine engine crankshaft single-throw.A 3D model of the crankshaft single-throw blank and die in forging process is established by SolidWorks software,then the 3D model is imported into metal plastic forming CAE software DEFROM-3D to carry on the plastic forming simulation,to verify the relationship between the internal flow stress and the external deformation conditions in the process of metal plastic deformation under different strain rate and temperature,and to carry on the scientific analysis based on the obtained data.The result shows that the preset temperature is higher,the stress-strain curve is relatively lower when the strain rate is constant.Sample internal flow stress will be greater and the resistance to fatigue strength will be poorer at a higher strain rate when the temperature of the blank is constant.The result also provides a theoretical basis for further optimization design.

  19. Retention of phosphorous ions on natural and engineered waste pumice: Characterization, equilibrium, competing ions, regeneration, kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimaian, Kamal Aldin [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sannandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amrane, Abdeltif [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, Université Rennes 1, CNRS, UMR 6226, Avenue du Général Leclerc, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Kazemian, Hossein [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, London, ON, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Panahi, Reza [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarrabi, Mansur, E-mail: mansor62@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Natural and Mg{sup 2+} modified pumice were used for the removal of phosphorous. The adsorbents were characterized using XRF, XRD, SEM and FTIR instrumental techniques. In the optimal conditions, namely at equilibrium time (30 min), for a phosphorus concentration of 15 mg/L and pH 6, 69 and 97% phosphorus removals were achieved using 10 g/L of natural and modified pumice adsorbents, respectively. Maximum adsorption capacities were 11.88 and 17.71 mg/g by natural and modified pumice, respectively. Pseudo-second order kinetic model was the most relevant to describe the kinetic of phosphorus adsorption. External mass transfer coefficient decreased for increasing phosphorous concentration and film diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling step. Only a very low dissolution of the adsorbent was observed, leading to a low increase in conductivity and turbidity. Removal efficiency decreased for increasing ionic strength. It also decreased in the presence of competing ions; however modified pumice remained effective, since 67% of phosphorus was removed, versus only 17% for the natural pumice. The efficiency of the modified pumice was confirmed during the regeneration tests, since 96% regeneration yield was obtained after 510 min experiment, while only 22% was observed for the raw pumice.

  20. Progress Report. Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Heavy Ion Physics. 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, C.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Poenaru, D.; Pop, A.

    1994-01-01

    A brief account of the research and development activities carried out in the Department of Heavy Ion Physics, Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, during the period January 1992 to December 1993 is presented. The main topics concern nuclear structure models and methods, heavy-ion-induced reactions, and general properties of nuclei and nuclear energy levels. Also, works dealing with particle detection, measuring instruments and methods are reported. The report contains two sections. The first covers the research in progress in the fields of nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, atomic physics, accelerator, instrumentation, methods and computer codes. The second one, the appendix, contains the list of publications of the Department staff in journals and proceedings, books, and preprints, the conference contributions, the academic degrees awarded, the scientific exchanges, and the list of scientific personnel

  1. Cluster-continuum quasichemical theory calculation of the lithium ion solvation in water, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide: an absolute single-ion solvation free energy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nathalia F; Pliego, Josefredo R

    2015-10-28

    Absolute single-ion solvation free energy is a very useful property for understanding solution phase chemistry. The real solvation free energy of an ion depends on its interaction with the solvent molecules and on the net potential inside the solute cavity. The tetraphenyl arsonium-tetraphenyl borate (TATB) assumption as well as the cluster-continuum quasichemical theory (CC-QCT) approach for Li(+) solvation allows access to a solvation scale excluding the net potential. We have determined this free energy scale investigating the solvation of the lithium ion in water (H2O), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents via the CC-QCT approach. Our calculations at the MP2 and MP4 levels with basis sets up to the QZVPP+diff quality, and including solvation of the clusters and solvent molecules by the dielectric continuum SMD method, predict the solvation free energy of Li(+) as -116.1, -120.6 and -123.6 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively (1 mol L(-1) standard state). These values are compatible with the solvation free energy of the proton of -253.4, -253.2 and -261.1 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively. Deviations from the experimental TATB scale are only 1.3 kcal mol(-1) in H2O and 1.8 kcal mol(-1) in DMSO solvents. However, in the case of CH3CN, the deviation reaches a value of 9.2 kcal mol(-1). The present study suggests that the experimental TATB scale is inconsistent for CH3CN. A total of 125 values of the solvation free energy of ions in these three solvents were obtained. These new data should be useful for the development of theoretical solvation models.

  2. Combustion Analysis and Knock Detection in Single Cylinder DI-Diesel Engine Using Vibration Signature Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Y.V.V.SatyanarayanaMurthy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to detect the “knock” in Diesel engines which deteriorate the engine performance adversely. The methodology introduced in the present work suggests a newly developed approach towards analyzing the vibration analysis of diesel engines. The method is based on fundamental relationship between the engine vibration pattern and the relative characteristics of the combustion process in each or different cylinders. Knock in diesel engine is detected by measuring the vibra...

  3. Interaction of singly and multiply charged ions with a lithium-fluoride surface

    CERN Document Server

    Wirtz, L

    2001-01-01

    Charge transfer between slow ions and an ionic crystal surface still poses a considerable challenge to theory due to the intrinsic many-body character of the system. For the neutralization of multiply charged ions in front of metal surfaces, the Classical Over the Barrier (COB) model is a widely used tool. We present an extension of this model to ionic crystal surfaces where the localization of valence electrons at the anion sites and the lack of cylindrical symmetry of the ion-surface system impede a simple analytical estimate of electron transfer rates. We use a classical trajectory Monte Carlo approach to calculate electron transfer rates for different charge states of the projectile ion. With these rates we perform a Monte Carlo simulation of the neutralization of slow Ne10+ ions in vertical incidence on an LiF surface. Capture of one or several electrons may lead to a local positive charge up of the surface. The projectile dynamics depends on the balance between the repulsion due to this charge and the a...

  4. Single and binary adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using sugarcane cellulose-based adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Futao; Pan, Yuanfeng; Cai, Pingxiong; Guo, Tianxiang; Xiao, Huining

    2017-10-01

    A high efficient and eco-friendly sugarcane cellulose-based adsorbent was prepared in an attempt to remove Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ from aqueous solutions. The effects of initial concentration of heavy metal ions and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the bioadsorbent were investigated. The adsorption isotherms showed that the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ followed the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorptions were as high as 558.9, 446.2 and 363.3mg·g -1 , respectively, in single component system. The binary component system was better described with the competitive Langmuir isotherm model. The three dimensional sorption surface of binary component system demonstrated that the presence of Pb 2+ decreased the sorption of Cu 2+ , but the adsorption amount of other metal ions was not affected. The result from SEM-EDAX revealed that the adsorption of metal ions on bioadsorbent was mainly driven by coordination, ion exchange and electrostatic association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Single-ion triblock copolymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) and methacrylic sulfonamide blocks for lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcarelli, Luca; Aboudzadeh, M. Ali; Rubatat, Laurent; Nair, Jijeesh R.; Shaplov, Alexander S.; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Mecerreyes, David

    2017-10-01

    Single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes represent the ideal solution to reduce concentration polarization in lithium metal batteries (LMBs). This paper reports on the synthesis and characterization of single-ion ABA triblock copolymer electrolytes comprising PEO and poly(lithium 1-[3-(methacryloyloxy)propylsulfonyl]-1-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) blocks, poly(LiMTFSI). Block copolymers are prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, showing low glass transition temperature (-55 to 7 °C) and degree of crystallinity (51-0%). Comparatively high values of ionic conductivity are obtained (up to ≈ 10-4 S cm-1 at 70 °C), combined with a lithium-ion transference number close to unity (tLi+ ≈ 0.91) and a 4 V electrochemical stability window. In addition to these promising features, solid polymer electrolytes are successfully tested in lithium metal cells at 70 °C providing long lifetime up to 300 cycles, and stable charge/discharge cycling at C/2 (≈100 mAh g-1).

  6. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 μg/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 μL injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Single-Event Effects in Power MOSFETs During Heavy Ion Irradiations Performed After Gamma-Ray Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatto, G.; De Luca, V.; Iannuzzo, F.; Sanseverino, A.; Velardi, F.

    2013-10-01

    The robustness of commercial power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors to combined gamma-heavy ion irradiation has been investigated, evidence that the degradation of the gate oxide caused by the γ irradiation can severely corrupt the robustness to single-event effects and drastically modify the physical behavior of the device under test after the impact of a heavy ion. A decrease of the critical voltages at which destructive burnouts and gate ruptures for heavy ion impact appear, has been detected in the devices under test, which were previously irradiated with γ rays. In addition, the amount of critical voltage reduction is strictly related to the amount of the absorbed γ-ray dose. Furthermore, at the failure voltage, the behavior of the device is affected by the conduction of a current through the gate oxide. Moreover, the single-event gate rupture” of the device appears at lower voltages because of the reduction of the Fowler-Nordheim limit in the γ-irradiated devices.

  8. A Nanophase-Separated, Quasi-Solid-State Polymeric Single-Ion Conductor: Polysulfide Exclusion for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jinhong; Song, Jongchan; Lee, Hongkyung; Noh, Hyungjun; Kim, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Geol; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2017-04-19

    Formation of soluble polysulfide (PS), which is a key feature of lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries, provides a fast redox kinetic based on a liquid–solid mechanism; however, it imposes the critical problem of PS shuttle. Here, we address the dilemma by exploiting a solvent-swollen polymeric single-ion conductor (SPSIC) as the electrolyte medium of the Li–S battery. The SPSIC consisting of a polymeric single-ion conductor and lithium salt-free organic solvents provides Li ion hopping by forming a nanoscale conducting channel and suppresses PS shuttle according to the Donnan exclusion principle when being employed for Li–S batteries. The organic solvents at the interface of the sulfur/carbon composite and SPSIC eliminate the poor interfacial contact and function as a soluble PS reservoir for maintaining the liquid–solid mechanism. Furthermore, the quasi-solid-state SPSIC allows the fabrication of a bipolar-type stack, which promises the realization of a high-voltage and energy-dense Li–S battery.

  9. Ion Density Analysis of Single-Stranded DNA in Liquid Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabata, Kazuki; Seki, Yasutaka; Toizumi, Ryota; Shimada, Yuki; Furue, Hirokazu; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2013-09-01

    With the widespread use of liquid crystals (LCs) in liquid crystal displays, we have looked into the application of liquid crystals in biotechnology. The purpose of the study described here is to investigate the physical properties of DNA using LCs. Synthetic oligonucleotide molecules were dispersed in MLC6884, the sample injected into antiparallel cells, and the amount of mobile ions was measured. The LC cell doped with oligonucleotide molecules showed a sequence-dependent, specific correlation between oligonucleotide concentration and the amount of mobile ions in the LC cells. In the framework of the Stokes model and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis, we speculate that this result arises from the difference in ion mobility, which is caused by the shape of the oligonucleotide molecule in the LC.

  10. Positron bound states on hydride ions in thermochemically reduced MgO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.; Gonzalez, R.; Chen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Positron-lifetime and Doppler-broadening techniques were used to unambiguously identify positronium hydrides in thermochemically reduced MgO crystals at low temperatures. Positrons trapped at H - ions, forming PsH, yield a lifetime of (640±40) ps, independent of temperature. Complementary evidence for this identification was provided by Doppler-broadening experiments, in which positrons were trapped at H 2- sites at low temperatures. The H 2- ions were formed via H - +e - →H 2- by the capturing of an electron released from Fe + impurity under blue-light stimulation. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. The ion implanter of the Institute of Nuclear Physics and its application in the ion engineering; Implantator jonow IFJ i jego wykorzystanie w inzynierii jonowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drwiega, M.; Lipinska, E.; Lazarski, S.; Wierba, M.

    1993-09-01

    The device used for ion implantation is described in detail. It is built with the use of electromagnetic ion separator and consists of: ion source, ion beam system, ion mass analyzer and target chamber. The device parameters are also given. 14 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs.

  12. Sputtering of lunar regolith simulant by protons and singly and multicharged Ar ions at solar wind energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F.W., E-mail: meyerfw@ornl.gov [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Harris, P.R.; Taylor, C.N. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Meyer III, H.M. [MST Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Barghouty, A.F.; Adams, J.H. [NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    We report preliminary results on sputtering of a lunar regolith simulant at room temperature by singly and multiply charged solar wind ions using quadrupole and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry approaches. Sputtering of the lunar regolith by solar-wind heavy ions may be an important particle source that contributes to the composition of the lunar exosphere, and is a possible mechanism for lunar surface ageing and compositional modification. The measurements were performed in order to assess the relative sputtering efficiency of protons, which are the dominant constituent of the solar wind, and less abundant heavier multicharged solar wind constituents, which have higher physical sputtering yields than same-velocity protons, and whose sputtering yields may be further enhanced due to potential sputtering. Two different target preparation approaches using JSC-1A AGGL lunar regolith simulant are described and compared using SEM and XPS surface analysis.

  13. Metallization of Single-Stranded Polyl by Zn2+ Ions in Neutral Solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sorokin, V. A.; Valeev, V. A.; Usenko, E. L.; Andrushchenko, Valery

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 43 (2014), s. 12360-12365 ISSN 1520-6106 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : nucleic acid metallization * zinc ion * differential UV spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  14. Spectroscopic properties of LaAlO3 single-crystal doped with Tb3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztolberg, D.; Brzostowski, B.; Dereń, P. J.

    2018-04-01

    LaAlO3 monocrystal doped with 0.5 wt% Tb3+ ions was grown by the Czochralski method. Absorption, emission and emission decay time were measured 300 K in the IR, visible and near UV range. The Tb3+ energy levels in LaAlO3 were assigned both from the absorption and emission spectra.

  15. Single-Ion Deconvolution of Mass Peak Overlaps for Atom Probe Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Andrew J; Haley, Daniel; Moody, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    Due to the intrinsic evaporation properties of the material studied, insufficient mass-resolving power and lack of knowledge of the kinetic energy of incident ions, peaks in the atom probe mass-to-charge spectrum can overlap and result in incorrect composition measurements. Contributions to these peak overlaps can be deconvoluted globally, by simply examining adjacent peaks combined with knowledge of natural isotopic abundances. However, this strategy does not account for the fact that the relative contributions to this convoluted signal can often vary significantly in different regions of the analysis volume; e.g., across interfaces and within clusters. Some progress has been made with spatially localized deconvolution in cases where the discrete microstructural regions can be easily identified within the reconstruction, but this means no further point cloud analyses are possible. Hence, we present an ion-by-ion methodology where the identity of each ion, normally obscured by peak overlap, is resolved by examining the isotopic abundance of their immediate surroundings. The resulting peak-deconvoluted data are a point cloud and can be analyzed with any existing tools. We present two detailed case studies and discussion of the limitations of this new technique.

  16. Engineering Vibrationally Assisted Energy Transfer in a Trapped-Ion Quantum Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dylan J.; Hemmerling, Boerge; Megidish, Eli; Moeller, Soenke A.; Schindler, Philipp; Sarovar, Mohan; Haeffner, Hartmut

    2018-01-01

    Many important chemical and biochemical processes in the condensed phase are notoriously difficult to simulate numerically. Often, this difficulty arises from the complexity of simulating dynamics resulting from coupling to structured, mesoscopic baths, for which no separation of time scales exists and statistical treatments fail. A prime example of such a process is vibrationally assisted charge or energy transfer. A quantum simulator, capable of implementing a realistic model of the system of interest, could provide insight into these processes in regimes where numerical treatments fail. We take a first step towards modeling such transfer processes using an ion-trap quantum simulator. By implementing a minimal model, we observe vibrationally assisted energy transport between the electronic states of a donor and an acceptor ion augmented by coupling the donor ion to its vibration. We tune our simulator into several parameter regimes and, in particular, investigate the transfer dynamics in the nonperturbative regime often found in biochemical situations.

  17. Fluorescence-based high-throughput functional profiling of ligand-gated ion channels at the level of single cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Talwar

    Full Text Available Ion channels are involved in many physiological processes and are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Their functional properties vary according to their subunit composition, which in turn varies in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and as a consequence of pathophysiological events. Understanding this diversity requires functional analysis of ion channel properties in large numbers of individual cells. Functional characterisation of ligand-gated channels involves quantitating agonist and drug dose-response relationships using electrophysiological or fluorescence-based techniques. Electrophysiology is limited by low throughput and high-throughput fluorescence-based functional evaluation generally does not enable the characterization of the functional properties of each individual cell. Here we describe a fluorescence-based assay that characterizes functional channel properties at single cell resolution in high throughput mode. It is based on progressive receptor activation and iterative fluorescence imaging and delivers >100 dose-responses in a single well of a 384-well plate, using α1-3 homomeric and αβ heteromeric glycine receptor (GlyR chloride channels as a model system. We applied this assay with transiently transfected HEK293 cells co-expressing halide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein and different GlyR subunit combinations. Glycine EC50 values of different GlyR isoforms were highly correlated with published electrophysiological data and confirm previously reported pharmacological profiles for the GlyR inhibitors, picrotoxin, strychnine and lindane. We show that inter and intra well variability is low and that clustering of functional phenotypes permits identification of drugs with subunit-specific pharmacological profiles. As this method dramatically improves the efficiency with which ion channel populations can be characterized in the context of cellular heterogeneity, it should facilitate systems

  18. Radiation-induced effects in MgO single crystal by 200 keV and 1 MeV Ni ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryohei; Nakai, Yoshihiro; Hamaguchi, Dai [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    MgO(100) single crystals were implanted with 1.0 MeV and 200 keV Ni ions between 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Before and after thermal annealing the radiation damage and the lattice location of implanted Ni ions were analyzed by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with channeling and optical absorption measurements. For 1.0 MeV Ni ions, the disorder of Mg atoms increased slowly with ion dose near surface region, while it increased sharply and saturated with ion dose from 2x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} near ion range. The radiation damage was recovered and implanted Ni ions diffused to the whole of crystal and occupied substitutional positions after 1400degC annealing. For 200 keV Ni ions, the disorder of Mg atoms increased with dose near ion range and had a maximum at about 5x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. This tendency agrees with the behavior of color centers obtained from optical measurements. For thermal annealing the radiation damage did not change during 500degC annealing, but the aggregate centers appeared after 300degC annealing. (author)

  19. Alpha-Helical Fragaceatoxin C Nanopore Engineered for Double-Stranded and Single-Stranded Nucleic Acid Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wloka, Carsten; Mutter, Natalie Lisa; Soskine, Misha; Maglia, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Nanopores are used in single-molecule DNA analysis and sequencing. Herein, we show that Fragaceatoxin C (FraC), an α-helical pore-forming toxin from an actinoporin protein family, can be reconstituted in sphingomyelin-free standard planar lipid bilayers. We engineered FraC for DNA analysis and show

  20. In vivo biocompatibility of ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotube/biodegradable polymer nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitharaman, B.; Shi, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Liao, H.; Cuijpers, V.; Wilson, L.J.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Scaffolds play a pivotal role in the tissue engineering paradigm by providing temporary structural support, guiding cells to grow, assisting the transport of essential nutrients and waste products, and facilitating the formation of functional tissues and organs. Single-walled carbon nanotubes

  1. Systems Engineering Implementation Plan for Single-Shell Tanks (SST) Retrieval Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEONARD, M.W.; HOFFERBER, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This document communicates the planned implementation of the Systems Engineering processes and products for the SST retrieval projects as defined in the Systems Engineering Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor

  2. Generation of vacancy cluster-related defects during single MeV silicon ion implantation of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastuović, Ž., E-mail: zkp@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232 (Australia); Capan, I. [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Siegele, R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232 (Australia); Jačimović, R. [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Forneris, J. [Physics Department and NIS Excellence Centre, University of Torino, INFN – sez. Torino, CNISM – sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cohen, D.D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232 (Australia); Vittone, E. [Physics Department and NIS Excellence Centre, University of Torino, INFN – sez. Torino, CNISM – sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-08-01

    Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to study defects formed in bulk silicon after implantation of 8.3 MeV {sup 28}Si{sup 3+} ions at room temperature. For this study, Schottky diodes prepared from n-type Czohralski-grown silicon wafers have been implanted in the single ion regime up to fluence value of 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} utilizing the scanning focused ion microbeam as implantation tool and the Ion Beam Induced Current (IBIC) technique for ion counting. Differential DLTS analysis of the vacancy-rich region in self-implanted silicon reveals a formation of the broad vacancy-related defect state(s) at E{sub c} −0.4 eV. Direct measurements of the electron capture kinetics associated with this trap at E{sub c} −0.4 eV, prior to any annealing do not show an exponential behaviour typical for the simple point-like defects. The logarithmic capture kinetics is in accordance with the theory of majority carrier capture at extended or cluster-related defects. We have detected formation of two deep electron traps at E{sub c} −0.56 eV and E{sub c} −0.61 eV in the interstitial-rich region of the self-implanted silicon, before any annealing. No DLTS signal originating from vacancy-oxygen trap at E{sub c} −0.17 eV, present in the sample irradiated with 0.8 MeV neutrons, has been recorded in the self-implanted sample.

  3. Comparison of single and mixed ion implantation effects on the changes of the surface hardness, light transmittance, and electrical conductivity of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, J. S.; Kil, J. G.; Choi, B. H.; Han, Z. H.

    2001-01-01

    Single or mixed ions of N, He, C were implanted onto the transparent PET(Polyethylen Terephtalate) with the ion energies of less than 100 keV and the surface hardness, light transmittance and electrical conductivity were examined. As measured with nanoindentation, mixed ion implantations such as N + +He + or N + + C + exhibited more increase in the surface hardness than the single ion implantation. Especially, implantation of C+N ions increased the surface hardness by about three times as compared to the implantation of N ion alone, which means more than 10 times increase than the untreated PET. Surface electrical conductivity was increased along with the hardness increase. The conductivity increase was more proportional to the hardness when used the higher ion energy and ion dose, while it did not show any relationship at as low as 50 keV of ion energy. The light at the 550 nm wavelength (visual range) transmitted more than 85%, which is close to that of as-received PET, and at the wavelength below 300 nm(UV range) the rays were absorbed more than 95% as traveling through the sheet, implying that there are processing parameters which the ion implanted PET maintains the transparency and absorbs the UV rays

  4. Crash tests of four identical high-wing single-engine airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, V. L., Jr.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Four identical four place, high wing, single engine airplane specimens with nominal masses of 1043 kg were crash tested at the Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility under controlled free flight conditions. These tests were conducted with nominal velocities of 25 m/sec along the flight path angles, ground contact pitch angles, and roll angles. Three of the airplane specimens were crashed on a concrete surface; one was crashed on soil. Crash tests revealed that on a hard landing, the main landing gear absorbed about twice the energy for which the gear was designed but sprang back, tending to tip the airplane up to its nose. On concrete surfaces, the airplane impacted and remained in the impact attitude. On soil, the airplane flipped over on its back. The crash impact on the nose of the airplane, whether on soil or concrete, caused massive structural crushing of the forward fuselage. The liveable volume was maintained in both the hard landing and the nose down specimens but was not maintained in the roll impact and nose down on soil specimens.

