WorldWideScience

Sample records for single ion conductor

  1. Conduction Mechanisms and Structure of Ionomeric Single-Ion Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Ralph H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Maranas, Janna K. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Runt, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Winey, Karen I. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Our team has designed using DFT (Gaussian) and synthesized low glass transition temperature single-ion conductors that are either polyanions that conduct small cations Li+, Na+, Cs+ or polycations that conduct small anions F-, OH-, Br-. We utilize a wide range of complimentary experimental materials characterization tools to understand ion transport; differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelasticity, X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. The glass transition temperature Tg needs to be as low as possible to facilitate ion transport, so the nonionic parts of the polymer need to be polar, flexible and have strong solvation interactions with the ions. The lowest Tg we have managed for polyanions conducting Li+ is -60 °C. In contrast, polysiloxanes with PEO side chains and tetrabutylphosphonium cationic side groups have Tg ≈ -75 °C that barely increases with ion content, as anticipated by DFT. A survey of all polyanions in the literature suggests that Tg < -80 °C is needed to achieve the 10-4 S/cm conductivity needed for battery separators.

  2. Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoguang; Hou Jun; Kerr, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by (1) sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li + salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li); (2) sulfonation of chloride end groups grafted on to prepolymers of polyacrylate ethers (PAE 8 -g-E n SO 3 Li, n = 2, 3). The highest conductivity at 25 deg. C of 2.0 x 10 -7 S cm -1 was obtained for the PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li with a salt concentration of EO/Li = 40. The conductivity of PAE 8 -g-E 3 SO 3 Li is lower than that of PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li at similar salt concentrations, which is related to the incomplete sulfonation of the grafted polymer that leads to a lower concentration of Li + . The addition of 50 wt.% of plasticizer, PC/EMC (1/1, v/v), to PAE 8 -g-E 2 SO 3 Li increases the ambient conductivity by three orders of magnitude, which is due to the increased ion mobility in a micro-liquid environment and an increase concentration of free ions as a result of the higher dielectric constant of the solvent. A symmetrical Li/Li cell with an electrolyte membrane consisting of 75 wt.% PC/EMC (1/1, v/v) was cycled at a current density of 100 μA cm -2 at 85 deg. C. The cycling profile showed no concentration polarization after a break-in period during the first few cycles, which was apparently due to reaction of the solvent at the lithium metal surface that reacted with lithium metal to form a stable SEI layer

  3. A Nanophase-Separated, Quasi-Solid-State Polymeric Single-Ion Conductor: Polysulfide Exclusion for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jinhong; Song, Jongchan; Lee, Hongkyung; Noh, Hyungjun; Kim, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Geol; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2017-04-19

    Formation of soluble polysulfide (PS), which is a key feature of lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries, provides a fast redox kinetic based on a liquid–solid mechanism; however, it imposes the critical problem of PS shuttle. Here, we address the dilemma by exploiting a solvent-swollen polymeric single-ion conductor (SPSIC) as the electrolyte medium of the Li–S battery. The SPSIC consisting of a polymeric single-ion conductor and lithium salt-free organic solvents provides Li ion hopping by forming a nanoscale conducting channel and suppresses PS shuttle according to the Donnan exclusion principle when being employed for Li–S batteries. The organic solvents at the interface of the sulfur/carbon composite and SPSIC eliminate the poor interfacial contact and function as a soluble PS reservoir for maintaining the liquid–solid mechanism. Furthermore, the quasi-solid-state SPSIC allows the fabrication of a bipolar-type stack, which promises the realization of a high-voltage and energy-dense Li–S battery.

  4. Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy and Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering on Single-Ion Polymer Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soles, Christopher; Peng, Hua-Gen; Page, Kirt; Snyder, Chad; Pandy, Ashoutosh; Jeong, Youmi; Runt, James; NIST Collaboration; Pennsylvania Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    The application of solid polymer electrolytes in rechargeable batteries has not been fully realized after decades of research due to its low conductivity. Dramatic increases of the ion conductivity are needed and this progress requires the understanding of conduction mechanism. We address this topic in two fronts, namely, the effect of plasticizer additives and geometric confinement on the charge transfer mechanism. To this end, we combine broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) to characterize the ion mobility and quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) to quantify segmental motion on a single-ion model polymer electrolyte. Deuterated small molecules were used as plasticizers so that the segmental motion of the polymer electrolyte could be monitored by QENS to understand the mechanism behind the increased conductivity. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with well defined channel sizes are used as the matrix to study the transport of ions solvated in a 1D polymer electrolyte.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Network Single Ion Conductors(NSIC) Based On Comb-Branched Polyepoxide Ethers and Lithium Bis(allylmalonato)borate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Kerr, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Network single ion conductors (NSICs) based on comb-branch polyepoxide ethers and lithium bis(allylmalonato) borate have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized by means of ionic conductivity measurements, electrochemical impedance and by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The materials have been tested as battery electrolytes by cycling in symmetrical Li/Li half cells and in Li/V 6 O 13 full cells in which the NSIC was used as both binder and electrolyte in the cathode electrode and as the electrolyte separator membrane,. The substitution of the trimethylene oxide (TMO) unit into the side chains in place of ethylene oxide (EO) units increased the polymerion mobility (lower glass transition temperature). However, the ionic conductivity was nearly one and half orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding pure EO based single ion conductor at the same salt concentration. This effect may be ascribed to the lower dielectric constant of the TMO side chains that result in a lower concentration of free conducting lithium cations. For a highly cross-linked system (EO/Li=20), only 47 wt% plasticizing solvent (ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), 1/1 by wt) could be taken up and the ionic conductivity was only increased by one order of magnitude over the dry polyelectrolyte while for a less densely crosslinked system (EO/Li=80), up to 75 wt% plasticizer could be taken up and the ionic conductivity was increased by nearly two orders of magnitude. A Li/Li symmetric cell that was cycled at 85 C at a current density of 25(micro)Acm -2 showed no concentration polarization or diffusional relaxation, consistent with a lithium ion transference number of one. However, both the bulk and interfacial impedances increased after 20 cycles, apparently due to continued cross-linking reactions within the membrane and on the surface of the lithium electrodes. A Li/V 6 O 13 full cell constructed using a single ion conductor gel (propylene carbonate (PC)/EMC, 1/1 in

  6. Applications of inorganic Ion-conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Yoshinori [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-03-01

    Physical properties and application of solid electrolyte, particularly of inorganic solid electrolyte, are described. Ion conductors have been widely used not only for electric power application but also for sensors, gas separators, display elements, Coulomb meters, storage elements, etc. The most extensively used pacemakers now employ Li/I{sub 2}(PVP) primary batteries. Thin film lithium secondary battery has a feature of providing comparatively large electric current, with 2.5 V charging, 1.8 V discharging, and 3 mA.cm{sup {minus}2} short circuit current. The capacity of about 4 mAh per 1 cm{sup 2} electrode has been achieved. The most widely used solid electrolyte for the oxygen sensor is the stabilized ZrO{sub 2}. The relation of air/fuel mix proportion with the change in electromotive force is shown. Although solid electrolyte fuel cell is not yet put to practical use, a result of an experiment is introduced. Brief explanations are made on the oxygen pump, electrochromic display elements, Coulomb meter and voltage storage element. 18 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO 2 oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a β-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca o used for reducing UO 2 and PuO 2 to U and Pu. 2 figures

  8. A dendrite-suppressing composite ion conductor from aramid nanofibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Siu-On; Ho, Szushen; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ruilin; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-01-27

    Dendrite growth threatens the safety of batteries by piercing the ion-transporting separators between the cathode and anode. Finding a dendrite-suppressing material that combines high modulus and high ionic conductance has long been considered a major technological and materials science challenge. Here we demonstrate that these properties can be attained in a composite made from Kevlar-derived aramid nanofibres assembled in a layer-by-layer manner with poly(ethylene oxide). Importantly, the porosity of the membranes is smaller than the growth area of the dendrites so that aramid nanofibres eliminate 'weak links' where the dendrites pierce the membranes. The aramid nanofibre network suppresses poly(ethylene oxide) crystallization detrimental for ion transport, giving a composite that exhibits high modulus, ionic conductivity, flexibility, ion flux rates and thermal stability. Successful suppression of hard copper dendrites by the composite ion conductor at extreme discharge conditions is demonstrated, thereby providing a new approach for the materials engineering of solid ion conductors.

  9. Solid lithium ion conductors for battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weppner, W.

    1985-01-15

    The phase equilibria and conductivities of the LiF-LiH, LiF-LiOH, LiF-Li/sub 2/O, Li/sub 2/S-Li/sub 2/O, Li/sub 2/S-LiCl and Li/sub 2/S-LiBr systems were investigated. All ternary single phases and two-phase mixtures are solid electrolytes which are thermodynamically stable in respect of reaction with elemental lithium (anode) and at practically useful, low lithium activities (cathode). The conductivity normally increases with decreasing thermodynamic stability and vice versa. The conductivity may be optimized in the case of solid solutions by selecting a composition with a decomposition voltage just above the value required by the cathode material employed. All materials are isotropic in structure and no dendrite formation was observed. This allows their use in rechargeable, thin film electrolyte batteries.

  10. Raman scattering studies of mobile ions in superionic conductor hollandites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Y.; Suemoto, T.; Ishigame, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Raman spectra of the superionic conductors K/sub 1.6/Mg/sub 0.8/Ti/sub 7.2/O 16 , Cs/sub 1.2/Mg/sub 0.6/Ti/sub 7.4/O 16 , and (KTl)/sub 1.6/Mg/sub 0.8/Ti/sub 7.2/O 16 are measured in the frequency range from 5 to 1000 cm -1 . In the range from 100 to 1000 cm -1 Raman spectra hardly show alkali ion dependence. On the contrary, in the frequency range from 5 to 100 cm -1 , an additional Raman band is observed. This Raman band shows alkali ion dependence. By using the Frenkel-Kontorova model for the hollandite crystal with the given configuration of the mobile ions, it is found that the dependence of vibrational frequency of mobile ions with kinds of alkali ion is well explained and that the concept of 'super unit cell' that is introduced by Beyeler is very useful to explain the Raman bands which are observed below 100 cm -1 in hollandite crystals. (author)

  11. Structures and ion conduction pathways of amorphous lithium ion conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Onodera, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    For ( 7 Li 2 S) x (P 2 S 5 ) 100-x glasses (x = 50, 60, and 70) and 7 Li 7 P 3 S 11 metastable crystal, time-of-flight neutron diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments were performed, and three-dimensional structures and conduction pathways of lithium ions were studied using the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling and the bond valence sum (BVS) approach. The conduction pathways of the lithium ions could be classified into two types: lithium 'stable' and 'metastable' regions, respectively. Moreover, it was found that there is a significant relationship between the activation energy of the electrical conduction and the topology of the conduction pathways of the lithium ions. (author)

  12. An Organic Mixed Ion-Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  13. Sodium-Ion Intercalated Transparent Conductors with Printed Reduced Graphene Oxide Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiayu; Gu, Feng; Bao, Wenzhong; Dai, Jiaqi; Shen, Fei; Luo, Wei; Han, Xiaogang; Urban, Daniel; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-06-10

    In this work, we report for the first time that Na-ion intercalation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) can significantly improve its printed network's performance as a transparent conductor. Unlike pristine graphene that inhibits Na-ion intercalation, the larger layer-layer distance of RGO allows Na-ion intercalation, leading to simultaneously much higher DC conductivity and higher optical transmittance. The typical increase of transmittance from 36% to 79% and decrease of sheet resistance from 83k to 311 Ohms/sq in the printed network was observed after Na-ion intercalation. Compared with Li-intercalated graphene, Na-ion intercalated RGO shows much better environmental stability, which is likely due to the self-terminating oxidation of Na ions on the RGO edges. This study demonstrated the great potential of metal-ion intercalation to improve the performance of printed RGO network for transparent conductor applications.

  14. High-performance rechargeable batteries with fast solid-state ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-06-27

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  15. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  16. Thermodynamics and Cation Diffusion in the Oxygen Ion Conductor Lsgm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M.; Schulz, O.

    Perovskite type oxides based on LaGaO3 are of large technical interest because of their high oxygen-ion conductivity. Lanthanum gallate doped with Sr on A- and Mg on B-sites, La1-xSrxGa1-yMgyO3-(x+y)/2 (LSGM), reaches higher oxygen-ion conductivities than yttria-doped zirconia (YSZ). Thus LSGM represents a promising alternative for YSZ as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Cells using thin LSGM-layers as electrolyte are expected to operate at intermediate temperatures around 700°C for more than 30000 hours without severe degradation. A potential long term degradation effect of LSGM is kinetic demixing of the electrolyte, caused by different cation diffusion coefficients. In this paper we report on experimental studies concerning the phase diagram of LSGM and the diffusion of cations. Cation self-diffusion of 139La, 84Sr and 25Mg and cation impurity diffusion of 144Nd, 89Y and 56Fe in polycrystalline LSGM samples was investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for temperatures between 900°C and 1400°C. It was found that diffusion occurs by means of bulk and grain boundaries. The bulk diffusion coefficients are similar for all cations with activation energies which are strongly dependent on temperature. At high temperatures, the activation energies are about 5 eV, while at low temperatures values of about 2 eV are found. These results are explained by a frozen in defect structure at low temperatures. This means that the observed activation energy at low temperatures represents only the migration energy of the different cations while the observed activation energy at high temperatures is the sum of the defect formation energy and the migration energy. The migration energies for all cations are nearly identical, although 139La, 84Sr and 144Nd are occupying A-sites while 25Mg and 56Fe are occupying B-sites in the perovskite-structure. To explain these experimental findings we propose a defect cluster containing cation vacancies in both the A

  17. Single Cathode Ion Thruster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Objective is to design an electrostatic ion thruster that is more efficient, simpler, and lower cost than the current gridded ion thruster. Initial objective is to...

  18. Advanced electron holography techniques for in situ observation of solid-state lithium ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, Tsukasa, E-mail: t-hirayama@jfcc.or.jp [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Aizawa, Yuka; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Sato, Takeshi [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Murata, Hidekazu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468-8502 (Japan); Yoshida, Ryuji; Fisher, Craig A.J. [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Advanced techniques for overcoming problems encountered during in situ electron holography experiments in which a voltage is applied to an ionic conductor are reported. The three major problems encountered were 1) electric-field leakage from the specimen and its effect on phase images, 2) high electron conductivity of damage layers formed by the focused ion beam method, and 3) chemical reaction of the specimen with air. The first problem was overcome by comparing experimental phase distributions with simulated images in which three-dimensional leakage fields were taken into account, the second by removing the damage layers using a low-energy narrow Ar ion beam, and the third by developing an air-tight biasing specimen holder. - Highlights: • Phase distributions derived by comparing experimental and simulated measurements. • Simulations take into account leakage electric fields. • Electric potential distributions inside Li-ion conductors are obtained. • FIB damage layers are removed using a low-energy narrow Ar ion beam. • An air-tight biasing TEM holder for protecting air-sensitive specimens is reported.

  19. Andreev levels in a single-channel conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titov, M.; Mortensen, Asger; Schomerus, H.

    2001-01-01

    We calculate the subgap density of states of a disordered single-channel normal metal connected to a superconductor at one end (normal-metal-superconductor junction) or at both ends [superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor (SNS) junction]. The probability distribution of the energy of a bound ...

  20. Diffusion pathway of mobile ions and crystal structure of ionic and mixed conductors. A brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, Masatomo

    2009-01-01

    A brief review on the field of Solid State Ionics, including the diffusion pathway of mobile ions, crystal structure and materials, is presented. In the fluorite-structured ionic conductors such as ceria solid solution Ce 0.93 Y 0.07 O 1.96 , bismuth oxide solid solution δ-Bi 1.4 Yb 0.6 O 3 and copper iodide CuI, a similar curved diffusion pathway along the directions is observed. In the ionic and mixed conductors with the cubic ABO 3 perovskite-type structure such as lanthanum gallate and lanthanum cobaltite solid solutions, the mobile ions diffuse along a curved line keeping the interatomic distance between the B cation and O 2- anion to some degree. The structure and diffusion path of double-perovskite-type La 0.64 Ti 0.92 Nb 0.08 O 2.99 , K 2 NiF 4 -type (Pr 0.9 La 0.1 ) 2 (Ni 0.74 Cu 0.21 Ga 0.05 )O 4+δ , and apatite-type La 9.69 (Si 5.70 Mg 0.30 )O 26.24 are described. The diffusion paths of Li + ions in La 0.62 Li 0.16 TiO 3 and Li 0.6 FePO 4 are two- and one-dimensional, respectively. (author)

  1. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  2. Cu ion disordering in high ionic conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaji, Hitoshi; Atake, Tooru; Kanno, Ryoji; Izumi, Fujio; Yamamoto, Osamu.

    1993-01-01

    The properties of a high ionic conductor Rb 4 Cu 16 I 7+x Cl 13-x were studied by neutron and X-ray diffraction, and heat capacity measurements. The structure parameters of Rb 4 Cu 16 I 7.2 Cl 12.8 were obtained by the Rietveld analysis of TOF neutron diffraction data between 50 and 300 K, which showed gradual excitation of migration of Cu ions from Cu(3) site into Cu(2) site with increasing temperature from about 100 K to room temperature. The heat capacity was measured between 10 and 300 K using a high precision adiabatic calorimeter. An abnormal increase was observed in the heat capacity curve above about 100 K. The excess heat capacity showed a broad anomaly with a maximum at about 190 K. The measurements were also made of Rb 4 Cu 16 I 7 Cl 13 which showed slight different properties from Rb 4 Cu 16 I 7.2 Cl 12.8 . (author)

  3. Quantification of uncertainty in first-principles predicted mechanical properties of solids: Application to solid ion conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zeeshan; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian

    2016-08-01

    associated with the DFT-calculated elastic properties of solid state Li-ion and Na-ion conductors.

  4. Crater formation by single ions, cluster ions and ion "showers"

    CERN Document Server

    Djurabekova, Flyura; Timko, Helga; Nordlund, Kai; Calatroni, Sergio; Taborelli, Mauro; Wuensch, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The various craters formed by giant objects, macroscopic collisions and nanoscale impacts exhibit an intriguing resemblance in shapes. At the same time, the arc plasma built up in the presence of sufficiently high electric fields at close look causes very similar damage on the surfaces. Although the plasma–wall interaction is far from a single heavy ion impact over dense metal surfaces or the one of a cluster ion, the craters seen on metal surfaces after a plasma discharge make it possible to link this event to the known mechanisms of the crater formations. During the plasma discharge in a high electric field the surface is subject to high fluxes (~1025 cm-2s-1) of ions with roughly equal energies typically of the order of a few keV. To simulate such a process it is possible to use a cloud of ions of the same energy. In the present work we follow the effect of such a flux of ions impinging the surface in the ‘‘shower’’ manner, to find the transition between the different mechanisms of crater formati...

  5. Transport losses in single and assembled coated conductors with textured-metal substrate with reduced magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, N.; Jiang, Z.; Li, Z.; Nakahata, M.; Kato, T.; Ueyama, M.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Shiohara, S.

    2008-01-01

    Transport losses in a coated conductor with a textured-metal substrate with reduced magnetism were studied experimentally. The substrate is with a clad structure, and HoBCO superconductor layer is deposited on the substrate with buffer layers. The measured transport loss of a sample whose critical current is 126.0 A falls between Norris's strip value and Norris's ellipse value. The increase in the measured transport loss from Norris's strip value can be attributed to its non-uniform lateral J c distribution. The same buffered clad tape was placed under an IBAD-MOCVD coated conductor with a non-magnetic substrate, and its transport loss was measured. The comparison between the measured transport loss of this sample and that of the identical IBAD-MOCVD coated conductor without the buffered clad tape indicates that the increase in the transport loss due to this buffered clad tape is small. The transport losses of hexagonal assemblies of IBAD-MOCVD coated conductors, whose structure simulates that of superconducting power transmission cables, were also measured where the buffered clad tapes were under-lied or over-lied on the coated conductors. The increase in the transport loss of hexagonal assemblies of coated conductors due to the buffered clad tapes is at an allowable level

  6. Humidity effect on nanoscale electrochemistry in solid silver ion conductors and the dual nature of its locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sang Mo; Strelcov, Evgheni; Paranthaman, M Parans; Tselev, Alexander; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-02-11

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool to investigate electrochemistry in nanoscale volumes. While most SPM-based studies have focused on reactions at the tip-surface junction, charge and mass conservation requires coupled and intrinsically nonlocal cathodic and anodic processes that can be significantly affected by ambient humidity. Here, we explore the role of water in both cathodic and anodic processes, associated charge transport, and topographic volume changes depending on the polarity of tip bias. The first-order reversal curve current-voltage technique combined with simultaneous detection of the sample topography, referred to as FORC-IVz, was applied to a silver solid ion conductor. We found that the protons generated from water affect silver ionic conduction, silver particle formation and dissolution, and mechanical integrity of the material. This work highlights the dual nature (simultaneously local and nonlocal) of electrochemical SPM studies, which should be considered for comprehensive understanding of nanoscale electrochemistry.

  7. The approach of in-situ doping ion conductor fabricated with the cathodic arc plasma for all-solid-state electrochromic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS and in-situ doping cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP technology has been developed. The electrochromic (EC layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The in-situ doping ion conductor Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better material structure for ion transportation and showed about 2 times ion conductivity than the external doping process. The all-solid-state ECD with the in-situ doping CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT of 71% at 550 nm, and a faster switching speed. The lower production cost and higher process stability could be achieved by the application of in-situ doping CVAP technology without breaking the vacuum process. Furthermore, the ion doping process with the reuse of energy during the CVAP process is not only decreasing the process steps, but also reducing the process energy consumption.

  8. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2015-01-01

    is associated with a fraction of the confined borohydride that shows no phase transition, and most likely located close to the interface with the SiO2 pore walls. These results point to a new strategy to design low-temperature ion conducting solids for application in all solid-state lithium ion batteries, which......Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH 4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 °C at which a transition...

  9. Transport of oxygen ions in Er doped La2Mo2O9 oxide ion conductors: Correlation with microscopic length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, T.; Ghosh, A.

    2018-01-01

    We report oxygen ion transport in La2-xErxMo2O9 (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) oxide ion conductors. We have measured conductivity and dielectric spectra at different temperatures in a wide frequency range. The mean square displacement and spatial extent of non-random sub-diffusive regions are estimated from the conductivity spectra and dielectric spectra, respectively, using linear response theory. The composition dependence of the conductivity is observed to be similar to that of the spatial extent of non-random sub-diffusive regions. The behavior of the composition dependence of the mean square displacement of oxygen ions is opposite to that of the conductivity. The attempt frequency estimated from the analysis of the electric modulus agrees well with that obtained from the Raman spectra analysis. The full Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data of the samples is performed to estimate the distance between different oxygen lattice sites. The results obtained from such analysis confirm the ion hopping within the spatial extent of non-random sub-diffusive regions.

  10. A lattice-gas model of the ion current across the solid interface: fast-ion conductor - intercalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachev, I.; Balkanski, M.

    1994-12-01

    The transport of Lithium ions across the material interface: fast-ion conducting glass - intercalate is simulated by a non-trivial lattice-gas model. The model takes explicitly into account the influence of the Coulomb correlations, the site-blocking effect and the boundary conditions on the ion kinetics. Potential device applications of the model are pointed out by computing the current density of Lithium ions for material parameters of the real interface: doped ternary borate glass - Indium Selenide, which constitute the electrolyte and the cathode, respectively, of a thin-film microbattery with improved performance. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  11. Cu22Bi12S21Cl16-A mixed conductor with fast one-dimensional copper(I) ion transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerwig, Andreas; Merkle, Rotraut; Maier, Joachim; Ruck, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Melting reactions of Cu, CuCl, S, and Bi 2 S 3 yield black, shiny needles of Cu 22(1) Bi 12 S 21(1) Cl 16(1) . The compound decomposes peritectically at 649(5) K. Oxidation state +I of the copper atoms is supported by Cu-K-XANES. The compound crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P6/m with a=2116.7(7) pm and c=395.17(5) pm. Seven anions coordinate each of the two independent bismuth cations in the shape of mono-capped trigonal prisms. These polyhedra share edges and faces to form trigonal and hexagonal tubes running along [0 0 1]. The hexagonal tubes are centered by chloride ions, which are surrounded by disordered copper cations. The majority of copper cations are distributed over numerous sites between the tubes. The Joint Probability Density Function (JPDF) reveals a continuous pathway along [0 0 1]. The high mobility of the copper cations along [0 0 1] was demonstrated by impedance spectroscopy and DC polarization measurements on single crystals. The ionic conductivity at 450 K is about σ ion =0.06 S cm -1 , and the activation energy for Cu + ion conduction is E a =0.44 eV. The chemical diffusion coefficient of copper is in the order of D cu δ =10 19 cm -3 at 420 K. The electronic band gap (p-type conductor) was determined as E g =0.06 eV. At room temperature the thermal conductivity of a pressed pellet is about κ=0.3 W K -1 m -1 and the Seebeck coefficient is S=43 μV K -1 . -- Graphical Abstract: Copper cations easily move through the rigid tubular crystal structure of Cu 22 Bi 12 S 21 Cl 16 . Display Omitted

  12. Synthesis of a potential fast ionic conductor for Mg 2+ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redko, Mikhail [Powermet Inc., Euclid, OH (United States)

    2013-11-30

    This report represents Powdermet’s attempts to synthesize a novel crystalline solid substance–Mg(B5C)2. This was expected to exhibit a high Mg2+ ionic conductivity, exceeding that of all known materials. The project was expected to consist of three major steps: 1) reproduction of a literature synthesis of a rare sodium compound NaB5C; 2) substitution of Na+ cations with Mg2+ cations, resulting in Mg(B5C)2; and 3) analysis of its Mg2+ conductivity. In course of the research, 15 attempts were made to reproduce the literature procedure on synthesis of NaB5C, a precursor to the Mg2+ conductor. The first nine attempts were unsuccessful, but later it was found that NaB5C formed when the synthesis was performed in pressurized Ar atmosphere. Powdermet performed partial exchange of Na+ to Mg2+ by heating NaB5C with magnesium triflate in sulfolane at 260°C. In another avenue, theoretical optimization of the Mg(B5C)2 structure have been performed with distant goal estimate the activation barrier for the Mg2+ diffusion and estimate the temperature at which the mobility of Mg2+ cations will be of the order of 10-2 S*cm.

  13. Improved single ion cyclotron resonance mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyce, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The author has improved the state of the art for precision mass spectroscopy of a mass doublet to below one part in 10 10 . By alternately loading single ions into a Penning trap, the author has determined the mass ratio M(CO + )/M(N + 2 ) = 0.999 598 887 74(11), an accuracy of 1 x 10 -10 . This is a factor of 4 improvement over previous measurements, and a factor of 10 better than the 1985 atomic mass table adjustment [WAA85a]. Much of the author's apparatus has been rebuilt, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and improving the reliability of the machine. The typical time needed to make and cool a single ion has been reduced from about half an hour to under 5 minutes. This was done by a combination of faster ion-making and a much faster procedure for driving out ions of the wrong species. The improved S/N, in combination with a much better signal processing algorithm to extract the ion phase and frequency from the author's data, has substantially reduced the time required for the actual measurements. This is important now that the measurement time is a substantial fraction of the cycle time (the time to make a new ion and measure it). The improvements allow over 30 comparisons in one night, compared to 2 per night previously. This not only improves the statistics, but eliminates the possibility of large non-Gaussian errors due to sudden magnetic field shifts

  14. A family of oxide ion conductors based on the ferroelectric perovskite Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Pietrowski, Martha J; De Souza, Roger A; Zhang, Huairuo; Reaney, Ian M; Cook, Stuart N; Kilner, John A; Sinclair, Derek C

    2014-01-01

    Oxide ion conductors find important technical applications in electrochemical devices such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxygen separation membranes and sensors. Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) is a well-known lead-free piezoelectric material; however, it is often reported to possess high leakage conductivity that is problematic for its piezo- and ferroelectric applications. Here we report this high leakage to be oxide ion conduction due to Bi-deficiency and oxygen vacancies induced during materials processing. Mg-doping on the Ti-site increases the ionic conductivity to ~0.01 S cm(-1) at 600 °C, improves the electrolyte stability in reducing atmospheres and lowers the sintering temperature. This study not only demonstrates how to adjust the nominal NBT composition for dielectric-based applications, but also, more importantly, gives NBT-based materials an unexpected role as a completely new family of oxide ion conductors with potential applications in intermediate-temperature SOFCs and opens up a new direction to design oxide ion conductors in perovskite oxides.

  15. Bi1−xNbxO1.5+x (x=0.0625, 0.12) fast ion conductors: Structures, stability and oxide ion migration pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, Matthew L.; Hack, Jennifer; Kuang, Xiaojun; McIntyre, Garry J.; Withers, Ray L.; Johnson, Mark R.; Radosavljevic Evans, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study of Bi 1−x Nb x O 1.5+x (x=0.0625 and 0.12) has been carried out using laboratory X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction, impedance measurements and ab-initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate that Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 , previously reported to adopt a cubic fluorite-type superstructure, can form two different polymorphs depending on the synthetic method: a metastable cubic phase is produced by quenching; while slower cooling yields a stable material with a tetragonal √2×√2×1 superstructure, which undergoes a reversible phase transition into the cubic form at ~680 °C on subsequent reheating. Neutron diffraction reveals that the tetragonal superstructure arises mainly from ordering in the oxygen sublattice, with Bi and Nb remaining disordered, although structured diffuse scattering observed in the electron diffraction patterns suggests a degree of short-range ordering. Both materials are oxide ion conductors. On thermal cycling, Bi 0.88 Nb 0.12 O 1.62 exhibits a decrease in conductivity of approximately an order of magnitude due to partial transformation into the tetragonal phase, but still exhibits conductivity comparable to yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations performed on Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 show that oxide ion diffusion occurs by O 2− jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM 4 groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral □M 4 and octahedral □M 6 vacancies. - Graphical abstract: Oxide ion migration in tetragonal Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 occurs by O 2− jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM 4 groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral M 4 and octahedral M 6 vacancies. - Highlights: • Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 adopts a tetragonal √2×√2×1 fluorite superstructure. • Superstructure is due to ordering in the O-sublattice, with Bi/Nb disordered. • Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 is a good oxide ion conductor. • O 2− jump between OM 4 groups (M

  16. Compatibility evaluation between La 2Mo 2O 9 fast oxide-ion conductor and Ni-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, Gwenaël; Lacorre, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    The chemical reactivity of La 2NiO 4+δ and nickel metal or nickel oxide with fast oxide-ion conductor La 2Mo 2O 9 is investigated in the annealing temperature range between 600 and 1000 °C, using room temperature X-ray powder diffraction. Within the La 2NiO 4+δ/La 2Mo 2O 9 system, subsequent reaction is evidenced at relatively low annealing temperature (600 °C), with formation of La 2MoO 6 and NiO. The reaction is complete at 1000 °C. At reverse, no reaction occurs between Ni or NiO and La 2Mo 2O 9 up to 1000 °C. Together with a previous work [G. Corbel, S. Mestiri, P. Lacorre, Solid State Sci. 7 (2005) 1216], the current study shows that Ni-CGO cermets might be chemically and mechanically compatible anode materials to work with LAMOX electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells.

  17. Single-ion nonlinear mechanical oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Glickman, Y.; Dallal, Y.; Keselman, A.; Ozeri, R.

    2010-01-01

    We study the steady-state motion of a single trapped ion oscillator driven to the nonlinear regime. Damping is achieved via Doppler laser cooling. The ion motion is found to be well described by the Duffing oscillator model with an additional nonlinear damping term. We demonstrate here the unique ability of tuning both the linear as well as the nonlinear damping coefficients by controlling the laser-cooling parameters. Our observations pave the way for the investigation of nonlinear dynamics on the quantum-to-classical interface as well as mechanical noise squeezing in laser-cooling dynamics.

  18. Design and simulation of ion optics for ion sources for production of singly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenak, A.; Bogomolov, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    During the last 2 years different types of the singly charged ion sources were developed for FLNR (JINR) new projects such as Dubna radioactive ion beams, (Phase I and Phase II), the production of the tritium ion beam and the MASHA mass separator. The ion optics simulations for 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance source, rf source, and the plasma ion source were performed. In this article the design and simulation results of the optics of new ion sources are presented. The results of simulation are compared with measurements obtained during the experiments.

  19. Design and simulation of ion optics for ion sources for production of singly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenak, A.; Bogomolov, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    During the last 2 years different types of the singly charged ion sources were developed for FLNR (JINR) new projects such as Dubna radioactive ion beams, (Phase I and Phase II), the production of the tritium ion beam and the MASHA mass separator. The ion optics simulations for 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance source, rf source, and the plasma ion source were performed. In this article the design and simulation results of the optics of new ion sources are presented. The results of simulation are compared with measurements obtained during the experiments

  20. Synthesis and structure of novel lithium-ion conductor Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yuki [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Suzuki, Kota [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Matsui, Naoki [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hirayama, Masaaki [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kanno, Ryoji, E-mail: kanno@echem.titech.ac.jp [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    The novel lithium-ion conductor Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} was synthesized by slow cooling from the ternary Li{sub 2}S–GeS{sub 2}–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} system, and was shown to exhibit a cubic argyrodite-type structure. The phase composition was determined by varying the ratio of starting materials; the observed monophasic properties were close to those for the Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} composition. The lattice parameter (a =9.80192(3) Å) of Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} was slightly smaller than that of Li{sub 7}PS{sub 6} (a =9.993 Å), indicating that substitution of a Li cation by the smaller Ge cation contracted the cubic lattice. In addition, the novel structure consisted of a framework composed of four isolated (Ge/P)S{sub 4} tetrahedra. Li{sup +} ions occupied tetrahedral sites within the framework, forming a three-dimensional conduction pathway. Finally, Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.1×10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C and an activation energy of 25 kJ mol{sup −1}. - Graphical abstract: A novel Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} solid lithium ion conductor, with cubic argyrodite strucuture, shows high ion conductivity of 1.1×10{sup –4} S cm{sup –1} with an activation energy of 25 kJ mol{sup –1}. The argyrodite structure consists of (Ge/P)S{sub 4} tetrahedra units along with partial occupation of lithium and germanium at 48 h site. - Highlights: • A novel lithium-ion conductor Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} was detected. • This was achieved through slow cooling of the ternary Li{sub 2}S–GeS{sub 2}–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} system. • This novel conductor revealed a cubic argyrodite-type structure. • Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.1×10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C. • These properties will aid in the design of superior lithium-ion conductors.

  1. DFTU study of the oxide-ion conductor pentalanthanum hexamolybdenum henicosaoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2013-01-01

    By means of first-principles calculations, the structural, elastic, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of pentalanthanum hexamolybdenum henicosaoxide (La 5Mo 6O 21) were studied in detail. No experimental or theoretical investigations of its physical properties have previously been reported in the literature. Our results reveal that La 5Mo 6O 21 is metallic with high ionic character due to the oxygen composition. The bonding characterization was achieved by analysis of valence charge density and the electronic localized functions. Flexibility and ease of deformation of the tetrahedral units appears to be important for the ion conduction mechanisms. The magnetic moment was evaluated to be 8.03 μ B, principally induced by Mo d-orbitals and La f-orbitals and the polarization of the oxygen by molybdenum. The optical spectra were analyzed by means of the electronic structure. The future advances will depend on achieving a fundamental understanding of the structural, defect and mechanistic features of ion conducting materials. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility of Observing and Characterizing Single Ion Strikes in Microelectronic Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Bufford, Daniel Charles

    2015-01-01

    The transient degradation of semiconductor device performance under irradiation has long been an issue of concern. A single high-energy charged particle can degrade or permanently destroy the microelectronic component, potentially altering the course or function of the systems. Disruption of the the crystalline structure through the introduction of quasi-stable defect structures can change properties from semiconductor to conductor. Typically, the initial defect formation phase is followed by a recovery phase in which defect-defect or defect-dopant interactions modify the characteristics of the damaged structure. In this LDRD Express, in-situ ion irradiation transmission microscopy (TEM) in-situ TEM experiments combined with atomistic simulations have been conducted to determine the feasibility of imaging and characterizing the defect structure resulting from a single cascade in silicon. In-situ TEM experiments have been conducted to demonstrate that a single ion strike can be observed in Si thin films with nanometer resolution in real time using the in-situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope (I 3 TEM). Parallel to this experimental effort, ion implantation has been numerically simulated using Molecular Dynamics (MD). This numerical framework provides detailed predictions of the damage and follow the evolution of the damage during the first nanoseconds. The experimental results demonstrate that single ion strike can be observed in prototypical semiconductors.

  3. Scalable Fabrication of High-Performance Transparent Conductors Using Graphene Oxide-Stabilized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxiang He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent development in liquid-phase processing of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs has revealed rod-coating as a promising approach for large-scale production of SWNT-based transparent conductors. Of great importance in the ink formulation is the stabilizer having excellent dispersion stability, environmental friendly and tunable rheology in the liquid state, and also can be readily removed to enhance electrical conductivity and mechanical stability. Herein we demonstrate the promise of graphene oxide (GO as a synergistic stabilizer for SWNTs in water. SWNTs dispersed in GO is formulated into inks with homogeneous nanotube distribution, good wetting and rheological properties, and compatible with industrial rod coating practice. Microwave treatment of rod-coated films can reduce GOs and enhance electro-optical performance. The resultant films offer a sheet resistance of ~80 Ω/sq at 86% transparency, along with good mechanical flexibility. Doping the films with nitric acid can further decrease the sheet resistance to ~25 Ω/sq. Comparing with the films fabricated from typical surfactant-based SWNT inks, our films offer superior adhesion as assessed by the Scotch tape test. This study provides new insight into the selection of suitable stabilizers for functional SWNT inks with strong potential for printed electronics.

  4. Correlation of Local Structure and Diffusion Pathways in the Modulated Anisotropic Oxide Ion Conductor CeNbO4.25

    KAUST Repository

    Pramana, Stevin S.

    2016-01-15

    CeNbO is reported to exhibit fast oxygen ion diffusion at moderate temperatures, making this the prototype of a new class of ion conductor with applications in a range of energy generation and storage devices. To date, the mechanism by which this ion transport is achieved has remained obscure, in part due to the long-range commensurately modulated structural motif. Here we show that CeNbO forms with a unit cell 12 times larger than the stoichiometric tetragonal parent phase of CeNbO as a result of the helical ordering of Ce and Ce ions along z. Interstitial oxygen ion incorporation leads to a cooperative displacement of the surrounding oxygen species, creating interlayer NbO connectivity by extending the oxygen coordination number to 7 and 8. Molecular dynamic simulations suggest that fast ion migration occurs predominantly within the xz plane. It is concluded that the oxide ion diffuses anisotropically, with the major migration mechanism being intralayer; however, when obstructed, oxygen can readily move to an adjacent layer along y via alternate lower energy barrier pathways.

  5. Correlation of Local Structure and Diffusion Pathways in the Modulated Anisotropic Oxide Ion Conductor CeNbO4.25

    KAUST Repository

    Pramana, Stevin S.; Baikie, Tom; An, Tao; Tucker, Matthew G.; Wu, Ji; Schreyer, Martin K.; Wei, Fengxia; Bayliss, Ryan D.; Kloc, Christian L.; White, Timothy J.; Horsfield, Andrew P.; Skinner, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    CeNbO is reported to exhibit fast oxygen ion diffusion at moderate temperatures, making this the prototype of a new class of ion conductor with applications in a range of energy generation and storage devices. To date, the mechanism by which this ion transport is achieved has remained obscure, in part due to the long-range commensurately modulated structural motif. Here we show that CeNbO forms with a unit cell 12 times larger than the stoichiometric tetragonal parent phase of CeNbO as a result of the helical ordering of Ce and Ce ions along z. Interstitial oxygen ion incorporation leads to a cooperative displacement of the surrounding oxygen species, creating interlayer NbO connectivity by extending the oxygen coordination number to 7 and 8. Molecular dynamic simulations suggest that fast ion migration occurs predominantly within the xz plane. It is concluded that the oxide ion diffuses anisotropically, with the major migration mechanism being intralayer; however, when obstructed, oxygen can readily move to an adjacent layer along y via alternate lower energy barrier pathways.

  6. Development of pulsation technique for single ion hit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takuro; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Hirao, Toshio; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    When a high energy heavy ion enters into a substance, high density of ionization and excitement occurrs along its flying trace. Especially, when such an ion enters into a semiconductor cell, a bit inversion called single event is occurred or a phenomenon destroyed element itself on case of the worst is formed. The present semiconductor cell is made in a size of some micron square, as different from its accumulated degree. In order to analyze the single event phenomenon formed by entering ion into such fine region in detail, a technique possible enter heavy ion beam with space resolution under 1 micron to each sample is necessary. In order to develop this technique, a static type high speed beam switch for control of entering a beam into a sample and a single ion detector for detecting entrance of ion into the sample were installed to heavy ion microbeam forming apparatus. The single ion hit system in Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, JAERI succeeded in detection and control technique of the single ion and control of noise due to pulsization and finished development of basic technique of the single ion hit, since now. After today, it is planned to hit actually the single ion onto the sample and evaluate its accuracy. (G.K.)

  7. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  8. Benefits of current percolation in superconducting coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutter, N.A.; Durrell, J.H.; Blamire, M.G.; MacManus-Driscoll, J.L.; Wang, H.; Foltyn, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    The critical currents of coated conductors fabricated by metal-organic deposition (MOD) on rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) and by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) templates have been measured as a function of magnetic field orientation and compared to films grown on single crystal substrates. By varying the orientation of magnetic field applied in the plane of the film, we are able to determine the extent to which current flow in each type of conductor is percolative. Standard MOD/RABiTS conductors have also been compared to samples whose grain boundaries have been doped by diffusing Ca from an overlayer. We find that undoped MOD/RABiTS tapes have a less anisotropic in-plane field dependence than PLD/IBAD tapes and that the uniformity of critical current as a function of in-plane field angle is greater for MOD/RABiTS samples doped with Ca

  9. Towards a lattice-matching solid-state battery: synthesis of a new class of lithium-ion conductors with the spinel structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosciano, Fabio; Pescarmona, Paolo P; Houthoofd, Kristof; Persoons, Andre; Bottke, Patrick; Wilkening, Martin

    2013-04-28

    Lithium ion batteries have conquered most of the portable electronics market and are now on the verge of deployment in large scale applications. To be competitive in the automotive and stationary sectors, however, they must be improved in the fields of safety and energy density (W h L(-1)). Solid-state batteries with a ceramic electrolyte offer the necessary advantages to significantly improve the current state-of-the-art technology. The major limit towards realizing a practical solid-state lithium-ion battery lies in the lack of viable ceramic ionic conductors. Only a few candidate materials are available, each carrying a difficult balance between advantages and drawbacks. Here we introduce a new class of possible solid-state lithium-ion conductors with the spinel structure. Such compounds could be coupled with spinel-type electrode materials to obtain a "lattice matching" solid device where low interfacial resistance could be achieved. Powders were prepared by wet chemistry, their structure was studied by means of diffraction techniques and magic angle spinning NMR, and Li(+) self-diffusion was estimated by static NMR line shape measurements. Profound differences in the Li(+) diffusion properties were observed depending on the composition, lithium content and cationic distribution. Local Li(+) hopping in the spinel materials is accompanied by a low activation energy of circa 0.35 eV being comparable with that of, e.g., LLZO-type garnets, which represent the current benchmark in this field. We propose these novel materials as a building block for a lattice-matching all-spinel solid-state battery with low interfacial resistance.

  10. An automated single ion hit at JAERI heavy ion microbeam to observe individual radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Tomihiro; Sakai, Takuro; Naitoh, Yutaka; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Hirao, Toshio

    1999-01-01

    Microbeam scanning and a single ion hit technique have been combined to establish an automated beam positioning and single ion hit system at the JAERI Takasaki heavy ion microbeam system. Single ion irradiation on preset points of a sample in various patterns can be performed automatically in a short period. The reliability of the system was demonstrated using CR-39 nuclear track detectors. Single ion hit patterns were achieved with a positioning accuracy of 2 μm or less. In measurement of single event transient current using this system, the reduction of the pulse height by accumulation of radiation damages was observed by single ion injection to the same local areas. This technique showed a possibility to get some quantitative information about the lateral displacement of an individual radiation effect in silicon PIN photodiodes. This paper will give details of the irradiation system and present results from several experiments

  11. BaSnF4 fast ion conductor: Variations versus the method of preparation and anomalous temperature variation of the quadrupole splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantash, Jamil; Bartlett, Alan; Denes, Georges; Muntasar, Abdualhafeed; Oldfield, Philip

    2005-01-01

    A new method of preparation of high performance fluoride ion conductor, BaSnF 4 , by water leaching of newly discovered barium tin(II) chloride fluorides, has been designed, and the materials have been studied and compared to the solid prepared by the usual dry method. The unit-cell parameters and crystallite dimensions were found to vary with the method of preparation. In addition, the crystallite dimensions were found to be highly anisotropic for the samples obtained by the wet method. The Moessbauer spectrum is made of a large tin(II) quadrupole doublet, and a broad tin(IV) oxide peak due to surface oxidation. The tin(II) spectrum is in agreement with covalently bonded tin(II) having a strongly stereoactive lone pair. An unusually high dependence of the quadrupole splitting at low temperatures was observed (5.8 times larger than for α-SnF 2 ).

  12. Plastic flow produced by single ion impacts on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Single ion impacts have been observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy and video recording with a time resolution of 33 milliseconds. Gold was irradiated at 50 K and room temperature. Single ion impacts produce holes, modify existing holes, and extrude material into the initial specimen hole and holes formed by other ion impacts. The same behavior is observed at both temperatures. At both temperatures, ion impacts result in craters and ejected material. Ion impacts produce more small craters than large ones for all ion masses, while heavier mass ions produce more and larger craters than lighter mass ions. This comparison is affected by the ion energy. As the energy of an ion is increased, the probability for deposition near the surface decreases and fewer craters are formed. For a given ion mass, crater production depends on the probability for displacement cascade production in the near surface region. Crater and holes are stable at room temperature, however, ion impacts near an existing crater may cause flow of material into the crater either reshaping or annihilating it. Holes and craters result from the explosive outflow of material from the molten zone of near-surface cascades. The outflow may take the form of molten material, a solid lid or an ejected particle. The surface is a major perturbation on displacement cascades resulting from ion impacts

  13. Sm-doped CeO2 single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors by polymer assisted chemical solution deposition (PACSD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Pu, M.H.; Sun, R.P.; Wang, W.T.; Wu, W.; Zhang, X.; Yang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    An over 150 nm thick Sm 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9-x (SCO) single buffer layer has been deposited on bi-axially textured NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate. Highly in-plane and out-of-plane oriented, dense, smooth and crack free SCO single layer has been obtained via a polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition (PACSD) approach. YBCO thin film has been deposited equally via a PACSD route on the SCO-buffered NiW, the as grown YBCO yielding a sharp transition at T c0 = 87 K as well as J c (0 T, 77 K) ∼ 1 MA/cm 2 . These results indicates that RE (lanthanides other than Ce) doping may be an effective approach to improve the critical thickness of solution derived CeO 2 film, which renders it a promising candidate as single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors

  14. Single ion counting with a MCP (microchannel plate) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawara, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shinichi; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibamura, Eido

    1996-07-01

    In this study, a single-ion-counting method using alpha-particle-impact ionization of Ar atoms is demonstrated and the preliminary {epsilon}{sub mcp} for Ar ions with incident energies of 3 to 4.7 keV is determined. The single-ion counting by the MCP is aimed to be performed under experimental conditions as follows: (1) A signal from the MCP is reasonably identified as incidence of single Ar-ion. (2) The counting rate of Ar ions is less than 1 s{sup -1}. (3) The incident Ar ions are not focused on a small part of an active area of the MCP, namely, {epsilon}{sub mcp} is determined with respect to the whole active area of the MCP. So far, any absolute detection efficiency has not been reported under these conditions. (J.P.N.)

  15. Improvement of the Energy Stability of the Single Ion Microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Furu; Qi Xuehong; Xu Mingliang; Chen Lianyun; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    Energy instability strongly affects the state and the beam size of the single ion microbeam. A facility based on the Generating Voltmeter was developed to improve the energy stability of the CAS-LIBB (Chinese Academy of Sciences, key laboratory of ion beam bioengineering) single ion microbeam. This paper presents the analysis of the energy instability of the single ion microbeam. A simplified theoretical model is set up to calculate the relationship between the energy instability and the beam spot size. By using this technique, the energy instability is adjusted to about 1%. Stable run-time is over 6 hours. The radius of the single ion beam is reduced by 10% compared to the previous one.

  16. A P2-Type Layered Superionic Conductor Ga-Doped Na2 Zn2 TeO6 for All-Solid-State Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyu; Deng, Zhi; Peng, Jian; Chen, Enyi; Yu, Yao; Li, Xiang; Luo, Jiahuan; Huang, Yangyang; Zhu, Jinlong; Fang, Chun; Li, Qing; Han, Jiantao; Huang, Yunhui

    2018-01-24

    Here, a P2-type layered Na 2 Zn 2 TeO 6 (NZTO) is reported with a high Na + ion conductivity ≈0.6×10 -3  S cm -1 at room temperature (RT), which is comparable to the currently best Na 1+n Zr 2 Si n P 3-n O 12 NASICON structure. As small amounts of Ga 3+ substitutes for Zn 2+ , more Na + vacancies are introduced in the interlayer gaps, which greatly reduces strong Na + -Na + coulomb interactions. Ga-substituted NZTO exhibits a superionic conductivity of ≈1.1×10 -3  S cm -1 at RT, and excellent phase and electrochemical stability. All solid-state batteries have been successfully assembled with a capacity of ≈70 mAh g -1 over 10 cycles with a rate of 0.2 C at 80 °C. 23 Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies on powder samples show intra-grain (bulk) diffusion coefficients D NMR on the order of 12.35×10 -12  m 2  s -1 at 65 °C that corresponds to a conductivity σ NMR of 8.16×10 -3  S cm -1 , assuming the Nernst-Einstein equation, which thus suggests a new perspective of fast Na + ion conductor for advanced sodium ion batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Single ion implantation for single donor devices using Geiger mode detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielejec, E; Seamons, J A; Carroll, M S

    2010-01-01

    Electronic devices that are designed to use the properties of single atoms such as donors or defects have become a reality with recent demonstrations of donor spectroscopy, single photon emission sources, and magnetic imaging using defect centers in diamond. Ion implantation, an industry standard for atom placement in materials, requires augmentation for single ion capability including a method for detecting a single ion arrival. Integrating single ion detection techniques with the single donor device construction region allows single ion arrival to be assured. Improving detector sensitivity is linked to improving control over the straggle of the ion as well as providing more flexibility in lay-out integration with the active region of the single donor device construction zone by allowing ion sensing at potentially greater distances. Using a remotely located passively gated single ion Geiger mode avalanche diode (SIGMA) detector we have demonstrated 100% detection efficiency at a distance of >75 μm from the center of the collecting junction. This detection efficiency is achieved with sensitivity to ∼600 or fewer electron-hole pairs produced by the implanted ion. Ion detectors with this sensitivity and integrated with a thin dielectric, for example a 5 nm gate oxide, using low energy Sb implantation would have an end of range straggle of -1 and 10 -4 for operation temperatures of ∼300 K and ∼77 K, respectively. Low temperature operation and reduced false, 'dark', counts are critical to achieving high confidence in single ion arrival. For the device performance in this work, the confidence is calculated as a probability of >98% for counting one and only one ion for a false count probability of 10 -4 at an average ion number per gated window of 0.015.

  18. Conductores recubiertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Garcés

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, Nb–Ti, exhibiting a superconducting transition temperature Tc of 9K, and Nb3Sn, with a Tc of 18K have been the materials of choice for superconducting applications. The prospects for the future changed dramatically with the discovery of ceramic high temperature superconductors exhibiting Tc values well above the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen (77K. These materials are now widely considered for large power applications, electronics and magnets as in microelectronics. The first case corresponding power transmission wires, motors, generators, fault current limiters, transformers, etc. and technology related small scale manufacturing SQUID superconductors. Nevertheless, the fabrication of useful conductors out of these layered cuprates encountered some problems such as chemical and structural purity, stability, oxygen stoichiometric and weak links limiting current carrying capacity. However, despite these difficulties a first generation of silver sheathed composites based on (Bi,PbSrCaCuO (solving the problem of inherent fragility of these materials has already been commercialized. It is now a widespread view that superconducting wires with high performance under strong magnetic fields and at elevated temperatures above liquid nitrogen, will need to be realized using the (REBaCuO (RE = rare earth materials. Chemical deposition techniques (CVD of thick films, appear as the most suitable for this purpose, so the study of various chemical deposition techniques that allow to grow superconducting films and buffer layers with the right texture to produce a coated conductor Proper alignment and high current carrying capacity (∼ 1 MA/cm2 are now booming.

