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Sample records for single intrauterine insemination

  1. Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IUI) Overview Intrauterine insemination ( IUI ) — a type of artificial insemination — is a procedure for treating infertility. Sperm that ... more eggs to be fertilized. Older types of artificial insemination placed the sperm in the vagina. While this ...

  2. A comparison of intrauterine versus intracervical insemination in fertile single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, N; Palmer, J R

    2001-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of intrauterine insemination (IUI) and intracervical insemination (ICI) when used by fertile single women in a donor insemination program. Prospective randomized crossover study. Donor insemination program (not an infertility clinic). Single fertile women choosing to inseminate with frozen donor semen. Clients received procreative counseling and screening and were then randomly assigned to begin office insemination with ICI or IUI. If additional insemination cycles were required, the clients used the method opposite their previous method of insemination until pregnancy was achieved. Monthly fecundity rate was compared between the two methods of insemination. Sixty-two women contributed a total of 189 cycles, 94 by IUI and 95 by ICI. The monthly fecundity rate for IUI was 15%, as compared with 9% for ICI, (P=0.14). When the analysis was confined to cycles in which only one insemination was performed (64 IUI and 65 ICI cycles), the monthly fecundity rates were 14% for IUI and 5% for ICI (P=0.04). Intrauterine insemination with frozen donor sperm is more effective than intracervical insemination for single women without known fertility problems.

  3. Intrauterine insemination versus intracervical insemination in donor sperm treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, Petronella Al; Mochtar, Monique H.; O'Brien, Paul A.; van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon

    2018-01-01

    The first-line treatment in donor sperm treatment consists of inseminations that can be done by intrauterine insemination (IUI) or by intracervical insemination (ICI). To compare the effectiveness and safety of intrauterine insemination (IUI) and intracervical insemination (ICI) in women who start

  4. Single versus double intrauterine insemination in stimulated cycles for subfertile couples : a systematic review based on a Cochrane review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantineau, AEP; Heineman, MJ; Cohlen, BJ

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this review was to determine, from the best available evidence, the difference in outcome using single versus double intrauterine insemination (IUI) in stimulated cycles for subfertile couples. METHODS: The principles of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility

  5. Heterotopic pregnancy following intrauterine insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-27

    Apr 27, 2011 ... Clomiphene citrate, gonadotropin stimulation (hCG), and intrauterine insemination using donor sperm. The resulting pregnancy was later diagnosed as heterotopic pregnancy ... Presence of corpus luteum cyst of pregnancy in early ultrasound should be an index of suspicious of a possible heterotopic ...

  6. Intrauterine insemination or intracervical insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm in the natural cycle: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, P. A. L.; van Wely, M.; Mol, B. W.; de Melker, A. A.; Janssens, P. M. W.; Arends, B.; Curfs, M. H. J. M.; Kortman, M.; Nap, A.; Rijnders, E.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.; Ruis, H.; Simons, A. H. M.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.; Mochtar, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Does intrauterine insemination in the natural cycle lead to better pregnancy rates than intracervical insemination (ICI) in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. In a large cohort of women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved

  7. Intrauterine insemination or intracervical insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm in the natural cycle : A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, P. A L; Van Wely, M.; Mol, B. W.; De Melker, A. A.; Janssens, P. M W; Arends, B.; Curfs, M. H J M; Kortman, M.; Nap, A.; Rijnders, E.; Roovers, J. P W R; Ruis, H.; Simons, A. H M; Repping, S.; Van Der Veen, F.; Mochtar, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    studyquestion: Does intrauterine insemination in the natural cycle lead to better pregnancy rates than intracervical insemination (ICI) in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. summaryanswer: In a large cohort of women undergoing artificial

  8. Intra-uterine insemination for male subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensdorp, A. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Heineman, M. J.; Vandekerckhove, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. Its use, especially when combined with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) has been subject of discussion. Although the treatment itself is less invasive and expensive

  9. Prognostic factors affecting outcome of intrauterine insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a recent resurgence in the use of intrauterine insemination (IUI) in Nigeria. However, there is a need for a rational use of the procedure so that couples do not waste time and money on ineffective therapy if it is not indicated. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the possible prognostic ...

  10. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last 30 years however, intrauterine insemination has evolved with the introduction of ovulation stimulating protocols and sperm preparation methods taken from assisted reproduction techniques. Costs have risen, but the success rate has not risen to the same extent. We have therefore developed a quite simple ...

  11. Immobilisation versus immediate mobilisation after intrauterine insemination: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, Inge M.; Flierman, Paul A.; Maas, Pettie; Cox, Tessa; van Dessel, Thierry J. H. M.; Gerards, Mariette H.; Mochtar, Monique H.; Janssen, Catharina A. H.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of 15 minutes of immobilisation versus immediate mobilisation after intrauterine insemination. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting One academic teaching hospital and six non-academic teaching hospitals. Participants Women having intrauterine

  12. Intrauterine insemination or intracervical insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm in the natural cycle : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, P. A. L.; van Wely, M.; Mol, B. W.; de Melker, A. A.; Janssens, P. M. W.; Arends, B.; Curfs, M. H. J. M.; Kortman, M.; Nap, A.; Rijnders, E.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.; Ruis, H.; Simons, A. H. M.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.; Mochtar, M. H.

    STUDY QUESTION: Does intrauterine insemination in the natural cycle lead to better pregnancy rates than intracervical insemination (ICI) in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. SUMMARY ANSWER: In a large cohort of women undergoing artificial

  13. Prevention of multiple pregnancies in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility : randomised controlled trial of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in modified natural cycle compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensdorp, A. J.; Tjon-Kon-Fat, R. I.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Koks, C. A. M.; Oosterhuis, G. J. E.; Hoek, A.; Hompes, P. G. A.; Broekmans, F. J. M.; Verhoeve, H. R.; de Bruin, J. P.; van Golde, R.; Repping, S.; Cohlen, B. J.; Lambers, M. D. A.; van Bommel, P. F.; Slappendel, E.; Perquin, D.; Smeenk, J. M.; Pelinck, M. J.; Gianotten, J.; Hoozemans, D. A.; Maas, J. W. M.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.; van Wely, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effectiveness of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle with that of intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in terms of a healthy child. Design Multicentre, open label, three arm,

  14. Homolog intrauterin insemination som basisbehandling af infertile par

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmsøe-Zinck, Lise; Vilsbøll, Tina; Andersen, A N

    1995-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination with husband's Percoll preparated sperm was performed in 179 couples in a total of 440 treatment cycles. A total of 60 pregnancies was obtained. The pregnancy and delivery rate was 13.6% and 9.3% per insemination cycle, respectively. The cumulative probabilities......-invasive treatment gives acceptable results. We recommend an ideal maximum of three treatment cycles, and at least 1-2 million spermatozoa for each insemination....

  15. Intrauterine insemination versus intracervical insemination in donor sperm treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, Petronella Al; Mochtar, Monique H; O'Brien, Paul A; Van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon

    2018-01-25

    The first-line treatment in donor sperm treatment consists of inseminations that can be done by intrauterine insemination (IUI) or by intracervical insemination (ICI). To compare the effectiveness and safety of intrauterine insemination (IUI) and intracervical insemination (ICI) in women who start donor sperm treatment. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL in October 2016, checked references of relevant studies, and contacted study authors and experts in the field to identify additional studies. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, the Grey literature, and five trials registers on 15 December 2017. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on IUI versus ICI in natural cycles or with ovarian stimulation, and RCTs comparing different cointerventions in IUI and ICI. We included cross-over studies if pre-cross-over data were available. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. We collected data on primary outcomes of live birth and multiple pregnancy rates, and on secondary outcomes of clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and cancellation rates. We included six RCTs (708 women analysed) on ICI and IUI in donor sperm treatment. Two studies compared IUI and ICI in natural cycles, two studies compared IUI and ICI in gonadotrophin-stimulated cycles, and two studies compared timing of IUI and ICI. There was very low-quality evidence; the main limitations were risk of bias due to poor reporting of study methods, and serious imprecision.IUI versus ICI in natural cyclesThere was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was any clear difference in live birth rate between IUI and ICI in natural cycles (odds ratio (OR) 3.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 87.13; 1 RCT, 26 women; very low-quality evidence). There was only one live birth in this study (in the IUI group). IUI resulted in higher clinical pregnancy rates (OR 6.18, 95% CI 1.91 to 20.03; 2

  16. Prevention of multiple pregnancies in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility: randomised controlled trial of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in modified natural cycle compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensdorp, A J; Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; Bossuyt, P M M; Koks, C A M; Oosterhuis, G J E; Hoek, A; Hompes, P G A; Broekmans, F J M; Verhoeve, H R; de Bruin, J P; van Golde, R; Repping, S; Cohlen, B J; Lambers, M D A; van Bommel, P F; Slappendel, E; Perquin, D; Smeenk, J M; Pelinck, M J; Gianotten, J; Hoozemans, D A; Maas, J W M; Eijkemans, M J C; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W J; van Wely, M

    2015-01-09

    To compare the effectiveness of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle with that of intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in terms of a healthy child. Multicentre, open label, three arm, parallel group, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. 17 centres in the Netherlands. Couples seeking fertility treatment after at least 12 months of unprotected intercourse, with the female partner aged between 18 and 38 years, an unfavourable prognosis for natural conception, and a diagnosis of unexplained or mild male subfertility. Three cycles of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer (plus subsequent cryocycles), six cycles of in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle, or six cycles of intrauterine insemination with ovarian hyperstimulation within 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcome was birth of a healthy child resulting from a singleton pregnancy conceived within 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes were live birth, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, time to pregnancy, complications of pregnancy, and neonatal morbidity and mortality 602 couples were randomly assigned between January 2009 and February 2012; 201 were allocated to in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer, 194 to in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle, and 207 to intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Birth of a healthy child occurred in 104 (52%) couples in the in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer group, 83 (43%) in the in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle group, and 97 (47%) in the intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation group. This corresponds to a risk, relative to intrauterine insemination with ovarian hyperstimulation, of 1.10 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.34) for in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer and 0.91 (0

  17. Synchronised approach for intrauterine insemination in subfertile couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Janssen, Mirjam J.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Allersma, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries intrauterine insemination (IUI) is the treatment of first choice for a subfertile couple when the infertility work up reveals an ovulatory cycle, at least one open Fallopian tube and sufficient spermatozoa. The final goal of this treatment is to achieve a pregnancy and

  18. Variation in guideline adherence in intrauterine insemination care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagen, E.C.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Health-care delivery according to clinical practice guidelines is thought to be critical in achieving optimal outcomes. This study aimed to assess the extent to which practice performance in intrauterine insemination (IUI) care is consistent with guideline recommendations and to evaluate the

  19. (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of an office-based semen preparation method (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI): A controlled randomised study to compare the IUI pregnancy outcome between a routine (swim-up) and the SEP-D Kit method.

  20. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    sophisticated equipment, costly materials, media, or disposable insemination catheters; it is quite inexpensive and may be ... cycle day 4. Follicular growth was monitored by ultrasound with a vaginal probe. Monitoring started on day 9 and thereafter every other day. Human Chorionic ..... Analysis of the relationship between ...

  1. Primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare type of extrauterine pregnancy. It has been reported from many unusual intra-abdominal sites. We report a case of primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination (not reported earlier to our knowledge. Implanted on the anterior surface of the uterus possibly related to an endometriotic foci. Early diagnosis enabled laparoscopic management of this case.

  2. SOWS FERTILITY AFTER TRANSCERVICAL INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION (the sumarize of ours results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. STANČIĆ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the potential advantages of transcervical artificial insemination into the caudal portion of the uterus (corpus uteri, compared with conventional sperm-dose deposition into the posterior region of the cervix. Three experiments was carried out to investigate: (1 the influence of insemination-dose volume, (2 sperm number per dose and (3 type of insemination catheter on sows fertility (farrowing rate and litter size. Classic intracervical insemination was performed in the total of 50 sows (25 inseminated with 100ml doses and 25 with 50ml doses. Intrauterine insemination was performed in the total of 50 sows (25 inseminated with 100ml doses and 25 with 50ml doses. Significant greater farrowing rate (88% and live born piglet per litter (10,77 or 11,86 was found after intrauterine insemination, then after intracervical insemination (76 or 72% farrowing rate, and 10,42 or 9,89 live born piglets per litter. Classic intracervical insemination was performed in the total of 90 sows, with different catheter type. Intrauterine insemination was performed in the total of 90 sows, with 5x109,3,7x109 or 2,5x109 spermatozoa per dose. No significant differences in farrowing rate was found between intracervical and intrauterine insemination (83,3 to 86,7%. Significant greater live born piglet per litter was found after intrauterine insemination with 2,5x109 spermatozoa per dose. Obtained results suggest that intrauterine insemination can be performed by significant reduction of insemination dose volume and sperm number in dose, without decreasing sows fertility. It can result in significant increasing of boar reproductive efficiency.

  3. In vitro sperm capacitation and transcervical intrauterine insemination for the treatment of refractory infertility: phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, G; Knutzen, V K; Stratton, C J; Montakhab, M M; Allenson, S G

    1984-02-01

    Fourteen couples with long-standing infertility, associated with cervical mucus insufficiency, male subfertility, or unexplained infertility, participated in a therapeutic trial. The female partners, who were all ovulatory, were given human menopausal gonadotropin from day 2 of the menstrual cycle (controlled ovarian hyperstimulation). When plasma estradiol concentrations reached 1000 to 2000 pg/ml, human chorionic gonadotropin was given. Approximately 32 hours and again 70 hours thereafter, a masturbation specimen of the husband's sperm was capacitated in vitro and inseminated transcervically into the uterine cavity. Five women (35%) conceived following a single cycle of treatment. Four of the pregnancies are currently progressing normally; one ended in a spontaneous miscarriage in the early first trimester. The potential role of in vitro sperm capacitation and transcervical intrauterine insemination in the treatment of refractory infertility unrelated to female organic pelvic disease is discussed.

  4. Intrauterine insemination or intracervical insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm in the natural cycle: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, P A L; van Wely, M; Mol, B W; de Melker, A A; Janssens, P M W; Arends, B; Curfs, M H J M; Kortman, M; Nap, A; Rijnders, E; Roovers, J P W R; Ruis, H; Simons, A H M; Repping, S; van der Veen, F; Mochtar, M H

    2015-03-01

    Does intrauterine insemination in the natural cycle lead to better pregnancy rates than intracervical insemination (ICI) in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. In a large cohort of women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm, there was no substantial beneficial effect of IUI in the natural cycle over ICI in the natural cycle. At present, there are no studies comparing IUI in the natural cycle versus ICI in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. We performed a retrospective cohort study among all eight sperm banks in the Netherlands. We included all women who underwent artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm in the natural cycle between January 2009 and December 2010. We compared time to ongoing pregnancy in the first six cycles of IUI and ICI, after which controlled ovarian stimulation was commenced. Ongoing pregnancy rates (OPRs) over time were compared using life tables. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to compare the chances of reaching an ongoing pregnancy after IUI or ICI adjusted for female age and indication. We included 1843 women; 1163 women underwent 4269 cycles of IUI and 680 women underwent 2345 cycles of ICI with cryopreserved donor sperm. Baseline characteristics were equally distributed (mean age 34.0 years for the IUI group versus 33.8 years for the ICI group), while in the IUI group, there were more lesbian women than in the ICI group (40.6% for IUI compared with 31.8% for ICI). Cumulative OPRs up to six treatment cycles were 40.5% for IUI and 37.9% for ICI. This corresponds with a hazard rate ratio of 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-1.23] after controlling for female age and indication. Increasing female age was associated with a lower OPR, in both the IUI and ICI groups with a hazard ratio for ongoing pregnancy of 0.94 per year (95% CI 0.93-0.97). This study is prone to

  5. The effectiveness of intrauterine insemination: A matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Irma; van Zijl, Maud; Custers, Inge M; Brandes, Monique; Gianotten, Judith; van der Linden, Paul J Q; Hompes, Peter G A; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben W J

    2017-05-01

    To study the effectiveness of an intrauterine insemination (IUI) program compared to no treatment in subfertile couples with unexplained subfertility and a poor prognosis on natural conception. A retrospective matched cohort study in which ongoing pregnancy rates in 72 couples who voluntarily dropped out of treatment with IUI were compared to ongoing pregnancy rates in 144 couples who continued treatment with IUI. Couples with unexplained subfertility, mild male subfertility or cervical factor subfertility who started treatment with IUI between January 2000 and December 2008 were included. Couples were matched on hospital, age, duration of subfertility, primary or secondary subfertility and diagnosis. Primary outcome was cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate after three years. Time to pregnancy was censored at the moment couples were lost to follow up or when their child wish ended and, for the no-treatment group, when couples re-started treatment. After three years, there were 18 pregnancies in the stopped treatment group (25%) versus 41 pregnancies in the IUI group (28%) (RR 1.1 (0.59-2.2)(p=0.4)). The cumulative pregnancy rate after three years was 40% in both groups, showing no difference in time to ongoing pregnancy (shared frailty model p=0.86). In couples with unexplained subfertility and a poor prognosis for natural conception, treatment with IUI does not to add to expectant management. There is need for a randomized clinical trial comparing IUI with expectant management in these couples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effect of sexual abstinence on pregnancy rates after an intrauterine insemination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably-Ambe, Alberto; Carballo-Mondragón, Esperanza; Durán-Monterrosas, Leonor; Soriano-Ortega, Karla Patricia; Roque-Sánchez, Armando Miguel

    2015-02-01

    There are many studies showing that more days of sexual abstinence increased sperm concentration, however, the direct influence between the days of abstinence and pregnancy rates has not been evaluated. The usual recommendation is 3-4 days prior to intrauterine insemination; this based on the interval that maximizes the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate. There are some reports with better success rate when abstinence is less than three days. To evaluate the pregnancy rate post-intrauterine insemination according to days of sexual abstinence prior to obtaining semen sample. A retrospective, observational and transversal study in patients attending the Mexican Center for Fertility (CEPAM) to intrauterine insemination. For analysis patients were grouped by age group, success rate and days of sexual abstinence. Continuous variables are reported as means and standard deviations; to determine statistical significance univariate logistic regression was performed. Categorical variables were evaluated in frequencies and percentages. The calculations were performed using JMP software program. 3,123 couples were included and increased success rate for intrauterine insemination was obtained with less than seven days of sexual abstinence. The rate of sperm retrieval is inversely proportional to the days of abstinence. A better pregnancy rate in intrauterine insemination was achieved with less than seven days of sexual abstinence and sperm retrieval rate was also recorded with fewer days of abstinence.