  5. Enhancement of single guide RNA transcription for efficient CRISPR/Cas-based genomic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Maruyama, Shohei; Nakano, Yuko

    2017-06-01

    Genomic engineering using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein is a promising approach for targeting the genomic DNA of virtually any organism in a sequence-specific manner. Recent remarkable advances in CRISPR/Cas technology have made it a feasible system for use in therapeutic applications and biotechnology. In the CRISPR/Cas system, a guide RNA (gRNA), interacting with the Cas protein, recognizes a genomic region with sequence complementarity, and the double-stranded DNA at the target site is cleaved by the Cas protein. A widely used gRNA is an RNA polymerase III (pol III)-driven single gRNA (sgRNA), which is produced by artificial fusion of CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-activation crRNA (tracrRNA). However, we identified a TTTT stretch, known as a termination signal of RNA pol III, in the scaffold region of the sgRNA. Here, we revealed that sgRNA carrying a TTTT stretch reduces the efficiency of sgRNA transcription due to premature transcriptional termination, and decreases the efficiency of genome editing. Unexpectedly, it was also shown that the premature terminated sgRNA may have an adverse effect of inducing RNA interference. Such disadvantageous effects were avoided by substituting one base in the TTTT stretch.

  6. Short term endurance results on a single cylinder diesel engine fueled with upgraded bio oil biodiesel emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R.; Murugan, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper deliberates the endurance test outcomes obtained from a single cylinder, diesel engine fueled with an upgraded bio oil biodiesel emulsion. In this investigation a bio oil obtained by pyrolysis of woody biomass was upgraded with acid treatment. The resulted bio oil was emulsified with addition of biodiesel and suitable surfactant which is termed as ATJOE15. The main objective of the endurance test was to evaluate the wear characteristics of the engine components and lubrication oil properties, when the engine is fueled with the ATJOE15 emulsion. The photographic views taken before and after the end of 100 hrs endurance test, and visual inspection of the engine components, wear and carbon deposit results, are discussed in this paper.

  7. A novel start algorithm for CNG engines using ion sense technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, T. de; Ericsson, M.; Rask, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a start algorithm that is able to control the air/fuel ratio (AFR) during the cranking phase and immediately hereafter, where the ordinary ?-control is not yet enabled. The control is based on the ion sense principle, which means that a current through the spark plug is measured

  8. Multi-scale modelling of ions in solution: from atomistic descriptions to chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ions in solution play a fundamental role in many physical, chemical, and biological processes. The PUREX process used in the nuclear industry to the treatment of spent nuclear fuels is considered as an example. For industrial applications these systems are usually described using simple analytical models which are fitted to reproduce the available experimental data. In this work, we propose a multi-scale coarse graining procedure to derive such models from atomistic descriptions. First, parameters for classical force-fields of ions in solution are extracted from ab-initio calculations. Effective (McMillan-Mayer) ion-ion potentials are then derived from radial distribution functions measured in classical molecular dynamics simulations, allowing us to define an implicit solvent model of electrolytes. Finally, perturbation calculations are performed to define the best possible representation for these systems, in terms of charged hard-sphere models. Our final model is analytical and contains no free 'fitting' parameters. It shows good agreement with the exact results obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations for the thermodynamic and structural properties. Development of a similar model for the electrolyte viscosity, from information derived from atomistic descriptions, is also introduced. (author)

  9. Phase diagrams of the ternary alloy with a single-ion anisotropy in the mean-field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dely, J.; Bobak, A.

    2006-01-01

    The phase diagram of the AB p C 1-p ternary alloy consisting of Ising spins S A =32, S B =2, and S C =52 is investigated by the use of a mean-field theory based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The effect of the single-ion anisotropy on the phase diagrams is discussed by changing values of the parameters in the model Hamiltonian and comparison is made with the recently reported finite-temperature phase diagrams for the ternary alloy having spin S B =1

  10. The influence of elastic subsystem on phase transitions in ferromagnets with competitive exchange and single-ion anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Yu.A.; Klevets, F.N.; Matunin, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of planar and bulk elastic interactions on the phase states of an ultrathin ferromagnetic film with anisotropic exchange interaction is investigated for different relationships among the material constants. It is shown that when the elastic interactions, with competing exchange and single-ion anisotropies, and the magnetic dipole interaction are taken into account, a cascade of phase transitions appears. Furthermore, taking the 'planar' elastic interaction into account leads to realization of an additional phase, with an easy axis in the film plane. This state is absent in the case of a bulk elastic subsystem

  11. Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes: application to oil-film measurements in an internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandhi, J B

    2000-10-20

    Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes have been utilized to study oil-film behavior in a firing Diesel engine. A detailed analysis of the response characteristics of these probes was performed, and universal response curves have been generated through identification of the appropriate nondimensional parameters. For single-fiber probes a single curve was obtained, and for dual-fiber probes families of curves were identified based on three geometric dimensionless parameters. The complementary response characteristics of the single- and dual-fiber probes allows determination of the oil distribution within the piston-liner gap. The dual-fiber probe is not sensitive at small distances. Thus its signal originates solely from the piston surface, whereas the single-fiber probe is most sensitive at small distances and hence to the wall oil film. The engine data from the dual-fiber probe confirmed the presence of an oil film on the piston and provided a means of quantifying the transport of this oil within the engine.

  12. Effects of Metal Ions on Conductivity and Structure of Single DNA Molecule in Different Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ruixin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We design a novel nano-gap electrode to measure the current of DNA molecule, by which the current–voltage characteristics of individual native DNA, Ag-DNA and Ni-DNA molecules are obtained, respectively. The results show that the voltage gap of Ag- and Ni-DNA is higher than that of native DNA, and the conductance is lower than native DNA in neutral environment. The structure transition from B- to Z-DNA is observed in the presence of high concentrations of nickel ions and Ag-DNA appears chaos state by STM image and U-V spectra characterization. But in alkaline environment, the conductance of Ni-DNA rises and the voltage gap decreases with the increasing of nickel ion concentration denotes that the conductive ability of Ni-DNA is higher than that of native DNA.

  13. Aspects of Lubrication in a Reciprocating Single-ring Test Rig and Further Implementation to Engine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Dellis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A major concern in modern engine design is the issue of the lubrication regime at the piston-liner assembly. To fully understand the complex lubrication phenomena between the piston-rings and cylinder liner in reciprocating engines and at the same time achieve minimal energy losses with the oncoming emission regulations, it is important to characterize the developing oil film. This dynamic process involves many factors, such as piston-ring and piston dynamics, starved lubrication, liner geometry deformation, lubricant - additive degradation and blow-by, which, in turn, enhance the difficulty of interpreting engine experimental results. The simplified test rig is used as a platform to develop oil film measuring techniques and study experimental results from different sensors by means of a robust and solid technique without the engine testing ambiguities, at different lubrication regimes. This paper is focused on experimental findings from the simplified test rig and how these can be applied on specially modified engines, with the respective sensors fitted. A comparison between the single-ring test rig and the engine visualization results is attempted so that similar forms of cavitation identified, be further studied. Moreover, a calibration coefficient for LIF engine experiments can be derived via the simplified test rig arrangement.

  14. Development of a single ion micro-irradiation facility for experimental radiobiology at cell level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberet, Ph.

    2003-10-01

    A micro-irradiation device has been developed for radiobiology applications at the scale of the cell. This device is based on an upgrade of an existing micro-beam line that was already able to deliver a 1 to 3 MeV proton or alpha beam of low intensity and whose space resolution is lower than 1 micrometer in vacuum. The important part of this work has been the development of an irradiation stage designed to fit on the micro-probe and able to deliver ions in the air with an absolute accuracy of a few micrometers. A program has been set up to monitor the complete irradiation line in testing and in automatic irradiation operating phases. Simulation tools based on Monte-Carlo calculations have been validated through comparisons with experimental data particularly in the field of spatial resolution and of the number of ions delivered. The promising results show the possibility in a near future to use this tool to study the response of cells to very low irradiation doses down to the extreme limit of one ion per cell

  15. Radiation damage induced in Al2O3 single crystal by 90 MeV Xe ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirour, H.; Izerrouken, M.; Sari, A.

    2015-12-01

    Radiation damage induced in Al2O3 single crystal by 90 MeV Xe ions were investigated by optical absorption measurements, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The irradiations were performed at the GANIL accelerator in Caen, France for the fluence in the range from 1012 to 6 × 1013 cm-2 at room temperature under normal incidence. The F+ and F2+enters kinetic as a function of fluence deduced from the optical measurements explains that the single defects (F and F+) aggregate to F center clusters (F2 , F2+, F22+) during irradiation at high fluence (>1013 cm-2). Raman and XRD analysis reveal a partial disorder of 40% of Al2O3 in the studied fluence range in accordance with Kabir et al. (2008) study. The result suggests that this is due to the stress relaxation process which occurs at high fluence (>1013 cm-2).

  16. Hyperfine-Interaction-Driven Suppression of Quantum Tunneling at Zero Field in a Holmium(III) Single-Ion Magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2017-04-24

    An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm -1 . The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from 165 Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hyperfine-interaction-driven suppression of quantum tunneling at zero field in a holmium(III) single-ion magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang [Key Lab. of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China); Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fournier, Grenoble (France); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F. [Theory of Nanomaterials Group and INPAC-Institute of Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-04-24

    An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm{sup -1}. The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from {sup 165}Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Fabrication of single-crystal silicon nanotubes with sub-10 nm walls using cryogenic inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqin; Chen, Yiqin; Zhu, Xupeng; Zheng, Mengjie; Dong, Fengliang; Chen, Peipei; Xu, Lihua; Chu, Weiguo; Duan, Huigao

    2016-09-01

    Single-crystal silicon nanostructures have attracted much attention in recent years due in part to their unique optical properties. In this work, we demonstrate direct fabrication of single-crystal silicon nanotubes with sub-10 nm walls which show low reflectivity. The fabrication was based on a cryogenic inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching process using high-resolution hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures as the hard mask. Two main etching parameters including substrate low-frequency power and SF6/O2 flow rate ratio were investigated to determine the etching mechanism in the process. With optimized etching parameters, high-aspect-ratio silicon nanotubes with smooth and vertical sub-10 nm walls were fabricated. Compared to commonly-used antireflection silicon nanopillars with the same feature size, the densely packed silicon nanotubes possessed a lower reflectivity, implying possible potential applications of silicon nanotubes in photovoltaics.

  19. Optical parameters and dispersion behavior of potassium magnesium chloride sulfate single crystals doped with Co+2 ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Fadl, A; Abd-Elsalam, A M

    2018-05-05

    Single crystals of potassium magnesium chloride sulfate (KMCS) doped with cobalt ions were grown by slow cooling method. Powder XRD study confirmed the monoclinic structure of the grown crystals. The functional group vibrations were checked through FTIR spectroscopy measurements. In optical studies, the absorbance behavior of the crystals and their optical energy gap were established by Tauc plot. The refractive index, the extinction coefficient and other optical constants were calculated for the grown crystals. The normal dispersion of the refractive index was analyzed according to single oscillator Sellmeier's model. The Urbach's rule was applied to analyze the localized states density in the forbidden gap. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Photocatalytic engineering of single-walled carbon nanotubes: from metal-to-semiconductor conversion to cutting and patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yufeng; Zhang, Liming; Wu, Di; Chen, Yubin; Zhang, Guoming; Xie, Qin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2013-04-22

    With a TiO2 -based photocatalytic approach, both an arbitrary geometry tailoring of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on various substrates and the conversion of metallic to semiconducting SWCNTs are demonstrated. Taking advantage of the selectivity on the diameter and metallicity of SWCNTs, 100% depletable SWCNT-based field-effect transistors are achieved, with Ion /Ioff improvements up to five orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Surgical cardiac denervation therapy for treatment of congenital ion channelopathies in pediatric patients: a contemporary, single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, John P; Wilson, Jennifer K; Louis, Clauden; Peer, Syed M; Zurakowski, David; Nadler, Evan P; Qureshi, Faisal G; Jonas, Richard A; Greene, E Anne; Berul, Charles I; Moak, Jeffrey P; Nath, Dilip S

    2015-01-01

    Congenital ion channel disorders, including congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS), cause significant morbidity in pediatric patients. When medication therapy does not control symptoms or arrhythmias, more invasive treatment strategies may be necessary. This study examines our institution's clinical experience with surgical cardiac denervation therapy for management of these arrhythmogenic disorders in children. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review identified ten pediatric patients with congenital ion channelopathies who underwent surgical cardiac denervation therapy at a single institution between May 2011 and April 2014. Eight patients had a diagnosis of congenital LQTS, two patients were diagnosed with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). All patients underwent sympathectomy and partial stellate ganglionectomy via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Six of the ten patients had documented ventricular arrhythmias preoperatively, and 70% of the patients had preoperative syncope. The corrected QT interval decreased in 75% of patients with LQTS following sympathectomy. Postoperative arrhythmogenic symptoms were absent in 88% of congenital LQTS patients, but both patients with CPVT continued to have symptoms throughout the duration of follow-up. All patients were alive after a median follow-up period of 10 months. Surgical cardiac denervation therapy via VATS is a useful treatment strategy for congenital LQTS patients who fail medical management, and its potential benefit in the management of CPVT is unclear. A prospective comparison of the efficacy of surgical cardiac denervation therapy and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator use in congenital ion channelopathies is timely and crucial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Enzymatically mediated bioprecipitation of heavy metals from industrial wastes and single ion solutions by mammalian alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Gouri; Shah, Gaurav A; Dey, Pritam; S, Ganesh; Venu-Babu, P; Thilagaraj, W Richard

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the potential use of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) enzyme in the removal of heavy metals (Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+) and Cr(3+/6+)) from single ion solutions as well as tannery and electroplating effluents. CIAP mediated bioremediation (white biotechnology) is a novel technique that is eco-friendly and cost effective unlike the conventional chemical technologies. Typical reactions containing the enzyme (CIAP) and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) as substrate in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8 and 11) and either single ion metal solutions (250 ppm and 1000 ppm) or effluents from tannery or electroplating industry were incubated at 37°C for 30 min, 60 min and 120 min. The inorganic phosphate (P(i)) generated due to catalytic breakdown of pNPP complexes free metal ions as metal-phosphate and the amount of metal precipitated was derived by estimating the reduction in the free metal ion present in the supernatant of reactions employing atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Better precipitation of metal was obtained at pH 11 than at pH 8 and between the two concentrations of different metals tested, an initial metal concentration of 250 ppm in the reaction gave more precipitation than with 1000 ppm. Experimental data showed that at pH 11, the percentage of removal of metal ions (for an initial concentration of 250 ppm) was in the following order: Cd(2+) (80.99%) > Ni(2+) (64.78%) > Cr(3+) > (46.15%) > Co(2+) (36.47%) > Cr(6+) (32.33%). The overall removal of Cr(3+) and Cr(6+) from tannery effluent was 32.77% and 37.39% respectively in 120 min at pH 11. Likewise, the overall removal of Cd(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+) from electroplating effluent was 50.42%, 13.93% and 38.64% respectively in 120 min at pH 11. The study demonstrates that bioprecipitation by CIAP may be a viable and environmental friendly method for clean-up of heavy metals from tannery and electroplating effluents.

  3. Metal ion site engineering indicates a global toggle switch model for seven-transmembrane receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Christian E; Frimurer, Thomas M; Gerlach, Lars-Ole

    2006-01-01

    Much evidence indicates that, during activation of seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptors, the intracellular segments of the transmembrane helices (TMs) move apart with large amplitude, rigid body movements of especially TM-VI and TM-VII. In this study, AspIII:08 (Asp113), the anchor point...... in sites constructed between positions III:08 (Asp or His), VI:16 (preferentially Cys), and/or VII:06 (preferentially Cys). In molecular models built over the backbone conformation of the inactive rhodopsin structure, the heavy atoms that coordinate the metal ion were located too far away from each other...... ion sites, we propose a global toggle switch mechanism for 7TM receptor activation in which inward movement of the extracellular segments of especially TM-VI and, to some extent, TM-VII is coupled to the well established outward movement of the intracellular segments of these helices. We suggest...

  4. In-situ TEM studies of microstructure evolution under ion irradiation for nuclear engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoumi, D.

    2011-01-01

    One of the difficulties of studying processes occurring under irradiation (in a reactor environment) is the lack of kinetics information since usually samples are examined ex situ (i.e. after irradiation) so that only snapshots of the process are available. Given the dynamic nature of the phenomena, direct in situ observation is invaluable for better understanding the mechanisms, kinetics and driving forces of the processes involved. This can be done using in situ ion irradiation in a TEM at the IVEM facility at Argonne National Laboratory which, in the USA, is a unique facility. To predict the in reactor behavior of alloys, it is essential to understand the basic mechanisms of radiation damage formation (loop density, defect interactions) and accumulation (loop evolution, precipitation or dissolution of second phases etc.). In-situ Ion-irradiation in a TEM has proven a very good tool for that purpose as it allows for the direct determination of the formation and evolution of irradiation-induced damage and the spatial correlation of the defect structures with the pre-existing microstructure (including lath boundaries, network dislocations and carbides) as a function of dose, dose rate, temperature and ion type. Using this technique, different aspects of microstructure evolution under irradiation were studied, such as defect cluster formation and evolution as a function of dose in advanced Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) steels, the irradiation stability of precipitates in Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels, and irradiation-induced grain-growth. Such studies will be reported in this presentation

  5. Engineering Metal Ion Coordination to Regulate Amyloid Fibril Assembly And Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, J.; Canfield, J.M.; Mehta, A.K.; Shokes, J.E.; Tian, B.; Childers, W.S.; Simmons, J.A.; Mao, Z.; Scott, R.A.; Warncke, K.; Lynn, D.G.

    2009-06-02

    Protein and peptide assembly into amyloid has been implicated in functions that range from beneficial epigenetic controls to pathological etiologies. However, the exact structures of the assemblies that regulate biological activity remain poorly defined. We have previously used Zn{sup 2+} to modulate the assembly kinetics and morphology of congeners of the amyloid {beta} peptide (A{beta}) associated with Alzheimer's disease. We now reveal a correlation among A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} coordination, peptide self-assembly, and neuronal viability. By using the central segment of A{beta}, HHQKLVFFA or A{beta}(13-21), which contains residues H13 and H14 implicated in A{beta}-metal ion binding, we show that Cu{sup 2+} forms complexes with A{beta}(13-21) and its K16A mutant and that the complexes, which do not self-assemble into fibrils, have structures similar to those found for the human prion protein, PrP. N-terminal acetylation and H14A substitution, Ac-A{beta}(13-21)H14A, alters metal coordination, allowing Cu{sup 2+} to accelerate assembly into neurotoxic fibrils. These results establish that the N-terminal region of A{beta} can access different metal-ion-coordination environments and that different complexes can lead to profound changes in A{beta} self-assembly kinetics, morphology, and toxicity. Related metal-ion coordination may be critical to the etiology of other neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Deep reactive ion etching of fused silica using a single-coated soft mask layer for bio-analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Tathagata; Zhu, Haixin; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we present our results from process development and characterization of reactive ion etching (RIE) of fused silica using a single-coated soft masking layer (KMPR® 1025, Microchem Corporation, Newton, MA). The effects of a number of fluorine-radical-based gaseous chemistries, the gas flow rate, RF power and chamber pressure on the etch rate and etching selectivity of fused silica were studied using factorial experimental designs. RF power and pressure were found to be the most important factors in determining the etch rate. The highest fused silica etch rate obtained was about 933 Å min −1 by using SF 6 -based gas chemistry, and the highest etching selectivity between the fused silica and KMPR® 1025 was up to 1.2 using a combination of CF 4 , CHF 3 and Ar. Up to 30 µm deep microstructures have been successfully fabricated using the developed processes. The average area roughness (R a ) of the etched surface was measured and results showed it is comparable to the roughness obtained using a wet etching technique. Additionally, near-vertical sidewalls (with a taper angle up to 85°) have been obtained for the etched microstructures. The processes developed here can be applied to any application requiring fabrication of deep microstructures in fused silica with near-vertical sidewalls. To our knowledge, this is the first note on deep RIE of fused silica using a single-coated KMPR® 1025 masking layer and a non-ICP-based reactive ion etcher. (technical note)

  7. An asymmetric PCR-based, reliable and rapid single-tube native DNA engineering strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Widely used restriction-dependent cloning methods are labour-intensive and time-consuming, while several types of ligase-independent cloning approaches have inherent limitations. A rapid and reliable method of cloning native DNA sequences into desired plasmids are highly desired. Results This paper introduces ABI-REC, a novel strategy combining asymmetric bridge PCR with intramolecular homologous recombination in bacteria for native DNA cloning. ABI-REC was developed to precisely clone inserts into defined location in a directional manner within recipient plasmids. It featured an asymmetric 3-primer PCR performed in a single tube that could robustly amplify a chimeric insert-plasmid DNA sequence with homologous arms at both ends. Intramolecular homologous recombination occurred to the chimera when it was transformed into E.coli and produced the desired recombinant plasmids with high efficiency and fidelity. It is rapid, and does not involve any operational nucleotides. We proved the reliability of ABI-REC using a double-resistance reporter assay, and investigated the effects of homology and insert length upon its efficiency. We found that 15 bp homology was sufficient to initiate recombination, while 25 bp homology had the highest cloning efficiency. Inserts up to 4 kb in size could be cloned by this method. The utility and advantages of ABI-REC were demonstrated through a series of pig myostatin (MSTN) promoter and terminator reporter plasmids, whose transcriptional activity was assessed in mammalian cells. We finally used ABI-REC to construct a pig MSTN promoter-terminator cassette reporter and showed that it could work coordinately to express EGFP. Conclusions ABI-REC has the following advantages: (i) rapid and highly efficient; (ii) native DNA cloning without introduction of extra bases; (iii) restriction-free; (iv) easy positioning of directional and site-specific recombination owing to formulated primer design. ABI-REC is a novel approach to

  8. An asymmetric PCR-based, reliable and rapid single-tube native DNA engineering strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Yanzhen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widely used restriction-dependent cloning methods are labour-intensive and time-consuming, while several types of ligase-independent cloning approaches have inherent limitations. A rapid and reliable method of cloning native DNA sequences into desired plasmids are highly desired. Results This paper introduces ABI-REC, a novel strategy combining asymmetric bridge PCR with intramolecular homologous recombination in bacteria for native DNA cloning. ABI-REC was developed to precisely clone inserts into defined location in a directional manner within recipient plasmids. It featured an asymmetric 3-primer PCR performed in a single tube that could robustly amplify a chimeric insert-plasmid DNA sequence with homologous arms at both ends. Intramolecular homologous recombination occurred to the chimera when it was transformed into E.coli and produced the desired recombinant plasmids with high efficiency and fidelity. It is rapid, and does not involve any operational nucleotides. We proved the reliability of ABI-REC using a double-resistance reporter assay, and investigated the effects of homology and insert length upon its efficiency. We found that 15 bp homology was sufficient to initiate recombination, while 25 bp homology had the highest cloning efficiency. Inserts up to 4 kb in size could be cloned by this method. The utility and advantages of ABI-REC were demonstrated through a series of pig myostatin (MSTN promoter and terminator reporter plasmids, whose transcriptional activity was assessed in mammalian cells. We finally used ABI-REC to construct a pig MSTN promoter-terminator cassette reporter and showed that it could work coordinately to express EGFP. Conclusions ABI-REC has the following advantages: (i rapid and highly efficient; (ii native DNA cloning without introduction of extra bases; (iii restriction-free; (iv easy positioning of directional and site-specific recombination owing to formulated primer design. ABI

  9. The structural and compositional analysis of single crystal surfaces using low energy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, D.G.; Van der Berg, J.A.; Verheij, IL.K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of ion scattering for surface composition and structure analysis has been reviewed. The extreme surface specificity of this technique has been widely used to obtain quitative information in a straightforward way, but the/aolc/currence of charge exchange processes, thermal lattice vibrations and multiple scattering have precluded quantitative analysis of experimental data. Examples are quoted to illustrate the progress that has been made in understanding these fundamental processes and in applying this knowledge to the development of the analytical capabilities of the technique. (author)

  10. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C60 by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, A. H.; Kadhane, U.; Misra, D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2007-09-01

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C60 molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Siq+ (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u Oq+ (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C60 are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening.