  19. Probing Surface Electric Field Noise with a Single Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    potentials is housed inside a Faraday cage providing more than 40 dB of attenuation for electromagnetic fields in the range of frequencies between 200...and measuring the ion quantum state [16]. Thus, by measuring the effect of electric field noise on the motional quantum state of the ion, one can probe...understand these effects . In summary, we have probed the electric field noise near an aluminum-copper surface at room temperature using a single trapped ion

  20. Single-ion conducting diblock terpolymers for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melody; Epps, Thomas H., III

    Block polymer (BP) electrolytes provide an attractive route to overcome the competing constraints of high conductivity and mechanical/thermal stability in lithium-ion batteries through nanoscale self-assembly. For example, macromolecules can be engineered such that one domain conducts lithium ions and the other prevents lithium dendrite formation. Herein, we report on the behavior of a single-ion conducting BP electrolyte that was designed to facilitate the transport of lithium ions. These polymers differ from traditional salt-doped BP electrolytes, which require the addition of a lithium salt to bestow conductivity and typically suffer from substantial counterion motion that reduces efficiency. New single-ion BPs were synthesized, and the nanoscale morphologies were determined using small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Electrolyte performance was measured using AC impedance spectroscopy and DC polarization, and the results were correlated to nanoscale morphology and ion content. Enhanced physical understanding of single-ion BPs was gained by connecting the ion mobility to the chemistry, chain structure, and ion content of the single-ion BP. These studies can be applied to other charged-neutral block polymers to elucidate the effects of ion content on self-assembly and macroscopic properties.

  1. Heavy ion and proton-induced single event multiple upset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.A.; Carts, M.A.; Marshall, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Individual ionizing heavy ion events are shown to cause two or more adjacent memory cells to change logic states in a high density CMOS SRAM. A majority of the upsets produced by normally incident heavy ions are due to single-particle events that causes a single cell to upset. However, for grazing angles a majority of the upsets produced by heavy-ion irradiation are due to single-particle events that cause two or more cells to change logic states. Experimental evidence of a single proton-induced spallation reaction that causes two adjacent memory cells to change logic states is presented. Results from a dual volume Monte-Carlo simulation code for proton-induced single-event multiple upsets are within a factor of three of experimental data for protons at normal incidence and 70 degrees

  2. Single ion hit detection set-up for the Zagreb ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. W.; Karlušić, M.; Jakšić, M.

    2012-04-01

    Irradiation of materials by heavy ions accelerated in MV tandem accelerators may lead to the production of latent ion tracks in many insulators and semiconductors. If irradiation is performed in a high resolution microprobe facility, ion tracks can be ordered by submicrometer positioning precision. However, full control of the ion track positioning can only be achieved by a reliable ion hit detection system that should provide a trigger signal irrespectively of the type and thickness of the material being irradiated. The most useful process that can be utilised for this purpose is emission of secondary electrons from the sample surface that follows the ion impact. The status report of the set-up presented here is based on the use of a channel electron multiplier (CEM) detector mounted on an interchangable sample holder that is inserted into the chamber in a close geometry along with the sample to be irradiated. The set-up has been tested at the Zagreb ion microprobe for different ions and energies, as well as different geometrical arrangements. For energies of heavy ions below 1 MeV/amu, results show that efficient (100%) control of ion impact can be achieved only for ions heavier than silicon. The successful use of the set-up is demonstrated by production of ordered single ion tracks in a polycarbonate film and by monitoring fluence during ion microbeam patterning of Foturan glass.

  3. Development and evolution of biaxial texture of rolled nickel tapes by ion beam bombardment for high Tc coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.S.; Wu, K.; Shi, K.; Liu, Q.; Han, Z.

    2004-01-01

    High quality YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x films on metallic substrates with high critical current densities well over 10 6 A/cm 2 can be prepared by the rolling assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) method. Nickel or its alloys have been used as biaxially textured substrates formed through a specific rolling and high temperature annealing procedures. In this paper, we report a newly developed process for developing biaxial texture in rolled Ni tape by argon ion beam bombardment. It is named the ion-beam structure modification (ISM) process. In the ISM processed Ni foils, X-ray diffraction ω scans showed the full width-half maximum (FWHM) value of the (2 0 0) peak was 5.7 deg. . And the electron back scattering diffraction (EBSP) analysis based on scanning electron microscopy showed good {1 0 0} cubic orientation and the mean grain size was determined as about 25 μm. The texture evolution of rolled Ni foils during ISM process is reported also. For ISM process, local temperature elevation and distribution arises from the ion bombardment, coupled with anisotropic incident ion penetration and propagation as a result of channeling effects in the metal lattice, are expected to play the major roles in the development of grain reorientation in the Ni foil. Due to the simplicity and efficiency of the ISM process, the technique shows a great promise for application in the industrial scale production of long-lengths of superconductor tapes

  4. Giant thermally-enhanced electrostriction and polar surface phase in L a2M o2O9 oxygen ion conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Lu, Teng; Schiemer, Jason; Laanait, Nouamane; Balke, Nina; Zhang, Zhan; Ren, Yang; Carpenter, Michael A.; Wen, Haidan; Li, Jiangyu; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Liu, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Ferroelectrics possess spontaneous electric polarization at macroscopic scales which nonetheless imposes strict limitations on the material classes. Recent discoveries of untraditional symmetry-breaking phenomena in reduced material dimensions have indicated feasibilities to extend polar properties to broader types of materials, potentially opening up the freedom for designing materials with hybrid functionalities. Here, we report the unusual electromechanical properties of L a2M o2O9 (LAMOX) oxygen ion conductors, systematically investigated at both bulk and surface length levels. We first observed giant electrostriction effects in L a2M o2O9 bulk ceramics that are thermally enhanced in concert with their low-energy oxygen-vacancy hopping dynamics. Moreover, while no clear bulk polarization was detected, the surface phases of LAMOX were found to be manifestly polar, likely originating from the coupling between the intrinsic structural flexibilities with strain gradients (i.e., flexoelectricity) and/or chemical heterogeneities present in the materials. These findings identify L a2M o2O9 as a promising electromechanical material system and suggest that the flexible structural and chemical configurations in ionically active materials could enable fundamentally different venues to accommodate electric polarization.

  5. Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Bing-Xi [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Jiao, Yang [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Guan, Jing [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Wang, Lei [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2015-07-01

    The rutile single crystals were implanted by 200 keV He{sup +} ions with a series fluence and annealed at different temperatures to investigate the blistering behavior. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, optical microscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to characterize the implantation induced lattice damage and blistering. It was found that the blistering on rutile surface region can be realized by He{sup +} ion implantation with appropriate fluence and the following thermal annealing.

  6. Lithium ion diffusion measurements on a garnet-type solid conductor Li6.6La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 by using a pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Matsuda, Yasuaki; Matsui, Masaki; Imanishi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    The garnet-type solid conductor Li7-xLa3Zr2-xTaxO12 is known to have high ionic conductivity. We synthesized a series of compositions of this conductor and found that cubic Li6.6La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 (LLZO-Ta) has a high ionic conductivity of 3.7×10(-4)Scm(-1) at room temperature. The (7)Li NMR spectrum of LLZO-Ta was composed of narrow and broad components, and the linewidth of the narrow component varied from 0.69kHz (300K) to 0.32kHz (400K). We carried out lithium ion diffusion measurements using pulsed-field spin-echo (PGSE) NMR spectroscopy and found that echo signals were observed at T≥313K with reasonable sensitivity. The lithium diffusion behavior was measured by varying the observation time and pulsed-field gradient (PFG) strength between 313 and 384K. We found that lithium diffusion depended significantly on the observation time and strength of the PFG, which is quite different from lithium ion diffusion in liquids. It was shown that lithium ion migration in the solid conductor was distributed widely in both time and space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Single Ion Trapping for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, Samuel J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-03-28

    In the last decade, a variety of neutrino oscillation experiments have established that there is a mass difference between neutrino flavors, without determining the absolute neutrino mass scale. The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay (EXO) will search for the rare decays of xenon to determine the absolute value of the neutrino mass. The experiment uses a novel technique to minimize backgrounds, identifying the decay daughter product in real time using single ion spectroscopy. Here, we describe single ion trapping and spectroscopy compatible with the EXO detector. We extend the technique of single ion trapping in ultrahigh vacuum to trapping in xenon gas. With this technique, EXO will achieve a neutrino mass sensitivity of {approx_equal} .010 eV.

  8. Spectroscopy and nonclassical fluorescence properties of single trapped Ba+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, J.

    1998-06-01

    This thesis reports on the setup and application of an experimental apparatus for spectroscopic and quantum optical investigations of a single Barium ion in a Paul trap. The realization of the apparatus, which consists of the ion trap in ultra high vacuum, two laser systems, and a photon counting detection system, is described in detail, with particular consideration of the noise sources like stray light and laser frequency instabilities. The two lasers at 493 nm and 650 nm needed to continuously excite resonance fluorescence from the Barium ion have been realized using diode lasers only. The preparation of a single localized Barium ion is described, in particular its optical cooling with the laser light and the minimization of induced vibration in the trapping potential. The purely quantum mechanical property of antibunching is observed by measuring the intensity correlation function of resonance fluorescence from the trapped and cooled ion. Interference properties of the single ion resonance fluorescence are investigated with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. From the measured high-contrast interference signal it is proven that each individual fluorescence photon interferes with itself. The fluorescence excitation spectrum, on varying one laser frequency, is also measured and exhibits dark resonances. These measurements are compared to calculations based on optical Bloch equations for the 8 atomic levels involved. Future experiments, in particular the detection of reduced quantum fluctuations (squeezing) in one quadrature component of the resonance fluorescence, are discussed. (author)

  9. Sm-doped CeO{sub 2} single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors by polymer assisted chemical solution deposition (PACSD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G.; Pu, M.H.; Sun, R.P.; Wang, W.T.; Wu, W.; Zhang, X.; Yang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)], E-mail: yzhao@home.swjtu.edu.cn

    2008-10-20

    An over 150 nm thick Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9-x} (SCO) single buffer layer has been deposited on bi-axially textured NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate. Highly in-plane and out-of-plane oriented, dense, smooth and crack free SCO single layer has been obtained via a polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition (PACSD) approach. YBCO thin film has been deposited equally via a PACSD route on the SCO-buffered NiW, the as grown YBCO yielding a sharp transition at T{sub c0} = 87 K as well as J{sub c}(0 T, 77 K) {approx} 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. These results indicates that RE (lanthanides other than Ce) doping may be an effective approach to improve the critical thickness of solution derived CeO{sub 2} film, which renders it a promising candidate as single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors.

  10. Electron-ion correlation effects in ion-atom single ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colavecchia, F.D.; Garibotti, C.R. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Gasaneo, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2000-06-28

    We study the effect of electron-ion correlation in single ionization processes of atoms by ion impact. We present a distorted wave model where the final state is represented by a correlated function solution of a non-separable three-body continuum Hamiltonian, that includes electron-ion correlation as coupling terms of the wave equation. A comparison of the electronic differential cross sections computed with this model with other theories and experimental data reveals that the influence of the electron-ion correlation is more significant for low energy emitted electrons. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  11. Heavy ion microbeam system for study of single event effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Tomihiro; Utsunomiya, Nobuhiro; Minehara, Eiichi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Ohmura, Miyoshi; Kohno, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Eiji.

    1992-01-01

    A high-energy heavy ion microbeam system has been developed and installed on a beam line of a 3 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator mainly for analysis of basic mechanism of single event upset (SEU) of semiconductor devices in spacecraft. The SEU is now the most serious problem for highly reliable spacecraft electronics system with long space mission. However, the mechanism has not been understood on the basis of microscopic process of SEU. The SEU phenomena depends not only upon hitting particles, but also upon the hit position on the microcircuit. To observe the transient charge pulse from a SEU, a single ion particle must hit exactly the desired position of the microcircuit. Such an experiment requires the microbeam spot size within 1 μm, the beam positioning accuracy within ±1 μm, and single ion hitting. The microbeam system has been designed to meet the above technical requirements. The system is equipped with two lens systems: one to control the target beam current in a wide range down to extremely low current without any change of the beam optics, and the other to focus heavy ion beams within a spot size of 1 μm. The final goal is to hit a microscopic target area with a single 15 MeV nickel ion. The beam spot size has been evaluated by Gaussian fitting of secondary electron profiles with microbeam scanning across the fine Cu mesh. The single ion detection has been also tested to generate a trigger signal for closing beam shutter to prevent further hits. This paper outlines the new microbeam system and describes methods to realize these techniques. (author)

  12. AFM studies on heavy ion irradiated YBCO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhani, Archana; Marhas, M.K.; Saravanan, P.; Ganesan, V.; Srinivasan, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Mehta, G.K.; Elizabeth, Suja; Bhat, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is extensively used to characterise the surface morphology of high energy ion irradiated single crystals of high temperature superconductor - YBCO. Our earlier systematic studies on thin films of YBCO under high energy and heavy ion irradiation shows clear evidence of ion induced sputtering or erosion, even though the effect is more on the grain boundaries. These earlier results were supported by electrical resistance measurements. In order to understand more clearly, the nature of surface modification at these high energies, AFM studies were carried out on single crystals of YBCO. Single crystals were chosen in order to see the effect on crystallites alone without interference from grain boundaries. 200 MeV gold ions were used for investigation using the facilities available at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The type of ion and the range of energies were chosen to meet the threshold for electronically mediated defect production. The results are in conformity with our earlier studies and will be described in detail in the context of electronic energy loss mediated sputtering or erosion. (author)

  13. Sputtering of Au induced by single Xe ion impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtering of Au thin films has been determined for Xe ions with energies between 50 and 600 keV. In-situ transmission electron microscopy was used to observe sputtered Au during deposition on a carbon foil near the specimen. Total reflection and transmission sputtering yields for a 62 nm thick Au thin film were determined by ex-situ measurement of the total amount of Au on the carbon foils. In situ observations show that individual Xe ions eject Au nanoparticles as large as 7 nm in diameter with an average diameter of approximately 3 nm. Particle emission correlates with crater formation due to single ion impacts. Nanoparticle emission contributes significantly to the total sputtering yield for Xe ions in this energy range in either reflection or transmission geometry

  14. Plastic Flow Induced by Single Ion Impacts on Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Donnelly, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The formation of holes in thin gold foils as a result of single ion impacts by 200keV Xe ions has been followed using transmission electron microscopy. Video recording provided details of microstructure evolution with a time resolution of 1/30th sec. Hole formation involves the movement by plastic flow of massive amounts of material, on the order of tens of thousands of Au atoms per ion impact. Plastic flow, as a consequence of individual ion impacts, results in a continual filling of both holes and craters as well as a thickening of the gold foil. Changes in morphology during irradiation is attributed to a localized, thermal-spike induced melting, coupled with plastic flow of effected material under the influence of surface forces. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Single-ion irradiation: physics, technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohdomari, Iwao

    2008-01-01

    Among the various radiation effects which involve the study of radiation environments, responses of materials and devices to radiation, radiation testing and radiation hardening of devices and equipment, this review mainly considers the radiation effects induced by alpha particles and other ions used in semiconductor technology on Si crystals and Si devices. We first describe the single-ion microprobe that enables the study of the site dependence of radiation hardness in a semiconductor device. Next, we describe single-ion implantation as a tool for suppressing fluctuation in device function induced by the discrete number and random position of dopant atoms. Finally, we describe the common features associated with both 'probing' and 'modification' in terms of the nature and behaviour of defect clusters induced by single-ion irradiation. A special feature of the review is that the radiation effects discussed here are induced by 'single' particles, and not by particle beams. Although there is a great amount of accumulated data on radiation effects, they are discussed in the conventional terms of 'dose' or 'fluence,' whose unit is cm -2 . Therefore, this review provides complementary information on radiation effects. (topical review)

  16. Carbon dioxide gas sensor based on lithium ionic conductor. Lithium ion dendotai wo mochiita tansan gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1992-10-31

    A small-sized inexpensive carbon dioxide gassensor was prepared using LiTi2 (PO4)3 +0.2Li3PO4 as lithium-ion conductive, solid electrolyte and its detectability and the effects of co-existing gases were examined. The above compound was obtained by the method where a powdery mixture of Li2CO3, TiO2, (NH4)H2PO4 and Li3PO3 was molded in the presence of a sintering assistant, subjected to hydrostatic press, and sintered. Measurements were made on the relation between CO2 concentration and the electromotive force of the CO2 sensor made of the compound and the influence of concentration of coexisting NO2, SO2 or CH4 on the electromotive force. The results are summarized as follows. A linear relation exists between the electromotive force and the CO2 concentration in the range from 80ppm to 1% to show a good agreement between theoretical and experimental results. Coexistence of NO2 the range of 100-4500ppm has no influence on the electromotive force. Coexistence of methane gives a linear relation. SO2 of even 20ppm lowers the electromotive force. As for the relation with hurmidity, when CO2 concentration is less than 1000ppm, electromotive force decreases as the amount of water vapor is increased. CO2 concentration in the range from 100ppm to 1% at 350[degree]C can be detected by selecting good electrodes. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Emily; Baek, So-Young; Blain, Matthew; Stick, Daniel; Gaultney, Daniel; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2013-09-01

    We trap individual 171Yb+ ions in a surface trap microfabricated on a silicon substrate, and demonstrate a complete set of high fidelity single qubit operations for the hyperfine qubit. Trapping times exceeding 20 min without laser cooling, and heating rates as low as 0.8 quanta ms-1, indicate stable trapping conditions in these microtraps. A coherence time of more than 1 s, high fidelity qubit state detection and single qubit rotations are demonstrated. The observation of low heating rates and demonstration of high quality single qubit gates at room temperature are critical steps toward scalable quantum information processing in microfabricated surface traps.

  18. Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, Emily; Baek, So-Young; Gaultney, Daniel; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang; Blain, Matthew; Stick, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We trap individual 171 Yb + ions in a surface trap microfabricated on a silicon substrate, and demonstrate a complete set of high fidelity single qubit operations for the hyperfine qubit. Trapping times exceeding 20 min without laser cooling, and heating rates as low as 0.8 quanta ms −1 , indicate stable trapping conditions in these microtraps. A coherence time of more than 1 s, high fidelity qubit state detection and single qubit rotations are demonstrated. The observation of low heating rates and demonstration of high quality single qubit gates at room temperature are critical steps toward scalable quantum information processing in microfabricated surface traps. (paper)

  19. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V. (SuperPower, Inc.)

    2011-12-27

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  20. Localization Spectroscopy of a Single Ion in an Optical Lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, Olivier Philippe Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The work reported in this thesis primarily focuses on studies of the dynamics of a single laser-cooled ion, simultaneously confined in the harmonic potential of a linear Paul trap and a rapidly varying periodic potential – a so-called optical lattice – generated from an optical standing-wave. Bes...... as a new tool for future cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments in the Ion trap group at Aarhus University.......-wave. Besides providing a better understanding of the dynamics of an ion subjected to varying trapping conditions, this work establishes a basis for future studies of various quantum many-body physics models, for manipulations of the structure of large ion Coulomb crystals, and for optimization...... of the interaction between light and matter in connection with quantum information experiments. In addition to the deep, three-dimensional harmonic potential of the linear Paul trap which confines the ion in regions of several millimeters, one of the directions of the ion motion is constrained by the application...

  1. Cavity QED with single trapped Ca+-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundt, A.B.

    2003-02-01

    This thesis reports on the design and setup of a vacuum apparatus allowing the investigation of cavity QED effects with single trapped 40 Ca + ions. The weak coupling of ion and cavity in the 'bad cavity limit' may serve to inter--convert stationary and flying qubits. The ion is confined in a miniaturized Paul trap and cooled via the Doppler effect to the Lamb--Dicke regime. The extent of the atomic wave function is less than 30 nm. The ion is enclosed by a high finesse optical cavity. The technically--involved apparatus allows movement of the trap relative to the cavity and the trapped ion can be placed at any position in the standing wave. By means of a transfer lock the cavity can be resonantly stabilized with the S 1/2 ↔ D 5/2 quadrupole transition at 729 nm (suitable as a qubit) without light at that wavelength being present in the cavity. The coupling of the cavity field to the S 1/2 ↔ D 5/2 quadrupole transition is investigated with various techniques in order to determine the spatial dependence as well as the temporal dynamics. The orthogonal coupling of carrier and first--order sideband transitions at field nodes and antinodes is explored. The coherent interaction of the ion and the cavity field is confirmed by exciting Rabi oscillations with short resonant pulses injected into the cavity. Finally, first experimental steps towards the observation of cavity enhanced spontaneous emission have been taken. (author)

  2. Method of installing well conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houser, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of installing a well conductor in a marine environment. It comprises sealing a well conductor with a watertight plug; submerging the conductor from an elevated platform; adding additional conductor lengths to the conductor as needed thereby forming a conductor string; adjusting the buoyancy of the string to control the lowering of the string to the sea floor; and drilling through the plug after the conductor string has achieved the desired penetration depth

  3. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  4. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-10-04

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  5. Resonator QED experiments with single 40Ca+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, B.

    2006-01-01

    Combining an optical resonator with an ion trap provides the possibility for QED experiments with single or few particles interacting with a single mode of the electro-magnetic field (Cavity-QED). In the present setup, fluctuations in the count rate on a time scale below 30 seconds were purely determined by the photon statistics due to finite emission and detection efficiency, whereas a marginal drift of the system was noticeable above 200 seconds. To find methods to increase the efficiency of the photon source, investigations were conducted and experimental improvements of the setup implemented in the frame of this thesis. Damping of the resonator field and coupling of ion and field were considered as the most important factors. To reduce the damping of the resonator field, a resonator with a smaller transmissivity of the output mirror was set up. The linear trap used in the experiment allows for the interaction of multiple ions with the resonator field, so that more than one photon may be emitted per pump pulse. This was investigated in this thesis with two ions coupled to the resonator. The cross correlation of the emitted photons was measured with the Hanbury Brown-Twiss method. (orig.)

  6. Applications of heavy ion microprobe for single event effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Sierawski, Brian; Warren, Kevin M.; Porter, Mark; Wilkinson, Jeff; Marshall, Paul W.; Niu, Guofu; Cressler, John D.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Tipton, Alan; Weller, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    The motion of ionizing-radiation-induced rogue charge carriers in a semiconductor can create unwanted voltage and current conditions within a microelectronic circuit. If sufficient unwanted charge or current occurs on a sensitive node, a variety of single event effects (SEEs) can occur with consequences ranging from trivial to catastrophic. This paper describes the application of heavy ion microprobes to assist with calibration and validation of SEE modeling approaches

  7. Single trapped cold ions: a testing ground for quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, S

    2005-01-01

    In this article I review some results obtained during my PhD work in the group of Professor Messina, at the University of Palermo. I discuss some proposals aimed at exploring fundamental issues of quantum theory, e.g. entanglement and quantum superpositions, in the context of single trapped ions. This physical context turns out to be extremely well suited both for studying fundamental features of quantum mechanics, such as the quantum-classical border, and for technological applications such as quantum logic gates and quantum registers. I focus on some procedures for engineering nonclassical states of the vibrational motion of the centre of mass of the ion. I consider both the case in which the ion interacts with classical laser beams and the case of interaction with a quantized mode of light. In particular, I discuss the generation of Schroedinger cat-like states, Bell states and Greenberger-Horn-Zeilinger states. The schemes for generating nonclassical states stem from two different quantum processes: the parity effect and the quantum state manipulation via quantum non-demolition measurement. Finally, I consider a microscopic theory of the interaction of a quantum harmonic oscillator (the centre of mass of the ion in the trapped ion context) with a bosonic thermal environment. Using an exact approach to the dynamics, I discuss a quantum theory of heating of trapped ions able to describe both the short time non-Markovian regime and the thermalization process. I conclude showing briefly how the trapped ion systems can be used as simulators of key models of open quantum systems such as the Caldeira-Leggett model. (phd tutorial)

  8. Design of a single ion facility and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The use of micro-irradiation techniques in radiobiology is not new; however, the current techniques take advantage of recent developments in particle delivery, focussing detection, image processing, cell recognition and computer control. These developments have generally come from other fields, for example microbeam elemental analysis techniques and single-event upset testing of semiconductor devices. Also in radiation biology there have been important advances in developments of individual cell assays, which allow a wide range of endpoints to be studied with good accuracy at low doses. Many of the studies that are planned involve following the responses of individual cells after a programmed exposure to charged-particle traversals. To probe the radiation sensitivity of a single cell and/or its constituents with a submicron resolution several developments are needed. The essential parameters of the proposed system can be summarised as follows: a focussed beam of ions of 300nm or less at the cell; a reliable (close to 100%) single ion detection; a fast beam switch to prevent second hits; a target holder adapted for the irradiation of wet cells and a fully automated system for cell recognition and single hits. 1 fig.

  9. Design of a single ion facility and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholewa, M; Saint, A; Legge, G J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The use of micro-irradiation techniques in radiobiology is not new; however, the current techniques take advantage of recent developments in particle delivery, focussing detection, image processing, cell recognition and computer control. These developments have generally come from other fields, for example microbeam elemental analysis techniques and single-event upset testing of semiconductor devices. Also in radiation biology there have been important advances in developments of individual cell assays, which allow a wide range of endpoints to be studied with good accuracy at low doses. Many of the studies that are planned involve following the responses of individual cells after a programmed exposure to charged-particle traversals. To probe the radiation sensitivity of a single cell and/or its constituents with a submicron resolution several developments are needed. The essential parameters of the proposed system can be summarised as follows: a focussed beam of ions of 300nm or less at the cell; a reliable (close to 100%) single ion detection; a fast beam switch to prevent second hits; a target holder adapted for the irradiation of wet cells and a fully automated system for cell recognition and single hits. 1 fig.

  10. Ion implantation of CdTe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecek, Tomasz; Popovich, Volodymir; Bester, Mariusz; Kuzma, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Ion implantation is a technique which is widely used in industry for unique modification of metal surface for medical applications. In semiconductor silicon technology ion implantation is also widely used for thin layer electronic or optoelectronic devices production. For other semiconductor materials this technique is still at an early stage. In this paper based on literature data we present the main features of the implantation of CdTe single crystals as well as some of the major problems which are likely to occur when dealing with them. The most unexpected feature is the high resistance of these crystals against the amorphization caused by ion implantation even at high doses (10"1"7 1/cm"2). The second property is the disposal of defects much deeper in the sample then it follows from the modeling calculations. The outline of principles of the ion implantation is included in the paper. The data based on RBS measurements and modeling results obtained by using SRIM software were taken into account.

  11. Plasma immersion ion implantation: duplex layers from a single process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, R.; Collins, G.A.; Tendys, J.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PI 3 ) is an alternative non-line-of-sight technique for implanting ions directly from a plasma which surrounds the component to be treated. In contrast to plasma source ion implantation, the PI 3 system uses an inductively coupled r.f. plasma. It is shown that nitrogen can be retained during implantation at elevated temperatures, even for unalloyed steels. This allows controlled diffusion of nitrogen to greater depths, thereby improving the load bearing capacity of the implanted layer. Components can be heated directly, using the energy deposited by the incident ions during the pulsed implantation. The necessary temperature control can be accomplished simply by regulating the frequency and length of the high voltage pulses applied to the component. Chemical depth profiles and microstructural data obtained from H13 tool steel are used to show that PI 3 can, in a single process, effectively produce a duplex subsurface structure. This structure consists of an outer non-equilibrium layer typical of nitrogen implantation (containing in excess of 20 at.% nitrogen) backed by a substantial diffusion zone of much lower nitrogen content. The relationship between implantation temperature and the resultant subsurface microstructure is explored. (orig.)

  12. Bi{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 1.5+x} (x=0.0625, 0.12) fast ion conductors: Structures, stability and oxide ion migration pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, Matthew L. [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Science Site, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia); Hack, Jennifer [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Science Site, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Kuang, Xiaojun [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Science Site, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); McIntyre, Garry J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia); Withers, Ray L. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Johnson, Mark R. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Radosavljevic Evans, Ivana, E-mail: ivana.radosavljevic@durham.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Science Site, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    A combined experimental and computational study of Bi{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 1.5+x} (x=0.0625 and 0.12) has been carried out using laboratory X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction, impedance measurements and ab-initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate that Bi{sub 0.9375}Nb{sub 0.0625}O{sub 1.5625}, previously reported to adopt a cubic fluorite-type superstructure, can form two different polymorphs depending on the synthetic method: a metastable cubic phase is produced by quenching; while slower cooling yields a stable material with a tetragonal √2×√2×1 superstructure, which undergoes a reversible phase transition into the cubic form at ~680 °C on subsequent reheating. Neutron diffraction reveals that the tetragonal superstructure arises mainly from ordering in the oxygen sublattice, with Bi and Nb remaining disordered, although structured diffuse scattering observed in the electron diffraction patterns suggests a degree of short-range ordering. Both materials are oxide ion conductors. On thermal cycling, Bi{sub 0.88}Nb{sub 0.12}O{sub 1.62} exhibits a decrease in conductivity of approximately an order of magnitude due to partial transformation into the tetragonal phase, but still exhibits conductivity comparable to yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations performed on Bi{sub 0.9375}Nb{sub 0.0625}O{sub 1.5625} show that oxide ion diffusion occurs by O{sup 2−} jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM{sub 4} groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral □M{sub 4} and octahedral □M{sub 6} vacancies. - Graphical abstract: Oxide ion migration in tetragonal Bi{sub 0.9375}Nb{sub 0.0625}O{sub 1.5625} occurs by O{sup 2−} jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM{sub 4} groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral M{sub 4} and octahedral M{sub 6} vacancies. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 0.9375}Nb{sub 0.0625}O{sub 1.5625} adopts a tetragonal √2×√2×1 fluorite superstructure. • Superstructure is due to ordering in the O-sublattice, with Bi

  13. Characteristic length scale dependence on conductivity for La2-xErxMo2O9 (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) oxide ion conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, T.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-05-01

    Structural property of polycrystalline La2-xErxMo2O9 has been investigated. Rietveld refinements at room temperature of the materials suggest a single phase nature with cubic symmetry (space group P213). The electron density contour plot confirms the nature of different cation-oxygen bonds. Time dependent mean square displacement (√) and the spatial extent of the sub-diffusive motion (√) are evaluated using the linear response theory. The localized hop at O2 and O3 sites is found to be favorable for oxygen ion migration for these systems.

  14. Screened ion-ion interaction in mercury-chain compounds: Single chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, M.M.; Griffin, A.

    1985-01-01

    At room temperature, the mercury chains in Hg/sub 3-delta/AsF 6 exhibit phonons characteristic of a one-dimensional lattice. We calculate the screening of the Hg ion-ion interaction in a single chain by electrons moving in a cylindrical potential of finite radius, within the random-phase approximation. The resulting Bohm-Staver-type expression for the phonon velocity is (Z 2 mN/sub I//MN/sub e/)/sup 1/2/v/sub F/, where Z is the Hg ionic charge and N/sub I/ (N/sub e/) is the number of ions (electrons) per unit length. Use of the Tomonaga-Luttinger solution for the electronic response function (keeping only the small-momentum scattering processes) just renormalizes the Fermi velocity in this expression

  15. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escott, C C; Hudson, F E; Chan, V C; Petersson, K D; Clark, R G; Dzurak, A S

    2007-01-01

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n + ) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number

  16. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escott, C C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Hudson, F E [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Chan, V C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersson, K D [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Clark, R G [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, 2052 (Australia); Dzurak, A S [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2007-06-13

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n{sup +}) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number.

  17. Experimental investigations of single-electron detachment processes from H- ions colliding with MeV/u, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Kumagai, H.; Imai, T.; Uskov, D.B.; Presnyakov, L.P.

    1999-01-01

    Single electron detachment processes from negative hydrogen ions under collisions with MeV/u highly charged ions have been investigated using the so-called crossed-beams technique. The preliminary results of the single-electron detachment cross sections obtained is found to be in crude agreement with some empirical and theoretical estimations. (orig.)

  18. Single-ion quantum lock-in amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Keselman, Anna; Ozeri, Roee

    2011-05-05

    Quantum metrology uses tools from quantum information science to improve measurement signal-to-noise ratios. The challenge is to increase sensitivity while reducing susceptibility to noise, tasks that are often in conflict. Lock-in measurement is a detection scheme designed to overcome this difficulty by spectrally separating signal from noise. Here we report on the implementation of a quantum analogue to the classical lock-in amplifier. All the lock-in operations--modulation, detection and mixing--are performed through the application of non-commuting quantum operators to the electronic spin state of a single, trapped Sr(+) ion. We significantly increase its sensitivity to external fields while extending phase coherence by three orders of magnitude, to more than one second. Using this technique, we measure frequency shifts with a sensitivity of 0.42 Hz Hz(-1/2) (corresponding to a magnetic field measurement sensitivity of 15 pT Hz(-1/2)), obtaining an uncertainty of less than 10 mHz (350 fT) after 3,720 seconds of averaging. These sensitivities are limited by quantum projection noise and improve on other single-spin probe technologies by two orders of magnitude. Our reported sensitivity is sufficient for the measurement of parity non-conservation, as well as the detection of the magnetic field of a single electronic spin one micrometre from an ion detector with nanometre resolution. As a first application, we perform light shift spectroscopy of a narrow optical quadrupole transition. Finally, we emphasize that the quantum lock-in technique is generic and can potentially enhance the sensitivity of any quantum sensor. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  19. Storm on lightning conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive lightning conductors using radium or americium 241 sources are compared to Faraday cage and lightning rod. Americium source preparation is shortly described. Efficiency of the different systems is still controversed [fr

  20. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A.S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Wilhelm, R.A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Sorokin, M. [National Research Centre ’Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV {sup 129}Xe{sup (33–40)+} and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I{sup 9+} and 374 MeV–2.2 GeV {sup 197}Au{sup 25+}. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  1. Single-Ion Implantation for the Development of Si-Based MOSFET Devices with Quantum Functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. McCallum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in single-ion implantation is driven in part by research into development of solid-state devices that exhibit quantum behaviour in their electronic or optical characteristics. Here, we provide an overview of international research work on single ion implantation and single ion detection for development of electronic devices for quantum computing. The scope of international research into single ion implantation is presented in the context of our own research in the Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology in Australia. Various single ion detection schemes are presented, and limitations on dopant placement accuracy due to ion straggling are discussed together with pathways for scale-up to multiple quantum devices on the one chip. Possible future directions for ion implantation in quantum computing and communications are also discussed.

  2. Designing Artificial Solid-Electrolyte Interphases for Single-Ion and High-Efficiency Transport in Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Choudhury, Snehashis; Zachman, Michael J.; Wei, Shuya; Zhang, Kaihang; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2017-01-01

    energy storage technologies. In lithium-ion batteries, electrolytes with single- or near-single-ion conductivity reduce losses caused by ion polarization. In emergent lithium or sodium metal batteries, they maintain high conductivity at the anode

  3. A reliable method for the counting and control of single ions for single-dopant controlled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinada, T; Kurosawa, T; Nakayama, H; Zhu, Y; Hori, M; Ohdomari, I

    2008-01-01

    By 2016, transistor device size will be just 10 nm. However, a transistor that is doped at a typical concentration of 10 18 atoms cm -3 has only one dopant atom in the active channel region. Therefore, it can be predicted that conventional doping methods such as ion implantation and thermal diffusion will not be available ten years from now. We have been developing a single-ion implantation (SII) method that enables us to implant dopant ions one-by-one into semiconductors until the desired number is reached. Here we report a simple but reliable method to control the number of single-dopant atoms by detecting the change in drain current induced by single-ion implantation. The drain current decreases in a stepwise fashion as a result of the clusters of displaced Si atoms created by every single-ion incidence. This result indicates that the single-ion detection method we have developed is capable of detecting single-ion incidence with 100% efficiency. Our method potentially could pave the way to future single-atom devices, including a solid-state quantum computer

  4. Single-ion and single-chain magnetism in triangular spin-chain oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikh, Md. Motin; Caignaert, Vincent; Perez, Olivier; Raveau, Bernard; Hardy, Vincent

    2017-05-01

    S r4 -xC axM n2Co O9 oxides (x =0 and x =2 ) are found to exhibit magnetic responses typical of single-chain magnets (SCMs) and single-ion magnets (SIMs), two features generally investigated in coordination polymers or complexes. The compound x =0 appears to be a genuine SCM, in that blocking effects associated with slow spin dynamics yield remanence and coercivity in the absence of long-range ordering (LRO). In addition, SIM signatures of nearly identical nature are detected in both compounds, coexisting with SCM in x =0 and with LRO in x =2 . It is also observed that a SCM response can be recovered in x =2 after application of magnetic field. These results suggest that purely inorganic systems could play a valuable role in the topical issue of the interplay among SIM, SCM, and LRO phenomena in low-dimensional magnetism.

  5. Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Ticatch, Larry A. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plasma generator includes a pair of identical spiraled electrical conductors separated by dielectric material. Both spiraled conductors have inductance and capacitance wherein, in the presence of a time-varying electromagnetic field, the spiraled conductors resonate to generate a harmonic electromagnetic field response. The spiraled conductors lie in parallel planes and partially overlap one another in a direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. The geometric centers of the spiraled conductors define endpoints of a line that is non-perpendicular with respect to the parallel planes. A voltage source coupled across the spiraled conductors applies a voltage sufficient to generate a plasma in at least a portion of the dielectric material.

  6. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  8. Application of heavy-ion microbeam system at Kyoto University: Energy response for imaging plate by single ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaki, M.; Nakamura, M.; Hirose, M.; Matsumoto, H.

    2011-01-01

    A heavy-ion microbeam system for cell irradiation has been developed using an accelerator at Kyoto University. We have successfully developed proton-, carbon-, fluorine- and silicon-beams in order to irradiate a micro-meter sized area with ion counting, especially single ion irradiation. In the heavy-ion microbeam system, an imaging plate (IP) was utilized for beam diagnostics on the irradiation. The IP is widely used for radiography studies in biology. However, there are a few studies on the low linear energy transfer (LET) by single ions, i.e., low-intensity exposure. Thus we have investigated the energy response for the IP, which can be utilized for microbeam diagnostics.

  9. Radiation damages on superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awano, T.; Ikezawa, M.; Matsuyama, T.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation coloration on superionic conductors of MA 4 X 5 (M=K, Rb, NH 4 ; A=Ag, Cu; X=Cl, I) was observed. Five absorption bands were observed at 1.4, 1.8, 2.1, 2.3 and 2.9 eV in RbAg 4 I 5 . In these crystals, stable coloration was observed at lower temperature than in alkali halides. The absorption bands due to electronic centers and hole one were classified from the results of optical breaching and electron or hole doping. Growth rate and induced spectra by irradiation changed drastically at the temperatures just above the superionic phase transition. The growth rate increased drastically also at 40 K. ESR signal of γ-irradiated RbCu 4 Cl 3 I 2 showed that one of the induced defects is a hole trapped by a monovalent copper ion (Cu 2+ ). (author)

  10. Nested Penning Trap as a Source of Singly Charged Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the work reported, the possibility of using a nested Penning trap as a high purity source of low-charge-state ions is studied. For the configuration considered, a relatively dense ion plasma is confined by a three-dimensional electric potential well. The three-dimensional well is produced by the electric field generated by both the trap electrodes and a trapped electron plasma. The ion and electron plasmas are each considered to have Maxwellian velocity distributions. However, it is shown that the electron plasma must have a temperature that is higher than that of the ion plasma when the ions have low charge states. The work reported includes a self-consistent prediction of a possible plasma equilibrium

  11. Creation and recovery of a W(111) single atom gas field ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitters, Jason L.; Urban, Radovan; Wolkow, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten single atom tips have been prepared from a single crystal W(111) oriented wire using the chemical assisted field evaporation and etching method. Etching to a single atom tip occurs through a symmetric structure and leads to a predictable last atom unlike etching with polycrystalline tips. The single atom tip formation procedure is shown in an atom by atom removal process. Rebuilds of single atom tips occur on the same crystalline axis as the original tip such that ion emission emanates along a fixed direction for all tip rebuilds. This preparation method could be utilized and developed to prepare single atom tips for ion source development.

  12. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boulaevskii, L.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y.; Ullmann, J.L.; Cho, Jin; Fleshler, S.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities J c in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2's bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high J c at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices

  13. Demonstration of Single-Barium-Ion Sensitivity for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A. D.; Jones, B. J. P.; Nygren, D. R.; Adams, C.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Guenette, R.; Hafidi, K.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Johnston, S.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Repond, J.; Renner, J.; Riordan, S.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.; NEXT Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double-beta decay of Xe 136 is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba++ ) resolution at a transparent scanning surface is demonstrated. A single-step photobleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with superresolution (˜2 nm ), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9 σ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double-beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers.

  14. Demonstration of Single-Barium-Ion Sensitivity for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A. D.; Jones, B. J. P.; Nygren, D. R.; Adams, C.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Guenette, R.; Hafidi, K.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Johnston, S.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Repond, J.; Renner, J.; Riordan, S.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2018-03-01

    A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba$^{++}$) resolution at a transparent scanning surface has been demonstrated. A single-step photo-bleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with super-resolution ($\\sim$2~nm), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9~$\\sigma$ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers.

  15. Comparison of single-ion molecular dynamics in common solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, A.; Pratt, L. R.; Chaudhari, M. I.; Rempe, S. B.

    2018-06-01

    Laying a basis for molecularly specific theory for the mobilities of ions in solutions of practical interest, we report a broad survey of velocity autocorrelation functions (VACFs) of Li+ and PF6- ions in water, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and acetonitrile solutions. We extract the memory function, γ(t), which characterizes the random forces governing the mobilities of ions. We provide comparisons controlling for the effects of electrolyte concentration and ion-pairing, van der Waals attractive interactions, and solvent molecular characteristics. For the heavier ion (PF6-), velocity relaxations are all similar: negative tail relaxations for the VACF and a clear second relaxation for γ (t ), observed previously also for other molecular ions and with n-pentanol as the solvent. For the light Li+ ion, short time-scale oscillatory behavior masks simple, longer time-scale relaxation of γ (t ). But the corresponding analysis of the solventberg Li+(H2O)4 does conform to the standard picture set by all the PF6- results.

  16. Novel, Solvent-Free, Single Ion Conductive Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florjanczyk, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    This project report concerns studies on the synthesis of new polymer electrolytes for application in lithium and lithium-ion batteries characterized by limited participation of anions in the transport...

  17. High temperature electron beam ion source for the production of single charge ions of most elements of the Periodic Table

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V N; Barzakh, A E; Fedorov, D V; Ivanov, V S; Moroz, F V; Orlov, S Y; Seliverstov, D M; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L B; Volkov, Y M

    2003-01-01

    A new type of a high temperature electron beam ion source (HTEBIS) with a working temperature up to 2500 deg. C was developed for production of single charge ions of practically all elements. Off-line tests and on-line experiments making use of the developed ion source coupled with uranium carbide targets of different density, have been carried out. The ionization efficiency measured for stable atoms of many elements varied in the interval of 1-6%. Using the HTEBIS, the yields and on-line production efficiency of neutron rich isotopes of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn and isotopes of heavy elements Pb, Bi, Po and some others have been determined. The revealed confinement effect of the ions produced in the narrow electron beam inside a hot ion source cavity has been discussed.

  18. Physics of superionic conductors

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    Superionic conductors are solids whose ionic conductivities approach, and in some cases exceed, those of molten salts and electrolyte solutions. This implies an un­ usual state of matter in which some atoms have nearly liquidlike mobility while others retain their regular crystalline arrangement. This liquid-solid duality has much appeal to condensed matter physicists, and the coincident development of powerful new methods for studying disordered solids and interest in superionic conductors for technical applications has resulted in a new surge of activity in this venerable field. It is the purpose of this book to summarize the current re­ search in the physics of superionic conduction. with special emphasis on those aspects which set these materials apart from other solids. The volume is aimed to­ wards the materials community and will, we expect, stimulate further research on these potentially useful substances. The usual characterization of the superionic phase lists high ionic conductivity; low activat...

  19. The CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, I L; Marti, H P; Neuenschwander, J; Smith, R P; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Calvo, A; Campi, D; Curé, B; Desirelli, Alberto; Favre, G; Riboni, P L; Sgobba, Stefano; Tardy, T; Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S

    2000-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments, which are being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN, the design field of the CMS magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 13 m and the aperture is 6 m. This high magnetic field is achieved by means of a 4 layer, 5 modules superconducting coil. The coil is wound from an Al-stabilized Rutherford type conductor. The nominal current of the magnet is 20 kA at 4.5 K. In the CMS coil the structural function is ensured, unlike in other existing Al-stabilized thin solenoids, both by the Al-alloy reinforced conductor and the external former. In this paper the retained manufacturing process of the 50-km long reinforced conductor is described. In general the Rutherford type cable is surrounded by high purity aluminium in a continuous co-extrusion process to produce the Insert. Thereafter the reinforcement is joined by Electron Beam Welding to the pure Al of the insert, before being machined to the final dimensions. During the...

  20. Development of a keV single-ion-implanter for nanofabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Jamieson, D.N.; Hopf, T.; Tamanyan, G.; Spizziri, P.; Pakes, C.; Andresen, S.E.; Hudson, F.; Gauja, E.; Dzurak, A.; Clark, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional methods of doping semiconductors have a difficulty meeting the demand for high precision doping due to large statistical fluctuations in the numbers of dopant atoms introduced in the ever shrinking volume in micro- and nano-electronics devices, especially when the fabrication process approaches the nanometre scale. The statistical fluctuations in doping semiconductors for the fabrication of devices with a very small feature size may lead to inconsistent and unreliable performance. This paper describes the adaptation of a commercial ion implanter into a single-ion-implantation system for the accurate delivery of dopants into a nanometre or micrometre area in a silicon substrate. All the implanted ions can be accurately counted with near 100% certainty through online detection using the silicon substrate itself as an ion detector. A variety of ion species including B + , N + , P + at the energy range of 10-15 keV can be delivered in the single ion implantation system. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  1. Development of heavy-ion irradiation technique for single-event in semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Norio; Akutsu, Takao; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Naitoh, Ichiro; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Agematsu, Takashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Nashiyama, Isamu

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion irradiation technique has been developed for the evaluation of single-event effects on semiconductor devices. For the uniform irradiation of high energy heavy ions to device samples, we have designed and installed a magnetic beam-scanning system in a JAERI cyclotron beam course. It was found that scanned area was approximately 4 x 2 centimeters and that the deviation of ion fluence from the average value was less than 7%. (author)

  2. Benchmarking organic mixed conductors for transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Inal, Sahika; Malliaras, George G.; Rivnay, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Organic mixed conductors have garnered significant attention in applications from bioelectronics to energy storage/generation. Their implementation in organic transistors has led to enhanced biosensing, neuromorphic function, and specialized circuits. While a narrow class of conducting polymers continues to excel in these new applications, materials design efforts have accelerated as researchers target new functionality, processability, and improved performance/stability. Materials for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) require both efficient electronic transport and facile ion injection in order to sustain high capacity. In this work, we show that the product of the electronic mobility and volumetric charge storage capacity (µC*) is the materials/system figure of merit; we use this framework to benchmark and compare the steady-state OECT performance of ten previously reported materials. This product can be independently verified and decoupled to guide materials design and processing. OECTs can therefore be used as a tool for understanding and designing new organic mixed conductors.

  3. Benchmarking organic mixed conductors for transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Inal, Sahika

    2017-11-20

    Organic mixed conductors have garnered significant attention in applications from bioelectronics to energy storage/generation. Their implementation in organic transistors has led to enhanced biosensing, neuromorphic function, and specialized circuits. While a narrow class of conducting polymers continues to excel in these new applications, materials design efforts have accelerated as researchers target new functionality, processability, and improved performance/stability. Materials for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) require both efficient electronic transport and facile ion injection in order to sustain high capacity. In this work, we show that the product of the electronic mobility and volumetric charge storage capacity (µC*) is the materials/system figure of merit; we use this framework to benchmark and compare the steady-state OECT performance of ten previously reported materials. This product can be independently verified and decoupled to guide materials design and processing. OECTs can therefore be used as a tool for understanding and designing new organic mixed conductors.

  4. Characterization of microdose damage caused by single heavy ion observed in trench type power MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Naomi; Kuboyama, Satoshi; Maru, Akifumi; Tamura, Takashi; Hirao, Toshio; Abe, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    It was demonstrated that anomalously large degradation observed in power MOSFETs was caused by a single heavy ion. It was identified as a microdose effect and successfully characterized by several parameters extracted from experimental data. (author)

  5. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    per describes the high-energy heavy ion radiation testing of VLSI devices for single event upset (SEU) ... The experimental set up employed to produce low flux of heavy ions viz. silicon ... through which they pass, leaving behind a wake of elec- ... for use in Bus Management Unit (BMU) and bulk CMOS ... was scheduled.

  6. On the single-ion Magnetic Anisotropy of the Rare-Earth Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmakova, N.P.; Tishin, A.M.; Bohr, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the single-ion magnetic anisotropy constants for Tb and Dy metals are calculated in terms of the multipole moments of the rare-earth ions utilizing the available crystal-field parameters. The results are compared with the existing experimental data....