  7. Outcomes after intrauterine insemination are independent of provider type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Randi H.; Batsis, Maria; Hacker, Michele R.; Souter, Irene; Petrozza, John C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether the success of intrauterine insemination (IUI) varies based on the type of health care provider performing the procedure. STUDY DESIGN This was a retrospective cohort study set at an infertility clinic at an academic institution. The patients who comprised this study were 1575 women who underwent 3475 IUI cycles from late 2003 through early 2012. Cycles were stratified into 3 groups according to the type of provider who performed the procedure: attending physician, fellow physician, or registered nurse (RN). The primary outcome was live birth. Additional outcomes of interest included positive pregnancy test and clinical pregnancy. Repeated measures log binomial regression was used to estimate the risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the outcomes and to evaluate the effect of potential confounders. All tests were 2-sided, and P values < .05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS Of the 3475 IUI cycles, 2030 (58.4%) were gonadotropin stimulated, 929 (26.7%) were clomiphene citrate stimulated, and 516 (14.9%) were natural. The incidences of clinical pregnancy and live birth among all cycles were 11.8% and 8.8%, respectively. After adjusting for female age, male partner age, and cycle type, the incidence of live birth was similar for RNs compared with attending physicians (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.58–1.1) and fellow physicians compared with attending physicians (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.58–1.2). Similar results were seen for positive pregnancy test and clinical pregnancy. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference in live birth following IUI cycles in which the procedure was performed by a fellow physician or RN compared with an attending physician. PMID:24881820

  8. Perinatal outcomes in 6,338 singletons born after intrauterine insemination in Denmark, 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara Sofia; Loft, Anne; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study perinatal outcomes in singletons born after intrauterine insemination (IUI) compared with children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and spontaneous conception (SC), and to assess predictors of poor outcome in singletons born after IUI......, exploring the effect of ovarian stimulation. DESIGN: National cohort study, 2007-2012. SETTING: Danish national registries. PATIENT(S): Four thousand two hundred twenty-eight singletons born after insemination with partner semen (IUI-H) and 1,881 singletons born after insemination with donor semen...

  9. Intrauterine pregnancy following low-dose gonadotropin ovulation induction and direct intraperitoneal insemination for severe cervical stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills E Scott

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a case of primary infertility related to extreme cervical stenosis, a subset of cervical factor infertility which accounts for approximately 5% of all clinical infertility referrals. Case presentation A 37 year-old nulligravida was successfully treated with ovulation induction via recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and direct intraperitoneal insemination (IPI. Anticipating controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF, the patient underwent hysteroscopy and cervical recanalization, but safe intrauterine access was not possible due to severe proximal cervical stricture. Hysterosalpingogram established bilateral tubal patency and confirmed an irregular cervical contour. Since the cervical canal could not be traversed, neither standard intrauterine insemination nor transcervical embryo transfer could be offered. Prepared spermatozoa were therefore placed intraperitoneally at both tubal fimbria under real-time transvaginal sonographic guidance using a 17 gage single-lumen IVF needle. Supplementary progesterone was administered as 200 mg/d lozenge (troche plus 200 mg/d rectal suppository, maintained from the day following IPI to the 8th gestational week. A singleton intrauterine pregnancy was achieved after the second ovulation induction attempt. Conclusions In this report, we outline the relevance of cervical factor infertility to reproductive medicine practice. Additionally, our andrology evaluation, ovulation induction approach, spermatozoa preparation, and insemination technique in such cases are described.

  10. Longer time interval between semen processing and intrauterine insemination does not affect pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Charlotte H J R; Elisen, Marc G L M; Leenstra, Cor W; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Verhoeve, Harold R

    2017-11-01

    To study whether the pregnancy outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI) is affected by a longer time interval between semen processing and insemination. Retrospective cohort. Teaching hospital. Couples with subfertility and an indication for IUI over a 10-year period. Insemination performed the day after but within 24 hours of semen collection and processing (delayed insemination) compared with insemination performed immediately after sperm collection and processing (immediate insemination). Ongoing pregnancy rate, defined as a pregnancy confirmed by ultrasound at 10 to 12 weeks of gestation. In total, 1,136 cycles were analyzed. In 77 of 547 couples (14%) an ongoing pregnancy occurred after delayed insemination, and in 77 of 589 couples (13%) an ongoing pregnancy occurred after immediate insemination. Both groups had similar baseline characteristics. After adjustment for confounders, there was no difference in the ongoing pregnancy rate between delayed as compared with immediate insemination (odds ratio 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.25). There is no negative effect on pregnancy rate when IUI of processed sperm is delayed until the next day. This approach allows additional flexibility for couples when the male partner is not available on the day of ovulation, and it allows for a spread of workload in the laboratory. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Semen deposition by cervical, transcervical and intrauterine route for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in the ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, R; Pinczak, A; Cuadro, F; Guillen-Muñoz, J M; Mezzalira, A; Menchaca, A

    2017-11-01

    Semen deposition through the cervix into the uterus is a difficult technique in ewes and represents the main limiting factor for insemination in this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate achieved with a new transcervical insemination method in comparison with conventional cervical and laparoscopic intrauterine techniques. A total of 586 multiparous Corriedale ewes were synchronized for fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI) performed by cervical, transcervical, or intrauterine route at 46-50 h or 52-56 h after progesterone device removal in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Pregnancy rate was affected by the insemination technique and by the moment of FTAI (P insemination was delayed. For transcervical insemination, pregnancy rate was intermediate (42.3%; P= NS) between cervical and intrauterine route (36.0% and 50.2%; P inseminated beyond 4 cm into the cervix (60.0% versus 35.1% for insemination beyond or within 4 cm into the cervix, respectively; P insemination. This method was more time-consuming than cervical or laparoscopic insemination (11.4 ± 1.6 versus 85.5 ± 7.5 and 56.8 ± 5.6 ewes inseminated per hour, respectively; P insemination to be applied in large-scale FTAI programs in Corriedale ewes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of ovarian response in intrauterine insemination patients and development of a dosage nomogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, N L C; Lossl, K; Bogstad, J

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to identify predictors of ovarian response in ovulatory patients treated with low-dose recombinant FSH (rFSH), gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist and intrauterine insemination (IUI), and to develop an rFSH dosage nomogram based on the findings...

  13. Intrauterin insemination med donorsaed. Behandling af ufrivillig barnløshed på grund af mandlig infertilitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Helmsøe-Zinck, Lise; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination with cryopreserved donor semen was performed in 114 women in a total of menstrual 381 cycles during the period 1.2.1991 to 15.5.1993. Eighty-one pregnancies were recorded corresponding to a conception rate of 21% per insemination cycle. After ten cycles the probability...... of conception and expected delivery was respectively 96% and 86%. The results show that intrauterine insemination with donor semen is a good treatment for couples with male infertility. Ultrasonic measurement of the follicles and timing of hCG injection were used for optimal timing of intrauterine donor...... insemination. The quality of the semen used for insemination is important. It is recommended to inseminate with at least two million of spermatozoa where at least 20% have normal motility....

  14. The Use of Tenaculum During Intrauterine Insemination May Not Affect the Pregnancy Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Eui; Kim, Hoon; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The association between tenaculum application to the cervix just before embryo transfer and lower pregnancy rate has been reported. However, studies on the use of tenaculum in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles are not available. This study attempted to investigate whether the use of tenaculum affects the clinical outcomes of IUI. Materials and Methods Two hundred and thirty three CC/hMG/IUI cycles of one hundred and forty three couples were recruited at Seoul National University Hospital from October 2006 to December 2008. Mock insemination and IUI with or without tenaculum application to the cervix were also performed, and clinical pregnancy rate was compared. Results The incidence of difficult mock insemination at the beginning of cycle was higher in the tenaculum use group (p insemination. Conclusion The use of tenaculum during IUI may not affect the pregnancy outcome. Our results need to be confirmed by a prospective study in a larger population. PMID:20879065

  15. [Intra-uterine insemination at either 24 or 48hours after ovulation induction: Pregnancy and birth rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L; Severac, F; Rongieres, C; Ohl, J; Bettahar, K; Lichtblau, I; Pirrello, O

    2017-04-01

    Comparing rates of pregnancy and childbirth between IUI at either 24 or 48hours after injection of HCG. This is a single-center retrospective study of couples who underwent intrauterine insemination between January 2013 and December 2014 at Medical-Surgical Obstetrical Centre of Schiltigheim. Stimulation of ovulation was done by FSH or HMG, and ovulation induction by 250μg of recombinant HCG. The insemination was performed after 2 days (group D2) or the day after (group D1). Among the 1092 intrauterine insemination cycles included in our study, 62 were done the day after ovulation induction by HCG (D1), and 1030 the day after (D2). Our study showed no significant difference in the rate of biological pregnancy, defined by a rate of BHCG>15IU/L, between the group D1 (19.35%) and the group D2 (18.12%), P=0.94, and no difference in live birth rate: respectively 14,50% and 11.75%, P=0.18. Our study reported similar rates of pregnancy and childbirth in the group who underwent IUI at D1 and D2 of ovulation induction, suggesting the possibility of IUI on day 1 when the organization of the service needs it, without loss of opportunity for pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kit with the standard swim-up sperm washing method regarding pregnancy outcomes. Male factor infertility is a term that describes inability to conceive associated with a problem identified in the male partner. Intra- uterine insemination (IUI) has been shown to be effective in a range of sperm abnormalities causing male ...

  17. Effect of Sperm Morphology on Pregnancy Success via Intrauterine Insemination: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Taylor P; Kohn, Jaden R; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2017-11-09

    Men with abnormal sperm morphology are often counseled that natural conception and intrauterine insemination are ineffective, and in vitro fertilization is the only option. Our objective was to determine the effect of sperm morphology on the pregnancy success of intrauterine insemination. We systematically searched for studies published prior to January 2017 that 1) reported ultrasound verified clinical pregnancies per intrauterine insemination cycle, 2) assessed sperm morphology using the kruger strict criteria and 3) described morphology at the greater than 4% and 4% or less and/or the 1% or greater and less than 1% thresholds. In all studies mean female age was between 25 and 40 years and mean total motile sperm count was greater than 10 million. Estimates were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Data were extracted from 20 observational studies involving a total of 41,018 cycles. When comparing men at the greater than 4% and 4% or less thresholds, the rate of ultrasound verified pregnancy per intrauterine insemination cycle was not statistically or clinically different (14.2% vs 12.1%, p = 0.06) and the risk difference was 3.0% (95% CI 1.4-4.6), indicating 3.0 additional pregnancies per 100 intrauterine insemination cycles. When comparing men at the 1% or greater and the less than 1% thresholds, there were no statistical or clinical differences in the rate of ultrasound verified pregnancy per cycle of intrauterine insemination (14.0% vs 13.9%, p = 0.97) or in the risk difference (1.6%, 95% CI -4.5-7.6). There appears to be no clinical difference in intrauterine insemination pregnancy success among men with normal and abnormal sperm morphology when accounting for total motile sperm count and female age. Abnormal sperm morphology alone should not exclude couples from attempting intrauterine insemination. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pelvic endometriosis with peritoneal fluid reduces pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Chen, Chi-Hung; Chen, Pi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of peritoneal fluid in women undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and its correlation with the stage of pelvic endometriosis and its influence on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case–control design was used to recruit 272 infertile women with pelvic endometriosis. The treatment protocol consisted of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with downregulation and gonadotropin for IUI treatment following ultrasoun...

  19. Progesterone Supplement and Luteal Phase Deficiency in Unifollicular Intrauterine Insemination Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Bakay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Intrauterine insemination is a widely used technique with advantages of being a simple and less invasive method with a lower cost when compared to other assisted reproductive techniques. In the present prospective randomized controlled study we aim to prove that progesterone supplementation is a beneficial factor in pregnancies achieved with intra uterine insemination and also we want to emphasise that luteal phase deficiency does not always occur in multifollicular cycles but can be seen in unifollicular cycles as well. Material and Method: Patients diagnosed with unexplained infertility between December 2011 and December 2012 were admitted to the study group. 278 IUI cycles with COH using recombinant FSH induction were recorded. Results: The effect of progesterone supplement on achieving pregnancy was statistically significant (p

  20. Do Endometrial Movements Affect The Achievement of Pregnancy during Intrauterine Insemination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was aimed to assess the effect of endometrial movements on pregnancy achievement in intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles. Materials and Methods: The population of this observational study was composed of unexplained infertility couples undergoing first-time IUI with clomiphene citrate between September 2010 and October 2011. Not only endometrial movements, but also thickness, volume, pattern, and echogenic change of endometrium were analyzed prospectively in prediction of pregnancy. Results: The total number of 241 cycles of IUI with 49 intrauterine pregnancies (20.3% was analyzed. Pregnancy was not related to endometrial thickness and endometrial volume, but significantly related to endometrial movements associated with the number of contraction, strong movement, cervicofundal direction, and hyperechoic change (p<0.05. Pregnant group showed higher cervicofundal movement rate (89.8 vs. 75.5%. Conclusion: For IUI cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate in unexplained infertility women, endometrial movements on the day of IUI could be a predictor of pregnancy.

  1. Blastocysts production and collection in albino Syrian hamster using superovulation and intrauterine artificial insemination in non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amiri Divani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo blastocyst production and collection using superovulation and intrauterine insemination was established in albino Syrian hamsters. Twenty female albino hamsters were injected pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 25 IU in non-breeding season and 48 h or 56 h later, 25 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG were injected. Both groups were divided into two subgroups of natural mating and artificial insemination. The former group was mated with a fertile male (1 male for 2 fe-males after hCG injection and in the next morning, the hamsters with vaginal plug were regarded as pregnant. In the artificial insemination group, intrauterine artificial insemination of 1×108 sperms was done 12 h after hCG injection. Blastocysts were counted at 3.5 days after mating or insemination. However, 48 h and 56 h hCG and natural mating and 48 h hCG and artificial insemination were without blastocyst; however the method of 56 h hCG and artificial insemination produced of 15±5 (mean and standard deviation blastocysts in each albino hamster in the winter.

  2. Prospective investigation of serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration in ovulatory intrauterine insemination patients: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, N la Cour; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2010-01-01

    cycle before intrauterine insemination. Mean age of the patients was 33 years. Serum AMH significantly correlated to age (r=-0.38), antral follicle count (AFC) (r=0.68), ovarian volume (r=0.40), FSH (r=-0.31), (P2-3 mature follicles or dose reduction). There was a significant trend over response groups...