  11. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C60 by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C

    2007-01-01

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C 60 molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Si q+ (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u O q+ (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C 60 are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening

  12. Supramolecular Nanoparticles via Single-Chain Folding Driven by Ferrous Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Pu, Hongting; Jin, Ming; Wan, Decheng

    2016-02-01

    Single-chain nanoparticles can be obtained via single-chain folding assisted by intramolecular crosslinking reversibly or irreversibly. Single-chain folding is also an efficient route to simulate biomacromolecules. In present study, poly(N-hydroxyethylacrylamide-co-4'-(propoxy urethane ethyl acrylate)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) (P(HEAm-co-EMA-Tpy)) is synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Single-chain folding and intramolecular crosslinking of P(HEAm-co-EMA-Tpy) are achieved via metal coordination chemistry. The intramolecular interaction is characterized on ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis spectroscopy), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The supramolecular crosslinking mediated by Fe(2+) plays an important role in the intramolecular collapsing of the single-chain and the formation of the nanoparticles. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles can be controlled reversibly via metal coordination chemistry, which can be characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Experimental and Potential Analysis of a Single-Valve Expander for Waste Heat Recovery of a Gasoline Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Rankine cycle test system is established to recover exhaust energy from a 2.0 L gasoline engine. Experiments on the system’s performance are carried out under various working conditions. The experimental results indicate that the recovery power of the expander is strongly related to the load and speed of the gasoline engine. It is found that when the output power of the gasoline engine is 39.8–76.6 kW, the net power of the expander is 1.8–2.97 kW, which is equivalent to 3.9%–4.9% of the engine power. The performance simulation shows that the mass flow rate, power output, and isentropic efficiency of the piston expander are directly determined by the intake valve timing. Selecting a suitable intake valve timing can optimize the performance of the expander. The simulation results show that a 1 kW increment in power can be obtained only by selecting an optimum intake open timing. The experimental results further verify that the single-valve piston expander, because of its small dimensions, simple structure, and high speed, is appropriate, and has great potential for energy recovery of gasoline engine exhaust and has good prospects for engineering applications.

  14. Heavy Ion Irradiation Fluence Dependence for Single-Event Upsets in a NAND Flash Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Seidleck, Christina; Label, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the single-event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the Micron 16 nm NAND flash, and found that the single-event upset (SEU) cross section varied inversely with cumulative fluence. We attribute the effect to the variable upset sensitivities of the memory cells. Furthermore, the effect impacts only single cell upsets in general. The rate of multiple-bit upsets remained relatively constant with fluence. The current test standards and procedures assume that SEU follow a Poisson process and do not take into account the variability in the error rate with fluence. Therefore, traditional SEE testing techniques may underestimate the on-orbit event rate for a device with variable upset sensitivity.

  15. Microstructural evolution of reduced-activation martensitic steel under single and sequential ion irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Fengfeng; Guo, Liping; Jin, Shuoxue; Li, Tiecheng; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Yang, Feng; Xiong, Xuesong; Suo, Jinping

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural evolution of super-clean reduced-activation martensitic steels irradiated with single-beam (Fe + ) and sequential-beam (Fe + plus He + ) at 350 °C and 550 °C was studied. Sequential-beam irradiation induced smaller size and larger number density of precipitates compared to single-beam irradiation at 350 °C. The largest size of cavities was observed after sequential-beam irradiation at 550 °C. The segregation of Cr and W and depletion of Fe in carbides were observed, and the maximum depletion of Fe and enrichment of Cr occurred under irradiation at 350 °C

  16. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as stabilizing agents in red phosphorus Li-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Smajic, Jasmin

    2017-08-16

    Phosphorus boasts extremely high gravimetric and volumetric capacities but suffers from poor electrochemical stability with significant capacity loss immediately after the first cycle. We propose to circumvent this issue by mixing amorphous red phosphorus with single-walled carbon nanotubes. Employing a non-destructive sublimation–deposition method, we have synthesized composites where the synergetic effect between red phosphorus and single-walled carbon nanotubes allows for a considerable improvement in the electrochemical stability of battery anodes. In contrast to the average 40% loss of capacity after 50 cycles for other phosphorus–carbon composites in the literature, our material shows losses of just 22% under analogous cycling conditions.

  17. Ion beam analyses of particulate matter in exhaust gas of a ship diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Yuichi; Fujita, Hirotsugu; Taniike, Akira; Kitamura, Akira

    2011-12-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce emission of the particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas from ship diesel engines causing various health hazards and serious environmental pollution. Usually the heavy fuel oil (HFO) for ships is of low quality, and contains various kinds of impurities. Therefore, the emission of PM along with exhaust gas from ship diesel engines is one of the most serious environmental issues. However, the PM fundamental properties are not well known. Therefore, it is important to perform elemental analysis of the PM. The HFO contains sulfur with a relatively high concentration of a few percent. It is important to make quantitative measurements of sulfur in the PM, because this element is poisonous for the human body. In the present work, PM samples were collected from exhaust gas of a test engine, and RBS and PIXE analyses were applied successfully to quantitative analysis of the PM samples. The RBS analysis enabled quantitative analysis of sulfur and carbon in the collected PM, while heavier elements such as vanadium and iron were analyzed quantitatively with the PIXE analysis. It has been found that the concentration ratio of sulfur to carbon was between 0.007 and 0.012, and did not strongly depend on the output power of the engine. The S/ C ratio is approximately equal to the original composition of the HFO used in the present work, 0.01. From the known conversion ratio 0.015 of sulfur in the HFO to sulfates, the conversion ratio of carbon in the HFO to the PM is found to be 0.01-0.02 by the RBS measurements. On the other hand, the PIXE analysis revealed a vanadium enrichment of one order of magnitude in the PM.

  18. Engineering and Optimization of Silicon-Iron-Manganese Nanoalloy Electrode for Enhanced Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaboina, Pankaj K.; Cho, Jong-Soo; Cho, Sung-Jin

    2017-10-01

    The electrochemical performance of a battery is considered to be primarily dependent on the electrode material. However, engineering and optimization of electrodes also play a crucial role, and the same electrode material can be designed to offer significantly improved batteries. In this work, Si-Fe-Mn nanomaterial alloy (Si/alloy) and graphite composite electrodes were densified at different calendering conditions of 3, 5, and 8 tons, and its influence on electrode porosity, electrolyte wettability, and long-term cycling was investigated. The active material loading was maintained very high ( 2 mg cm-2) to implement electrode engineering close to commercial loading scales. The densification was optimized to balance between the electrode thickness and wettability to enable the best electrochemical properties of the Si/alloy anodes. In this case, engineering and optimizing the Si/alloy composite electrodes to 3 ton calendering (electrode densification from 0.39 to 0.48 g cm-3) showed enhanced cycling stability with a high capacity retention of 100% over 100 cycles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Outcomes for Female Students within a Summer Engineering Program: Single-Sex versus Coeducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Trina Lolita

    2017-01-01

    African American and Black women are twice as likely to enroll in higher education in comparison to Black men. However, when it comes to engineering degrees awarded in 2015, only 24% of the Black recipients were women. A potential solution may be to introduce engineering to pre-college Black female students through extracurricular program. Being…

  20. Formation of oriented nitrides by N{sup +} ion implantation in iron single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.R.G. [CFMC, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Silva, R.C. da [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Ferreira, L.P. [CFMC, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Dep. Física, Fac. Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Carvalho, M.D. [CCMM/Dep. Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Silva, C. [CFMC, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Dep. Física, Fac. Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Franco, N. [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Godinho, M. [CFMC, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Dep. Física, Fac. Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2014-01-15

    Iron single crystals were implanted with nitrogen at room temperature, with a fluence of 5×10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} and 50 keV energy, to produce iron nitride phases and characterize the influence of the crystal orientation. The stability and evolution of the nitride phases and diffusion of implanted nitrogen were studied as a function of successive annealing treatments at 250 °C in vacuum. The composition, structure and magnetic properties were characterized using RBS/channeling, X-Ray Diffraction, Magnetic Force Microscopy, Magneto-optical Kerr Effect and Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy. In the as-implanted state the formation of Fe{sub 2}N phase was clearly identified in all single crystals. This phase is not stable at 250 °C and annealing at this temperature promotes the formation of ε-Fe{sub 3}N, or γ′-Fe{sub 4}N, depending on the orientation of the substrate. - Highlights: • Oriented magnetic iron nitrides were obtained by nitrogen implantation into iron single crystals. • The stable magnetic nitride phase at 250 °C depends on the orientation of the host single crystal, being γ'-Fe{sub 4}N or ε-Fe{sub 3}N. • The easy magnetization axis was found to lay in the (100) plane for cubic γ'-Fe{sub 4}N and out of (100) plane for hexagonal ε-Fe{sub 3}N.

  1. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Single event upset is defined by NASA as 'radiation- induced errors in microelectronic circuits caused when charged particles (usually from the radiation belts or from cosmic rays) lose energy by ionizing the medium through which they pass, leaving behind a wake of elec- tron-hole pairs'. SEU are transient soft errors and ...

  2. Formation of oriented nitrides by N+ ion implantation in iron single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.R.G.; Silva, R.C. da; Ferreira, L.P.; Carvalho, M.D.; Silva, C.; Franco, N.; Godinho, M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron single crystals were implanted with nitrogen at room temperature, with a fluence of 5×10 17 cm −2 and 50 keV energy, to produce iron nitride phases and characterize the influence of the crystal orientation. The stability and evolution of the nitride phases and diffusion of implanted nitrogen were studied as a function of successive annealing treatments at 250 °C in vacuum. The composition, structure and magnetic properties were characterized using RBS/channeling, X-Ray Diffraction, Magnetic Force Microscopy, Magneto-optical Kerr Effect and Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy. In the as-implanted state the formation of Fe 2 N phase was clearly identified in all single crystals. This phase is not stable at 250 °C and annealing at this temperature promotes the formation of ε-Fe 3 N, or γ′-Fe 4 N, depending on the orientation of the substrate. - Highlights: • Oriented magnetic iron nitrides were obtained by nitrogen implantation into iron single crystals. • The stable magnetic nitride phase at 250 °C depends on the orientation of the host single crystal, being γ'-Fe 4 N or ε-Fe 3 N. • The easy magnetization axis was found to lay in the (100) plane for cubic γ'-Fe 4 N and out of (100) plane for hexagonal ε-Fe 3 N

  3. Electrical properties of InP:Fe single crystals implanted by phosphorus ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radautsan, S.I.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Pyshnaya, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of phosphorus ion implantation in InP:Fe monocrystals and of the post-implantation annealing process upon the electrical properties of InP:Fe were carried out. The electrical parameters of the samples have been determined by Hall effect measurements. The curves of electron surface concentration n s and mobility μ s as functions of annealing temperature in the range of 200 to 600 0 C are shown and discussed. In order to estimate the depth of donor levels in annealed samples the temperature dependence of the surface Hall coefficient has been studied in the range 100 to 400 K. The thermal electron activation energy has been determined to be 0.09 eV

  4. Monte Carlo prediction of crater formation by single ion impact on solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, A.M.C.; Dominguez-Vazquez, J.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Collins, R.; Gras-Marti, A.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the topography changes following the impact of one energetic ion on the plane surface of a monatomic amorphous solid. This is done in two stages. The first is a Monte Carlo calculation of the sputter yield and interior distribution relocated atoms, with no compensation for local departures from equilibrium density. In the second stage there is a systematic relaxation of the solid, in which the density returns to its previous constant value and a crater develops in the surface. Two alternative methods of carrying out stage two are compared. In the first the solid is subdivided into cells within which relaxation is carried out normal to the surface, as in previous one-dimensional studies. The second method treats the solid as a 3-dimensional incompressible medium. Both seem to reproduce quite well the main features found experimentally. (orig.)

  5. Increasing energy efficiency of a gasoline direct injection engine through optimal synchronization of single or double injection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Michela; Sorge, Ugo; Allocca, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Advantages of split injection in a GDI engine are studied through numerical simulation. ► At high load and speed, rich conditions, split injection does not improve engine performance. ► At moderate load and speed, lean conditions, double injection improves charge stratification. ► Optimal double injection increases work, reduces HC and increases NO. - Abstract: The greatest fuel efficiency advantages of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are achieved under the so-called mixed mode boosting, where mixture characteristics are properly adapted to the specific working condition. In particular, in the medium range of load and speed, overall lean mixtures are suitable of being used in the so-called direct injection stratified charge operation. Present paper reports the results of numerical optimization analyses aimed at increasing the energetic efficiency of a GDI engine equipped with a high pressure multi-hole injector under both single and double injection events. In moderate-load moderate-speed lean conditions, the single or double injection synchronization in the working cycle is effected through a procedure that couples a 3D numerical model of the in-cylinder processes with an optimization tool. The choice of both the start of the injection events and the time of spark advance is realized to maximize the engine work. The optimal double injection solution is shown to increase the engine energy efficiency with respect to the case injection is realized in one shot, thus confirming that split injections improve the quality of the charge stratification under lean operation. The effect on the major pollutants is also discussed.

  6. Design and analysis of linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong-Man Kim; Jang-Young Choi; Kyu-Seok Lee; Sung-Ho Lee

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the design and analysis of a linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine (FPSE) systems. In order to implement the design of linear oscillatory generator (LOG) for suitable FPSEs, we conducted electromagnetic analysis of LOGs with varying design parameters. Then, detent force analysis was conducted using assisted PM. Using the assisted PM gave us the advantage of using mechanical strength by detent force. To improve the effi...

  7. Microstructural evolution of reduced-activation martensitic steel under single and sequential ion irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fengfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jin, Shuoxue; Li, Tiecheng; Zheng, Zhongcheng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, Feng; Xiong, Xuesong; Suo, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Microstructural evolution of super-clean reduced-activation martensitic steels irradiated with single-beam (Fe{sup +}) and sequential-beam (Fe{sup +} plus He{sup +}) at 350 °C and 550 °C was studied. Sequential-beam irradiation induced smaller size and larger number density of precipitates compared to single-beam irradiation at 350 °C. The largest size of cavities was observed after sequential-beam irradiation at 550 °C. The segregation of Cr and W and depletion of Fe in carbides were observed, and the maximum depletion of Fe and enrichment of Cr occurred under irradiation at 350 °C.

  8. Focused-ion-beam overlay-patterning of three-dimensional diamond structures for advanced single-photon properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Qianqing; Liu, Dongqi; Liu, Gangqin; Chang, Yanchun; Li, Wuxia, E-mail: liwuxia@aphy.iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: czgu@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Pan, Xinyu; Gu, Changzhi, E-mail: liwuxia@aphy.iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: czgu@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-07-28

    Sources of single photons are of fundamental importance in many applications as to provide quantum states for quantum communication and quantum information processing. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, even at room temperature. However, the efficiency of photon collection of the color centers in bulk diamond is greatly reduced by refraction at the diamond/air interface. To address this issue, diamond structuring has been investigated by various methods. Among them, focused-ion-beam (FIB) direct patterning has been recognized as the most favorable technique. But it has been noted that diamond tends to present significant challenges in FIB milling, e.g., the susceptibility of forming charging related artifacts and topographical features. In this work, periodically-positioned-rings and overlay patterning with stagger-superimposed-rings were proposed to alleviate some problems encountered in FIB milling of diamond, for improved surface morphology and shape control. Cross-scale network and uniform nanostructure arrays have been achieved in single crystalline diamond substrates. High quality diamond solid immersion lens and nanopillars were sculptured with a nitrogen-vacancy center buried at the desired position. Compared with the film counterpart, an enhancement of about ten folds in single photon collection efficiency was achieved with greatly improved signal to noise ratio. All these results indicate that FIB milling through over-lay patterning could be an effective approach to fabricate diamond structures, potentially for quantum information studies.

  9. Engineering Aspects of Single- and Twin-screw Extrusion-cooking of Biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuilichem, D.J. van; Stolp, W.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is given of the properties of single- and twin-screw extruders. The influence on the design of the different leakage gaps existing in co-rotating, counter-rotating, self-wiping, twin-screw extruders and single-screw equipment is discussed. The mixing effects in single- and twin-screw

  10. The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on the Emission of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limyaa Mahdi Asaad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A single cylinder variable compression ratio spark ignition engine type PRODIT was used in this study. The  experiments  were  conducted  with  gasoline  fuel  (80  octane  No.at  equivalence  ratio  (Ø  =1.  This study examined the effects of exhaust gas recirculation on emission. It was conducted at engine speeds (1500, 1900, 2300 and 2700 r.p.m..The  exhaust  gases  were  added  in  volumetric  ratios  of  10%,  20%  and  30%  of  the  entering  air/fuel charge. The results showed that the EGR addition decreases the CO2 concentrations, in the same time CO and HC concentrations increase remarkably.  NOx concentration decreased highly with the increase of EGR percentage at variable engine speeds and constant torque. Also, it decreased when the engine run  at  constant  speed  and  variable  engine  torque.  The  exhaust  gas  temperature  decreased  with increasing EGR ratio.

  11. Bioadsorption of cadmium ion by cell surface-engineered yeasts displaying metallothionein and hexa-His

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, K.; Ueda, M. [Lab. of Applied Biological Chemistry, Kyoto Univ., Yoshida, Kyoto (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The Cd{sup 2+}-chelating abilities of yeast metallothionein (YMT) and hexa-His displayed on the yeast-cell surface were compared. Display of YMT and hexa-His by {alpha}-agglutinin-based cell-surface engineering was confirmed by immunofluorescent labeling. Surface-engineered yeast cells with YMT and hexa-His fused in tandem showed superior cell-surface adsorption and recovery of Cd{sup 2+} under EDTA treatment on the cell surface than hexa-His-displaying cells. YMT was demonstrated to be more effective than hexa-His for the adsorption of Cd{sup 2+}. Yeast cells displaying YMT and/or hexa-His exhibited a higher potential for the adsorption of Cd{sup 2+} than Escherichia coli cells displaying these molecules. In order to investigate the effect of the displayed YMT and hexa-His on sensitivity to toxic Cd{sup 2+}, growth in Cd{sup 2+}-containing liquid medium was monitored. Unlike hexa-His-displaying cells, cells displaying YMT and hexa-His fused in tandem induced resistance to Cd{sup 2+} through active and enhanced adsorption of toxic Cd{sup 2+}. These results indicate that YMT-displaying yeast cells are a unique bioadsorbent with a functional chelating ability superior to that of E. coli. (orig.)

  12. Effect of intake swirl on the performance of single cylinder direct injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Mohan, Man; Mouli, Chandra

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, the effect of inlet manifold geometry and swirl intensity on the direct injection (DI) diesel engine performance was investigated experimentally. Modifications in inlet manifold geometry have been suggested to achieve optimized swirl for the better mixing of fuel with air. The intake swirl intensities of modified cylinder head were measured in swirl test rig at different valve lifts. Later, the overall performance of 435 CC DI diesel engine was measured using modified cylinder head. In addition, the performance of engine was compared for both modified and old cylinder head. For same operating conditions, the brake power and brake specific fuel consumption was improved by 6% and 7% respectively with modified cylinder head compared to old cylinder head. The maximum brake power of 9 HP was achieved for modified cylinder head. The results revealed that the intake swirl has great influence on engine performance.