  7. Production of multi-, oligo- and single-pore membranes using a continuous ion beam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Apel, P. Yu.; Ivanov, O.; Lizunov, N. E.; Mamonova, T. I.; Nechaev, A. N.; Olejniczak, K.; Vacík, Jiří; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 365, DEC (2015), s. 641-645 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ion beam * irradiation * ion track * etching * single nanopore Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2015

  8. U/Th dating by SHRIMP RG ion-microprobe mass spectrometry using single ion-exchange beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Wooden, J.; Murphy, F.; Williams, Ross W.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new analytical method for U-series isotopes using the SHRIMP RG (Sensitive High mass Resolution Ion MicroProbe) mass spectrometer that utilizes the preconcentration of the U-series isotopes from a sample onto a single ion-exchange bead. Ion-microprobe mass spectrometry is capable of producing Th ionization efficiencies in excess of 2%. Analytical precision is typically better than alpha spectroscopy, but not as good as thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS) and inductively coupled plasma multicollector mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Like TIMS and ICP-MS the method allows analysis of small samples sizes, but also adds the advantage of rapidity of analysis. A major advantage of ion-microprobe analysis is that U and Th isotopes are analyzed in the same bead, simplifying the process of chemical separation. Analytical time on the instrument is ???60 min per sample, and a single instrument-loading can accommodate 15-20 samples to be analyzed in a 24-h day. An additional advantage is that the method allows multiple reanalyses of the same bead and that samples can be archived for reanalysis at a later time. Because the ion beam excavates a pit only a few ??m deep, the mount can later be repolished and reanalyzed numerous times. The method described of preconcentrating a low concentration sample onto a small conductive substrate to allow ion-microprobe mass spectrometry is potentially applicable to many other systems. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Lattice location of platinum ions implanted into single crystal zirconia and their annealing behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, D X [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Sood, D K [Academia Sinica, Shanghai, SH (China). Shanghai Inst. of Nuclear Research; Brown, I G [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Single crystal samples of (100) oriented cubic zirconia stabilised with 9.5 mol % yttria were implanted with platinum ions, using a metal vapour vacuum arc (MEVVA) high current ion implanter, to a nominal dose of 1x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The implanted samples were annealed isothermally in air ambient at 1200 deg C, from 1-24 hours. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Channeling (RBSC) of 2 MeV He ions are employed to determine depth distributions of ion damage, Pt ions and substitutionality of Pt ions before and after annealing. The damage behaviour, Pt migration and lattice location are discussed in terms of metastable phase formation and solid solubility considerations. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Lattice location of platinum ions implanted into single crystal zirconia and their annealing behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, D.X. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Academia Sinica, Shanghai, SH (China). Shanghai Inst. of Nuclear Research; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Single crystal samples of (100) oriented cubic zirconia stabilised with 9.5 mol % yttria were implanted with platinum ions, using a metal vapour vacuum arc (MEVVA) high current ion implanter, to a nominal dose of 1x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The implanted samples were annealed isothermally in air ambient at 1200 deg C, from 1-24 hours. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Channeling (RBSC) of 2 MeV He ions are employed to determine depth distributions of ion damage, Pt ions and substitutionality of Pt ions before and after annealing. The damage behaviour, Pt migration and lattice location are discussed in terms of metastable phase formation and solid solubility considerations. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  12. Single-ion polymer electrolyte membranes enable lithium-ion batteries with a broad operating temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Yunfeng; Li, Jing; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-04-01

    Conductive processes involving lithium ions are analyzed in detail from a mechanistic perspective, and demonstrate that single ion polymeric electrolyte (SIPE) membranes can be used in lithium-ion batteries with a wide operating temperature range (25-80 °C) through systematic optimization of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces, in sharp contrast to other batteries equipped with SIPE membranes that display appreciable operability only at elevated temperatures (>60 °C). The performance is comparable to that of batteries using liquid electrolyte of inorganic salt, and the batteries exhibit excellent cycle life and rate performance. This significant widening of battery operation temperatures coupled with the inherent flexibility and robustness of the SIPE membranes makes it possible to develop thin and flexible Li-ion batteries for a broad range of applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Single ionization of diatomic molecules by bare ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkait, M; Mandal, C R

    2014-01-01

    The molecular three-Coulomb wave model (M3CW) has been extensively used to study the double-differential ionization cross sections (DDCS) of diatomic molecules by the impact of bare ions at intermediate and high energies. In this model, the distortion of the initial channel by the incoming projectile is also included. The present DDCS results are found to be in good accord both with the experiment of Baran et al 2008 as well as with other theory

  14. Scanning probe microscopy of single Au ion implants in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vines, L.; Monakhov, E.; Maknys, K.; Svensson, B.G.; Jensen, J.; Hallen, A.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied 5 MeV Au 2+ ion implantation with fluences between 7 x 10 7 and 2 x 10 8 cm -2 in Si by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The DLTS measurements show formation of electrically active defects such as the two negative charge states of the divacancy (V 2 (=/-) and V 2 (-/0)) and the vacancy-oxygen (VO) center. It is observed that the intensity of the V 2 (=/-) peak is lower compared to that of V 2 (-/0) by a factor of 5. This has been attributed to a highly localized distribution of the defects along the ion tracks, which results in trapping of the carriers at V 2 (-/0) and incomplete occupancy of V 2 (=/-). The SCM measurements obtained in a plan view show a random pattern of regions with a reduced SCM signal for the samples implanted with fluence above 2 x 10 8 cm -2 . The reduced SCM signal is attributed to extra charges associated with acceptor states, such as V 2 (-/0), formed along the ion tracks in the bulk Si. Indeed, the electron emission rate from the V 2 (-/0) state is in the range of 10 kHz at room temperature, which is well below the probing frequency of the SCM measurements, resulting in 'freezing' of electrons at V 2 (-/0)

  15. Ferrimagnetic Properties of Bond Dilution Mixed Blume-Capel Model with Random Single-Ion Anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lei; Yan Shilei

    2005-01-01

    We study the ferrimagnetic properties of spin 1/2 and spin-1 systems by means of the effective field theory. The system is considered in the framework of bond dilution mixed Blume-Capel model (BCM) with random single-ion anisotropy. The investigation of phase diagrams and magnetization curves indicates the existence of induced magnetic ordering and single or multi-compensation points. Special emphasis is placed on the influence of bond dilution and random single-ion anisotropy on normal or induced magnetic ordering states and single or multi-compensation points. Normal magnetic ordering states take on new phase diagrams with increasing randomness (bond and anisotropy), while anisotropy induced magnetic ordering states are always occurrence no matter whether concentration of anisotropy is large or small. Existence and disappearance of compensation points rely strongly on bond dilution and random single-ion anisotropy. Some results have not been revealed in previous papers and predicted by Neel theory of ferrimagnetism.

  16. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Omichi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  17. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omichi, Masaaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Center for Collaborative Research, Anan National College of Technology, Anan, Tokushima 774-0017 (Japan); Choi, Wookjin; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Seki, Shu, E-mail: seki@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsukuda, Satoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Sugimoto, Masaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Gunma, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm) blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  18. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  19. Interacting with a Virtual Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Pieter; Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Zsófia; Nijholt, Anton; Harper, Richard; Rauterberg, Matthias; Combetto, Marco

    This paper presents a virtual embodied agent that can conduct musicians in a live performance. The virtual conductor conducts music specified by a MIDI file and uses input from a microphone to react to the tempo of the musicians. The current implementation of the virtual conductor can interact with

  20. Counter-ions at single charged wall: Sum rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaj, Ladislav

    2013-09-01

    For inhomogeneous classical Coulomb fluids in thermal equilibrium, like the jellium or the two-component Coulomb gas, there exists a variety of exact sum rules which relate the particle one-body and two-body densities. The necessary condition for these sum rules is that the Coulomb fluid possesses good screening properties, i.e. the particle correlation functions or the averaged charge inhomogeneity, say close to a wall, exhibit a short-range (usually exponential) decay. In this work, we study equilibrium statistical mechanics of an electric double layer with counter-ions only, i.e. a globally neutral system of equally charged point-like particles in the vicinity of a plain hard wall carrying a fixed uniform surface charge density of opposite sign. At large distances from the wall, the one-body and two-body counter-ion densities go to zero slowly according to the inverse-power law. In spite of the absence of screening, all known sum rules are shown to hold for two exactly solvable cases of the present system: in the weak-coupling Poisson-Boltzmann limit (in any spatial dimension larger than one) and at a special free-fermion coupling constant in two dimensions. This fact indicates an extended validity of the sum rules and provides a consistency check for reasonable theoretical approaches.

  1. Research on generation mechanism of single event transient current generated in the semiconductor using ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Single-event upset (SEU) is triggered when an amount of electric charges induced by energetic ion incidence exceeds a value known as a critical charge in a very short time period. Therefore, accurate evaluation of electric charge and understanding of basic mechanism of SEU are necessary for the improvement of SEU torrance of electronic devices. In this paper, the collected charges for the single event transient current induced on semiconductor by heavy ion microbeams, and application to use microbeam for single event studies are presented. (author)

  2. Exchange interaction of strongly anisotropic tripodal erbium single-ion magnets with metallic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreiser, Jan; Wäckerlin, Christian; Ali, Md. Ehesan

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of Er(trensal) single-ion magnets deposited in ultrahigh vacuum onto metallic surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the molecular structure is preserved after sublimation, and that the molecules are physisorbed on Au(111) while they are chemisorbed...... on a Ni thin film on Cu(100) single-crystalline surfaces. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements performed on Au(111) samples covered with molecular monolayers held at temperatures down to 4 K suggest that the easy axes of the strongly anisotropic molecules are randomly oriented...... pathways toward optical addressing of surface-deposited single-ion magnets....

  3. Single event simulation for memories using accelerated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakagawa, Y.; Shiono, N.; Mizusawa, T.; Sekiguchi, M.; Sato, K.; Sugai, I.; Hirao, Y.; Nishimura, J.; Hattori, T.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the error immunity of the LSI memories from cosmic rays in space, an irradiation test using accelerated heavy ions is performed. The sensitive regions for 64 K DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) and 4 K SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) are determined from the irradiation test results and the design parameters of the devices. The observed errors can be classified into two types. One is the direct ionization type and the other is the recoil produced error type. Sensitive region is determined for the devices. Error rate estimation methods for both types are proposed and applied to those memories used in space. The error rate of direct ionization exceeds the recoil type by 2 or 3 orders. And the direct ionization is susceptible to shield thickness. (author)

  4. Pyramidal pits created by single highly charged ions in BaF2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, A. S.; Heller, R.; Facsko, S.; Aumayr, F.

    2010-01-01

    In various insulators, the impact of individual slow highly charged ions (eV-keV) creates surface nanostructures, whose size depends on the deposited potential energy. Here we report on the damage created on a cleaved BaF 2 (111) surface by irradiation with 4.5xq keV highly charged xenon ions from a room-temperature electron-beam ion trap. Up to charge states q=36, no surface topographic changes on the BaF 2 surface are observed by scanning force microscopy. The hidden stored damage, however, can be made visible using the technique of selective chemical etching. Each individual ion impact develops into a pyramidal etch pits, as can be concluded from a comparison of the areal density of observed etch pits with the applied ion fluence (typically 10 8 ions/cm 2 ). The dimensional analysis of the measured pits reveals the significance of the deposited potential energy in the creation of lattice distortions/defects in BaF 2 .

  5. Coupled acoustic-gravity field for dynamic evaluation of ion exchange with a single resin bead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazaki, Takahiro; Hirawa, Shungo; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2010-06-01

    A coupled acoustic-gravity field is efficient for entrapping a particle at the position determined by its acoustic properties rather than its size. This field has been applied to the dynamic observation of ion-exchange reactions occurring in a single resin bead. The replacement of counterions in an ion-exchange resin induces changes in its acoustic properties, such as density and compressibility. Therefore, we can visually trace the advancement of an ion-exchange reaction as a time change in the levitation position of a resin bead entrapped in the field. Cation-exchange reactions occurring in resin beads with diameters of 40-120 microm are typically completed within 100-200 s. Ion-exchange equilibrium or kinetics is often evaluated with off-line chemical analyses, which require a batch amount of ion exchangers. Measurements with a single resin particle allow us to evaluate ion-exchange dynamics and kinetics of ions including those that are difficult to measure by usual off-line analyses. The diffusion properties of ions in resins have been successfully evaluated from the time change in the levitation positions of resin beads.

  6. Loss and Inductance Investigation in Superconducting Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Tønnesen, Ole; Træholt, Chresten

    1999-01-01

    An important parameter in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution among single tapes and layers. This distribution is to a large degree determined by inductances, since the resistances are low. The self and mutual inductances...... of transport current and current distribution.This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on prototype superconducting cable conductors. The critical current (1uV/cm) of the conductor at 77K was 1590 A (cable #1) and 3240 A (cable #2) respectively.At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the AC......-loss was measured on cable #2 to 0.6W/mxphase. This is, to our knowledge, the lowest AC-loss (at 2kA and 77K) of a high temperature superconducting cable conductor reported so far....

  7. Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u 136Xe ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Mingdong; Zhang Qingxiang; Liu Jie; Wang Zhiguang; Jin Yunfan; Zhu Zhiyong; Zhen Honglou; Liu Changlong; Chen Xiaoxi; Wei Xinguo; Zhang Lin; Fan Youcheng; Zhu Zhourong; Zhang Yiting

    2002-01-01

    Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u 136 Xe ions in different batches of 32k x 8 bits static random access memory are studied. The incident angle dependences of the cross sections for single event upset and single event latch up are presented. The SEE cross sections are plotted versus energy loss instead of linear energy transfer value in sensitive region. The depth of sensitive volume and thickness of 'dead' layer above the sensitive volume are estimated

  8. Imaging large cohorts of single ion channels and their activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia eHiersemenzel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As calcium is the most important signaling molecule in neurons and secretory cells, amongst many other cell types, it follows that an understanding of calcium channels and their regulation of exocytosis is of vital importance. Calcium imaging using calcium dyes such as Fluo3, or FRET-based dyes that have been used widely has provided invaluable information, which combined with modeling has estimated the sub-types of channels responsible for triggering the exocytotic machinery as well as inferences about the relative distances away from vesicle fusion sites these molecules adopt. Importantly, new super-resolution microscopy techniques, combined with novel Ca2+ indicators and imaginative imaging approaches can now define directly the nanoscale locations of very large cohorts of single channel molecules in relation to single vesicles. With combinations of these techniques the activity of individual channels can be visualized and quantified using novel Ca2+ indicators. Fluorescently labeled specific channel toxins can also be used to localize endogenous assembled channel tetramers. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and other single-photon-resolution spectroscopic approaches offer the possibility to quantify protein-protein interactions between populations of channels and the SNARE protein machinery for the first time. Together with simultaneous electrophysiology, this battery of quantitative imaging techniques has the potential to provide unprecedented detail describing the locations, dynamic behaviours, interactions and conductance activities of many thousands of channel molecules and vesicles in living cells.

  9. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  10. Swift heavy ion irradiation of CaF2 - from grooves to hillocks in a single ion track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Elisabeth; Salou, Pierre; Bergen, Lorenz; El Kharrazi, Mourad; Lattouf, Elie; Grygiel, Clara; Wang, Yuyu; Benyagoub, Abdenacer; Levavasseur, Delphine; Rangama, Jimmy; Lebius, Henning; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Schleberger, Marika; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-10-01

    A novel form of ion-tracks, namely nanogrooves and hillocks, are observed on CaF2 after irradiation with xenon and lead ions of about 100 MeV kinetic energy. The irradiation is performed under grazing incidence (0.3°-3°) which forces the track to a region in close vicinity to the surface. Atomic force microscopy imaging of the impact sites with high spatial resolution reveals that the surface track consists in fact of three distinct parts: each swift heavy ion impacting on the CaF2 surface first opens a several 100 nm long groove bordered by a series of nanohillocks on both sides. The end of the groove is marked by a huge single hillock and the further penetration of the swift projectile into deeper layers of the target is accompanied by a single protrusion of several 100 nm in length slowly fading until the track vanishes. By comparing experimental data for various impact angles with results of a simulation, based on a three-dimensional version of the two-temperature-model (TTM), we are able to link the crater and hillock formation to sublimation and melting processes of CaF2 due to the local energy deposition by swift heavy ions.

  11. Improved generation of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naydenov, Boris; Beck, Johannes; Steiner, Matthias; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg [3. Institute of Physics, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Richter, Vladimir; Kalish, Rafi [Solid State Institute, Technion City, Haifa (Israel); Achard, Jocelyn [Laboratoire d' Ingenieurie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions, CNRS, Villetaneuse (France)

    2010-07-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently attracted the attention of many research groups due to their possible application as quantum bits (qubits), ultra low magnetic field sensors and single photon sources. These color centers can be produced by nitrogen ion implantation, although the yield is usually below 5 % at low ion energies. Here we report an increase of the NV production efficiency by subsequently implanting carbon ions in the area of implanted nitrogen ions. This method improves the production yield by more than 50 %. We also show that very low nitrogen concentration (below 0.1 ppb) in diamond can be determined by converting the intrinsic nitrogen atoms to single NV centers and detecting the latter using a confocal microscope.

  12. Laser spectroscopic investigation of singly and doubly charged thorium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielking, Johannes; Meier, David-Marcel; Glowacki, Przemyslaw; Okhapkin, Maksim V.; Peik, Ekkehard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The {sup 229}Th isotope possesses a unique, low-energy nuclear isomeric state at about 7.8(5) eV. This fact has stimulated the development of novel ideas in the borderland between atomic and nuclear physics, for example the use as an optical nuclear clock. Since the required precise information on the isomer energy is not yet available, it is intensely searched for using different experimental approaches. For the excitation of the nuclear isomer via electronic bridge or NEET processes, we plan to use two-photon laser excitation of high-lying electronic levels in Th{sup +}. We recently expanded our search range to higher energies and measured 38 previously unknown energy levels in the range from 7.8 eV to 8.7 eV. We also prepare to study the nuclear structure of the isomeric state in cooperation with the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium at LMU Munich, using trapped recoil ions, where the isomeric state is populated via α-decay from {sup 233}U. For this purpose we investigate the hyperfine structure of suitable transitions of Th{sup 2+}.

  13. Ion beam synthesis of buried single crystal erbium silicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golanski, A.; Feenstra, R.; Galloway, M.D.; Park, J.L.; Pennycook, S.J.; Harmon, H.E.; White, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    High doses (10 16 --10 17 /cm 2 ) of 170 keV Er + were implanted into single-crystal left-angle 111 right-angle Si at implantation temperatures between 350 degree C and 520 degree C. Annealing at 800 degree C in vacuum following the implant, the growth and coalescence of ErSi 2 precipitates leads to a buried single crystalline ErSi 2 layer. This has been studied using Rutherford backscattering/channeling, X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional TEM and resistance versus temperature measurements. Samples implanted at 520 degree C using an Er dose of 7 x 10 16 /cm 2 and thermally annealed were subsequently used as seeds for the mesoepitaxial growth of the buried layer during a second implantation and annealing process. Growth occurs meso-epitaxially along both interfaces through beam induced, defect mediated mobility of Er atoms. The crystalline quality of the ErSi 2 layer strongly depends on the temperature during the second implantation. 12 refs., 4 figs

  14. A fast online hit verification method for the single ion hit system at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, G.; Fischer, B.; Barberet, P.; Heiss, M.

    2006-01-01

    For a single ion hit facility built to irradiate specific targets inside biological cells, it is necessary to prove that the ions hit the selected targets reliably because the ion hits usually cannot be seen. That ability is traditionally tested either indirectly by aiming at pre-etched tracks in a nuclear track detector or directly by making the ion tracks inside cells visible using a stain coupled to special proteins produced in response to ion hits. However, both methods are time consuming and hits can be verified only after the experiment. This means that targeting errors in the experiment cannot be corrected during the experiment. Therefore, we have developed a fast online hit verification method that measures the targeting accuracy electronically with a spatial resolution of ±1 μm before cell irradiation takes place. (authors)

  15. Effect of 120 MeV Ag{sup 9+} ion irradiation of YCOB single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arun Kumar, R., E-mail: rarunpsgtech@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Department of Basic Sciences - Physics Division, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004 (India); Dhanasekaran, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Single crystals of yttrium calcium oxy borate (YCOB) grown from boron-tri-oxide flux were subjected to swift heavy ion irradiation using silver Ag{sup 9+} ions from the 15 UD Pelletron facility at Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi. The crystals were irradiated at 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13}, 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} fluences at room temperature and with 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence at liquid nitrogen temperature. The pristine and the irradiated samples were characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence studies. From the characterization studies performed on the samples, it is inferred that the crystals irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature had fewer defects compared to the crystals irradiated at room temperature and the defects increased when the ion fluence was increased at room temperature.

  16. Sub-Poissonian statistics of quantum jumps in single molecule or atomic ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osad'ko, I.S.; Gus'kov, D.N.

    2007-01-01

    A theory for statistics of quantum jumps in single molecule or ion driven by continues wave laser field is developed. These quantum jumps can relate to nonradiative singlet-triplet transitions in a molecule or to on → off jumps in a single ion with shelving processes. Distribution function w N (T) of quantum jumps in time interval T is found. Computer simulation of quantum jumps is realized. Statistical treatment of simulated jumps reveals sub-Poissonian statistics of quantum jumps. The theoretical distribution function w N (T) fits well the distribution of jumps found from simulated data. Experimental data on quantum jumps found in experiments with single Hg + ion are described by the function w N (T) well

  17. Quantitative impedance analysis of solid ionic conductors: Effects of electrode polarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patil, D.; Shimakawa, K.; Zima, Vítězslav; Wágner, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 14 (2014), "143707-1"-"143707-6" ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : impedance * conductivity * ion conductors Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  18. Loss and Inductance Investigations in a 4-layer Superconducting Prototype Cable Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa

    1999-01-01

    One important issue in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution between single tapes and layers. This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on a 4-layer three meter long prototype superconducting cable conductor......-losses are measured as a function of transport current and a given current distribution and compared with the monoblock model. Recommendations for design of future cable conductor prototypes are given....

  19. Response of rat spinal cord to single and fractionated doses of accelerated heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, J.L.; McDonald, M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Bliven, S.F.; Walton, R.E.; Woodruff, K.H.; Howard, J.

    1980-01-01

    The response of rat spinal cord to irradiation with accelerated heavy ions, in particular carbon and neon ions has been studied. Two different ionization regions in the modified Bragg curve for each ion have been studied for both single and fractionated exposures. We have defined the paralytic response as a function of dose and dose per fraction, and we have determined RBE and repair values. The response of rat spinal cord is both dose and LET dependent, which allows the derivation of RBE and repair values

  20. Shot-noise-limited monitoring and phase locking of the motion of a single trapped ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushev, P; Hétet, G; Slodička, L; Rotter, D; Wilson, M A; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Eschner, J; Blatt, R

    2013-03-29

    We perform a high-resolution real-time readout of the motion of a single trapped and laser-cooled Ba+ ion. By using an interferometric setup, we demonstrate a shot-noise-limited measurement of thermal oscillations with a resolution of 4 times the standard quantum limit. We apply the real-time monitoring for phase control of the ion motion through a feedback loop, suppressing the photon recoil-induced phase diffusion. Because of the spectral narrowing in the phase-locked mode, the coherent ion oscillation is measured with a resolution of about 0.3 times the standard quantum limit.

  1. Preparation and coherent manipulation of pure quantum states of a single molecular ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chin-Wen; Kurz, Christoph; Hume, David B.; Plessow, Philipp N.; Leibrandt, David R.; Leibfried, Dietrich

    2017-05-01

    Laser cooling and trapping of atoms and atomic ions has led to advances including the observation of exotic phases of matter, the development of precision sensors and state-of-the-art atomic clocks. The same level of control in molecules could also lead to important developments such as controlled chemical reactions and sensitive probes of fundamental theories, but the vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom in molecules pose a challenge for controlling their quantum mechanical states. Here we use quantum-logic spectroscopy, which maps quantum information between two ion species, to prepare and non-destructively detect quantum mechanical states in molecular ions. We develop a general technique for optical pumping and preparation of the molecule into a pure initial state. This enables us to observe high-resolution spectra in a single ion (CaH+) and coherent phenomena such as Rabi flopping and Ramsey fringes. The protocol requires a single, far-off-resonant laser that is not specific to the molecule, so many other molecular ions, including polyatomic species, could be treated using the same methods in the same apparatus by changing the molecular source. Combined with the long interrogation times afforded by ion traps, a broad range of molecular ions could be studied with unprecedented control and precision. Our technique thus represents a critical step towards applications such as precision molecular spectroscopy, stringent tests of fundamental physics, quantum computing and precision control of molecular dynamics.

  2. Xenon gas field ion source from a single-atom tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Chun-Yueh; Chang, Wei-Tse; Li, Po-Chang; Fu, Tsu-Yi; Chang, Chia-Seng; Tsong, T. T.; Hwang, Ing-Shouh

    2017-06-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) systems have become powerful diagnostic and modification tools for nanoscience and nanotechnology. Gas field ion sources (GFISs) built from atomic-size emitters offer the highest brightness among all ion sources and thus can improve the spatial resolution of FIB systems. Here we show that the Ir/W(111) single-atom tip (SAT) can emit high-brightness Xe+ ion beams with a high current stability. The ion emission current versus extraction voltage was analyzed from 150 K up to 309 K. The optimal emitter temperature for maximum Xe+ ion emission was ˜150 K and the reduced brightness at the Xe gas pressure of 1 × 10-4 torr is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of a Ga liquid metal ion source, and four to five orders of magnitude higher than that of a Xe inductively coupled plasma ion source. Most surprisingly, the SAT emitter remained stable even when operated at 309 K. Even though the ion current decreased with increasing temperature, the current at room temperature (RT) could still reach over 1 pA when the gas pressure was higher than 1 × 10-3 torr, indicating the feasibility of RT-Xe-GFIS for application to FIB systems. The operation temperature of Xe-SAT-GFIS is considerably higher than the cryogenic temperature required for the helium ion microscope (HIM), which offers great technical advantages because only simple or no cooling schemes can be adopted. Thus, Xe-GFIS-FIB would be easy to implement and may become a powerful tool for nanoscale milling and secondary ion mass spectroscopy.

  3. Conductor for a fluid-cooled winding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Walter J.

    1983-01-01

    A conductor and method of making the conductor are provided for use in winding electrical coils which are cooled by a fluid communicating with the conductor. The conductor is cold worked through twisting and reshaping steps to form a generally rectangular cross section conductor having a plurality of helical cooling grooves extending axially of the conductor. The conductor configuration makes it suitable for a wide variety of winding applications and permits the use of simple strip insulation between turns and perforated sheet insulation between layers of the winding.

  4. A study of single and binary ion plasma expansion into laboratory-generated plasma wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth Herbert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma expansion into the wake of a large rectangular plate immersed in a collisionless, supersonic plasma was investigated in laboratory experiments. The experimental conditions address both single ion and binary ion plasma flows for the case of a body whose size is large in comparison with the Debye length, when the potential difference between the body and the plasma is relatively small. A new plasma source was developed to generate equi-velocity, binary ion plasma flows, which allows access to new parameter space that have previously been unavailable for laboratory studies. Specifically, the new parameters are the ionic mass ratio and the ionic component density ratio. In a series of experiments, a krypton-neon plasma is employed where the ambient density ratio of neon to krypton is varied more than an order of magnitude. The expansion in both the single ion and binary ion plasma cases is limited to early times, i.e., a few ion plasma periods, by the combination of plasma density, plasma drift speed, and vacuum chamber size, which prevented detailed comparison with self-similar theory.

  5. Study of single and binary ion plasma expansion into laboratory-generated plasma wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, K.H. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Plasma expansion into the wake of a large rectangular plate immersed in a collisionless, supersonic plasma was investigated in laboratory experiments. The experimental conditions address both single ion and binary ion plasma flows for the case of a body whose size is large in comparison with the Debye length, when the potential difference between the body and the plasma is relatively small. A new plasma source was developed to generate equi-velocity, binary ion plasma flows, which allows access to new parameter space that have previously been unavailable for laboratory studies. Specifically, the new parameters are the ionic mass ratio and the ionic component density ratio. In a series of experiments, a krypton-neon plasma is employed where the ambient density ratio of neon to krypton is varied more than an order of magnitude. The expansion in both the single ion and binary ion plasma cases is limited to early times, i.e., a few ion plasma periods, by the combination of plasma density, plasma drift speed, and vacuum chamber size, which prevented detailed comparison with self-similar theory

  6. Electron impact single detachment on the F- ions using the heavy ion storage ring CRYRING: cross-section determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.; Hanstorp, D.; Oesterdahl, F.; Danared, H.; Kaellberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Electron Impact Single Detachment (EISD) of F - has been studied using the heavy ion storage ring CRYRING at the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden. F - ions stored in the ring were merged with an electron beam in one of the ring sections. Neutral F atoms produced in the EISD process were detected in the zero-degree direction using a surface barrier detector. The threshold for the detachment process was found to be around 7.6 eV, thus more than twice the binding energy of F - . The cross-sections increased smoothly up to 55 eV where it reached a maximum of 1.9 x 10 -16 cm 2 . At higher energies a slow decrease of the cross-section was observed, which follows the energy dependence predicted by the Bethe-Born approximation. The experiment showed that CRYRING can be used favourably for studies of anions, and several experiments are forthcoming. (orig.)

  7. Visualization of metallodrugs in single cells by secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kui; Jia, Feifei; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Qun; Zhao, Yao; Wang, Fuyi

    2017-07-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry, including nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), has emerged as a powerful tool for biological imaging, especially for single cell imaging. SIMS imaging can provide information on subcellular distribution of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, including metallodrugs, from membrane through to cytoplasm and nucleus without labeling, and with high spatial resolution and chemical specificity. In this mini-review, we summarize recent progress in the field of SIMS imaging, particularly in the characterization of the subcellular distribution of metallodrugs. We anticipate that the SIMS imaging method will be widely applied to visualize subcellular distributions of drugs and drug candidates in single cells, exerting significant influence on early drug evaluation and metabolism in medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. Recent progress of SIMS applications in characterizing the subcellular distributions of metallodrugs was summarized.

  8. Surface structure modification of single crystal graphite after slow, highly charged ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaher, I.; Akcöltekin, S.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Manil, B.; Dey, K. R.; Been, T.; Boduch, P.; Rothard, H.; Schleberger, M.; Lebius, H.

    2018-04-01

    Single crystal graphite was irradiated by slow, highly charged ions. The modification of the surface structure was studied by means of Low-Energy Electron Diffraction. The observed damage cross section increases with the potential energy, i.e. the charge state of the incident ion, at a constant kinetic energy. The potential energy is more efficient for the damage production than the kinetic energy by more than a factor of twenty. Comparison with earlier results hints to a strong link between early electron creation and later target atom rearrangement. With increasing ion fluence, the initially large-scale single crystal is first transformed into μ m-sized crystals, before complete amorphisation takes place.

  9. Towards a precise measurement of atomic parity violation in a single Ra+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuñez Portela, M.; Berg, J. E. van den; Bekker, H.; Böll, O.; Dijck, E. A.; Giri, G. S.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Mohanty, A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Santra, B.; Schlesser, S.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    A single trapped Ra  +  (Z = 88) ion provides a very promising route towards a most precise measurement of Atomic Parity Violation (APV), since APV effects grow faster than Z 3 . This experiment promises the best determination of the electroweak coupling constant at the lowest accessible energies. Such a measurement provides a sensitive test of the Standard Model in particle physics. At the present stage of the experiment, we focus on trapping and laser cooling stable Ba  +  ions as a precursor for radioactive Ra  +  . Online laser spectroscopy of the isotopes 209 − 214 Ra  +  in a linear Paul trap has provided information on transition wavelengths, fine and hyperfine structures and excited state lifetimes as test of atomic structure calculations. Additionaly, a single trapped Ra  +  ion could function as a very stable clock.

  10. Towards a precise measurement of atomic parity violation in a single Ra{sup +} ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Portela, M., E-mail: nunez@kvi.nl; Berg, J. E. van den; Bekker, H.; Boell, O.; Dijck, E. A.; Giri, G. S.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Mohanty, A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Santra, B.; Schlesser, S.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    A single trapped Ra{sup + } (Z = 88) ion provides a very promising route towards a most precise measurement of Atomic Parity Violation (APV), since APV effects grow faster than Z{sup 3}. This experiment promises the best determination of the electroweak coupling constant at the lowest accessible energies. Such a measurement provides a sensitive test of the Standard Model in particle physics. At the present stage of the experiment, we focus on trapping and laser cooling stable Ba{sup + } ions as a precursor for radioactive Ra{sup + }. Online laser spectroscopy of the isotopes {sup 209 - 214}Ra{sup + } in a linear Paul trap has provided information on transition wavelengths, fine and hyperfine structures and excited state lifetimes as test of atomic structure calculations. Additionaly, a single trapped Ra{sup + } ion could function as a very stable clock.

  11. Development of noise-suppressed detector for single ion hit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takuro; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Tamotsu; Hirao, Toshio; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A noise-suppressed detector for single ion detection has been developed, and combined with the heavy ion microbeam apparatus. This detector consists of a pair of micro channel plates (MCP`s) and a very thin carbon foil. The detection signal is formed by the coincidence of the signals from these MCP`s, so that this detector and the coincidence measurement unit can reduce miscounting in the circuit. The detection efficiency for 15 MeV heavy ions was evaluated to be comparable to that of a silicon surface-barrier detector (SSD) and the miscounting rate was 4 orders lower than the noise rate of a single MCP. The rise time of the detection signal was also estimated. (author)

  12. Heavy doping of CdTe single crystals by Cr ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Volodymyr D.; Böttger, Roman; Heller, Rene; Zhou, Shengqiang; Bester, Mariusz; Cieniek, Bogumil; Mroczka, Robert; Lopucki, Rafal; Sagan, Piotr; Kuzma, Marian

    2018-03-01

    Implantation of bulk CdTe single crystals with high fluences of 500 keV Cr+ ions was performed to achieve Cr concentration above the equilibrium solubility limit of this element in CdTe lattice. The structure and composition of the implanted samples were studied using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to characterize the incorporation of chromium into the host lattice and to investigate irradiation-induced damage build-up. It was found that out-diffusion of Cr atoms and sputtering of the targets alter the depth distribution and limit concentration of the projectile ions in the as-implanted samples. Appearance of crystallographically oriented, metallic α-Cr nanoparticles inside CdTe matrix was found after implantation, as well as a strong disorder at the depth far beyond the projected range of the implanted ions.

  13. The effect of incidence angle on ion bombardment induced surface topography development on single crystal copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Lewis, G.W.; Whitton, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The fluence dependence of development of microscopic surface features, particularly etch pits, during 9 keV Ar + ion bombardment of (11,3,1) oriented Cu single crystals has been studied employing quasi-dynamic irradiation and observation techniques in a scanning electron microscope-accelerator system. 9 keV ions are observed not to produce crystallographic pyramids under all irradiation conditions for this surface, a very different result from our earlier studies with higher energy ions. The bombardment does elaborate etch pits however, the habits and growth kinetics of which depend upon both polar and azimuthal angles of ion incidence to the surface. The results are explained in terms of differential erosion of crystal planes modified by the presence of pre-existing and irradiation induces extended defects. (orig.)

  14. Ion mass dependence for low energy channeling in single-wall nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liping; Zhu Zhiyuan; Li Yong; Zhu Dezhang; Xia Huihao

    2008-01-01

    An Monte Carlo (MC) simulation program has been used to study ion mass dependence for the low energy channeling of natural- and pseudo-Ar ions in single-wall nanotubes. The MC simulations show that the channeling critical angle Ψ C obeys the (E) -1/2 and the (M 1 ) -1/2 rules, where E is the incident energy and M 1 is the ion mass. The reason for this may be that the motion of the channeled (or de-channeled) ions should be correlated with both the incident energy E and the incident momentum (2M 1 E) 1/2 , in order to obey the conservation of energy and momentum

  15. Dimer self-organization of impurity ytterbium ions in synthetic forsterite single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, V. F.; Sukhanov, A. A.; Dudnikova, V. B.; Zharikov, E. V.; Lis, D. A.; Subbotin, K. A.

    2017-07-01

    Paramagnetic centers formed by impurity Yb3+ ions in synthetic forsterite (Mg2SiO4) grown by the Czochralski technique are studied by X-band CW and pulsed EPR spectroscopy. These centers are single ions substituting magnesium in two different crystallographic positions denoted M1 and M2, and dimer associates formed by two Yb3+ ions in nearby positions M1. It is established that there is a pronounced mechanism favoring self-organization of ytterbium ions in dimer associates during the crystal growth, and the mechanism of the spin-spin coupling between ytterbium ions in the associate has predominantly a dipole-dipole character, which makes it possible to control the energy of the spin-spin interaction by changing the orientation of the external magnetic field. The structural computer simulation of cluster ytterbium centers in forsterite crystals is carried out by the method of interatomic potentials using the GULP 4.0.1 code (General Utility Lattice Program). It is established that the formation of dimer associates in the form of a chain parallel to the crystallographic axis consisting of two ytterbium ions with a magnesium vacancy between them is the most energetically favorable for ytterbium ions substituting magnesium in the position M1.

  16. Interaction of singly and multiply charged ions with a lithium-fluoride surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, L.

    2001-10-01

    Charge transfer between slow ions and an ionic crystal surface still poses a considerable challenge to theory due to the intrinsic many-body character of the system. For the neutralization of multiply charged ions in front of metal surfaces, the Classical Over the Barrier (COB) model is a widely used tool. We present an extension of this model to ionic crystal surfaces where the localization of valence electrons at the anion sites and the lack of cylindrical symmetry of the ion-surface system impede a simple analytical estimate of electron transfer rates. We use a classical trajectory Monte Carlo approach to calculate electron transfer rates for different charge states of the projectile ion. With these rates we perform a Monte Carlo simulation of the neutralization of slow Ne10+ ions in vertical incidence on an LiF surface. Capture of one or several electrons may lead to a local positive charge up of the surface. The projectile dynamics depends on the balance between the repulsion due to this charge and the attraction due to the self-image potential. In a simulation that treats electronic and nuclear dynamics simultaneously, we show that the image attraction dominates over the repulsive force. Backscattering of very slow multiply charged projectiles high above the surface without touching it ('trampoline effect') does not take place. Instead, the projectile ion penetrates into the surface or is reflected due to close binary collision with surface ions. The case of a singly charged ion in front of an LiF surface is within the reach of ab-initio calculations. We use a multi-configuration self consistent field (MCSCF) and a multi-reference configuration interaction (MR-CI) method to calculate adiabatic potential energy curves for a system consisting of the projectile ion and an embedded cluster of surface ions. With increasing cluster size, the energy levels of the embedded cluster converge towards the band structure of the infinitely extended solid. Due to

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Ethylenedithio-MPTTF-PTM Radical Dyad as a Potential Neutral Radical Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souto, Manuel; Bendixen, Dan; Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    During the last years there has been a high interest in the development of new purely-organic single-component conductors. Very recently, we have reported a new neutral radical conductor based on the perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical moiety linked to a monopyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF...

  18. Measuring ac-loss in high temperature superconducting cable-conductors using four probe methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Olsen, Søren Krüger

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the ac-loss of superconducting cable conductors have many aspects in common with measuring the ac-loss of single superconducting tapes. In a cable conductor all tapes are connected to each other and to the test circuit through normal metal joints in each end. This makes such measurement...

  19. Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Richards, William Davidson; Ong, Shyue Ping; Miara, Lincoln J; Kim, Jae Chul; Mo, Yifei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-10-01

    Lithium solid electrolytes can potentially address two key limitations of the organic electrolytes used in today's lithium-ion batteries, namely, their flammability and limited electrochemical stability. However, achieving a Li(+) conductivity in the solid state comparable to existing liquid electrolytes (>1 mS cm(-1)) is particularly challenging. In this work, we reveal a fundamental relationship between anion packing and ionic transport in fast Li-conducting materials and expose the desirable structural attributes of good Li-ion conductors. We find that an underlying body-centred cubic-like anion framework, which allows direct Li hops between adjacent tetrahedral sites, is most desirable for achieving high ionic conductivity, and that indeed this anion arrangement is present in several known fast Li-conducting materials and other fast ion conductors. These findings provide important insight towards the understanding of ionic transport in Li-ion conductors and serve as design principles for future discovery and design of improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries.

  20. Long-Distance Single Photon Transmission from a Trapped Ion via Quantum Frequency Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas; Miyanishi, Koichiro; Ikuta, Rikizo; Takahashi, Hiroki; Vartabi Kashanian, Samir; Tsujimoto, Yoshiaki; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Keller, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Trapped atomic ions are ideal single photon emitters with long-lived internal states which can be entangled with emitted photons. Coupling the ion to an optical cavity enables the efficient emission of single photons into a single spatial mode and grants control over their temporal shape. These features are key for quantum information processing and quantum communication. However, the photons emitted by these systems are unsuitable for long-distance transmission due to their wavelengths. Here we report the transmission of single photons from a single 40Ca+ ion coupled to an optical cavity over a 10 km optical fiber via frequency conversion from 866 nm to the telecom C band at 1530 nm. We observe nonclassical photon statistics of the direct cavity emission, the converted photons, and the 10 km transmitted photons, as well as the preservation of the photons' temporal shape throughout. This telecommunication-ready system can be a key component for long-distance quantum communication as well as future cloud quantum computation.

  1. Texture development of HTS powder-in-tube conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1998-10-01

    An overview of the fabrication and electromagnetic properties of high-temperature conductors processed by the powder-in-tube (PIT) technique with reference to texture development and critical anisotropy data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the physicochemical and electromagnetic parameters of the multifilamentary and single-filament conductors with superconducting cores of Bi-2223, Tl-1223 and Y-123 superconducting phases. The influence of the multifilamentary and single-filament structures on texture development is discussed. Also, the importance of the local disturbances of the grain alignment and microdefects for the current distribution across and in the plane of the whole conductor is analysed. A comparative study of the critical current anisotropy with field direction in low magnetic fields of Tl-1223 and Bi-2223 conductors manufactured by the PIT technique is presented. For Tl-1223 PIT conductors the anisotropy coefficient shows a very pronounced minimum, followed by a monotonic reduction of anisotropy with the increase of the magnetic field. This is explained in terms of poor grain alignment with weak intergranular superconducting coupling which cause 3D current percolation and also by the demagnetizing effect of the grains and the ceramic core in the PIT Tl-1223 tapes. (author)

  2. Ionoluminescence analysis of glass scintillators and application to single-ion-hit real-time detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Akihito, E-mail: yokoyama.akihito@jaea.go.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kada, Wataru [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Shimada, Keisuke; Yokoata, Yuya; Miura, Kenta; Hanaizumi, Osamu [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, we propose and test a real-time detection system for single-ion hits using mega-electronvolt (MeV)-heavy ions. The system was constructed using G2000 and G9 glass scintillators, as well as an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera combined with an inverted microscope with a 10× objective lens. Commercially available G2000 and G9 glass scintillators, which have been reported to exhibit strong photoluminescence at 489, 543, 585, and 622 nm as a result of the Tb{sup 3+} f–f transition, were employed for highly accurate ionized particle detection. The EMCCD camera had a resolution of 512 × 512 pixels, each with a size of 16 μm × 16 μm, and a maximum linear gain of 8 × 10{sup 5} electrons. For 260-MeV Ne, 3 ion hits/s were detected by our system. The intensity of the ionoluminescence (IL) peak induced by the heavy ions was 140 times the noise intensity. In contrast, the luminous diameter at the full width at half maximum (FWHM) in both the horizontal and vertical directions was calculated to be approximately 4.5 μm. These results suggest that our detection system can accurately detect single-ion hits with a diameter of the order of 1 μm.

  3. Influence of copper single crystal structures on the reflection of low energy hydrogen and helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijen, H.H.W.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical basis for the 'wedge-focussing' phenomenon is outlined. Investigations have been made to check up to what extent proton reflection can be simulated by using H 2 + or H 3 + as incident ions and analysing the reflected protons. The results of an experimental study of the influence of surface semi-channels on the reflection of low energy ( + , H 2 + and He + ions from copper single crystals with attention to the wedge-focussing effect are presented (G.T.H.)

  4. Ion Feedback Suppression Using Inclined MCP Holes in a Single-MCP+Micromegas+Pads Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.; Sumiyoshi, T.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the ion backflow to photocathode can be completely suppressed if one uses inclined MCP holes in a presence of magnetic field. The inclined hole angles are chosen to be aligned with the Lorentz electron angle allowing the electron transmission and amplification, while positive ions, traveling along a different angle, are caught on the MCP hole walls. The detector under investigation is a new gaseous detector structure based on a tandem of two parts, a single MCP (Microchannel) plate, a Micromegas with pad readout. We are aiming to develop a gaseous photon detector with the Bialkali photocathode, however, one could use some ideas in the paper for other types of detectors

  5. Single electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.

    1979-06-01

    The results of a Bevalac experiment to measure the single electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic (0.5 1 , and fully stripped, N 0 , ion beams emerging from the targets. Separate counters measured the number of ions in each charge state. The ratios N 1 /N 0 for different target thicknesses were fit to a simple growth curve to yield electron attachment and stripping cross sections. The data are compared to relativistic extrapolations of available theories. Clear evidence for two separate attachment processes, radiative and non-radiative, is found. Data are compared to a recently improved formulation for the stripping cross sections

  6. Modification of mechanical properties of single crystal aluminum oxide by ion beam induced structural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensinger, W.; Nowak, R.; Horino, Y.; Baba, K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of ceramics is essentially determined by their surface qualities. As a surface modification technique, ion implantation provides the possibility to modify the mechanical properties of ceramics. Highly energetic ions are implanted into the near-surface region of a material and modify its composition and structure. Ions of aluminum, oxygen, nickel and tantalum were implanted into single-crystal α-aluminum oxide. Three-point bending tests showed that an increase in flexural strength of up to 30% could be obtained after implantation of aluminum and oxygen. Nickel and tantalum ion implantation increased the fracture toughness. Indentation tests with Knoop and Vickers diamonds and comparison of the lengths of the developed radial cracks showed that ion implantation leads to a reaction in cracking. The observed effects are assigned to radiation induced structural changes of the ceramic. Ion bombardment leads to radiation damage and formation of compressive stress. In case of tantalum implantation, the implanted near-surface zone becomes amorphous. These effects make the ceramic more resistant to fracture. (orig.)

  7. Engineering of electronic properties of single layer graphene by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Ashish; Tripathi, Ambuj; Tyagi, Chetna; Avasthi, D. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, swift heavy ion irradiation induced effects on the electrical properties of single layer graphene are reported. The modulation in minimum conductivity point in graphene with in-situ electrical measurement during ion irradiation was studied. It is found that the resistance of graphene layer decreases at lower fluences up to 3 × 1011 ions/cm2, which is accompanied by the five-fold increase in electron and hole mobilities. The ion irradiation induced increase in electron and hole mobilities at lower fluence up to 1 × 1011 ions/cm2 is verified by separate Hall measurements on another irradiated graphene sample at the selected fluence. In contrast to the adverse effects of irradiation on the electrical properties of materials, we have found improvement in electrical mobility after irradiation. The increment in mobility is explained by considering the defect annealing in graphene after irradiation at a lower fluence regime. The modification in carrier density after irradiation is also observed. Based on findings of the present work, we suggest ion beam irradiation as a useful tool for tuning of the electrical properties of graphene.

  8. The tensile effect on crack formation in single crystal silicon irradiated by intense pulsed ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guoying; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Haowen; Cui, Xiaojun; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Xiaofu; Yu, Xiao; Le, Xiaoyun

    2017-10-01

    Improving antifatigue performance of silicon substrate is very important for the development of semiconductor industry. The cracking behavior of silicon under intense pulsed ion beam irradiation was studied by numerical simulation in order to understand the mechanism of induced surface peeling observed by experimental means. Using molecular dynamics simulation based on Stillinger Weber potential, tensile effect on crack growth and propagation in single crystal silicon was investigated. Simulation results reveal that stress-strain curves of single crystal silicon at a constant strain rate can be divided into three stages, which are not similar to metal stress-strain curves; different tensile load velocities induce difference of single silicon crack formation speed; the layered stress results in crack formation in single crystal silicon. It is concluded that the crack growth and propagation is more sensitive to strain rate, tensile load velocity, stress distribution in single crystal silicon.

  9. Ionization and single electron capture in collision of highly charged Ar16+ ions with helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Gou Bingcong

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the two-centre atomic orbital close-coupling method to study the ionization and the single electron capture in collision of highly charged Ar 16+ ions with He atoms in the velocity range of 1.2–1.9 a.u. The relative importance of single ionization (SI) to single capture (SC) is explored. The comparison between the calculation and experimental data shows that the SI/SC cross section ratios from this work are in good agreement with experimental data. The total single electron ionization cross sections and the total single electron capture cross sections are also given for this collision. The investigation of the partial electron capture cross section shows a general tendency of capture to larger n and l with increasing velocity from 1.2 to 1.9 a.u

  10. Synthesizing single-phase β-FeSi2 via ion beam irradiations of Fe/Si bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosavljevic, M.; Dhar, S.; Schaaf, P.; Bibic, N.; Lieb, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results on the direct synthesis of the β-FeSi 2 phase by ion beam mixing of Fe/Si bilayers with Xe ions. The influence of the substrate temperature, ion fluence and energy on the growth of this phase was investigated using Rutherford backscattering (RBS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). Complete growth of single-phase β-FeSi 2 was achieved by 205 keV Xe ion irradiation to a fluence of 2x10 16 ions/cm 2 at 600 deg. C. We propose a two-step reaction mechanism involving thermal and ion beam energy deposition

  11. Calculation of single phase AC and monopolar DC hybrid corona effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T.; Sebo, S.A.; Kasten, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    Operating a hybrid HVac and HVdc line is an option for increasing the efficiency of power transmission and overcoming the difficulties in obtaining a new right-of-way. This paper proposes a new calculation method for the study of hybrid line corona. The proposed method can be used to calculate dc corona losses and corona currents in dc or ac conductors for single phase ac and monopolar dc hybrid lines. Profiles of electric field strength and ion current density at ground level can be estimated. The effects of the presence of an energized ac conductor on dc conductor corona and dc voltage on ac conductor corona are included in the method. Full-scale and reduced-scale experiments were utilized to investigate the hybrid line corona effects. Verification of the proposed calculation method is given

  12. Extending the applicability of an open-ring trap to perform experiments with a single laser-cooled ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo, J. M.; Colombano, M.; Doménech, J.; Rodríguez, D., E-mail: danielrodriguez@ugr.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Block, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Institut für Kernchemie, University of Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Delahaye, P. [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds, 14000 Caen (France)

    2015-10-15

    A special ion trap was initially built up to perform β-ν correlation experiments with radioactive ions. The trap geometry is also well suited to perform experiments with laser-cooled ions, serving for the development of a new type of Penning trap, in the framework of the project TRAPSENSOR at the University of Granada. The goal of this project is to use a single {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ion as detector for single-ion mass spectrometry. Within this project and without any modification to the initial electrode configuration, it was possible to perform Doppler cooling on {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ions, starting from large clouds and reaching single ion sensitivity. This new feature of the trap might be important also for other experiments with ions produced at radioactive ion beam facilities. In this publication, the trap and the laser system will be described, together with their performance with respect to laser cooling applied to large ion clouds down to a single ion.

  13. Damage evolution in Xe-ion irradiated rutile (TiO2) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.; Sickafus, K.E.; Evans, C.R.; Nastasi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Rutile (TiO 2 ) single crystals with (110) orientation were irradiated with 360 keV Xe 2+ ions at 300 K to fluences ranging from 2 x 10 19 to 1 x 10 20 Xe/m 2 . Irradiated samples were analyzed using: (1) Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy combined with ion channeling analysis (RBS/C); and (2) cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Upon irradiation to a fluence of 2 x 10 19 Xe/m 2 , the sample thickness penetrated by the implanted ions was observed to consist of three distinct layers: (1) a defect-free layer at the surface (thickness about 12 nm) exhibiting good crystallinity; (2) a second layer with a low density of relatively large-sized defects; and (3) a third layer consisting of a high concentration of small defects. After the fluence was increased to 7 x 10 19 Xe/m 2 , a buried amorphous layer was visible by XTEM. The thickness of the amorphous layer was found to increase with increasing Xe ion fluence. The location of this buried amorphous layer was found to coincide with the measured peak in the Xe concentration (measured by RBS/C), rather than with the theoretical maximum in the displacement damage profile. This observation suggests the implanted Xe ions may serve as nucleation sites for the amorphization transformation. The total thickness of the damaged microstructure due to ion irradiation was always found to be much greater than the projected range of the Xe ions. This is likely due to point defect migration under the high stresses induced by ion implantation

  14. Approaches in controllable generation of artificial pinning center in REBa2Cu3O y -coated conductor for high-flux pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y.; Miura, S.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Ichino, Y.; Awaji, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Ichinose, A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper reviews the progress of studies to determine optimum shapes of the artificial pinning center (APC) of REBa2Cu3O y thin films and coated conductors towards superconducting magnets operating at temperatures of 77 K or less. Superconducting properties vary depending on the kind and quantity of BaMO3 materials. Therefore, we study changes in the shapes of nanorods that are due to the difference in the quality of additives and growth temperature. In addition, we aim to control the APC using an optimum shape that matches the operating temperature. In particular, we describe the shape control of nanorods in SmBCO thin films and coated conductors by employing lower temperature growth (LTG) technology using seed layers. From the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observations, we confirmed that using the LTG method, the BaHfO3 (BHO) nanorods, which were comparatively thin and short in length, formed a firework structure in the case of SmBCO films with coated conductors. The superconducting properties in the magnetic field of the SmBCO-coated conductor with the optimum amount of BHO showed that {F}{{p}}\\max = 1.6 TN m-3 on a single crystalline substrate and 1.5 TN m-3 on metallic substrate with a biaxially textured MgO layer fabricated by ion-beam assisted deposition method tape 4.2 K.

  15. Single-column ion chromatography with determination of hydrazoic acid produced in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guilan; Tan Shuping

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of hydrazine and its derivative with ammonium metavanadate may produce hydrazoic acid (HN 3 ). A single-column ion chromatography is used for the determination of HN 3 after neutralizing the rest acid in the sample with sodium hydroxide. Chromatography separation of HN 3 is carried out on a 25 cm x 0.46 cm (inside diameter) stainless steel column packed with Vydac IC302 ion Chromatography packing. The eluent is 1 mmol/L o-phthalic acid, and the ion is detected by conductivity detector. The detection limit in the presence chromatography is 5 μg/mL, the linear range is from 5 to 201 μg/mL, the linear correlation coefficient is 0.9994, respectively. The analysis accuracy is 2% for standard sample, and the detection limit is 51 μg/mL for HN 3 in the real sample. (authors)

  16. Single capture and transfer ionization in collisions of Clq+ projectile ions incident on helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C.L.; Giese, J.P.; Richard, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Kansas State University linac has been used to measure the ratio of the cross sections for the processes of transfer ionization (TI) and single capture (SC) for 2 MeV/amu Cl q+ where q=7, 9, 13, 14, and 15 projectile ions incident on a helium target. The ratio was determined using a helium gas jet target by measuring coincidences between projectile-ion and recoil-ion final charge states. The σ TI /σ SC for Cl q+ were compared to measurements of bare F 9+ and hydrogenlike F 8+ and O 7+ taken at the same velocity. The ratios deviate from a q 2 scaling which is predicted in the perturbative regime. This deviation is attributed to screening by the projectile electrons for low q=7 and 9, and to the collision being non-perturbative for high q. A possible saturation effect in the ratio was observed for q similar 14. (orig.)