  3. Predictors of ovarian response in intrauterine insemination patients and development of a dosage nomogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Nina La Cour; Lossl, K.; Bogstad, Jeanette Wulff

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to identify predictors of ovarian response in ovulatory patients treated with low-dose recombinant FSH (rFSH), gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist and intrauterine insemination (IUI), and to develop an rFSH dosage nomogram based on the findings....... Patients (n = 159) were stimulated with a starting dose of 75 IU rFSH/day. Ten parameters were investigated as possible predictors of the number of mature follicles >or=15 mm: age, spontaneous cycle length, body weight, body mass index, smoking status, total ovarian volume, total number of antral follicles......, total Doppler score of the ovarian stromal blood flow, baseline FSH and oestradiol. Simple and multiple linear regressions were used for the statistical analysis. Appropriate ovarian response was defined as two to three mature follicles. Body weight (P = 0.001) and the number of antral follicles (P = 0...

  4. Association between ovarian stimulators with or without intrauterine insemination, and assisted reproductive technologies on multiple births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Sonia; Sheehy, Odile; Monnier, Patricia; Bissonnette, François; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Fraser, William; Bérard, Anick

    2015-10-01

    We sought to quantify the risk of multiple births associated with the use of different modalities of medically assisted reproduction. We conducted a case-control study using a birth cohort from 2006 through 2009. This cohort was built with the linkage of data obtained by a self-administered questionnaire and medical, hospital, pharmaceutical, birth, and death databases in Quebec. Cases were pregnancies resulting in multiple live births (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision/International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes). Each case was matched, on maternal age and year of delivery, with 3 singleton pregnancies (controls) randomly selected among all Quebec singleton pregnancies. Data on the use of different fertility treatments were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for body mass index, number of previous live births, ethnicity, family income, place of residence, marital status, subfertility, reduction of embryos, diabetes, metformin treatment, folic acid supplementation, and lifestyle factors, were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs). We evaluated the associations between each type of fertility treatment (ovarian stimulators used alone, intrauterine insemination [IUI] used with ovarian stimulation, and assisted reproductive technologies [ART]) and the risk of multiple births. A total of 1407 cases of multiple births and 3580 controls were analyzed. More than half of multiple births following medically assisted reproduction (53.6%) occurred among women having used ovarian stimulation with or without IUI. The use of ovarian stimulators alone and IUI with ovarian stimulation increase the risk of multiple births (adjusted OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 3.2-6.4; and adjusted OR, 9.32; 95% CI, 5.60-15.50, respectively) compared to spontaneous conception. The use of invasive ART was associated with a greatly increased risk of multiple births

  5. Effect of Pertubation on Pregnancy Rates before Intrauterine Insemination Treatment in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Yildiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, a total of 180 patients were included in the study. Amongst these, pertubation of the uterine cavity was carried out in 79 patients prior to insemination. One patient in the pertubation group was later excluded because insemination could not be performed due to cycle cancellation. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the study and control groups. When the pregnancy rates of both groups were evaluated, 14(17.8% patients in the study group achieved pregancy. Three (3.8% had a biochemical pregnancy, 1(1.3% miscarried and 10(12.7% had live births. In the control group, a total of 24(23.8% pregnancies were achieved, amongst which one (1% had a biochemical pregnancy, 3(3% miscarried and 20(19.8% resulted in live births. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of total pregnancy and live birth rates (p>0.05. There was a 21% total pregnancy loss rate. There was no significant difference between the control and study groups in terms of pregnancy loss rates (p>0.05. Conclusion: This study on a homogenous group of unexplained infertile patients determined that the addition of pertubation to a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plus intrauterine insemination (COH+IUI treatment protocol did not affect pregnancy rates (Registration Number: NCT01999959.

  6. The effect of progesterone supplementation on pregnancy rates in controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination cycles: a randomized prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha-Hosseini, Marzieh; Rahmani, Mahboobeh; Alleyassin, Ashraf; Safdarian, Leila; Sarvi, Fatemeh

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of vaginal progesterone as luteal phase support on pregnancy rates in controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination cycles in couples with unexplained or mild male factor infertility. 290 Patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in a prospective randomized controlled trial. All patients underwent controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination: 148 patients were randomized to start with a supported cycle and 142 patients with an unsupported cycle. In supported cycles, patients received vaginal progesterone once daily from the day after insemination until 12 weeks of pregnancy or, in non-pregnant women, for 14 days. No progesterone was given during unsupported cycles. The main outcome measures were clinical pregnancy rates per cycle. In total, 148 cycles with luteal phase support and 142 cycles without luteal phase support were performed. The clinical pregnancy rates per cycle were higher for cycles with luteal phase support than for the unsupported cycles (24.3% vs. 14.1% respectively, p=0.027). The use of vaginal suppositories as luteal phase support significantly improved clinical pregnancy rates in controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination in patients with unexplained or mild male factor infertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pregnancy Outcome with Intrauterine Insemination in Patients with Unexplained Recurrent Abortion Whose Partners Have Abnormal Hypo-Osmotic Swelling Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talie Kazerooni

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent abortion is defined as three or moreconsecutive pregnancy losses. We aimed to determine the relationshipbetween male sperm parameters and hypo-osmoticswelling score and recurrent abortion. We also studiedwhether washing of spermatozoa and intrauterine inseminationin patients with recurrent miscarriage and low score hypoosmoticswelling test in male partners could improve the outcomeof pregnancy.Methods: Between February 2003 and September 2006 ingynecology clinics affiliated to Shiraz University of MedicalSciences, 176 women with a history of recurrent abortionand their male partners were selected as study group. And159 healthy and fertile couples without a history of recurrentabortion were selected as control group. The relationship betweenmale sperm parameters and hypo-osmotic swelling testand recurrent spontaneous abortion in their female partnerswas evaluated after intrauterine insemination for those withabnormal hypo-osmotic swelling test. Outcome of pregnancyin patients with recurrent abortion whose male partners hadlow score hypo-osmotic swelling test was evaluated afterintrauterine insemination.Results: Low scores of hypo-osmotic swelling test weremore frequently seen in the study group than the controls:116 (65% versus 24 (15%. The mean hypo-osmotic swellingscore was significantly lower in the study group(P< 0.001. The outcome of pregnancy improved after intrauterineinsemination in those with low score hypoosmoticswelling test. The pregnancy success rate in thetreated group (pregnant with intrauterine insemination was77.77% while in the untreated group (pregnant without intrauterineinsemination was 30.76% with a success rateratio of 2.04.Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between lowhypo-osmotic swelling test score in male partners and recurrentabortion in their wives. Intrauterine insemination improvedthe outcome of pregnancy in these couples.

  8. The Role of Infertility Etiology in Success Rate of Intrauterine Insemination Cycles: An Evaluation of Predictive Factors for Pregnancy Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Rashidi, Mandana; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Daghighi, Sara; Pourasghari, Parisa; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of ovarian stimulation with intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in couples with different infertility etiology. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in data of 1348 IUI cycles with ovarian stimulation by clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or gonadotropins in 632 women with five different infertility etiology subgroups at Akbarabbadi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Results: Th...

  9. Effects of piroxicam administration on pregnancy outcome in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, A; Mahboubi, M; Parsanezhad, M E; Alborzi, S; Younesi, M; Madadi, G

    2016-01-01

    Uterus contractibility is considered a powerful prognostic factor in predicting the embryo transfer outcome. Moreover, uterine contractions are known to be stimulated by prostaglandins which are produced by cyclooxygenase from arachidonic acid. As such, suppressing the inflammatory response and contractions using anti-inflammatory and relaxant agents is expected to result in increased success rate of embryo transfer and artificial insemination. To investigate the effect of piroxicam administration on the success rate in intrauterine insemination (IU) cycles in patients presenting with unexplained infertility. This randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial included 260 women with unexplained infertility undergoing IUI cycles. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either piroxicam ten mg/day on days 4-6 after IUI or placebo (control group). The main outcome measures were number of IUI cycles, pregnancy, abortion, and multiple pregnancy rates. The pregnancy rate was found to be 25 (19.2%) and 16 (12.3%) in piroxicam and control groups, respectively (p = 0.039). Five patients (3.8%) in piroxicam group experienced twin pregnancy whereas only three patients (2.3%) in control group had twin pregnancy (p = 0.361). The pregnancy rate per cycle was also significantly higher in those who received piroxicam as compared to controls (11.16 vs. 6.66; p = 0.021). Administration of piroxicam after IUI is associated with decreased number of cycles, as well as increased pregnancy rate and pregnancy rate per cycle in IUI cycles. However, piroxicam did not have any effect on abortion, multiple pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates.

  10. Association of uterine fibroids and pregnancy outcomes after ovarian stimulation-intrauterine insemination for unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Aaron K; Jin, Susan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Baisong; Polotsky, Alex J; Christianson, Mindy S; Vitek, Wendy; Engmann, Lawrence; Hansen, Karl; Wild, Robert; Legro, Richard S; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M; Christy, Alicia; Diamond, Michael P; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping; Santoro, Nanette

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the association of non-cavity-distorting uterine fibroids and pregnancy outcomes after ovarian stimulation-intrauterine insemination (OS-IUI) in couples with unexplained infertility. Secondary analysis from a prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial investigating fertility outcomes after OS-IUI. Reproductive Medicine Network clinical sites. Nine hundred couples with unexplained infertility who participated in the Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) clinical trial. Participants were randomized to one of three arms (clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins), and treatment was continued for up to four cycles or until pregnancy was achieved. Conception (serum hCG increase), clinical pregnancy (fetal cardiac activity), and live birth rates. A total of 102/900 participants (11.3%) had at least one documented fibroid and a normal uterine cavity. Women with fibroids were older, more likely to be African American, had a greater uterine volume, lower serum antimüllerian hormone levels, and fewer antral follicles than women without fibroids. In conception cycles, clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower in participants with fibroids than in those without uterine fibroids. Pregnancy loss before 12 weeks was more likely in African American women with fibroids compared with non-African American women with fibroids. There was no difference in conception and live birth rates in subjects with and without fibroids. No differences were observed in conception and live birth rates in women with non-cavity-distorting fibroids and those without fibroids. These findings provide reassurance that pregnancy success is not impacted in couples with non-cavity-distorting fibroids undergoing OS-IUI for unexplained infertility. NCT01044862. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pregnancy Predictors after Intrauterine Insemination in Cases of Unexplained Infertility: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Ganguly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of the study was to find the effect of various prognostic factors in cases of unexplained infertility undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS with intrauterine insemination (IUI. Methods. 146 cases of unexplained infertility were included. A maximum of 3 cycles of IUI were done with clomiphene citrate/HMG. Ovulation trigger was given when the largest follicle diameter was >18 mm, and IUI was planned 36 hours later. Luteal phase support was given for 15 days, urine pregnancy test was done on day 15, ultrasonography was done at 7 weeks, and pregnancy was followed up till delivery. Results. A total of 146 couples have undergone 239 cycles of IUI out of which 27 had UPT positive after 15 days. 14.8% had 1st-trimester abortion while 3.7% were ectopic. 86.3% were singleton pregnancies and 13.6% were twins. CPR was 11.29% per cycle and 18.4% per couple; LBR was 9.2% per cycle. Apart from duration of stimulation (p=0.037 and number of treatment cycles (p=0.045, no other factors had significant prognostic value. Conclusion. For unexplained infertility, IUI can be done to provide patients with the time that they need before moving on to IVF while providing a respectable chance of pregnancy.

  12. Site of intrauterine artificial insemination in the bitch does not affect sperm distribution within the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, F B; Malm, C; Henry, M; Gheller, V A; Serakides, R; Neves, M M; Macedo, S P; Figueiredo, M S; Andrade, M E J; Chaves, M S; Silva, M X; Rezende, C M F; Melo, E G

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of frozen-thawed spermatozoa within the uterine lumen and oviducts following intrauterine laparoscopic deposition at two sites. Twelve bitches of unknown reproductive history were randomly distributed into two groups. Semen (3 ml containing 300 × 10(6) frozen-thawed spermatozoa) was infused at the uterine body (UB group) or at the cranial tip of the left uterine horn. A 22-G catheter was used to access the uterine lumen. Sperm cell distribution was evaluated after ovariohysterectomy performed 3 h after artificial insemination (AI). There was no difference between groups in mean time to perform AI. Spermatozoa were detected in all uterine segments, including the tip of both horns, but none was detected in the oviduct. The 22-G catheter facilitated deposition of semen in the uterine lumen, particularly at the UB site. Sperm cell distribution occurred evenly along both horns, independent of the site of semen deposition. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Study of Positive and Negative Consequences of Using GnRH Antagonist in Intrauterine Insemination Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the usefulness of premature luteinization hormone (LH surge preventionin an intrauterine insemination (IUI cycle by GnRH antagonist administration.Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with unexplained or mild male infertility or minimalto mild endometriosis were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled trial. There weretwenty patients in group A (with GnRH antagonist and 40 patients in group B (without GnRHantagonist.In all of the participants, clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (CC+HMG wereused for ovarian stimulation. When at least one follicle with ≥ 16 mm diameter was seen, LH surgewas checked by a urinary LH kit. In patients with negative results, human chorionic gonadotropinwas continued in both groups, but in group A 0.25 mg Ganirelix SQ was administered for two days,,then in both groups human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG was injected on the third day and IUIwas done 36-40 hours later. Ongoing pregnancy was the primary outcome.Results: Baseline characters and clinical parameters were similar in both groups with the exceptionof ≥14 mm follicles which were higher in group A (p value= 0.003. The pregnancy rate in bothgroups was not significantly different, although it was higher in group B (10% in group A and 15%in group B.Conclusion: At least in CC+HMG stimulated cycles for IUI, the occurrence of premature LHsurge could have a useful rule and GnRH antagonist administration could be an inappropriateintervention.

  14. Role of laparohysteroscopy in women with normal pelvic imaging and failed ovulation stimulation with intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jayakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Women with primary infertility and no obvious pelvic pathology on clinical evaluation and imaging are either treated empirically or further investigated by laparoscopy. Aims: The role of diagnostic laparoscopy in women who fail to conceive after empirical treatment with ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination was evaluated. Settings and Design: Retrospective study at a private infertility center. Materials and Methods: A study of patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy between 1 st January 2001 and 31 st December 2008 was performed. Those patients who had no detectable pathology based on history, physical examination, and ultrasound and had treatment for three or more cycles in the form of ovulation induction and IUI were included in the study. Moderate and severe male factor infertility and history of any previous surgery were exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using Statistics Package for Social Sciences (ver. 16.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago. Results: Of the 127 women who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy, 87.4% ( n= 111 of patients had positive findings. Significant pelvic pathology (moderate endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and tubal pathology was seen in 26.8% of cases. Conclusion: One in four women had significant pelvic pathology where treatment could possibly improve future fertility. Diagnostic laparoscopy has a role in infertile women with no obvious abnormality before they proceed to more aggressive treatments.

  15. Pelvic endometriosis with peritoneal fluid reduces pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Chen, Chi-Hung; Chen, Pi-Hua

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of peritoneal fluid in women undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and its correlation with the stage of pelvic endometriosis and its influence on pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective case-control design was used to recruit 272 infertile women with pelvic endometriosis. The treatment protocol consisted of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with downregulation and gonadotropin for IUI treatment following ultrasound and laparoscopic intervention. The amount and color of the peritoneal fluid were determined during laparoscopy. The mean amount of peritoneal fluid with pelvic endometriosis that was detected using transvaginal ultrasound was ~ 15.1 mL. Women whose cycles contained more peritoneal fluid had significantly lower pregnancy rates (17.2% and 31.3%, respectively). The total clinical pregnancy rate was not significantly different between the two groups with reddish and yellowish peritoneal fluid who had pelvic endometriosis. Pelvic endometriosis and peritoneal fluid, detected through vaginal ultrasound, have negative effects on the pregnancy outcome of IUI treatment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Infertility stress in couples undergoing intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Awtani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main aim of the study was to assess the stress levels of husbands and wives undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI and in vitro fertilization (IVF treatments, and also to observe whether the stress levels differed between the methods of treatments. Materials and Methods: This research focused on 120 infertile couples who underwent IUI and In Vitro Fertilization-Intra Sperm Cytoplasmic sperm Injection (IVF-ICSI at an infertility clinic from April 2014 to November 2014. Sixty couples who underwent each method of treatment were selected using purposive sampling technique. Fertility Problem Inventory (Newton et al., 1999 was used to collect the data after obtaining their consent. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed at descriptive (mean, standard deviation, and Kolmogorov test and inferential (analysis of variance, ANOVA levels. Results and Conclusion: The prevalence of global stress was very high in couples undergoing IUI and IVF treatments, as found by descriptive analysis [mean = 149.95, standard deviation (SD = 29.76]. Considering the various subscales, stress related to the need for parenthood was found to be high (mean = 45.95, SD = 9.53. Infertility stress (global was higher among wives when compared to their husbands (f = 9.408; P = 0.002, and the same was noted on the domains of need for parenthood (f = 10.145; P = 0.002, social concern (f = 11.107; P = 0.001, and sexual concern (f = 4.013; P = 0.046. No difference in the levels of global stress was observed when both the modes of treatments were compared (f = 0.180, P = 0.672. For couples, infertility stress showed no significant difference irrespective of whether they underwent IUI or IVF.