  13. Simulation of hybrid propulsion system using LSRG and single cylinder engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, C.; Ohyama, K.; Wang, W. Q.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, more and more people are beginning to use hybrid vehicles (HVs). The drive system of HVs needs to produce the electric energy with the electric generator and gearbox powered by an engine. Therefore, the structure becomes complex and the cost is high. To solve this issue, this research proposes a new drive system design that combines the engine and a linear switched reluctance generator (LSRG). When the engine is operating, the LSRG can simultaneously assist the engine’s mechanical output or can generate power to charge the battery. In this research, three research steps are executed. In the first step, the LSRG is designed according to the size of normal engine. Then, finite element analysis is used to get the data of flux linkage and calculate the inductance and translator force. Finally, Simulink models of control system are constructed to verify the performance of LSRG.

  14. The performance simulation of single cylinder electric power confined piston engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yanan

    2017-04-01

    A new type of power plant. i.e, Electric Power Confined Piston Engine, is invented by combining the free piston engine and the crank connecting rod mechanism of the traditional internal combustion engine. Directly using the reciprocating movement of the piston, this new engine converts the heat energy produced by fuel to electrical energy and output it. The paper expounds the working mechanism of ECPE and establishes the kinematics and dynamics equations. Furthermore, by using the analytic method, the ECPE electromagnetic force is solved at load cases. Finally, in the simulation environment of MARLAB, the universal characteristic curve is obtained in the condition of rotational speed n between 1000 r/min and 2400 r/min, throttle opening α between 30% and 100%.

  15. Absence of single critical dose for the amorphization of quartz under ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Pakarinen, O. H.; Backholm, M.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Keinonen, J.; Wang, T. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we first simulated the amorphization of crystalline quartz under 50 keV 23 Na ion irradiation with classical molecular dynamics (MD). We then used binary collision approximation algorithms to simulate the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling conditions (RBS-C) from these irradiated MD cells, and compared the RBS-C spectra with experiments. The simulated RBS-C results show an agreement with experiments in the evolution of amorphization as a function of dose, showing what appears to be (by this measure) full amorphization at about 2.2 eVṡatom-1 . We also applied other analysis methods, such as angular structure factor, Wigner–Seitz, coordination analysis and topological analysis, to analyze the structural evolution of the irradiated MD cells. The results show that the atomic-level structure of the sample keeps evolving after the RBS signal has saturated, until the dose of about 5 eVṡatom-1 . The continued evolution of the SiO2 structure makes the definition of what is, on the atomic level, an amorphized quartz ambiguous.

  16. Charge transport and glassy dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based single-ion conductors under geometrical confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runt, James; Iacob, Ciprian

    2015-03-01

    Segmental and local dynamics as well as charge transport are investigated in a series of poly(ethylene oxide)-based single-ion conductors (ionomers) with varying counterions (Li +, Na +) confined in uni-directional nanoporous silica membranes. The dynamics are explored over a wide frequency and temperature range by broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. Slowing of segmental dynamics and a decrease in dc conductivity (strongly coupled with segmental relaxation) of the confined ionomers are associated with surface effects - resulting from interfacial hydrogen bonding between the host nanoporous silica membrane and the guest ionomers. These effects are significantly reduced or eliminated upon pore surface modification through silanization. The primary transport properties for the confined ionomers decrease by about one decade compared to the bulk ionomer. A model assuming reduced mobility of an adsorbed layer at the pore wall/ionomer interface is shown to provide a quantitative explanation for the decrease in effective transport quantities in non-silanized porous silica membranes. Additionally, the effect of confinement on ion aggregation in ionomers by using X-ray scattering will also be discussed. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Polymers Program.

  17. Calculations of Q values in single- and double-charge-transfer collisions of highly charged ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Lin, C.D.; Toshima, N.

    1994-01-01

    Close-coupling calculations are carried out for the Q values for electron capture processes in collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms over a broad range of energies. For single-capture processes the results for N 7+ +He and O 8+ +He collisions are in good agreement with the experimental data of Wu et al. [preceding paper, Phys. Rev. A 50, 502 (1994)]. To compare with the experimental Q values for the transfer ionization (TI) and the true double-capture (TDC) processes, an independent-electron model was used to calculate double-electron-capture cross sections. By combining with the calculated average fluorescence yields, the theoretical Q values for TI and TDC processes are also found to be in fair agreement with the experimental data. We also compared the Q values calculated by the close-coupling method and by the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo method

  18. Upconversion study of singly activator ions doped La2O3 nanoparticle synthesized via optimized solvothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. P.; Singh, S.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, K.

    2016-05-01

    In present work, an optimized solvothermal method has been chosen to synthesize the singly doped Er3+ activator ions with La2O3 host matrix. The sample is annealed at 500 °C in order to remove the moisture and other organic impurities. The sample is characterized by using XRD and FESEM to find out the phase and surface morphology. The observed particle size is found almost 80 nm with spherical agglomerated shape. Upconversion spectra are recorded at room temperature using 976 nm diode laser excitation sources and consequently the emission peaks in green and red region are observed. The color coordinate diagram shows the results that the present material may be applicable in different light emitting sources.

  19. A new six stroke single cylinder diesel engine referring Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Guo, Qi; Yang, Lu; Liu, Shenghua; Xie, Xuliang; Chen, Zhaoyang; Liu, Zengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Six stroke engine presented by Conklin and Szybist is an effective way to recover energy of exhaust gas by adding a partial exhaust stroke and steam expansion stroke. Characteristics of the engine are analyzed and its disadvantages are pointed out. A new six stroke diesel engine is presented here. It refers rankine cycle inside cylinder. Total exhaust gas is recompressed and at a relatively low back pressure in the fourth stroke water is injected to which maintains liquid phase until the piston moves to the TDC. At c′ 720 °CA (crank angle) the water becomes saturated. An ideal thermodynamics model of exhaust gas compression, water injection and expansion is constructed to investigate this modification. Properties at characteristic points are calculated to determine the increased indicated work. Results show that the work increases with the advance of water injection timing and the quality of water. The cycle is more efficient and the new engine has potential for saving energy. Moreover, it is forecasted that HC and PM emissions may reform with steam in reality and H 2 is produced which will react with NO X . - Highlights: • A new six stroke diesel engine is introduced and a new ideal cycle is constructed. • Increased indicated work of the cycle proves that the cycle is more efficient. • In reality steam may reform with HC and PM and produced H 2 may react with NO X emission. • The engine has the potential for energy saving and emission reducing

  20. Negative Ion MALDI Mass Spectrometry of Polyoxometalates (POMs): Mechanism of Singly Charged Anion Formation and Chemical Properties Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulicault, Jean E.; Alves, Sandra; Cole, Richard B.

    2016-08-01

    MALDI-MS has been developed for the negative ion mode analysis of polyoxometalates (POMs). Matrix optimization was performed using a variety of matrix compounds. A first group of matrixes offers MALDI mass spectra containing abundant intact singly charged anionic adduct ions, as well as abundant in-source fragmentations at elevated laser powers. A relative ranking of the ability to induce POM fragmentation is found to be: DAN > CHCA > CNA > DIT> HABA > DCTB > IAA. Matrixes of a second group provide poorer quality MALDI mass spectra without observable fragments. Sample preparation, including the testing of salt additives, was performed to optimize signals for a model POM, POMc12, the core structure of which bears four negative charges. The matrix 9-cyanoanthracene (CNA) provided the best signals corresponding to singly charged intact POMc12 anions. Decompositions of these intact anionic species were examined in detail, and it was concluded that hydrogen radical-induced mechanisms were not prevalent, but rather that the observed prompt fragments originate from transferred energy derived from initial electronic excitation of the CNA matrix. Moreover, in obtained MALDI mass spectra, clear evidence of electron transfer to analyte POM species was found: a manifestation of the POMs ability to readily capture electrons. The affinity of polyanionic POMc12 toward a variety of cations was evaluated and the following affinity ranking was established: Fe3+ > Al3+ > Li+ > Ga3+ > Co2+ > Cr3+ > Cu2+ > [Mn2+, Mg2+] > [Na+, K+]. Thus, from the available cationic species, specific adducts are preferentially formed, and evidence is given that these higher affinity POM complexes are formed in the gas phase during the early stages of plume expansion.

  1. Characterization of the human plasma phosphoproteome using linear ion trap mass spectrometry and multiple search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascal, Montserrat; Gay, Marina; Ovelleiro, David; Casas, Vanessa; Gelpí, Emilio; Abian, Joaquin

    2010-02-05

    Major plasma protein families play different roles in blood physiology and hemostasis and in immunodefense. Other proteins in plasma can be involved in signaling as chemical messengers or constitute biological markers of the status of distant tissues. In this respect, the plasma phosphoproteome holds potentially relevant information on the mechanisms modulating these processes through the regulation of protein activity. In this work we describe for the first time a collection of phosphopeptides identified in human plasma using immunoaffinity separation of the seven major serum protein families from other plasma proteins, SCX fractionation, and TiO(2) purification prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. One-hundred and twenty-seven phosphosites in 138 phosphopeptides mapping 70 phosphoproteins were identified with FDR search with the OMSSA, SEQUEST, and Phenyx search engines.

  2. Absolute experimental cross sections for the electron impact single, double, triple, and quadruple ionization of Cs/sup +/ ions. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feeney, R.K.; Hertling, D.R.

    1981-02-28

    The absolute cross sections for the single, double, triple and quadruple ionization of Cs/sup +/ ions by electron impact have been measured from below their respective thresholds to approximately 5000 eV. This determination has been accomplshed using a crossed beam facility in which monoenergetic beams of ions and electrons are caused to intersect at right angles in a well-defined collision volume. Multiply charged, product ions born as a result of the electron impact are deflected into their respective detectors by cascaded electrostatic analyzers. The multiply charged beam current component is measured by means of a vibrating reed electrometer operating in the rate-of-charge mode.

  3. Role of crystallographic anisotropy in the formation of surface layers of single NiTi crystals after ion-plasma alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletika, T. M., E-mail: poletm@ispms.tsc.ru; Girsova, S. L., E-mail: llm@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Meisner, L. L., E-mail: girs@ispms.tsc.ru; Meisner, S. N., E-mail: msn@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Shulepov, I. A., E-mail: iashulepov@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The structure of the surface and near-surface layers of single crystals of NiTi, differently oriented relative to the direction of ion beam treatment was investigated. The role of the crystallographic orientation in formation of structure of surface layers after ion-plasma alloying was revealed. It was found that the orientation effects of selective sputtering and channeling determine the thickness of the oxide and amorphous layers, the depth of penetration of ions and impurities, the distribution of Ni with depth.

  4. Dielectronic recombination experiments with tungsten ions at the test storage ring and development of a single-particle detector at the cryogenic storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruck, Kaija

    2015-05-01

    This work is about electron-ion collision experiments at the ion storage rings of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg. Absolute recombination rate coefficients of highly-charged tungsten ions featuring an open 4-f-shell structure have been measured at the heavy-ion storage ring TSR. The resulting plasma rate coefficients have been used to probe the significance of newly developed theoretical approaches. Plasma rate coefficients of highly-charged tungsten ions are in particular interesting for the development of plasma models for nuclear fusion reactors, since tungsten is a foreseeable impurity in the fusion plasma. In the relevant temperature range, the experimental results exceed the theoretical data used so far by up to a factor of 10, showing the need for more reliable theoretical calculations. Furthermore, based on the design of the detectors which have been used in the experiments at TSR, a movable single-particle detector for electron-ion recombination studies at the cryogenic storage ring CSR has been developed and installed within the scope of this work. The device has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the CSR regarding low ion energies and cryogenic ambient temperature conditions. In a series of experiments, the detector was carefully characterised and successfully tested for its compatibility with these requirements. The detector was part of the infrastructure used for the room-temperature commissioning of CSR (2014) and is currently operated as a single-particle counter during the first cryogenic operation of CSR in 2015.

  5. Union Jack and checkerboard lattices with easy plane single ion anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A. S. T.

    2017-11-01

    The zero-temperature phase diagrams of the antiferromagnetic Union Jack and checkerboard lattices, with spin one and an easy-plane single anisotropy term, are studied using the SU(3) Schwinger boson formalism (also known as flavor wave theory). We find that the Union Jack lattice has a quantum phase transition (QPT) at J2/J1 = 0.707 between a Néel and a collinear phase, while the checkerboard lattice has a QPT at J2/J1 = 0.785, from the Néel to a magnetically disordered phase. The ground state phase diagrams of the two models are different, both from each other and from that of the square lattice antiferromagnet with all the next nearest neighbors. For the checkerboard lattice, we calculate the spin gap and the ground state energy in the disordered phase. This phase is a candidate for a spin liquid state.

  6. Chemical properties of astatine positive single-charged ion in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanov, M.; Doberents, V.; Khalkin, V.A.; Marinov, A.

    1983-01-01

    The mobility of the oxidized astatine in solutions H(Na)ClO 4 (μ=0.4 M) - 1x10 -4 M K 2 Cr 2 O 7 has been measured at 25 deg C in the interval 0.63 -4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , pH 0.63 Usub(c)=2.67x10 -4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The effect agrees with the opinion that a single-charged cation of astatine formed in acidic solutions is a strong aquacomplex ((Hsub(2)O)sub(x)At)sup(+) (x=1-2) (protonized hypoastatine acid). Deprotonization constant of this cation is Ksub(dp)=0.032+-0.005. Specific properties of the astatine cation are given. They can be explained, probability, through the peculiarities of its structure

  7. A permeation theory for single-file ion channels: one- and two-step models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2011-04-28

    How many steps are required to model permeation through ion channels? This question is investigated by comparing one- and two-step models of permeation with experiment and MD simulation for the first time. In recent MD simulations, the observed permeation mechanism was identified as resembling a Hodgkin and Keynes knock-on mechanism with one voltage-dependent rate-determining step [Jensen et al., PNAS 107, 5833 (2010)]. These previously published simulation data are fitted to a one-step knock-on model that successfully explains the highly non-Ohmic current-voltage curve observed in the simulation. However, these predictions (and the simulations upon which they are based) are not representative of real channel behavior, which is typically Ohmic at low voltages. A two-step association/dissociation (A/D) model is then compared with experiment for the first time. This two-parameter model is shown to be remarkably consistent with previously published permeation experiments through the MaxiK potassium channel over a wide range of concentrations and positive voltages. The A/D model also provides a first-order explanation of permeation through the Shaker potassium channel, but it does not explain the asymmetry observed experimentally. To address this, a new asymmetric variant of the A/D model is developed using the present theoretical framework. It includes a third parameter that represents the value of the "permeation coordinate" (fractional electric potential energy) corresponding to the triply occupied state n of the channel. This asymmetric A/D model is fitted to published permeation data through the Shaker potassium channel at physiological concentrations, and it successfully predicts qualitative changes in the negative current-voltage data (including a transition to super-Ohmic behavior) based solely on a fit to positive-voltage data (that appear linear). The A/D model appears to be qualitatively consistent with a large group of published MD simulations, but no

  8. Stable Operation and Electricity Generating Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Free Piston Engine Linear Generator: Simulation and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel design of a single-cylinder free piston engine linear generator (FPELG incorporating a linear motor as a rebound device. A systematic simulation model of this FPELG system was built containing a kinematic and dynamic model of the piston and mover, a magneto-electric model of the linear generator, a thermodynamic model of the single-cylinder engine, and a friction model between the piston ring and cylinder liner. Simulations were performed to understand the relationships between pre-set motor parameters and the running performance of the FPELG. From the simulation results, it was found that a motor rebound force with a parabolic profile had clear advantages over a force with a triangular profile, such as a higher running frequency and peak cylinder pressure, faster piston motion, etc. The rebound position and the amplitude of rebound force were also determined by simulations. The energy conversion characteristics of the generator were obtained from our FPELG test rig. The parameters of intake pressure, motor frequency, and load resistance were varied over certain ranges, and relationships among these three parameters were obtained. The electricity-generating characteristic parameters include output power and system efficiency, which can measure the quality of matching the controllable parameters. The output power can reach 25.9 W and the system efficiency can reach 13.7%. The results in terms of matching parameters and electricity-generating characteristics should be useful to future research in adapting these engines to various operating modes.

  9. Fine-tuning the local symmetry to attain record blocking temperature and magnetic remanence in a single-ion magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungur, Liviu; Le Roy, Jennifer J; Korobkov, Ilia; Murugesu, Muralee; Chibotaru, Liviu F

    2014-04-22

    Remanence and coercivity are the basic characteristics of permanent magnets. They are also tightly correlated with the existence of long relaxation times of magnetization in a number of molecular complexes, called accordingly single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Up to now, hysteresis loops with large coercive fields have only been observed in polynuclear metal complexes and metal-radical SMMs. On the contrary, mononuclear complexes, called single-ion magnets (SIM), have shown hysteresis loops of butterfly/phonon bottleneck type, with negligible coercivity, and therefore with much shorter relaxation times of magnetization. A mononuclear Er(III) complex is presented with hysteresis loops having large coercive fields, achieving 7000 Oe at T=1.8 K and field variation as slow as 1 h for the entire cycle. The coercivity persists up to about 5 K, while the hysteresis loops persist to 12 K. Our finding shows that SIMs can be as efficient as polynuclear SMMs, thus opening new perspectives for their applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Single glass nanopore-based regenerable sensing platforms with a non-immobilized polyglutamic acid probe for selective detection of cupric ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lizhen; He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Jin, Yongdong

    2015-08-19

    A single glass capillary nanopore-based sensing platform for rapid and selective detection of cupric ions is demonstrated by utilizing polyglutamic acid (PGA) as a non-immobilized probe. The detection is based on the significant decrease of ionic current through nanopore and the reversal of ion current rectification responses induced by the chelated cupric ions on the probes when in the presence of cupric ions. PGA shows high selectivity for detecting cupric ions rather than other metal ions. The sensitivity of the sensing platform can be improved about 1-2 orders of magnitude by employing asymmetric salt gradients during the measurements. And the PGA-based nanopore sensing platform shows excellent regenerability for Cu(2+) sensing applications. In addition, the method is found effective and reliable for the detection of cupric ions in real samples with small volume down to 20 μL. This nanopore-based sensing platform will find promising practical applications for the detection of cupric ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Single Gold Nanoparticle-Based Colorimetric Detection of Picomolar Mercury Ion with Dark-Field Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Wu, Zhangjian; Zhang, Qingquan; Zhao, Wenfeng; Zong, Chenghua; Gai, Hongwei

    2016-02-16

    Mercury severely damages the environment and human health, particularly when it accumulates in the food chain. Methods for the colorimetric detection of Hg(2+) have increasingly been developed over the past decade because of the progress in nanotechnology. However, the limits of detection (LODs) of these methods are mostly either comparable to or higher than the allowable maximum level (10 nM) in drinking water set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, we report a single Au nanoparticle (AuNP)-based colorimetric assay for Hg(2+) detection in solution. AuNPs modified with oligonucleotides were fixed on the slide. The fixed AuNPs bound to free AuNPs in the solution in the presence of Hg(2+) because of oligonucleotide hybridization. This process was accompanied by a color change from green to yellow as observed under an optical microscope. The ratio of changed color spots corresponded with Hg(2+) concentration. The LOD was determined as 1.4 pM, which may help guard against mercury accumulation. The proposed approach was applied to environmental samples with recoveries of 98.3 ± 7.7% and 110.0 ± 8.8% for Yuquan River and industrial wastewater, respectively.

  12. An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions of a Single Cylinder D.I Diesel Engine with Manifold Hydrogen Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroun A.K. Shahad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a clean fuel for internal combustion engines as it produces only water vapor and nitrogen oxides when it burns. In this research, hydrogen is used as a blending fuel with diesel to reduce pollutants emission and to improve performance. It is inducted in the inlet manifold, (continuous manifold induction, which is of a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, variable compression ratio water cold diesel engine, type (Kirloskar. This technique of hydrogen blending is selected because of its simplicity and low cost. Hydrogen blending is built on the basis of energy replacement. A special electronic unit is designed and fabricated to control hydrogen blending ratio. The maximum achieved ratio is 30% of input energy and beyond that the engine operation becomes unsatisfactory. Tests are done with 17.5 compression ratio and 1500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption is reduced by 29% and the engine thermal efficiency increased by 16% at these operating conditions. The pollutant emissions of carbon oxides, UHC, and smoke opacity are dramatically decreased by 19.5%, 13%,and 45% respectively while NOx emission increased by 10%.

  13. Experimental investigation of the impact of using alcohol- biodiesel-diesel blending fuel on combustion of single cylinder CI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, Ftwi Y.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, Abdul A.; Awad, Omar. I.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of alcohol addition has been experimentally in vestgated in the current study by blending it with diesel and palm based biodiesel on the combustion of a compression ignition engine. The experiment was run by single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, four-stroke diesel engine. Based on the pressure-crank angle data collected from the pressure transducer and crank angle encoder, the combustion analysis such as incylinder pressure, incylinder temperature, energy release rate, cumulative energy release and ignition delay are analysed. In this comparative study, the effects of alcohols namely butanol BU20 (20% butanol addition on the commercially available diesel biodiesel emulsion) is compared and evaluated with pure diesel (D100). The results revealed that the the ignition delay for BU20 is longer as compared to that of D100 in all engine speeds and loads compared. Besides, the incylinder temperatures were rudecued with the butanol addition. The energy release rate for BU20 was higher than that for diesel, whereas the peak positions concerning the energy release rate for BU20 was discovered at 2400 rpm. Therefore addition of butanol will have positive role on the NOx emissions and stability of the engine due to its higher latent heat of vaporization.

  14. Targeted Metabolic Engineering Guided by Computational Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udatha, D B R K Gupta; Rasmussen, Simon; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    /enzyme function or stability is useful for altering its properties for a wide variety of engineering studies. Since measuring the effects of amino acid mutations experimentally is a laborious process, a variety of computational methods have been discussed here that aid to extract direct genotype to phenotype...