  17. The scattering of low energy helium ions and atoms from a copper single crystal, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheij, L.K.; Poelsema, B.; Boers, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    The scattering of 4-10 keV helium ions from a copper surface cannot be completely described with elastic, single collisions. The general behaviour of the measured energy and width of the surface peak can be explained by differences in inelastic energy losses for scattering from an ideal surface and from surface structures (damage). Multiple scattering effects have a minor influence. Additional information about the inelastic processes is obtained from scattering experiments with a primary atom beam. For large angles of incidence, the energy of the reflected ions is reduced about 20 eV if the primary beam consists of atoms instead of ions. An explanation of this effect and an explanation of the different behaviour of small angles is given. In the investigated energy range, the electronic stopping power might depend on the charge state of the primary particles. The experimental results are rather well explained by the Lindhard, Scharff, Schioett theory

  18. Response of rat spinal cord to single and fractionated doses of accelerated heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, J.T.; McDonald, M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Bliven, S.F.; Howard, J.

    1982-01-01

    The thoraco-lumbar (T12-L1) region of the spinal cord of rats was exposed to either single or fractionated (four daily exposures) doses of X rays (230 kVp) or heavy ions. The heavy ions used were carbon and neon, and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of both the plateau ionization region and the midpeak region of 4-cm spread-out Bragg peaks of each heavy ion were investigated. For single doses of carbon and neon ions in the plateau ionization region, RBE values of 1.45 +/- 0.25 (propagated 95% confidence limits) and 1.46 +/- 0.33, respectively, were obtained. In the spread peak regions for carbon and neon ions, the RBE values were 1.48 +/- 0.18 and 1.86 +/- 0.42, respectively. These values were obtained using the dose needed to produce 50% paralysis in a group of irradiated rats as the isoeffect comparison dose (ED 50 dose). Similarly, in groups of rats receiving four daily exposures, the RBE values for carbon and neon ions in the plateau ionization region were 1.31 +/- 0.27 and 1.80 +/- 0.24, respectively. In the spread peak regions of ionization for carbon and neon ions, the RBE values were 1.95 +/- 0.19 and 2.18 +/- 0.23, respectively. Similar values for RBE were obtained using changes in the activity of enzymes in spinal cord tissue (cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase). Also, it was estimated that, for X irradiation, the fractional amount of dose repaired (at the ED 50 dose) was 0.64 +/- 0.10 (95% confidence limits). For carbon and neon ions in the plateau ionization region, the values for the fractional amount of dose repaired were 0.70 +/- 0.27 and 0.48 +/- 0.20, and for carbon and neon ions in the spread peak region of ionization, the fractional repair values were 0.40 +/- 0.10 and 0.52 +/- 0.17. Spinal cord tissue therefore shows a high capacity for subeffective damage repair

  19. The single-ion anisotropy effects in the mixed-spin ternary-alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Erhan

    2018-04-01

    The effect of single-ion anisotropy on the thermal properties of the ternary-alloy in the form of ABpC1-p is investigated on the Bethe lattice (BL) in terms of exact recursion relations. The simulation on the BL consists of placing A atoms (spin-1/2) on the odd shells and randomly placing B (spin-3/2) or C (spin-5/2) atoms with concentrations p and 1 - p, respectively, on the even shells. The phase diagrams are calculated in possible planes spanned by the system parameters: temperature, single-ion anisotropy, concentration and ratio of the bilinear interaction parameters for z = 3 corresponding to the honeycomb lattice. It is found that the crystal field drives the system to the lowest possible state therefore reducing the temperatures of the critical lines in agreement with the literature.

  20. Focused ion beam patterning to dielectrophoretically assemble single nanowire based devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Ferrara, V; Massera, E; Francia, G Di; Alfano, B

    2010-01-01

    Direct-write processing is increasingly taking place in nanodevice fabrication. In this work, Focused Ion Beam (FIB), a powerful tool in maskless micromachining, is used for electrode patterning onto a silicon/silicon nitride substrate. Then a single palladium nanowire is assembled between electrodes by means of dielectrophoresis (DEP). The nanowire morphology depends on the electrode pattern when DEP conditions are fixed. FIB/DEP combination overcomes the problem of nanowire electrical contamination due to gallium ion bombardment and the as-grown nanowire retains its basic electrical properties. Single nanowire based devices have been fabricated with this novel approach and have been tested as hydrogen sensors, confirming the reliability of this technology.

  1. A generalized Jaynes-Cummings model: The relativistic parametric amplifier and a single trapped ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda-Guillén, D., E-mail: dojedag@ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Cómputo, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Bátiz esq. Av. Miguel Othón de Mendizábal, Col. Lindavista, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Mota, R. D. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Unidad Culhuacán, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Santa Ana No. 1000, Col. San Francisco Culhuacán, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04430 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Granados, V. D. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    We introduce a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model and study some of its properties. We obtain the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of this model by using the tilting transformation and the squeezed number states of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. As physical applications, we connect this new model to two important and novelty problems: the relativistic parametric amplifier and the quantum simulation of a single trapped ion.

  2. Single and double electron capture in collisions of highly ionized, decelerated Ge ions with Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehlker, T.; Kozhuharov, C.; Mokler, P.H.; Olson, R.E.; Stachura, Z.; Warczak, A.

    1992-03-01

    Experimental cross-sections for non-radiative single and double electron capture from Ne target into H-like Ge ions at low intermediate collision energies (4-12) MeV/u are presented. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and an empirical scaling rule. Information concerning the impact parameter dependence of electron capture is extracted using classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. (orig.)

  3. Anisotropy effect of crater formation on single crystal silicon surface under intense pulsed ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Yu, Xiao; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Haowen; Cui, Xiaojun; Liang, Guoying; Yu, Xiang; Huang, Wanying; Shahid, Ijaz; Zhang, Xiaofu; Yan, Sha; Le, Xiaoyun

    2018-04-01

    Due to the induced extremely fast thermal and dynamic process, Intense Pulsed Ion Beam (IPIB) is widely applied in material processing, which can bring enhanced material performance and surface craters as well. To investigate the craters' formation mechanism, a specific model was built with Finite Element Methods (FEM) to simulate the thermal field on irradiated single crystal silicon. The direct evidence for the existence of the simulated 6-fold rotational symmetric thermal distribution was provided by electron microscope images obtained on single crystal silicon. The correlation of the experiment and simulation is of great importance to understand the interaction between IPIB and materials.

  4. Heisenberg magnetic chain with single-ion easy-plane anisotropy: Hubbard operators approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirin, D.V.; Fridman, Y.A.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the gap in excitation spectrum of one-dimensional S=1 ferro- and antiferromagnets with easy-plane single-ion anisotropy. The self-consistent modification of Hubbard operators approach which enables to account single-site term exactly is used. For antiferromagnetic model we found Haldane phase that exists up to point D=4J (where D is anisotropy parameter, J is exchange coupling), while quadrupolar phase realizes at larger values of anisotropy. Our results specify those of Golinelli et al. (Phys. Rev. B. 45 (1992) 9798), where similar model was studied. Besides the method gives gap value closer to numerical estimations than usual spin-wave theories

  5. Heavy Ion Irradiation Fluence Dependence for Single-Event Upsets of NAND Flash Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Ladbury, Raymond; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Seidleck, Christina; LaBel, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the single-event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the Micron 16 nm NAND flash, and found the single-event upset (SEU) cross section varied inversely with fluence. The SEU cross section decreased with increasing fluence. We attribute the effect to the variable upset sensitivities of the memory cells. The current test standards and procedures assume that SEU follow a Poisson process and do not take into account the variability in the error rate with fluence. Therefore, heavy ion irradiation of devices with variable upset sensitivity distribution using typical fluence levels may underestimate the cross section and on-orbit event rate.

  6. Experimental study on heavy-ion single event effect on nanometer DDR SRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yinhong; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Zhou Hui; Wang Yanping; Zhang Keying

    2013-01-01

    Single event effect experimental study on 90 nm and 65 nm DDR SRAM were carried out, single event upset (SEU) cross section was discussed as a function of several parameters such as feature size, test pattern, incidence angle, supply voltage. Key influence factors and effect rule were analyzed. Feasibility of the current test method was discussed. Results indicate that, SEU cross section reduces as technologies scale down; the influence of test pattern and power supply on SEU cross section is small; tilt angle increases SEU cross section due to multiple upset increasement. The applicability of cosine tilt test method is correlative to ion species and linear energy transfer (LET) values. (authors)

  7. Investigating change of properties in gallium ion irradiation patterned single-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Quan, E-mail: wangq@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Dong, Jinyao; Bai, Bing [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xie, Guoxin [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-10-14

    Besides its excellent physical properties, graphene promises to play a significant role in electronics with superior properties, which requires patterning of graphene for device integration. Here, we presented the changes in properties of single-layer graphene before and after patterning using gallium ion beam. Combined with Raman spectra of graphene, the scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) image confirmed that a metal–insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. The changes in work function and Raman spectra of graphene indicated that the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. The patterning width of graphene presented an increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate. - Highlights: • The scanning capacitance microscopy image confirmed a metal–insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. • The changes indicated the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. • The patterning width of graphene presented a increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate.

  8. Single-crate stand-alone CAMAC control system for a negative ion source test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, R.C.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1979-01-01

    A single-crate CAMAC system was configured to control a negative ion source development facility at ORNL and control software was written for the crate microcomputer. The software uses inputs from a touch panel and a shaft encoder to control the various operating parameters of the test facility and uses the touch panel to display the operating status. Communication to and from the equipment at ion source potential is accomplished over optical fibers from an ORNL-built CAMAC module. A receiver at ion source potential stores the transmitted data and some of these stored values are then used to control discrete parameters of the ion source (i.e., power supply on or off). Other stored values are sent to a multiplexed digital-to-analog converter to provide analog control signals. A transmitter at ion source potential transmits discrete status information and several channels of analog data from an analog-to-digital converter back to the ground-potential receiver where it is stored to be read and displayed by the software

  9. Impact of temperature on single event upset measurement by heavy ions in SRAM devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tianqi; Geng Chao; Zhang Zhangang; Gu Song; Tong Teng; Xi Kai; Hou Mingdong; Liu Jie; Zhao Fazhan; Liu Gang; Han Zhengsheng

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of single event upset (SEU) measurement both in commercial bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) has been investigated by experiment in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). For commercial bulk SRAM, the SEU cross section measured by 12 C ions is very sensitive to the temperature. The temperature test of SEU in SOI SRAM was conducted by 209 Bi and 12 C ions, respectively, and the SEU cross sections display a remarkable growth with the elevated temperature for 12 C ions but keep constant for 209 Bi ions. The impact of temperature on SEU measurement was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. It is revealed that the SEU cross section is significantly affected by the temperature around the threshold linear energy transfer of SEU occurrence. As the SEU occurrence approaches saturation, the SEU cross section gradually exhibits less temperature dependency. Based on this result, the experimental data measured in HIRFL was analyzed, and then a reasonable method of predicting the on-orbit SEU rate was proposed. (semiconductor devices)

  10. Quantum phase transitions in spin-1 X X Z chains with rhombic single-ion anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Wang, Yimin; You, Wen-Long

    2018-04-01

    We explore numerically the inverse participation ratios in the ground state of one-dimensional spin-1 X X Z chains with the rhombic single-ion anisotropy. By employing the techniques of density-matrix renormalization group, effects of the rhombic single-ion anisotropy on various information theoretical measures are investigated, such as the fidelity susceptibility, the quantum coherence, and the entanglement entropy. Their relations with the quantum phase transitions are also analyzed. The phase transitions from the Y -Néel phase to the large-Ex or the Haldane phase can be well characterized by the fidelity susceptibility. The second-order derivative of the ground-state energy indicates all the transitions are of second order. We also find that the quantum coherence, the entanglement entropy, the Schmidt gap, and the inverse participation ratios can be used to detect the critical points of quantum phase transitions. Results drawn from these quantum information observables agree well with each other. Finally we provide a ground-state phase diagram as functions of the exchange anisotropy Δ and the rhombic single-ion anisotropy E .

  11. Towards radiocarbon dating of single foraminifera with a gas ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, L.; Lippold, J.; Molnár, M.; Schulz, H.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate shells from foraminifera are often analysed for radiocarbon to determine the age of deep-sea sediments or to assess radiocarbon reservoir ages. However, a single foraminiferal test typically contains only a few micrograms of carbon, while most laboratories require more than 100 μg for radiocarbon dating with an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system. The collection of the required amount of foraminifera for a single analyses is therefore time consuming and not always possible. Here, we present a convenient method to measure the radiocarbon content of foraminifera using an AMS system fitted with a gas ion source. CO2 is liberated from 150 to 1150 μg of carbonate in septum sealed vials by acid decomposition of the carbonate. The CO2 is collected on a zeolite trap and subsequently transferred to a syringe from where it is delivered to the ion source. A sample of 400 μg (50 μg C) typically gives a 12C- ion source current of 10-15 μA over 20 min, yielding a measurement precision of less than 7 per mil for a modern sample. Using this method, we were able to date a single 560 μg Cibicides pseudoungerianus test at 14,030 ± 160 radiocarbon years. Only a minor modification to our existing gas handling system was required and the system is fully automatable to further reduce the effort involved for sample preparation.

  12. Towards radiocarbon dating of single foraminifera with a gas ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, L.; Lippold, J.; Molnár, M.; Schulz, H.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate shells from foraminifera are often analysed for radiocarbon to determine the age of deep-sea sediments or to assess radiocarbon reservoir ages. However, a single foraminiferal test typically contains only a few micrograms of carbon, while most laboratories require more than 100 μg for radiocarbon dating with an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system. The collection of the required amount of foraminifera for a single analyses is therefore time consuming and not always possible. Here, we present a convenient method to measure the radiocarbon content of foraminifera using an AMS system fitted with a gas ion source. CO 2 is liberated from 150 to 1150 μg of carbonate in septum sealed vials by acid decomposition of the carbonate. The CO 2 is collected on a zeolite trap and subsequently transferred to a syringe from where it is delivered to the ion source. A sample of 400 μg (50 μg C) typically gives a 12 C − ion source current of 10–15 μA over 20 min, yielding a measurement precision of less than 7 per mil for a modern sample. Using this method, we were able to date a single 560 μg Cibicides pseudoungerianus test at 14,030 ± 160 radiocarbon years. Only a minor modification to our existing gas handling system was required and the system is fully automatable to further reduce the effort involved for sample preparation.

  13. Towards radiocarbon dating of single foraminifera with a gas ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, L., E-mail: wacker@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Lippold, J. [Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Molnar, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Schulz, H. [Institute for Geosciencies, University of Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Carbonate shells from foraminifera are often analysed for radiocarbon to determine the age of deep-sea sediments or to assess radiocarbon reservoir ages. However, a single foraminiferal test typically contains only a few micrograms of carbon, while most laboratories require more than 100 {mu}g for radiocarbon dating with an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system. The collection of the required amount of foraminifera for a single analyses is therefore time consuming and not always possible. Here, we present a convenient method to measure the radiocarbon content of foraminifera using an AMS system fitted with a gas ion source. CO{sub 2} is liberated from 150 to 1150 {mu}g of carbonate in septum sealed vials by acid decomposition of the carbonate. The CO{sub 2} is collected on a zeolite trap and subsequently transferred to a syringe from where it is delivered to the ion source. A sample of 400 {mu}g (50 {mu}g C) typically gives a {sup 12}C{sup -} ion source current of 10-15 {mu}A over 20 min, yielding a measurement precision of less than 7 per mil for a modern sample. Using this method, we were able to date a single 560 {mu}g Cibicides pseudoungerianus test at 14,030 {+-} 160 radiocarbon years. Only a minor modification to our existing gas handling system was required and the system is fully automatable to further reduce the effort involved for sample preparation.

  14. Raman spectroscopy and single-photon source in an ion-cavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves de Barros, H.

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis explores the interaction between a single trapped 40Ca+ ion and the electromagnetic field inside a high-finesse optical cavity. The coupling takes place via the use of a vacuum stimulated Raman transition, which transfers atomic population from the S1/2 to the D3/2 manifolds of the calcium ion producing a photon in the cavity. This photon is measured and properties of the system are evaluated. Spectroscopy measurements of the Raman transitions are performed and all possible transitions are identified for different polarizations of both drive laser and cavity fields. The system is also used to deterministically produce single photons. Simulation curves quantitatively match the experimental results within calibration error bars. The single-photon creation efficiency obtained in this work overcomes previous ion-cavity setups and is comparable to state-of-the-art systems composed of a neutral atom and a cavity operating in the strong coupling regime. (author)

  15. Polymeric conductors and superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    The production of electrically conductive polymers which are flexible ans capable of being shaped by normal processes, is discussed. The relation between the structure of the polymer and its ability to transport electric charge is considered. The main problem is to combine high conductivity with good processability and it is shown that stacked-planar systems are superior to conjugated polymers. Good mechanical properties have yet to be achieved. In some way the rigid pi-bonded systems must be combined with a conventional sigma-bonded polymer without destroying its flexibility and tensile properties. The structure will contain a radical ion system to provide charge carriers but it is not yet known how to design the polymer structure to give high carrier mobility. Further work is required on organic superconductors in unravelling the relationship between charge carrier mobility and the supermolecular structure of polymers. (UK)

  16. A new Theory for frequencies computation of overhead lines with bundle conductors.

    OpenAIRE

    dubois, Hervé; Dal Maso, Filipo; Lilien, Jean-Louis

    1991-01-01

    Vertical, horizontal and torsional mechanical frequencies are studies for both single and bundle conductor lines. Models and tests are presented. These data are of particular impact on galloping phenomenon. Peer reviewed

  17. Infrared laser dissociation of single megadalton polymer ions in a gated electrostatic ion trap: the added value of statistical analysis of individual events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Mohammad A; Clavier, Christian; Dagany, Xavier; Kerleroux, Michel; Dugourd, Philippe; Dunbar, Robert C; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2018-05-07

    In this study, we report the unimolecular dissociation mechanism of megadalton SO 3 -containing poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) polymer cations and anions with the aid of infrared multiphoton dissociation coupled to charge detection ion trap mass spectrometry. A gated electrostatic ion trap ("Benner trap") is used to store and detect single gaseous polymer ions generated by positive and negative polarity in an electrospray ionization source. The trapped ions are then fragmented due to the sequential absorption of multiple infrared photons produced from a continuous-wave CO 2 laser. Several fragmentation pathways having distinct signatures are observed. Highly charged parent ions characteristically adopt a distinctive "stair-case" pattern (assigned to the "fission" process) whereas low charge species take on a "funnel like" shape (assigned to the "evaporation" process). Also, the log-log plot of the dissociation rate constants as a function of laser intensity between PAMPS positive and negative ions is significantly different.

  18. Application of the parametric proper generalized decomposition to the frequency-dependent calculation of the impedance of an AC line with rectangular conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancarlos-González Abel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AC lines of industrial busbar systems are usually built using conductors with rectangular cross sections, where each phase can have several parallel conductors to carry high currents. The current density in a rectangular conductor, under sinusoidal conditions, is not uniform. It depends on the frequency, on the conductor shape, and on the distance between conductors, due to the skin effect and to proximity effects. Contrary to circular conductors, there are not closed analytical formulas for obtaining the frequency-dependent impedance of conductors with rectangular cross-section. It is necessary to resort to numerical simulations to obtain the resistance and the inductance of the phases, one for each desired frequency and also for each distance between the phases’ conductors. On the contrary, the use of the parametric proper generalized decomposition (PGD allows to obtain the frequency-dependent impedance of an AC line for a wide range of frequencies and distances between the phases’ conductors by solving a single simulation in a 4D domain (spatial coordinates x and y, the frequency and the separation between conductors. In this way, a general “virtual chart” solution is obtained, which contains the solution for any frequency and for any separation of the conductors, and stores it in a compact separated representations form, which can be easily embedded on a more general software for the design of electrical installations. The approach presented in this work for rectangular conductors can be easily extended to conductors with an arbitrary shape.

  19. Application of the parametric proper generalized decomposition to the frequency-dependent calculation of the impedance of an AC line with rectangular conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancarlos-González, Abel; Pineda-Sanchez, Manuel; Puche-Panadero, Ruben; Sapena-Bano, Angel; Riera-Guasp, Martin; Martinez-Roman, Javier; Perez-Cruz, Juan; Roger-Folch, Jose

    2017-12-01

    AC lines of industrial busbar systems are usually built using conductors with rectangular cross sections, where each phase can have several parallel conductors to carry high currents. The current density in a rectangular conductor, under sinusoidal conditions, is not uniform. It depends on the frequency, on the conductor shape, and on the distance between conductors, due to the skin effect and to proximity effects. Contrary to circular conductors, there are not closed analytical formulas for obtaining the frequency-dependent impedance of conductors with rectangular cross-section. It is necessary to resort to numerical simulations to obtain the resistance and the inductance of the phases, one for each desired frequency and also for each distance between the phases' conductors. On the contrary, the use of the parametric proper generalized decomposition (PGD) allows to obtain the frequency-dependent impedance of an AC line for a wide range of frequencies and distances between the phases' conductors by solving a single simulation in a 4D domain (spatial coordinates x and y, the frequency and the separation between conductors). In this way, a general "virtual chart" solution is obtained, which contains the solution for any frequency and for any separation of the conductors, and stores it in a compact separated representations form, which can be easily embedded on a more general software for the design of electrical installations. The approach presented in this work for rectangular conductors can be easily extended to conductors with an arbitrary shape.

  20. Electronic properties of single Ge/Si quantum dot grown by ion beam sputtering deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Ke, S Y; Yang, J; Hu, W D; Qiu, F; Wang, R F; Yang, Y

    2015-03-13

    The dependence of the electronic properties of a single Ge/Si quantum dot (QD) grown by the ion-beam sputtering deposition technique on growth temperature and QD diameter is investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). The Si-Ge intermixing effect is demonstrated to be important for the current distribution of single QDs. The current staircase induced by the Coulomb blockade effect is observed at higher growth temperatures (>700 °C) due to the formation of an additional barrier between dislocated QDs and Si substrate for the resonant tunneling of holes. According to the proposed single-hole-tunneling model, the fact that the intermixing effect is observed to increase as the incoherent QD size decreases may explain the increase in the starting voltage of the current staircase and the decrease in the current step width.

  1. Experimental study of single-electron loss by Ar+ ions in rare-gas atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, P. G.; Castillo, F.; Martínez, H.

    2001-04-01

    Absolute differential and total cross sections for single-electron loss were measured for Ar+ ions on rare-gas atoms in the laboratory energy range of 1.5 to 5.0 keV. The electron loss cross sections for all the targets studied are found to be in the order of magnitude between 10-19 and 10-22 cm2, and show a monotonically increasing behaviour as a function of the incident energy. The behaviour of the total single-electron loss cross sections with the atomic target number, Zt, shows different dependences as the collision energy increases. In all cases the present results display experimental evidence of saturation in the single-electron loss cross section as the atomic number of the target increases.

  2. Fabrication of 5 cm long epitaxial Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9-x} single buffer layer on textured Ni-5%W substrate for YBCO coated conductors via dip-coating PACSD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, M.; Wang, W.T.; Pu, M.H.; Yang, X.S.; He, L.J. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, New South Wales (Australia); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@home.swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)] [Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, New South Wales (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Epitaxial Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9-x} single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors was deposited via fluorine-free dip-coating CSD. Flat, dense and crack-free SCO films with sharp (2 0 0) c-axis texture were obtained by carefully controlling the processing. YBCO thin films with a homogeneous surface microstructure were deposited on the SCO-buffered NiW substrate via CSD approach. Five centimeters long epitaxial Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9-x} (SCO) single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors was deposited via dip-coating polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition (PACSD) approach on bi-axially textured Ni-5%W (2 0 0) alloy substrate. The film formation and texture evolution were investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Flat, dense and crack-free SCO films with sharp (2 0 0) c-axis texture were obtained by way of carefully controlling the concentration of precursor solution, withdrawing speed, annealing temperature and dwelling time. On consideration of both microstructure and texture, epitaxial SCO single buffer layers were fabricated using precursor solution of 0.3 M cationic concentration, the withdrawing speed of 10 mm/min and heat treatment at 1100 deg. C in Ar-5%H{sub 2} mixture gas for 0.5 h. Epitaxial YBCO thin films with a homogeneous surface microstructure were deposited on the SCO-buffered NiW substrate via dip-coating PACSD approach. The PACSD approach was a promising way to fabricate long and low-cost YBCO coated conductors.

  3. Scattering of atomic and molecular ions from single crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoest, J.M. van.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with analysis of crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe with Low Energy Ion scattering Spectroscopy (LEIS). Different atomic and molecular ions with fixed energies below 7 keV are scattered by a metal single crystal (with adsorbates). The energy and direction of the scattered particles are analysed for different selected charge states. In that way information can be obtained concerning the composition and atomic and electronic structure of the single crystal surface. Energy spectra contain information on the composition of the surface, while structural atomic information is obtained by direction measurements (photograms). In Ch.1 a description is given of the experimental equipment, in Ch.2 a characterization of the LEIS method. Ch.3 deals with the neutralization of keV-ions in surface scattering. Two different ways of data interpretation are presented. First a model is treated in which the observed directional dependence of neutralization action of the first atom layer of the surface is presented by a laterally varying thickness of the neutralizing layer. Secondly it is shown that the data can be reproduced by a more realistic, physical model based on atomic transition matrix elements. In Ch.4 the low energy hydrogen scattering is described. The study of the dissociation of H 2 + at an Ag surface r0230ted in a model based on electronic dissociation, initialized by electron capture into a repulsive (molecular) state. In Ch.5 finally the method is applied to the investigation of the surface structure of oxidized Fe. (Auth.)

  4. Experimental determination of electron shock excitation cross sections for a singly charged gadolinium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Yu.M.

    1995-01-01

    The trends observed in the processes of excitation with simultaneous ionization have received little study. This is particularly so for rare-earth elements having electron shells of complex structure and optical spectra very rich in lines. Among the basic factors responsible for such a situation, we should mention two: the difficulty presented by theoretical analysis of the processes discussed and the absence of factual information about the excitation cross sections with simultaneous ionization for the majority of rare-earth elements. The aim of the present work is to investigate the excitation of a singly charged gadolinium ion in the collisions of monokinetic electrons with gadolinium atoms. Up to the present time, only the excitation cross sections of a gadolinium atom have been measured, where investigation of the electron shock excitation of gadolinium atoms in their free state is associated with overcoming large experimental difficulties. About 160 crosss sections for the excitation of a singly charged gadolinium ion were measured and for a third of the cross sections; the energy dependences were recorded for the change in energy of the elecrons from the excitation threshold up to 200 eV. Included are tables of the wavelength, transistion, internal quantum number, the energy of the lowere and upper levels, and the values of cross sections for the charged gadolinium ion. Diagrams of the transistion energy states of Gd (II) and spectroscopy are presented and explained

  5. Design and Fabrication of a Single Cusp Magnetic Field Type Hydrogen ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Hun

    1996-02-15

    A single-cusp type hydrogen ion source has been designed and fabricated. In order to increase the efficiency of the plasma production, a single-cusp type magnet circuit and an electrostatic reflector were installed. The Poission Group Code was used to predict the distribution of magnetic field in the plasma chamber. In order to design the accel.-decel. extraction part for forming the ion beam with low emmitance and high current density, EGUN code was used. The results of calculation show that the configuration of plasma electrode strongly affects the beam quality and the deceleration electrode only functions the repression of the electron stream. When the plasma-accel potential is -20kV and an accel.-decel. potential is 1kV, the calculated extraction current, normalized emittance and perveance are 20.6mA, 1.28x 10{sup -7} m {center_dot} rad and 7.87 x 10{sup -9}A {center_dot} V{sup -3/2}, respectively. This study on the improvement of beam quality and the achievement of high ion beam current will contribute to the analysis of fusion plasma and the research on the surface physics.

  6. Design and Fabrication of a Single Cusp Magnetic Field Type Hydrogen ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Hun

    1996-02-01

    A single-cusp type hydrogen ion source has been designed and fabricated. In order to increase the efficiency of the plasma production, a single-cusp type magnet circuit and an electrostatic reflector were installed. The Poission Group Code was used to predict the distribution of magnetic field in the plasma chamber. In order to design the accel.-decel. extraction part for forming the ion beam with low emmitance and high current density, EGUN code was used. The results of calculation show that the configuration of plasma electrode strongly affects the beam quality and the deceleration electrode only functions the repression of the electron stream. When the plasma-accel potential is -20kV and an accel.-decel. potential is 1kV, the calculated extraction current, normalized emittance and perveance are 20.6mA, 1.28x 10 -7 m · rad and 7.87 x 10 -9 A · V -3/2 , respectively. This study on the improvement of beam quality and the achievement of high ion beam current will contribute to the analysis of fusion plasma and the research on the surface physics

  7. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua, E-mail: gh-du@impcas.ac.cn; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Ruqun; Wei, Junzhe [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Guo, Jinlong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou (China); Chen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou (China)

    2016-03-15

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}.

  8. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Ruqun; Wei, Junzhe; Guo, Jinlong; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10"−"3 s"−"1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10"−"2 s"−"1.

  9. Trapped-ion anomalous diffusion coefficient on the basis of single mode saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Yuji; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Ogasawara, Masatada.

    1982-03-01

    Expressions of the anomalous diffusion coefficient due to the dissipative trapped ion instability (DTII) are derived for the case with and without the effect of magnetic shear. Derivation is made by taking into account of the single mode saturation of the DTII previously obtained numerically. In the absence of the shear effect, the diffusion coefficient is proportional to #betta#sub(i)a 2 (#betta#sub(i) is the effective collision frequency of the trapped ions and a is the minor radius of a torus) and is much larger than the neoclassical ion heat conductivity. In the presence of the shear effect, the diffusion coefficient is much smaller than the Kadomtsev and Pogutse's value and is the same order of magnitude as the neoclassical ion heat conductivity. Dependences of the diffusion coefficient on the temperature and on the total particle number density are rather complicated due to the additional spectral cut-off, which is introduced to regularize the short wavelength modes in the numerical analysis. (author)

  10. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Chen, Hao; Wei, Junzhe

    2016-03-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10-3 s-1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10-2 s-1.

  11. Progress in scale-up of second-generation HTS conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Reeves, J.; Rar, A.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K.

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been recently made in the achievement of high-performance, high-speed, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS conductors. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), SuperPower has scaled up tape lengths to 427 m with a minimum critical current value of 191 A/cm corresponding to a critical current x length performance of 81,550 m. Tape speeds up to 120 m/h have been reached with IBAD MgO, up to 80 m/h with buffer deposition and up to 45 m/h with MOCVD, all in single pass processing of 12 mm wide tape. Critical current value of 227 A/cm has been achieved in a 203 m long tape produced in an all-high-speed fabrication process. Critical current values have been raised to 721 A/cm, 592 A/cm and 486 A/cm in short, reel-to-reel processed tape, over 1 m length and over 11.1 m, respectively, using thicker MOCVD HTS films. Finally, over 10,000 m of copper-stabilized, 4 mm wide conductor has been produced and tested for delivery to the Albany Cable project. The average critical current of the 10,000 m lot was 81 A

  12. Progress in scale-up of second-generation HTS conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)], E-mail: vselva@igc.com; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Reeves, J.; Rar, A.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Tremendous progress has been recently made in the achievement of high-performance, high-speed, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS conductors. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), SuperPower has scaled up tape lengths to 427 m with a minimum critical current value of 191 A/cm corresponding to a critical current x length performance of 81,550 m. Tape speeds up to 120 m/h have been reached with IBAD MgO, up to 80 m/h with buffer deposition and up to 45 m/h with MOCVD, all in single pass processing of 12 mm wide tape. Critical current value of 227 A/cm has been achieved in a 203 m long tape produced in an all-high-speed fabrication process. Critical current values have been raised to 721 A/cm, 592 A/cm and 486 A/cm in short, reel-to-reel processed tape, over 1 m length and over 11.1 m, respectively, using thicker MOCVD HTS films. Finally, over 10,000 m of copper-stabilized, 4 mm wide conductor has been produced and tested for delivery to the Albany Cable project. The average critical current of the 10,000 m lot was 81 A.

  13. Propensity rules for orientation in singly-charged ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.E.; Dubois, A.; Hansen, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Orientation effects for electron capture and excitation in singly-charged ion-atom collisions are analysed using the atomic basis impact parameter method with full inclusion of electron translational factors. We find that the orientation preferences previously predicted for excitation in terms of propensity rules may still be observed when capture is present in ion-atom collisions. Furthermore, in spite of intricate behaviour of the direct capture couplings during the collision, we draw some parallel conclusions for the orientation of the capture states. We illustrate these perturbative predictions by close-coupling calculations for H + -Na(3s) collisions where clear propensity for orientation of the H(2p) capture state is demonstrated in impact parameter and velocity dependences. Finally we predict pronounced orientation effects for H(2s) and H(2p) capture in collisions of H + with initially oriented Na(3p) states. (author)

  14. Quantum sensing of the phase-space-displacement parameters using a single trapped ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Peter A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2018-03-01

    We introduce a quantum sensing protocol for detecting the parameters characterizing the phase-space displacement by using a single trapped ion as a quantum probe. We show that, thanks to the laser-induced coupling between the ion's internal states and the motion mode, the estimation of the two conjugated parameters describing the displacement can be efficiently performed by a set of measurements of the atomic state populations. Furthermore, we introduce a three-parameter protocol capable of detecting the magnitude, the transverse direction, and the phase of the displacement. We characterize the uncertainty of the two- and three-parameter problems in terms of the Fisher information and show that state projective measurement saturates the fundamental quantum Cramér-Rao bound.

  15. Xe ion beam induced rippled structures on differently oriented single-crystalline Si surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg; Facsko, Stefan [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, PO Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich, E-mail: A.Hanisch@fzd.d [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2010-03-24

    We report on Xe{sup +} induced ripple formation at medium energy on single-crystalline silicon surfaces of different orientations using substrates with an intentional miscut from the [0 0 1] direction and a [1 1 1] oriented wafer. The ion beam incidence angle with respect to the surface normal was kept fixed at 65{sup 0} and the ion beam projection was parallel or perpendicular to the [1 1 0] direction. By a combination of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy we found that the features of the surface and subsurface rippled structures such as ripple wavelength and amplitude and the degree of order do not depend on the surface orientation as assumed in recent models of pattern formation for semiconductor surfaces. (fast track communication)

  16. Raman spectroscopic investigations of swift heavy ion irradiation effects in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olejniczak, A.; Skuratov, V.A.; Lukaszewicz, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the results on swift heavy ion irradiation effects in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Buckypapers, prepared of CVD grown, SWNTs were irradiated at room temperature with 167 MeV Xe ions to fluences in the range of 6×10 11 - 6.5×10 13 cm -2 and investigated using Raman spectroscopy. We observed a rich set of features in the intermediate frequency mode region. Some of them, being defect-induced, resembled fairly well the phonon density of states (DOS) of nanocrystalline glassy carbon. Analysis of the RBM modes has shown that the broader metallic tubes are characterized by higher radiation stability than thinner semiconducting ones. (authors)

  17. Ion feedback suppression using inclined MCP holes in a 'single-MCP+micromegas+pads' detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.; Sumiyoshi, T.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the ion backflow to photocathode can be completely suppressed if one uses inclined MCP holes in the presence of a magnetic field. The inclined hole angles are chosen to be aligned with the Lorentz electron angle allowing the electron transmission and amplification, while positive ions, traveling along a different angle, are caught on the MCP hole walls. The detector under investigation is a new gaseous detector structure based on a tandem of two parts, a single MCP (microchannel plate), a micromegas with pad readout. We are aiming to develop a gaseous photon detector with the Bialkali photocathode, however, one could use some ideas in the paper for other types of detectors

  18. Irradiation damage in aluminium single crystals produced by 50-keV aluminium and copper ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.

    1968-01-01

    Aluminium single crystals, thin enough to be examined by electron microscopy, have been irradiated with 50-keV aluminium and copper ions. The irradiation fluxes were in the range 1011–1014 cm−2 s−1 and the doses were from 6 × 1012 to 6 × 1014 cm−2. Irradiation along either a or a direction produces...... rows of dislocation loops all lying parallel to one particular direction. If the aluminium target is quenched from 600 °C and annealed at room temperature prior to irradiation with aluminium ions, the rows of loops are suppressed. The amount of damage observed is considerably less than would...

  19. An efficient single-step scheme for manipulating quantum information of two trapped ions beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.F.; Nori, Franco

    2003-01-01

    Based on the exact conditional quantum dynamics for a two-ion system, we propose an efficient single-step scheme for coherently manipulating quantum information of two trapped cold ions by using a pair of synchronous laser pulses. Neither the auxiliary atomic level nor the Lamb-Dicke approximation are needed

  20. Swift heavy ion induced single event upsets in high density UV-EPROM's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahiwale, S.S. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 7 (India); Shinde, N.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Mie University (Japan); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 7 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 7 (India)], E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2008-04-15

    A few high density UV-EPROM's (32Kb x 8) were irradiated with 5.41 MeV energy {alpha}-particles with fluences from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 8} alphas/cm{sup 2} and 100 MeV nickel, iodine and silver ions for low fluences between 5 x 10{sup 7} and 10{sup 8} ions/cm{sup 2}. The energy and ion species was selected on the basis of predicted threshold values of linear energy transfer (LET) in silicon. The program which was stored in the memory found to be changed from 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 state, respectively. On the basis of changed states, the cross-sections ({sigma}) were calculated to investigate the single event effects/upsets. No upset was observed in case of {alpha}-particle since it has very low LET, but the SEU cross-section found to be more in case of Iodine i.e. 2.29 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} than that of nickel, 2.12 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} and silver, 2.26 x 10{sup -3}. This mainly attributes that LET for iodine is more as compared to silver and nickel ions, which deposits large amount of energy near the sensitive node of memory cell in the form of electron-hole pairs required to change the state. These measured SEU cross-section were also compared with theoretically predicted values along with the Weibull distribution fit to the ion induced experimental SEU data. The theoretical predicted SEU cross-section 3.27 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} found to be in good agreement with the measured SEU cross-section.

  1. Power distribution: conductors in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of aluminium conductors in medium and low-voltage cables. The author discusses how the increasing price of copper has led to the increasing use of aluminium as a material for the production of the conductors used in medium and low-voltage power cables. Aid is provided that is to help purchasers make the correct decisions when buying medium and low-voltage cables. The current market situation is examined and the appropriate norms are looked at. Technical data and economic aspects are discussed, both for medium and low-voltage applications. The electrical characteristics of the type of cable to be used are examined and discussed

  2. Pulse Propagation on close conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dieckmann, A

    2001-01-01

    The propagation and reflection of arbitrarily shaped pulses on non-dispersive parallel conductors of finite length with user defined cross section is simulated employing the discretized telegraph equation. The geometry of the system of conductors and the presence of dielectric material determine the capacities and inductances that enter the calculation. The values of these parameters are found using an iterative Laplace equation solving procedure and confirmed for certain calculable geometries including the line charge inside a box. The evolving pulses and the resulting crosstalk can be plotted at any instant and - in the Mathematica notebook version of this report - be looked at in an animation. As an example a differential pair of microstrips as used in the ATLAS vertex detector is analysed.

  3. Electrical characterization of single cells using polysilicon wire ion sensor in an isolation window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You-Lin; Hsu, Po-Yen; Hsu, Chung-Ping; Wang, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Li-Wen; Lin, Jing-Jenn

    2011-10-01

    A polysilicon wire (PSW) sensor can detect the H(+) ion density (pH value) of the medium coated on its surface, and different cells produce different extracellular acidification and hence different H(+) ion densities. Based on this, we used a PSW sensor in combination with a mold-cast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) isolation window to detect the adhesion, apoptosis and extracellular acidification of single normal cells and single cancer cells. Single living human normal cells WI38, MRC5, and BEAS-2B as well as non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells A549, H1299, and CH27 were cultivated separately inside the isolation window. The current flowing through the PSW channel was measured. From the PSW channel current change as a function of time, we determined the cell adhesion time by observing the time required for the current change to saturate, since a stable extracellular ion density was established after the cells were completely adhered to the PSW surface. The apoptosis of cells can also be determined when the channel current change drops to zero. We found that all the NSCLC cells had a higher channel current change and hence a lower pH value than the normal cells anytime after they were seeded. The corresponding average pH values were 5.86 for A549, 6.00 for H1299, 6.20 for CH27, 6.90 for BEAS-2B, 6.96for MRC5, and 7.02 for WI38, respectively, after the cells were completely adhered to the PSW surface. Our results show that NSCLC cells have a stronger cell-substrate adhesion and a higher extracellular acidification rate than normal cells.

  4. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  5. Coated Conductors under Tensile Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonevici, Anca; Villaume, Alain; Villard, Catherine; Sulpice, Andre; Maron, Pierre Brosse; Bourgault, Daniel; Porcar, Laureline

    2006-01-01

    Critical current dependence versus strain is obtained for in-situ axial stress experiments on ISD YBCO and DyBCO coated conductors. The drop of critical current due to the apparition of first cracks in the superconducting ceramics is related to the passage in the plastic region of the substrate for a strain of about 0.3% and a stress higher then 500MPa. The superconductivity is preserved between the cracks

  6. Subattoampere current induced by single ions in silicon oxide layers of nonvolatile memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Larcher, L.; Visconti, A.; Bonanomi, M.

    2006-01-01

    A single ion impinging on a thin silicon dioxide layer generates a number of electron/hole pairs proportional to its linear energy transfer coefficient. Defects generated by recombination can act as a conductive path for electrons that cross the oxide barrier, thanks to a multitrap-assisted mechanism. We present data on the dependence of this phenomenon on the oxide thickness by using floating gate memory arrays. The tiny number of excess electrons stored in these devices allows for extremely high sensitivity, impossible with any direct measurement of oxide leakage current. Results are of particular interest for next generation devices

  7. Effects of ion beam heating on Raman spectra of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulman, Martin; Skakalova, Viera; Krasheninnikov, A. V.; Roth, S.

    2009-01-01

    Free standing films of single-wall carbon nanotubes were irradiated with energetic N + and C 4+ ions. The observed changes in the Raman line shape of the radial breathing mode and the G band of the C 4+ irradiated samples were similar to those found for a thermally annealed sample. We ascribe these changes to thermal desorption of volatile dopants from the initially doped nanotubes. A simple geometry of the experiment allows us to estimate the temperature rise by one-dimensional heat conductance equation. The calculation indicates that irradiation-mediated increase in temperature may account for the observed Raman spectra changes

  8. Quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains with exchange and single-ion anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D; Selke, W; McCulloch, I P

    2010-01-01

    Using density matrix renormalization group calculations, ground state properties of the spin-1 Heisenberg chain with exchange and quadratic single-ion anisotropies in an external field are studied, for special choices of the two kinds of anisotropies. In particular, the phase diagram includes antiferromagnetic, spin-liquid (or spin-flop), IS2, and supersolid (or biconical) phases. Especially, new features of the spin-liquid and supersolid phases are discussed. Properties of the quantum chains are compared to those of corresponding classical spin chains.

  9. Tetrathiapentalene-based organic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Yohji

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, structure and properties of tetrathiapentalene-based (TTP) organic conductors are reviewed. Among various TTP-type donors, bis-fused tetrathiafulvalene, 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) and its derivatives afford many metallic radical cation salts stable down to low temperatures, regardless of the size and shape of the counter anions. Most BDT-TTP conductors have a β-type donor arrangement with almost uniform stacks. Introduction of appropriate substituents results in molecular packing that differs from the β-type. A vinylogous TTP, 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-5-(2-ethanediylidene-1,3-dithiole) -1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (DTEDT) has yielded an organic superconductor (DTEDT) 3 Au(CN) 2 as well as metallic radical cation salts, regardless of the counter anions. (Thio)pyran analogs of TTP, namely (T)PDT-TTP and its derivatives produce molecular conductors with novel molecular arrangements. A TTP analog with reduced π-electron system 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDA-TTP) has afforded several organic superconductors. Highly conducting molecular metals with unusual oxidation states (+1, +5/3 and neutral) have been developed on the basis of 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) derivatives and analogous metal derivatives M(dt) 2 (M = Ni, Au). (topical review)

  10. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar,; Harold J. , Harris; Kelvin, Christopher [Houston, TX

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  11. Development of 1 m HTS conductor using YBCO on textured metal substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Mukoyama, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Amemiya, N.; Nagaya, S.; Kashima, N.; Shiohara, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We fabricated 1 m high temperature superconducting conductor (HTS conductor) using YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x coated conductors (YBCO tapes) on textured metal substrates, which are expected to be lower in cost than YBCO tapes using ion-beam assisted deposition. Those substrate and intermediate layers were manufactured by Furukawa Electric, and YBCO and a protective layer were applied to the intermediate layer by Chubu Electric Power. Before fabricating the conductor, a 0.1 mm thick copper tape was soldered to the YBCO tape, and 10 mm wide YBCO tape was divided into three strips by a YAG laser. To have sufficient current capacity for 1 kA, a two-layer conductor was fabricated, and its critical current (I c ) was 1976 A, but the magnetic properties of the textured metal substrates affected the increase in AC loss. In a low current region, the AC loss in this conductor was much higher than the Norris strip model, but approached the Norris strip model in the high current region because the magnetization was almost saturated. Low AC loss of 0.144 W/m at 1 kA rms was achieved even though the conductor had a small outer diameter of 20 mm and was composed of YBCO tapes with magnetic substrates.

  12. Polarization bremsstrahlung of a hydrogen-like ion in a single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astapenko, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    Polarization bremsstrahlung (PB) that arises when a fast hydrogen-like ion is scattered in a single crystal is investigated theoretically. Four types of the process are analyzed that are caused by virtual excitation of electrons of the target and of the incident particle (IP), as well as by a coherent and incoherent interaction between the IP and the single crystal. The spectral, angular, and velocity (of the IP) characteristics of PB are calculated with regard to the spectral function of a photodetector. Optimal observation conditions and regions in which different types of PB are dominant are determined, and the dependence of these regions on the charge of the IP nucleus and of the target atoms is revealed

  13. High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keselman, A; Glickman, Y; Akerman, N; Kotler, S; Ozeri, R

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped 88 Sr + ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.

  14. High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keselman, A; Glickman, Y; Akerman, N; Kotler, S; Ozeri, R, E-mail: ozeri@weizmann.ac.il [Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.

  15. Experimental Verification of a Jarzynski-Related Information-Theoretic Equality by a Single Trapped Ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, T P; Yan, L L; Zhou, F; Rehan, K; Liang, D F; Chen, L; Yang, W L; Ma, Z H; Feng, M; Vedral, V

    2018-01-05

    Most nonequilibrium processes in thermodynamics are quantified only by inequalities; however, the Jarzynski relation presents a remarkably simple and general equality relating nonequilibrium quantities with the equilibrium free energy, and this equality holds in both the classical and quantum regimes. We report a single-spin test and confirmation of the Jarzynski relation in the quantum regime using a single ultracold ^{40}Ca^{+} ion trapped in a harmonic potential, based on a general information-theoretic equality for a temporal evolution of the system sandwiched between two projective measurements. By considering both initially pure and mixed states, respectively, we verify, in an exact and fundamental fashion, the nonequilibrium quantum thermodynamics relevant to the mutual information and Jarzynski equality.

  16. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption of uranium ions diluted in CdF2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, J.J.C.R.

    1976-08-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been studied in conection with the optical absortion spectra of Uranium ions diluted in CdF 2 single crystals. Analyses of the EPR and optical absorption spectra obtained experimentally, and a comparison with known results in the isomorfic CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 , allowed the identification of two paramagnetic centers associated with Uranium ions. These are the U(2+) ion in cubic symmetry having the triplet γ 5 as ground state, and the U(3+) ion in cubic symmetry having the dublet γ 6 as ground state. (Author) [pt

  17. Conductometric Determination of Single Pores in Polyethyleneterephthalate Irradiated by Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Oganesyan, V R; Dörschel, B; Vetter, J E; Danziger, M; Hermsdorf, D

    2002-01-01

    Most of previous works devoted to the problem of track formation processes did not pay enough attention to direct measurement of the appearance of every individual pore in an array of many pores induced by the irradiation of polymer films with ions. Such measurements are not easy to carry out due to the extremely high electric resistance in the moment of pore opening. In this work the analysis of films irradiated with low particle fluences up to 3.7\\cdot 10^{3} ions/cm^2 is described. Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) Hostaphan with a thickness of 20 m was used. The samples were irradiated with Bi ions of 11.4 MeV/amu energy. Using optimized etching conditions and computer aided data evaluation we obtained results, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and model calculations. The measured increase of conductivity beginning from the breakthrough of a single track up to the next pore opening in dependence on the etching time and the number of opened pores confirm the assumed model. Thus, the de...

  18. Conductometric determination of single pores in polyethyleneterephthalate irradiated by heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Oganesyan, V R; Dörschel, B; Hermsdorf, D; Trofimov, V V; Vetter, J

    2002-01-01

    Most of the previous works devoted to the problem of track formation processes did not pay enough attention to direct measurement of the appearance of every individual pore in an array of many pores induced by the irradiation of polymer films with ions. Such measurements are not easy to carry out due to the extremely high electric resistance in the moment of pore opening. In this work the analysis of films irradiated with low particle fluences up to 3.7 centre dot 10 sup 3 ions/cm sup 2 is described. Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) Hostaphan with a thickness of 20 mu m was used. The samples were irradiated with Bi ions of 11.4 MeV/amu energy. Using optimized etching conditions and computer aided data evaluation, we obtained results, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and model calculations. The measured increase of conductivity beginning from the breakthrough of a single track up to the next pore opening in dependence on the etching time and the number of opened pores confirm the assumed...

  19. Development of the IFJ single ion hit facility for cells irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselov, O.; Polak, W.; Ugenskiene, R.; Hajduk, R.; Lebed, K.; Lekki, J.; Horwacik, T.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Maranda, S.; Pieprzyca, T.; Sarnecki, C.; Stachura, Z.; Szklarz, Z.; Styczen, J.

    2005-12-01

    In recent years a single ion hit facility (SIHF) has been constructed at the IFJ ion microprobe. The setup is used for the precise irradiations of living cells by a controlled number of ions. The facility allows investigations in various aspects of biomedical research, such as adaptive response, bystander effect, inverse dose-rate effect, low-dose hypersensitivity, etc. Those investigations have two very important requirements: (i) cells must be examined in their natural state and environment, i.e. without previously being killed, and preferentially, neither fixed nor stained, and (ii) a possibility of automatic irradiation of large number of cells with a computer recognition of their positions must be provided. This work presents some of the crucial features of the off-line and on-line optical systems, including self-developed software responsible for the automatic cell recognition. We also show several tests carried out to determine the efficiency of the whole setup and some segments. In conclusion, the results of our first irradiation measurements performed with living cells are demonstrated. (author)

  20. Diode-like single-ion track membrane prepared by electro-stopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, P.Yu.; Korchev, Yu.E.; Siwy, Z.; Spohr, R.; Yoshida, M.