  17. Minimal Stimulation Using Gonadotropin Combined with Clomiphene Citrate or Letrozole for Intrauterine Insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Park, Joo Hyun; Seo, Seok Kyo; Cho, SiHyun; Kim, Seok Hyun; Lee, Byung Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of minimal stimulation using discretely administered gonadotropin combined with clomiphene citrate (CC) or letrozole (LTZ) for intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. Materials and Methods Total 257 IUI cycles from 158 infertile couples were assessed. A CC dose of 100 mg/day (n=126 cycles) or a LTZ dose of 5 mg/day (n=131 cycles) was administered on days 3-5 of the menstrual cycle for 5 days. Each group received human menopausal gonadotropin at a dose of 150 IU by two or three alternative day: CC combined with alternate-day regimen for 2 or 3 days (CC+300, n=37; CC+450, n=89) and LTZ combined with alternate-day regimen for 2 or 3 days (LTZ+300, n=36; LTZ+450, n=95). Results The clinical pregnancy rate was comparable between the CC and LTZ groups (18.3% vs. 13.0%, p=0.243). The clinical pregnancy rate also showed no significant difference among the 4 groups (21.6% vs. 16.9% vs. 11.1% vs. 12.6%, p=0.507). The multiple pregnancy rate was significantly higher in LTZ compared to CC group (37.5% vs. 8.7%, p=0.028) and in the LTZ+450 compared to CC+450 group (50% vs. 13.3%, p=0.038). Overall, there were 15 cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), with the prevalence being significantly lower in the LTZ compared to CC group (1.5% vs. 10.3%, p=0.003). OHSS was more prevalent in the CC+450 compared to the LTZ+450 group (12.4% vs. 1.1%, p=0.002). Conclusion Our findings suggest that minimal stimulation using two alternate-day gonadotropin with LTZ decreases the development of OHSS and multiple pregnancies, while maintaining comparable pregnancy rates in IUI cycles. PMID:25684000

  18. Evaluating The Effective Factors in Pregnancy after Intrauterine Insemination: A Retrospective Study

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    Firoozeh Ghaffari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH in conjunction with intrauterine inseminations (IUI are commonly used to treat infertile couples. In this study we evaluated the relationship between IUI outcome and special causes of infertility. We also aimed to examine parameters that might predict success following IUI. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 994 IUI cycles in 803 couples who referred to the infertility Institute. All statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS program, t tests and chi-square. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to compare the association between dependent and independent variables. Logistic regression was conducted to build a prediction model of the IUI outcome. Results: Overall pregnancy rate per completed cycle (16.5% and live birth rate per cycle (14.5%. The mean age in the pregnant group was significantly lower than that of the non-pregnant group (P=0.01.There was an association between cause of infertility and clinical pregnancies (P<0.001. Logistic regression identified four significant factors in determining the success of the IUI [menstrual irregularites (OR:2.3, CI:1.6-3.4, P<0.001, duration of infertility (OR:0.8, CI:0.8-0.9, P<0.001, total dose of gonadotropin (OR:1.02, CI:1.003-1.04, P=0.02 and semen volume (OR:1.1, CI:1.008-1.2, P=0.03] which were the most predictive of IUI success. Conclusion: Our study defined prognostic factors for pregnancy in COH+IUI. These variables can be integrated into a mathematical model to predict the chance of pregnancy rate in subsequent COH+IUI cycles.

  19. The Potential Use of Intrauterine Insemination as a Basic Option for Infertility: A Review for Technology-Limited Medical Settings

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    Abdelrahman M. Abdelkader

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. There is an asymmetric allocation of technology and other resources for infertility services. Intrauterine insemination (IUI is a process of placing washed spermatozoa transcervically into the uterine cavity for treatment of infertility. This is a review of literature for the potential use of IUI as a basic infertility treatment in technology-limited settings. Study design. Review of articles on treatment of infertility using IUI. Results. Aspects regarding the use of IUI are reviewed, including ovarian stimulation, semen parameters associated with good outcomes, methods of sperm preparation, timing of IUI, and number of inseminations. Implications of the finding in light of the needs of low-technology medical settings are summarized. Conclusion. The reviewed evidence suggests that IUI is less expensive, less invasive, and comparably effective for selected patients as a first-line treatment for couples with unexplained or male factor infertility. Those couples may be offered three to six IUI cycles in technology-limited settings.

  20. Comparative efficacy of density gradient and swim-up methods of semen preparation in intrauterine insemination cycles.

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    Butt, Amjad; Chohan, Muhammad Arshad

    2016-08-01

    To see the efficacy of different methods of intrauterine insemination preparation for sperm recovery and conception rate. This prospective observational study was carried out at Chohan Reproduction and Assisted Fertility Treatment Centre, Lahore, Pakistan, from January 2014 to July 2014, and comprised infertile couples undergoing intrauterine insemination cycles. Method of sperm preparation for intrauterine insemination during super-ovulation was randomly assigned for swim-up and density gradient techniques. Total sperm count, percentage recovery of motile sperm count, conception rate and cycle fecundity (live births, miscarriages, ectopic pregnancy) were measured.Mean percentages of sperm recovery and motility were compared. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Of the 220 couples who underwent 440 cycles, 138(62.7%) suffered from primary infertility and 82(37.27%) from secondary infertility. The mean age of women was 31.75±5.47 years, while that of men was 35.78±5.27 years. Mean duration of infertility in these couples was 5.50±3.51 years. Intrauterine insemination was performed at the first attempt in 180(81.8%) couples, at the second attempt in 37(16.8%) and at the third attempt in 3(1.3%) couples. Mean percentage of sperm motility in post-preparation of density gradient procedure was 83.88±15.02 (day 1) and 84.02±18.51 (day 2) while in swim-up procedure it was 91.02±11.85 (day 1) and 92.28±9.89 (day 2). Mean percentage of sperm concentration after processing in density gradient procedure was higher than swim-up (p=0.368 day 1; p=0.225 day 2) but mean percentage of sperm motility in post-preparation of density gradient procedure was less than swim-up procedure (p=0.000 day 1; p=0.000 day 2). Recovery rates in density gradient were 50.89% on day 1 and 5 13% on day 2compared to 36.69% on day 1 and 37.5%on day 2in swim-up technique (p=0.02). Conception rate was 15%. Despite the difference in percentage recovery of motile sperms in different techniques, cycle

  1. Conception Rate and Litter Size in Multiparous Sows after Intrauterine Insemination Using Frozen-Thawed Boar Semen in a Commercial Swine Herd in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANAPIWAT, Panida; OLANRATMANEE, Em-On; KAEOKET, Kampon; TUMMARUK, Padet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment sows were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen (2 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 20 ml) at 24 and 36 hr after induction of ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. All inseminations were carried out by using an intra-uterine insemination technique. The time of ovulation was determined by using transrectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography. The conception rate, farrowing rate, total number of piglets born/litter (TB) and number of piglets born alive/litter (BA) were evaluated. The sows inseminated with extended fresh semen yield a higher TB (10.8 versus 9.0 piglets/l, P=0.015) and tended to have a higher conception rate (88.9% versus 75.8%, P=0.150) than sows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen can be practiced with convinced fertility under field conditions by fixed-time intrauterine insemination with 2 × 109 sperm/ dose of 20 ml at 24 and 36 hr after the onset of estrus. PMID:24954517

  2. Extended letrozole regimen versus clomiphene citrate for superovulation in patients with unexplained infertility undergoing intrauterine insemination: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the efficacy of extended letrozole regimen with clomiphene citrate in women with unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI). Methods Two hundred and fourteen patients with unexplained infertility were randomized into two equal groups using computer generated list and were treated by either letrozole 2.5 mg/day from cycle day 1 to 9 (extended letrozole group, 211 cycles) or clomiphene citrate 100 mg/day from cycle day 3 to 7 (clomiphene citrate group,210 cycles). Intrauterine insemination was performed 36 to 40 hours after HCG administration. Results Both groups were comparable with regard to number of mature follicles (2.24 +/- 0.80 Vs 2.13 +/- 0.76) and the day of HCG administration. Serum estradiol was significantly greater in clomiphene citrate group (356 +/- 151 Vs 822 +/- 302 pg/ml, P = < 0.001) and the endometrial thickness was significantly greater in extended letrozole group (9.10 +/- 1.84 Vs 8.18 +/- 1.93 mm, P = < 0.001).The pregnancy rate per cycle and cumulative pregnancy rate were significantly greater in extended letrozole group (18.96% Vs 11.43% and 37.73% Vs 22.86%, respectively). Conclusion The extended letrozole regimen had a superior efficacy as compared with clomiphene citrate in patients of unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and IUI. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01232075 PMID:21693030

  3. Efficacy of the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) in predicting pregnancy after intrauterine insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) was developed merely as a selection criterion, its application as a method for classifying sperm morphology may represent an improvement in the evaluation of semen quality. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of normal sperm morphology using MSOME with regard to clinical pregnancy (CP) after intrauterine insemination (IUI). Methods A total of 156 IUI cycles that were performed in 111 couples were prospectively analysed. Each subject received 75 IU of recombinant FSH every second day from the third day of the cycle. Beginning on the 10th day of the cycle, follicular development was monitored by vaginal ultrasound. When one or two follicles measuring at least 17 mm were observed, recombinant hCG was administered, and IUI was performed 12-14 h and 36-40 h after hCG treatment. Prior to the IUI procedure, sperm samples were analysed by MSOME at 8400× magnification using an inverted microscope that was equipped with DIC/Nomarski differential interference contrast optics. A minimum of 200 motile spermatozoa per semen sample were evaluated, and the percentage of normal spermatozoa in each sample was determined. Results Pregnancy occurred in 34 IUI cycles (CP rate per cycle: 21.8%, per patient: 30.6%). Based on the MSOME criteria, a significantly higher percentage of normal spermatozoa was found in the group of men in which the IUI cycles resulted in pregnancy (2.6+/-3.1%) compared to the group that did not achieve pregnancy (1.2+/-1.7%; P = 0.019). Logistic regression showed that the percentage of normal cells in the MSOME was a determining factor for the likelihood of clinical pregnancy (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.51; P = 0.003). The ROC curve revealed an area under the curve of 0.63 and an optimum cut-off point of 2% of normal sperm morphology. At this cut-off threshold, using the percentage of normal sperm morphology by MSOME to predict pregnancy was 50% sensitive

  4. The effects of cervical mucus removal before Intrauterine Insemination (IUI in improving pregnancy rates infertile women

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    Ghasemi A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Intrauterine insemination (IUI is a less expensive and less invasive treatment in comparison with other assisted reproductive techniques, and it has been widely used for a variety of indications as well as in the treatment of couples with infertility. The outcome of IUI may be affected by numerous factors but in this study, we evaluated the effects of cervical mucus removal undertaken before IUI on clinical pregnancy rates."n"nMethods : In this randomized clinical trial study, all infertile women who were candidates for IUI and attended Shahid Akbar Abadi Hospital during 2009 and 2010 were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups. Cervical mucus was removed prior to IUI in patients in group A but in group B, a classic IUI was done without removing the cervical mucus. Pregnancy rates were assessed in the two groups by serum levels of β-HCG and detection of fetus in the uterus.  "n"nResults : 291 women including 143 in the classic IUI group and 148 in cervical mucus removal group completed the study. The pregnancy rates were 14.2% (21 pregnancies upon 148 cycles in the cervical mucus removal group and 7% (10 pregnancies upon 143 cycles in the control group (P=0.04, OR: 2.199; CI 95%: 0.997-4.85."n"nConclusion: The findings showed that cervical mucus removal could result in a two-fold increase in pregnancy rate in comparison with classic IUI. Thus, we suggest this practical and noninvasive method to improve pregnancy rate in these patients.

  5. Efficacy of the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME in predicting pregnancy after intrauterine insemination

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    Mauri Ana L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME was developed merely as a selection criterion, its application as a method for classifying sperm morphology may represent an improvement in the evaluation of semen quality. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of normal sperm morphology using MSOME with regard to clinical pregnancy (CP after intrauterine insemination (IUI. Methods A total of 156 IUI cycles that were performed in 111 couples were prospectively analysed. Each subject received 75 IU of recombinant FSH every second day from the third day of the cycle. Beginning on the 10th day of the cycle, follicular development was monitored by vaginal ultrasound. When one or two follicles measuring at least 17 mm were observed, recombinant hCG was administered, and IUI was performed 12-14 h and 36-40 h after hCG treatment. Prior to the IUI procedure, sperm samples were analysed by MSOME at 8400× magnification using an inverted microscope that was equipped with DIC/Nomarski differential interference contrast optics. A minimum of 200 motile spermatozoa per semen sample were evaluated, and the percentage of normal spermatozoa in each sample was determined. Results Pregnancy occurred in 34 IUI cycles (CP rate per cycle: 21.8%, per patient: 30.6%. Based on the MSOME criteria, a significantly higher percentage of normal spermatozoa was found in the group of men in which the IUI cycles resulted in pregnancy (2.6+/-3.1% compared to the group that did not achieve pregnancy (1.2+/-1.7%; P = 0.019. Logistic regression showed that the percentage of normal cells in the MSOME was a determining factor for the likelihood of clinical pregnancy (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.51; P = 0.003. The ROC curve revealed an area under the curve of 0.63 and an optimum cut-off point of 2% of normal sperm morphology. At this cut-off threshold, using the percentage of normal sperm morphology by MSOME to predict pregnancy

  6. Comparison of Treatment Outcomes of Infertile Women by Clomiphene Citrate and Letrozole with Gonadotropins Underwent Intrauterine Insemination

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    Seyede Afsar Sharafy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to compare the effect of clomiphene and letrozole in ovulatory stimulation in infertile women under intrauterine insemination who referred to Mahdiyeh infertility clinic during 2008-2009. 106 infertile women were randomly divided into two equal groups. Patients were treated with 5 mg of letrozole daily (in letrozole group or 100 mg of clomiphene citrate daily (in clomiphene group for five days starting on day 3 of their menses. Dose and time of FSH was similar in the two groups. Number of follicles, endometrial thickness, Pregnancy rate and prevalence of complications were compared in the two groups. Mean (±SD of age in letrozole and clomiphene groups was 26.3 ±3.9 and 25.2 ±4.9 respectively (P=0.186. Average number of follicles was 2.5 ± 1.65 in letrozole group and 2.36 ± 1.4 in clomiphene group (P=0.764. β-hCG was positive in 11 (20.8% in letrozole and 12 (22.6% in clomiphene groups (P=0.814. Pregnancy rate was 20.8% and 22.6% in letrozole and clomiphene group respectively (P=0.814. There was no difference in rate of abortion between groups. Endometrial thickness (ET at the time of hCG administration in the letrozole (6.8 ±1.5 mm and in clomiphene (6.6 ±1.2 mm (P=0.615. But ET>7.4 mm was found in 2 cased (3.8% in clomiphene group and 12 cases (%22.8 in letrozole groups (P=0.01. It appears that letrozole and clomiphene have similar outcome infertile women under intrauterine insemination and these drugs are good alternative for each others.