  15. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  16. Single and double [ital K]-shell ionization and electron-transfer cross sections for Fe and Ni bombarded by S ions and Fe by Si ions at 1. 25--4. 70 MeV/amu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribedi, L.C.; Prasad, K.G.; Tandon, P.N. (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay 400005 (India)); Chen, Z.; Lin, C.D. (Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Single and double [ital K]-shell vacancy production and [ital K]-[ital K] electron-transfer cross sections have been measured in the limit of zero target thickness for Fe and Ni induced by 1.25--4.70 MeV/amu [sup 28]Si and [sup 32]S ions. The fluorescence yield [omega][sub [ital k

  17. Advanced Propfan Engine Technology (APET) definition study, single and counter-rotation gearbox/pitch change mechanism design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Single-rotation propfan-powered regional transport aircraft were studied to identify key technology development issues and programs. The need for improved thrust specific fuel consumption to reduce fuel burned and aircraft direct operating cost is the dominant factor. Typical cycle trends for minimizing fuel consumption are reviewed, and two 10,000 shp class engine configurations for propfan propulsion systems for the 1990's are presented. Recommended engine configurations are both three-spool design with dual spool compressors and free power turbines. The benefits of these new propulsion system concepts were evaluated using an advanced airframe, and results are compared for single-rotation propfan and turbofan advanced technology propulsion systems. The single-rotation gearbox is compared to a similar design with current technology to establish the benefits of the advanced gearbox technology. The conceptual design of the advanced pitch change mechanism identified a high pressure hydraulic system that is superior to the other contenders and completely external to the gearboxes.

  18. NOFBX Single-Stage-to-Orbit Mars Ascent Vehicle Engine, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continuation of our research and development of a Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend (NOFBXTM) Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) monopropellant propulsion system for...

  19. Single grain boundary break junction for suspended nanogap electrodes with gapwidth down to 1-2 nm by focused ion beam milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ajuan; Liu, Zhe; Dong, Huanli; Wang, Yujin; Zhen, Yonggang; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Hu, Wenping

    2015-05-20

    Single grain boundary junctions are used for the fabrication of suspended nanogap electrodes with a gapwidth down to 1-2 nm through the break of such junctions by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. With advantages of stability and no debris, such nanogap electrodes are suitable for single molecular electronic device construction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Design and analysis of linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Man Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the design and analysis of a linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine (FPSE systems. In order to implement the design of linear oscillatory generator (LOG for suitable FPSEs, we conducted electromagnetic analysis of LOGs with varying design parameters. Then, detent force analysis was conducted using assisted PM. Using the assisted PM gave us the advantage of using mechanical strength by detent force. To improve the efficiency, we conducted characteristic analysis of eddy-current loss with respect to the PM segment. Finally, the experimental result was analyzed to confirm the prediction of the FEA.

  1. Design and analysis of linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Man; Choi, Jang-Young; Lee, Kyu-Seok; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on the design and analysis of a linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine (FPSE) systems. In order to implement the design of linear oscillatory generator (LOG) for suitable FPSEs, we conducted electromagnetic analysis of LOGs with varying design parameters. Then, detent force analysis was conducted using assisted PM. Using the assisted PM gave us the advantage of using mechanical strength by detent force. To improve the efficiency, we conducted characteristic analysis of eddy-current loss with respect to the PM segment. Finally, the experimental result was analyzed to confirm the prediction of the FEA.

  2. Effect of swift heavy ion Ag9+ irradiation on the surface morphology, structure and optical properties of AgGaS2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabukanthan, P.; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2008-12-01

    AgGaS2 (AGS) single crystals grown by chemical vapor transport (CVT) method were irradiated with Ag9+ ions (120 MeV) with various ion fluences. The irradiation was carried out at room temperature (RT) and at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT). A glancing angle x-ray diffraction (GAXRD) analysis reveals a huge lattice disorder at RT irradiation. This is observed from an increase in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and a decrease in the intensity of the AGS (1 1 2) peak. However, there is no change in the FWHM of the (1 1 2) peak but the intensity slightly decreases at LNT irradiation. Also, AGS (3 0 3) peak is not observed for the samples irradiated with the fluences of 5 × 1013 and 1 × 1013 ions cm-2 at RT conditions. The GAXRD results show the decrease in degree of crystallinity upon ion irradiation at RT while there is not much degradation in crystallinity upon ion irradiation at LNT. But the LNT irradiation on AGS has its own effects. Atomic force microscope (AFM) studies show that the roughness of AGS increases on increasing the ion fluences at LNT and at RT. Also, it is found that there is an increase in the surface defects with fluences of Ag9+ ion irradiation when compared to pristine AGS. UV-visible transmission spectra show that the percentage of transmission and bandgap energy decrease with increasing ion fluences and also that the peaks are broadened at LNT and at RT. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra were analyzed as a function of irradiation ion fluences in the AGS crystals at RT. It has been found that the emission intensities of band-to-band transition decrease with increase of ion fluences at LNT and at RT.

  3. An Optical Method for Measuring Injection Timing in Diesel Engines, Using a Single Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    5 and NATO F-76, the current fleet standards. However, the use of seawater compensated shipboard storage tanks, legacy engine technology , high flash...76 is 46 [4, 5]. SPK, produced using the Fischer-Tropsch process, was originally derived in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s in response to fuel...noise. Sugiyama et al. [18] tested a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) in a direct injection, turbocharged, automotive diesel and found both decreased

  4. Production of a double-humped ion velocity distribution function in a single-ended Q-machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1970-01-01

    An experimental method of producing a double-humped velocity distribution function for the ions in a Q-machine is described. The method is based on charge exchange processes between neutral ceasium and the ions in a ceasium plasma.......An experimental method of producing a double-humped velocity distribution function for the ions in a Q-machine is described. The method is based on charge exchange processes between neutral ceasium and the ions in a ceasium plasma....

  5. Measurement and Calculation of Absolute Single- and Multiple-Charge-Exchange Cross Sections for Feq+ Ions Impacting CO and CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simcic, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL; Mawhorter, R. J. [Pomona College; Cadez, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia; Greenwood, J. B. [Queen' s University, Belfast; Chutjian, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech; Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University; Smith, S. J. [Indiana Wesleyan University, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Absolute cross sections are reported for single, double, and triple charge exchange of Feq+ (q=5- 13) ions with CO and CO2. The highly-charged Fe ions are generated in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Absolute data are derived from knowledge of the target gas pressure, target path length, and incident and charge-exchanged ion currents. Experimental results are compared with new calculations of these cross sections in the n-electron classical trajectory Monte-Carlo approximation, in which the ensuing radiative and non-radiative cascades are approximated with scaled hydrogenic transition probabilities and scaled Auger rates. The present data are needed in astrophysical applications of solar- and stellar-wind charge-exchange with comets, planetary atmospheres, and circumstellar clouds.

  6. Single and multiple ionization of C60 fullerenes and collective effects in collisions with highly charged C, F, and Si ions with energy 3 MeV/u

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, A. H.; Kadhane, U.; Misra, D.; Gulyas, L.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2010-10-01

    We have measured absolute cross sections for single, double, triple, and quadruple ionization of C60 in collisions with 3 MeV/u C, F, and Si projectile ions at various projectile charge states. The experiment was performed using the recoil-ion time-of-flight technique. Projectile charge state dependence of the ionization yields was compared mainly with a model based on the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). In some cases, the continuum-distorted-wave-eikonal-initial-state (CDW-EIS) model which is normally applied for ion-atom collisions was also used as a reference. An excellent qualitative agreement between the experimental data for single and double ionization and the GDPR model predictions was found for all projectile charge states.

  7. Single and multiple ionization of C60 fullerenes and collective effects in collisions with highly charged C, F, and Si ions with energy 3 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, A. H.; Kadhane, U.; Misra, D.; Tribedi, L. C.; Gulyas, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured absolute cross sections for single, double, triple, and quadruple ionization of C 60 in collisions with 3 MeV/u C, F, and Si projectile ions at various projectile charge states. The experiment was performed using the recoil-ion time-of-flight technique. Projectile charge state dependence of the ionization yields was compared mainly with a model based on the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). In some cases, the continuum-distorted-wave-eikonal-initial-state (CDW-EIS) model which is normally applied for ion-atom collisions was also used as a reference. An excellent qualitative agreement between the experimental data for single and double ionization and the GDPR model predictions was found for all projectile charge states.

  8. Erratum : Critical Properties of Spin-1 Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chains with Bond Alternation and Uniaxial Single-Ion-Type Anisotropy (vol 69, pg 237, 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; 飛田, 和男; Sanctuary, Bryan C.

    2008-01-01

    Original Paper :Critical Properties of Spin-1 Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chains with Bond Alternation and Uniaxial Single-Ion-Type AnisotropyWei Chen, Kazuo Hida and Bryan Clifford Sanctuary Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 69 (2000) pp.237-241

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations to examine structure, energetics, and evaporation/condensation dynamics in small charged clusters of water or methanol containing a single monatomic ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daub, Christopher D; Cann, Natalie M

    2012-11-01

    We study small clusters of water or methanol containing a single Ca(2+), Na(+), or Cl(-) ion with classical molecular dynamics simulations, using models that incorporate polarizability via the Drude oscillator framework. Evaporation and condensation of solvent from these clusters is examined in two systems, (1) for isolated clusters initially prepared at different temperatures and (2) those with a surrounding inert (Ar) gas of varying temperature. We examine these clusters over a range of sizes, from almost bare ions up to 40 solvent molecules. We report data on the evaporation and condensation of solvent from the clusters and argue that the observed temperature dependence of evaporation in the smallest clusters demonstrates that the presence of heated gas alone cannot, in most cases, solely account for bare ion production in electrospray ionization (ESI), neglecting the key contribution of the electric field. We also present our findings on the structure and energetics of the clusters as a function of size. Our data agree well with the abundant literature on hydrated ion clusters and offer some novel insight into the structure of methanol and ion clusters, especially those with a Cl(-) anion, where we observe the presence of chain-like structures of methanol molecules. Finally, we provide some data on the reparameterizations necessary to simulate ions in methanol using the separately developed Drude oscillator models for methanol and for ions in water.

  10. Effects of single-gender mathematics classrooms on self-perception of mathematical ability and post secondary engineering paths: an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, D.; Jacobs, B.

    2010-08-01

    This study focused on a population of female engineering students, probing the influences of their secondary school experience on their choice to pursue an engineering course of study at university. The motivating question is: Do unique opportunities exist in an all-female secondary school mathematics classroom, which impact a young woman's self-perception of her mathematics ability as well as promote a positive path towards an engineering-based university major? Using both qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments, this study examined a sample of Australian engineering students enrolled at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). Demographic statistics show that 40% of UTS' female engineering student population attended a single-gender secondary school, indicating a potential influence of school type (single-gender) on engineering enrolment patterns. Female students were primarily motivated to pursue a post secondary engineering path because of a self-belief that they are good at mathematics. In contrast, male students were more influenced by positive male role models of family members who are practising engineers. In measures of self- perception of mathematical skill and ability, female students from single-gender schools outscored their male engineering counterparts. Additionally, female students seem to benefit from verbal encouragement, contextualisation, same gender problem-solving groups and same gender classroom dynamics.

  11. Optical spectroscopy of Eu{sup 3+} ions doped in KLu(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koubaa, T. [Université de Sfax, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Département de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Groupe de Physique des Matériaux Luminescent, Sfax (Tunisia); Dammak, M., E-mail: madidammak@yahoo.com [Université de Sfax, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Département de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Groupe de Physique des Matériaux Luminescent, Sfax (Tunisia); Pujol, M.C.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F. [Física i Cristallografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA)-EMaS. Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, c/ MarcelIi Domingo, 1, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Europium single doped potassium lutetium tungstate Eu{sup 3+}:KLu(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} single crystals have been grown with the top seeded solution growth slow cooling method. Their absorption spectra are studied in detail for principal light polarizations, E||N{sub p}, N{sub m} and N{sub g} at room and low temperatures. The absorption oscillator strengths parameters are calculated by means of the theory of f–f transition intensities for systems with anomalously strong configuration interaction and by Judd–Ofelt theory. The Ω{sub t} (t=2, 4, 6) intensity parameters, and the {O_d_k, O_c_k, Δ_d, Δ_c_1 and Δ_c_2} (k=1, 2, 3) ASCI parameters are calculated. The radiative transition rates A{sub R}, radiative lifetimes τ{sub R}, and fluorescent branching ratios β{sub R} associated with {sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions of Eu{sup 3+} were determined. The calculated decay times are discussed and compared with experimental values. - Highlights: • Absorption spectra of Eu:KLuW are investigated with respect to principal light polarizations. • Spectroscopic properties of Eu:KLuW are modeled within conventional Judd–Ofelt and (ASCI) theories. • {sup 5}D{sub 0} multiplet shows the contribution of a NR processes and an ET between the Eu{sup 3+} ions. • It is suggested that the Eu{sup 3+}:KLuW is a potential host material for optical applications.

  12. Comparison of Performance Characteristics of LPG and Gasoline - Fuelled Single Cylinder SI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Abdul Qadir Abdul Azeez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic  components in combustion products. LPG as an alternative to gasoline  has  emerged  as  a  solution  to  the  deteriorating  urban  air  quality  problem,  especially  in  an  oil country like Iraq. LPG has already been used as cooking fuel in Iraq. In the present paper  practical tests of various operating parameters and concerns have been prepared for better understanding of operating conditions and constrains for a LPG fueled internal combustion engine.The results show that HUCR for gasoline was 8:1, and for LPG was 10:1. bsfc reduced by using LPG at its HUCR, while at CR=8:1 it became higher than that for gasoline. Volumetric efficiency reduced by using  LPG  due  to  its  gaseous  nature,  but  it  was  improved  when  the  engine  was  run  at  HUCR.  Brake thermal efficiency depends  on bsfc and bp, so LPG preceded gasoline at medium speeds and torques. Exhaust gas temperatures reduced by using LPG, the minimum values were when the engine operated at CR= 8:1. The maximum values were for gasoline share.

  13. Performance and combustion analysis of Mahua biodiesel on a single cylinder compression ignition engine using electronic fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran Anandkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, experiment is carried out on a 1500 rpm constant speed single cylinder Diesel engine. The test is carried out with Neat diesel, neat biodiesel, and blend B20. The engine considered was run with electronic fuel injection system supported by common rail direct injection to obtain high atomization and effective air utilization inside the combustion chamber. The performance of the engine in terms of break thermal efficiency and brake specific energy consumption was found and compared. The B20 blend shows 1.11% decrease in break thermal efficiency and 3.35% increase in brake specific energy consumption than diesel. The combustion characteristics found are in-cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate and compared for peak pressure load to understand the nature of combustion process. For each fuel test run, the maximum peak pressure is observed at part load condition. The rate of change of pressure and heat release rate of diesel is high compared to pure biodiesel and B20 blend. The diffusion combustion is observed to be predominant in case of B100 than B20 and Neat diesel.

  14. Modulational instability and localized modes in Heisenberg ferromagnetic chains with single-ion easy-axis anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Bing, E-mail: bingtangphy@jsu.edu.cn; Li, Guang-Ling; Fu, Mei

    2017-03-15

    A semiclassical theoretical study on the property of the modulational instability of corresponding linear spin-waves and the presence of nonlinear localized excitations in a discrete quantum ferromagnetic spin chain with single-ion easy-axis anisotropy is reported. We consider the Glauber coherent-state representation combined with the Dyson-Maleev transformation for local spin operators as the basic representation of the system, and derive the equation of motion by means of the Ehrenfest theorem. Using a modulational instability analysis of plane waves, we predict the existence regions of bright envelope solitons and intrinsic localized spin-wave modes. Besides, with the help of a semidiscrete multi-scale method, we obtain analytical solutions for the bright envelope soliton and intrinsic localized spin-wave mode. Moreover, we analyze their existence conditions, which agree with the results of modulational instability analysis. - Highlights: • The anisotropy plays significant role in both the property of the modulational instability and the existence conditions for localized modes in ferromagnetic chains. • The analytical solutions of localized modes are obtained. • The appearance conditions for such localized modes agree with the modulational instability analysis.

  15. Scanned ion beam therapy for prostate carcinoma. Comparison of single plan treatment and daily plan-adapted treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hild, Sebastian; Graeff, Christian; Rucinski, Antoni; Zink, Klemens; Habl, Gregor; Durante, Marco; Herfarth, Klaus; Bert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Intensity-modulated particle therapy (IMPT) for tumors showing interfraction motion is a topic of current research. The purpose of this work is to compare three treatment strategies for IMPT to determine potential advantages and disadvantages of ion prostate cancer therapy. Simulations for three treatment strategies, conventional one-plan radiotherapy (ConvRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), and online adaptive radiotherapy (ART) were performed employing a dataset of 10 prostate cancer patients with six CT scans taken at one week intervals. The simulation results, using a geometric margin concept (7-2 mm) as well as patient-specific internal target volume definitions for IMPT were analyzed by target coverage and exposure of critical structures on single fraction dose distributions. All strategies led to clinically acceptable target coverage in patients exhibiting small prostate motion (mean displacement < 4 mm), but IGRT and especially ART led to significant sparing of the rectum. In 20 % of the patients, prostate motion exceeded 4 mm causing insufficient target coverage for ConvRT (V95 mean = 0.86, range 0.63-0.99) and IGRT (V95 mean = 0.91, range 0.68-1.00), while ART maintained acceptable target coverage. IMPT of prostate cancer demands consideration of rectal sparing and adaptive treatment replanning for patients exhibiting large prostate motion. (orig.) [de

  16. Towards ion beam synthesis of single CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots in a SiO{sub 2} matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, Hans Moritz; Kinzel, Joerg B.; Krenner, Hubert J. [Emmy Noether Group at Lehrstuhl Experimentalphysik 1, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Karl, Helmut [Lehrstuhl Experimentalphysik IV, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Wixforth, Achim [Lehrstuhl Experimentalphysik I, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    II-VI compound semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are a promising class of materials for applications in optical devices in the visible spectral domain. Here we show that in addition to traditional fabrication techniques such as molecular beam epitaxy or chemical synthesis, high fluence ion-beam implantation followed by a rapid thermal annealing step, can be readily applied to synthesize CdSe nanocrystals with superior optical properties within the thermal oxide on a Si wafer. In order to confine the implantation volume we employ chromium masks with arrays of nanoscale aperture openings with diameters smaller than 250 nm. We analyzed the such implanted and annealed samples by scanning electron microscopy and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy. We observe a pronounced broadening and blue shift of the nanocrystal emission when decreasing the aperture diameter to <1000 nm. We attribute this behavior to a reduction of the mean nanocrystal size but increase of its size distribution. For the smallest aperture sizes used we observe a pronounced shell-filling behavior characteristic for single quantum dot nanoemitters.

  17. Consolidation of Environmental Planning, Bioenvironmental Engineering and Base Safety into a Single Resource Protection Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    DC: HQ USAF, 24 October 1975. 20. Department of the Air Force. Polluion Abatement and Environmental Qualit AFR 19-1. Washington DC: HQ USAF, 9 January...1 9Nh~93 CONSOLIDATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING / *IOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AN..(U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH URIGNT-PATTERSON AFD 0O4 SCHOOL OF...DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY I AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio T~~M h boomb appmŘu ton Iri.\\;.-C G

  18. Engineering study - installation of new risers in Single-Shell Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magruder, W.J.

    1994-08-01

    A sampling program is being developed to characterize the 149 underground SSTs on the Hanford Site. The sampling effort will require access to the tank interior in a minimum of two locations per tank. Some of the risers suitable for sampling are either unavailable or are not in locations for proper characterization of the tank contents. Additional risers will be required in the SSTs to support the tank characterization sampling program. The purpose of this engineering study is to review alternatives for installation of new riser in the SSTs

  19. Engineering task plan for determining breathing rates in single shell tanks using tracer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The testing of single shell tanks to determine breathing rates. Inert tracer gases helium, and sulfur hexafluoride will be injected into the tanks AX-103, BY-105, C-107 and U-103. Periodic samples will be taken over a three month interval to determine actual headspace breathing rates

  20. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-10-14

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included.

  1. Critical firing and misfiring boundary in a spark ignition methanol engine during cold start based on single cycle fuel injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhaohui; Gong, Changming; Qu, Xiang; Liu, Fenghua; Sun, Jingzhen; Wang, Kang; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the mass of methanol injected per cycle, ambient temperature, injection and ignition timing, preheating methods, and supplying additional liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) injection into the intake manifold on the critical firing and misfiring boundary of an electronically injection controlled spark ignition (SI) methanol engine during cold start were investigated experimentally based on a single cycle fuel injection with cycle-by-cycle control strategy. The critical firing and misfiring boundary was restricted by all parameters. For ambient temperatures below 16 °C, methanol engines must use auxiliary start-aids during cold start. Optimal control of the methanol injection and ignition timing can realize ideal next cycle firing combustion after injection. Resistance wire and glow plug preheating can provide critical firing down to ambient temperatures of 5 °C and 0 °C, respectively. Using an additional LPG injection into the intake manifold can provide critical firing down to an ambient temperature of −13 °C during cold start. As the ambient temperature decreases, the optimal angle difference between methanol injection timing and LPG injection timing for critical firing of a methanol engine increases rapidly during cold start. - Highlights: • A single cycle fuel injection and cycle-by-cycle control strategy are used to study. • In-cylinder pressure and instantaneous speed were used to determine firing boundary. • For the ambient temperatures below 16 °C, an auxiliary start-aids must be used. • A preheating and additional LPG were used to expand critical firing boundary. • Additional LPG can result in critical firing down to ambient temperature of −13 °C

  2. Engineering Escherichia coli for Soluble Expression and Single Step Purification of Active Human Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamppa, John W.; Tanyos, Sam A.; Griswold, Karl E.