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of an asymmetric membrane in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is described, using a combination of chemical and electro-stopping. For this purpose, a single-ion-irradiated PET film is inserted into an electrolytic cell and etched from one side in 9 M sodium hydroxide while bathing the other side in a mixture of 2 M KCl and 2 M HCOOH (1:1 by volume), electrically retracting the OH - ions from the tip of the etch pit during pore break-through. When a preset current has been reached, the etch process is interrupted by replacing the etching solution with acidic 1 M potassium chloride solution. After etching, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic is determined under symmetric bathing conditions, immersing both sides of the membrane in KCl solutions of identical concentration (0.01-1 M) and pH (3-8). The I-V characteristic is strongly non-linear, comparable to that of an electrical diode. If the polarity during etching is reversed, pushing the OH - ions into the tip of the etch pit, the resulting pores are larger and the degree of asymmetry smaller. The importance of electro-stopping is compared with chemical stopping

  1. Nanomechanical investigation of ion implanted single crystals - Challenges, possibilities and pitfall traps related to nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpaska, Lukasz

    2017-10-01

    Nanoindentation technique have developed considerably over last thirty years. Nowadays, commercially available systems offer very precise measurement in nano- and microscale, environmental noise cancelling (or at least noise suppressing), in situ high temperature indentation in controlled atmosphere and vacuum conditions and different additional options, among them dedicated indentation is one of the most popular. Due to its high precision, and ability to measure mechanical properties from very small depths (tens of nm), this technique become quite popular in the nuclear society. It is known that ion implantation (to some extent) can simulate the influence of neutron flux. However, depth of the material damage is very limited resulting in creation of thin layer of modified material over unmodified bulk. Therefore, only very precise technique, offering possibility to control depth of the measurement can be used to study functional properties of the material. For this reason, nanoindentation technique seems to be a perfect tool to investigate mechanical properties of ion implanted specimens. However, conducting correct nanomechanical experiment and extracting valuable mechanical parameters is not an easy task. In this paper a discussion about the nanoindentation tests performed on ion irradiated YSZ single crystal is presented. The goal of this paper is to discuss possible traps when studying mechanical properties of such materials and thin coatings.

  2. Conductometric determination of single pores in polyethyleneterephthalate irradiated by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, V.R.; Trofimov, V.V.; Doerschel, B.; Hermsdorf, D.; Vetter, J.; Danziger, M.

    2002-01-01

    Most of the previous works devoted to the problem of track formation processes did not pay enough attention to direct measurement of the appearance of every individual pore in an array of many pores induced by the irradiation of polymer films with ions. Such measurements are not easy to carry out due to the extremely high electric resistance in the moment of pore opening. In this work the analysis of films irradiated with low particle fluences up to 3.7·10 3 ions/cm 2 is described. Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) Hostaphan with a thickness of 20μm was used. The samples were irradiated with Bi ions of 11.4 MeV/amu energy. Using optimized etching conditions and computer aided data evaluation, we obtained results, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and model calculations. The measured increase of conductivity beginning from the breakthrough of a single track up to the next pore opening in dependence on the etching time and the number of opened pores confirm the assumed model. Thus, the developed 'track-by-track' method can be used effectively for description of the sequential appearance of individual pores in an electrolytic etching process

  3. Complete momentum balance for single ionization of helium by fast ion impact: I. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, R.; Kollmus, H.; Unverzagt, M.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Wood, C.J.; Olson, R.E.

    1997-02-01

    The collision dynamics of He single ionization by 3.6 MeV/u Se 28+ impact was explored using the GSI-reaction microscope, a high resolution integrated multi electron - recoil-ion momentum spectrometer. The complete three particle final state momentum distribution (9 cartesian components p i ) was imaged with a resolution of Δp i ∼ ±0.1 a.u. by measuring the three momentum components of the emitted electron and the recoiling target-ion in coincidence. The projectile energy loss has been determined on a level of ΔE p /E p ∼ 10 -7 and projectile scattering angles as small as Δθ ∼ 10 -7 rad became accessible. The experimental data which are compared with results of classical trajectory Monte-Carlo (CTMC) calculations reveal an unprecedented insight into the details of the electron emission and the collision dynamics for ionization of helium by fast heavy-ion impact. (orig.)

  4. Complete momentum balance for single ionization of helium by fast ion impact: I. Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshammer, R.; Kollmus, H.; Unverzagt, M.; Schmidt-Boecking, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Ullrich, J.; Schmitt, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Wood, C.J.; Olson, R.E. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-02-01

    The collision dynamics of He single ionization by 3.6 MeV/u Se{sup 28+} impact was explored using the GSI-reaction microscope, a high resolution integrated multi electron - recoil-ion momentum spectrometer. The complete three particle final state momentum distribution (9 cartesian components p{sub i}) was imaged with a resolution of {Delta}p{sub i} {approx} {+-}0.1 a.u. by measuring the three momentum components of the emitted electron and the recoiling target-ion in coincidence. The projectile energy loss has been determined on a level of {Delta}E{sub p}/E{sub p} {approx} 10{sup -7} and projectile scattering angles as small as {Delta}{theta} {approx} 10{sup -7}rad became accessible. The experimental data which are compared with results of classical trajectory Monte-Carlo (CTMC) calculations reveal an unprecedented insight into the details of the electron emission and the collision dynamics for ionization of helium by fast heavy-ion impact. (orig.)

  5. Designing Artificial Solid-Electrolyte Interphases for Single-Ion and High-Efficiency Transport in Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2017-09-21

    Substrates able to rectify transport of ions based on charge and/or size are ubiquitous in biological systems. Electrolytes and interphases that selectively transport electrochemically active ions are likewise of broad interest in all electrical energy storage technologies. In lithium-ion batteries, electrolytes with single- or near-single-ion conductivity reduce losses caused by ion polarization. In emergent lithium or sodium metal batteries, they maintain high conductivity at the anode and stabilize metal deposition by fundamental mechanisms. We report that 20- to 300-nm-thick, single-ion-conducting membranes deposited at the anode enable electrolytes with the highest combination of cation transference number, ionic conductivity, and electrochemical stability reported. By means of direct visualization we find that single-ion membranes also reduce dendritic deposition of Li in liquids. Galvanostatic measurements further show that the electrolytes facilitate long (3 mAh) recharge of full Li/LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells with high cathode loadings (3 mAh cm−2/19.9 mg cm−2) and at high current densities (3 mA cm−2).

  6. Single and binary adsorption of Cd (Ⅱ) and Zn (Ⅱ) ions from aqueous solutions onto bottom ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukpreabprom, Hatairat; Arqueropanyo, Orn-anong; Naksata, Wimol; Janhom, Sorapong [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Sooksamiti, Ponlayuth [The Office of Primary Industries and Mines Region 3, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2015-05-15

    Bottom ash, a waste obtained from coal-burning power plant, was used as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Cd (Ⅱ) and Zn (Ⅱ) ions from single and binary systems in batch experiments. The results of adsorption capacity showed that bottom ash could be considered as a potential adsorbent. The uptake of Zn (Ⅱ) ion was greater than that of Cd (Ⅱ) ion. For single adsorption, based on the correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) values, both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms suitably described the adsorption equilibrium data in the initial metal ion concentration range of 10-50 mg/L. The multicomponent isotherms, including the extended Langmuir and IAST-Freundlich isotherms, were used to predict the binary adsorption of Cd (Ⅱ) and Zn (Ⅱ) ions. Furthermore, the appropriate multicomponent isotherm was investigated by minimizing the average relative error (ARE) function. It should be confirmed that the extended Langmuir isotherm fitted the binary adsorption equilibrium data satisfactorily.

  7. Second-generation HTS conductors

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in 1986 by two IBM scientists led to an unprecedented explosion of research and development efforts world-wide because of the significant potential for practical applications offered by these materials. However, the early euphoria created by the exciting prospects was dampened by the daunting task of fabricating these materials into useful forms with acceptable superconducting properties. Progress towards this goal has been hindered by many intrinsic materials problems, such as weak-links, flux-creep, and poor mechanical properties. The above problems led to the development of the Second-Generation of HTS wires. Three methods were invented to produce flexible metallic substrates, which were also crystallographically biaxially textured, and resembled a long, mosaic single crystal. The first method invented is the Ion-Beam-Assisted-Deposition (IBAD). The second method developed was the Inclined-Substrate-Deposition (ISD). The third method invented is calle...

  8. Ion implantation effects in single crystal Si investigated by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriman, T.A.; Lucca, D.A.; Lee, J.-K.; Klopfstein, M.J.; Herrmann, K.; Nastasi, M.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the effects of Ar ion implantation on the structural transformation of single crystal Si investigated by confocal Raman spectroscopy is presented. Implantation was performed at 77 K using 150 keV Ar ++ with fluences ranging from 2 x 10 13 to 1 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . The Raman spectra showed a progression from crystalline to highly disordered structure with increasing fluence. The 520 cm -1 c-Si peak was seen to decrease in intensity, broaden and exhibit spectral shifts indicating an increase in lattice disorder and changes in the residual stress state. In addition, an amorphous Si band first appeared as a shoulder on the 520 cm -1 peak and then shifted to lower wavenumbers as a single broadband peak with a spectral center of 465 cm -1 . Additionally, the emergence of the a-Si TA phonon band and the decrease of the c-Si 2TA and 2TO phonon bands also indicated the same structural transition from crystalline to highly disordered. The Raman results were compared to those obtained by channeling RBS.

  9. Elimination of ion losses in the EhGP-10-1 charge-exchange accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridrikh, M.

    1986-01-01

    To improve the ion transit factor in the EhGP-10-1 charge-exchange accelerator the injector ion-optical properties are studied. The injector operates at constant high voltage U a -23 kV. Using an immersion lens the negative ion energy before entering the accelerating tube is increased up to energy proportional to the conductor voltage. A single electrostatic lens provides a cross-over in the vicinity of immersion lens. By reducing the electric field gradient at the accelerating tube inlet, optimizing input electrode voltage and shifting the single lens by 0.26 m towards the accelerating tube inlet almost full beam transit is attained at all conductor voltages

  10. Transparent conductor based on aluminum nanomesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarkin, B; Mohammed, A S; Stsiapanau, A; Zhuk, S; Satskevich, Y; Smirnov, A

    2014-01-01

    We report a transparent conductor based on Al nanomesh, which was fabricated through Al anodization and etching processes. The Al anodization was performed at low temperature condition to slow down the anodization rate to achieve the well-controlled thickness of an Al nanomesh. By careful controlling of the anodization process, we can fabricate Al nanomesh transparent conductors with different sheet resistance and optical transparency in the visible spectrum range. We shall show that Al nanomesh transparent conductor is a strong contender for a transparent conductor dominated by ITO

  11. Irreversible properties of YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostner, A.

    2001-02-01

    Over the past few years substantial efforts were made to optimize the fabrication techniques of various high temperature superconductors for commercial applications. In addition to Bi-2223 tapes, Y-123 coated conductors have the potential for large-scale production and are considered as the second generation of superconducting 'wires' for high current applications. This work reports on magnetic and transport current investigations of Y-123 thick films deposited on either single crystalline substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or on metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). At the beginning, a short introduction of the general idea of a coated conductor and of the different production techniques is presented, followed by a description of the different experimental set-ups and the evaluation methods. The main part starts with the results obtained from SQUID magnetometry and ac-susceptibility measurements including the transition temperatures T c , the field dependence of the magnetic critical current densities and the irreversibility lines. In addition, some issues concerning the granular structure and the inter- and intragranular current distribution of the superconducting films are discussed. The investigations by transport currents are focused on the behavior of the application relevant irreversible parameters. These are the angular and the field dependence of the critical transport current densities at 77 and 60 K, as well as the temperature dependence of the irreversibility fields up to 6 T. To gain more insight into the defect structure of the films, neutron irradiation studies were performed on some samples. The introduction of these artificial pinning centers causes large enhancements of the magnetic J c in LPE specimens for the field parallel to the c-axis (H//c) at higher temperatures and magnetic fields. The granular structure of the samples does not change up to the highest neutron fluences. However, the enhancements of the transport J c

  12. Effective tuning of the ratio of red to green emission of Ho"3"+ ions in single LiLuF_4 microparticle via codoping Ce"3"+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wei; Dong, Jun; Liu, Jihong; Yan, Xuewen

    2016-01-01

    Yb"3"+/Ho"3"+ codoped LiLuF_4 microparticles have been successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. The crystal phase and morphology of LiLuF_4 microparticles were inspected by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, respectively. The upconversion emission of single LiLuF_4: Yb"3"+/Ho"3"+ microparticle was carefully studied by a confocal microscopy setup under NIR 980 nm excitation. With the increase of Ce"3"+ ion concentrations of 12%, the ratio of red to green emission of the Ho"3"+ ions of single LiLuF_4 microparticle was boosted about 17-fold, and the output colors were tuned from green to red, which is due to the two efficient cross-relaxation between Ho"3"+ and Ce"3"+ ions enhances the red and suppresses the green in the emission processes. To investigate the optical properties of the single microparticle or nanoparticle through the confocal microscopy setup can effectively avoid the influence of surrounding particle or environment, and could provide more precise information for better exploring the emission mechanisms of rare earth ions. The tunable upconversion emission of Ho"3"+ in single LiLuF_4 microparticle in this work will have great potential applications in the micro optoelectronic devices and color display applications. - Highlights: • The optical properties of the single LiLuF4: Yb3+/Ho3+/Ce3+ microparticle were studied. • The output colors of single LiLuF4 microparticle were tuned from green to red. • The upconversion mechanisms between Ho3+ and Ce3+ ions were discussed based on emission spectrum.

  13. Tetrathiapentalene-based organic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misaki, Yohji, E-mail: misaki@eng.ehime-u.ac.j [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The synthesis, structure and properties of tetrathiapentalene-based (TTP) organic conductors are reviewed. Among various TTP-type donors, bis-fused tetrathiafulvalene, 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) and its derivatives afford many metallic radical cation salts stable down to low temperatures, regardless of the size and shape of the counter anions. Most BDT-TTP conductors have a {beta}-type donor arrangement with almost uniform stacks. Introduction of appropriate substituents results in molecular packing that differs from the {beta}-type. A vinylogous TTP, 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-5-(2-ethanediylidene-1,3-dithiole) -1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (DTEDT) has yielded an organic superconductor (DTEDT){sub 3}Au(CN){sub 2} as well as metallic radical cation salts, regardless of the counter anions. (Thio)pyran analogs of TTP, namely (T)PDT-TTP and its derivatives produce molecular conductors with novel molecular arrangements. A TTP analog with reduced {pi}-electron system 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDA-TTP) has afforded several organic superconductors. Highly conducting molecular metals with unusual oxidation states (+1, +5/3 and neutral) have been developed on the basis of 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) derivatives and analogous metal derivatives M(dt){sub 2} (M = Ni, Au). (topical review)

  14. Fabrication process of a superconducting multifilament conductor of a cable and resulting electric conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, A.; Verhaege, T.; Bonnet, P.

    1990-01-01

    Elementary conductors constituted of a plurality of superconducting filaments in a metallic matrix are prepared and then twisted. Elementary conductors with a diameter between 0.05 and 0.25 mm without electric insulation are twisted after heating with a pitch of four time the diameter, finally the conductor is insulated [fr

  15. Features of produced flows of multiply charged ions at interaction of laser radiation with single-component solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedilov, M.R.; Bedilov, R.M.; Beysembaeva, H.B.; Sabitov, M.S.; Kamalova, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The results of study features of formation multiply charged ions spectra of single-component solids depending on a target element composition in an interval of laser radiation power density q = 10 7 / 10 12 W/cm 2 with using of the laser multiply charged mass spectrometer [1] are given in this work. As single-component targets are used Be, B, C, Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Ta, W, Pt, Au as tablets in diameter of 10 mm and thickness of 3-5 mm. Analysis of the obtained mass-charge and energy spectra of multiply charged ions depending on a target element composition has allowed us to find features of formation spectra and escape multiply charged ions of a single-component targets. These features consist in characteristic changes: a threshold produced of ions; formation of mass-charge and energy spectra of multiply charged ions; nonlinear dependence of maximal charge number (Z max ) of ions from power density (q) of the laser; etc. Experimentally it was found that, with target atomic weight increase, threshold power of ions occurrence, nonlinearity ionization target structure, and intensity of ions, and energy spectra of ions increase. Let's note that, in case of targets Be, B, C, Al by laser radiation it is completely ionized and multiply charged ions and nuclei Be 4+ , B 5+ , C 6+ , Al 13+ are formed. The major level of ionization is attained in case of targets from Ti (Ti 17+ ) and Co (Co 18+ ). It is peculiar that structure formation and escape of multiply charged ion flows with Z max and nuclei depending on target element composition corresponds to various maximal values q of the laser. Increase of the maximal charge number of ions (atoms) observed with increase q of the laser for all investigated targets has nonlinear dependence in various levels that is especially shown beginning from q≥ 10 11 W/cm 2 . It is found that depending on target element composition multiply charged ions have a wide energy range with a maximum of allocation. With increase

  16. How to resolve microsecond current fluctuations in single ion channels: The power of beta distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A main ingredient for the understanding of structure/function correlates of ion channels is the quantitative description of single-channel gating and conductance. However, a wealth of information provided from fast current fluctuations beyond the temporal resolution of the recording system is often ignored, even though it is close to the time window accessible to molecular dynamics simulations. This kind of current fluctuations provide a special technical challenge, because individual opening/closing or blocking/unblocking events cannot be resolved, and the resulting averaging over undetected events decreases the single-channel current. Here, I briefly summarize the history of fast-current fluctuation analysis and focus on the so-called “beta distributions.” This tool exploits characteristics of current fluctuation-induced excess noise on the current amplitude histograms to reconstruct the true single-channel current and kinetic parameters. A guideline for the analysis and recent applications demonstrate that a construction of theoretical beta distributions by Markov Model simulations offers maximum flexibility as compared to analytical solutions. PMID:26368656

  17. Electron quantum optics in ballistic chiral conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquillon, Erwann; Freulon, Vincent; Parmentier, Francois D.; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Placais, Bernard; Feve, Gwendal [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS (UMR 8551), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jerome; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, La Garde (France); Grenier, Charles; Ferraro, Dario; Degiovanni, Pascal [Universite de Lyon, Federation de Physique Andre Marie Ampere, CNRS - Laboratoire de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon (France)

    2014-01-15

    The edge channels of the quantum Hall effect provide one dimensional chiral and ballistic wires along which electrons can be guided in an optics-like setup. Electronic propagation can then be analyzed using concepts and tools derived from optics. After a brief review of electron optics experiments performed using stationary current sources which continuously emit electrons in the conductor, this paper focuses on triggered sources, which can generate on-demand a single particle state. It first outlines the electron optics formalism and its analogies and differences with photon optics and then turns to the presentation of single electron emitters and their characterization through the measurements of the average electrical current and its correlations. This is followed by a discussion of electron quantum optics experiments in the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss geometry where two-particle interferences occur. Finally, Coulomb interactions effects and their influence on single electron states are considered. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Electron quantum optics in ballistic chiral conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquillon, Erwann; Freulon, Vincent; Parmentier, Francois D.; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Placais, Bernard; Feve, Gwendal; Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jerome; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry; Grenier, Charles; Ferraro, Dario; Degiovanni, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The edge channels of the quantum Hall effect provide one dimensional chiral and ballistic wires along which electrons can be guided in an optics-like setup. Electronic propagation can then be analyzed using concepts and tools derived from optics. After a brief review of electron optics experiments performed using stationary current sources which continuously emit electrons in the conductor, this paper focuses on triggered sources, which can generate on-demand a single particle state. It first outlines the electron optics formalism and its analogies and differences with photon optics and then turns to the presentation of single electron emitters and their characterization through the measurements of the average electrical current and its correlations. This is followed by a discussion of electron quantum optics experiments in the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss geometry where two-particle interferences occur. Finally, Coulomb interactions effects and their influence on single electron states are considered. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Effect of cationic substitution on the double-well hydrogen-bond potential in [K1-x(NH4)x]3H(SO4)2 proton conductors: a single-crystal neutron diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R R; Chitra, R; Selezneva, E V; Makarova, I P

    2017-10-01

    The structure of the mixed crystal [K 1-x (NH 4 ) x ] 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 as obtained from single-crystal neutron diffraction is compared with the previously reported room-temperature neutron structure of crystalline K 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 . The two structures are very similar, as indicated by the high value of their isostructurality index (94.8%). It was found that the replacement of even a small amount (3%) of K + with NH 4 + has a significant influence on the short strong hydrogen bond connecting the two SO 4 2- ions. Earlier optical measurements had revealed that the kinetics of the superionic transition in the solid solution [K 1-x (NH 4 ) x ] 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 are much faster than in K 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 ; this reported difference in the kinetics of the superionic phase transition in this class of crystal is explained on the basis of the difference in strength of the hydrogen-bond interactions in the two structures.

  20. Fully differential cross sections for the single ionization of helium by fast ions: Classical model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi, L.

    2018-04-01

    Fully differential cross sections (FDCSs) have been calculated for the single ionization of helium by 1- and 3-MeV proton and 100-MeV/u C6 + ion impact using the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method in the nonrelativistic, three-body approximation. The calculations were made employing a Wigner-type model in which the quantum-mechanical position distribution of the electron is approximated by a weighted integral of the microcanonical distribution over a range of the binding energy of the electron. In the scattering plane, the model satisfactorily reproduces the observed shape of the binary peak. In the region of the peak the calculated FDCSs agree well with the results of continuum-distorted-wave calculations for all the investigated collisions. For 1-MeV proton impact the experimentally observed shift of the binary peak with respect to the first Born approximation is compared with the shifts obtained by different higher-order quantum-mechanical theories and the present CTMC method. The best result was achieved by CTMC, but still a large part of the shift remained unexplained. Furthermore, it was found that the classical theory failed to reproduce the shape of the recoil peak observed in the experiments, it predicts a much narrower peak. This indicates that the formation of the recoil peak is dominated by quantum-mechanical effects. For 100-MeV/u C6 + ion impact the present CTMC calculations confirmed the existence of the "double-peak" structure of the angular distribution of the electron in the plane perpendicular to the momentum transfer, in accordance with the observation, the prediction of an incoherent semiclassical model, and previous CTMC results. This finding together with wave-packet calculations suggests that the "C6 + puzzle" may be solved by considering the loss of the projectile coherence. Experiments to be conducted using ion beams of anisotropic coherence are proposed for a more differential investigation of the ionization dynamics.

  1. Full characterization of laser-accelerated ion beams using Faraday cup, silicon carbide, and single-crystal diamond detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarone, D.; Krása, J.; Giuffrida, L.; Picciotto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Nowak, T.; Musumeci, P.; Velyhan, A.; Prokůpek, J.; Láska, L.; Mocek, T.; Ullschmied, J.; Rus, B.

    2011-05-01

    Multi-MeV beams of light ions have been produced using the 300 picosecond, kJ-class iodine laser, operating at the Prague Asterix Laser System facility in Prague. Real-time ion diagnostics have been performed by the use of various time-of-flight (TOF) detectors: ion collectors (ICs) with and without absorber thin films, new prototypes of single-crystal diamond and silicon carbide detectors, and an electrostatic ion mass spectrometer (IEA). In order to suppress the long photopeak induced by soft X-rays and to avoid the overlap with the signal from ultrafast particles, the ICs have been shielded with Al foil filters. The application of large-bandgap semiconductor detectors (>3 eV) ensured cutting of the plasma-emitted visible and soft-UV radiation and enhancing the sensitivity to the very fast proton/ion beams. Employing the IEA spectrometer, various ion species and charge states in the expanding laser-plasma have been determined. Processing of the experimental data based on the TOF technique, including estimation of the plasma fast proton maximum and peak energy, ion beam currents and total charge, total number of fast protons, as well as deconvolution processes, ion stopping power, and ion/photon transmission calculations for the different metallic filters used, are reported.

  2. Angle-resolved imaging of single-crystal materials with MeV helium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strathman, M D; Baumann, S [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The simplest form of angle-resolved mapping for single-crystal materials is the creation of a channeling angular scan. Several laboratories have expanded this simple procedure to include mapping as a function of two independent tilts. These angle-resolved images are particularly suited to the assessment of crystal parameters including disorder, lattice location of impurities, and lattice stress. This paper will describe the use of the Charles Evans and Associates RBS-400 scattering chamber for acquisition, display, and analysis of angle-resolved images obtained from backscattered helium ions. Typical data acquisition times are 20 min for a {+-}2deg X-Y tilt scan with 2500 pixels (8/100deg resolution), and 10 nC per pixel. In addition, we will present a method for automatically aligning crystals for channeling measurements based on this imaging technology. (orig.).

  3. Focused ion beam milling of nanocavities in single colloidal particles and self-assembled opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldering, Leon A; Otter, A M; Husken, Bart H; Vos, Willem L

    2006-01-01

    We present a new method of realizing single nanocavities in individual colloidal particles on the surface of silicon dioxide artificial opals using a focused ion beam milling technique. We show that both the radius and the position of the nanocavity can be controlled with nanometre precision, to radii as small as 40 nm. The relation between the defect size and the milling time has been established. We confirmed that milling not only occurs on the surface of the spheres, but into and through them as well. We also show that an array of nanocavities can be fashioned. Structurally modified colloids have interesting potential applications in nanolithography, as well as in chemical sensing and solar cells, and as photonic crystal cavities

  4. Single Ion transient-IBIC analyses of semiconductor devices using a cryogenic temperature stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.; Legge, G.J.F.; Jagadish, C.

    1998-01-01

    A new Transient - IBIC data acquisition and analysis system at MARC is described. A discussion on the need for single ion control and temperature control is also given. The recorded signal is used as the trigger for beam pulsing. The new cryostatic temperature control stage is introduced. Data is presented on line profiles across the edge of a Au-Si junction collected over the temperature range of 25-300K using a developed C-V and I-V variable temperature stage incorporating a liquid helium cryostat. It demonstrates the potential improvements in spatial resolution in materials of long lifetime by mapping on timing windows around the prompt charge component in the charge transient

  5. Electron capture to the continuum manifestation in fully differential cross sections for ion impact single ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappina, M. F.; Fojón, O. A.; Rivarola, R. D.

    2018-04-01

    We present theoretical calculations of single ionization of He atoms by protons and multiply charged ions. The kinematical conditions are deliberately chosen in such a way that the ejected electron velocity matches the projectile impact velocity. The computed fully differential cross sections (FDCS) in the scattering plane using the continuum-distorted wave-eikonal initial state show a distinct peaked structure for a polar electron emission angle θ k = 0°. This element is absent when a first order theory is employed. Consequently, we can argue that this peak is a clear manifestation of a three-body effect, not observed before in FDCS. We discuss a possible interpretation of this new feature.

  6. Dynamics of a single ion in a perturbed Penning trap: Octupolar perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Martin; Salas, J. Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Imperfections in the design or implementation of Penning traps may give rise to electrostatic perturbations that introduce nonlinearities in the dynamics. In this paper we investigate, from the point of view of classical mechanics, the dynamics of a single ion trapped in a Penning trap perturbed by an octupolar perturbation. Because of the axial symmetry of the problem, the system has two degrees of freedom. Hence, this model is ideal to be managed by numerical techniques like continuation of families of periodic orbits and Poincare surfaces of section. We find that, through the variation of the two parameters controlling the dynamics, several periodic orbits emanate from two fundamental periodic orbits. This process produces important changes (bifurcations) in the phase space structure leading to chaotic behavior

  7. A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jinguang; Li Sen

    2014-01-01

    A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption is proposed. The protection circuit has high reliability because the voltage and current of the battery are controlled in a safe range. The protection circuit can immediately activate a protective function when the voltage and current of the battery are beyond the safe range. In order to reduce the circuit's power consumption, a sleep state control circuit is developed. Additionally, the output frequency of the ring oscillation can be adjusted continuously and precisely by the charging capacitors and the constant-current source. The proposed protection circuit is fabricated in a 0.5 μm mixed-signal CMOS process. The measured reference voltage is 1.19 V, the overvoltage is 4.2 V and the undervoltage is 2.2 V. The total power is about 9 μW. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Angle-resolved imaging of single-crystal materials with MeV helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathman, M.D.; Baumann, S.

    1992-01-01

    The simplest form of angle-resolved mapping for single-crystal materials is the creation of a channeling angular scan. Several laboratories have expanded this simple procedure to include mapping as a function of two independent tilts. These angle-resolved images are particularly suited to the assessment of crystal parameters including disorder, lattice location of impurities, and lattice stress. This paper will describe the use of the Charles Evans and Associates RBS-400 scattering chamber for acquisition, display, and analysis of angle-resolved images obtained from backscattered helium ions. Typical data acquisition times are 20 min for a ±2deg X-Y tilt scan with 2500 pixels (8/100deg resolution), and 10 nC per pixel. In addition, we will present a method for automatically aligning crystals for channeling measurements based on this imaging technology. (orig.)

  9. Luminescence of Bi3+ ions in Y3Al5O12:Bi single crystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Voznyak, T.; Vistovsky, V.; Nedilko, S.; Nikl, M.

    2007-01-01

    The absorption and cathodoluminescence spectra of single crystalline films (SCF) of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Bi garnet depending on Bi concentration were analyzed. For consideration of the nature of the UV and visible Bi-related emission bands the time-resolved luminescence of Bi 3+ (ns 2 ) ions in YAG:Bi SCF was studied at 10 K under excitation by synchrotron radiation. The difference in the excitation spectra and emission decay of the UV and visible bands has been explained via radiative relaxation from the 3 P 1,0 excited states to the 1 S 0 ground state of the isolated and pair/clustered Bi 3+ emission centers in the garnet lattice, respectively

  10. Study of clean and ion bombardment damaged silver single crystal surfaces by work function measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelvayohan, N.

    1982-06-01

    Work function values of the (110), (100) and (111) faces of silver single crystal were measured by the photoelectric emission method and found to be 4.14 +- 0.04 eV, 4.22 +-0.04 eV and 4.46 +- 0.02 eV respectively. Oxygen adsorption on the faces were studied by surface potential measurement. Strong oxygen adsorption was observed on (110) and (100) faces, whereas the (111) face was found to be inert for oxygen adsorption. Oxygen adsorption on the (111) face damaged by argon ion bombardment was also investigated. The above results were compared with those of early reported work function and oxygen adsorption values. (U.K.)

  11. Quantitative analysis of swelling on annealing of hydrogen ion implanted diamond single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    Local swelling observed upon high-temperature annealing of natural diamond single crystals implanted by 350-keV hydrogen ions with a dose of 12 10 16 cm 2 is studied. Based on room-temperature measurements, Griffith cracking criterion in combination with gas law, model quantitative calculations of the swelling size and the amount of hydrogen molecules in a swelling have been carried out for the first time. At room temperature, T 1 293 K, the amount of local elastic stresses in the upper layer of the diamond is counterbalanced by inner hydrogen pressure. Behavior of the gas bubbles with the annealing temperature increase up to 1693 K and repeated annealing at a temperature of 1743 K has been calculated [ru

  12. Energy levels of the single excited states in NaI and Na-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbini, T.M.; Wahby, A.S.

    1987-08-01

    Energy levels of the single excited 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ns( 2 S), 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 mp( 2 P), 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 md( 2 D) and 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 nf( 2 F); n=4-7, m=3-6 states for NaI and Na-like ions are calculated using the one configuration Hartree-Fock method. Good agreement is obtained between our results for the higher members of the NaI sequence and previous data from photo-absorption and beam foil experiments. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  13. Study on relations between heavy ions single event upset cross sections and γ accumulated doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui; Geng Bin; Wang Yanping; Peng Honglun; Yang Hailiang; Chen Xiaohua; Li Guozheng

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were done under 252 Cf and 60 Co γ source to study the relation between heavy ion Single Event Upset (SEU) cross sections and γ accumulated doses. There was no obvious rule and little influence of γ accumulated doses on SEU cross sections when Static Random Access Memories were in power off mode and static power on mode. In active measuring mode, the SEU cross section increased as the accumulated doses increasing when same data were written in memory cells. If reverse data, such as '55' and 'AA', were written in memory cells during the experiment, the SEU cross sections decreased to the level when memories were not irradiated under 60 Co γ source, even more small. It implied that the influence of γ accumulated doses on SEU cross sections can be set off by this method

  14. X-ray diffraction patterns of single crystals implanted with high-energy light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns of silicon and gallium arsenide single crystals implanted with high-energy protons and α-particles were studied. A various models of lattice parameter changes were analysed. The agreement between the simulation and experiment proves that the lattice parameter depth-distribution can be assumed to be proportional to vacancy distribution obtained by Monte-Carlo method and from the Biersack-Ziegler theory. Most of the X-ray experiments were performed using synchrotron source of X-ray radiation in particular in the case of back-reflection and transmission section topographic methods. The new method of direct determination of the implanted ion ranges was proposed using synchrotron radiation back-reflection section topography. A number of new interference phenomena was revealed and explained. These interferences are important in the applications of diffraction theory in studying of the real structure of implanted layers. (author)

  15. The effect of Cu{sup II} ions in L-asparagine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Ricardo C., E-mail: santana@ufg.br; Gontijo, Henrique O.; Menezes, Arthur F.; Martins, José A.; Carvalho, Jesiel F., E-mail: carvalho@ufg.br

    2016-11-15

    We report the synthesis, crystal growth, and spectroscopic characterization of L-asparagine monohydrate (LAM) single crystals doped with CuII. The crystals were successfully grown by slow cooling from a supersaturated aqueous solution up to size of 16×12×2 mm{sup 3};the effect of copper impurities in the crystals morphology was discussed. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) was used to calculate the g and hyperfine coupling (A) tensors of the CuII ions (g{sub 1}=2.044, g{sub 2}=2.105, g{sub 3}=2.383and A{sub 1}≈0, A{sub 2}=35, A{sub 3}=108 Gauss). The EPR spectra for certain orientations of the magnetic field suggest that CuII ions are coordinated to two {sup 14}N atoms. Correlating the EPR and optical absorption results, the crystal field and the Cu{sup II} orbital bond parameters were calculated. The results indicate that the paramagnetic center occupies interstitial rhombic distorted site and the ground orbital state for the unpaired electron is the d(x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}).

  16. Significantly enhanced visible light response in single TiO2 nanowire by nitrogen ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengcheng; Song, Xianyin; Si, Shuyao; Ke, Zunjian; Cheng, Li; Li, Wenqing; Xiao, Xiangheng; Jiang, Changzhong

    2018-05-01

    The metal-oxide semiconductor TiO2 shows enormous potential in the field of photoelectric detection; however, UV-light absorption only restricts its widespread application. It is considered that nitrogen doping can improve the visible light absorption of TiO2, but the effect of traditional chemical doping is far from being used for visible light detection. Herein, we dramatically broadened the absorption spectrum of the TiO2 nanowire (NW) by nitrogen ion implantation and apply the N-doped single TiO2 NW to visible light detection for the first time. Moreover, this novel strategy effectively modifies the surface states and thus regulates the height of Schottky barriers at the metal/semiconductor interface, which is crucial to realizing high responsivity and a fast response rate. Under the illumination of a laser with a wavelength of 457 nm, our fabricated photodetector exhibits favorable responsivity (8 A W-1) and a short response time (0.5 s). These results indicate that ion implantation is a promising method in exploring the visible light detection of TiO2.

  17. Single- and double-ion type cross-linked polysiloxane solid electrolytes for lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Asai, Hiroyuki

    Polymeric solid electrolytes, that have poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PMS) backbone and cross-linked network, were applied to a rechargeable lithium battery system. Single- (PMS-Li) and double-ion type (PMS-LiClO 4) electrolytes were prepared from the same prepolymers. Lithium electrode in the both electrolytes showed reversible stripping and deposition of lithium. Intercalation and deintercalation processes of lithium ion between lithium-manganese composite oxide (Li xMnO 2) electrode and the electrolytes were also confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, however, peak current decreased with several cycles in both cases. The model cell, Li/PMS-Li/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.4 mA h g -1 (per 1 g of active material, current density: 3.77 μA cm -2), and the Li/PMS-LiClO 4/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.6 mA h g -1 (current density: 75.3 μA cm -2).

  18. Luminescent single-ion magnets from Lanthanoid(III) complexes with monodentate ketone ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanetomo, Takuya; Ishida, Takayuki, E-mail: takayuki.ishida@uec.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We synthesized [Ln{sup III}(hfac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)(L)] (abbreviated as Ln-L; Ln = Gd, Tb, Eu; L = DTBK (di-t-butyl ketone), BP (benzophenone)), in which the carbonyl oxygen atom was coordinated to the Ln ion center, despite of such bulky substituents. Their crystal structures were determined by means of X-ray diffraction study. Gd-DTBK is completely isomorphous to the di-t-butyl nitroxide derivative and accordingly can be regarded as a model with the ligand spin masked. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements on Tb-DTBK and -BP showed frequency dependence, characteristic of single-ion magnets. They also displayed photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature. The quantum yields of the luminescence of Tb-DTBK and -BP (λ{sub ex} = 360 nm) were improved to 57 and 35%, respectively, from that of the starting material [TbI{sup III}(hfac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (28% at λ{sub ex} = 370 nm). Similarly, the quantum yields for Eu-DTBK and -BP were 8 and 15%, respectively, with λ{sub ex} = 400 nm, while that of the starting material [EuI{sup III}(hfac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] was 4% at λ{sub ex}=400 nm.

  19. Fabrication of hydrogel-coated single conical nanochannels exhibiting controllable ion rectification characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Huacheng; Yang, Zhe; Zhou, Jianjun; Wen, Liping; Li, Lin; Jiang, Lei

    2015-03-07

    Heterogeneous nanochannel materials that endow new functionalities different to the intrinsic properties of two original nanoporous materials have wide potential applications in nanofluidics, energy conversion, and biosensors. Herein, we report novel, interesting hydrogel-composited nanochannel devices with regulatable ion rectification characteristics. The heterogeneous nanochannel devices were constructed by selectively coating the tip side, base side, or both sides of a single conical nanochannel membrane with thin agar hydrogel layers. The tunable ion current rectification of the nanochannels in the three different coating states was systematically demonstrated by current-voltage (I-V) curves. The asymmetric ionic transport property of the conical nanochannel was further strengthened in the tip-coating state and weakened in the base-coating state, whereas the conical nanochannel showed nearly symmetric ionic transport in the dual-coating state. Repeated experiments presented insight into the good stability and reversibility of the three coating states of the hydrogel-nanochannel-integrated systems. This work, as an example, may provide a new strategy to further design and develop multifunctional gel-nanochannel heterogeneous smart porous nanomaterials.

  20. Origins of low resistivity in Al ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2011-06-01

    The origins of low resistivity in Al ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals are studied by combining Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Al-ion implantation (peak concentration: 2.6 × 1020cm-3) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The resistivity decreases from ˜104 Ω cm for un-implanted ZnO to 1.4 × 10-1 Ω cm for as-implanted, and reaches 6.0 × 10-4 Ω cm for samples annealed at 1000 °C. RBS and NRA measurements for as-implanted ZnO suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of Zn (Zni) and O (Oi), respectively. After annealing at 1000 °C, the Zni related defects remain and the Oi related defects disappear. The origin of the low resistivity in the as-implanted sample is attributed to the Zni (˜30 meV [Look et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2552 (1999)]). In contrast, the origin of the low resistivity in the sample annealed at 1000 °C is assigned to both of the Zni related defects and the electrically activated Al donor. A new PL emission appears at around 3.32 eV after annealing at 1000 °C, suggesting electrically activated Al donors.

  1. Medium-energy heavy-ion single-event-burnout imaging of power MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musseau, O.; Torres, A.; Campbell, A.B.; Knudson, A.R.; Buchner, S.; Fischer, B.; Schloegl, M.; Briand, P.

    1999-12-01

    The authors present the first experimental determination of the SEB sensitive area in a power MOSFET irradiated with a high-LET heavy-ion microbeam. They used a spectroscopy technique to perform coincident measurements of the charge collected in both source and drain junctions together, with a non-destructive technique (current limitation). The resulting charge collection images are related to the physical structure of the individual cells. These experimental data reveal the complex 3-dimensional behavior of a real structure, which can not easily be simulated using available tools. As the drain voltage is increased, the onset of burnout is reached, characterized by a sudden change in the charge collection image. Hot spots are observed where the collected charge reaches its maximum value. Those spots, due to burnout triggering events, correspond to areas where the silicon is degraded through thermal effects along a single ion track. This direct observation of SEB sensitive areas as applications for, either device hardening, by modifying doping profiles or layout of the cells, or for code calibration and device simulation.

  2. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  3. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  4. Influence of strong single-ion anisotropy on phase states of 3D and 2D frustrated magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Kosmachev, O.A.; Matunin, D.A.; Gorelikov, G.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the influence of strong single-ion anisotropy, exceeding exchange interaction, and frustrated exchange interaction on spin-wave excitation spectra and phase states using the Hubbard operators' technique, allowing the exact account of single-ion anisotropy. The results show that both the homogeneous phases (ferromagnetic and quadrupolar) and the spatially inhomogeneous phase (spiral structure) are possible in the 3D magnetic crystal. The region of existence of the spiral structure is considerably smaller than that in the analogues system, but with weak single-ion anisotropy. The situation is more complex in the 2D system; another spatially inhomogeneous state (the domain structure) can be realized in addition to the spiral magnetic structure. The phase diagrams for both the 3D and 2D systems were plotted.

  5. Self-supporting film method of silicon single crystal by ion implantation and it`s application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kazuo; Nakao, Setsuo; Niwa, Hiroaki; Miyagawa, Soji [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    A few {mu}m of thickness of self-supporting film of silicon single crystal was produced by the ion implantation and the selective etching. This materials are distinguished by a uniform film thickness, good controllability, crystallization and the mechanical strength. For applying it to device, the detailed process has to be established, because there are some improved problems such as pinhole and morphology on the surface. This materials are very useful to the basic experiment of the base for epitaxial growth under irradiation of ion beams and the ion beam analysis in the atmosphere. (S.Y.)

  6. Ionization in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization: singly charged molecular ions are the lucky survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, M; Glückmann, M; Schäfer, J

    2000-01-01

    A new model for the ionization processes in UV matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) which accounts for the major phenomena observed is presented and discussed. The model retains elements of earlier approaches, such as photoionization and photochemical reactions, but it redefines these in the light of new working questions, most importantly why only singly charged ions are detected. Based on experimental evidence, the formation of singly and multiply charged clusters by a deficiency/excess of ions and also by photoionization and subsequent photochemical processes is pointed out to be the major ionization processes, which typically occur in parallel. The generation of electrons and their partial loss into the surrounding vacuum and solid, on the one hand, results in a positively charged ion-neutral plume facilitating a high overall ionization yield. On the other hand, these electrons, and also the large excess of protonated matrix ions in the negative ion mode, induce effective ion reneutralization in the plume. These neutralization processes are most effective for the highly charged cluster ions initially formed. Their fragmentation behaviour is evidenced in fast metastable fragmentation characteristics and agrees well with an electron capture dissociation mechanism and the enthalpy transfer upon neutralization forms the rationale for the prominent fragmentation and intense chemical noise accompanying successful MALDI. Within the course of the paper, cross-correlations with other desorption/ionization techniques and with earlier discussions on their mechanisms are drawn. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Transport AC losses in YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majoros, M [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ye, L [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Velichko, A V [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Coombs, T A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Sumption, M D [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Collings, E W [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Transport AC loss measurements have been made on YBCO-coated conductors prepared on two different substrate templates-RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate) and IBAD (ion-beam-assisted deposition). RABiTS samples show higher losses compared with the theoretical values obtained from the critical state model, with constant critical current density, at currents lower than the critical current. An origin of this extra AC loss was demonstrated experimentally by comparison of the AC loss of two samples with different I-V curves. Despite a difference in I-V curves and in the critical currents, their measured losses, as well as the normalized losses, were practically the same. However, the functional dependence of the losses was affected by the ferromagnetic substrate. An influence of the presence of a ferromagnetic substrate on transport AC losses in YBCO film was calculated numerically by the finite element method. The presence of a ferromagnetic substrate increases transport AC losses in YBCO films depending on its relative magnetic permeability. The two loss contributions-transport AC loss in YBCO films and ferromagnetic loss in the substrate-cannot be considered as mutually independent.

  8. CDW-EIS model for single-electron capture in ion-atom collisions involving multielectronic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abufager, P N; MartInez, A E; Rivarola, R D; Fainstein, P D

    2004-01-01

    A generalization of the continuum distorted wave eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) approximation, for the description of single-electron capture in ion-atom collisions involving multielectronic targets is presented. This approximation is developed within the framework of the independent electron model taking particular care of the representation of the bound and continuum target states. Total cross sections for single-electron capture from the K-shell of He, Ne and Ar noble gases by impact of bare ions are calculated. Present results are compared to previous CDW-EIS ones and to experimental data

  9. PAC study of ionic motion in silver compound superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekata, M.; Seguchi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Ionic motion in superionic conductors, Ag 2 S, Ag 2 Se and Ag 3 SI was investigated by γ-γ PAC on 111 Cd. Diffusion constant measurements showed that probe ions migrate almost as fast as Ag + ions above 500 K in Ag 2 S and Ag 2 Se and above 700 K in Ag 3 SI. Multivalent impurities were found to be unstable in AgI and Ag 2 Te. The correlation time of ionic motion was deduced from the observed relaxation rate together with the diffusion constants. The correlation time and its activation energy increase in order of Ag 2 S, Ag 2 Se and Ag 3 SI. The flight distance of Ag + ions remains almost constant in the measured temperature range. (Auth.)

  10. Investigation of radial dose effect on single event upset cross-section due to heavy ions using GEANT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boorboor, S.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Jafari, H.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy ions are the main cause to produce single event upset (SEU) damage on electronic devices since they are high LET radiations. The dimension of electronic components in new technology, arise a challenge in radiation effect estimations. Accurate investigations require fully considering the ion track in energy deposition as a radial dose distribution. In this work, the distribution of delta rays as well as LET have been calculated to determine ionization structure around ion track by a Monte Carlo code, GEANT4. The radial dose of several heavy ions with different energy in silicon was investigated and compared with the works by other authors in this field. The results showed that heavy ions with identical LET can have different SEU cross-section in silicon transistors. As a demonstrative example, according to our results, the error probability for 4.8 GeV iron was 8 times greater than that for 15 MeV carbon ions, in transistors with new process technology which have small dimension and low critical charges. Our results show that considering radial dose distribution considerably improves the accuracy of the SEU cross-section estimation in electronic devices especially for new technologies. - Highlights: • The single event upset is produced by heavy ions interaction on electronic devices. • The radial dose of several heavy ions in silicon was calculated by GEANT4. • Heavy ions with identical LET had different SEU cross-section in silicon transistors. • Low dimension and critical charge devices were more sensitive to radial dose effect

  11. Space and phase resolved ion energy and angular distributions in single- and dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States); Moore, Nathaniel; Pribyl, Patrick; Gekelman, Walter [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The control of ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) is critically important for anisotropic etching or deposition in microelectronic fabrication processes. With single frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs), the narrowing in angle and spread in energy of ions as they cross the sheath are definable functions of frequency, sheath width, and mean free path. With increases in wafer size, single frequency CCPs are finding difficulty in meeting the requirement of simultaneously controlling plasma densities, ion fluxes, and ion energies. Dual-frequency CCPs are being investigated to provide this flexible control. The high frequency (HF) is intended to control the plasma density and ion fluxes, while the ion energies are intended to be controlled by the low frequency (LF). However, recent research has shown that the LF can also influence the magnitude of ion fluxes and that IEADs are determined by both frequencies. Hence, separate control of fluxes and IEADs is complex. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computational investigation of Ar/O{sub 2} plasma properties in an industrial reactor are discussed. The IEADs are tracked as a function of height above the substrate and phase within the rf cycles from the bulk plasma to the presheath and through the sheath with the goal of providing insights to this complexity. Comparison is made to laser-induced fluorescence experiments. The authors found that the ratios of HF/LF voltage and driving frequency are critical parameters in determining the shape of the IEADs, both during the transit of the ion through the sheath and when ions are incident onto the substrate. To the degree that contributions from the HF can modify plasma density, sheath potential, and sheath thickness, this may provide additional control for the IEADs.

  12. Irradiation of zinc single crystal with 500 keV singly-charged carbon ions: surface morphology, structure, hardness, and chemical modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas Khaliq, M.; Butt, M. Z.; Saleem, Murtaza

    2017-07-01

    Cylindrical specimens of (1 0 4) oriented zinc single crystal (diameter  =  6 mm and length  =  5 mm) were irradiated with 500 keV C+1 ions with the help of a Pelletron accelerator. Six specimens were irradiated in an ultra-high vacuum (~10‒8 Torr) with different ion doses, namely 3.94  ×  1014, 3.24  ×  1015, 5.33  ×  1015, 7.52  ×  1015, 1.06  ×  1016, and 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-2. A field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was utilized for the morphological study of the irradiated specimens. Formation of nano- and sub-micron size rods, clusters, flower- and fork-like structures, etc, was observed. Surface roughness of the irradiated specimens showed an increasing trend with the ions dose. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) helped to determine chemical modifications in the specimens. It was found that carbon content varied in the range 22.86-31.20 wt.% and that oxygen content was almost constant, with an average value of 10.16 wt.%. The balance content was zinc. Structural parameters, i.e. crystallite size and lattice strain, were determined by Williamson-Hall analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the irradiated specimens. Both crystallite size and lattice strain showed a decreasing trend with the increasing ions dose. A good linear relationship between crystallite size and lattice strain was observed. Surface hardness depicted a decreasing trend with the ions dose and followed an inverse Hall-Petch relation. FTIR spectra of the specimens revealed that absorption bands gradually diminish as the dose of singly-charged carbon ions is increased from 3.94  ×  1014 ions cm-1 to 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-1. This indicates progressive deterioration of chemical bonds with the increase in ion dose.

  13. Correlation of precursor and product ions in single-stage high resolution mass spectrometry. A tool for detecting diagnostic ions and improving the precursor elemental composition elucidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borràs, S. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, A., E-mail: anton.kaufmann@klzh.ch [Official Food Control Authority, Fehrenstrasse 15, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland); Companyó, R. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We are describing a technique to spot ions which are derived from each other. ► Single stage high resolution data is used. ► This “in silicon” technique is compared to conventional precursor scan. ► Some applications for this technique are presented. -- Abstract: Monitoring of common diagnostic fragments is essential for recognizing molecules which are members of a particular compound class. Up to now, unit resolving tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, operating in the precursor ion scan mode, have been typically used to perform such analysis. By means of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) a much more sensitive and selective detection can be achieved. However, using a single-stage HRMS instrument, there is no unequivocal link to the corresponding precursor ion, since such instrumentation does not permit a previous precursor selection. Thus, to address this limitation, an in silico approach to locate precursor ions, based on diagnostic fragments, was developed. Implemented as an Excel macro, the algorithm rapidly assembles and surveys exact mass data to provide a list of feasible precursor candidates according to the correlation of the chromatographic peak shape profile and other additional filtering criteria (e.g. neutral losses and isotopes). The macro was tested with two families of veterinary drugs, sulfonamides and penicillins, which are known to yield diagnostic product ions when fragmented. Data sets obtained from different food matrices (fish and liver), both at high and low concentration of the target compounds, were investigated in order to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the reported approach. Finally, other possible applications of this technique, such as the elucidation of elemental compositions based on product ions and corresponding neutral losses, were also presented and discussed.

  14. Correlation of precursor and product ions in single-stage high resolution mass spectrometry. A tool for detecting diagnostic ions and improving the precursor elemental composition elucidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borràs, S.; Kaufmann, A.; Companyó, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We are describing a technique to spot ions which are derived from each other. ► Single stage high resolution data is used. ► This “in silicon” technique is compared to conventional precursor scan. ► Some applications for this technique are presented. -- Abstract: Monitoring of common diagnostic fragments is essential for recognizing molecules which are members of a particular compound class. Up to now, unit resolving tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, operating in the precursor ion scan mode, have been typically used to perform such analysis. By means of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) a much more sensitive and selective detection can be achieved. However, using a single-stage HRMS instrument, there is no unequivocal link to the corresponding precursor ion, since such instrumentation does not permit a previous precursor selection. Thus, to address this limitation, an in silico approach to locate precursor ions, based on diagnostic fragments, was developed. Implemented as an Excel macro, the algorithm rapidly assembles and surveys exact mass data to provide a list of feasible precursor candidates according to the correlation of the chromatographic peak shape profile and other additional filtering criteria (e.g. neutral losses and isotopes). The macro was tested with two families of veterinary drugs, sulfonamides and penicillins, which are known to yield diagnostic product ions when fragmented. Data sets obtained from different food matrices (fish and liver), both at high and low concentration of the target compounds, were investigated in order to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the reported approach. Finally, other possible applications of this technique, such as the elucidation of elemental compositions based on product ions and corresponding neutral losses, were also presented and discussed

  15. Synchrotron Topographic and Diffractometer Studies of Buried Layered Structures Obtained by Implantation with Swift Heavy Ions in Silicon Single Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Zymierska, D.; Graeff, W.; Czosnyka, T.; Choinski, J.