  7. Reproductive performance of sows submitted to intrauterine insemination Desempenho reprodutivo de matrizes suínas inseminadas pela técnica intrauterina

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    Éder Batalha Araújo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of sows artificially inseminated by the intrauterine (IAIU technique. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with 300 sows being distributed in five insemination techniques: control, intra-cervical (IAIC with 3x10(9 spermatozoa/100 mL; intrauterine (IAIU with 1x10(9 spermatozoa/100 mL; intrauterine with com 1x10(9 spermatozoa/50 mL; intrauterine with 5x10(8 spermatozoa/100 mL; and intrauterine com 5x10(8 spermatozoa/50 mL. The sows submitted to intrauterine insemination presented a farrowing rate of 90.8% and return to estrus rate of 9.2%, which did not differ from the rates obtained by the intra-cervical technique (90.0% and 10.0%, respectively. Total litter size did not differ between the techniques, with the means being from 11.4 to 11.9 piglets at farrowing. Although 4.6% of the sows submitted to intrauterine artificial insemination had difficulty with pipette insertion into the cervix, 100% of them were inseminated. When evaluating semen backflow, no difference was found between the intra-cervical and intrauterine insemination techniques. However, total semen backflow was higher in sows submitted to inter-cervical insemination. No difference was found in the presence of blood between the two methods evaluated. Hence, any of the intrauterine insemination techniques can substitute inter-cervical artificial insemination without damaging the reproductive performance of the animals.Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de matrizes suínas inseminadas pela técnica intrauterina (IAIU. Em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 300 fêmeas foram distribuídas em cinco técnicas de inseminação: controle - intracervical (IAIC com 3x10(9 espermatozoides/100 mL; intrauterina (IAIU com 1x10(9 espermatozoides/100 mL; intrauterina com 1x10(9 espermatozoides/50 mL; intrauterina com 5x10(8 espermatozoides/100 m

  8. Gonadotrophins versus clomifene citrate with or without intrauterine insemination in women with normogonadotropic anovulation and clomifene failure (M-OVIN): a randomised, two-by-two factorial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nienke S; Nahuis, Marleen J; Bordewijk, Esmee; Oosterhuis, Jurjen E; Smeenk, Jesper Mj; Hoek, Annemieke; Broekmans, Frank Jm; Fleischer, Kathrin; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; Laven, Joop Se; Hendriks, Dave J; Gerards, Marie H; van Rooij, Ilse Aj; Bourdrez, Petra; Gianotten, Judith; Koks, Carolien; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Hompes, Peter G; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J; van Wely, Madelon

    2018-02-24

    In many countries, clomifene citrate is the treatment of first choice in women with normogonadotropic anovulation (ie, absent or irregular ovulation). If these women ovulate but do not conceive after several cycles with clomifene citrate, medication is usually switched to gonadotrophins, with or without intrauterine insemination. We aimed to assess whether switching to gonadotrophins is more effective than continuing clomifene citrate, and whether intrauterine insemination is more effective than intercourse. In this two-by-two factorial multicentre randomised clinical trial, we recruited women aged 18 years and older with normogonadotropic anovulation not pregnant after six ovulatory cycles of clomifene citrate (maximum of 150 mg daily for 5 days) from 48 Dutch hospitals. Women were randomly assigned using a central password-protected internet-based randomisation programme to receive six cycles with gonadotrophins plus intrauterine insemination, six cycles with gonadotrophins plus intercourse, six cycles with clomifene citrate plus intrauterine insemination, or six cycles with clomifene citrate plus intercourse. Clomifene citrate dosages varied from 50 to 150 mg daily orally and gonadotrophin starting dose was 50 or 75 IU daily subcutaneously. The primary outcome was conception leading to livebirth within 8 months after randomisation defined as any baby born alive after a gestational age beyond 24 weeks. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. We made two comparisons, one in which gonadotrophins were compared with clomifene citrate and one in which intrauterine insemination was compared with intercourse. This completed study is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, number NTR1449. Between Dec 8, 2008, and Dec 16, 2015, we randomly assigned 666 women to gonadotrophins and intrauterine insemination (n=166), gonadotrophins and intercourse (n=165), clomifene citrate and intrauterine insemination (n=163), or clomifene citrate and intercourse (n=172). Women

  9. The Role of Infertility Etiology in Success Rate of Intrauterine Insemination Cycles: An Evaluation of Predictive Factors for Pregnancy Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Rashidi, Mandana; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Daghighi, Sara; Pourasghari, Parisa; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of ovarian stimulation with intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in couples with different infertility etiology. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in data of 1348 IUI cycles with ovarian stimulation by clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or gonadotropins in 632 women with five different infertility etiology subgroups at Akbarabbadi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Results: The pregnancy rate (PR)/ cycle was highest (19.9%) among couples with unexplained infertility and lowest (10.6%) in couples with multiple factors infertility. In cases of unexplained infertility, the best PRs were seen after CC plus gonadotropins stimulation (26.3%) and with inseminated motile sperm count>30×106 (21.9%), but the tendency didn’t reach statistical significant. In the ovarian factor group, the best PRs were observed in women aged between 30 and 34 years (20.8%), with 2-3 preovulatory follicles (37.8%) and infertility duration between 1and 3 years (20.8%), while only infertility duration (p=0.03) and number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.01) were statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis determined that number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.02), duration of infertility (p=0.015), age (p=0.019), infertility etiology (p=0.05) and stimulation regimen (p=0.01) were significant independent factors in order to predict overall clinical PR. Conclusion: The etiology of infertility is important to achieve remarkable IUI success. It is worth mentioning that within different etiologies of infertility, the demographic and cycles characteristics of couples did not show the same effect. Favorable variables for treatment success are as follows: age infertility ≤5 years and a cause of infertility except of multiple factors. PMID:24520471

  10. The Association of Uterine Fibroids and Pregnancy Outcomes Following Ovarian Stimulation-Intrauterine Insemination for Unexplained Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Aaron K.; Jin, Susan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Baisong; Polotsky, Alex J.; Christianson, Mindy S.; Vitek, Wendy; Engmann, Lawrence; Hansen, Karl; Wild, Robert; Legro, Richard S.; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D.; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M.; Christy, Alicia; Diamond, Michael P.; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping; Santoro, Nanette

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of non-cavity distorting uterine fibroids and pregnancy outcomes following ovarian stimulation-intrauterine insemination (OS-IUI) in couples with unexplained infertility. Design Secondary analysis from a prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial investigating fertility outcomes following OS-IUI. Setting Reproductive Medicine Network clinical sites Patients Nine-hundred couples with unexplained infertility who participated in the Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) clinical trial. Intervention Participants were randomized to one of three arms (clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins) and treatment was continued for up to four cycles or until pregnancy was achieved. Main outcomes measures Conception (serum hCG increase), clinical pregnancy (fetal cardiac activity), and live birth rates. Results 102/900(11.3%) participants had at least one documented fibroid and a normal uterine cavity. Women with fibroids were older, more likely to be African American, had a greater uterine volume, lower serum anti-Mullerian hormone levels, and fewer antral follicles than women without fibroids. In conception cycles, clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower in participants with fibroids than those without uterine fibroids. Pregnancy loss prior to 12-weeks was more likely in African American women with fibroids compared to non-African American women with fibroids. There was no difference in conception and live birth rates in subjects with and without fibroids respectively. Conclusions No differences were observed in conception and live birth rates in women with non-cavity distorting fibroids and those without fibroids. These findings provide reassurance that pregnancy success is not impacted in couples with non-cavity distorting fibroids undergoing OS-IUI for unexplained infertility. PMID:28089575

  11. Retrospective study of factors affecting intrauterine insemination pregnancy outcome: The impact of male habits and working environment

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    Matheswari Govindarajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study is aimed at determining the prognostic factors influencing successful pregnancy following intrauterine insemination (IUI. Settings and design: Retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 2123 cycles undergone by 871 couples during the period of 5 years (2011–2015 were retrospectively studied. Statistical Analysis Used: Each of the factors was compared with pregnancy outcome (PO using statistical analysis with a confidence interval of 95% in SPSS software version 19. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis method were used to determine the significance of each factor with the PO. Results: Among the various factors included in our study population, male habits (P = 0.004, male occupational environment (P = 0.025, male age (P = 0.002, and female age (P = 0.001 were found to significantly influence the PO following IUI. Conclusion: Our results indicate that avoiding smoking and alcohol consuming prior and during the IUI treatment along with working in low-heat-generating environment might lead to better success following the treatment.

  12. Prospective investigation of serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration in ovulatory intrauterine insemination patients: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, N la Cour; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2010-01-01

    This preliminary prospective study investigated serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) through correlations to other basal parameters (123 patients) and according to ovarian response to 75 IU recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH)/day (62 patients) in ovulatory patients' first rFSH treatment...... cycle before intrauterine insemination. Mean age of the patients was 33 years. Serum AMH significantly correlated to age (r=-0.38), antral follicle count (AFC) (r=0.68), ovarian volume (r=0.40), FSH (r=-0.31), (P2-3 mature follicles or dose reduction). There was a significant trend over response groups...... for body weight (P=0.005), body mass index (P=0.035), AFC (P=0.031) and FSH (P=0.001). Serum AMH median (IQR) was 10.6 pmol/l (6.9-18.2) in the 23 patients who achieved an ongoing pregnancy versus 10.5 (5.9-17.2) in the 100 non-pregnant women. Serum AMH may not be the best marker of the ovarian response...

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUCCESS OF INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION- A CASE COMPARATIVE STUDY IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyasree Jayasimhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND IUI is one of the simple techniques of assisted reproductive technique for treating infertility by artificial insemination. It has the advantage of positioning good quality sperm with increased count prepared by special semen washing technique into the uterine cavity, so that factors like decreased sperm count, poor sperm motility, impenetrable or absent cervical mucus or antisperm antibodies can be overcome. Sperm preparation method includes wash and swim-up technique using Percoll gradient. IUI is done by simple method and does not require the elaborate setup, investment and personnel like the other procedures of ART. The aims and objectives- 1. Factors associated with effectiveness of IUI among couples with primary infertility. 2. Factors studied include- Age of female partner, duration of infertility, menstrual regularity, menstrual flow, ovarian stimulation protocol, timing of IUI, endometrial thickness, number of cycles of IUI, luteal support, semen analysis findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case comparative study conducted in a tertiary hospital during three year period in which the forty women who conceived were considered as “study group” and another forty non-conceived women selected at random were taken as “control group.” RESULTS Factors like age of female showed statistical significance- when the age of female increased from 20-24 years to 30 years and above, the rate of conception reduced from 50% to 9%. Other factors like menstrual regularity, menstrual flow timing of IUI and number of cycles of IUI yielded no significant association with conception rates. Regarding the mode of ovarian induction, 90% of conceived group was given controlled superovulation using clomiphene citrate and gonadotrophins and 39% had ovulation triggered by HCG, which were statistically significant. In the conceived group, the mean endometrial thickness was 9.3 mm contrary to 7.8 mm in the non-conceived group. Minimum duration of

  14. Ovarian Abscess Following Therapeutic Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford A. Kolb

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artificial insemination is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of various forms of infertility. Infectious complications have only rarely been noted as a complication of intrauterine insemination (IUI.

  15. Deficiencies in reporting results of lesbians and gays after donor intrauterine insemination and assisted reproductive technology treatments: a review of the first emerging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel A; Cano, Antonio

    2015-05-29

    At a time when increasing numbers of lesbians and gays consider parenthood using reproductive assistance in infertility centers, the present review aims to summarize the results obtained so far by lesbians after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) using donor spermatozoa (D-IUI and D-IVF, respectively) and gays entering into gestational-surrogacy programs. Data show that gays display normal semen parameters and lesbians exhibit no specific causes of female infertility except perhaps for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and some PCOS-related factors. Pair-bonded lesbians entering into D-IUI programs, tend to have higher pregnancy and delivery percentages following spontaneous or induced ovulation than single or pair-bound heterosexual women. The only single study reporting success percentages of lesbians after D-IVF provides, however, puzzling results. In particular, pair-bonded lesbians have lower pregnancy and live-birth percentages than pair-bonded heterosexual women in fresh D-IVF cycles but percentages are similar in frozen/thawed D-IVF cycles. Like in lesbians after D-IUI, surrogate women recruited by pair-bonded gays/single men tend to have higher pregnancy percentages and lower miscarriage percentages than surrogate women recruited by heterosexual couples. Notably, all the reports reviewed in the present study are methodologically flawed because of sampling bias, small sample sizes and inadequate use of statistical methods to control for the effects of influential covariates including age, smoking habits, previous gynecological problems, hormonal stimulation type and protocol, and number of prior treatment types and pregnancies/deliveries. Clinicians, reproductive biologists and editors of fertility/infertility journals should make efforts to prevent these deficiencies in future data reporting.

  16. Impact of sperm morphology on the likelihood of pregnancy after intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveneau, Nicolette E; Sinno, Omar; Krause, Miriam; Eastwood, Daniel; Sandlow, Jay I; Robb, Paul; Granlund, Amy; Strawn, Estil Y

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether there is a difference in ongoing pregnancy rates (PRs) between patients undergoing IUI with strict sperm morphology ≤4% compared with >4% on initial semen analysis. Retrospective chart review with multivariate analysis. Academic outpatient reproductive center. A total of 408 couples with male and/or female factor infertility and known strict sperm morphology (SSM). A total of 856 IUIs with partner's sperm (IUI-P). Ongoing PRs based on ultrasound documentation of intrauterine pregnancy with fetal heart tones. There is no statistically significant difference in per cycle PRs when comparing patients with a strict sperm morphology of ≤4% versus >4% who undergo IUI-P (17.3% vs. 16.7%; odds ratio 0.954, 95% confidence interval 0.66-1.37). Multiple potential confounding factors were assessed using multivariate analysis. Strict sperm morphology ≤4% is not associated with lower PRs in couples undergoing IUI-P, and thus should not be the sole reason for advancing to IVF. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing the effect of office hysteroscopy with endometrial scratch versus office hysteroscopy on intrauterine insemination outcome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khayat, Waleed; Elsadek, Mostafa; Saber, Waleed

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the role of endometrial injury in the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation for intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycle on the clinical pregnancy rate. This was a prospective randomized controlled trial which included three hundred and thirty two infertile women with an indication for IUI. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The intervention group (group A) (n=166) subjects underwent office hysteroscopy with endometrial injury using grasping forceps with teeth, while the control group (group B) (n=166) subjects underwent office hysteroscopy alone without endometrial injury. Primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. There were no significant differences in baseline or clinical characteristics between the groups. There were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate [13.8% (23/166) versus 12% (20/166); RR 1.15 (95% CI 0.66-2.01), p=0.62]. The abortion rate [4.3% (1/23) versus 15% (3/20); RR 0.29 (95% CI 0.03-2.57), p=0.27], the multiple pregnancy rate [13% (3/23) versus 15% (3/20); RR 0.87 (95% CI 0.20-3.83), p=0.85] and the live birth rate [13.6% (22/166) versus 10.4% (17/166); RR 1.28 (95% CI 0.71-2.32), p=0.42]. There is no evidence of significant difference on the clinical pregnancy rate when endometrial scratching during hysteroscopy is compared to only hysteroscopy in women undergoing IUI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. First successful pregnancy outcome after intrauterine insemination in a woman with primary infertility and essential thrombocythemia treated with interferon-alpha and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leković, Danijela; Gotić, Mirjana; Ljubić, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    The management of pregnancy in young women with essential thrombocythemia is complex and may present a difficult problem. An adverse pregnancy outcome due to thrombosis or bleeding is a common complication. in addition, little is known about fertility in these women prior to the disease. We present the first case of a young woman with primary infertility and essential thrombocythemia who had uneventfully delivered a healthy boy in the fortieth week of pregnancy. Her platelet count was normalized during treatment with interferon-alfa. The patient failed to become pregnant in the natural way and after three attempts of programmed intercourse. She conceived only following intrauterine insemination. During pregnancy, the patient was carefully controlled by a hematologist and gynecologist. Natural course and prognosis of essential thrombocythemia is not adversely affected by pregnancy. In these women, the pregnancy should be planned only after normalization of platelet count. The interferon-alpha should be administered before the pregnancy to regulate and maintain the platelet count within the normal range. Intrauterine insemination with minimal hormonal stimulation due to the risk of thrombosis could be recommended as the safest treatment option of infertility in women with essential thrombocythemia.

  19. Intrauterine insemination with fresh semen in Amur leopard cat (Pionailurus bengalensis eutilura) during non-breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAJIMA, Hideo; YOSHIZAWA, Madoka; SASAKI, Shinichi; YAMAMOTO, Fujio; NARUSHIMA, Etsuo; TSUTSUI, Toshihiko; FUNAHASHI, Takashi; KUSUDA, Satoshi; DOI, Osamu; TATEYAMA, Yuriko; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; HORI, Tatsuya; KAWAKAMI, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Equine and human chorionic gonadotropins were administered to two female Amur leopard cats to induce estrus and ovulation during non-breeding season. Fresh semen collected from male cats was surgically inseminated into the uterine horn of the females. In one animal, two fetal sacs without heartbeats were observed on abdominal ultrasonography 31 days after insemination, which indicated that embryo death had occurred. In the other animal, fetal heartbeats were detected in two fetal sacs 29 days after insemination, which confirmed as pregnancy. This animal delivered two newborns 68 days after insemination; the one of the kittens was assumed to be stillbirth, and the other grew normally. In this study, we successfully obtained a kitten from an Amur leopard cat by artificial breeding for the first time in Japan. PMID:27733725

  20. Intrauterine insemination with fresh semen in Amur leopard cat (Pionailurus bengalensis eutilura) during non-breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Hideo; Yoshizawa, Madoka; Sasaki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Fujio; Narushima, Etsuo; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Funahashi, Takashi; Kusuda, Satoshi; Doi, Osamu; Tateyama, Yuriko; Kobayashi, Masanori; Hori, Tatsuya; Kawakami, Eiichi

    2017-01-20

    Equine and human chorionic gonadotropins were administered to two female Amur leopard cats to induce estrus and ovulation during non-breeding season. Fresh semen collected from male cats was surgically inseminated into the uterine horn of the females. In one animal, two fetal sacs without heartbeats were observed on abdominal ultrasonography 31 days after insemination, which indicated that embryo death had occurred. In the other animal, fetal heartbeats were detected in two fetal sacs 29 days after insemination, which confirmed as pregnancy. This animal delivered two newborns 68 days after insemination; the one of the kittens was assumed to be stillbirth, and the other grew normally. In this study, we successfully obtained a kitten from an Amur leopard cat by artificial breeding for the first time in Japan.