    2012-01-01

    Genetically engineered variants of human lysozyme represent promising leads in the battle against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, but early stage development and testing of novel lysozyme variants is constrained by the lack of a robust, scalable and facile expression system. While wild type human lysozyme is reportedly produced at 50 – 80 kg per hectare of land in recombinant rice, this plant-based system is not readily scaled down to bench top production, and it is therefore not suitable for development and characterization of novel lysozyme variants. Here, we describe a novel and efficient expression system capable of producing folded, soluble and functional human lysozyme in E. coli cells. To achieve this goal, we simultaneously co-express multiple protein folding chaperones as well as harness the lysozyme inhibitory protein, Ivy. Our strategy exploits E. coli’s ease of culture, short doubling time, and facile genetics to yield upwards of 30 mg/L of soluble lysozyme in a bioreactor system, a 3000-fold improvement over prior efforts in E. coli. Additionally, molecular interactions between lysozyme and a his-tagged Ivy allows for one-step purification by IMAC chromatography, yielding as much as 21 mg/L of purified enzyme. We anticipate that our expression and purification platform will facilitate further development of engineered lysozymes having utility in disease treatment and other practical applications. PMID:23220215

  3. Engineering Escherichia coli for soluble expression and single step purification of active human lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamppa, John W; Tanyos, Sam A; Griswold, Karl E

    2013-03-10

    Genetically engineered variants of human lysozyme represent promising leads in the battle against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, but early stage development and testing of novel lysozyme variants is constrained by the lack of a robust, scalable and facile expression system. While wild type human lysozyme is reportedly produced at 50–80 kg per hectare of land in recombinant rice, this plant-based system is not readily scaled down to bench top production, and it is therefore not suitable for development and characterization of novel lysozyme variants. Here, we describe a novel and efficient expression system capable of producing folded, soluble and functional human lysozyme in Escherichia coli cells. To achieve this goal, we simultaneously co-express multiple protein folding chaperones as well as harness the lysozyme inhibitory protein, Ivy. Our strategy exploits E. coli's ease of culture, short doubling time, and facile genetics to yield upwards of 30 mg/l of soluble lysozyme in a bioreactor system, a 3000-fold improvement over prior efforts in E. coli. Additionally, molecular interactions between lysozyme and a his-tagged Ivy allows for one-step purification by IMAC, yielding as much as 21 mg/l of purified enzyme. We anticipate that our expression and purification platform will facilitate further development of engineered lysozymes having utility in disease treatment and other practical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance and emission analysis of single cylinder SI engine using bioethanol-gasoline blend produced from Salvinia Molesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyank; Protim Das, Partha; Mubarak, M.; Shaija, A.

    2018-01-01

    Rapid depletion of world’s crude oil reserve, rising global energy demand and concerns about greenhouse gases emission have led to the high-level interest in biofuels. The biofuel, bioethanol is found as an alternative fuel for SI engines as it has similar properties those of gasoline. Higher areal productivity with fast growth rate of microalgae and aquatic weeds makes them promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. In this study, bioethanol produced from S.molesta (aquatic weed) using combined pre-treatment and hydrolysis followed by fermentation with yeast was used to make bioethanol-gasoline blend. The quantity of bioethanol produced from S.molesta was 99.12% pure. The physical properties such as density and heating value of bioethanol were 792.2 kg/m3 and 26.12 MJ/kg, respectively. In this work, the effects of bioethanol-gasoline (E5) fuel blends on the performance and combustion characteristics of a spark ignition (SI) engine were investigated. In the experiments, a single-cylinder, four-stroke SI engine was used. The tests were performed using electric dynamometer while running the engine at the speed (3200 rpm), and seven different load (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 kW). The results obtained from the use of bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends were compared to those of gasoline fuel. The test results showed an increase of 0.3% in brake thermal efficiency for E5. From the emission analysis, reduced emissions of 39 ppm unburned hydrocarbon, 1.55% carbon monoxide and 2% smoke opacity, respectively was observed with E5 at full load. An increase in CO2 by 0.17% and NOx by 86.7 ppm was observed for E5 at full load.

  5. Submicron mass spectrometry imaging of single cells by combined use of mega electron volt time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning transmission ion microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siketić, Zdravko; Bogdanović Radović, Ivančica; Jakšić, Milko; Popović Hadžija, Marijana; Hadžija, Mirko [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-08-31

    In order to better understand biochemical processes inside an individual cell, it is important to measure the molecular composition at the submicron level. One of the promising mass spectrometry imaging techniques that may be used to accomplish this is Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), using MeV energy heavy ions for excitation. MeV ions have the ability to desorb large intact molecules with a yield that is several orders of magnitude higher than conventional SIMS using keV ions. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the MeV TOF-SIMS system, we propose an independent TOF trigger using a STIM (scanning transmission ion microscopy) detector that is placed just behind the thin transmission target. This arrangement is suitable for biological samples in which the STIM detector simultaneously measures the mass distribution in scanned samples. The capability of the MeV TOF-SIMS setup was demonstrated by imaging the chemical composition of CaCo-2 cells.

  6. Magnetic properties of weakly exchange-coupled high spin Co(II) ions in pseudooctahedral coordination evaluated by single crystal X-band EPR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Nicolás I; Winkler, Elín; Peña, Octavio; Passeggi, Mario C G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2014-03-03

    We report single-crystal X-band EPR and magnetic measurements of the coordination polymer catena-(trans-(μ2-fumarato)tetraaquacobalt(II)), 1, and the Co(II)-doped Zn(II) analogue, 2, in different Zn:Co ratios. 1 presents two magnetically inequivalent high spin S = 3/2 Co(II) ions per unit cell, named A and B, in a distorted octahedral environment coordinated to four water oxygen atoms and trans coordinated to two carboxylic oxygen atoms from the fumarate anions, in which the Co(II) ions are linked by hydrogen bonds and fumarate molecules. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements of 1 indicate weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the S = 3/2 spins of the Co(II) ions in the crystal lattice. Oriented single crystal EPR experiments of 1 and 2 were used to evaluate the molecular g-tensor and the different exchange coupling constants between the Co(II) ions, assuming an effective spin S′= 1/2. Unexpectedly, the eigenvectors of the molecular g-tensor were not lying along any preferential bond direction, indicating that, in high spin Co(II) ions in roughly octahedral geometry with approximately axial EPR signals, the presence of molecular pseudo axes in the metal site does not determine preferential directions for the molecular g-tensor. The EPR experiment and magnetic measurements, together with a theoretical analysis relating the coupling constants obtained from both techniques, allowed us to evaluate selectively the exchange coupling constant associated with hydrogen bonds that connect magnetically inequivalent Co(II) ions (|JAB(1/2)| = 0.055(2) cm(–1)) and the exchange coupling constant associated with a fumarate bridge connecting equivalent Co(II) ions (|JAA(1/2)| ≈ 0.25 (1) cm(–1)), in good agreement with the average J(3/2) value determined from magnetic measurements.

  7. Neutralization of Clostridium difficile Toxin B Mediated by Engineered Lactobacilli That Produce Single-Domain Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kasper Krogh; Strokappe, Nika M.; Hultberg, Anna; Truusalu, Kai; Smidt, Imbi; Mikelsaar, Raik-Hiio; Mikelsaar, Marika; Verrips, Theo; Hammarström, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the Western world. The major virulence factors of C. difficile are two exotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), which cause extensive colonic inflammation and epithelial damage manifested by episodes of diarrhea. In this study, we explored the basis for an oral antitoxin strategy based on engineered Lactobacillus strains expressing TcdB-neutralizing antibody fragments in the gastrointestinal tract. Variable domain of heavy chain-only (VHH) antibodies were raised in llamas by immunization with the complete TcdB toxin. Four unique VHH fragments neutralizing TcdB in vitro were isolated. When these VHH fragments were expressed in either secreted or cell wall-anchored form in Lactobacillus paracasei BL23, they were able to neutralize the cytotoxic effect of the toxin in an in vitro cell-based assay. Prophylactic treatment with a combination of two strains of engineered L. paracasei BL23 expressing two neutralizing anti-TcdB VHH fragments (VHH-B2 and VHH-G3) delayed killing in a hamster protection model where the animals were challenged with spores of a TcdA− TcdB+ strain of C. difficile (P survived until the termination of the experiment at day 5 and showed either no damage or limited inflammation of the colonic mucosa despite having been colonized with C. difficile for up to 4 days. The protective effect in the hamster model suggests that the strategy could be explored as a supplement to existing therapies for patients. PMID:26573738

  8. Experiment and Simulation Study of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Performance, Using Soybean Oil Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizqi Ariefianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— The most common fuel uses in the world is made from fossil. Fossil fuel is categorized as a non-renewable energy source. For that reason, there should be an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel by using biodiesel and one of the stock comes from soybean bean. Before using the biodiesel made from soybean bean oil, there should be a research to find out the properties and the effect of biodiesel from soybean bean oil regarding the performance of the engine. The research can be conducted in experiment and simulation. The properties result of soybean oil biodiesel should be tested to confirm whether this biodiesel have meet the standard requirement of biodieselor not. This biodiesel sproperties are Flash Point value is 182 o C , Pour Point value is -7 o C, Density at 15 o C is 890 Kg/m3, Kinematic Viscosity at 40 o C is 5.58 (cSt, and Lower Heating Value is 42.27686 MJ/kg. The result from this research is the highest power from simulation is 9% higher than the experiment. The highest torque from the experiment is 37% lower than the simulation’s torque. Lowest SFOC from experiment is  28% lower than the simulation’s SFOC. Highest BMEP from simulation is 20% higher than the highest BMEP from experiment. The  highest thermal efficiency from experiment is 6% higher than the highest thermal efficiency from simulation. The engine performance result using soybean oil biodiesel is not better than the Pertamina Dex. For that reason, the use of this biodiesel is not suggested to substitute Pertamina Dex.

  9. A Comparison and Integration of MiSeq and MinION Platforms for Sequencing Single Source and Mixed Mitochondrial Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Lindberg

    Full Text Available Single source and multiple donor (mixed samples of human mitochondrial DNA were analyzed and compared using the MinION and the MiSeq platforms. A generalized variant detection strategy was employed to provide a cursory framework for evaluating the reliability and accuracy of mitochondrial sequences produced by the MinION. The feasibility of long-read phasing was investigated to establish its efficacy in quantitatively distinguishing and deconvolving individuals in a mixture. Finally, a proof-of-concept was demonstrated by integrating both platforms in a hybrid assembly that leverages solely mixture data to accurately reconstruct full mitochondrial genomes.

  10. Computation of methodology-independent single-ion solvation properties from molecular simulations. IV. Optimized Lennard-Jones interaction parameter sets for the alkali and halide ions in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Maria M.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2011-04-01

    The raw single-ion solvation free energies computed from atomistic (explicit-solvent) simulations are extremely sensitive to the boundary conditions and treatment of electrostatic interactions used during these simulations. However, as shown recently [M. A. Kastenholz and P. H. Hünenberger, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224501 (2006), 10.1529/biophysj.106.083667; M. M. Reif and P. H. Hünenberger, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144103 (2010)], the application of appropriate correction terms permits to obtain methodology-independent results. The corrected values are then exclusively characteristic of the underlying molecular model including in particular the ion-solvent van der Waals interaction parameters, determining the effective ion size and the magnitude of its dispersion interactions. In the present study, the comparison of calculated (corrected) hydration free energies with experimental data (along with the consideration of ionic polarizabilities) is used to calibrate new sets of ion-solvent van der Waals (Lennard-Jones) interaction parameters for the alkali (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+) and halide (F-, Cl-, Br-, I-) ions along with either the SPC or the SPC/E water models. The experimental dataset is defined by conventional single-ion hydration free energies [Tissandier et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 7787 (1998), 10.1021/jp982638r; Fawcett, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 11181] along with three plausible choices for the (experimentally elusive) value of the absolute (intrinsic) hydration free energy of the proton, namely, Δ G_hyd^{ominus }[H+] = -1100, -1075 or -1050 kJ mol-1, resulting in three sets L, M, and H for the SPC water model and three sets LE, ME, and HE for the SPC/E water model (alternative sets can easily be interpolated to intermediate Δ G_hyd^{ominus }[H+] values). The residual sensitivity of the calculated (corrected) hydration free energies on the volume-pressure boundary conditions and on the effective ionic radius entering into the calculation of the correction terms is

  11. Tuning the band structure and superconductivity in single-layer FeSe by interface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, R; Xu, H C; Tan, S Y; Cao, H Y; Xia, M; Shen, X P; Huang, Z C; Wen, C H P; Song, Q; Zhang, T; Xie, B P; Gong, X G; Feng, D L

    2014-09-26

    The interface between transition metal compounds provides a rich playground for emergent phenomena. Recently, significantly enhanced superconductivity has been reported for single-layer FeSe on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrate. Yet it remains mysterious how the interface affects the superconductivity. Here we use in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to investigate various FeSe-based heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and uncover that electronic correlations and superconducting gap-closing temperature (Tg) are tuned by interfacial effects. Tg up to 75 K is observed in extremely tensile-strained single-layer FeSe on Nb-doped BaTiO3, which sets a record high pairing temperature for both Fe-based superconductor and monolayer-thick films, providing a promising prospect on realizing more cost-effective superconducting device. Moreover, our results exclude the direct correlation between superconductivity and tensile strain or the energy of an interfacial phonon mode, and highlight the critical and non-trivial role of FeSe/oxide interface on the high Tg, which provides new clues for understanding its origin.

  12. The interplay of long-range magnetic order and single-ion anisotropy in rare earth nickel germanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Z.

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation is concerned with the interplay of long-range order and anisotropy in the tetragonal RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (R = rare earth) family of compounds. Microscopic magnetic structures were studied using both neutron and x-ray resonant exchange scattering (XRES) techniques. The magnetic structures of Tb, Dy, Eu and Gd members have been determined using high-quality single-crystal samples. This work has correlated a strong Fermi surface nesting to the magnetic ordering in the RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} compounds. Generalized susceptibility, {chi}{sub 0}(q), calculations found nesting to be responsible for both incommensurate ordering wave vector in GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, and the commensurate structure in EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. A continuous transition from incommensurate to commensurate magnetic structures via band filling is predicted. The surprisingly higher T{sub N} in EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} than that in GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is also explained. Next, all the metamagnetic phases in TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} with an applied field along the c axis have been characterized with neutron diffraction measurements. A mixed phase model for the first metamagnetic structure consisting of fully-saturated as well as reduced-moment Tb ions is presented. The moment reduction may be due to moment instability which is possible if the exchange is comparable to the low-lying CEF level splitting and the ground state is a singlet. In such a case, certain Tb sites may experience a local field below the critical value needed to reach saturation.

  13. The interplay of long-range magnetic order and single-ion anisotropy in rare earth nickel germanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Z.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the interplay of long-range order and anisotropy in the tetragonal RNi 2 Ge 2 (R = rare earth) family of compounds. Microscopic magnetic structures were studied using both neutron and x-ray resonant exchange scattering (XRES) techniques. The magnetic structures of Tb, Dy, Eu and Gd members have been determined using high-quality single-crystal samples. This work has correlated a strong Fermi surface nesting to the magnetic ordering in the RNi 2 Ge 2 compounds. Generalized susceptibility, χ 0 (q), calculations found nesting to be responsible for both incommensurate ordering wave vector in GdNi 2 Ge 2 , and the commensurate structure in EuNi 2 Ge 2 . A continuous transition from incommensurate to commensurate magnetic structures via band filling is predicted. The surprisingly higher T N in EuNi 2 Ge 2 than that in GdNi 2 Ge 2 is also explained. Next, all the metamagnetic phases in TbNi 2 Ge 2 with an applied field along the c axis have been characterized with neutron diffraction measurements. A mixed phase model for the first metamagnetic structure consisting of fully-saturated as well as reduced-moment Tb ions is presented. The moment reduction may be due to moment instability which is possible if the exchange is comparable to the low-lying CEF level splitting and the ground state is a singlet. In such a case, certain Tb sites may experience a local field below the critical value needed to reach saturation

  14. Field-Induced Co(II) Single-Ion Magnets with mer-Directing Ligands but Ambiguous Coordination Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Mereacre, Valeriu; Anson, Christopher E; Zhang, Yiquan; Bodenstein, Tilmann; Fink, Karin; Powell, Annie K

    2017-06-05

    Three air-stable Co(II) mononuclear complexes with different aromatic substituents have been prepared and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The mononuclear complexes [Co(H 2 L1) 2 ]·2THF (1), [Co(HL2) 2 ] (2), and [Co(H 2 L3) 2 ]·CH 2 Cl 2 (3) (where H 3 L1, H 2 L2, and H 3 L3 represent 3-hydroxy-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (6-hydroxymethyl-pyridin-2-ylmethylene) hydrazide, nicotinic acid (6-hydroxymethyl-pyridin-2-ylmethylene) hydrazide, and 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid (6-hydroxymethyl-pyridin-2-ylmethylene) hydrazide, respectively) feature a distorted mer octahedral coordination geometry. Detailed magnetic studies of 1-3 have been conducted using direct and alternating current magnetic susceptibility data. Field-induced slow magnetic relaxation was observed for these three complexes. There are few examples of such behavior in (distorted) octahedral coordination geometry (OC) Co(II) mononuclear complexes with uniaxial anisotropy. Analysis of the six-coordinate Co(II) mononuclear single-ion magnets (SIMs) in the literature using the SHAPE program revealed that they all show what is best described as distorted trigonal prismatic (TRP) coordination geometry, and in general, these show negative D zero-field splitting (ZFS) values. On the other hand, all the Co(II) mononuclear complexes displaying what is best approximated as distorted octahedral (OC) coordination geometry show positive D values. In the new Co(II) mononuclear complexes we describe here, there is an ambiguity, since the rigid tridentate ligands confer what is best described for an octahedral complex as a mer coordination geometry, but the actual shape of the first coordination sphere is between octahedral and trigonal prismatic. The negative D values observed experimentally and supported by high-level electronic structure calculations are thus in line with a trigonal prismatic geometry. However, a consideration of the rhombicity as indicated by the E value of the ZFS in

  15. Single-molecule characterization and engineering of the surfaces of nucleic acid sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Eric Alan

    The advent of personalized medicine will require biosensors capable of reliably detecting small levels of disease biomarkers. In microarrays and sensors for nucleic acids, hybridization events between surface-tethered DNA probes and the nucleic acids of interest (targets) are transduced into a detectable signal. However, target-binding ultimately occurs as a result of molecular motions and interactions between the probe and target at the nanometer scale, and common characterization methods either lack the resolution to characterize the sensors at this scale or provide only limited information about their interactions with their nanoscale chemical environment. In this dissertation I argue that an impediment to the development of more reliable and practical biosensors is the lack of knowledge and control of the nanometer length-scale structure of biosensor surfaces, which has a profound impact on molecular recognition and reactions for detection. After reviewing the fundamental surface chemistry and structural motifs of biosensors in Chapter 1, in Chapter 2 I use electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) to characterize in situ a common class of model nucleic acid sensors---thiolated DNA attached to a gold electrode which has been passivated by an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer---with single-molecule resolution. This level of detail allows me to observe both the conformations of individual probes and their spatial distribution at the nanoscale, then determine how these are affected by assembly conditions, probe structure, and interactions with co-adsorbates. I also determine how these nanoscale details affect the dynamic response of probes to electric fields, which have been commonly used in sensing schemes, and ultimately the ability of the surface-tethered probes to bind with target nucleic acids. In Chapter 3, I demonstrate and optimize the nanoscale patterning of individual DNA molecules into isolated, chemically well-defined niches on the surface

  16. Doubly versus Singly Positively Charged Oxygen Ions Back-Scattering from a Silicon Surface under Dynamic O2+ Bombardment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franzreb, K.; Williams, P.; Lörinčík, Jan; Šroubek, Zdeněk

    203-204, 1/4 (2003), s. 39-42 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : low-energy ion scattering * doubly charged ions * molecular orbital Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.284, year: 2003

  17. Spectroscopic properties of Bi2ZnOB2O6 single crystals doped with Pr3+ ions: Absorption and luminescence investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, D.; Brik, M. G.; Jaroszewski, K.; Pedzinski, T.; Bursa, B.; Głuchowski, P.; Majchrowski, A.; Michalski, E.

    2015-09-01

    Nonlinear optical Bi2ZnOB2O6 single crystals doped with Pr3+ ions were grown using the Kyropoulos method. The absorption and luminescence properties of these new systems were investigated for the first time. The crystals are characterized by the large values of nonlinear optical coefficients. Effective luminescence of the Pr3+ ions makes this system an excellent candidate for the near-infrared (NIR) and/or ultraviolet (UV) to visible (VIS) laser converters. Based on the obtained experimental spectroscopic data, detailed analysis of the absorption and luminescence spectra was performed using the conventional Judd-Ofelt theory. Those transitions, which can be potentially used for laser applications of the Pr3+ ion, have been identified. In addition to the intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4, Ω6 the branching ratios and radiative lifetimes were estimated for all possible transitions in the studied spectral region.

  18. Engineering evaluation of intrusion prevention strategies for single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, previously implemented actions to prevent liquid intrusion into out-of-service single-shell tanks (SSTs), i.e., interim isolation or partial interim isolation, are investigated and expanded to identify additional cost-effective intrusion prevention techniques that could be reasonably taken until SSTs are ready for waste retrieval. Possible precipitation, groundwater, and condensation pathways and internal tank connections that could provide possible pathways for liquids are examined. Techniques to block identified potential pathways are developed and costed to determine the potential benefit to costed trade-offs for implementing the techniques. (Note: Surveillance data show increased waste surface levels for several SSTs that indicate possible liquid intrusion despite interim isolation activities.)

  19. Engineering single-polymer micelle shape using nonuniform spontaneous surface curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Conventional micelles, composed of simple amphiphiles, exhibit only a few standard morphologies, each characterized by its mean surface curvature set by the amphiphiles. Here we demonstrate a rational design scheme to construct micelles of more general shape from polymeric amphiphiles. We replace the many amphiphiles of a conventional micelle by a single flexible, linear, block copolymer chain containing two incompatible species arranged in multiple alternating segments. With suitable segment lengths, the chain exhibits a condensed spherical configuration in solution, similar to conventional micelles. Our design scheme posits that further shapes are attained by altering the segment lengths. As a first study of the power of this scheme, we demonstrate the capacity to produce long-lived micelles of horseshoe form using conventional bead-spring simulations in two dimensions. Modest changes in the segment lengths produce smooth changes in the micelle's shape and stability.

  20. Concept definition and aerodynamic technology studies for single-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, W. P.; Durston, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The results obtained in the early stages of a research program to develop aerodynamic technology for single-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft projected for the post-1990 period are summarized. This program includes industry studies jointly sponsored by NASA and the Navy. Four contractors have identified promising concepts featuring a variety of approaches for providing propulsive lift. Vertical takeoff gross weights range from about 10,000 to 13,600 kg (22,000 to 30,000 lb). The aircraft have supersonic capability, are highly maneuverable, and have significant short takeoff overload capability. The contractors have estimated the aerodynamics and identified aerodynamic uncertainties associated with their concepts. Wind-tunnel research programs will be formulated to investigate these uncertainties. A description of the concepts is emphasized.