    2006-01-01

    A distribution of crystallographic defects and deformation in silicon crystals subjected to deep implantation (20-50 μm) with ions of the energy of a few MeV/amu is studied. Three different buried layered structures (single layer, binary buried structure and triple buried structure) were obtained by implantation of silicon single crystals with 184 MeV argon ions, 29.7 MeV boron ions, and 140 MeV argon ions, each implantation at a fluency of 1x10 14 ions cm -2 . The implanted samples were examined by means of white beam X-ray section and projection topography, monochromatic beam topography and by recording local rocking curves with the beam restricted to 50 x 50 μm 2 . The experiment pointed to a very low level of implantation-induced strain (below 10 -5 ). The white beam Bragg case section experiment revealed a layer producing district black contrast located at a depth of the expected mean ion range. The presence of these buried layered structures in studied silicon crystals strongly affected the fringe pattern caused by curvature of the samples. In case of white beam projection and monochromatic beam topographs the implanted areas were revealed as darker regions with a very tiny grain like structure. One may interpret these results as the effect of considerable heating causing annihilation of point defects and formation of dislocation loops connected with point defect clusters. (author)

  16. Electron impact ionization of B-like ion N2+. Resonance enhancement of the single-channel cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guohe; Qian Xingzhong; Pan Soufu

    1998-01-01

    The electron impact ionization cross sections of B-like ion N 2+ are calculated in the Coulomb-Born no exchange approximation by using R-matrix method, and the single differential cross section is given. The calculated results exhibit the Rydberg series of resonances. The resonance enhancement of the single-channel cross section is significantly greater than direct ionization cross section. It is agreement with that of Chidichimo

  17. Development of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for Heavy Ion Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Manahan, R; Lietzke, A F

    2001-09-10

    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is exploring a promising path to a practical inertial-confinement fusion reactor. The associated heavy ion driver will require a large number of focusing quadrupole magnets. A concept for a superconducting quadrupole array, using many simple racetrack coils, was developed at LLNL. Two, single-bore quadrupole prototypes of the same design, with distinctly different conductor, were designed, built, and tested. Both prototypes reached their short sample currents with little or no training. Magnet design, and test results, are presented and discussed.

  18. The nature of single-ion activity coefficients calculated from potentiometric measurements on cells with liquid junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubin, Dmitri P., E-mail: dmitri.zarubin@mtu-net.ru [Department of Physical and Collod Chemistry, Moscow State University of Technology and Management, 73 Zemlyanoi Val, Moscow 109803 (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Problem of ionic activity coefficients, determined by potentiometry, is reconsidered. > They are found to be functions of mean activity coefficients and transport numbers of ions. > The finding is verified by calculations and comparing the results with reported data. > Calculations are performed for systems with single electrolytes and binary mixtures. - Abstract: Potentiometric measurements on cells with liquid junctions are sometimes used for calculations of single-ion activity coefficients in electrolyte solutions, the incidence of this being increased recently. As surmised by Guggenheim in the 1930s, such coefficients (of ions i), {gamma}{sub i}, are actually complicated functions of mean ionic activity coefficients, {gamma}{sub {+-}}, and transport numbers of ions, t{sub i}. In the present paper specific functions {gamma}{sub i}({gamma}{sub {+-}}, t{sub i}) are derived for a number of cell types with an arbitrary mixture of strong electrolytes in a one-component solvent in the liquid-junction system. The cell types include cells with (i) identical electrodes, (ii) dissimilar electrodes reversible to the same ions, (iii) dissimilar electrodes reversible to ions of opposite charge signs, (iv) dissimilar electrodes reversible to different ions of the same charge sign, and (v) identical reference electrodes and an ion-selective membrane permeable to ions of only one type. Pairs of functions for oppositely charged ions are found to be consistent with the mean ionic activity coefficients as would be expected for pairs of the proper {gamma}{sub i} quantities by definition of {gamma}{sub {+-}}. The functions are tested numerically on some of the reported {gamma}{sub i} datasets that are the more tractable. A generally good agreement is found with data reported for cells with single electrolytes HCl and KCl in solutions, and with binary mixtures in the liquid-junction systems of KCl from the reference solutions and NaCl and HCl from the test solutions. It

  19. Mechanical characterization of magnesium aluminate MgO·nAl2O3 spinel single crystals irradiated with Cu- ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Takahito; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Kishimoto, Naoki

    2003-01-01

    Ion-irradiation response of spinel single crystals was investigated using a nanoindentation technique. Specimens of stoichiometric (n=1) and non-stoichiometric (n=2.4) single crystals of MgO n(Al 2 O 3 ) spinel were irradiated with 60 keV Cu - ion at room temperature. Dose rate ranged from 1 to 100 μA/cm 2 , and a total dose was kept constant at 3x10 16 ions/cm 2 . Both plastic hardness and elastic modulus of all the irradiated specimens were softened. Radiation-induced swelling simultaneously occurred. Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy detected disordering of spinel crystalline structure. Accordingly, the radiation-induced softening and swelling are ascribed to accumulation of point defects associated with the disordering. In comparison between the stoichiometric and the non-stoichiometric specimens, the radiation-induced softening is suppressed in the non-stoichiometric composition. (author)

  20. Luminescence properties of Tm3+ ions single-doped YF3 materials in an unconventional excitation region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Liu, Qing; Lin, Han; Yan, Xiaohong

    2018-05-01

    According to the spectral distribution of solar radiation at the earth's surface, under the excitation region of 1150 to 1350 nm, the up-conversion luminescence of Tm 3+ ions was investigated. The emission bands were matched well with the spectral response region of silicon solar cells, achieved by Tm 3+ ions single-doped yttrium fluoride (YF 3 ) phosphor, which was different from the conventional Tm 3+ /Yb 3+ ion couple co-doped materials. Additionally, the similar emission bands of Tm 3+ ions were achieved under excitation in the ultraviolet region. It is expected that via up-conversion and down-conversion routes, Tm 3+ -sensitized materials could convert photons to the desired wavelengths in order to reduce the energy loss of silicon solar cells, thereby enhancing the photovoltaic efficiency. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Collisions of singly and doubly charged ions with oxygen molecules in the energy range 1 - 1800 (3600) eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuen, I.; Howorka, F.

    1983-01-01

    Absolute cross sections for the excitation of optically emitting states in collisions of He + , Ne + , Ar + , Kr + , B + , He ++ , Ne ++ and Ar ++ with oxygen molecules are measured, the energy range of the ion being1 - 1800 eV Lab for the singly charged and 1 - 3600 eV for the doubly charged ions. Seven important processes can be distinguished: charge exchange excitation of O 2 + band, O I, O II, X I and X II lines (X + , X ++ being the primary ion), direct excitation of X II and double charge exchange excitations. The energy dependences of the excitation cross sections are remarkably different for different processes but similar for one process with different ions. The sum total of all cross sections together for excitations which lead to light emission is on the order of a few square angstroms at 1000 eV c.m. energy. The results are of interest for surface investigations, plasma diagnostics and laser work. (Author)

  2. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  3. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-07-06

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  4. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  5. Electron excitation relaxation in wide-gap single crystal insulators under swift heavy-ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavlinskii, Yu.N.

    2000-01-01

    A heavy, multicharged ion moving in a solid interacts with nuclei and electrons of the matter atoms. If the projectile velocity exceeds the typical orbital velocity of the target electrons, the main process is excitation of the electronic subsystem, i.e., excitation and ionization of bound electrons. Initially, relaxation of the electron excitations results from electronic processes alone, and energy transfer from electrons to lattice happens later. Since free charge carriers are absent in insulators before irradiation, the motion of the excited electrons is possible only together with holes. Due to inner pressure of the electron-hole plasma the expansion takes place. The velocity of the expansion is determined by the heat velocity of electron-hole pairs. As the excitation region expands, the density of the electron-hole pairs decreases, the average distance between pairs increases, and excitons are produced. The expansion can be terminated in the time t≅10 -13 s, when, due to the electron-phonon interaction, self-trapped holes (and excitons) are formed. The annihilation of the trapped excitons gives rise to Frenkel defects. The set of equations comprising the continuity equation, the Euler equation and energy conservation is considered. The analytic dependence on time of the electron temperature and the radius of the excitation region is derived. The observation of projectile traces in a target is discussed in the single projectile regime

  6. Rational design of single-ion magnets and spin qubits based on mononuclear lanthanoid complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoví, José J; Cardona-Serra, Salvador; Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Coronado, Eugenio; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Palii, Andrew

    2012-11-19

    Here we develop a general approach to calculating the energy spectrum and the wave functions of the low-lying magnetic levels of a lanthanoid ion submitted to the crystal field created by the surrounding ligands. This model allows us to propose general criteria for the rational design of new mononuclear lanthanoid complexes behaving as single-molecule magnets (SMMs) or acting as robust spin qubits. Three typical environments exhibited by these metal complexes are considered, namely, (a) square antiprism, (b) triangular dodecahedron, and (c) trigonal prism. The developed model is used to explain the properties of some representative examples showing these geometries. Key questions in this area, such as the chemical tailoring of the superparamagnetic energy barrier, tunneling gap, or spin relaxation time, are discussed. Finally, in order to take into account delocalization and/or covalent effects of the ligands, this point-charge model is complemented with ab initio calculations, which provide accurate information on the charge distribution around the metal, allowing for an explanation of the SMM behavior displayed by some sandwich-type organometallic compounds.

  7. Two-particle versus three-particle interactions in single ionization of helium by ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M; Moshammer, R; Fischer, D; Ullrich, J

    2004-01-01

    We have performed kinematically complete experiments on single ionization of He by 100 MeV amu -1 C 6+ and 3.6 MeV amu -1 Au 24,53+ impact. By analysing doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) as a function of the momenta of all two-particle sub-systems we studied the importance of two-particle interactions. Furthermore, presenting the squared momenta of all three collision fragments simultaneously in a Dalitz plot, we evaluated the role of three-particle interactions. Finally, both for the DDCS and the Dalitz plots the corresponding correlation function was analysed. While the absolute cross sections confirm that ionization predominantly leads to a momentum exchange between the electron and the recoil-ion, the correlation function reveals strong correlations between the particles of any two-particle sub-system. Three-particle correlations, which are not accounted for by perturbative calculations, are quite significant as well, at least for certain kinematic conditions

  8. Sustained State-Independent Quantum Contextual Correlations from a Single Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leupold, F. M.; Malinowski, M.; Zhang, C.; Negnevitsky, V.; Alonso, J.; Home, J. P.; Cabello, A.

    2018-05-01

    We use a single trapped-ion qutrit to demonstrate the quantum-state-independent violation of noncontextuality inequalities using a sequence of randomly chosen quantum nondemolition projective measurements. We concatenate 53 ×106 sequential measurements of 13 observables, and unambiguously violate an optimal noncontextual bound. We use the same data set to characterize imperfections including signaling and repeatability of the measurements. The experimental sequence was generated in real time with a quantum random number generator integrated into our control system to select the subsequent observable with a latency below 50 μ s , which can be used to constrain contextual hidden-variable models that might describe our results. The state-recycling experimental procedure is resilient to noise and independent of the qutrit state, substantiating the fact that the contextual nature of quantum physics is connected to measurements and not necessarily to designated states. The use of extended sequences of quantum nondemolition measurements finds applications in the fields of sensing and quantum information.

  9. Single-color, in situ photolithography marking of individual CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots containing a single Mn{sup 2+} ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, K.; Malinowski, F. K.; Gałkowski, K.; Jakubczyk, T.; Kossacki, P.; Pacuski, W.; Suffczyński, J., E-mail: Jan.Suffczynski@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5 St., PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-05

    A simple, single-color method for permanent marking of the position of individual self-assembled semiconductor Quantum Dots (QDs) at cryogenic temperatures is reported. The method combines in situ photolithography with standard micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy. Its utility is proven by a systematic magnetooptical study of a single CdTe/ZnTe QD containing a Mn{sup 2+} ion, where a magnetic field of up to 10 T in two orthogonal, Faraday and Voigt, configurations is applied to the same QD. The presented approach can be applied to a wide range of solid state nanoemitters.

  10. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Jeynes, J.C.G.; Merchant, M.J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Center, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Recently completed nanobeam at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre was used. •3.8-MeV single and broad proton beams irradiated Chinese hamster cells. •Cell survival curves were measured and compared with 300-kV X-ray irradiation. •Single ion irradiation had a lower survival part at ultra-low dose. •It implies hypersensitivity, bystander effect and cell cycle phase of cell death. -- Abstract: As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  11. Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hou Ming Dong; LiuJie; Wang Zhi Guang; Jin Yun Fan; Zhu Zhi Yong; Zhen Hong Lou; Liu Chang Long; Chen Xiao Xi; Wei Xin Guo; Zhang Li; Fan You Cheng; Zhu Zhou Rong; Zhang Yiting

    2002-01-01

    Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe ions in different batches of 32k x 8 bits static random access memory are studied. The incident angle dependences of the cross sections for single event upset and single event latch up are presented. The SEE cross sections are plotted versus energy loss instead of linear energy transfer value in sensitive region. The depth of sensitive volume and thickness of 'dead' layer above the sensitive volume are estimated

  12. Frequency Dependent Losses in Transmission Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Guðmundsdóttir, Unnur Stella

    2011-01-01

    , such as thermal conditions in and around the cable, as well as the heat generated in conductors, screens, armours etc., taking into account proximity and skin effects. The work performed and presented in this paper is concerned with an improved determination of the losses generated in the conductor, by means...... of better calculation of the AC resistance of transmission cable conductors, in particular regarding higher frequencies. In this way, also losses under harmonics can be covered. Furthermore, the model is suitable for modelling of transient attenuation in high voltage cables. The AC resistance is calculated...... based on the current density distribution in different conductor designs by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM). The obtained results and methods are compared to available standards (IEC publication 60287-1-1)....

  13. Rail industry job analysis : passenger conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document describes the results of a job analysis that was conducted for the position of railroad Passenger Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (...

  14. Rail industry job analysis : freight conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This document describes the results from a job analysis that was conducted for the position of Freight Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) ne...

  15. Spin dynamics in the single-ion magnet [Er(W5O18) 2 ] 9 -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, M.; Borsa, F.; Graf, M. J.; Sanna, S.; Filibian, M.; Orlando, T.; Sabareesh, K. P. V.; Cardona-Serra, S.; Coronado, E.; Lascialfari, A.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we present a detailed NMR and μ+SR investigation of the spin dynamics in the new hydrated sodium salt containing the single-ion magnet [Er(W5O18) 2 ] 9 -. The 1HNMR absorption spectra at various applied magnetic fields present a line broadening on decreasing temperature which indicates a progressive spin freezing of the single-molecule magnetic moments. The onset of quasistatic local magnetic fields, due to spin freezing, is observed also in the muon relaxation curves at low temperature. Both techniques yield a local field distribution of the order of 0.1-0.2 T, which appears to be of dipolar origin. On decreasing the temperature, a gradual loss of the 1HNMR signal intensity is observed, a phenomenon known as wipe-out effect. The effect is analyzed quantitatively on the basis of a simple model which relies on the enhancement of the NMR spin-spin, T2-1, relaxation rate due to the slowing down of the magnetic fluctuations. Measurements of spin-lattice relaxation rate T1-1 for 1HNMR and of the muon longitudinal relaxation rate λ show an increase as the temperature is lowered. However, while for the NMR case the signal is lost before reaching the very slow fluctuation region, the muon spin-lattice relaxation λ can be followed until very low temperatures and the characteristic maximum, reached when the electronic spin fluctuation frequency becomes of the order of the muon Larmor frequency, can be observed. At high temperatures, the data can be well reproduced with a simple model based on a single correlation time τ =τ0exp (Δ /T ) for the magnetic fluctuations. However, to fit the relaxation data for both NMR and μ+SR over the whole temperature and magnetic field range, one has to use a more detailed model that takes into account spin-phonon transitions among the E r3 + magnetic sublevels. A good agreement for both proton NMR and μ+SR relaxation is obtained, which confirms the validity of the energy level scheme previously calculated from an

  16. Novel single-cell mega-size chambers for electrochemical etching of panorama position-sensitive polycarbonate ion image detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    2017-11-01

    A novel development is made here by inventing panorama single-cell mega-size electrochemical etching (MS-ECE) chamber systems for processing panorama position-sensitive mega-size polycarbonate ion image detectors (MS-PCIDs) of potential for many neutron and ion detection applications in particular hydrogen ions or proton tracks and images detected for the first time in polycarbonates in this study. The MS-PCID is simply a large polycarbonate sheet of a desired size. The single-cell MS-ECE invented consists of two large equally sized transparent Plexiglas sheets as chamber walls holding a MS-PCID and the ECE chamber components tightly together. One wall has a large flat stainless steel electrode (dry cell) attached to it which is directly in contact with the MS-PCID and the other wall has a rod electrode with two holes to facilitate feeding and draining out the etching solution from the wet cell. A silicon rubber washer plays the role of the wet cell to hold the etchant and the electrical insulator to isolate the dry cell from the wet cell. A simple 50 Hz-HV home-made generator provides an adequate field strength through the two electrodes across the MS-ECE chamber. Two panorama single-cell MS-ECE chamber systems (circular and rectangular shapes) constructed were efficiently applied to processing the MS-PCIDs for 4π ion emission image detection of different gases in particular hydrogen ions or protons in a 3.5 kJ plasma focus device (PFD as uniquely observed by the unaided eyes). The panorama MS-PCID/MS-ECE image detection systems invented are novel with high potential for many applications in particular as applied to 4π panorama ion emission angular distribution image detection studies in PFD space, some results of which are presented and discussed.

  17. On the calculation of single ion activity coefficients in homogeneous ionic systems by application of the grand canonical ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The grand canonical ensemble has been used to study the evaluation of single ion activity coefficients in homogeneous ionic fluids. In this work, the Coulombic interactions are truncated according to the minimum image approximation, and the ions are assumed to be placed in a structureless......, homogeneous dielectric continuum. Grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo calculation results for two primitive model electrolyte solutions are presented. Also, a formula involving the second moments of the total correlation functions is derived from fluctuation theory, which applies for the derivatives...... of the individual ionic activity coefficients with respect to the total ionic concentration. This formula has previously been proposed on the basis of somewhat different considerations....

  18. Strong coupling between a single nitrogen-vacancy spin and the rotational mode of diamonds levitating in an ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delord, T.; Nicolas, L.; Chassagneux, Y.; Hétet, G.

    2017-12-01

    A scheme for strong coupling between a single atomic spin and the rotational mode of levitating nanoparticles is proposed. The idea is based on spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers embedded in aspherical nanodiamonds levitating in an ion trap. We show that the asymmetry of the diamond induces a rotational confinement in the ion trap. Using a weak homogeneous magnetic field and a strong microwave driving we then demonstrate that the spin of the nitrogen-vacancy center can be strongly coupled to the rotational mode of the diamond.

  19. Effects of tube diameter and chirality on the stability of single-walled carbon nanotubes under ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zijian; Zhang Wei; Zhu Zhiyuan; Ren Cuilan; Li Yong; Huai Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics method, we investigated the influence of tube diameter and chirality on the stability of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under ion irradiation. We found that in the energy range below 1 keV, the dependence of CNT stability on the tube diameter is no longer monotonic under C ion irradiation, and the thinner (5, 5) CNT may be more stable than the thicker (7, 7) CNT, while under Ar irradiation, the CNT stability increases still monotonically with the CNT diameter. This stability behavior was further verified by the calculations of the threshold ion energies to produce displacement damage in CNTs. The abnormal stability of thin CNTs is related to their resistance to the instantaneous deformation in the wall induced by ion pushing, the high self-healing capacity, as well as the different interaction properties of C and Ar ions with CNT atoms. We also found that under ion irradiation the stability of a zigzag CNT is better than that of an armchair CNT with the same diameter. This is because of the bonding structure difference between the armchair and the zigzag CNTs with respect to the orientations of graphitic networks as well as the self-healing capacity difference.

  20. Dielectric relaxation study of Pb sub 1 sub - sub x La sub x MoO sub 4 sub + subdelta (x = 0-0.3) oxide-ion conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, G G; Wang, X P; Yi, Z G

    2003-01-01

    DC conductivity and dielectric relaxation measurements are exploited to study the influence of La substitution on the dielectric properties and oxygen-ion transportation in PbMoO sub 4 samples. The DC conductivity of La-doped samples is about 10 sup - sup 3 S cm sup - sup 1 around 1073 K. A dielectric loss peak with activation energy of 0.6-0.8 eV is observed in the temperature spectrum as well as in the frequency spectrum for all La-doped PbMoO sub 4 samples. With increasing La doping content, this peak becomes higher and shifts to higher temperature or lower frequency, and the activation energy becomes larger. It is suggested that this dielectric loss peak is associated with the short-distance diffusion of oxygen ions (or oxygen vacancies) between the 16f and 8e sites of the scheelite structure type with I4 sub 1 /a symmetry.

  1. Single potential electrodeposition of nanostructured battery materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, James Matthew

    The increasing reliance on portable electronics is continuing to fuel research in the area of low power lithium-ion batteries, while a new surge in research for high power lithium-ion batteries has been sparked by the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). To compete with current lead-acid battery chemistry, a few of the shortcomings of lithium-ion battery chemistry need to be addressed. The three main drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries for this application are: (1) low power density, (2) safety, and (3) the high cost of manufacturing. This dissertation covers the development of a low cost fabrication technique for an alternative anode material with high surface area geometries. The anode material is safer than the conventional anode material in lithium-ion batteries and the high surface area geometries permit higher power densities to be achieved. Electrodeposition is an inexpensive alternative method for synthesizing materials for electronics, energy conversion and energy storage applications relative to traditional solid state techniques. These techniques led to expensive device fabrication. Unlike most solid state synthesis routes, electrodeposition can usually be performed from common solutions and at moderate conditions. Three other benefits of using electrodeposition are: (1) it allows precise control of composition and crystallinity, (2) it provides the ability to deposit on complex shapes, and (3) it can deposit materials with nanoscale dimensions. The use of electrodeposition for alternative anode materials results in the deposition of the material directly onto the current collector that is used for the battery testing and applications without the need of additional binders and with excellent electrical contact. While this improves the characterization of the material and lowers the weight of the non-active materials within a battery, it also allows the anode to be deposited onto current collectors with

  2. Measuring kinetics of complex single ion channel data using mean-variance histograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlak, J B

    1993-07-01

    The measurement of single ion channel kinetics is difficult when those channels exhibit subconductance events. When the kinetics are fast, and when the current magnitudes are small, as is the case for Na+, Ca2+, and some K+ channels, these difficulties can lead to serious errors in the estimation of channel kinetics. I present here a method, based on the construction and analysis of mean-variance histograms, that can overcome these problems. A mean-variance histogram is constructed by calculating the mean current and the current variance within a brief "window" (a set of N consecutive data samples) superimposed on the digitized raw channel data. Systematic movement of this window over the data produces large numbers of mean-variance pairs which can be assembled into a two-dimensional histogram. Defined current levels (open, closed, or sublevel) appear in such plots as low variance regions. The total number of events in such low variance regions is estimated by curve fitting and plotted as a function of window width. This function decreases with the same time constants as the original dwell time probability distribution for each of the regions. The method can therefore be used: 1) to present a qualitative summary of the single channel data from which the signal-to-noise ratio, open channel noise, steadiness of the baseline, and number of conductance levels can be quickly determined; 2) to quantify the dwell time distribution in each of the levels exhibited. In this paper I present the analysis of a Na+ channel recording that had a number of complexities. The signal-to-noise ratio was only about 8 for the main open state, open channel noise, and fast flickers to other states were present, as were a substantial number of subconductance states. "Standard" half-amplitude threshold analysis of these data produce open and closed time histograms that were well fitted by the sum of two exponentials, but with apparently erroneous time constants, whereas the mean

  3. Early Stage of Deformation under Nanoindenter Tip of Ion-irradiated Single Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Chan Sun; Jin, Hyung Ha; Kwon, Jun Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Ion irradiation has been used for almost 40 years to emulate the effect of neutrons. Ion irradiation has a number of advantages in terms of time and expenses compared to neutron irradiation. Ion irradiation is expected to greatly contribute to the development of Fusion and Gen IV materials. Ions have short penetration depth, and they induce continuously varying dose rate over the penetration depth. Although it depends on the energy and species of incident ions, the depth of ion-irradiated region is in general on the order of a few micron meters. Depth controlled probing technique is required to measure the mechanical properties of ion-irradiated layer, and nanoindentation is widely used. During nanoindentation, a hard tip with known properties is pressed into a material which has unknown properties. The depth of penetration and load on the indenter are recorded during loading and unloading. The initial Loading depth curve follows the Hertzian elastic solution, and at a certain load, a sudden displacement excursion occurs in indenter depth and then hardening follows. This is called 'Pop-in' event, and since residual impression can be found only after pop-ins, the pop-in is regarded as the onset of plasticity. The objectives of this research are to investigate the effects of ion irradiation on popins, and to examine dislocation nucleation and propagation at the onset of plasticity by using MD simulations

  4. Early Stage of Deformation under Nanoindenter Tip of Ion-irradiated Single Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chan Sun; Jin, Hyung Ha; Kwon, Jun Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Ion irradiation has been used for almost 40 years to emulate the effect of neutrons. Ion irradiation has a number of advantages in terms of time and expenses compared to neutron irradiation. Ion irradiation is expected to greatly contribute to the development of Fusion and Gen IV materials. Ions have short penetration depth, and they induce continuously varying dose rate over the penetration depth. Although it depends on the energy and species of incident ions, the depth of ion-irradiated region is in general on the order of a few micron meters. Depth controlled probing technique is required to measure the mechanical properties of ion-irradiated layer, and nanoindentation is widely used. During nanoindentation, a hard tip with known properties is pressed into a material which has unknown properties. The depth of penetration and load on the indenter are recorded during loading and unloading. The initial Loading depth curve follows the Hertzian elastic solution, and at a certain load, a sudden displacement excursion occurs in indenter depth and then hardening follows. This is called 'Pop-in' event, and since residual impression can be found only after pop-ins, the pop-in is regarded as the onset of plasticity. The objectives of this research are to investigate the effects of ion irradiation on popins, and to examine dislocation nucleation and propagation at the onset of plasticity by using MD simulations

  5. Cationized phenylalanine conformations characterized by IRMPD and computation for singly and doubly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunbar, R.C.; Steill, J.D.; Oomens, J.

    2010-01-01

    Electrospray ionization produces phenylalanine (Phe) complexes of the alkali metal ion series, plus Ag+ and Ba2+. Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy using the FELIX free electron laser light source is used to characterize the conformations of the ions, in conjunction with

  6. Potent neutralization of influenza A virus by a single-domain antibody blocking M2 ion channel protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Wei

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus poses serious health threat to humans. Neutralizing antibodies against the highly conserved M2 ion channel is thought to offer broad protection against influenza A viruses. Here, we screened synthetic Camel single-domain antibody (VHH libraries against native M2 ion channel protein. One of the isolated VHHs, M2-7A, specifically bound to M2-expressed cell membrane as well as influenza A virion, inhibited replication of both amantadine-sensitive and resistant influenza A viruses in vitro, and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, M2-7A showed blocking activity for proton influx through M2 ion channel. These pieces of evidence collectively demonstrate for the first time that a neutralizing antibody against M2 with broad specificity is achievable, and M2-7A may have potential for cross protection against a number of variants and subtypes of influenza A viruses.

  7. Ion beam modification of thermal stress resistance of MgO single crystals with different crystallographic faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurarie, V.N.; Otsuka, P.H.; Williams, J.S.; Conway, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Ion beam modification of thermal shock stress resistance of MgO single crystals with various crystallographic faces is investigated. The most stable crystal faces in terms of stress and damage resistance are established. Ion implantation is shown to reduce the temperature threshold of fracture for all crystal faces tested. The (111) face is demonstrated to be of highest stability compared to (110) and (100) faces in both implanted and unimplanted crystals. At the same time ion implantation substantially increases the microcrack density for all the faces tested and reduces the degree of fracture damage following thermal shock. The theoretical resistance parameters for various crystal faces are calculated using the continuum mechanics approach. The results are discussed on the basis of fracture mechanics principles and the effect of the implantation-induced lattice damage on crack nucleation

  8. Ion beam modification of thermal stress resistance of MgO single crystals with different crystallographic faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurarie, V.N.; Otsuka, P.H.; Jamieson, D.N.; Williams, J.S.; Conway, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ion beam modification of thermal shock stress and damage resistance of MgO single crystals with various crystallographic faces is investigated. The most stable crystal faces in terms of stress and damage resistance are established. Ion implantation is shown to reduce the temperature threshold of fracture for all crystal faces tested. The (111) face is demonstrated to be of highest stability compared to (110) and (100) faces in both implanted and unimplanted crystals. At the same time ion implantation substantially increases the microcrack density for the faces tested and reduces the degree of fracture damage following thermal shock. The microcrack density is found to be highest in the crystals with (110) face in comparison with the (001) and (111) faces. The effect is analysed using fracture mechanics principles and discussed in terms of the implantation-induced lattice damage

  9. Carrier transfer and magneto-transport in single modulation-doped V-grooved quantum wire modified by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.H.; Chen Zhanghai; Wang, F.Z.; Shen, S.C.; Tan, H.H.; Fu, L.; Fraser, M.; Jagadish, C.

    2006-01-01

    A single Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 As/GaAs V-grooved quantum wire modified by selective ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing was investigated by using spatially resolved micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy and magneto-resistance measurements. The results of spatially resolved photoluminescence indicate that the ion-implantation-induced quantum well intermixing significantly raises the electronic sub-band energies in the side quantum wells (SQWs) and vertical quantum wells, and a more efficient accumulation of electrons in the quantum wires is achieved. Processes of real space carrier transfer from the SQW to the quantum wire was experimentally observed, and showed the blocking effect of carrier transfer due to the existence of the necking quantum well region. Furthermore, magneto-transport investigation on the ion-implanted quantum wire samples shows the quasi-one-dimensional intrinsic motion of electrons, which is important for the design and the optimization of one-dimensional electronic devices

  10. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T c superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T c superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances

  11. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y. [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances.

  12. Reorientation of the crystalline planes in confined single crystal nickel nanorods induced by heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Abha; Tyagi, Pawan K.; Rai, Padmnabh; Misra, D. S.; Ghatak, Jay; Satyam, P. V.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2006-01-01

    In a recent letter Tyagi et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253110 (2005)] have reported the special orientation of nickel planes inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with respect to the tube axis. Heavy ion irradiation has been performed with 1.5 MeV Au 2+ and 100 MeV Au 7+ ions on these nickel filled MWCNTs at fluences ranging from 10 12 to 10 15 ions/cm 2 at room temperature. Ion-induced modifications have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The diffraction pattern and the lattice imaging showed the presence of ion-induced planar defects on the tube walls and completely amorphized encapsulated nickel nanorods. The results are discussed in terms of thermal spike model

  13. Development of a dual ion beam system with single accelerator for materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazumichi; Nishimura, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Tsuneyuki

    1986-01-01

    The dual ion beam accelerator system has been developed for simulation studies of neutron radiation damage of structural materials for nuclear fusion and fission reactors. One accelerator is used to accelerate two different kinds of ions, which are generated in the ion source simultaneously. One of these ions is selected alternatively by switching the magnetic field of the analyzing magnet, and is then accelerated to the desired energy value. The system is controlled by a microcomputer. The accelerator used in the system is a conventional 400 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator. The performance test by the acceleration of He + and Ar + shows that the system is capable of accelerating two ions alternatively with a switching time of less than 22 s. The beam current obtained with the microcomputer control is more than 98% of the current obtained by manual operation. (orig.)

  14. The Formation of High-Coercivity, Oriented, Nanophase Cobalt Precipitates in Al2O3 single cyrstals by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, S.; Modine, F.A.; Haynes, T.E.; Meldrum, A.; Budai, J.D.; SOng, K.J.; Thompson, J.R.; Boatner, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Ion-implantation and thermal-processing methods have been used to form nanophase magnetic precipitates of metallic cobalt that are embedded in the near-surface region of single crystals of Al 2 O 3 . The Co precipitates are isolated, single-crystal particles that are crystallographically oriented with respect to the host Al 2 O 3 lattice. Embedded nanophase Co precipitates were formed by the implantation of Co+ at an energy of 140 keV and a dose of 8 x l0 16 ions/cm 2 followed by annealing in a reducing atmosphere. The implanted/annealed Co depth profile, particle size distributions and shapes, and the orientational relationship between the nanophase precipitates and the host crystal lattice were determined using RBS/channeling, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction

  15. Elucidating distinct ion channel populations on the surface of hippocampal neurons via single-particle tracking recurrence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Grzegorz; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Gajda, Janusz; Solé, Laura; Akin, Elizabeth J.; Tamkun, Michael M.; Krapf, Diego

    2017-12-01

    Protein and lipid nanodomains are prevalent on the surface of mammalian cells. In particular, it has been recently recognized that ion channels assemble into surface nanoclusters in the soma of cultured neurons. However, the interactions of these molecules with surface nanodomains display a considerable degree of heterogeneity. Here, we investigate this heterogeneity and develop statistical tools based on the recurrence of individual trajectories to identify subpopulations within ion channels in the neuronal surface. We specifically study the dynamics of the K+ channel Kv1.4 and the Na+ channel Nav1.6 on the surface of cultured hippocampal neurons at the single-molecule level. We find that both these molecules are expressed in two different forms with distinct kinetics with regards to surface interactions, emphasizing the complex proteomic landscape of the neuronal surface. Further, the tools presented in this work provide new methods for the analysis of membrane nanodomains, transient confinement, and identification of populations within single-particle trajectories.

  16. Junctionless Diode Enabled by Self-Bias Effect of Ion Gel in Single-Layer MoS2 Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Atif; Rathi, Servin; Park, Jinwoo; Lim, Dongsuk; Lee, Yoontae; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2017-08-16

    The self-biasing effects of ion gel from source and drain electrodes on electrical characteristics of single layer and few layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) field-effect transistor (FET) have been studied. The self-biasing effect of ion gel is tested for two different configurations, covered and open, where ion gel is in contact with either one or both, source and drain electrodes, respectively. In open configuration, the linear output characteristics of the pristine device becomes nonlinear and on-off ratio drops by 3 orders of magnitude due to the increase in "off" current for both single and few layer MoS 2 FETs. However, the covered configuration results in a highly asymmetric output characteristics with a rectification of around 10 3 and an ideality factor of 1.9. This diode like behavior has been attributed to the reduction of Schottky barrier width by the electric field of self-biased ion gel, which enables an efficient injection of electrons by tunneling at metal-MoS 2 interface. Finally, finite element method based simulations are carried out and the simulated results matches well in principle with the experimental analysis. These self-biased diodes can perform a crucial role in the development of high-frequency optoelectronic and valleytronic devices.

  17. Structural transitions in superionic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.; Vashishta, P.

    1983-04-04

    The ..cap alpha..arrow-right-left..beta.. phase transition in AgI is studied with use of the new molecular-dynamics technique which allows for a dynamical variation of the shape and size of the cell. In the present model, upon heating of ..beta..-AgI, the iodine ions undergo a hcp..-->..bcc transformation and silver ions become mobile, whereas the reverse transformation is observed on cooling of ..cap alpha..-AgI. The calculated ..cap alpha..arrow-right-left..beta.. transition temperature and structural and dynamical properties are in good agreement with experiments.

  18. Investigations on heavy ion induced Single-Event Transients (SETs) in highly-scaled FinFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillardin, M., E-mail: marc.gaillardin@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Raine, M.; Paillet, P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Adell, P.C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Girard, S. [Université de Saint-Etienne, Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR-5516, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Duhamel, O. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Andrieu, F.; Barraud, S.; Faynot, O. [CEA, LETI-Minatec, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate Single-Event Transients (SET) in different designs of multiple-gate devices made of FinFETs with various geometries. Heavy ion experimental results are explained by using a thorough charge collection analysis of fast transients measured on dedicated test structures. Multi-level simulations are performed to get new insights into the charge collection mechanisms in multiple-gate devices. Implications for multiple-gate device design hardening are finally discussed.

  19. Molecular dynamics study of radiation damage and microstructure evolution of zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes under carbon ion incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Feida; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian; Chen, Da

    2016-07-01

    The radiation damage and microstructure evolution of different zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated under incident carbon ion by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The radiation damage of SWCNTs under incident carbon ion with energy ranging from 25 eV to 1 keV at 300 K showed many differences at different incident sites, and the defect production increased to the maximum value with the increase in incident ion energy, and slightly decreased but stayed fairly stable within the majority of the energy range. The maximum damage of SWCNTs appeared when the incident ion energy reached 200 eV and the level of damage was directly proportional to incident ion fluence. The radiation damage was also studied at 100 K and 700 K and the defect production decreased distinctly with rising temperature because radiation-induced defects would anneal and recombine by saturating dangling bonds and reconstructing carbon network at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the stability of a large-diameter tube surpassed that of a thin one under the same radiation environments.

  20. Tumor induction in mice after local irradiation with single doses of either carbon-ion beams or gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Ando, Yutaka; Kobashi, Gen

    2014-12-01

    To determine the dose-dependent relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for tumor prevalence in mice receiving single localized doses to their right leg of either carbon ions (15, 45 or 75 keV/μm) or 137Cs gamma rays. A total of 1647 female C3H mice were irradiated to their hind legs with a localized dose of either reference gamma rays or 15, 45 or 75 keV/μm carbon-ion beams. Irradiated mice were evaluated for tumors twice a month during their three-year life span, and the dimensions of any tumors found were measured with a caliper. The tumor induction frequency was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The incidence of tumors from 50 Gy of 45 keV/μm carbon ions was marginally higher than those from 50 Gy of gamma rays. However, 60 Gy of 15 keV/μm carbon ions induced significantly fewer tumors than did gamma rays. RBE values of 0.87 + 0.12, 1.29 + 0.08 or 2.06 + 0.39 for lifetime tumorigenesis were calculated for 15, 45 or 75 keV/μm carbon-ion beams, respectively. Fibrosarcoma predominated, with no Linear Energy Transfer (LET)-dependent differences in the tumor histology. Experiments measuring the late effect of leg skin shrinkage suggested that the carcinogenic damage of 15 keV/μm carbon ions would be less than that of gamma rays. We conclude that patients receiving radiation doses to their normal tissues would face less risk of secondary tumor induction by carbon ions of intermediate LET values compared to equivalent doses of photons.

  1. Manipulating Ion Migration for Highly Stable Light-Emitting Diodes with Single-Crystalline Organometal Halide Perovskite Microplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingming; Shan, Xin; Geske, Thomas; Li, Junqiang; Yu, Zhibin

    2017-06-27

    Ion migration has been commonly observed as a detrimental phenomenon in organometal halide perovskite semiconductors, causing the measurement hysteresis in solar cells and ultrashort operation lifetimes in light-emitting diodes. In this work, ion migration is utilized for the formation of a p-i-n junction at ambient temperature in single-crystalline organometal halide perovskites. The junction is subsequently stabilized by quenching the ionic movement at a low temperature. Such a strategy of manipulating the ion migration has led to efficient single-crystalline light-emitting diodes that emit 2.3 eV photons starting at 1.8 V and sustain a continuous operation for 54 h at ∼5000 cd m -2 without degradation of brightness. In addition, a whispering-gallery-mode cavity and exciton-exciton interaction in the perovskite microplatelets have both been observed that can be potentially useful for achieving electrically driven laser diodes based on single-crystalline organometal halide perovskite semiconductors.

  2. A novel aptasensor based on single-molecule force spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection of mercury ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Michaelis, Monika; Wei, Gang; Colombi Ciacchi, Lucio

    2015-08-07

    We have developed a novel aptasensor based on single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) capable of detecting mercury ions (Hg(2+)) with sub-nM sensitivity. The single-strand (ss) DNA aptamer used in this work is rich in thymine (T) and readily forms T-Hg(2+)-T complexes in the presence of Hg(2+). The aptamer was conjugated to an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe, and the adhesion force between the probe and a flat graphite surface was measured by single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). The presence of Hg(2+) ions above a concentration threshold corresponding to the affinity constant of the ions for the aptamer (about 5 × 10(9) M(-1)) could be easily detected by a change of the measured adhesion force. With our chosen aptamer, we could reach an Hg(2+) detection limit of 100 pM, which is well below the maximum allowable level of Hg(2+) in drinking water. In addition, this aptasensor presents a very high selectivity for Hg(2+) over other metal cations, such as K(+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+), and Cd(2+). Furthermore, the effects of the ionic strength and loading rate on the Hg(2+) detection were evaluated. Its simplicity, reproducibility, high selectivity and sensitivity make our SMFS-based aptasensor advantageous with respect to other current Hg(2+) sensing methods. It is expected that our strategy can be exploited for monitoring the pollution of water environments and the safety of potentially contaminated food.

  3. Quantum phase transitions driven by rhombic-type single-ion anisotropy in the S =1 Haldane chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yu-Chin; Onishi, Hiroaki; Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Kao, Ying-Jer

    2017-08-01

    The spin-1 Haldane chain is an example of the symmetry-protected-topological (SPT) phase in one dimension. Experimental realization of the spin chain materials usually involves both the uniaxial-type, D (Sz)2 , and the rhombic-type, E [(Sx)2-(Sy)2] , single-ion anisotropies. Here, we provide a precise ground-state phase diagram for a spin-1 Haldane chain with these single-ion anisotropies. Using quantum numbers, we find that the Z2 symmetry breaking phase can be characterized by double degeneracy in the entanglement spectrum. Topological quantum phase transitions take place on particular paths in the phase diagram, from the Haldane phase to the large-Ex, large-Ey, or large-D phases. The topological critical points are determined by the level spectroscopy method with a newly developed parity technique in the density matrix renormalization group [Phys. Rev. B 86, 024403 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.024403], and the Haldane-large-D critical point is obtained with an unprecedented precision, (D/J ) c=0.9684713 (1 ) . Close to this critical point, a small rhombic single-ion anisotropy |E |/J ≪1 can destroy the Haldane phase and bring the system into a y -Néel phase. We propose that the compound [Ni (HF2) (3-Clpy ) 4] BF4 is a candidate system to search for the y -Néel phase.

  4. EPR and optical absorption studies of paramagnetic molecular ion (VO2+) in Lithium Sodium Acid Phthalate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbulakshmi, N.; Kumar, M. Saravana; Sheela, K. Juliet; Krishnan, S. Radha; Shanmugam, V. M.; Subramanian, P.

    2017-12-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies of VO2+ ions as paramagnetic impurity in Lithium Sodium Acid Phthalate (LiNaP) single crystal have been done at room temperature on X-Band microwave frequency. The lattice parameter values are obtained for the chosen system from Single crystal X-ray diffraction study. Among the number of hyperfine lines in the EPR spectra only two sets are reported from EPR data. The principal values of g and A tensors are evaluated for the two different VO2+ sites I and II. They possess the crystalline field around the VO2+ as orthorhombic. Site II VO2+ ion is identified as substitutional in place of Na1 location and the other site I is identified as interstitial location. For both sites in LiNaP, VO2+ are identified in octahedral coordination with tetragonal distortion as seen from the spin Hamiltonian parameter values. The ground state of vanadyl ion in the LiNaP single crystal is dxy. Using optical absorption data the octahedral and tetragonal parameters are calculated. By correlating EPR and optical data, the molecular orbital bonding parameters have been discussed for both sites.

  5. Single impacts of keV fullerene ions on free standing graphene: Emission of ions and electrons from confined volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Geng, Sheng; Schweikert, Emile A., E-mail: schweikert@chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3144 (United States); Czerwinski, Bartlomiej [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences–Bio and Soft Matter (IMCN/BSMA), Université Catholique de Louvain, 1 Croix du Sud, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Applied Physics, Division of Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå (Sweden); Young, Amanda E. [Materials Characterization Facility, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3122 (United States); Delcorte, Arnaud [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences–Bio and Soft Matter (IMCN/BSMA), Université Catholique de Louvain, 1 Croix du Sud, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2015-10-28

    We present the first data from individual C{sub 60} impacting one to four layer graphene at 25 and 50 keV. Negative secondary ions and electrons emitted in transmission were recorded separately from each impact. The yields for C{sub n}{sup −} clusters are above 10% for n ≤ 4, they oscillate with electron affinities and decrease exponentially with n. The result can be explained with the aid of MD simulation as a post-collision process where sufficient vibrational energy is accumulated around the rim of the impact hole for sputtering of carbon clusters. The ionization probability can be estimated by comparing experimental yields of C{sub n}{sup −} with those of C{sub n}{sup 0} from MD simulation, where it increases exponentially with n. The ionization probability can be approximated with ejecta from a thermally excited (3700 K) rim damped by cluster fragmentation and electron detachment. The experimental electron probability distributions are Poisson-like. On average, three electrons of thermal energies are emitted per impact. The thermal excitation model invoked for C{sub n}{sup −} emission can also explain the emission of electrons. The interaction of C{sub 60} with graphene is fundamentally different from impacts on 3D targets. A key characteristic is the high degree of ionization of the ejecta.

  6. Study on CexLa1-xO2 Buffer Layer used in Coated Conductors by Chemical Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yue; Suo, Hongli; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Developing multi-functional single buffer layer is one of the most important challenges for simplification of coated conductors configuration. Ladoped CeO2 films were prepared by chemical solution method. And surface morphology and texture quality of the La-doped CeO2 films were investigated...... method. It suggects that Ce0.9La0.1O2 film prepared by chemical solution route have a promising prospect for the simplification of coated conductors configuration....

  7. Single-molecule magnetism in a single-ion triamidoamine uranium(V) terminal mono-oxo complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, David M.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Straightforward oxidation of a triamidoamine uranium(III) complex with trimethyl-N-oxide affords a uranium(V) terminal mono-oxo complex which is the first clear-cut example of a uranium(V) single-molecule magnet (SMM). This monometallic complex unambiguously shows that a strongly axially ligated and thus anisotropic ligand field can be used to overcome the limited magnetic anisotropy of uranium(V). [de

  8. Simulation of a two-dimensional sheath over a flat insulator-conductor interface on a radio-frequency biased electrode in a high-density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Doosik; Economou, Demetre J.

    2004-01-01

    A combined fluid/Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was developed to study the two-dimensional (2D) sheath over a flat insulator/conductor interface on a radio-frequency (rf) biased electrode in a high-density plasma. The insulator capacitance increased the local impedance between the plasma and the bias voltage source. Thus, for uniform ion density and electron temperature far away from the wall, the sheath potential over the insulator was only a fraction of that over the conductor, resulting in a thinner sheath over the insulator. The fluid model provided the spatiotemporal profiles of the 2D sheath electric field. These were used as input to the MC simulation to compute the ion energy distribution (IED) and ion angular distribution (IAD) at different locations on the surface. The ion flux, IED, and IAD changed drastically across the insulator/conductor interface due to the diverging rf electric field in the distorted sheath. The ion flux was larger on the conductor at the expense of that on the insulator. Both the ion impact angle and angular spread increased progressively as the material interface was approached. The ion impact energy and energy spread were smaller on the insulator as compared to the conductor. For given plasma parameters, as the insulator thickness was increased, the sheath potential and thickness over the insulator decreased, and sheath distortion became more pronounced

  9. Nanometer-size surface modification produced by single, low energy, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Atomically flat surfaces of insulators have been bombarded with low energy, highly charged ions to search for nanometer-size surface modifications. It is expected that the high electron deficiency of highly charged ions will capture and/or remove many of the insulator's localized electrons when impacting on an insulating surface. The resulting local electron deficiency is expected to locally disintegrate the insulator through a open-quotes Coulomb explosionclose quotes forming nanometer-size craters. Xe ions with charge states between 10+ and 45+ and kinetic energies between 0 and 10 keV/q were obtained from the KSU-CRYEBIS, a CRYogenic Electron Beam Ion Source and directed onto various insulating materials. Mica was favored as target material as atomically flat surfaces can be obtained reliably through cleaving. However, the authors observations with an atomic force microscope have shown that mica tends to defoliate locally rather than disintegrate, most likely due to the small binding forces between adjacent layers. So far the authors measurements indicate that each ion produces one blister if the charge state is sufficiently high. The blistering does not seem to depend very much on the kinetic energy of the ions

  10. Properties and applications of perovskite proton conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caetano Camilo de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview is given of the main types and principles of solid-state proton conductors with perovskite structure. Their properties are summarized in terms of the defect chemistry, proton transport and chemical stability. A good understanding of these subjects allows the manufacturing of compounds with the desired electrical properties, for application in renewable and sustainable energy devices. A few trends and highlights of the scientific advances are given for some classes of protonic conductors. Recent results and future prospect about these compounds are also evaluated. The high proton conductivity of barium cerate and zirconate based electrolytes lately reported in the literature has taken these compounds to a highlight position among the most studied conductor ceramic materials.

  11. Molecular dynamics studies of superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Vashishta, P.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of superionic conductors AgI and CuI are studied using molecular dynamics (MD) techniques. The model of these superionic conductors is based on the use of effective pair potentials. To determine the constants in these potentials, cohesive energy and bulk modulus are used as input: in addition one uses notions of ionic size based on the known crystal structure. Salient features of the MD technique are outlined. Methods of treating long range Coulomb forces are discussed in detail. This includes the manner of doing Ewald sum for MD cells of arbitrary shape. Features that can be incorporated to expedite the MD calculations are also discussed. A novel MD technique which allows for a dynamically controlled variation of the shape and size of the MD cell is described briefly. The development of this novel technique has made it possible to study structural phase transitions in superionic conductors. 68 references, 17 figures, 2 tables

  12. Ground-state phase diagram of an (S, S') = (1, 2) spin-alternating chain with competing single-ion anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonegawa, T; Okamoto, K; Sakai, T; Kaburagi, M

    2009-01-01

    Employing various numerical methods, we determine the ground-state phase diagram of an (S, S') = (1, 2) spin-alternating chain with antiferromagnetic nearest-neighboring exchange interactions and uniaxial single-ion anisotropies. The resulting phase diagram consists of eight kinds of phases including two phases which accompany the spontaneous breaking of the translational symmetry and a ferrimagnetic phase in which the ground-state magnetization varies continuously with the uniaxial single-ion anisotropy constants for the S=1 and S =2 spins. The appearance of these three phases is attributed to the competition between the uniaxial single-ion anisotropies of both spins.

  13. Single-molecule magnetism in a single-ion triamidoamine uranium(V) terminal mono-oxo complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, David M.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J.L. [School of Chemistry and Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-26

    Straightforward oxidation of a triamidoamine uranium(III) complex with trimethyl-N-oxide affords a uranium(V) terminal mono-oxo complex which is the first clear-cut example of a uranium(V) single-molecule magnet (SMM). This monometallic complex unambiguously shows that a strongly axially ligated and thus anisotropic ligand field can be used to overcome the limited magnetic anisotropy of uranium(V). (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Single-molecule magnetism in a single-ion triamidoamine uranium(V) terminal mono-oxo complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, David M.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Straightforward oxidation of a triamidoamine uranium(III) complex with trimethyl-N-oxide affords a uranium(V) terminal mono-oxo complex which is the first clear-cut example of a uranium(V) single-molecule magnet (SMM). This monometallic complex unambiguously shows that a strongly axially ligated and thus anisotropic ligand field can be used to overcome the limited magnetic anisotropy of uranium(V). (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Critical current and cryogenic stability modelling of filamentary MgB2 conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glowacki, B.A.; Majoros, M.; Tanaka, K.

    2006-01-01

    The modelling of a single filament, 6 filaments and 19 filaments MgB(2) conductors was performed for two limiting cases: a) isothermal conditions considering J(c)(B) dependence, b) considering heating effects but with J(c) magnetic field independent. As a starting point of the modelling in case a...

  16. On the Behaviour of Current-Carrying Wire-Conductors and Bucking of a Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Fereidoon, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies approximate analytical methods namely Iteration Perturbation Method (IPM), variational approach (VA) and Parameter Expanding Method (PEM) to Single-Degree-Of-Freedom (SDOF) nonlinear oscillation systems. Some numerical cases as dynamic behavior of current-carrying wire-conductors...

  17. Challenges and status of ITER conductor production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devred, A.; Backbier, I.; Bessette, D.; Bevillard, G.; Gardner, M.; Jong, C.; Lillaz, F.; Mitchell, N.; Romano, G.; Vostner, A.