  1. Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wait two weeks before taking an at-home pregnancy test. Testing too soon could produce a result that ... after your home kit results for a blood test, which is more sensitive in detecting pregnancy hormones after fertilization. If you don't become ...

  2. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cattle after intrauterine administration of a prostaglandin F2α receptor antagonist 4 days after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaver, S E; Felix, A M; Rhoads, M L

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has determined that PGF2α detrimentally affects pregnancy via direct effects on early embryonic development. Because early embryonic loss is relatively prevalent in lactating dairy cows, we hypothesized that pregnancy retention (and resulting conception rates) would be improved by administering a PGF2α receptor antagonist (AL-8810) shortly after insemination. Multiparous, lactating Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to receive one of four intrauterine treatments: (1) control group-untreated cohort (CON; n = 93); (2) control group-vehicle infusion (CON-V; n = 90); (3) 2000 nM AL-8810 infusion (AL-2000; n = 96); or (4) 10,000 nM AL-8810 infusion (AL-10,000; n = 93). Treatments were administered transcervically 4 days after insemination in the horn ipsilateral to the CL. There was no effect of treatment on conception rate (36.6%, 38.9%, 25.0%, and 35.5% for CON, CON-V, AL-2000, and AL-10,000, respectively) or calving rate (24.7%, 24.4%, 16.7%, and 28.0% for CON, CON-V, AL-2000, and AL-10,000, respectively). There was a significant effect of treatment on return to estrus with CON-V (23.6 ± 0.6) and AL-10,000 (23.3 ± 0.6) groups having a longer interval to next estrus over the CON group (21.5 ± 0.6; P insemination. It is important to note that although the addition of AL-8810 into the uterus on Day 4 after insemination did not increase conception rates in the present experiment, it also did not have a negative impact. Furthermore, the treatment procedure itself did not impair the establishment of pregnancy (CON vs. CON-V, AL-2000, and AL-10,000). These results demonstrate that a therapeutic agent can be administered directly into the uterus on Day 4 after insemination without detrimentally affecting conception rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnancy rates after artificial insemination with cooled stallion spermatozoa either with or without single layer centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Richter, J; Martinsson, G; Stuhtmann, G; Hoogewijs, M; Roels, K; Dalin, A-M

    2014-11-01

    A successful outcome after artificial insemination with cooled semen is dependent on many factors, the sperm quality of the ejaculate being one. Previous studies have shown that spermatozoa with good motility, normal morphology, and good chromatin integrity can be selected by means of colloid centrifugation, particularly single layer centrifugation (SLC) using species-specific colloids. The purpose of the present study was to conduct an insemination trial with spermatozoa from "normal" ejaculates, i.e., from stallions with no known fertility problem, to determine whether the improvements in sperm quality seen in SLC-selected sperm samples compared with uncentrifuged controls in laboratory tests are reflected in an increased pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In a multicentre study, SLC-selected sperm samples and uncentrifuged controls from eight stallions were inseminated into approximately 10 mares per treatment per stallion. Ultrasound examination was carried out approximately 16 days after insemination to detect an embryonic vesicle. The pregnancy rates per cycle were 45% for controls and 69% for SLC-selected sperm samples, which is statistically significant (P < 0.0018). Thus, the improvement in sperm quality reported previously for SLC-selected sperm samples is associated with an increase in pregnancy rate, even for ejaculates from stallions with no known fertility problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nova pipeta para inseminação intra-uterina em suínos New pipette for intrauterine insemination in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nogueira Diehl

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de 423 fêmeas suínas de ordem de parto 1 a 9 submetidas à inseminação intra-uterina (IAU, com um novo modelo de pipeta (T1 cuja extremidade não é fixada na cérvix ou uma pipeta de IAU modelo Verona® e que permite a fixação da sua extremidade em espiral na cérvix (T2. Para comparar as duas pipetas, foi considerado o grau de dificuldade para realização das inseminações, o tempo necessário para realizá-las, a presença de sangramento após a inseminação, a presença de refluxo no momento da inseminação, as taxas de retorno ao estro (TR, de prenhez (TPR e de parto ajustada (TPA, além do número de leitões nascidos (NT. As fêmeas de ambos os grupos foram inseminadas com doses de 1 bilhão de espermatozóides, em intervalos de 24 horas. A passagem do cateter de IAU através da cérvix foi possível em 95,9% das fêmeas, sem diferença entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Em pelo menos uma das inseminações, foi observado sangue no cateter, após a realização da IAU, em 20,6% das fêmeas do T1 e 15,2% das fêmeas do T2 (P=0,14. O tempo médio necessário para realizar a inseminação foi de 2,1 minutos para o T1 e 2,3 minutos para o T2 (P=0,26. O percentual de fêmeas com refluxo de sêmen no momento da inseminação foi maior (P=0,01 no T1 (8,4% em comparação ao T2 (2,9%. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 nas variáveis TR (8,0 e 4,8%, TPR (93,4 e 96,2% e NT (12,4 e 12,7 leitões entre T1 e T2, respectivamente. A TPA do T1 (90,6% apresentou tendência (P=0,07 de ser inferior à do T2 (95,1%. No T1, as fêmeas primíparas apresentaram maior TR e menor TPA em comparação às pluríparas (PThe aim of this work was to evaluate the reproductive performance of 423 sows of 1 to 9 farrowings inseminated with two different intrauterine artificial insemination (IAU pipettes. The first group (T1 was formed by sows inseminated with a new pipette whose extremity was not fixed in the

  5. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of problem-solving skill training on mental health and the success of treatment of infertile women under intrauterine insemination treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, Marziyeh Ghasemi; Kordi, Masoume; Asgharipour, Negar; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Amirian, Maliheh; Eskandarnia, Elnaze

    2017-01-01

    Using fertility treatment will cause high levels of anxiety and depression. The study was carried out with the objective of determining the effect of problem-solving skills (PSS) training on mental health and the success of treatment of infertile women under intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment. this randomized clinical trial was carried out on 72 women referring to Milad Infertility Center in Mashhad. Individuals were randomly assigned into control and intervention groups. PSS were taught in three sessions in the intervention group, and the control group received usual care. The success rate of therapy and the mean of anxiety and depression on the day of IUI operation were compared using the Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger Anxiety Inventory in both groups. t -test, Mann-Whitney, paired t -test, Wilcoxon, and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. on the day of IUI operation, the mean score of state anxiety in the control group(5 0. 11 ± 8.51) and PSS (68.12 ± 11.49) was significant ( P problem-solving on reducing anxiety and depression, it is suggested that infertility center of this intervention should be used.

  7. Effect of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase on Intrauterine Insemination, Contribution to Inflammations, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status; A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnazari, Lida; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Keshvarzi, Farahnaz; Ferdowsi, Farivar; Goodarzi, Massoud; Rahimi, Zohreh; Baniamerian, Hossin; Tavilani, Haidar; Vaisi-Raygani, Hadis; Vaisi-Raygani, Hessam; Pourmotabbed, Tayehbeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress affects women fertility and influences on the sperm quality by alterating activities of cholinesterases, a molecular marker of stress-related infertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities and phenotypes in patients with unexplained infertility (idiopathic). It’s possible association with inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and other oxidative stress markers, i.e. before and after intra uterine insemination (IUI). Methods: In this study, blood samples of 60 patients with unexplained infertility were collected the day before and 24 hr after IUI (between 8 AM and 9 AM after the overnight fasting) and activities of BuChE, AChE, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GpX) and serum levels of thiol proteins (TP), C-reactive protein (CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Statistical significance was assumed at poxidative stress and inflammation and reduction in fertility rates by IUI. PMID:27478769

  8. Ovarian Stimulators, Intrauterine Insemination, and Assisted Reproductive Technologies Use and the Risk of Major Congenital Malformations-The AtRISK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Sonia; Sheehy, Odile; Monnier, Patricia; Bissonnette, François; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Fraser, William; Bérard, Anick

    2016-06-01

    To quantify the risk of major congenital malformations (MCMs) associated with the use of ovarian stimulators alone, intrauterine insemination (IUI), and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). We conducted a case-control analysis using a birth cohort, built with the linkage of data obtained by a self-administered questionnaire, medical, pharmaceutic, and birth databases. Cases were pregnancies with at least one live birth with an MCM. Controls were pregnancies that did not result in major or minor congenital malformations. Multiple logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Among the 5021 pregnancies identified, 825 were cases of MCM and 4196 were controls. Compared with spontaneous conception, the use of ART increased the risk of major urogenital malformations (adjusted OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.33-7.27). The use of IUI was associated with an increased risk of major musculoskeletal malformations (adjusted OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.10-3.71). Among the 471 women who used fertility treatments for conception, the use of ART was associated with an increased risk of any MCM (adjusted OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.00-2.79) and urogenital malformations (adjusted OR, 7.18; 95% CI, 1.59-32.53) when compared with ovarian stimulators used alone. The use of ART and IUI was associated with an increased risk of major musculoskeletal and urogenital malformations. ART was associated with a higher risk of MCM compared to ovarian stimulators used alone. Even the adjustment, a contribution of the underlying subfertility problems cannot completely ruled out given the differences in the severity of subfertility. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The SUPER study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing follicle-stimulating hormone and clomiphene citrate for ovarian stimulation in intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhof, N A; van Wely, M; Koks, C A M; Gianotten, J; de Bruin, J P; Cohlen, B J; van der Ham, D P; Klijn, N F; van Hooff, M H A; Broekmans, F J M; Fleischer, K; Janssen, C A H; Rijn van Weert, J M; van Disseldorp, J; Twisk, M; Traas, M; Verberg, M F G; Pelinck, M J; Visser, J; Perquin, D A M; Boks, D E S; Verhoeve, H R; van Heteren, C F; Mol, B W J; Repping, S; van der Veen, F; Mochtar, M H

    2017-05-25

    To study the effectiveness of four cycles of intrauterine insemination (IUI) with ovarian stimulation (OS) by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or by clomiphene citrate (CC), and adherence to strict cancellation criteria. Randomised controlled trial among 22 secondary and tertiary fertility clinics in the Netherlands. 732 women from couples diagnosed with unexplained or mild male subfertility and an unfavourable prognosis according to the model of Hunault of natural conception. Four cycles of IUI-OS within a time horizon of 6 months comparing FSH 75 IU with CC 100 mg. The primary outcome is ongoing pregnancy conceived within 6 months after randomisation, defined as a positive heartbeat at 12 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes are cancellation rates, number of cycles with a monofollicular or with multifollicular growth, number of follicles >14 mm at the time of ovulation triggering, time to ongoing pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, live birth and multiple pregnancy. We will also assess if biomarkers such as female age, body mass index, smoking status, antral follicle count and endometrial aspect and thickness can be used as treatment selection markers. The study has been approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of the Academic Medical Centre and from the Dutch Central Committee on Research involving Human Subjects (CCMO NL 43131-018-13). Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and presentations at international scientific meetings. NTR4057. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Pre-hCG 3D and 3D power Doppler assessment of the follicle for improving pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Panchal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of follicular maturity at the time of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is one of the key factors for the success of all assisted reproductive techniques. Aim: To assess follicles by three dimensional (3D and 3D power Doppler (PD before giving hCG to improve pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles. Design: Prospective randomized study. Materials and Methods: Ultrasound for pre-hCG follicular assessment was performed over a period of 10 months for all 1000 cycles of IUI. Follicular assessment was performed using a transvaginal multifrequency volume probe. Follicles considered mature by 2D US and color Doppler were assessed by 3D and 3D PD. These values were independently evaluated for the conception and the non-conception groups. Results: Conception rates were 32.3 and 27% respectively and individually when the perifollicular resistance index was 11 cm/s 10-12 h before hCG. Conception rates of 32% were achieved with a follicular volume between 3 and 7 cc. The conception rate was 32.3% in the cumulus group. A perifollicular vascularity index of between six and 20 gave conception rates of 35% and perifollicular flow index of 27-43 gave conception rates of 33%. Conclusions: 3D ultrasound is much more accurate for volume assessment of the follicle. Presence of cumulus increases the surety of the presence of a mature ovum in the follicle. 3D and 3D PD when used with 2D US and color Doppler for pre-hCG follicular assessment would definitely improve pregnancy rates in IUI cycles.

  11. Laparoscopic artificial insemination in dairy sheep with chilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    C. Unilateral intrauterine ... conception rates to intrauterine insemination with chilled semen was relatively higher than Chios ewes. Key words: .... fertility trials and the effects of dilution methods on freezing ram semen in the ...

  12. Estimulação ovariana controlada e inseminação intrauterina: uma terapia atual? Controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination: an actual therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Palmira Martins Almeida

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a taxa de gravidez na inseminação intrauterina (IIU, aferindo eventuais fatores prognósticos de sucesso. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de ciclos de IIU ocorridos de janeiro de 2007 a julho de 2010 em uma Unidade de Medicina da Reprodução do Hospital Vila Nova de Gaia. Os ciclos foram precedidos por estimulação ovárica controlada e monitorizada por ecografia endovaginal. Avaliou-se a taxa de gravidez em função da idade da mulher, tipo e duração da infertilidade, motilidade no espermograma, número de folículos e fármaco usado na estimulação ovárica. A análise estatística foi efetuada com o Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 17, com um nível de significância 5% (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the pregnancy rate in intrauterine insemination (IUI, and to determine possible prognostic factors of successful pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective study of IUI cycles performed in the Reproductive Medicine Unit of Vila Nova de Gaia Hospital, between January 2007 and July 2010. The IUI cycles were preceded by ovarian stimulation and monitored by vaginal ultrasound. Clinical pregnancy rates were analyzed according to the woman’s age, type and duration of infertility, spermatozoa parameters assessed in the spermogram, number of mature follicles and the drug used for ovarian stimulation. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS17, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: The study comprised 139 couples who underwent 220 IUI cycles. The absolute pregnancy rate per cycle was 18.6%. Of the 41 clinical pregnancies, 5 were twin pregnancies (12.1%. The pregnancy rate was higher at ages <30 years (28.5 vs 15.7%; p=0.024, duration of infertility <3 years (23.8 vs 13.9%; p=0.05, normal sperm motility (23.2 vs 10.3%; p=0.01 and with two follicles at the time of insemination (27.7 vs 14.2% for monofollicular growth; p=0.030. The pregnancy rates obtained

  13. Meteorological variables affect fertility rate after intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep in a seasonal-dependent manner: a 7-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P inseminations under lower SR values ( P inseminations during the summer were performed under significantly lower maximum T ( P inseminations resulted in pregnancy when they were carried out under higher maximum ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR <1 (SR on AI day and maximum T on day 15). However, the effect of meteorological factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.