  1. Online differentiation of mineral phase in aerosol particles by ion formation mechanism using a LAAP-TOF single-particle mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Marsden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogy of silicate mineral dust has a strong influence on climate and ecosystems due to variation in physiochemical properties that result from differences in composition and crystal structure (mineral phase. Traditional offline methods of analysing mineral phase are labour intensive and the temporal resolution of the data is much longer than many atmospheric processes. Single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS is an established technique for the online size-resolved measurement of particle composition by laser desorption ionisation (LDI followed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS. Although non-quantitative, the technique is able to identify the presence of silicate minerals in airborne dust particles from markers of alkali metals and silicate molecular ions in the mass spectra. However, the differentiation of mineral phase in silicate particles by traditional mass spectral peak area measurements is not possible. This is because instrument function and matrix effects in the ionisation process result in variations in instrument response that are greater than the differences in composition between common mineral phases.In this study, we introduce a novel technique that enables the differentiation of mineral phase in silicate mineral particles by ion formation mechanism measured from subtle changes in ion arrival times at the TOF-MS detector. Using a combination of peak area and peak centroid measurements, we show that the arrangement of the interstitial alkali metals in the crystal structure, an important property in silicate mineralogy, influences the ion arrival times of elemental and molecular ion species in the negative ion mass spectra. A classification scheme is presented that allowed for the differentiation of illite–smectite, kaolinite and feldspar minerals on a single-particle basis. Online analysis of mineral dust aerosol generated from clay mineral standards produced mineral fractions that are in agreement with bulk

  2. Online differentiation of mineral phase in aerosol particles by ion formation mechanism using a LAAP-TOF single-particle mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Nicholas A.; Flynn, Michael J.; Allan, James D.; Coe, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    Mineralogy of silicate mineral dust has a strong influence on climate and ecosystems due to variation in physiochemical properties that result from differences in composition and crystal structure (mineral phase). Traditional offline methods of analysing mineral phase are labour intensive and the temporal resolution of the data is much longer than many atmospheric processes. Single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) is an established technique for the online size-resolved measurement of particle composition by laser desorption ionisation (LDI) followed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). Although non-quantitative, the technique is able to identify the presence of silicate minerals in airborne dust particles from markers of alkali metals and silicate molecular ions in the mass spectra. However, the differentiation of mineral phase in silicate particles by traditional mass spectral peak area measurements is not possible. This is because instrument function and matrix effects in the ionisation process result in variations in instrument response that are greater than the differences in composition between common mineral phases.In this study, we introduce a novel technique that enables the differentiation of mineral phase in silicate mineral particles by ion formation mechanism measured from subtle changes in ion arrival times at the TOF-MS detector. Using a combination of peak area and peak centroid measurements, we show that the arrangement of the interstitial alkali metals in the crystal structure, an important property in silicate mineralogy, influences the ion arrival times of elemental and molecular ion species in the negative ion mass spectra. A classification scheme is presented that allowed for the differentiation of illite-smectite, kaolinite and feldspar minerals on a single-particle basis. Online analysis of mineral dust aerosol generated from clay mineral standards produced mineral fractions that are in agreement with bulk measurements reported by

  3. Production of Mahua Oil Ethyl Ester (MOEE) and its Performance test on four stroke single cylinder VCR engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Kittur, Prasanna; Parmar, Fulchand; Batakatti, Sachin; Kulkarni, Prasad; Kallannavar, Vinayak

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a substitute for gasoline that is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats. It has gained popularity due to depleting fossil fuel resources, its renewable character and comparable combustion properties to diesel fuel. Biodiesel is formed from non-edible oils, edible oils, tallow, animal fats and waste cooked oils. Biodiesels are monoalkyl esters of elongated chain fatty acids. Biodiesel can be a viable choice for satisfying long term energy requirements if they are managed proficiently. The method of the transesterification shows how the reaction occurs and advances. In this study, biodiesel is produced from Madhuca indica seeds commonly known as Mahua by using transesterification process using a low capacity pressure reactor and by-product of transesterification is glycerol, which is used in preparation of soaps. Mahua Oil Ethyl Ester (MOEE) was produced from the Mahua oil and is mixed with diesel to get different ratios of blends. MOEE was tested in a 4-stroke single cylinder VCR diesel engine. The study was extended to understand the effect of biodiesel blend magnitude on the performance of engine parameters like, brake thermal efficiency, brake power and fuel properties like flash point, cloud point, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, cetane number and density were studied.

  4. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  5. Removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution using rice husk-based activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, Mohd F., E-mail: faisalt@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul S. [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Shuib, Anis Suhaila, E-mail: anisuha@petronas.com.my; Borhan, Azry [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Rice husk-based activated carbon was prepared via treatment of rice husk with NaOH followed by the carbonization process at 400°C for 2 hours. Three samples, i.e. raw rice husk, rice husk treated with NaOH and rice husk-based activated carbon, were analyzed for their morphological characteristics using field-emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX). These samples were also analyzed for their carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and silica contents using CHN elemental analyzer and FESEM/EDX. The porous properties of rice husk-based activated carbon were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and its surface area and pore volume were 255 m{sup 2}/g and 0.17 cm{sup 2}/g, respectively. The adsorption studies for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution were carried out at a fixed initial concentration of metal ion (150 ppm) with variation amount of adsorbent (rice husk-based activated carbon) as a function of varied contact time at room temperature. The concentration of each metal ion was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from adsorption studies indicate the potential of rice husk as an economically promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Isotherm and kinetic model analyses suggested that the experimental data of adsorption studies fitted well with Langmuir, Freundlich and second-order kinetic models.

  6. Before the endless forms: embodied model of transition from single cells to aggregates to ecosystem engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard V Solé

    Full Text Available The emergence of complex multicellular systems and their associated developmental programs is one of the major problems of evolutionary biology. The advantages of cooperation over individuality seem well known but it is not clear yet how such increase of complexity emerged from unicellular life forms. Current multicellular systems display a complex cell-cell communication machinery, often tied to large-scale controls of body size or tissue homeostasis. Some unicellular life forms are simpler and involve groups of cells cooperating in a tissue-like fashion, as it occurs with biofilms. However, before true gene regulatory interactions were widespread and allowed for controlled changes in cell phenotypes, simple cellular colonies displaying adhesion and interacting with their environments were in place. In this context, models often ignore the physical embedding of evolving cells, thus leaving aside a key component. The potential for evolving pre-developmental patterns is a relevant issue: how far a colony of evolving cells can go? Here we study these pre-conditions for morphogenesis by using CHIMERA, a physically embodied computational model of evolving virtual organisms in a pre-Mendelian world. Starting from a population of identical, independent cells moving in a fluid, the system undergoes a series of changes, from spatial segregation, increased adhesion and the development of generalism. Eventually, a major transition occurs where a change in the flow of nutrients is triggered by a sub-population. This ecosystem engineering phenomenon leads to a subsequent separation of the ecological network into two well defined compartments. The relevance of these results for evodevo and its potential ecological triggers is discussed.

  7. Resonator QED experiments with single {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ions; Resonator-QED-Experimente mit einzelnen {sup 40}Ca{sup +}-Ionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, B.

    2006-12-20

    Combining an optical resonator with an ion trap provides the possibility for QED experiments with single or few particles interacting with a single mode of the electro-magnetic field (Cavity-QED). In the present setup, fluctuations in the count rate on a time scale below 30 seconds were purely determined by the photon statistics due to finite emission and detection efficiency, whereas a marginal drift of the system was noticeable above 200 seconds. To find methods to increase the efficiency of the photon source, investigations were conducted and experimental improvements of the setup implemented in the frame of this thesis. Damping of the resonator field and coupling of ion and field were considered as the most important factors. To reduce the damping of the resonator field, a resonator with a smaller transmissivity of the output mirror was set up. The linear trap used in the experiment allows for the interaction of multiple ions with the resonator field, so that more than one photon may be emitted per pump pulse. This was investigated in this thesis with two ions coupled to the resonator. The cross correlation of the emitted photons was measured with the Hanbury Brown-Twiss method. (orig.)

  8. Fine structure of an exciton coupled to a single Fe2 + ion in a CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleński, T.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Goryca, M.; Pacuski, W.; Kossacki, P.

    2017-10-01

    We present a polarization-resolved photoluminescence study of the exchange interaction effects in a prototype system consisting of an individual Fe2 + ion and a single neutral exciton confined in a CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot. A maximal possible number of eight fully linearly polarized lines in the bright exciton emission spectrum is observed, evidencing complete degeneracy lifting in the investigated system. We discuss the conditions required for such a scenario to take place: anisotropy of the electron-hole interaction and the zero-field splitting of the Fe2 + ion spin states. Neglecting either of these components is shown to restore partial degeneracy of the transitions, making the excitonic spectrum similar to those previously reported for all other systems of quantum dots with single magnetic dopants.

  9. Radiation damage induced in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal sequentially irradiated with reactor neutrons and 90 MeV Xe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirour, H. [Faculty of Physics, USTHB, BP. 32, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Izerrouken, M., E-mail: izerrouken@yahoo.com [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria, BP. 43, Sebbala, Draria, Algiers (Algeria); Sari, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Berine, BP. 108, Ain-Oussara, Djelfa (Algeria)

    2016-06-15

    The present investigation reports the effect of 90 MeV Xe ion irradiation on neutron irradiated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals. Three irradiation experiments were performed, with neutrons only, 90 MeV Xe ions only and with neutrons followed by 90 MeV Xe ions. Neutron and 90 MeV Xe ion irradiations were performed at NUR research reactor, Algiers, Algeria and at GANIL accelerator, Caen, France respectively. After irradiation, the radiation damage was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), optical absorption measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Raman technique revealed that the concentration of the defects formed in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples subsequently irradiated with neutrons and 90 MeV Xe ions is lower than that formed in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples which were irradiated only with neutrons. This reveals the occurrence of ionization-induced recovery of the neutron damage. Furthermore, as revealed by XRD analysis, a new peak is appeared at about 2θ = 38.03° after irradiation at high fluence (>3 × 10{sup 13} Xe/cm{sup 2}). It can be assigned to the formation of new lattice plane.

  10. Engineering single-molecule, nanoscale, and microscale bio-functional materials via click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Michael Angelo-Anthony

    To expand the design envelope and supplement the materials library available to biomaterials scientists, the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuCAAC) was explored as a route to design, synthesize and characterize bio-functional small-molecules, nanoparticles, and microfibers. In each engineered system, the use of click chemistry provided facile, bio-orthogonal control for materials synthesis; moreover, the results provided a methodology and more complete, fundamental understanding of the use of click chemistry as a tool for the synergy of biotechnology, polymer and materials science. Fluorophores with well-defined photophysical characteristics (ranging from UV to NIR fluorescence) were used as building blocks for small-molecule, fluorescent biosensors. Fluorophores were paired to exhibit fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) and used to probe the metabolic activity of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO). The FRET pair exhibited a significant variation in PL response with exposure to the lysate of Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10, an organism which can degrade variants of both the donor and acceptor fluorophores. Nanoparticle systems were modified via CuCAAC chemistry to carry affinity tags for CARDO and were subsequently utilized for affinity based bioseparation of CARDO from crude cell lysate. The enzymes were baited with an azide-modified carbazolyl-moiety attached to a poly(propargyl acrylate) nanoparticle. Magnetic nanocluster systems were also modified via CuCAAC chemistry to carry fluorescent imaging tags. The iron-oxide nanoclusters were coated with poly(acrylic acid-co-propargyl acrylate) to provide a clickable surface. Ultimately, alternate Cu-free click chemistries were utilized to produce biohybrid microfibers. The biohybrid microfibers were synthesized under benign photopolymerization conditions inside a microchannel, allowing the encapsulation of viable bacteria. By adjusting pre-polymer solutions and laminar flow rates within the

  11. TEM investigation of the surface layer structure [111]{sub B2} of the single NiTi crystal modified by the Si-ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girsova, S. L., E-mail: girs@ispms.tsc.ru; Poletika, T. M., E-mail: poletm@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Meisner, S. N., E-mail: msn@ispms.tsc.ru; Meisner, L. L., E-mail: llm@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The study was carried on for the single NiTi crystals subjected to the Si-ion beam implantation. Using the transmission electron microscopy technique (TEM), the surface layer structure [111]{sub B2} was examined for the treated material. The modified near-surface sublayers were found to have different composition. Thus the uppermost sublayer contained mostly oxides; the lower-lying modified sublayer material was in an amorphous state and the thin underlying sublayer had a defect structure.

  12. Test Standard Revision Update: JESD57, "Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The JEDEC JESD57 test standard, Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation, is undergoing its first revision since 1996. In this talk, we place this test standard into context with other relevant radiation test standards to show its importance for single-event effect radiation testing for space applications. We show the range of industry, government, and end-user party involvement in the revision. Finally, we highlight some of the key changes being made and discuss the trade-space in which setting standards must be made to be both useful and broadly adopted.

  13. Study of the reaction between methyl 4-nitrobenzenesulfonate and bromide ions in mixed single-chain-gemini micellar solutions: kinetic evidence for morphological transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar Graciani, María; Rodríguez, Amalia; Moyá, María Luisa

    2008-12-15

    The reaction between methyl 4-nitrobenzenesulfonate and bromide ions has been studied in mixed single-chain-gemini micellar solutions of n-dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, DTAB, and dodecyl tricosaoxyethylene glycol ether, Brij(35), with alkanediyl-alpha-omega-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium) bromide, 12-s-12,2Br(-) (s=3,4,5). Kinetic micellar effects show that an increase in the solution mole fraction of the single-chain surfactant, X(single-chain), results in a diminution of the mixed micelles tendency to form spherocylindrical aggregates upon increasing surfactant concentration. The dependence of the surfactant concentration at which the sphere-to-rod transition occurs, C(*), on X(single-chain) showed through kinetic data was in agreement with results obtained by means of fluorescence measurements.

  14. Reentrant behaviors in the phase diagram of spin-1 planar ferromagnets with easy-axis single-ion anisotropy via the Devlin two-time Green function framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.

    2017-10-01

    The Devlin two-time Green function framework is used to investigate the role played by the easy-axis single-ion anisotropy on the phase diagram of (d > 2) -dimensional spin-1 planar ferromagnets which exhibit a magnetic-field-induced quantum phase transition (QPT). In this scheme, the exchange anisotropy terms in the equations of motion are treated at the Tyablikov decoupling level while the crystal field anisotropy contribution is handled exactly. The emerging key result is a reentrant structure of the phase diagram close to the quantum critical point for a well defined window of values of the single-ion anisotropy parameter. This experimentally interesting feature was recently recovered by employing the Anderson-Callen decoupling (ACD) which is considered to provide meaningful results only for small values of the single-ion anisotropy parameter. In this context, our findings suggest that the simplest ACD treatment offers the possibility to have, at least qualitatively, a correct physical scenario of quantum criticality close to a field-induced QPT avoiding the limiting mathematical difficulties involved in the Devlin scheme.

  15. Structural and dynamic changes associated with beneficial engineered single-amino-acid deletion mutations in enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, James A J; Rizkallah, Pierre J; Jones, D Dafydd

    2014-08-01

    Single-amino-acid deletions are a common part of the natural evolutionary landscape but are rarely sampled during protein engineering owing to limited and prejudiced molecular understanding of mutations that shorten the protein backbone. Single-amino-acid deletion variants of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) have been identified by directed evolution with the beneficial effect of imparting increased cellular fluorescence. Biophysical characterization revealed that increased functional protein production and not changes to the fluorescence parameters was the mechanism that was likely to be responsible. The structure EGFP(D190Δ) containing a deletion within a loop revealed propagated changes only after the deleted residue. The structure of EGFP(A227Δ) revealed that a `flipping' mechanism was used to adjust for residue deletion at the end of a β-strand, with amino acids C-terminal to the deletion site repositioning to take the place of the deleted amino acid. In both variants new networks of short-range and long-range interactions are generated while maintaining the integrity of the hydrophobic core. Both deletion variants also displayed significant local and long-range changes in dynamics, as evident by changes in B factors compared with EGFP. Rather than being detrimental, deletion mutations can introduce beneficial structural effects through altering core protein properties, folding and dynamics, as well as function.

  16. A Rational Engineering Strategy for Designing Protein A-Binding Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Henry

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal protein A (SpA and streptococcal protein G (SpG affinity chromatography are the gold standards for purifying monoclonal antibodies (mAbs in therapeutic applications. However, camelid VHH single-domain Abs (sdAbs or VHHs are not bound by SpG and only sporadically bound by SpA. Currently, VHHs require affinity tag-based purification, which limits their therapeutic potential and adds considerable complexity and cost to their production. Here we describe a simple and rapid mutagenesis-based approach designed to confer SpA binding upon a priori non-SpA-binding VHHs. We show that SpA binding of VHHs is determined primarily by the same set of residues as in human mAbs, albeit with an unexpected degree of tolerance to substitutions at certain core and non-core positions and some limited dependence on at least one residue outside the SpA interface, and that SpA binding could be successfully introduced into five VHHs against three different targets with no adverse effects on expression yield or antigen binding. Next-generation sequencing of llama, alpaca and dromedary VHH repertoires suggested that species differences in SpA binding may result from frequency variation in specific deleterious polymorphisms, especially Ile57. Thus, the SpA binding phenotype of camelid VHHs can be easily modulated to take advantage of tag-less purification techniques, although the frequency with which this is required may depend on the source species.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Network Single Ion Conductors(NSIC) Based On Comb-Branched Polyepoxide Ethers and LithiumBis(allylmalonato)borate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Kerr, John B.

    2004-07-11

    Network single ion conductors (NSICs) based on comb-branch polyepoxide ethers and lithium bis(allylmalonato) borate have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized by means of ionic conductivity measurements, electrochemical impedance and by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The materials have been tested as battery electrolytes by cycling in symmetrical Li/Li half cells and in Li/V{sub 6}O{sub 13} full cells in which the NSIC was used as both binder and electrolyte in the cathode electrode and as the electrolyte separator membrane,. The substitution of the trimethylene oxide (TMO) unit into the side chains in place of ethylene oxide (EO) units increased the polymerion mobility (lower glass transition temperature). However, the ionic conductivity was nearly one and half orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding pure EO based single ion conductor at the same salt concentration. This effect may be ascribed to the lower dielectric constant of the TMO side chains that result in a lower concentration of free conducting lithium cations. For a highly cross-linked system (EO/Li=20), only 47 wt% plasticizing solvent (ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), 1/1 by wt) could be taken up and the ionic conductivity was only increased by one order of magnitude over the dry polyelectrolyte while for a less densely crosslinked system (EO/Li=80), up to 75 wt% plasticizer could be taken up and the ionic conductivity was increased by nearly two orders of magnitude. A Li/Li symmetric cell that was cycled at 85 C at a current density of 25{micro}Acm{sup -2} showed no concentration polarization or diffusional relaxation, consistent with a lithium ion transference number of one. However, both the bulk and interfacial impedances increased after 20 cycles, apparently due to continued cross-linking reactions within the membrane and on the surface of the lithium electrodes. A Li/V{sub 6}O{sub 13} full cell constructed using a single ion conductor gel (propylene

  18. Establishing a Quantitative Relationship Between Ion and Pulsed-Laser Induced Single Event Soft Errors in Advanced Semiconductor Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation is a pervasive environmental challenge in space and the upper atmosphere. Ions can interact with microelectronic devices and create unwanted charge leading...

  19. Integrated computational microstructure engineering for single-crystal nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Billie

    simulation targets allows for over-constraining, thus limiting the effect of uncertainty from any single source. Using directly measureable data and other low uncertainty sources allows for a higher degree of representation to be achieved. Sensitivity studies to optimize the simulation parameters were also used to obtain better agreement between simulation predictions and experimental observations.

  20. Poisson-Fermi modeling of ion activities in aqueous single and mixed electrolyte solutions at variable temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinn-Liang; Eisenberg, Bob

    2018-02-01

    The combinatorial explosion of empirical parameters in tens of thousands presents a tremendous challenge for extended Debye-Hückel models to calculate activity coefficients of aqueous mixtures of the most important salts in chemistry. The explosion of parameters originates from the phenomenological extension of the Debye-Hückel theory that does not take steric and correlation effects of ions and water into account. By contrast, the Poisson-Fermi theory developed in recent years treats ions and water molecules as nonuniform hard spheres of any size with interstitial voids and includes ion-water and ion-ion correlations. We present a Poisson-Fermi model and numerical methods for calculating the individual or mean activity coefficient of electrolyte solutions with any arbitrary number of ionic species in a large range of salt concentrations and temperatures. For each activity-concentration curve, we show that the Poisson-Fermi model requires only three unchanging parameters at most to well fit the corresponding experimental data. The three parameters are associated with the Born radius of the solvation energy of an ion in electrolyte solution that changes with salt concentrations in a highly nonlinear manner.