    2014-04-01

    Taking the relay of the large Hadron collider (LHC) at CERN, ITER has become the largest project in applied superconductivity. In addition to its technical complexity, ITER is also a management challenge as it relies on an unprecedented collaboration of seven partners, representing more than half of the world population, who provide 90% of the components as in-kind contributions. The ITER magnet system is one of the most sophisticated superconducting magnet systems ever designed, with an enormous stored energy of 51 GJ. It involves six of the ITER partners. The coils are wound from cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) made up of superconducting and copper strands assembled into a multistage cable, inserted into a conduit of butt-welded austenitic steel tubes. The conductors for the toroidal field (TF) and central solenoid (CS) coils require about 600 t of Nb3Sn strands while the poloidal field (PF) and correction coil (CC) and busbar conductors need around 275 t of Nb-Ti strands. The required amount of Nb3Sn strands far exceeds pre-existing industrial capacity and has called for a significant worldwide production scale up. The TF conductors are the first ITER components to be mass produced and are more than 50% complete. During its life time, the CS coil will have to sustain several tens of thousands of electromagnetic (EM) cycles to high current and field conditions, way beyond anything a large Nb3Sn coil has ever experienced. Following a comprehensive R&D program, a technical solution has been found for the CS conductor, which ensures stable performance versus EM and thermal cycling. Productions of PF, CC and busbar conductors are also underway. After an introduction to the ITER project and magnet system, we describe the ITER conductor procurements and the quality assurance/quality control programs that have been implemented to ensure production uniformity across numerous suppliers. Then, we provide examples of technical challenges that have been encountered and

  18. Velocity measurement of conductor using electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gu Hwa; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Joon Po; Jeong, Hee Tae; Lee, Eui Wan

    2002-01-01

    A basic technology was investigated to measure the speed of conductor by non-contact electromagnetic method. The principle of the velocity sensor was electromagnetic induction. To design electromagnet for velocity sensor, 2D electromagnetic analysis was performed using FEM software. The sensor output was analyzed according to the parameters of velocity sensor, such as the type of magnetizing currents and the lift-off. Output of magnetic sensor was linearly depended on the conductor speed and magnetizing current. To compensate the lift-off changes during measurement of velocity, the other magnetic sensor was put at the pole of electromagnet.

  19. Challenges and status of ITER conductor production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A; Backbier, I; Bessette, D; Bevillard, G; Gardner, M; Jong, C; Lillaz, F; Mitchell, N; Romano, G; Vostner, A

    2014-01-01

    Taking the relay of the large Hadron collider (LHC) at CERN, ITER has become the largest project in applied superconductivity. In addition to its technical complexity, ITER is also a management challenge as it relies on an unprecedented collaboration of seven partners, representing more than half of the world population, who provide 90% of the components as in-kind contributions. The ITER magnet system is one of the most sophisticated superconducting magnet systems ever designed, with an enormous stored energy of 51 GJ. It involves six of the ITER partners. The coils are wound from cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) made up of superconducting and copper strands assembled into a multistage cable, inserted into a conduit of butt-welded austenitic steel tubes. The conductors for the toroidal field (TF) and central solenoid (CS) coils require about 600 t of Nb 3 Sn strands while the poloidal field (PF) and correction coil (CC) and busbar conductors need around 275 t of Nb–Ti strands. The required amount of Nb 3 Sn strands far exceeds pre-existing industrial capacity and has called for a significant worldwide production scale up. The TF conductors are the first ITER components to be mass produced and are more than 50% complete. During its life time, the CS coil will have to sustain several tens of thousands of electromagnetic (EM) cycles to high current and field conditions, way beyond anything a large Nb 3 Sn coil has ever experienced. Following a comprehensive R and D program, a technical solution has been found for the CS conductor, which ensures stable performance versus EM and thermal cycling. Productions of PF, CC and busbar conductors are also underway. After an introduction to the ITER project and magnet system, we describe the ITER conductor procurements and the quality assurance/quality control programs that have been implemented to ensure production uniformity across numerous suppliers. Then, we provide examples of technical challenges that have been

  20. Oriented nano-wire formation and selective adhesion on substrates by single ion track reaction in polysilanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Seki; Satoshi Tsukuda, Yoichi Yoshida; Seiichi Tagawa; Masaki Sugimoto; Shigeru Tanaka

    2002-01-01

    1-D nano-sized materials such as carbon nanotubes have attracted much attention as ideal quantum wires for future manufacturing techniques of nano-scaled opto-electronic devices. However it is still difficult to control the sizes, spatial distributions, or positions of nanotubes by conventional synthetic techniques to date. The MeV order heavy ion beams causes ultra-high density energy deposition which can not be realized by any other techniques (lasers, H, etc), and penetrate the polymer target straighforward as long as 1∼100 m depth. the energy deposited area produces non-homogeneous field can be controlled by changing the energy deposition rate of incident ions (LET: linear energy transfer, eV/nm). We found that cross-linking reaction of polysilane derivatives was predominantly caused and gave nano-gel in the chemical core, unlike main chain scission occurring at the outside of the area. high density energy deposition by ion beams causes non-homogeneous crosslinking reaction of polysilane derivatives within a nano-sized cylindrical area along an ion trajectory, and gives -SiC based nano-wires of which sizes (length, thickness) and number densities are completely under control by changing the parameters of incident ion beams and molecular sizes of target polymers. based on the concept pf the single track gelation, the present study demonstrates the formation of cross-linked polysilane nano-wires with the fairly controlled sizes. Recently the techniques of position-selective single ion hitting have been developed for MeV order ion beams, however it is not sufficient to control precisely the positions of the nano-wires on the substrates within sub- m area. in the present study, we report the selective adhesion of anno-wires on Si substrates by the surface treatments before coating, which enables the patterning of planted nano-wires on substrates and/or electrodes as candidates for nano-sized field emissive cathodes or electro-luminescent devices. Some examples of

  1. Experimental study of single-electron loss by Ar{sup +} ions in rare-gas atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, P.G. [Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, Coyoacan (Mexico); Castillo, F. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Coyoacan (Mexico); Martinez, H. [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, UNAM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: hm@fis.unam.mx

    2001-04-28

    Absolute differential and total cross sections for single-electron loss were measured for Ar{sup +} ions on rare-gas atoms in the laboratory energy range of 1.5 to 5.0 keV. The electron loss cross sections for all the targets studied are found to be in the order of magnitude between 10{sup -19} and 10{sup -22} cm{sup 2}, and show a monotonically increasing behaviour as a function of the incident energy. The behaviour of the total single-electron loss cross sections with the atomic target number, Z{sub t}, shows different dependences as the collision energy increases. In all cases the present results display experimental evidence of saturation in the single-electron loss cross section as the atomic number of the target increases. (author)

  2. Expanding the Operational Limits of the Single-Point Impedance Diagnostic for Internal Temperature Monitoring of Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinner, Neil S.; Love, Corey T.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Tuttle, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-point impedance diagnostic technique demonstrated for lithium-ion batteries • Correlation between imaginary impedance and internal temperature determined • Instantaneous monitoring of commercial lithium-ion battery internal temperature • Expanded temperature range from −10°C up to 95°C • Non-invasive method useful for practical temperature monitoring of commercial cells - Abstract: Instantaneous internal temperature monitoring of a commercial 18650 LiCoO 2 lithium-ion battery was performed using a single-point EIS measurement. A correlation between the imaginary impedance, –Z imag , and internal temperature at 300 Hz was developed that was independent of the battery’s state of charge. An Arrhenius-type dependence was applied, and the activation energy for SEI ionic conductivity was found to be 0.13 eV. Two separate temperature-time experiments were conducted with different sequences of temperature, and single-point impedance tests at 300 Hz were performed to validate the correlation. Limitations were observed with the upper temperature range (68°C < T < 95°C), and consequently a secondary, empirical fit was applied for this upper range to improve accuracy. Average differences between actual and fit temperatures decreased around 3-7°C for the upper range with the secondary correlation. The impedance response at this frequency corresponded to the anode/SEI layer, and the SEI is reported to be thermally stable up to around 100°C, at which point decomposition may occur leading to battery deactivation and/or total failure. It is therefore of great importance to be able to track internal battery temperatures up to this critical point of 100°C, and this work demonstrates an expansion of the single-point EIS diagnostic to these elevated temperatures

  3. Single-ion triblock copolymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) and methacrylic sulfonamide blocks for lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcarelli, Luca; Aboudzadeh, M. Ali; Rubatat, Laurent; Nair, Jijeesh R.; Shaplov, Alexander S.; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Mecerreyes, David

    2017-10-01

    Single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes represent the ideal solution to reduce concentration polarization in lithium metal batteries (LMBs). This paper reports on the synthesis and characterization of single-ion ABA triblock copolymer electrolytes comprising PEO and poly(lithium 1-[3-(methacryloyloxy)propylsulfonyl]-1-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) blocks, poly(LiMTFSI). Block copolymers are prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, showing low glass transition temperature (-55 to 7 °C) and degree of crystallinity (51-0%). Comparatively high values of ionic conductivity are obtained (up to ≈ 10-4 S cm-1 at 70 °C), combined with a lithium-ion transference number close to unity (tLi+ ≈ 0.91) and a 4 V electrochemical stability window. In addition to these promising features, solid polymer electrolytes are successfully tested in lithium metal cells at 70 °C providing long lifetime up to 300 cycles, and stable charge/discharge cycling at C/2 (≈100 mAh g-1).

  4. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 μg/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 μL injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Single-Event Effects in Power MOSFETs During Heavy Ion Irradiations Performed After Gamma-Ray Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatto, G.; De Luca, V.; Iannuzzo, F.; Sanseverino, A.; Velardi, F.

    2013-10-01

    The robustness of commercial power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors to combined gamma-heavy ion irradiation has been investigated, evidence that the degradation of the gate oxide caused by the γ irradiation can severely corrupt the robustness to single-event effects and drastically modify the physical behavior of the device under test after the impact of a heavy ion. A decrease of the critical voltages at which destructive burnouts and gate ruptures for heavy ion impact appear, has been detected in the devices under test, which were previously irradiated with γ rays. In addition, the amount of critical voltage reduction is strictly related to the amount of the absorbed γ-ray dose. Furthermore, at the failure voltage, the behavior of the device is affected by the conduction of a current through the gate oxide. Moreover, the single-event gate rupture” of the device appears at lower voltages because of the reduction of the Fowler-Nordheim limit in the γ-irradiated devices.

  6. Simulation of ion reflection from a single crystal at grazing angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpuzov, D.S.; Armour, D.G.; Evdoimov, I.N.

    1979-01-01

    Features of ion scattering for small angles of incidence, up to about 10 0 from the surface, have been examined for 6 keV Ar + ions in a plane of incidence parallel to the direction in the nickel (110) surface. Ions scattered between the surface layer atoms, either above the surface, or slightly below the surface in the semi-channel make a significant contribution to the reflected beam. The angular dependence of experimentally measured energy spectra can be explained when these scattering events are taken into account. In this region of small elastic energy loss and long path lengths close to the surface, inelastic energy losses assume an important role in determining the energy distribution of the scattered particles. (author)

  7. Ion Density Analysis of Single-Stranded DNA in Liquid Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabata, Kazuki; Seki, Yasutaka; Toizumi, Ryota; Shimada, Yuki; Furue, Hirokazu; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2013-09-01

    With the widespread use of liquid crystals (LCs) in liquid crystal displays, we have looked into the application of liquid crystals in biotechnology. The purpose of the study described here is to investigate the physical properties of DNA using LCs. Synthetic oligonucleotide molecules were dispersed in MLC6884, the sample injected into antiparallel cells, and the amount of mobile ions was measured. The LC cell doped with oligonucleotide molecules showed a sequence-dependent, specific correlation between oligonucleotide concentration and the amount of mobile ions in the LC cells. In the framework of the Stokes model and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis, we speculate that this result arises from the difference in ion mobility, which is caused by the shape of the oligonucleotide molecule in the LC.

  8. Ion-beam-driven amorphization of Ca2La8(SiO4)6O2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Hess, N.J.; Wang, L.M.

    1993-11-01

    Single crystals of Ca 2 La 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , with 1% Nd substituted for La, were irradiated with 0.8 MeV Ne + and 1.5 MeV Kr + ions from 15 to 773 K. The irradiations were carried out using the HVEM-Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The structural changes and the ion fluence for complete amorphization were determined by in situ transmission electron microscopy. The ion fluence for complete amorphization increased with temperature in two stages associated with defect annealing processes. The critical temperature for amorphization increased from ∼360 K for 0.8 MeV Ne + to ∼710 K for 1.5 MeV Kr + . During in situ annealing studies, irradiation-enhanced recrystallization was observed at 923 K. Spatially-resolved fluorescence spectra of the Nd ion excited with 488.0 mn laser excitation showed marked line-broadening toward the center of the amorphous regions. Initial measurements indicate the subtle shifts of the 9 I 9/2 groundstate energy levels can be measured by pumping directly into the excited state 4 F 3/2 manifold suggesting that the line broadening observed originates from a distribution of geometrically distorted Nd sites

  9. A single optical sensor with high sensitivity for detection of Fe{sup 3+} and CN{sup −} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshani, Jafar [School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badiei, Alireza, E-mail: abadiei@khayam.ut.ac.ir [School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanobiomedicine Center of Excellence, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Maryam; Shayesteh, Alireza; Karimi, Mehdi; Lashgari, Negar [School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi [Department of Chemistry, Alzahra University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    1,2-Bis(2-hydroxymethylphenoxy)ethane was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The sensing ability of the sensor was studied in the presence of different cations and anions. Following the excitation wavelengths at 275 nm in EtOH/H{sub 2}O (1:9, v/v) and 310 nm in MeCN/H{sub 2}O (1:9, v/v), two distinct emissions at 305 and 356 nm were obtained, respectively. Fe{sup 3+} and CN{sup −} ions were successfully detected in EtOH/H{sub 2}O and MeCN/H{sub 2}O mixtures, respectively. While the fluorescence intensity of the sensor quenched considerably in the presence of Fe{sup 3+} cation at 305 nm, it enhanced in the presence of CN{sup −} anion at 356 nm. Selectivity of the sensor toward these ions was verified in the presence of a variety of common interfering ions. The detection limits of Fe{sup 3+} and CN{sup −} were calculated as 5.4 × 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1} and 1.9 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}, respectively which shows the high sensitivity of the sensor toward the target ions. Finally, the interaction of the sensor and CN{sup −} anion was determined by computational studies.

  10. Single and binary adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using sugarcane cellulose-based adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Futao; Pan, Yuanfeng; Cai, Pingxiong; Guo, Tianxiang; Xiao, Huining

    2017-10-01

    A high efficient and eco-friendly sugarcane cellulose-based adsorbent was prepared in an attempt to remove Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ from aqueous solutions. The effects of initial concentration of heavy metal ions and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the bioadsorbent were investigated. The adsorption isotherms showed that the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ followed the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorptions were as high as 558.9, 446.2 and 363.3mg·g -1 , respectively, in single component system. The binary component system was better described with the competitive Langmuir isotherm model. The three dimensional sorption surface of binary component system demonstrated that the presence of Pb 2+ decreased the sorption of Cu 2+ , but the adsorption amount of other metal ions was not affected. The result from SEM-EDAX revealed that the adsorption of metal ions on bioadsorbent was mainly driven by coordination, ion exchange and electrostatic association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Single-molecule magnetism in a single-ion triamidoamine uranium(V) terminal mono-oxo complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, David M.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J.L. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry

    2013-04-26

    Straightforward oxidation of a triamidoamine uranium(III) complex with trimethyl-N-oxide affords a uranium(V) terminal mono-oxo complex which is the first clear-cut example of a uranium(V) single-molecule magnet (SMM). This monometallic complex unambiguously shows that a strongly axially ligated and thus anisotropic ligand field can be used to overcome the limited magnetic anisotropy of uranium(V). [German] Die direkte Oxidation eines Triamidoamin-Uran(III)-Komplexes mit Trimethyl-N-oxid liefert einen terminalen Uran(V)-Mono(oxo)komplex, der das erste gesicherte Beispiel eines Uran(V)-Einzelmolekuelmagnets ist. Dieser monometallische Komplex zeigt eindeutig, dass ein starkes axiales und somit anisotropes Ligandenfeld die begrenzte magnetische Anisotropie von Uran(V) beseitigen kann.

  12. Stray current interaction in the system of two extensive underground conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machczynski, W.

    1993-01-01

    The important problem, technically, is to evaluate the harmful effects that an electrified railway has on nearby earth-return circuits (cables, pipelines). This paper considers the effects of a DC-electrified railway system on two extensive metal conductors buried in parallel in the vicinity of the tracks. The interaction between currents flowing in both underground conductors is taken into account, whereas the reaction of the conductors' currents on the track current is disregarded. The analysis given is applicable to any DC railway system in which tracks may be represented by a single earth return circuit with current energization. It is assumed in the paper that the system considered is linear and that the earth is homogeneous. The technical application of the method is illustrated by an example of computer simulation

  13. Evaluation of inductive heating energy of a PF insert coil conductor by the calorimetric method (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kunihiro; Nabara, Yoshihiro; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Okuno, Kiyoshi

    2009-02-01

    The PF Insert Coil is a single layer solenoid coil using a superconducting conductor designed for ITER, housed in a Poloidal field coil and installed in the bore of the CS Model Coil. A stability test of the conductor will be performed in a magnetic field generated by the CS Model Coil. In this test, the inductive heat of an inductive heater attached to the conductor will be applied to initiate a normal zone in the conductor. Since the conductor for the PF Insert Coil is a cable-in-conduit conductor, it is quite difficult to estimate inductive heating energy theoretically. Thus, the inductive heating energy is measured experimentally by the calorimetric method. The heating energy is in proportion to a constant multiplied by the integrated square of an applied sinusoidal current wave over the heating period. Experimental results show that the proportional constants of the conductor, cable, conduit and dummy conductor are 0.138 [J/A 2 s], 0.028 [J/A 2 s], 0.118 [J/A 2 s] and 0.009 [J/A 2 s], respectively. The first three denote not only the inductive heating but also the joule heating of the inductive heater. The final value denotes joule heating only. Therefore, subtracting the first three constants by the last one, the proportional constants of inductive heating generated in the conductor, cable and conduit are estimated to be 0.129 [J/A 2 s], 0.019 [J/A 2 s] and 0.109 [J/A 2 s], respectively. (author)

  14. Positron bound states on hydride ions in thermochemically reduced MgO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.; Gonzalez, R.; Chen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Positron-lifetime and Doppler-broadening techniques were used to unambiguously identify positronium hydrides in thermochemically reduced MgO crystals at low temperatures. Positrons trapped at H - ions, forming PsH, yield a lifetime of (640±40) ps, independent of temperature. Complementary evidence for this identification was provided by Doppler-broadening experiments, in which positrons were trapped at H 2- sites at low temperatures. The H 2- ions were formed via H - +e - →H 2- by the capturing of an electron released from Fe + impurity under blue-light stimulation. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Ion bombardment induced surface topography modification of clean and contaminated single crystal Cu and Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.W.; Kiriakides, G.; Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Among the several factors which lead to depth resolution deterioration during sputter profiling, surface morphological modification resulting from local differences of sputtering rate can be important. This paper reports the results of direct scanning, electron microscopic studies obtained quasi-dynamically during increasing fluence ion bombardment of the evolution of etch pit structures on Si and Cu, and how such elaboration may be suppressed. It also reports on the elaboration of contaminant-induced cone generation for different ion species bombardment. The influence of such etch pit and cone generation on achievable depth resolution is assessed. (author)

  16. Resistive coating for current conductors in cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, C.; Wagner, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a resistive or semiconducting coating for use on current conductors in cryogenic applications. This includes copper-clad superconductor wire, copper wire used for stabilizing superconductor magnets, and for hyperconductors. The coating is a film of cuprous sulfide (Cu2S) that has been found not to degrade the properties of the conductors. It is very adherent to the respective conductors and satisfies the mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements of coatings for the conductors

  17. Preparation of the ITER Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanino, R.; Egorov, S.; Kim, K.; Martovetsky, N.; Nunoya, Y.; Okuno, K.; Salpietro, E.; Sborchia, C.; Takahashi, Y.; Weng, P.; Bangasco, M.; Savoldi Richard, L.; Polak, M.; Formisano, A.; Zapretilina, E.; Shikov, A.; Vedernikov, G.; Ciazynski, D.; Zani, L.; Muzzi, L.; Ricci, M.; Deela Corte, A.; Sugimoto, M.; Hamada, K.; Portone, A.; Hurd, F.; Mitchell, N.; Nijhuis, A.; Ilyin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been designed in Europe and is being manufactured at Tesla Engineering, UK, in the frame of a Task Agreement with the ITER International Team. Completion of the PFCI is expected at the beginning of 2005. Then, the coil shall be shipped to JAERI Naka, Japan, and inserted into the bore of the ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil, where it should be tested in 2005 to 2006. The PFCI consists of a NbTi dual-channel conductor, almost identical to the ITER PF1 and PF6 design, about 45 m long, with a 50 mm thick square stainless steel jacket, wound in a single-layer solenoid. It should carry up to 50 kA in a field of about 6 T, and it will be cooled by supercritical He at around 4.5 K and 0.6 MPa. An intermediate joint, representative of the ITER PF joints and located at relatively high field, will be an important new item in the test configuration with respect to the previous ITER Insert Coils. The PFCI will be fully instrumented with inductive and resistive heaters, as well as with voltage taps, Hall probes, pick-up coils, temperature sensors, pressure taps, strain and displacement sensors. The test program shall be aimed at DC and pulsed performance assessment of conductor and intermediate joint, AC loss measurement, stability and quench propagation, thermalhydraulic characterization. Here we give an overview of the preparatory work towards the test, including a review of the coil manufacturing and of the available instrumentation, a discussion of the most likely test program items, and a presentation of the supporting modeling and characterization work performed so far. (authors)

  18. A high-gain, low ion-backflow double micro-mesh gaseous structure for single electron detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Qi, Binbin; Liu, Chengming; Feng, Jianxin; Liu, Jianbei; Shao, Ming; Zhou, Yi; Hong, Daojin; Lv, You; Song, Guofeng; Wang, Xu; You, Wenhao

    2018-05-01

    Application of micro-pattern gaseous detectors to gaseous photomultiplier tubes has been widely investigated over the past two decades. In this paper, we present a double micro-mesh gaseous structure that has been designed and fabricated for this application. Tests with X-rays and UV laser light indicate that this structure exhibits an excellent gas gain of > 7 × 104 and good energy resolution of 19% (full width at half maximum) for 5.9 keV X-rays. The gas gain can reach up to 106 for single electrons while maintaining a very low ion-backflow ratio down to 0.0005. This structure has good potential for other applications requiring a very low level of ion backflow.

  19. Single-crystalline LiFePO4 nanosheets for high-rate Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Peng, Lele; Liu, Borui; Yu, Guihua

    2014-05-14

    The lithiation/delithiation in LiFePO4 is highly anisotropic with lithium-ion diffusion being mainly confined to channels along the b-axis. Controlling the orientation of LiFePO4 crystals therefore plays an important role for efficient mass transport within this material. We report here the preparation of single crystalline LiFePO4 nanosheets with a large percentage of highly oriented {010} facets, which provide the highest pore density for lithium-ion insertion/extraction. The LiFePO4 nanosheets show a high specific capacity at low charge/discharge rates and retain significant capacities at high C-rates, which may benefit the development of lithium batteries with both favorable energy and power density.

  20. Lithium1.3Aluminum0.3Titanium1.7Phosphate as a solid state Li-ion conductor: Issues with microcracking and stability in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Spencer D.

    Lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP) with formula Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 was analyzed and tested to better understand its applicability as a solid state ion conducting ceramic material for electrochemical applications. Sintered samples were obtained from Ceramatec, Inc. in Salt Lake City and characterized in terms of density, phase-purity, fracture toughness, Young's modulus, thermal expansion behavior, mechanical strength, a.c. and d.c. ionic conductivity, and susceptibility to static and electrochemical corrosion in aqueous Li salt solutions. It was shown that LATP is prone to microcrack generation because of high thermal expansion anisotropy. A.c. impedance spectra of high-purity LATP of varying grain sizes showed that microcracking had a negative impact on the ionic conduction of Li along grain boundaries, with fine-grained (1.7±0.7 µm) LATP having twice the ionic conductivity of the same purity of coarse-grained (4.8±1.9 µm) LATP at 50°C. LATP with detectible secondary phases had lower ionic conductivity for similar grain sizes, as would be expected. The Young's modulus of fine-grained LATP was measured to be 115 GPa, and the highest biaxial strength was 191±11 MPa when tested in mineral oil, 144±13 MPa as measured in air, and 26±7 MPa after exposure to deionized water, suggesting that LATP undergoes stress-corrosion cracking. After exposure to LiOH, the strength was 76±19 MPa. This decrease in strength was observed despite there being no measureable change in a.c. impedance spectra, X-ray diffraction, or sample mass, suggesting phosphate glasses at grain boundaries. The chemical and electrochemical stability of high-purity LATP in aqueous electrochemical cells was evaluated using LiOH, LiCl, LiNO3, and LiCOOCH3 salts as the Li source. LATP was found to be most stable between pH 8-9, with the longest cell operating continuously at 25 mA cm-2 for 625 hours at 40°C in LiCOOCH3. At pH values outside of the 7-10 range, eventual membrane degradation

  1. Imaging of single cells and tissue using MeV ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, F.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kan, J.A. van; Ynsa, M.D.; Ren Minqin; Rajendran, R.; Cui Huifang; Sheu, F.-S.; Jenner, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    With the attainment of sub-100 nm high energy (MeV) ion beams, comes the opportunity to image cells and tissue at nano-dimensions. The advantage of MeV ion imaging is that the ions will penetrate whole cells, or relatively thick tissue sections, without any significant loss of resolution. In this paper, we demonstrate that whole cells (cultured N2A neuroblastoma cells ATCC) and tissue sections (rabbit pancreas tissue) can be imaged at sub-100 nm resolutions using scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM), and that sub-cellular structural details can be identified. In addition to STIM imaging we have also demonstrated for the first time, that sub-cellular proton induced fluorescence imaging (on cultured N2A neuroblastoma cells ATCC) can also be carried out at resolutions of 200 nm, compared with 300-400 nm resolutions achieved by conventional optical fluorescence imaging. The combination of both techniques offers a potentially powerful tool in the quest for elucidating cell function, particularly when it should be possible in the near future to image down to sub-50 nm.

  2. Thermal properties of the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system with two different random single-ion anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. R. V.; Tunes, T. M.; de Arruda, A. S.; Godoy, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we have performed Monte Carlo simulations to study a mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice with two different random single-ion anisotropies. This lattice is divided in two interpenetrating sublattices with spins SA = 1 in the sublattice A and SB = 3 / 2 in the sublattice B. The exchange interaction between the spins on the sublattices is antiferromagnetic (J single-ion anisotropies, DiA and DjB , on the sublattices A and B, respectively. We have determined the phase diagram of the model in the critical temperature Tc versus strength of the random single-ion anisotropy D plane and we shown that it exhibits only second-order phase transition lines. We also shown that this system displays compensation temperatures for some cases of the random single-ion distribution.

  3. Re-examining the tetraphenyl-arsonium/tetraphenyl-borate (TATB) hypothesis for single-ion solvation free energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Travis P.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2018-06-01

    Attempts to establish an absolute single-ion hydration free energy scale have followed multiple strategies. Two central themes consist of (1) employing bulk pair thermodynamic data and an underlying interfacial-potential-free model to partition the hydration free energy into individual contributions [Marcus, Latimer, and tetraphenyl-arsonium/tetraphenyl-borate (TATB) methods] or (2) utilizing bulk thermodynamic and cluster data to estimate the free energy to insert a proton into water, including in principle an interfacial potential contribution [the cluster pair approximation (CPA)]. While the results for the hydration free energy of the proton agree remarkably well between the three approaches in the first category, the value differs from the CPA result by roughly +10 kcal/mol, implying a value for the effective electrochemical surface potential of water of -0.4 V. This paper provides a computational re-analysis of the TATB method for single-ion free energies using quasichemical theory. A previous study indicated a significant discrepancy between the free energies of hydration for the TA cation and the TB anion. We show that the main contribution to this large computed difference is an electrostatic artifact arising from modeling interactions in periodic boundaries. No attempt is made here to develop more accurate models for the local ion/solvent interactions that may lead to further small free energy differences between the TA and TB ions, but the results clarify the primary importance of interfacial potential effects for analysis of the various free energy scales. Results are also presented, related to the TATB assumption in the organic solvents dimethyl sulfoxide and 1,2-dichloroethane.

  4. Fluorescence-based high-throughput functional profiling of ligand-gated ion channels at the level of single cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Talwar

    Full Text Available Ion channels are involved in many physiological processes and are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Their functional properties vary according to their subunit composition, which in turn varies in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and as a consequence of pathophysiological events. Understanding this diversity requires functional analysis of ion channel properties in large numbers of individual cells. Functional characterisation of ligand-gated channels involves quantitating agonist and drug dose-response relationships using electrophysiological or fluorescence-based techniques. Electrophysiology is limited by low throughput and high-throughput fluorescence-based functional evaluation generally does not enable the characterization of the functional properties of each individual cell. Here we describe a fluorescence-based assay that characterizes functional channel properties at single cell resolution in high throughput mode. It is based on progressive receptor activation and iterative fluorescence imaging and delivers >100 dose-responses in a single well of a 384-well plate, using α1-3 homomeric and αβ heteromeric glycine receptor (GlyR chloride channels as a model system. We applied this assay with transiently transfected HEK293 cells co-expressing halide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein and different GlyR subunit combinations. Glycine EC50 values of different GlyR isoforms were highly correlated with published electrophysiological data and confirm previously reported pharmacological profiles for the GlyR inhibitors, picrotoxin, strychnine and lindane. We show that inter and intra well variability is low and that clustering of functional phenotypes permits identification of drugs with subunit-specific pharmacological profiles. As this method dramatically improves the efficiency with which ion channel populations can be characterized in the context of cellular heterogeneity, it should facilitate systems

  5. Picomolar selective detection of mercuric ion (Hg{sup 2+}) using a functionalized single plasmonic gold nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyeon Don; Choi, Inhee; Yang, Young In; Hong, Surin; Lee, Suseung; Yi, Jongheop [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Taewook, E-mail: xinly601@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: iniini79@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: netmo00@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: pell2004@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jazz1863@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: twkang@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: jyi@snu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-09

    A highly sensitive method for the selective detection and quantification of mercuric ions (Hg{sup 2+}) using single plasmonic gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based dark-field microspectroscopy (DFMS) is demonstrated. The method is based on the scattering property of a single GNP that is functionalized with thiolated molecules, which is altered when analytes bind to the functionalized GNP. The spectral resolution of the system is 0.26 nm and a linear response to Hg{sup 2+} was found in the dynamic range of 100 pM-10 {mu}M. The method permits Hg{sup 2+} to be detected at the picomolar level, which is a remarkable reduction in the detection limit, considering the currently proscribed Environmental Protection Agency regulation level (10 nM, or 2 ppb) and the detection limits of other optical methods for detecting Hg{sup 2+} (recently approx. 1-10 nM). In addition, Hg{sup 2+} can be sensitively detected in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+}, which do not interfere with the analysis. Based on the findings reported herein, it is likely that single-nanoparticle-based metal ion sensing can be extended to the development of other chemo- and biosensors for the direct detection of specific targets in an intracellular environment as well as in environmental monitoring.

  6. Luminescence and Tb3+-Ce3+-Eu3+ ion energy transfer in single-crystalline films of Tb3Al5O12:Ce,Eu garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Y.; Gorbenko, V.; Voznyak, T.; Batentschuk, M.; Osvet, A.; Winnacker, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of the processes of excitation energy transfer between the host cations (Tb 3+ ions) and the activators (Ce 3+ and Eu 3+ ions) in single-crystalline films of Tb 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce,Eu (TbAG:Ce,Eu) garnet which is considered as a promising luminescent material for the conversion of LED's radiation. The cascade process of excitation energy transfer is shown to be realized in TbAG:Ce,Eu: (i) from Tb 3+ ions to Ce 3+ and Eu 3+ ions; (ii) from Ce 3+ ions to Eu 3+ ions by means of dipole-dipole interaction and through Tb 3+ ion sublattice

  7. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Electrical Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.425... than 30 inches. (g) This section does not apply to communications systems; electronic navigation... conductors and terminations that are in ignition systems; pigtails of less than seven inches of exposed...

  8. High Temperature Protonic Conductors by Melt Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-21

    A.R. de Arellano-López, A. Sayir. “Microestructura y Comportamiento Plástico de Perovsquitas Conductoras Protónicas de Alta Temperatura ”. Bol. Soc...Conductores Protónicos de Alta Temperatura Crecidos por Fusión de Zona Flotante”. VII Reunión Nacional y VI Conferencia Iberoamericana (Electrocerámica

  9. Reshaping the perfect electrical conductor cylinder arbitrarily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanyang; Zhang Xiaohe; Luo Xudong; Ma Hongru; Chan Cheting

    2008-01-01

    A general method is proposed to design a cylindrical cloak, concentrator and superscatterer with an arbitrary cross section. The method is demonstrated by the design of a perfect electrical conductor (PEC) reshaper which is able to reshape a PEC cylinder arbitrarily by combining the concept of cloak, concentrator and superscatterer together. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate its properties.

  10. A two-dimensional finite element method to calculate the AC loss in superconducting cables, wires and coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Z; Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Coombs, T A [Electronic, Power and Energy Conversion Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Ye, L [Department of Electrical Power Engineering, CAU, P. O. Box 210, Beijing 100083 (China); Campbell, A M [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Zh223@cam.ac.uk

    2008-02-15

    In order to utilize HTS conductors in AC electrical devices, it is very important to be able to understand the characteristics of HTS materials in the AC electromagnetic conditions and give an accurate estimate of the AC loss. A numerical method is proposed in this paper to estimate the AC loss in superconducting conductors including MgB{sub 2} wires and YBCO coated conductors. This method is based on solving a set of partial differential equations in which the magnetic field is used as the state variable to get the current and electric field distributions in the cross sections of the conductors and hence the AC loss can be calculated. This method is used to model a single-element and a multi-element MgB{sub 2} wires. The results demonstrate that the multi-element MgB{sub 2} wire has a lower AC loss than a single-element one when carrying the same current. The model is also used to simulate YBCO coated conductors by simplifying the superconducting thin tape into a one-dimensional region where the thickness of the coated conductor can be ignored. The results show a good agreement with the measurement.

  11. Electronic and Ionic Conductors from Ordered Microporous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dincă, Mircea [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-10-30

    The proposed work aimed to establish metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as new classes of high-surface area microporous electronic and ionic conductors. MOFs are crystalline materials with pore sizes ranging from 0.2 to ~ 2 nm (or larger for the latter) defined by inorganic or organic building blocks connected by rigid organic linkers. Myriad applications have been found or proposed for these materials, yet those that require electron transport or conductivity in combination with permanent porosity still lag behind because the vast majority of known frameworks are electrical insulators. Prior to our proposal and subsequent work, there were virtually no studies exploring the possibility of electronic delocalization in these materials. Therefore, our primary goal was to understand and control, at a fundamental level, the electron and ion transport properties of this class of materials, with no specific application proposed, although myriad applications could be envisioned for high surface area conductors. Our goals directly addressed one of the DOE-identified Grand Challenges for Basic Energy Sciences: designing perfect atom- and energy-efficient syntheses of revolutionary new forms of matter with tailored properties. Indeed, the proposed work is entirely synthetic in nature; owing to the molecular nature of the building blocks in MOFs, there is the possibility of unprecedented control over the structure and properties of solid crystalline matter. The goals also tangentially addressed the Grand Challenge of controlling materials processes at the level of electrons: the scope of our program is to create new materials where charges (electrons and/or ions) move according to predefined pathways.

  12. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  13. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  14. Radiation-induced effects in MgO single crystal by 200 keV and 1 MeV Ni ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryohei; Nakai, Yoshihiro; Hamaguchi, Dai [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan); and others

    1997-03-01

    MgO(100) single crystals were implanted with 1.0 MeV and 200 keV Ni ions between 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Before and after thermal annealing the radiation damage and the lattice location of implanted Ni ions were analyzed by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with channeling and optical absorption measurements. For 1.0 MeV Ni ions, the disorder of Mg atoms increased slowly with ion dose near surface region, while it increased sharply and saturated with ion dose from 2x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} near ion range. The radiation damage was recovered and implanted Ni ions diffused to the whole of crystal and occupied substitutional positions after 1400degC annealing. For 200 keV Ni ions, the disorder of Mg atoms increased with dose near ion range and had a maximum at about 5x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. This tendency agrees with the behavior of color centers obtained from optical measurements. For thermal annealing the radiation damage did not change during 500degC annealing, but the aggregate centers appeared after 300degC annealing. (author)

  15. Control of Radioactive Lightning-Conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, E.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive lightning-conductor production in Brazil was started in 1970 and after a period of 19 years of commercialization of these devices, the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), based in studies done in Brazil and abroad, proved that the radioactive lightning-conductor performance wasn't superior to the conventional one, so the use of radioactive source is not justified. Thence, the authorization for its production was suspended and the installation of this type of lightning-conductor was forbidden. The radioactive material that results from the dismount of these devices must be immediately sent to CNEN, for treatment and temporary storage. After this prohibition and its publication in several specialized magazines, CNEN was searched for several institutions, factories, churches, etc, interested in obtaining information about the handling and shipment procedures of radioactive lightning-conductors that are inoperative and that must be sent to CNEN's Institutes, in a correct and secure form. From this moment CNEN technicians realize that the owners of radioactive lightning-conductors didn't have any knowledge and training in radiation protection, neither in equipment to monitoring the radiation. The radioactive material from these sources is, in almost all cases, the radioisotope 241Am which has a maximum activity of an order of 5 mCi (1,85 x 10-2 TBq); as the radiation emitted by 241Am is of alpha type, whose range in the air, is just few centimeters and the gamma rays are of low energy, an irradiation offer small risk. However, there is a contamination risk on someone hands, by the contact with the source. Aiming to attend, in an objective way, the users' interests in obtaining some pertinent technical information about the shipping of radioactive lightning-conductor that is inoperative or is being replaced and also to optimize its receipt in CNEN's Institutes, because there still has a great number of these lightning-conductors installed and still

  16. Crystal-field analysis of U3+ ions in K2LaX5 (X=Cl, Br or I) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, M.; Edelstein, N.; Gajek, Z.; Drożdżyński, J.

    1998-11-01

    An analysis of low temperature absorption spectra of U3+ ions doped in K2LaX5 (X=Cl, Br or I) single crystals is reported. The energy levels of the U3+ ion in the single crystals were assigned and fitted to a semiempirical Hamiltonian representing the combined atomic and crystal-field interactions at the Cs symmetry site. An analysis of the nephelauxetic effect and crystal-field splittings in the series of compounds is also reported.

  17. Progress towards all-chemical superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}-coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obradors, X [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Puig, T [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Pomar, A [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2006-03-15

    Chemical solution deposition (CSD) has recently emerged as a very competitive technique for obtaining epitaxial films of high quality with controlled nanostructure. In particular, the all-CSD approach is considered to be one of the most promising approaches for cost-effective production of second-generation superconducting wires. The trifluoroacetate (TFA) route is a very versatile route for achieving epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) layers with high critical currents. In this work, recent advances towards improvement of the performance of several conductor architectures based on the YBCO TFA process will be presented. We show that new improved anhydrous TFA precursors allow a significant shortening of the pyrolysis time ({approx}1.5 h), and we have increased the total film thickness in a single deposition using polymeric additives. On the other hand, further understanding of the YBCO nucleation and growth process has allowed us to obtain a controlled microstructure and high critical currents (J{sub c}{approx}4-5 MA cm{sup -2} and I{sub c}{approx}300 A cm{sup -1} width at 77 K). The growth conditions (CSD) and post-processing conditions (sputtering and CSD) for the underlying oxide cap and buffer layers (CeO{sub 2}, BaZrO{sub 3}, SrTiO{sub 3}, La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}) and of self-organized nanostructures (CeO{sub 2}, BaZrO{sub 3}) deposited by CSD have been investigated to obtain high-quality interfaces in multilayered systems. Different single-crystal or metallic substrates (YSZ-IBAD (yttrium stabilized zirconia-ion beam assisted deposition) and Ni-RABiT (rolling assisted biaxial texturing)) have been investigated and long ({approx}10 m) CSD biaxially textured buffers (CeO{sub 2}, La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) have been grown on Ni-RABiT substrates using a reel-to-reel system. High-performance TFA-YBCO-coated conductors have been obtained on vacuum-based buffer layers (I{sub c}{approx}140 A cm{sup -1} width) and on CSD buffer layers

  18. Specifications for conductors and proposed conductor configurations: Milestone M5.3

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, Bernardo; Dhallé, Marc

    2018-01-01

    This document summarises the specifications of a superconductor suitable to be used in a particle accelerator dipole magnet that can reach a field of 16 Tesla during regular operation. The document reports also on the conductor configuration. These specifications set the performance targets for industrial production requirements at large scale. The document motivates the specifications on one hand by taking a particular magnet baseline design as starting point and by considering the results of various conductor test campaigns carried out at partner institutes.

  19. Comparison of single and mixed ion implantation effects on the changes of the surface hardness, light transmittance, and electrical conductivity of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, J. S.; Kil, J. G.; Choi, B. H.; Han, Z. H.

    2001-01-01

    Single or mixed ions of N, He, C were implanted onto the transparent PET(Polyethylen Terephtalate) with the ion energies of less than 100 keV and the surface hardness, light transmittance and electrical conductivity were examined. As measured with nanoindentation, mixed ion implantations such as N + +He + or N + + C + exhibited more increase in the surface hardness than the single ion implantation. Especially, implantation of C+N ions increased the surface hardness by about three times as compared to the implantation of N ion alone, which means more than 10 times increase than the untreated PET. Surface electrical conductivity was increased along with the hardness increase. The conductivity increase was more proportional to the hardness when used the higher ion energy and ion dose, while it did not show any relationship at as low as 50 keV of ion energy. The light at the 550 nm wavelength (visual range) transmitted more than 85%, which is close to that of as-received PET, and at the wavelength below 300 nm(UV range) the rays were absorbed more than 95% as traveling through the sheet, implying that there are processing parameters which the ion implanted PET maintains the transparency and absorbs the UV rays

  20. Performance of single chamber biocatalyzed electrolysis with different types of ion exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Molenkamp, R.J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis was studied for the first time in a single chamber configuration. Single chamber biocatalyzed electrolysis was tested in two configurations: (i) with a cation exchange membrane (CEM) and (ii) with an anion exchange membrane (AEM).

  1. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors and impact on conductor stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Rupich, M. W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Xie, Y. Y. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. While ac loss reduction was achieved with YBCO filaments created through laser scribing and inkjet deposition, the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders. To better determine the practicality of these methods from a stability point of view, a numerical analysis was carried out to determine the influence of bridging and splicing on stability of a YBCO coated conductor for both liquid nitrogen-cooled and conduction cooled geometries.

  2. Determination and shaping of the ion-velocity distribution function in a single-ended Q machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1971-01-01

    An electrostatic energy analyzer with a resolution better than 0.03 eV was constructed. This analyzer was used to determine the ion-velocity distribution function at different densities and plate temperatures in a single-ended Q machine. In all regions good agreement with theoretical predictions...... based on simple, physical pictures is obtained. It is shown that within certain limits the velocity distribution function can be shaped; double-humped distribution functions have been obtained. The technique used here is suggested as an accurate method for determination of plasma densities within 10...

  3. Single particle inclusive spectra resulting from the collision of relativistic protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and carbon ions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, J.

    1975-05-01

    The yields of positive and negative particles resulting from the collision of 1.05 GeV/nucleon and 2.1 GeV/nucleon protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and 1.05 GeV/nucleon carbon nuclei with various targets have been measured. Single particle inclusive cross sections for production of π + , π - , p, d, 3 H, 3 He, and 4 He at 2.5 0 (lab) were obtained. How the results bear on the concepts of limiting fragmentation and scaling, the structure of the alpha particle and deuteron, and the possibility of ''coherent'' production of pions by heavy ions are discussed. (U.S.)

  4. Electron and positive ion emission accompanying fracture of Wint-o-Green Lifesavers and single-crystal sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, J.T.; Brix, L.B.; Jensen, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that, when Wint-o-Green Lifesavers (Lifesaver is a registered trademark of Lifesaver, Inc.) are broken in air, one observes intense triboluminescence. Measurements of the emission of electrons and positive ions from the fracture of these Lifesavers under vacuum, as well as from single-crystal sucrose are reported herein. The emission of photons and radio waves during fracture under vacuum is also presented for sucrose, indicating the occurrence of a gaseous discharge in the crack tip during crack growth. Comparisons of the various emission curves are presented and discussed in terms of stress-induced charge separation

  5. Defects in N{sup +} ion-implanted ZnO single crystals studied by positron annihilation and Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kuriplach, J.; Melikhova, O.; Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I. [Department of Low Temperature Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Wenckstern, H. von; Brandt, M.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    High quality ZnO single crystals of dimensions 10 x 10 x 0.5 mm{sup 3}, grown by a hydrothermal approach, have been implanted by 40 keV N{sup +} ions to a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} at room temperature. Their properties revealed by positron annihilation and Hall effect measurements are given in the as-grown and as-irradiated states, and after post-implantation annealing in an oxygen ambient at 200 C and 500 C. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Phase diagrams of the ternary alloy with a single-ion anisotropy in the mean-field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dely, J.; Bobak, A.

    2006-01-01

    The phase diagram of the AB p C 1-p ternary alloy consisting of Ising spins S A =32, S B =2, and S C =52 is investigated by the use of a mean-field theory based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The effect of the single-ion anisotropy on the phase diagrams is discussed by changing values of the parameters in the model Hamiltonian and comparison is made with the recently reported finite-temperature phase diagrams for the ternary alloy having spin S B =1

  7. Simulation of thermal-neutron-induced single-event upset using particle and heavy-ion transport code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arita, Yutaka; Kihara, Yuji; Mitsuhasi, Junichi; Niita, Koji; Takai, Mikio; Ogawa, Izumi; Kishimoto, Tadafumi; Yoshihara, Tsutomu

    2007-01-01

    The simulation of a thermal-neutron-induced single-event upset (SEU) was performed on a 0.4-μm-design-rule 4 Mbit static random access memory (SRAM) using particle and heavy-ion transport code system (PHITS): The SEU rates obtained by the simulation were in very good agreement with the result of experiments. PHITS is a useful tool for simulating SEUs in semiconductor devices. To further improve the accuracy of the simulation, additional methods for tallying the energy deposition are required for PHITS. (author)

  8. Measurement and modelling of the defect chemistry and transport properties of ceramic oxide mixed ionic and electronic conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is ceramic mixed ionic and electronic conductors (MIECs). MIECs have potential uses, such as solid oxygen permeation membranes, as catalysts, and as components in fuel cells. The MIECs examined in this thesis are all oxide ion conducting materials. This thesis describes...

  9. Single-Run Single-Mask Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Reactive-Ion-Etching Process for Fabricating Suspended High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Joe; Kuo, Wen-Cheng; Fan, Kuang-Chao

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we present a single-run single-mask (SRM) process for fabricating suspended high-aspect-ratio structures on standard silicon wafers using an inductively coupled plasma-reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) etcher. This process eliminates extra fabrication steps which are required for structure release after trench etching. Released microstructures with 120 μm thickness are obtained by this process. The corresponding maximum aspect ratio of the trench is 28. The SRM process is an extended version of the standard process proposed by BOSCH GmbH (BOSCH process). The first step of the SRM process is a standard BOSCH process for trench etching, then a polymer layer is deposited on trench sidewalls as a protective layer for the subsequent structure-releasing step. The structure is released by dry isotropic etching after the polymer layer on the trench floor is removed. All the steps can be integrated into a single-run ICP process. Also, only one mask is required. Therefore, the process complexity and fabrication cost can be effectively reduced. Discussions on each SRM step and considerations for avoiding undesired etching of the silicon structures during the release process are also presented.

  10. Evidence for charge exchange effects in electronic excitations in Al by slow singly charged He ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, P., E-mail: Pierfrancesco.riccardi@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria and INFN Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci cubo 31C, 87036 – Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Sindona, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria and INFN Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci cubo 31C, 87036 – Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Dukes, C.A. [Laboratory for Astrophysics and Surface Physics, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We report on experiments of secondary electron emission in the interaction of helium ions with aluminum surfaces. Comparison between the electron emission induced by the impact of {sup 3}He{sup +} and {sup 4}He{sup +} on Al illustrates similarities and differences between the two projectiles. The intensity of emission shows the same dependence on velocity for the two isotopes, showing that KEE yields for helium ions impact on Al are dominated by direct excitation of valence electrons and not by electron promotion. Electron promotion and charge transfer processes are unambiguously identified by the observation of Auger electron emission from Al, at energies below the excitation threshold of Al–Al collisions, indicating energy losses for the projectiles higher than those commonly considered.

  11. Fatigue in isometric contraction in a single muscle fibre: a compartmental calcium ion flow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothiyal, K P; Ibramsha, M

    1986-01-01

    Fatigue in muscle is a complex biological phenomenon which has so far eluded a definite explanation. Many biochemical and physiological models have been suggested in the literature to account for the decrement in the ability of muscle to sustain a given level of force for a long time. Some of these models have been critically analysed in this paper and are shown to be not able to explain all the experimental observations. A new compartmental model based on the intracellular calcium ion movement in muscle is proposed to study the mechanical responses of a muscle fibre. Computer simulation is performed to obtain model responses in isometric contraction to an impulse and a train of stimuli of long duration. The simulated curves have been compared with experimentally observed mechanical responses of the semitendinosus muscle fibre of Rana pipiens. The comparison of computed and observed responses indicates that the proposed calcium ion model indeed accounts very well for the muscle fatigue.

  12. Development of a single ion micro-irradiation facility for experimental radiobiology at cell level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberet, Ph.

    2003-10-01

    A micro-irradiation device has been developed for radiobiology applications at the scale of the cell. This device is based on an upgrade of an existing micro-beam line that was already able to deliver a 1 to 3 MeV proton or alpha beam of low intensity and whose space resolution is lower than 1 micrometer in vacuum. The important part of this work has been the development of an irradiation stage designed to fit on the micro-probe and able to deliver ions in the air with an absolute accuracy of a few micrometers. A program has been set up to monitor the complete irradiation line in testing and in automatic irradiation operating phases. Simulation tools based on Monte-Carlo calculations have been validated through comparisons with experimental data particularly in the field of spatial resolution and of the number of ions delivered. The promising results show the possibility in a near future to use this tool to study the response of cells to very low irradiation doses down to the extreme limit of one ion per cell

  13. High current density aluminum stabilized conductor concepts for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.; Eyssa, Y.M.; Hilal, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Lightweight conductors are needed for space magnets to achieve values of E/M (energy stored per unit mass) comparable to the or higher than advanced batteries. High purity aluminum stabilized NbTi composite conductors cooled by 1.8 K helium can provide a winding current density up to 15 kA/cm/sup 2/ at fields up to 10 tesla. The conductors are edge cooled with enough surface area to provide recovery following a normalizing disturbance. The conductors are designed so that current diffusion time in the high purity aluminum is smaller than thermal diffusion time in helium. Conductor design, stability and current diffusion are considered in detail

  14. Mutual capacitance of liquid conductors in deformable tactile sensing arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Fontecchio, Adam K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Departments, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Visell, Yon [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Media Arts and Technology, California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Advances in highly deformable electronics are needed in order to enable emerging categories of soft computing devices ranging from wearable electronics, to medical devices, and soft robotic components. The combination of highly elastic substrates with intrinsically stretchable conductors holds the promise of enabling electronic sensors that can conform to curved objects, reconfigurable displays, or soft biological tissues, including the skin. Here, we contribute sensing principles for tactile (mechanical image) sensors based on very low modulus polymer substrates with embedded liquid metal microfluidic arrays. The sensors are fabricated using a single-step casting method that utilizes fine nylon filaments to produce arrays of cylindrical channels on two layers. The liquid metal (gallium indium alloy) conductors that fill these channels readily adopt the shape of the embedding membrane, yielding levels of deformability greater than 400%, due to the use of soft polymer substrates. We modeled the sensor performance using electrostatic theory and continuum mechanics, yielding excellent agreement with experiments. Using a matrix-addressed capacitance measurement technique, we are able to resolve strain distributions with millimeter resolution over areas of several square centimeters.