  14. Ovarian Stimulation, Intrauterine Insemination, Multiple Pregnancy and Major Congenital Malformations: A Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis- The ART_Rev Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Sonia; Sheehy, Odile; Monnier, Patricia; Fraser, William; Bissonnette, François; Trasler, Jaquetta M; Muanda, Flory T; Boukhris, Takoua; Karam, Fatiha; Santos, Fabiano; Blais, Lucie; Bérard, Anick

    2016-01-01

    Multiple pregnancies are a recognized adverse effect of assisted reproductive technologies; nevertheless, there is no consensus on the incremental risk associated with the ovarian stimulation (OS) used alone and intrauterine insemination (IUI). The relationship between OS and IUI and the risk of major congenital malformations (MCM) is unclear. To summarise the literature and evaluate the risk of multiple pregnancy and MCM associated with OS used alone and IUI used with or without OS compared to natural conception (spontaneously conceived infants without any type of fertility treatments). We carried out a systematic review to identify published papers between 1966 and 2014 in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included observational studies and randomized clinical trials related to the risk of multiple pregnancies and MCM conceived following OS alone or IUI compared to natural conception (spontaneously conceived infants without any fertility treatments). The quality of the included studies was evaluated using The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias for RCTs and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies. There were 63 studies included in this review. Our systematic review suggests that the use of any OS alone was associated with an increased risk of multiple pregnancy compared to natural conception (pooled RR 8.80, 95% CI 5.09- 15.20; p= 0.000; 9 studies). Similar increases in the risk of multiple pregnancies were observed following clomiphene citrate used without assisted reproductive technologies. Compared to natural conception, the use of IUI with or without OS was associated with an increased risk of multiple pregnancy (pooled RR 9.73, 95% CI 7.52 -12.60; p= 0.000; 6 studies). Compared to natural conception, the use of any OS alone was associated with an increased risk of any MCM (RR pooled 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36; 11 studies), major musculoskeletal malformations (pooled RR 1.48, 95%CI 1

  15. Intrauterine insemination with ovarian stimulation versus expectant management for unexplained infertility (TUI): a pragmatic, open-label, randomised, controlled, two-centre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Cynthia M; Liu, Emily; Armstrong, Sarah; Arroll, Nicola; Lensen, Sarah; Brown, Julie

    2018-02-03

    Women with unexplained infertility are often offered intrauterine insemination (IUI) with ovarian stimulation as an alternative to in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). However, little evidence exists that IUI is an effective treatment. In 2013, the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommended that IUI should not be routinely offered for couples with unexplained infertility. For this pragmatic, open-label, randomised, controlled, two-centre study, we enrolled women attending two fertility clinics in New Zealand with unexplained infertility and an unfavourable prognosis of natural conception. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated randomisation sequence, prepared by an independent statistician, to either three cycles of IUI with ovarian stimulation (with either oral clomifene citrate [50-150 mg, days 2-6] or oral letrozole [2·5-7·5 mg, days 2-6], with choice of ovarian stimulation made by the clinic) or three cycles of expectant management (couples advised to be sexually active around the likely time of ovulation and provided with a diary to record the first day of each menstrual cycle and dates of sexual activity) in blocks of four, six, and ten, without stratification. The participating couple and the clinicians were informed of treatment allocation. The primary outcome was cumulative livebirth rate in the intention-to-treat population. The safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This study was prospectively registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register, number ACTRN12612001025820. Between March 12, 2013, and May 12, 2016, we randomly assigned 101 women to IUI with ovarian stimulation and 100 to expectant management, all of whom were included in the primary efficacy analysis and safety analyses. Women assigned to IUI had a higher cumulative livebirth rate than women assigned to expectant management (31 [31%] livebirths among 101 women vs nine [9%] livebirths among 100

  16. Artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID): heterogeneity in sperm banking facilities in a single country (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, A.; Dhont, N.; Vandormael, E.; Cox, A.; Klerkx, E.; Creemers, E.; Ombelet, W.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high inflow of foreign patients seeking cross-border reproductive care in Belgium and the increased number of lesbian couples and single women who call for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID), Belgian sperm banks nowadays face a shortage in donor sperm. However, since there is no central registration system for sperm donors in Belgium, no figures are currently available supporting this statement. Therefore a study was performed to obtain a detailed overview of the sperm banking facilities in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to all Belgian centres for assisted reproduction with laboratory facilities (n = 18) to report on their sperm banking methods. The results showed that 82% of the centres rely partially or completely on foreign donor sperm. Moreover, four of the thirteen centres that have their own sperm bank use imported donor sperm in > 95% AID cycles. Our results show that in 63% of the Belgian AID cycles imported Danish donor sperm is being used. Donor recruitment is mainly performed through the centre’s website (61%) or by distributing flyers in the centre (46%) and 9 to 180 potential donors have been recruited per centre in 2013. Eventually, 15 to 50% of these candidate donors were accepted. Different criteria for donor acceptance are handled by the centres: donor age limits range from 18-25 to 36-46 years old, and thresholds for sperm normality differ considerably. We can conclude that a wide variation in methods associated with sperm banking is observed in Belgian centres. PMID:25009728

  17. Desempenho reprodutivo de fêmeas suínas submetidas à inseminação artificial intra-uterina ou à tradicional Reproductive performance of sows submitted to intrauterine or tradicional artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Bennemann

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 298 fêmeas pluríparas Camborough 22® distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 (n=154, inseminação intra-uterina (IAU com dose inseminante (DI contendo 0,5 bilhão de espermatozóides em volume total de 20ml; e T2 (n=144, inseminação tradicional (IAT, com DI contendo 3,0 bilhões de espermatozóides em volume total de 90ml. Foi possível a realização da IAU em 98,1% das fêmeas. A presença de sangue na extremidade do cateter ou espiral da pipeta de IAU foi observada em 8,4% das fêmeas. As taxas de prenhez (TPr e de parto ajustada não diferiram (P>0,05 entre a IAU e IAT. O tamanho da leitegada (TL diferiu entre os tratamentos (PA total of 298 Camborough 22® sows was distributed in two treatments: T1 (n=154: intrauterine insemination (IUI with 0.5 billion sperms in 20ml total volume; T2 (n=144: traditional insemination (TAI with 3.0 billion sperms in 90ml total volume. It was possible to perform the IUI in 98.1% of sows. It was observed presence of blood on the catheter tip or pipete in 8.4% of IUI sows. The pregnancy (PR and adjusted farrowing rates did not differ (P>0.05 among treatments. Litter size (LS differ among treatments (P<0.05, being observed a reduction of 0.8 piglet in IUI. The blood presence in the IUI did not affect the PR significantly, but resulted in a reduction of 2.6 piglets per litter.

  18. Improved reproductive response of sheep in intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved reproductive response of sheep in intrauterine insemination program with the use of royal jelly. ... estrus in ewes treated with 100 IU eCG plus 500 mg RJ when compared with the other treatment groups. Keywords: Royal jelly, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), natural progesterone, artificial insemination, ewe ...

  19. Effect of numbers of sperm and timing of a single, post-cervical insemination on the fertility of weaned sows treated with OvuGel®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V; Esparza-Harris, K C; Johnston, M E; Webel, S K

    2017-04-01

    Variability in estrus and ovulation requires multiple inseminations during estrus to ensure one AI occurs close to ovulation. Induction of ovulation after weaning improves synchrony of ovulation and allows for fixed time AI. However, the interaction between number of sperm in the AI dose and the timing of insemination has not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sperm numbers used in a single post-cervical insemination (PCAI) and the timing of insemination following induced ovulation in weaned sows. The experiment was performed using sows (n = 641) allotted by parity (1-6) and lactation length (19.5 d) to receive a single PCAI using 1.5 or 2.5 billion motile sperm at either 22, 26, or 30 h following administration of a GnRH agonist, triptorelin acetate (OvuGel ® ) at 96 h post-weaning. Sows received boar contact once daily 3-6 d following weaning. A sub-population of the sows (n = 499) were assessed for follicle size and ovulation utilizing ultrasound at 8 h intervals. There was no interaction of number of sperm and timing of insemination for any response measure (P > 0.10). Wean to estrus interval (4.8 d), duration of estrus (1.9 d), and expression of estrus (88.0%), were not different among treatments (P > 0.10). Of sows scanned by ultrasound at the time of OvuGel ® , 88.2% had large follicles, 10.9% had small, medium or cystic sized follicles, and 0.9% had corpora lutea. The proportion of sows that ovulated averaged 94%, and differed by time of AI (P ≤ 0.05) but not by number of sperm. Pregnancy rate and farrowing rate tended to be affected by dose (P ≤ 0.10), while time of insemination affected pregnancy rate and tended to influence farrowing rate (P ≤ 0.10). Farrowing rate was greater (P insemination at 22 and 26 h compared to 30 h after OvuGel ® (P ≤ 0.10). Farrowing rate was also affected by parity, estrus expression, ovulation and ovarian abnormalities (P insemination with

  20. Intrauterine Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    S HARE W ITH W OMEN INTRAUTERINE DEVICES INTRAUTERINE DEVICES What is An Intrauterine Device? An intrauterine device (IUD) is anything that is placed inside the uterus (womb) to prevent pregnancy. ...

  1. Comparison of The Effects of A Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention and Problem-Solving Skills Training on Depression during The Waiting Period of The Result of Intrauterine Insemination Treatment: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Ghasemi gojani, , ,

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The outcomes of fertility treatments are unpredictable, and levels of depressive symptoms increase in patients during the waiting period of the result of intrauterine insemination (IUI treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI and problem-solving skills training (PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI Treatment. Materials and Methods This randomized control clinical trial was done among 108 women undergoing IUI treat- ment. In the control group, the women received routine care. In the PRCI group, women attended two training sessions and were asked to complete coping thoughts cards and fill out daily monitoring forms during the waiting period. In the PSS group, PSS were taught over three sessions. The depression was measured by the beck depression inventory. Results On the 10th day of the IUI waiting period, there were significant differences between the control group (21.42 ± 11.42 and the PSS group (12.52 ± 8.05 and PRCI groups (13.14 ± 9.7 (P<0.001, but no significant difference between the PRCI group and the PSS group. Conclusion According to the results of this randomized control trial there is no difference between a PRCI and PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI treatment. This suggests that both interventions can be used to help infertile women combat depression during the waiting period of the result of fertility treatments (Registration number: IRCT2016020926490N1.

  2. Importância dos parâmetros seminais nos resultados de inseminação intra-uterina Importance of seminal parameters for intrauterine insemination outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Borges Junior

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar a relevância dos parâmetros seminais nos resultados dos ciclos de inseminação intra-uterina (IIU em pacientes com causa masculina de infertilidade e salientar o caráter prognóstico de cada parâmetro para o sucesso da técnica. MÉTODOS: duzentos e trinta e nove ciclos de IIU (155 casais foram analisados durante período de 15 meses. Todos as pacientes foram submetidas à indução da ovulação de acordo com protocolos do I Consenso Brasileiro de Indução de Ovulação. A análise seminal foi realizada de acordo com os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS para parâmetros como concentração e motilidade e critério estrito de Kruger para avaliação da morfologia. O preparo da amostra para IIU foi realizado por meio de gradientes descontínuos de densidade (ISolate®. Foram formados dois grupos de pacientes de acordo com o resultado de gestação: grupo G - gestação positiva e grupo NG - gestação negativa. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença significativa nos valores obtidos relacionados à concentração total de espermatozóides/mL de sêmen, motilidade total, motilidade de formas progressivas antes e depois do processamento seminal. Quando a morfologia estrita de Kruger foi comparada entre os dois grupos, diferenças significativas foram encontradas (grupo G=10,6% de formas normais; grupo NG=6,4% de formas normais; pPURPOSE: to analyze the influence of seminal parameters on intrauterine insemination (IUI outcomes in patients with male factor and to emphasize the predictive value of each parameter for the successful result. METHODS: two hundred and thirty-nine IUI cycles (155 couples were analyzed for 15 months. Female patients were submitted to ovary hyperstimulation according to the "I Consenso Brasileiro de Indução de Ovulação". Seminal analysis based on the World Health Organization (WHO for sperm concentration and motility was used and sperm morphology was evaluated according to Kruger

  3. Success Rate of Inseminations Dependent on Maternal Age? An Analysis of 4246 Insemination Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorsch, M.; Gomez, R.; Hahn, T.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Seufert, R.; Skala, C.

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) has latterly become less important in reproductive medicine. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to identify and evaluate the success rates of repeated insemination cycles in women of different ages. All women who underwent intrauterine insemination in the Wiesbaden Fertility Clinic between 1998 and 2010 were included in the analysis. Additional inclusion criteria were: not more than 45 years old, previous FSH stimulation and slight to moderate subfertility of the male partner. A total of 4246 insemination cycles in 1612 patients were included in the analysis. The average number of IUI cycles per patient was 2.24 (1–14). Patient age ranged from 19 to 45 years (mean: 33.9 years). Logistic regression analysis showed a drop in pregnancy rates with increasing age (p = 0.000). However, for the first three cycles the pregnancy rates for women aged 40 and 41 did not differ from those of women aged between 35 and 39 years. Overall pregnancy rates were stable in women up to the age of 40, even after several insemination cycles (7.5 and 10 %). Insemination is therefore still an effective procedure in selected patients. Stable pregnancy rates were recorded even after more than 3 cycles. After 3 cycles, the success rates for women aged 40 and 41 did not differ from those of women below the age of 40. PMID:24771935

  4. Low cost, simple, intrauterine insemination procedure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    performed 36 hours after the HCG injection. No supplementation was given during the luteal phase. Sperm preparation. Husband's raw sperm was left 15 minutes undisturbed after ejaculation in a 50 ml glass jar, at room temperature, for liquefaction. It was then poured off directly into a glass, 10 ml, centrifuge test tube.

  5. Prognostic factors affecting outcome of intrauterine insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOI: 10.4103/TJOG.TJOG_55_17. How to cite this article: Loto OM, Akindojutimi JA, Akinwole KD,. Ademulegun TV, Akinmade O. Prognostic factors affecting outcome ... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, and estradiol on day 2 or day 3 of the ... were also screened for HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis using the ...

  6. The Fertility of Frozen Boar Sperm When used for Artificial Insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2015-07-01

    One of the limits to practical use of frozen boar sperm involves the lowered fertility when used for artificial insemination. Years of studies have shown that 5-6 billion sperm (approximately 3 billion viable) used in single or multiple inseminations results in pregnancy rates most often between 60 and 70% and with litter sizes between nine and 10 pigs. Yet today, it is not uncommon for studies to report pregnancy rates from 70 to 85% and litter sizes with 11-12 pigs. While global statements about the incidence and reasons for higher fertility are not conclusive, incremental fertility improvements appear independently associated with use of a minimum number of viable sperm (1-2 billion), insemination timing that increases the probability that sperm will be present close to ovulation for groups of females, selection for boar sperm survival following cryopreservation, and modification of the freeze and thaw conditions using additives to protect sperm from oxidative damage. Studies show that techniques such as intrauterine and deep uterine insemination can provide an opportunity to reduce sperm numbers and that control of time of ovulation in groups of females can reduce the need for multiple inseminations and improve the chance for AI close to ovulation. However, optimal and consistent fertility with cryopreserved boar sperm may require a multifaceted approach that includes boar selection and screening, strategic use of additives during the freezing and thawing process, post-thaw evaluation of sperm and adjustments in sperm numbers for AI, assessment of female fertility and ovulation induction for single insemination. These sequenced procedures should be developed and incorporated into a quality control system for improved fertility when using minimal numbers of cryopreserved boar sperm. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Single fixed-time artificial insemination in gilts and weaned sows using pLH at estrus onset administered through vulvar submucosal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulguim, R R; Fontana, D L; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of a single fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in gilts and weaned sows using 2.5 mg of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) administered through vulvar submucosal route, at the onset of estrus. In experiment 1 (Exp.1), 318 pubertal gilts were assigned to two groups: control-G-no hormonal application and artificial inseminations (AIs) at 12, 36, and 60 hours after the onset of estrus if they were still in standing estrus; and FTAI-G-use of pLH at the onset of estrus and a single FTAI 12 hours later. In experiment 2 (Exp. 2), 309 weaned sows were assigned to three groups: Control-S-no hormone application and AIs at 0, 24, and 48 hours after the onset of estrus if they were still in standing estrus; FTAI-NH-no hormone application and a single FTAI at 24 hours after the onset of estrus, and FTAI-pLH-use of pLH at the onset of estrus and a single FTAI 24 hours later. Transabdominal real time B-mode ultrasonography was performed to determine whether the insemination had been performed within 24 hours before ovulation, considered as the optimal interval. In Exp. 1, ultrasound evaluation (12-hour intervals) was carried out to determine the interval between the onset of estrus and ovulation. In both experiments, 2 × 10(9) sperm cells in 80 mL were used to perform cervical and postcervical deposition of semen in gilts and sows, respectively. Compared with control-G, FTAI-G gilts had shorter (P insemination outside the optimal interval reduced (P inseminated within the optimal interval. In Exp. 2, there were no differences in the AFR (Control-S: 94.1%; FTAI-NH: 86.1%; FTAI-pLH: 88.0%) and TPB (Control-S: 12.8; FTAI-NH: 12.7, and FTAI-pLH: 12.0 piglets) among treatments. The presence of semen backflow reduced (P insemination performed too late relative to ovulation reduced the AFR (P inseminated within the optimal interval. In conclusion, 2.5-mg pLH applied at the vulvar submucosa at the onset of estrus advances the ovulation in

  8. GnRH analogue treatment on LH surge day 0 followed by single transvaginal artificial insemination with frozen semen on day 5 in bitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHTAKI, Tadatoshi; KOGA, Yasuna; ONO, Mamiko; WATANABE, Gen; TAYA, Kazuyoshi; TSUMAGARI, Shigehisa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reproductive parameters were evaluated in 19 and 14 estrous beagles that received 100 µg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and saline treatment, respectively, on the day of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (Day 0; estimated by serial progesterone assay) and balloon catheter-aided single transvaginal artificial insemination of frozen semen on Day 5. Although the conception rate and litter size were similar between the GnRH and saline groups, the concentration of LH peak was significantly higher in GnRH-treated bitches (Pinsemination. PMID:25311914

  9. Effect of artificial insemination protocol and dose of frozen/thawed stallion semen on pregnancy results in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaere, J L J; Hoogewijs, M K; De Schauwer, C; De Vliegher, S; Van Soom, A; Duchateau, L; de Kruif, A

    2014-06-01

    Deep intra-uterine insemination is commonly accepted as a routine procedure for artificial insemination in horses. The motives and principles of deep insemination are well described, but the equipment used may differ. In this trial, the efficiency of two different insemination pipettes for deep intra-uterine insemination in the mare was compared with insemination into the uterine body using commercially available frozen-thawed semen of two stallions of proven fertility. These inseminations were performed using two different doses. The semi-flexible Minitube pipette was compared with a newly designed insemination device with a more flexible telescopic insemination catheter (Ghent device). The semi-flexible Minitube pipette performed better than the newly designed insemination device with respect to pregnancy outcome (p = 0.008). The superiority of deep horn insemination over uterine body insemination was reflected by the better pregnancy rates obtained after deep insemination using the same low doses (30.6% better pregnancy rates) (p = 0.0123). © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Case Report - Heterotopic pregnancy following intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She had induction of ovulation with Clomiphene citrate, gonadotropin stimulation (hCG), and intrauterine insemination using donor sperm. The resulting pregnancy ... Presence of corpus luteum cyst of pregnancy in early ultrasound should be an index of suspicious of a possible heterotopic pregnancy. Early diagnosis and ...