  1. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization linear ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometry of antioxidants (amines and phenols) applied in lubricant engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassler, Alexander; Pittenauer, Ernst; Doerr, Nicole; Allmaier, Guenter

    2014-01-15

    For the qualification and quantification of antioxidants (aromatic amines and sterically hindered phenols), most of them applied as lubricant additives, two ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) electrospray ionization mass spectrometric methods applying the positive and negative ion mode have been developed for lubricant design and engineering thus allowing e.g. the study of the degradation of lubricants. Based on the different chemical properties of the two groups of antioxidants, two methods offering a fast separation (10 min) without prior derivatization were developed. In order to reach these requirements, UHPLC was coupled with an LTQ Orbitrap hybrid tandem mass spectrometer with positive and negative ion electrospray ionization for simultaneous detection of spectra from UHPLC-high-resolution (HR)-MS (full scan mode) and UHPLC-low-resolution linear ion trap MS(2) (LITMS(2)), which we term UHPLC/HRMS-LITMS(2). All 20 analytes investigated could be qualified by an UHPLC/HRMS-LITMS(2) approach consisting of simultaneous UHPLC/HRMS (elemental composition) and UHPLC/LITMS(2) (diagnostic product ions) according to EC guidelines. Quantification was based on an UHPLC/LITMS(2) approach due to increased sensitivity and selectivity compared to UHPLC/HRMS. Absolute quantification was only feasible for seven analytes with well-specified purity of references whereas relative quantification was obtainable for another nine antioxidants. All of them showed good standard deviation and repeatability. The combined methods allow qualitative and quantitative determination of a wide variety of different antioxidants including aminic/phenolic compounds applied in lubricant engineering. These data show that the developed methods will be versatile tools for further research on identification and characterization of the thermo-oxidative degradation products of antioxidants in lubricants. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Microstructure and nanomechanical properties of single stalks from diatom Didymosphenia geminata and their change due to adsorption of selected metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgłobicka, Izabela; Chlanda, Adrian; Woźniak, Michał; Łojkowski, Maciej; Szoszkiewicz, Robert; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Wyroba, Elżbieta; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2017-08-01

    We present topographical and nanomechanical characterization of single Didymosphenia geminata stalk. We compared the samples before and after adsorption of metal ions from freshwater samples. Transmission electron microscopy studies of single stalk cross-sections have shown three distinct layers and an additional thin extra coat on the external layer (called "EL"). Using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found that topography of single stalks after ionic adsorption differed significantly from topography of pristine stalks. AFM nanoindentation studies in ambient conditions yielded elastic moduli of 214 ± 170 MPa for pristine stalks and 294 ± 108 MPa for stalks after ionic adsorption. Statistical tests showed that those results were significantly different. We conducted only preliminary comparisons between ionic adsorption of several stalks in air and in water. While the stalks with ions were on average stiffer than the pristine stalks in air, they became more compliant than the pristine stalks in water. We also heated the stalks and detected EL softening at 50°C ± 15°C. AFM nanoindentation in air on the softened samples yielded elastic moduli of 26 ± 9 MPa for pristine samples and 43 ± 22 MPa for stalks with absorbed metal ions. Substantial decrease of the EL elastic moduli after heating was expected. Significantly different elastic moduli for the samples after ionic adsorption in both cases (i.e., for heated and nonheated samples), as well as behavior of the stalks immersed in water, point to permanent structural EL changes due to ions. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Atom-by-atom engineering of voltage-gated ion channels: Magnified insights into function and pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Kim, Robin Y; Ahern, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Unnatural amino acid incorporation into ion channels has proven to be a valuable approach to interrogate detailed hypotheses arising from atomic resolution structures. In this short review, we provide a brief overview of some of the basic principles and methods for incorporation of unnatural amin...... acids into proteins. We also review insights into the function and pharmacology of voltage-gated ion channels that have emerged from unnatural amino acid mutagenesis approaches....

  4. Detection of two electrons in low-lying continuum states of a single projectile ion resulting from the collision of a 10.7-MeV Ag4+ ion with an Ar gas atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.D.; Breinig, M.; Gaither, C.C.; Berryman, J.W.; Hasson, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    Two electrons, excited just above the double-ionization threshold of an Ag q+ (q=5,6) core in a single collision of a 0.1-MeV/u Ag 4+ projectile ion with an Ar atom, are detected. The electron detector consists of electrically isolated anode segments located behind a microchannel-plate electron multiplier. A large electrostatic 30 degree parallel-plate analyzer is used to deflect the two free electrons, which move with approximately the projectile velocity, into the detector. The cross sections for producing final states consisting of a positively charged ionic core and two electrons just above the threshold for double ionization in ion-atom collisions have been measured. The cross sections for producing states with one electron moving with a kinetic energy less than 0.13 eV in the projectile frame and the other moving with somewhat higher kinetic energy are presented

  5. Development of Guidelines for Use of Proton Single-Event Test Data to Bound Single-Event Effect Susceptibility Due to Light Ions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional methods for Single-Event Effects (SEE) Hardness Assurance have proven difficult to adapt to Explorer, Cubesat and other risk tolerant platforms with...

  6. Parabolic Flights with Single-Engine Aerobatic Aircraft: Flight Profile and a Computer Simulator for its Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigos, Miguel; Perez-Poch, Antoni; Alpiste, Francesc; Torner, Jordi; González Alonso, Daniel Ventura

    2014-11-01

    We report the results of residual acceleration obtained from initial tests of parabolic flights (more than 100 hours) performed with a small single-engine aerobatic aircraft (CAP10B), and propose a method that improves these figures. Such aircraft have proved capable of providing researchers with periods of up to 8 seconds of reduced gravity in the cockpit, with a gravity quality in the range of 0.1 g 0, where g 0 is the gravitational acceleration of the Earth. Such parabolas may be of interest to experimenters in the reduced gravity field, when this range of reduced gravity is acceptable for the experiment undertaken. They have also proven to be useful for motivational and educational campaigns. Furthermore, these flights may be of interest to researchers as a test-bed for obtaining a proof-of-concept for subsequent access to parabolic flights with larger aircraft or other microgravity platforms. The limited cost of the operations with these small aircraft allows us to perform them as part of a non-commercial joint venture between the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - BarcelonaTech (UPC), the Barcelona cluster BAIE and the Aeroclub Barcelona-Sabadell. Any improvements in the length and quality of reduced gravity would increase the capabilities of these small aircraft. To that end, we have developed a method based on a simulator for training aerobatic pilots. The simulation is performed with the CAD software for mechanical design Solidworks Motion{circledR }, which is widely distributed in industry and in universities. It specifically simulates the parabolic flight manoeuvre for our small aircraft and enables us to improve different aspects of the manoeuvre. The simulator is first validated with experimental data from the test flights. We have conducted an initial intensive period of specific pilot training with the aid of the simulator output. After such initial simulation-aided training, results show that the reduced gravity quality has significantly

  7. Quantitative imaging of chemical composition in single cells by secondary ion mass spectrometry: cisplatin affects calcium stores in renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    A detailed protocol for quantitative single cell mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) analysis is described in this chapter with examples of the treatment of cells with anticancer drug, cisplatin. Cisplatin, cis-diamminedichloridoplatinum ii (CDDP), is widely used for the treatment of many malignancies, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, cervical, head and neck, and small cell and non-small cell lung cancers. The possibility of renal injury by cisplatin treatment is a major dose-limiting factor in this cancer therapy. At present, the mechanisms of cisplatin-induced renal cytotoxicity are poorly understood. In this work, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used for investigating cisplatin-induced alterations in intracellular chemical composition in a well-established model (LLC-PK(1) cell line) for studying renal injury. The cells were cryogenically prepared by the sandwich freeze-fracture method for subcellular imaging analysis of chemical composition (total concentrations of K(+), Na(+), and Ca(2+)) in individual cells. The single cell analysis of these diffusible ions necessitates the use of reliable cryogenic sample preparations for SIMS. The sandwich freeze-fracture method offers a simple approach for cryogenically preserving diffusible ions and molecules inside the cells for SIMS analysis. A CAMECA IMS-3f SIMS ion microscope instrument capable of producing chemical images of single cells with 500-nm spatial resolution was used in the study. In cisplatin-treated cells, SIMS imaging showed the presence of detectable amount of platinum at mass 195, as (195)Pt(+) secondary ions in individual cells. SIMS observations also revealed that individual cells differed in their response to cisplatin. While the chemical composition of some cells was unaffected by cisplatin, others showed a reduction in cytoplasmic calcium stores that was not associated with changes in their intracellular K or Na concentrations. Another population of cells displayed an increase in

  8. The study of adsorption characteristics Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions onto PHEMA and P(MMA-HEMA) surfaces from aqueous single solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, O; Aghaie, M; Zare, K; Monajjemi, M; Aghaie, H

    2009-10-30

    The adsorption characteristics of Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions onto poly2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) and copolymer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with monomer methyl methacrylate P(MMA-HEMA) adsorbent surfaces from aqueous single solution were investigated with respect to the changes in the pH of solution, adsorbent composition (changes in the weight percentage of MMA copolymerized with HEMA monomer), contact time and the temperature in the individual aqueous solutions. The linear correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were obtained. The results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental results better than the Freundlich isotherm. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer adsorption capacity of PHEMA surface was found to be 0.840 and 3.037 mg/g for Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions and adsorption capacity of (PMMA-HEMA) was found to be 31.153 and 31.447 mg/g for Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions, respectively. Changes in the standard Gibbs free energy (DeltaG(0)), standard enthalpy (DeltaH(0)) and standard entropy (DeltaS(0)) show that the adsorption of mentioned ions onto PHEMA and P(MMA-HEMA) are spontaneous and exothermic at 293-323 K.

  9. Selective Single-Step Separation of a Mixture of Three Metal Ions by a Triphasic Ionic-Liquid-Water-Ionic-Liquid Solvent Extraction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Blockx, Jonas; De Coster, Hendrik; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-08-10

    In a conventional solvent extraction system, metal ions are distributed between two immiscible phases, typically an aqueous and an organic phase. In this paper, the proof-of-principle is given for the distribution of metal ions between three immiscible phases, two ionic liquid phases with an aqueous phase in between them. Three-liquid-phase solvent extraction allows separation of a mixture of three metal ions in a single step, whereas at least two steps are required to separate three metals in the case of two-liquid-phase solvent extraction. In the triphasic system, the lower organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid betainium- or choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, whereas the upper organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The triphasic system was used for the separation of a mixture of tin(II), yttrium(III), and scandium(III) ions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleshko, Vladimir P; Lam, Thomas; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Haney, Paul; Lezec, Henri J; Davydov, Albert V; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Cumings, John; Talin, A Alec

    2014-10-21

    Complex interfacial phenomena and phase transformations that govern the operation of Li-ion batteries require detailed nanoscale 3D structural and compositional characterization that can be directly related to their capacity and electrical transport properties. For this purpose, we have designed model miniature all solid-state radial heterostructure Li-ion batteries composed of LiCoO2 cathode, LiPON electrolyte and amorphous Si anode shells, which were deposited around metallized high-aspect-ratio Si nanowires as a scaffolding core. Such diagnostic batteries, the smallest, complete secondary Li-ion batteries realized to date, were specifically designed for in situ electrical testing in a field-emission scanning electron microscope and/or transmission electron microscope. The results of electrochemical testing were described in detail in a previous publication (Nano Lett., 2012, 12, 505-511). The model Li-ion batteries allow analysis of the correlations between electrochemical properties and their structural evolution during cycling in various imaging, diffraction and spectroscopic modes down to the atomic level. Employing multimode analytical scanning/transmission electron microscopy imaging coupled with correlative multivariate statistical analysis and tomography, we have analyzed and quantified the 3D morphological and structural arrangement of the batteries, including textured platelet-like LiCoO2 nanocrystallites, buried electrode-electrolyte interfaces and hidden internal defects to clarify effects of scaling on a battery's electrochemical performance. Characterization of the nanoscale interfacial processes using model heterostructure nanowire-based Li-ion batteries provides useful guidelines for engineering of prospective nano-sized building blocks in future electrochemical energy storage systems.

  11. Ion source based on Penning discharge for production of doubly charged helium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Voznyi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of operation of ion source with Penning discharge developed in the IAP of NAS of Ukraine to produce doubly charged helium ions He2+ beam and to increase the energy of accelerated ions up to 3.2 MeV. This energy is necessary for ERDA channel when measuring hydrogen concentration in the structural materials used in nuclear engineering. The ion source parameters are the following: discharge voltage is 6 kV, discharge current is 0.8 - 1.2 mA, the current of singly charged helium ions He+ 24 μA, the current of doubly charged helium ions He2+ 0.5 μA.

  12. Structural properties of as-grown and reduced Pr2CuO4 single crystals investigated by ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, T.; Abe, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Ion channeling is very sensitive to atomic arrangements and small atomic displacements in real space. Thus, in order to clarify a role of reduction for Pr 2 CuO 4 , ion channeling properties for the materials have been measured in detail. Anomalous increases of dechanneling fractions of Cu and O atoms in the reduced samples have been found. These results could not be explained by the apical oxygen model but probably suggest that O atoms in Cu-O planes are removed by reduction. Taking these results into account, correlation between lattice instability and superconductivity in the material will be discussed. (orig.)

  13. Scanned ion beam therapy for prostate carcinoma. Comparison of single plan treatment and daily plan-adapted treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hild, Sebastian [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Department of Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); University Clinic Erlangen and Friedrich- Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Graeff, Christian [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Department of Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); Rucinski, Antoni [University Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Sapienza Universit' a di Roma, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, Roma (Italy); INFN, Roma (Italy); Zink, Klemens [University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany); University Medical Center Giessen-Marburg, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Marburg (Germany); Habl, Gregor [University Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Department of Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Faculty of Physics, Darmstadt (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [University Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bert, Christoph [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Department of Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); University Clinic Erlangen and Friedrich- Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); University Hospital Erlangen, Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Intensity-modulated particle therapy (IMPT) for tumors showing interfraction motion is a topic of current research. The purpose of this work is to compare three treatment strategies for IMPT to determine potential advantages and disadvantages of ion prostate cancer therapy. Simulations for three treatment strategies, conventional one-plan radiotherapy (ConvRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), and online adaptive radiotherapy (ART) were performed employing a dataset of 10 prostate cancer patients with six CT scans taken at one week intervals. The simulation results, using a geometric margin concept (7-2 mm) as well as patient-specific internal target volume definitions for IMPT were analyzed by target coverage and exposure of critical structures on single fraction dose distributions. All strategies led to clinically acceptable target coverage in patients exhibiting small prostate motion (mean displacement < 4 mm), but IGRT and especially ART led to significant sparing of the rectum. In 20 % of the patients, prostate motion exceeded 4 mm causing insufficient target coverage for ConvRT (V95{sub mean} = 0.86, range 0.63-0.99) and IGRT (V95{sub mean} = 0.91, range 0.68-1.00), while ART maintained acceptable target coverage. IMPT of prostate cancer demands consideration of rectal sparing and adaptive treatment replanning for patients exhibiting large prostate motion. (orig.) [German] Adaptive Therapieansaetze fuer sich interfraktionell bewegende Zielvolumina in der intensitaetsmodulierten Partikeltherapie (IMPT) befinden sich zurzeit in der Entwicklung. In dieser Arbeit werden drei Behandlungsstrategien auf moegliche Vor- und Nachteile in der IMPT des Prostatakarzinoms hin untersucht. Auf Basis eines anonymisierten Datensatzes aus 10 Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom wurden die drei Bestrahlungsstrategien, konventionelle Ein-Plan-Strahlentherapie (ConvRT), bildunterstuetzte Strahlentherapie (IGRT) und tagesaktuelle Strahlentherapie (adaptive radiotherapy,ART), simuliert

  14. Stimulation of electro-fermentation in single-chamber microbial electrolysis cells driven by genetically engineered anode biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awate, Bhushan; Steidl, Rebecca J.; Hamlischer, Thilo; Reguera, Gemma

    2017-07-01

    Unwanted metabolites produced during fermentations reduce titers and productivity and increase the cost of downstream purification of the targeted product. As a result, the economic feasibility of otherwise attractive fermentations is low. Using ethanol fermentation by the consolidated bioprocessing cellulolytic bacterium Cellulomonas uda, we demonstrate the effectiveness of anodic electro-fermentations at maximizing titers and productivity in a single-chamber microbial electrolysis cell (SCMEC) without the need for metabolic engineering of the fermentative microbe. The performance of the SCMEC platform relied on the genetic improvements of anode biofilms of the exoelectrogen Geobacter sulfurreducens that prevented the oxidation of cathodic hydrogen and improved lactate oxidation. Furthermore, a hybrid bioanode was designed that maximized the removal of organic acids in the fermentation broth. The targeted approach increased cellobiose consumption rates and ethanol titers, yields, and productivity three-fold or more, prevented pH imbalances and reduced batch-to-batch variability. In addition, the sugar substrate was fully consumed and ethanol was enriched in the broth during the electro-fermentation, simplifying its downstream purification. Such improvements and the possibility of scaling up SCMEC configurations highlight the potential of anodic electro-fermentations to stimulate fermentative bacteria beyond their natural capacity and to levels required for industrial implementation.

  15. Single-step production of the simvastatin precursor monacolin J by engineering of an industrial strain of Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuenian; Liang, Yajing; Yang, Yong; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-07-01

    Monacolin J is a key precursor for the synthesis of simvastatin (Zocor), an important drug for treating hypercholesterolemia. Industrially, monacolin J is manufactured through alkaline hydrolysis of lovastatin, a fungal polyketide produced by Aspergillus terreus. Multistep chemical processes for the conversion of lovastatin to simvastatin are laborious, cost expensive and environmentally unfriendly. A biocatalysis process for monacolin J conversion to simvastatin has been developed. However, direct bioproduction of monacolin J has not yet been achieved. Here, we identified a lovastatin hydrolase from Penicillium chrysogenum, which displays a 232-fold higher catalytic efficiency for the in vitro hydrolysis of lovastatin compared to a previously patented hydrolase, but no activity for simvastatin. Furthermore, we showed that an industrial A. terreus strain heterologously expressing this lovastatin hydrolase can produce monacolin J through single-step fermentation with high efficiency, approximately 95% of the biosynthesized lovastatin was hydrolyzed to monacolin J. Our results demonstrate a simple and green technical route for the production of monacolin J, which makes complete bioproduction of the cholesterol-lowering drug simvastatin feasible and promising. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Engineering design and integration of in-vessel single turn segmental coil in vacuum vessel of SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayswal, Snehal; Chauhan, P.; Santra, P.; Vasava, K.; Perekh, T.; Patel, H.; Biswas, P.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-04-01

    SST-1 tokamak is having the error field due to unsymmetrical positioning of Toroidal field coils which push the plasma to inner side from its major radius of 1100 mm. hence it is required to install the In-vessel Coil (PF6) at a location of 1350 mm radius and elevation of 350 mm above and below the mid plane of the toroidal field coils. The In-Vessel coil was decided to make in eight segments for futuristic use, to control the individual localized error field correction by supplying the different current. A single turn, eight segments, copper conductor with 18 mm diameter with GFRP insulation and in housed in SS304 L casing to carry 8000 A current for 10 s was designed and installed in vacuum vessel of SST-1. This paper will present the design drivers, material selection, advantages and constraints of the in-vessel coils, its conceptual and engineering design, CAD models, finite element analysis using ANSYS, its fabrication, quality assurance/control and assembly/integration aspects inside vacuum vessel of SST-1.

  17. Single-Stroke Synthesis of Tin Sulphide/Oxide Nanocomposites Within Engineering Thermoplastic and Their Humidity Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Dattatraya; Adhyapak, Parag; Mulik, Uttamrao; Jadkar, Sandesh; Vutova, Katia; Amalnerkar, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    SnS nanostructured materials have attracted enormous interest due to their important properties and potential application in low cost solar energy conversion systems and optical devices. From the perspective of SnS based device fabrication, we offer single-stroke in-situ technique for the generation of Sn based sulphide and oxide nanostructures inside the polymer network via polymer-inorganic solid state reaction route. In this method, polyphenylene sulphide (PPS)-an engineering thermoplastic-acts as chalcogen source as well as stabilizing matrix for the resultant nano products. Typical solid state reaction was accomplished by simply heating the physical admixtures of the tin salts (viz. tin acetate/tin chloride) with PPS at the crystalline melting temperature (285 °C) of PPS in inert atmosphere. The synthesized products were characterized by using various physicochemical characterization techniques. The prima facie observations suggest the concurrent formation of nanocrystalline SnS with extraneous oxide phase. The TEM analysis revealed formation of nanosized particles of assorted morphological features with polydispersity confined to 5 to 50 nm. However, agglomerated particles of nano to submicron size were also observed. The humidity sensing characterization of these nanocomposites was also performed. The resistivity response with the level of humidity (20 to 85% RH) was compared for these nanocomposites. The linear response was obtained for both the products. Nevertheless, the nanocomposite product obtained from acetate precursor showed higher sensitivity towards the humidity than that of one prepared from chloride precursor.

  18. Tunable reactivity of supported single metal atoms by impurity engineering of the MgO(001) support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pašti, Igor A; Johansson, Börje; Skorodumova, Natalia V

    2018-02-28

    Development of novel materials may often require a rational use of high price components, like noble metals, in combination with the possibility to tune their properties in a desirable way. Here we present a theoretical DFT study of Au and Pd single atoms supported by doped MgO(001). By introducing B, C and N impurities into the MgO(001) surface, the interaction between the surface and the supported metal adatoms can be adjusted. Impurity atoms act as strong binding sites for Au and Pd adatoms and can help to produce highly dispersed metal particles. The reactivity of metal atoms supported by doped MgO(001), as probed by CO, is altered compared to their counterparts on pristine MgO(001). We find that Pd atoms on doped MgO(001) are less reactive than on perfect MgO(001). In contrast, Au adatoms bind CO much more strongly when placed on doped MgO(001). In the case of Au on N-doped MgO(001) we find that charge redistribution between the metal atom and impurity takes place even when not in direct contact, which enhances the interaction of Au with CO. The presented results suggest possible ways for optimizing the reactivity of oxide supported metal catalysts through impurity engineering.

  19. Effect of injection pressure on performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of diesel-acetylene-fuelled single cylinder stationary CI engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anmesh Kumar; Soni, Shyam Lal; Sharma, Dilip; Jain, Narayan Lal

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of injection pressure on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a diesel-acetylene fuelled single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI) diesel engine with a rated power of 3.5 kW at a rated speed of 1500 rpm was studied. Experiments were performed in dual-fuel mode at four different injection pressures of 180, 190, 200, and 210 bar with a flow rate of 120 LPH of acetylene and results were compared with that of baseline diesel operation. Experimental results showed that highest brake thermal efficiency of 27.57% was achieved at injection pressure of 200 bar for diesel-acetylene dual-fuel mode which was much higher than 23.32% obtained for baseline diesel. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and smoke emissions were also measured and found to be lower, while the NO x emissions were higher at 200 bar in dual fuel mode as compared to those in other injection pressures in dual fuel mode and also for baseline diesel mode. Peak cylinder pressure, net heat release rate, and rate of pressure rise were also calculated and were higher at 200 bar injection pressure in dual fuel mode.

  20. Development and Engineering Design of a Novel Exocentric Carbon-Ion Gantry for Cancer Therapy The "Riesenrad" Gantry

    CERN Document Server

    Reimoser, S

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical structures capable of delivering a therapy beam for cancer treatment from any direction to the patient are called medical gantries. Typically, a gantry rotates around the patient who is kept in the supine position (rotating gantries). In Europe several currently proposed clinic facilities for ion therapy want to install an ion gantry equipped with a pencil-beam scanning system. Such a treatment apparatus allows the optimisation of the dose-to-target conformity, but the active pencil-beam scanning increases the demands considerably on the beam transport accuracy. Usually, a sub-millimetre precision of the beam position at the patient (i.e. in the gantry isocentre) is required in order to treat tumours in the vicinity of critical organs, which is one of the main domains of ion therapy...