  15. Duality and reciprocity of fluctuation-dissipation relations in conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, Lino; Alfinito, Eleonora; Kuhn, Tilmann

    2016-09-01

    By analogy with linear response, we formulate the duality and reciprocity properties of current and voltage fluctuations expressed by Nyquist relations, including the intrinsic bandwidths of the respective fluctuations. For this purpose, we individuate total-number and drift-velocity fluctuations of carriers inside a conductor as the microscopic sources of noise. The spectral densities at low frequency of the current and voltage fluctuations and the respective conductance and resistance are related in a mutually exclusive way to the corresponding noise source. The macroscopic variances of current and voltage fluctuations are found to display a dual property via a plasma conductance that admits a reciprocal plasma resistance. Analogously, the microscopic noise sources are found to obey a dual property and a reciprocity relation. The formulation is carried out in the frame of the grand canonical (for current noise) and canonical (for voltage noise) ensembles, and results are derived that are valid for classical as well as degenerate statistics, including fractional exclusion statistics. The unifying theory so developed sheds new light on the microscopic interpretation of dissipation and fluctuation phenomena in conductors. In particular, it is proven that for fermions, as a consequence of the Pauli principle, nonvanishing single-carrier velocity fluctuations at zero temperature are responsible for diffusion but not for current noise, which vanishes in this limit.

  16. Hyperfine-Interaction-Driven Suppression of Quantum Tunneling at Zero Field in a Holmium(III) Single-Ion Magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2017-04-24

    An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm -1 . The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from 165 Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hyperfine-interaction-driven suppression of quantum tunneling at zero field in a holmium(III) single-ion magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang [Key Lab. of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China); Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fournier, Grenoble (France); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F. [Theory of Nanomaterials Group and INPAC-Institute of Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-04-24

    An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm{sup -1}. The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from {sup 165}Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Neutron diffraction investigations of the superionic conductors lithium sulfide and sodium sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altorfer, F.

    1990-03-01

    Statics and dynamics of the superionic conductors lithium sulfide and sodium sulfide were investigated using the following experimental methods: elastic scattering on sodium sulfide powder in the temperature range 20 - 1000 C, elastic scattering on a lithium sulfide single crystal in the temperature range 20 - 700 C, inelastic scattering on a 7 Li 2 S single crystal at 10 K. 34 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs

  19. Influence of the structure and content of physical training tourists-conductors 12–13 years on the level of physical fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Horbonos-Andronova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the effect of the structure and content of physical training tourists-conductors 12–13 years on the level of physical fitness. Results: significant differences in the level of development of basic motor qualities tourists conductors between the experimental and control groups. Material and Methods: the used theoretical analysis and synthesis of the literature, teacher testing, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 90 people, 64 of them – men and 26 – women. Conclusions: determined that the overall level of physical qualities tourists conductors is low; no single structure building training process of preparation tourists conductors 12–13 years; no innovative technologies; narrow range of physical training of athletes. Established that additional means of physical training significantly affect the level of physical qualities tourists conductors 12–13 years at a stage of previous base preparation

  20. Impact-parameter dependence of energy loss for 625-keV H+ ions in Si single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dygo, A.; Boshart, M.A.; Seiberling, L.E.; Kabachnik, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    The energy distributions for 625-keV H + ions transmitted through thin Si single crystals are studied for detailed angular scans through the left-angle 110 right-angle and left-angle 100 right-angle axial as well as the {111} and {110} planar channels. Well-resolved structures in the distributions taken near the left-angle 110 right-angle axial direction are observed. The experimental energy-loss distributions are very well reproduced by a Monte Carlo simulation using the semiclassical approximation model for core electrons and the two-component free-electron-gas model for valence electrons. The best fit to the data is obtained if the model energy losses are scaled up for core electrons and down for valence electrons by several percent. The experimental distributions can also be reproduced by assuming the mean excitation energy for distant collisions of the ion with core electrons equal to 1.4 times the binding energy for a given shell. No significant differences between the distributions obtained using the solid-state and free-atom valence electron densities have been found. The evolution of the distributions for the left-angle 110 right-angle axial scan is discussed in terms of ion trajectories and the flux distribution. Also, the azimuthally averaged mean energy loss is studied as a function of tilt angle with respect to the left-angle 110 right-angle axis

  1. Deep reactive ion etching of fused silica using a single-coated soft mask layer for bio-analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Tathagata; Zhu, Haixin; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we present our results from process development and characterization of reactive ion etching (RIE) of fused silica using a single-coated soft masking layer (KMPR® 1025, Microchem Corporation, Newton, MA). The effects of a number of fluorine-radical-based gaseous chemistries, the gas flow rate, RF power and chamber pressure on the etch rate and etching selectivity of fused silica were studied using factorial experimental designs. RF power and pressure were found to be the most important factors in determining the etch rate. The highest fused silica etch rate obtained was about 933 Å min −1 by using SF 6 -based gas chemistry, and the highest etching selectivity between the fused silica and KMPR® 1025 was up to 1.2 using a combination of CF 4 , CHF 3 and Ar. Up to 30 µm deep microstructures have been successfully fabricated using the developed processes. The average area roughness (R a ) of the etched surface was measured and results showed it is comparable to the roughness obtained using a wet etching technique. Additionally, near-vertical sidewalls (with a taper angle up to 85°) have been obtained for the etched microstructures. The processes developed here can be applied to any application requiring fabrication of deep microstructures in fused silica with near-vertical sidewalls. To our knowledge, this is the first note on deep RIE of fused silica using a single-coated KMPR® 1025 masking layer and a non-ICP-based reactive ion etcher. (technical note)

  2. Externalized conductors and insulation failure in Biotronik defibrillator leads: History repeating or a false alarm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Elia; Borghi, Ambra; Bonetti, Lorenzo; Fontana, Pier Luigi; Cappelli, Stefano

    2017-02-16

    Conductor externalization and insulation failure are frequent complications with the recalled St. Jude Medical Riata implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads. Conductor externalization is a "unique" failure mechanism: Cables externalize through the insulation ("inside-out" abrasion) and appear outside the lead body. Recently, single reports described a similar failure also for Biotronik leads. Moreover, some studies reported a high rate of electrical dysfunction (not only insulation failure) with Biotronik Linox leads and a reduced survival rate in comparison with the competitors. In this paper we describe the case of a patient with a Biotronik Kentrox ICD lead presenting with signs of insulation failure and conductor externalization at fluoroscopy. Due to the high risk of extraction we decided to implant a new lead, abandoning the damaged one; lead reimplant was uneventful. Subsequently, we review currently available literature about Biotronik Kentrox and Linox ICD lead failure and in particular externalized conductors. Some single-center studies and a non-prospective registry reported a survival rate between 88% and 91% at 5 years for Linox leads, significantly worse than that of other manufacturers. However, the preliminary results of two ongoing multicenter, prospective registries (GALAXY and CELESTIAL) showed 96% survival rate at 5 years after implant, well within industry standards. Ongoing data collection is needed to confirm longer-term performance of this family of ICD leads.

  3. Activity in SRL Nagoya Coated Conductor Center for YBCO Coated Conductor by IBAD+ PLD Method -Long, high Ic conductor and a new bamboo-like nanostructure for efficient pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yutaka; Ibi, Akira; Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Kuriki, Reiji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi; Ishida, Satoru; Konishi, Masaya; Miyata, Seiki; Watanabe, Tomonori; Kato, Takeharu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-01-01

    In SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center (NCCC), long buffered substrate tapes and YBCO coated conductors have been successfully fabricated by using ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) methods. For the buffered tape, the PLD-CeO2 method, what we call the 'Self-Epitaxial' method, realized the high degree of in-plane texturing around 4 degrees along the length of 220 m. For YBCO deposition, we have recently introduced new reel-to-reel PLD equipment with a multi-plume and multi-turn deposition system (MPMT PLD). This system succeeded in fabricating a long coated conductor with a high critical current, Ic, of 245 A and length of 212 m. Ic xL (length) reached the world record of 51940 Am. Furthermore, the introduction of artificial pinning center and RE 123 materials were also studied for improving flux pinning and enhancing Ic. A new columnar structure of the 'bamboo structure' (BaZrO3/Y123 layer-stacked structure) was found in Y123+YSZ sample. This columnar structure and the stacking faults in Gd123 were found to be effective for enhancing pinning properties. Using these techniques, we have succeeded in increasing Ic at 0 T to 480 A/cm and also enhancing Ic in a magnetic field

  4. Kinetic electron emission from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces induced by singly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Cernusca, S; Winter, H; Aumayr, F; Loerincik, J; Sroubek, Z

    2002-01-01

    We present total electron yields determined by current measurements for normal impact of H sup + , H sub 2 sup + , H sub 3 sup + , C sup + , N sup + and O sup + ions (E<=10 keV) on a clean highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface. The kinetic energy of the projectiles has been varied from near threshold up to 10 keV. By comparing the results to similar data obtained for a polycrystalline Au surface the role of different target properties for kinetic electron emission can be analysed.

  5. The structural and compositional analysis of single crystal surfaces using low energy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, D.G.; Van der Berg, J.A.; Verheij, IL.K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of ion scattering for surface composition and structure analysis has been reviewed. The extreme surface specificity of this technique has been widely used to obtain quitative information in a straightforward way, but the/aolc/currence of charge exchange processes, thermal lattice vibrations and multiple scattering have precluded quantitative analysis of experimental data. Examples are quoted to illustrate the progress that has been made in understanding these fundamental processes and in applying this knowledge to the development of the analytical capabilities of the technique. (author)

  6. Investigations of structural, dielectric and optical properties on silicon ion irradiated glycine monophosphate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagasekaran, T. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110 007 (India); Mythili, P. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Bhagavannarayana, G. [Materials Characterization Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Gopalakrishnan, R. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)], E-mail: krgkrishnan@annauniv.edu

    2009-08-01

    The 50 MeV silicon ion irradiation induced modifications on structural, optical and dielectric properties of solution grown glycine monophosphate (GMP) crystals were studied. The high-resolution X-ray diffraction study shows the unaltered value of integrated intensity on irradiation. The dielectric constant as a function of frequency and temperature was studied. UV-visible studies reveal the decrease in bandgap values on irradiation and presence of F-centers. The fluorescence spectrum shows the existence of some energy levels, which remains unaffected after irradiation. The scanning electron micrographs reveal the defects formed on irradiation.

  7. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C60 by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C

    2007-01-01

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C 60 molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Si q+ (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u O q+ (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C 60 are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening

  8. Synthesis and characterization of new ionic and mixed ionic/electronic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Kevin Gregory

    In a constantly growing and developing world, there is a great need to develop new forms of clean energy generation. Many solutions have been proposed to ameliorate these global concerns, which include fuel cell technology and new processes for reducing polluting chemicals in the atmosphere. These technologies are still in their infancy and require further development before becoming viable options. In the case of fuel cells, particularly solid oxide fuel cells, and CO 2 separation membranes, there is a need to develop ion conducting materials that are highly efficient, less costly to synthesize, and can perform strongly under many real-world conditions. The need for further developing these ion conductors is currently one of the most important final steps required to push these new technologies into the market. The research presented here focuses on the synthesis and characterization for several ion conductor systems intended for efficient energy conversion applications. Using a novel transient liquid phase sintering method, we demonstrate that it is possible to synthesize dense BaZr0.8Y 0.2O3-delta (BZY20) at 1300°C, a lower temperatures than previously reported, using barium gallate as a sintering flux. Focusing on a new family of oxide-ion conductors, Sr1-xK xSi1-yGeyO3-0.5x, gallium served as a replacement germanium in an effort to further increase the oxide-ion conductivity. Unfortunately, the replacement of Ge with Ga was found to decrease the overall oxide-ion conductivity and microstructural morphology. Through the addition of an Al2O3 layer to a porous silver matrix, we show that CO2 permeation flux density through a new MECC membrane can be enhanced as a result of improved retention of molten carbonate in the silver matrix. Pore size and distribution in the silver matrix were found to greatly depend on the concentration of Al2O 3 suspension.

  9. Supramolecular Nanoparticles via Single-Chain Folding Driven by Ferrous Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Pu, Hongting; Jin, Ming; Wan, Decheng

    2016-02-01

    Single-chain nanoparticles can be obtained via single-chain folding assisted by intramolecular crosslinking reversibly or irreversibly. Single-chain folding is also an efficient route to simulate biomacromolecules. In present study, poly(N-hydroxyethylacrylamide-co-4'-(propoxy urethane ethyl acrylate)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) (P(HEAm-co-EMA-Tpy)) is synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Single-chain folding and intramolecular crosslinking of P(HEAm-co-EMA-Tpy) are achieved via metal coordination chemistry. The intramolecular interaction is characterized on ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis spectroscopy), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The supramolecular crosslinking mediated by Fe(2+) plays an important role in the intramolecular collapsing of the single-chain and the formation of the nanoparticles. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles can be controlled reversibly via metal coordination chemistry, which can be characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Heavy Ion Irradiation Fluence Dependence for Single-Event Upsets in a NAND Flash Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Seidleck, Christina; Label, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the single-event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the Micron 16 nm NAND flash, and found that the single-event upset (SEU) cross section varied inversely with cumulative fluence. We attribute the effect to the variable upset sensitivities of the memory cells. Furthermore, the effect impacts only single cell upsets in general. The rate of multiple-bit upsets remained relatively constant with fluence. The current test standards and procedures assume that SEU follow a Poisson process and do not take into account the variability in the error rate with fluence. Therefore, traditional SEE testing techniques may underestimate the on-orbit event rate for a device with variable upset sensitivity.

  11. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as stabilizing agents in red phosphorus Li-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Smajic, Jasmin

    2017-08-16

    Phosphorus boasts extremely high gravimetric and volumetric capacities but suffers from poor electrochemical stability with significant capacity loss immediately after the first cycle. We propose to circumvent this issue by mixing amorphous red phosphorus with single-walled carbon nanotubes. Employing a non-destructive sublimation–deposition method, we have synthesized composites where the synergetic effect between red phosphorus and single-walled carbon nanotubes allows for a considerable improvement in the electrochemical stability of battery anodes. In contrast to the average 40% loss of capacity after 50 cycles for other phosphorus–carbon composites in the literature, our material shows losses of just 22% under analogous cycling conditions.

  12. Superconducting homopolar motor and conductor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Donald U.

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Navy has been developing superconducting homopolar motors for ship applications since 1969; a successful at-sea demonstration of the first motor, using NbTi wire for the magnet, was achieved in the early 1980s. Recently, this same motor was used as a test bed to demonstrate progress in high-critical-temperature superconducting magnet technology using bismuth-strontium- calcium-copper-oxide (BSCCO) compounds. In the fall of 1995, this motor achieved a performance of 124 kW operating at a temperature of 4.2 K and 91 kW while operating at 28 K. Future tests are scheduled using new magnets with conductors of both the 2223 and the 2212 BSCCO phases. This article describes the advantages of superconducting propulsion and recent progress in the development of BSCCO conductors for use in Navy power systems.

  13. Films of Carbon Nanomaterials for Transparent Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for transparent conductors is expected to grow rapidly as electronic devices, such as touch screens, displays, solid state lighting and photovoltaics become ubiquitous in our lives. Doped metal oxides, especially indium tin oxide, are the commonly used materials for transparent conductors. As there are some drawbacks to this class of materials, exploration of alternative materials has been conducted. There is an interest in films of carbon nanomaterials such as, carbon nanotubes and graphene as they exhibit outstanding properties. This article reviews the synthesis and assembly of these films and their post-treatment. These processes determine the film performance and understanding of this platform will be useful for future work to improve the film performance.

  14. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  15. Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported

  16. Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-05-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  17. Progress in the Development of Superconducting Quadrupoles forHeavy-ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-08-19

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  18. Nanopatterning of magnetic disks by single-step Ar+ Ion projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzel, A.H.; Berger, R.; Loeschner, H.; Platzgummer, E.; Stengl, G.; Bruenger, W.H.; Letzkus, F.

    2003-01-01

    Large-area Ar+ projection has been used to generate planar magnetic nanostructures on a 1¿-format hard disk in a single step (see Figure). The recording pattern was transferred to a Co/Pt multilayer without resist processes or any other contact to the delicate media surface. It is conceivable that

  19. Formation of oriented nitrides by N+ ion implantation in iron single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.R.G.; Silva, R.C. da; Ferreira, L.P.; Carvalho, M.D.; Silva, C.; Franco, N.; Godinho, M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron single crystals were implanted with nitrogen at room temperature, with a fluence of 5×10 17 cm −2 and 50 keV energy, to produce iron nitride phases and characterize the influence of the crystal orientation. The stability and evolution of the nitride phases and diffusion of implanted nitrogen were studied as a function of successive annealing treatments at 250 °C in vacuum. The composition, structure and magnetic properties were characterized using RBS/channeling, X-Ray Diffraction, Magnetic Force Microscopy, Magneto-optical Kerr Effect and Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy. In the as-implanted state the formation of Fe 2 N phase was clearly identified in all single crystals. This phase is not stable at 250 °C and annealing at this temperature promotes the formation of ε-Fe 3 N, or γ′-Fe 4 N, depending on the orientation of the substrate. - Highlights: • Oriented magnetic iron nitrides were obtained by nitrogen implantation into iron single crystals. • The stable magnetic nitride phase at 250 °C depends on the orientation of the host single crystal, being γ'-Fe 4 N or ε-Fe 3 N. • The easy magnetization axis was found to lay in the (100) plane for cubic γ'-Fe 4 N and out of (100) plane for hexagonal ε-Fe 3 N

  20. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  1. Hall effect in organic layered conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Hasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect in organic layered conductors with a multisheeted Fermi surfaces was considered. It is shown that the experimental study of Hall effect and magnetoresistance anisotropy at different orientations of current and a quantizing magnetic field relative to the layers makes it possible to determine the contribution of various charge carriers groups to the conductivity, and to find out the character of Fermi surface anisotropy in the plane of layers.

  2. Deposition of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films on the lithium-ion conductor of Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} sintered pellet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xian Ming, E-mail: xianmingwu@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou Hunan 416000 (China); Xiangxi Minerals and New Materials Research and Service Center, Jishou Hunan 416000 (China); Chen, Shang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou Hunan 416000 (China); Xiangxi Minerals and New Materials Research and Service Center, Jishou Hunan 416000 (China); He, Ze Qiang; Chen, Shou Bin; Li, Run Xiu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou Hunan 416000 (China)

    2015-08-31

    LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were deposited on the lithium-ion conductor of Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} sintered pellet by spray technique. The effect of annealing temperature, annealing time, Li:Ti and Li:Mn molar ratio on the phase and crystallization of the films were investigated with X-ray diffraction. The LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} thin-film lithium-ion battery using Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} sintered pellet as both electrolyte and substrate was also studied. The results show that the effect of annealing temperature, annealing time, Li:Ti and Li:Mn molar ratio has great effect on the phase and crystallization of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films deposited on the Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} sintered pellet. The optimal Li:Ti and Li:Mn molar ratio for the deposition of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films on Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} sintered pellet are 7.2:5 and 1.05:2, respectively. The optimal annealing temperature and time for the deposition of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} film on Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} sintered pellet are 650 °C and 10 min. While those for Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} film are 700 °C and 10 min. The LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} thin-film battery offers a working voltage about 2.25 V and can be easily cycled. - Highlights: • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} films spray deposited on Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} sintered pellet • Film crystal phase depends on the spray solution composition and annealing conditions. • Prepared thin-film lithium-ion battery employs sintered pellet as electrolyte and substrate. • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1

  3. Electrical properties of InP:Fe single crystals implanted by phosphorus ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radautsan, S.I.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Pyshnaya, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of phosphorus ion implantation in InP:Fe monocrystals and of the post-implantation annealing process upon the electrical properties of InP:Fe were carried out. The electrical parameters of the samples have been determined by Hall effect measurements. The curves of electron surface concentration n s and mobility μ s as functions of annealing temperature in the range of 200 to 600 0 C are shown and discussed. In order to estimate the depth of donor levels in annealed samples the temperature dependence of the surface Hall coefficient has been studied in the range 100 to 400 K. The thermal electron activation energy has been determined to be 0.09 eV

  4. Monte Carlo prediction of crater formation by single ion impact on solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, A.M.C.; Dominguez-Vazquez, J.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Collins, R.; Gras-Marti, A.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the topography changes following the impact of one energetic ion on the plane surface of a monatomic amorphous solid. This is done in two stages. The first is a Monte Carlo calculation of the sputter yield and interior distribution relocated atoms, with no compensation for local departures from equilibrium density. In the second stage there is a systematic relaxation of the solid, in which the density returns to its previous constant value and a crater develops in the surface. Two alternative methods of carrying out stage two are compared. In the first the solid is subdivided into cells within which relaxation is carried out normal to the surface, as in previous one-dimensional studies. The second method treats the solid as a 3-dimensional incompressible medium. Both seem to reproduce quite well the main features found experimentally. (orig.)

  5. The INFN-LNL single-ion horizontal microbeam facility for cell irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, S.; Galeazzi, G.; Cherubini, R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Charged particle microbeams provide a unique method to control precisely the dose and its localisation within the cell. Such a kind of tool allows studying a number of important radiobiological processes in ways that cannot be achieved using conventional broad beam irradiation, which has the inherent experimental limitation imposed by the random Poisson-distributed particle hitting. We have designed and developed an apparatus for the micro-collimation in air of low-energy light ion beams, able to deliver targeted and counted particles to individual cells with an overall spatial resolution of few micrometers. The apparatus has been built up at the 7MV Van de Graaff CN accelerator, delivering protons, deuterons, helium-3 and helium-4 ion beams in an LET range from 7 to 180 keV/μm. The beam section is reduced down to 3-7 μm 2 by means of a tantalum pinhole microcollimator. A semi-automatic cell visualization and an automatic cell positioning and (after irradiation) cell revisiting system, based on an inverted phase contrast optical microscope and on X-Y micro-positioning stages with 0.1μm positioning precision, has been developed. Cell recognition is performed without using fluorescent staining and UV light. Particle detection in air is based on a silicon detector while beam profile and precise hit position measurements are accomplished by a high resolution and high sensibility cooled-CCD camera and Solid State Nuclear Track detectors, respectively. A dedicated software program, CELLView named, has been developed by using the LabView 6.0 package (National Instruments) to control all the irradiation protocol operations of sample holder movement, cell visualization, image acquisition and processing, cell data logging, cell positioning and revisiting. Facility performances and preliminary experimental results will be presented

  6. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, John P [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  7. Lithium-Ion Textile Batteries with Large Areal Mass Loading

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing; La Mantia, Fabio; Wu, Hui; Xie, Xing; McDonough, James; Pasta, Mauro; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We integrate Li-ion battery electrode materials into a 3D porous textile conductor by using a simple process. When compared to flat metal current collectors, our 3D porous textile conductor not only greatly facilitates the ability for a high active material mass loading on the battery electrode but also leads to better device performance.

  8. Lithium-Ion Textile Batteries with Large Areal Mass Loading

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2011-10-06

    We integrate Li-ion battery electrode materials into a 3D porous textile conductor by using a simple process. When compared to flat metal current collectors, our 3D porous textile conductor not only greatly facilitates the ability for a high active material mass loading on the battery electrode but also leads to better device performance.

  9. Enhanced Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conductors through Cation Ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Allan J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Grey, Clare [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The performance of many energy conversion and storage devices depend on the properties of mixed ionic-electronic conducting (miec) materials. Mixed or ambipolar conductors simultaneously transport ions and electrons and provide the critical interface between chemical and electrical energy in devices such as fuel cells, ion transport membranes, and batteries. Enhancements in storage capacity, reversibility, power density and device lifetime all require new materials and a better understanding of the fundamentals of ambipolar conductivity and surface reactivity.The high temperature properties of the ordered perovksites AA’B2O5+x, where A = rare earth ion, Y and B = Ba, Sr were studied. The work was motivated by the high oxygen transport and surface exchange rates observed for members of this class of mixed ionic and electronic conductors. A combined experimental and computational approach, including structural, electrochemical, and transport characterization and modeling was used. The approach attacks the problem simultaneously at global (e.g., neutron diffraction and impedance spectroscopy), local (e.g., pair distribution function, nuclear magnetic resonance) and molecular (ab initio thermokinetic modeling) length scales. The objectives of the work were to understand how the cation and associated anion order lead to exceptional ionic and electronic transport properties and surface reactivity in AA’B2O5+x perovskites. A variety of compounds were studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction, measurements of thermodynamics and transport and theoretically. These included PrBaCo2O5+x and NdBaCo2O5+x, PrBaCo2-xFexO6- δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) and LnBaCoFeO6- δ (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), Sr3YCo4O10.5, YBaMn2O5+x. A0.5A’0.5BO3 (where A=Y, Sc, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm; A’= Sr

  10. Microstructural evolution of reduced-activation martensitic steel under single and sequential ion irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fengfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jin, Shuoxue; Li, Tiecheng; Zheng, Zhongcheng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, Feng; Xiong, Xuesong; Suo, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Microstructural evolution of super-clean reduced-activation martensitic steels irradiated with single-beam (Fe{sup +}) and sequential-beam (Fe{sup +} plus He{sup +}) at 350 °C and 550 °C was studied. Sequential-beam irradiation induced smaller size and larger number density of precipitates compared to single-beam irradiation at 350 °C. The largest size of cavities was observed after sequential-beam irradiation at 550 °C. The segregation of Cr and W and depletion of Fe in carbides were observed, and the maximum depletion of Fe and enrichment of Cr occurred under irradiation at 350 °C.

  11. Single- and double-electron detachment in collisions of two negative hydrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchert, F.; Schulze, R.; Kruedener, S.; Meuser, S.; Salzborn, E.

    1995-01-01

    Employing the crossed-beams technique in conjunction with a beam-pulsing method, we have measured absolute cross sections σ tot for the process H - + H - → H O +... for CM energies between 2.5 and 100 keV. Combining the present results with our previously measured cross sections for double-electron detachment (σ OO ) and triple-electron detachment (σ 0+ ), we obtain cross sections σ 0- for the single electron detachment process from the relation σ 0- = σ tot -σ 00 -σ 0+ . The experimental data of single- and double-electron detachment are well described by theoretical results based on the non-stationary tunnelling approach. Both cross sections are calculated for CM energies between 0.15 and 300 keV. A new two-electron simultaneous transition mechanism is introduced. The importance of this process for the theoretical assessment of the experimental results is discussed. (Author)

  12. Highly selective single-use fluoride ion optical sensor based on aluminum(III)-salen complex in thin polymeric film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, Ibrahim H.A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    A highly selective optical sensor for fluoride ion based on the use of an aluminum(III)-salen complex as an ionophore within a thin polymeric film is described. The sensor is prepared by embedding the aluminum(III)-salen ionophore and a suitable lipophilic pH-sensitive indicator (ETH-7075) in a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) film. Optical response to fluoride occurs due to fluoride extraction into the polymer via formation of a strong complex with the aluminum(III)-salen species. Co-extraction of protons occurs simultaneously, with protonation of the indicator dye yielding the optical response at 529 nm. Films prepared using dioctylsebacate (DOS) are shown to exhibit better response (e.g., linear range, detection limit, and optical signal stability) compared to those prepared using ortho-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE). Films formulated with aluminum(III)-salen and ETH-7075 indicator in 2 DOS:1 PVC, exhibit a significantly enhanced selectivity for fluoride over a wide range of lipophilic anions including salicylate, perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate. The optimized films exhibit a sub-micromolar detection limit, using glycine-phosphate buffer, pH 3.00, as the test sample. The response times of the fluoride optical sensing films are in the range of 1-10 min depending on the fluoride ion concentration in the sample. The sensor exhibits very poor reversibility owing to a high co-extraction constant (log K = 8.5 ± 0.4), indicating that it can best be employed as a single-use transduction device. The utility of the aluminum(III)-salen based fluoride sensitive films as single-use sensors is demonstrated by casting polymeric films on the bottom of standard polypropylene microtiter plate wells (96 wells/plate). The modified microtiter plate optode format sensors exhibit response characteristics comparable to the classical optode films cast on quartz slides. The modified microtiter is utilized for the analysis of fluoride in diluted anti-cavity fluoride rinse

  13. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  14. Manufacture of the Poloidal Field Conductor Insert Coil (PFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.; Rajainmaeki, H.; Salpietro, E.; Keefe, C.

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of the R(and)D programme for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) the European team EFDA (European Fusion Development Agreement) have been charged with the design and manufacture of the Poloidal Field Conductor Insert Coil (PFCI). The purpose of the PFCI is to test and demonstrate the performance of long length full scale NbTi conductors in ITER relevant conditions. The PFCI will be tested in the Central Solenoid Model Coil test facility at the JAEA Naka Japan. This paper details the complete manufacturing details of the PFCI including development, forming machining, pre-assembly, impregnation, final assembly and testing. The PFCI is a single layer wound solenoid of 9 turns with a transition joggle in the centre section of the winding and an intermediate joint connection between the upper termination and the main coil winding. To give the required overall dimensions to fit in the testing facility, pre-formed and machined glass resin composite filler pieces are assembled with the winding and finally Vacuum Pressure Impregnated to create a single assembly unit. The PFCI is enclosed for assembly in a support structure which consist of an upper and lower flange that each are made up by 4 machined stainless steel castings which are electrically insulated by epoxy glass sheet material and 12 tie rods which preload the complete assembly in the vertical direction while the upper flange is equipped with 4 radial restraining jacks and the lower flange is equipped with 4 sets of studs and shear keys to withstand the net vertical and lateral electromagnetic forces. The PFCI is equipped with inductive heaters, voltage taps, temperature transducers, strain gauges and other instrumentation as diagnostics to monitor the performance. The current status of the manufacture is that the coil is in the process of final impregnation and should be completed and delivered before the summer of this year. (author)

  15. Manufacture of the poloidal field conductor insert coil (PFCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Keefe, C. [Tesla Engineering, Storrington, Sussex (United Kingdom); Rajainmaeki, H. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: hannu.rajainmaki@tech.efda.org; Salpietro, E. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Within the framework of the R and D programme for international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) the European team European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) has been charged with the design and manufacture of the poloidal field conductor insert coil (PFCI). The purpose of the PFCI is to test and demonstrate the performance of long-length full-scale NbTi conductors in ITER-relevant conditions. The PFCI will be tested in the central solenoid model coil test facility at the JAEA, Naka, Japan. This paper details the complete manufacturing of the PFCI including development, forming machining, pre-assembly, impregnation, final assembly and testing. The PFCI is a single-layered wound solenoid of nine turns with a transition joggle in the centre section of the winding and an intermediate joint connection between the upper termination and the main coil winding. To give the required overall dimensions to fit in the testing facility, preformed and machined glass resin composite filler pieces are assembled with the winding and is finally vacuum pressure impregnated (VPI) to create a single assembly unit. The PFCI is enclosed for assembly in a support structure, which consists of an upper and lower flange, each made up of four electrically insulated machined stainless steel castings, and 12 tie rods preloading the complete assembly in the vertical direction. The upper flange is equipped with four radial restraining jacks and the lower flange is equipped with four sets of studs and shear keys to withstand the net vertical and lateral electromagnetic forces. The PFCI is equipped with inductive heaters, voltage taps, temperature transducers, strain gauges and other instrumentation as diagnostics to monitor the performance. The current status of the manufacture is that the coil has passed the final acceptance tests and it is in the support structure assembly stage.

  16. Long Gd-123 coated conductor by PLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, H.; Igarashi, M.; Hanada, Y.; Miura, T.; Hanyu, S.; Kakimoto, K.; Iijima, Y.; Saitoh, T.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed long Gd-123 coated conductors by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed-laser-deposition (PLD) method. Recently, large-scale reel-to-reel apparatus with the 110 cm x 15 cm assisting ion source was introduced to IBAD system. It was enable to produce 500 m-class IBAD-Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 (GZO) tapes with Δφ of below 15 deg. and high throughputs of 3 m/h. Furthermore, apparatus with multi-lane and laser scanning was introduced to PLD system. As a result, end to end I c of 318 A were obtained for a 201.5 m long tape, and I c x L values were 64,077 Am. Furthermore, 500 m-class deposition was carried out by improving PLD conditions. As a result, I c x L values of 112,166 Am was obtained and it's a world record on August 2007. In the short samples, I c of over 500 A was obtained with Gd-123 thickness of 2.0 μm and over 100 A was obtained in magnetic field of 3 T, perpendicular to c-axis

  17. Study of superionic conductors dynamics by continued diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennai, M.

    1993-12-01

    The superionic conductors form a special category of solids characterized by their remarkable transport properties and are in general, Simplified as being constituted by the superposition of two inter penetrable crystal lattices. The ions of the first one form a rigid structure through which the other ions of opposite charge diffuse in quasi-liquid way. Basing on experimental and theoretical arguments, it was proved necessary to adopt a model of N-body continued diffusion which the basic theory is that of brownian movement. This thesis deals with the study of the dynamic structure factor S (q,w) and its line half width by the method of development in continued fractions issued from the Mori theory. With regard to the analytical difficulty met at the time of the static correlations functions calculation, the homogeneous approximation was applied and the notion of effective strength was introduced. So, it was obtained general relationships which give the static correlation functions, only in term of the static structure factor of liquids and effective potential. 98 refs.; 22 figs. (F.M.)

  18. Fundamental processes in the expansion, energization, and coupling of single- and multi-Ion plasmas in space: Laboratory simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Bateman, T. T.

    1996-01-01

    We have conducted a laboratory investigation into the physics of plasma expansions and their associated energization processes. We studied single- and multi-ion plasma processes in self-expansions, and included light and heavy ions and heavy/light mixtures to encompass the phenomenological regimes of the solar and polar winds and the AMPTE and CRRES chemical release programs. The laboratory experiments provided spatially-distributed time-dependent measurements of total plasma density, temperature, and density fluctuation power spectra with the data confirming the long-theorized electron energization process in an expanding cloud - a result that was impossible to determine in spaceborne experiments (as e.g., in the CRRES program). These results provided the missing link in previous laboratory and spaceborne programs. confirming important elements in our understanding of such solar-terrestrial processes as manifested in expanding plasmas in the solar wind (e.g., CMES) and in ionospheric outflow in plasmaspheric fluctuate refilling after a storm. The energization signatures were seen in an entire series of runs that varied the ion species (Ar', Xe', Kr' and Ne'), and correlative studies included spectral analyses of electrostatic waves collocated with the energized electron distributions. In all cases wave energies were most intense during the times in which the suprathermal populations were present, with wave intensity increasing with the intensity of the suprathermal electron population. This is consistent with theoretical expectations wherein the energization process is directly attributable to wave particle interactions. No resonance conditions were observed, in an overall framework in which the general wave characteristics were broadband with power decreasing with increasing frequency.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of boron-ion implantation into single-crystal silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A physically based Monte Carlo boron implantation model developed comprehends previously neglected but important implant parameters such as native oxide layers, wafer temperature, beam divergence, tilt angle, rotation (twist) angle, and dose, in addition to energy. This model uses as its foundation the MARLOWE Monte Carlo simulation code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the analysis of radiation effects in materials. This code was carefully adapted for the simulation of ion implantation, and a number of significant improvements have been made, including the addition of atomic pair specific interatomic potentials, the implementation of a newly developed local electron concentration dependent electronic stopping model, and the implementation of a newly developed cumulative damage model. This improved version of the code, known as UT-MARLOWE, allows boron implantation profiles to be accurately predicted as a function of energy, tilt angle, rotation angle, and dose. This code has also been used in the development and implementation of an accurate and efficient two-dimensional boron implantation model

  20. Absence of single critical dose for the amorphization of quartz under ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Pakarinen, O. H.; Backholm, M.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Keinonen, J.; Wang, T. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we first simulated the amorphization of crystalline quartz under 50 keV 23 Na ion irradiation with classical molecular dynamics (MD). We then used binary collision approximation algorithms to simulate the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling conditions (RBS-C) from these irradiated MD cells, and compared the RBS-C spectra with experiments. The simulated RBS-C results show an agreement with experiments in the evolution of amorphization as a function of dose, showing what appears to be (by this measure) full amorphization at about 2.2 eVṡatom-1 . We also applied other analysis methods, such as angular structure factor, Wigner-Seitz, coordination analysis and topological analysis, to analyze the structural evolution of the irradiated MD cells. The results show that the atomic-level structure of the sample keeps evolving after the RBS signal has saturated, until the dose of about 5 eVṡatom-1 . The continued evolution of the SiO2 structure makes the definition of what is, on the atomic level, an amorphized quartz ambiguous.

  1. A Single Pulse Beam Emittance Measurement for the CERN Heavy Ion Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Crescenti, M

    1995-01-01

    A new device for transverse emittance measurement has been installed in the 4.2 MeV/u filter region of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (Linac 3). It allows to obtain pulse-to-pulse (every 1.2 sec) visualisation of the Linac 3 beam parameters in order to tune the machine and to match the beam for injection into the first circular accelerator, the PS Booster. The system is based on the "multi-slit" technique similar to the well-known "pepper pot" method. A plate with a series of horizontal or vertical slits is placed in the beam, defining positions in the phase plane. Particles pass through the slits and drift to a scintillator screen where they produce light. The screen is looked at by an externally triggered high resolution CCD camera. For each slit position the light intensity distribution, in the limit of infinitesimal slit aperture, is proportional to the angle distribution of the particles and therefore, provides the angular distribution in the phase plane. The video signal from the camera is digitised and the r...

  2. Absolute experimental cross sections for the ionization of singly charged barium ions by electron impact: Technical summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, R.K.; Hooper, J.W.

    1971-01-01

    The absolute cross sections for the single ionization of Ba + ions by electron impact have been measured as a function of incident electron energy over the electron energy range from below threshold (10.001 eV) to approximately 1000 eV. It is found that the cross section increases from 1.94 x 10 -16 cm 2 to 3.76 x 10 -16 cm 2 between 15.5 and 18 eV actual incident electron energy. This rapid rise is interpreted as the onset of autoionization. Some evidence of structure occurring near the peak of the cross section curve such as found in the isoelectronic system of Cs is observed, but the relative magnitude of the apparent structure is of the same order as the 90% random error confidence limits and thus cannot conclusively be regarded as being present. 56 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Finite-temperature dynamic structure factor of the spin-1 XXZ chain with single-ion anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Ejima, Satoshi; Fehske, Holger

    2018-02-01

    Improving matrix-product state techniques based on the purification of the density matrix, we are able to accurately calculate the finite-temperature dynamic response of the infinite spin-1 XXZ chain with single-ion anisotropy in the Haldane, large-D , and antiferromagnetic phases. Distinct thermally activated scattering processes make a significant contribution to the spectral weight in all cases. In the Haldane phase, intraband magnon scattering is prominent, and the on-site anisotropy causes the magnon to split into singlet and doublet branches. In the large-D phase response, the intraband signal is separated from an exciton-antiexciton continuum. In the antiferromagnetic phase, holons are the lowest-lying excitations, with a gap that closes at the transition to the Haldane state. At finite temperatures, scattering between domain-wall excitations becomes especially important and strongly enhances the spectral weight for momentum transfer π .

  4. Upconversion study of singly activator ions doped La2O3 nanoparticle synthesized via optimized solvothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. P.; Singh, S.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, K.

    2016-05-01

    In present work, an optimized solvothermal method has been chosen to synthesize the singly doped Er3+ activator ions with La2O3 host matrix. The sample is annealed at 500 °C in order to remove the moisture and other organic impurities. The sample is characterized by using XRD and FESEM to find out the phase and surface morphology. The observed particle size is found almost 80 nm with spherical agglomerated shape. Upconversion spectra are recorded at room temperature using 976 nm diode laser excitation sources and consequently the emission peaks in green and red region are observed. The color coordinate diagram shows the results that the present material may be applicable in different light emitting sources.

  5. A versatile single molecular precursor for the synthesis of layered oxide cathode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maofan; Liu, Jiajie; Liu, Tongchao; Zhang, Mingjian; Pan, Feng

    2018-02-01

    A carbonyl-bridged single molecular precursor LiTM(acac) 3 [transition metal (TM) = cobalt/manganese/nickel (Co/Mn/Ni), acac = acetylacetone], featuring a one-dimensional chain structure, was designed and applied to achieve the layered oxide cathode materials: LiTMO 2 (TM = Ni/Mn/Co, NMC). As examples, layered oxides, primary LiCoO 2 , binary LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 and ternary LiNi 0.5 Mn 0.3 Co 0.2 O 2 were successfully prepared to be used as cathode materials. When they are applied to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), all exhibit good electrochemical performance because of their unique morphology and great uniformity of element distribution. This versatile precursor is predicted to accommodate many other metal cations, such as aluminum (Al 3+ ), iron (Fe 2+ ), and sodium (Na + ), because of the flexibility of organic ligand, which not only facilitates the doping-modification of the NMC system, but also enables synthesis of Na-ion layered oxides. This opens a new direction of research for the synthesis of high-performance layered oxide cathode materials for LIBs.

  6. CDW-EIS theoretical calculations of projectile deflection for single ionization in highly charged ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    We present continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) theoretical calculations for the projectile deflection in single ionization of helium by heavy-ion impact as a function of ionized electron energies. These calculations account for the helium passive electron shielding in the internuclear interaction improving standard CDW-EIS theory. The results are compared with recent experimental results by impact of 100 MeV/amu C 6+ and 3.6 MeV/amu Au 53+ . For highly charged projectiles there is a poor quantitative agreement between theory and experiment. However, this refined calculation does share some qualitative features with the data. In particular the variation of the effective charge of the residual He + ion from Z eff =1 to Z eff =2 when going from small to large projectile scattering angles is able to represent a shoulder observed in the double differential cross sections. Important qualitative differences are observed at the level of triple differential cross sections

  7. Ion-atom collisions with laser-prepared target: High resolution study of single charge exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leredde, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Single charge transfer in low-energy Na"++"8"7Rb(5s,5p) collisions is investigated using magneto-optically trapped Rb atoms and high-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the recoil-ion momentum provides accurate relative cross-sections for the active channels and the projectile scattering angle distributions. Thanks to the high experimental resolution, scattering structures such as diffraction-like oscillations in angular distributions are clearly observed. The measurements are compared with molecular close-coupling calculations and an excellent agreement is found. To go further in the test of the theory, the target is prepared in an oriented state. It is the first time that such collision experiments with oriented target is performed with such a high resolution. The right-left asymmetry expected for the scattering angle distribution is evidenced. The agreement between MOCC calculations and experiments is very good. Simple models developed for collisions with oriented target are also discussed. (author) [fr

  8. Single step purification of recombinant proteins using the metal ion-inducible autocleavage (MIIA) domain as linker for tag removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Susan; Schirrmeister, Jana; Zehner, Susanne

    2015-08-20

    For fast and easy purification, proteins are typically fused with an affinity tag, which often needs to be removed after purification. Here, we present a method for the removal of the affinity tag from the target protein in a single step protocol. The protein VIC_001052 of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus ATCC BAA-450 contains a metal ion-inducible autocatalytic cleavage (MIIA) domain. Its coding sequence was inserted into an expression vector for the production of recombinant fusion proteins. Following, the target proteins MalE and mCherry were produced as MIIA-Strep fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. The target proteins could be separated from the MIIA-Strep part simply by the addition of calcium or manganese(II) ions within minutes. The cleavage is not affected in the pH range from 5.0 to 9.0 or at low temperatures (6°C). Autocleavage was also observed with immobilized protein on an affinity column. The protein yield was similar to that achieved with a conventional purification protocol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Single electron capture in ion-atom collisions involving multielectronic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abufager, P.N.; Martinez, A.E.; Rivarola, R.D.; Fainstein, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    The generalized continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (GCDW-EIS) approximation is employed to study single electron capture by impact of protons on Ne and Ar targets. We analyze the contributions to the total cross sections coming from the different target shells. Present results are compared with theoretical calculations obtained using the previous CDW-EIS formulation and to experimental data in order to show the importance of the description of the bound and continuum target states in the entry and exit channels, respectively

  10. Electrical characterization of S/C conductor for the CMS solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Greco, Michela; Kircher, F; Musenich, R

    2005-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. The coil is wound from 20 high purity aluminum-stabilized NbTi conductors with a total length of 45 km. The main peculiarity of the CMS magnet among other existing thin detector solenoids is its sandwich-type aluminum-stabilized superconductor. This special feature was chosen in order to have a mechanically self-supporting winding structure. We measured the critical current of all the 21 finished conductors in fields up to 6 T using the Ma.Ri.S.A. test facility at INFN-Genova. We compare these results with the critical current of single strands measured by CEA- Saclay, extracted from the conductor after the co-extrusion. A comparison among the measurements provides information about the possible critical current degradation and assures an accurate quality control of the conductor pr...

  11. Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour. (paper)

  12. Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour.

  13. Mechanical test of the model coil wound with large conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiue, Hisaaki; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nakajima, Hideo; Yasukawa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuru; Ito, Ikuo; Konno, Masayuki.

    1992-09-01

    The high rigidity and strength of the winding pack are required to realize the large superconducting magnet for the fusion reactor. This paper describes mechanical tests concerning the rigidity of the winding pack. Samples were prepared to evaluate the adhesive strength between conductors and insulators. Epoxy and Bismaleimide-Triazine resin (BT resin) were used as the conductor insulator. The stainless steel (SS) 304 bars, whose surface was treated mechanically and chemically, was applied to the modeled conductor. The model coil was would with the model conductors covered with the insulator by grand insulator. A winding model combining 3 x 3 conductors was produced for measuring shearing rigidity. The sample was loaded with pure shearing force at the LN 2 temperature. The bar winding sample, by 8 x 6 conductors, was measured the bending rigidity. These three point bending tests were carried out at room temperature. The pancake winding sample was loaded with compressive forces to measure compressive rigidity of winding. (author)

  14. Apparatus to examine pulsed parallel field losses in large conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.R.; Shen, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors in tokamak toroidal field coils will be exposed to pulsed fields both parallel and perpendicular to the current direction. These conductors will likely be quite high capacity (10 to 20 kA) and therefore probably will be built up out of smaller units. We have previously published measurements of losses in conductors exposed to a pulsed parallel field, but those experiments necessarily used monolithic conductors of relatively small cross section because the pulse coil, a torus that surrounded the test conductor, was itself small. Here we describe an apparatus that is conceptually similar but has been scaled up to accept conductors of much larger cross section and current capacity. The apparatus consists basically of a superconducting torus that contains a movable spool to allow test samples to be wound inside without unwinding the torus. Details of apparatus design and capabilities are described and preliminary results from tests of the apparatus and from loss measurements using it are reported

  15. Test of ITER conductors in SULTAN: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Stepanov, Boris; Wesche, Rainer; Herzog, Robert; Calzolaio, Ciro; Vogel, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The ITER Toroidal Field (TF) conductor qualification phase has been carried out by testing short sample prototype conductors in the SULTAN test facility. This phase, started in 2007, has been substantially completed after minor adjustment of the conductor specification and test procedures. All the parties involved in the TF conductor procurement passed the qualification phase. Starting 2010, the samples for TF process qualification phase are tested in SULTAN. A summary of the results for all the ITER Qualification samples and an updated statistics are presented for the V-I and V-T characteristics of the cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC), including Nb 3 Sn and NbTi samples assembled with either a 'bottom joint' or a 'U-bend'. The technical improvements of the test facility are reported, including the enhanced cyclic loading rate and the calibration of the current meter. An outlook of the ITER conductor tests in the coming years is also presented.

  16. Growth and Properties of Oxygen and Ion Doped BISMUTH(2) STRONTIUM(2) Calcium COPPER(2) Oxygen (8+DELTA) Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David Brian

    1990-01-01

    A directional solidification method for growing large single crystals in the Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O _{8+delta} system is reported. Ion substitutions, with replacement of La for Sr and Y for Ca, as well as oxygen doping in these crystals has been explored. Ion doping results in little change of the superconducting transition for substitution levels below 20-25% (as a result of simultaneous oxygen intercalation), while beyond this level, the Meissner signal broadens and the low temperature Meissner signal decreases. Microprobe analysis and x-ray diffraction performed on these more highly substituted single crystals, provides evidence for inhomogeneity and phase segregation into regions of distinct composition. Annealing unsubstituted crystals in increasing partial pressures of oxygen reversibly depresses the superconducting transition temperature from 90K (as made) to 77K (oxygen pressure annealed) while the Hall concentrations increase from n = 3.1(3) times 10 ^{21} cm^{ -3} (0.34 holes/Cu site) to 4.6(3) times 10^{21} cm^{-3} (0.50 holes/Cu site). Further suppression of T_{c} to 72K is possible by annealing in oxygen pressures up to 100atm. No degradation of the Meissner transition or other indications of inhomogeneity or phase segregation with doping are noted, suggesting that oxygen doped Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O _{8+delta} is a suitable system for pursuing doping studies. The decrease in T _{c} with concentration for 0.34 <=q n <=q 0.50 indicates that a high carrier concentration regime exists where T_{c} decreases with n and suggests that this decrease does not arise from material inhomogeneity or other materials problems. The physical properties of these Bi _2Sr_2CaCu _2O_{8+delta} crystals, in this high carrier concentration regime, will be discussed.

  17. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, A.; Skogstad, M.; Johnsen, T. S.; Engdahl, B.; Tambs, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an ex...

  18. Sorption of Hg(II and Pb(II Ions on Chitosan-Iron(III from Aqueous Solutions: Single and Binary Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Lapo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the study of mercury Hg(II and lead Pb(II removal in single and binary component systems into easily prepared chitosan-iron(III bio-composite beads. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and point of zero charge (pHpzc analysis were carried out. The experimental set covered pH study, single and competitive equilibrium, kinetics, chloride and sulfate effects as well as sorption–desorption cycles. In single systems, the Langmuir nonlinear model fitted the experimental data better than the Freundlich and Sips equations. The sorbent material has more affinity to Hg(II rather than Pb(II ions, the maximum sorption capacities were 1.8 mmol·g−1 and 0.56 mmol·g−1 for Hg(II and Pb(II, respectively. The binary systems data were adjusted with competitive Langmuir isotherm model. The presence of sulfate ions in the multicomponent system [Hg(II-Pb(II] had a lesser impact on the sorption efficiency than did chloride ions, however, the presence of chloride ions improves the selectivity towards Hg(II ions. The bio-based material showed good recovery performance of metal ions along three sorption–desorption cycles.

  19. Dielectronic recombination experiments with tungsten ions at the test storage ring and development of a single-particle detector at the cryogenic storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruck, Kaija

    2015-05-01

    This work is about electron-ion collision experiments at the ion storage rings of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg. Absolute recombination rate coefficients of highly-charged tungsten ions featuring an open 4-f-shell structure have been measured at the heavy-ion storage ring TSR. The resulting plasma rate coefficients have been used to probe the significance of newly developed theoretical approaches. Plasma rate coefficients of highly-charged tungsten ions are in particular interesting for the development of plasma models for nuclear fusion reactors, since tungsten is a foreseeable impurity in the fusion plasma. In the relevant temperature range, the experimental results exceed the theoretical data used so far by up to a factor of 10, showing the need for more reliable theoretical calculations. Furthermore, based on the design of the detectors which have been used in the experiments at TSR, a movable single-particle detector for electron-ion recombination studies at the cryogenic storage ring CSR has been developed and installed within the scope of this work. The device has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the CSR regarding low ion energies and cryogenic ambient temperature conditions. In a series of experiments, the detector was carefully characterised and successfully tested for its compatibility with these requirements. The detector was part of the infrastructure used for the room-temperature commissioning of CSR (2014) and is currently operated as a single-particle counter during the first cryogenic operation of CSR in 2015.

  20. Dielectronic recombination experiments with tungsten ions at the test storage ring and development of a single-particle detector at the cryogenic storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija

    2015-05-15

    This work is about electron-ion collision experiments at the ion storage rings of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg. Absolute recombination rate coefficients of highly-charged tungsten ions featuring an open 4-f-shell structure have been measured at the heavy-ion storage ring TSR. The resulting plasma rate coefficients have been used to probe the significance of newly developed theoretical approaches. Plasma rate coefficients of highly-charged tungsten ions are in particular interesting for the development of plasma models for nuclear fusion reactors, since tungsten is a foreseeable impurity in the fusion plasma. In the relevant temperature range, the experimental results exceed the theoretical data used so far by up to a factor of 10, showing the need for more reliable theoretical calculations. Furthermore, based on the design of the detectors which have been used in the experiments at TSR, a movable single-particle detector for electron-ion recombination studies at the cryogenic storage ring CSR has been developed and installed within the scope of this work. The device has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the CSR regarding low ion energies and cryogenic ambient temperature conditions. In a series of experiments, the detector was carefully characterised and successfully tested for its compatibility with these requirements. The detector was part of the infrastructure used for the room-temperature commissioning of CSR (2014) and is currently operated as a single-particle counter during the first cryogenic operation of CSR in 2015.