  11. Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Bonet, Sergi

    2017-09-01

    Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen in pigs is not a routine technique; its use is restricted to specific cases, such as preservation of valuable genetic material (germplasm banks), safety strategies in case of natural disasters, long-distance transport of sperm, and in combination with sex-sorting. Cryoinjuries resulting from freeze-thawing protocols are a major concern with regard to the fertilization capacity of the treated sperm, which is lower than that of liquid-stored semen. Here, we provide an overview of artificial insemination using cryopreserved sperm, and summarize the factors that influence cryopreservation success before, during, and after freeze-thaw (i.e., sperm selection before starting the cryopreservation process, holding time, use of cryoprotectants, and rates of freezing and thawing) and that are driving the identification of biomarkers to predict sensitivity to cryodamage. Three different artificial insemination techniques (conventional or intracervical; intrauterine; and deep intrauterine) are also discussed with regards to their relevance when using frozen-thawed semen. Finally, we review the use of additives to freezing and thawing media, given reports that they may maintain and improve the quality and fertilizing capacity of frozen-thawed sperm. In sum, artificial insemination with frozen-thawed boar sperm can provide reasonable fertility outcomes, if freezable ejaculates, specific additives, and appropriate insemination techniques are used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  13. Fixed-time insemination with frozen semen in mares: is it suitable for poorly fertile stallions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzi, Bruno Ribeiro; Ramos, Renata Dos Santos; Araujo, Gustavo Henrique Marques; Fioratti, Eduardo Gorzoni; Trinca, Luzia Aparecida; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio; Melo E Oña, Cely Marini; Zahn, Fabíola Soares; Martin, Ian; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio; Papa, Frederico Ozanam

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare two protocols for equine frozen semen programs using either postovulation insemination or fixed-time insemination (FT), evaluating both pregnancy rates and intrauterine fluid (IUF) accumulation after artificial insemination with semen obtained from either highly or poorly fertile stallions. Six ejaculates from two stallions (n = 12) were processed. After thawing, semen samples were evaluated by computerized semen analysis. Fifteen mares (30 cycles) were inseminated with frozen semen from highly fertile stallion A, and 14 mares (28 cycles) were inseminated with frozen semen from poorly fertile stallion B. Ovulations were induced with 1 mg (intramuscular) of deslorelin acetate after the observation of a greater than 35 mm follicle and uterine edema. In postovulation insemination group, mares were inseminated once with 800 × 10(6) total sperm in a maximum 6-hour interval after ovulation. In FT group, mares were inseminated twice with 400 × 10(6) total sperm, 24 and 40 hours after induction. Mares were ultrasonographically examined for IUF accumulation 24 hours and for pregnancy diagnosis 14 days after the last insemination. Although IUF accumulation was more evident in mares inseminated once postovulation, pregnancy rates were similar for both protocols, regardless of the stallion, although a significant effect of the stallion was observed. These results indicated that FTs may be used for both highly and poorly fertile stallions as a practical tool to help spreading the use of frozen semen in equine reproduction programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assisted reproductive technology and intrauterine inseminations in Europe, 2005: results generated from European registers by ESHRE: ESHRE. The European IVF Monitoring Programme (EIM), for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe Andersen, A; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2009-01-01

    insemination using husband/partner's semen (IUI-H) and donor semen (IUI-D) were reported from 21 countries and included 128 908 IUI-H and 20 568 IUI-D cycles. RESULTS: In 16 countries where all clinics reported to the IVF register, 1115 cycles were performed per million inhabitants. For IVF, the clinical...... embryos was 20.0%, 56.1%, 21.5% and 2.3%, respectively. Huge differences exist between countries. The distribution of singleton, twin and triplet deliveries after IVF and ICSI was 78.2%, 21.0% and 0.8%, respectively. This gives a total multiple delivery rate of 21.8% compared with 22.7% in 2004 and 23.......1% in 2003. In women years of age, IUI-H was associated with a twin and triplet pregnancy rate of 11.0% and 1.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with earlier years, there was an increase in the reported number of ART cycles in Europe. Although fewer embryos were transferred per treatment...

  15. Anaphylactic reaction after artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta, Marta; Ordoqui, Elena; Aranzábal, Ascensión; Fernández, Cristina; Bartolomé, Borja; Sanz, Maria Luisa

    2003-04-01

    Bovine seroalbumin is known as an allergen for human beings, but reactions to it in an artificial insemination procedure are much rarer. We report a case of anaphylaxis after intrauterine insemination (IUI) in which sensitization to bovine serum albumin (BSA) is demonstrated. Report the allergy evaluation performed in a patient who suffered a severe reaction immediately after an IUI procedure. A 33-year-old woman was referred because of an anaphylactic reaction after a second trial of IUI. She developed pruritus, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, bronchospasm, and generalized urticaria. She had an atopic medical history of pollen allergy and sensitization to cat epithelium. She had never had trouble with minor surgery and she usually uses latex material. She had never received heterologous sera before. Her husband's semen for the IUI was processed in a standard fluid medium called upgraded INRA B 2 (Laboratoires CCD, Paris, France), which contains amino acids, lipids, vitamins, BSA, penicillin, and streptomycin in addition to inorganic salts. Skin prick tests with the medium and BSA 10 mg/mL were positive. In vitro studies demonstrated an immunoglobulin E binding protein of 60 to 65 kDa and mast cells and basophil activation (CD63 expression) against BSA contained in the medium. Cutaneous and challenge tests with penicillin and streptomycin were negative. We consider the BSA in the semen culture medium to be the factor which triggered the anaphylactic reaction. This case supports the authors who state that media free from heterologous proteins should be used for human application, especially on atopic patients, to avoid sensitization.

  16. Improvement strategies in ovine artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anel, L; Alvarez, M; Martinez-Pastor, F; Garcia-Macias, V; Anel, E; de Paz, P

    2006-10-01

    Artificial insemination in ram is scarcely widespread comparing with other domestic species. This has been due not only to fertility results being irregular and low but also because of the difficulty in the application of enhancements such as the use of frozen-thawed sperm. Although there is a lot of information on the use of different options to improve these AI results (such as transcervical application, the use of thawed sperm, etc.) commercial programmes can be classified on two general categories: those using refrigerated semen (15 degrees C) by superficial intracervical deposition (vaginal), and, more restricted, those using thawed sperm by intrauterine deposition (laparoscopy). In the present work, we have summarized our viewpoint on three general research lines for the improvement of AI results in sheep: semen preservation, AI procedures and semen assessment. Briefly, in ram it is necessary to develop a medium term methodology of sperm refrigeration (3-5 days), which would allow the distribution of sperm doses to a widespread area. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to develop an intrauterine transcervical AI technique, which allows thawed semen to be applied by vaginal insemination. Besides, the low predictive value of classic assessment techniques limits the ability to adjust the number of spermatozoa per dose according to its actual fertility.

  17. Stallion spermatozoa selected by single layer centrifugation are capable of fertilization after storage for up to 96 h at 6°C prior to artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the challenges faced by equine breeders is ensuring delivery of good quality semen doses for artificial insemination when the mare is due to ovulate. Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) has been shown to select morphologically normal spermatozoa with intact chromatin and good progressive motility from the rest of the ejaculate, and to prolong the life of these selected spermatozoa in vitro. The objective of the present study was a proof of concept, to determine whether fertilizing ability was retained in SLC-selected spermatozoa during prolonged storage. Findings Sixteen mares were inseminated with SLC-selected sperm doses that had been cooled and stored at 6°C for 48 h, 72 h or 96 h. Embryos were identified in 11 mares by ultrasound examination 16–18 days after presumed ovulation. Conclusion SLC-selected stallion spermatozoa stored for up to 96 h are capable of fertilization. PMID:22788670

  18. Prediction of the optimal time for insemination using frozen-thawed semen in a multi-sire insemination trial in bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, D; Nöthling, J O; Harper, C

    2013-11-30

    The aims of the study were to determine which of Days 5, 6 or 7 after the blood plasma progesterone concentration (PPC) of bitches first reached 6-9 nmol/L (Day 0) yield the highest fertility and whether day of insemination affects the gender ratio of conceptuses. Six bitches were inseminated on Days 5 and 6 and 6 on Days 6 and 7. Ten million progressively motile frozen-thawed sperm from each of 5 dogs were pooled for the first insemination. The same number of sperm from 5 other dogs were pooled for the second insemination. Only one batch of semen from each dog was used on all bitches, which largely prevented any effect of male and semen. Twenty-three autosomal microsatellites and the amelogenin gene were used to determine the paternity and gender of the conceptuses. Pregnancy rate was 100%. Out of 103 ovulations 66 conceptuses were conceived (conception rate: 64%). The proportion of available oocytes fertilised was 0.11, 0.56, and 0.27 for Days 5, 6, and 7, respectively. The odds of fertilisation was 16.7 and 4.2 times higher from insemination on Day 6 compared to Day 5 (Pinsemination day (P = 0.18). This study suggests that intrauterine insemination of bitches should best be done 6 days after PPC first reaches a value between 6 and 9 nmol/L with a second insemination one day later. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intrauterine contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonawalla, R P

    1968-01-01

    This article is presented to give an idea as to how far the IUD can fulfill the purpose of population control. For the couple, this intrauterine method is most ideal. The main drawback is the side effect of bleeding, which is the cause of the high drop out rate. The other handicaps are spontaneous expulsion and pregnancy with the IUD in situ. It is also unsuited to nulliparous women. The general practitioner needs to become concerned with the gravity of the problem of overpopulation, and he must encourage his patients into the use of contraceptives. At the moment, the IUD is the method of choice.

  20. Intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilian, Xiao

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this chapter is to review the worldwide use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) for contraception and the long-term contraceptive efficacy and safety of copper-bearing IUDs. The TCu380A and Multiload Cu375 have a very low failure rate (0.2-0.5%) over 10 years. The main concerns of the use of IUDs are risk of pelvic inflammatory diseases and increased menstrual blood loss and irregular bleeding. Factors associated with an increase in risk of pelvic inflammatory diseases are discussed. Preventive measures can be taken with careful screening of eligible IUD users, technical training and adequate service facilities for provision of IUDs. Levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs have the benefit of reducing menstrual blood loss in addition to high contraceptive efficacy. The copper IUD is the most effective method for emergency contraception. It can prevent over 95% of unwanted pregnancies within 5 days of unprotected intercourse. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  2. SOWS FERTILITY AFTER INTRACERVICAL OR POSTCERVICAL ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (AI IN WORM AND COLD SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stančić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fertility of boars and sows during the warmer period of the year significantly reduces the reproductive efficiency of pigs in intensive production. The aim of this study was to determine whether the application of intrauterine (postcervical artificial insemination (AI, with twice reduced dose volume (50 mL and the number of spermatozoa per dose (2x109, compared to the classical intracervical insemination (dose volume 50 mL with 4x109 spermatozoa, can increase the fertility of sows inseminated in the warm season of the year. After classical intracervical insemination, farrowing rate was significantly (P0.05, neither depending on the season, or depending on the number of spermatozoa per dose (78% and 75% in warm, or 86% and 83% in cold season of the year. The results show that the use of intrauterine insemination, with doses twice reduced in volume and sperm number, can significantly reduce the negative impact of the warm season on sows fertility.

  3. Morphometry of boar sperm head and flagellum in semen backflow after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, Francisco Alberto; Hernández-Caravaca, Iván; Yánez-Quintana, Wellington; Matás, Carmen; Soriano-Úbeda, Cristina; Izquierdo-Rico, María José

    2015-09-01

    Once deposited in the female reproductive system, sperm begin their competition and undergo a selection to reach the site of fertilization. Little is known about the special characteristics of sperm that reach the oviduct and are able to fertilize, with even less information on the role of sperm dimension and shape in transport and fertilization. Here, we examine whether sperm morphometry could be involved in their journey within the uterus. For this purpose, sperm head dimension (length, width, area, and perimeter) and shape (shape factor, ellipticity, elongation, and regularity), and flagellum length were analyzed in the backflow at different times after insemination (0-15, 16-30, and 31-60 minutes). Sperm morphometry in the backflow was also analyzed taking into account the site of semen deposition (cervical vs. intrauterine). Finally, flagellum length was measured at the uterotubal junction. Sperm analyzed in the backflow were small (head and flagellum) with different head shapes compared with sperm observed in the dose before insemination. The site of deposition influenced head morphometry and tail size both being smaller in the backflow after cervical insemination compared with intrauterine insemination. Mean tail length of sperm collected in the backflow was smaller than that in the insemination dose and at the uterotubal junction. Overall, our results suggest that sperm size may be involved in sperm transport either because of environment or through sperm selection and competence on their way to encounter the female gamete. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intrauterine devices (IUD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007635.htm Intrauterine devices (IUD) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic T-shaped device ...

  5. The post-cervical insemination does not impair the reproductive performance of primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, P E; Ulguim, R R; Fontana, D L; Ferrari, C V; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2014-02-01

    The study evaluated the reproductive performance of primiparous sows submitted to post-cervical insemination (PCAI) compared with cervical artificial insemination (CAI). Difficulty with catheter introduction, the occurrence of bleeding or semen backflow during insemination, and volume and sperm cell backflow up to 60 min after insemination were also evaluated. Sows were homogenously distributed, according to body weight loss in lactation, lactation length, weaned piglets, weaning-to-oestrus interval and total born in previous farrowing, in two treatments: PCAI (n = 165) with 1.5 × 10(9) sperm cells in 45 ml (2.4 ± 0.04 doses per sow) and CAI (n = 165) with 3 × 10(9) sperm cells in 90 ml (2.5 ± 0.04 doses per sow). During PCAI, sows were inseminated in the absence of boars. Transabdominal real-time ultrasonography was performed at oestrus onset, immediately before the first insemination and at 24 h after last insemination. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between treatments in farrowing rate (91.5% × 89.1%) and litter size (12.5 × 11.9 piglets born, respectively for PCAI and CAI sows). Successful passage of the intrauterine catheter in all the inseminations was possible in 86.8% (165/190) of sows initially allocated to PCAI treatment. Difficulty of introducing the catheter in at least one insemination did not affect the reproductive performance of PCAI sows (P > 0.05). Bleeding during insemination did not affect (P > 0.05) the farrowing rate in both treatments, but litter size was reduced in CAI and PCAI sows (P ≤ 0.06). Percentage of spermatozoa present in backflow within 1 h after insemination was greater in CAI than PCAI sows (P inseminated with doses containing 1.5 × 10(9) sperm cells in the absence of the boar during insemination without impairing the reproductive performance. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Factors influencing the success of vaginal and laparoscopic artificial insemination in churra ewes: a field assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anel, L; Kaabi, M; Abroug, B; Alvarez, M; Anel, E; Boixo, J C; de la Fuente, L F; de Paz, P

    2005-03-01

    Pregnancy rate following artificial insemination (AI) in sheep is variable depending on several factors. The Churra breed (milk breed of the North-West of Spain) yields lower fertility results compared with other local and European breeds (Manchega, Latxa, Merino, Lacaune, Sarde, etc.). In this work we studied the influence of many factors on the fertility of the Churra breed (insemination technique, year, farm, age, male, number of inseminations per ewe, lambing-insemination interval and technician), analyzing lambing data obtained after 44448 inseminations (39.67% cervical AI via vagina, AIV, and 60.33% intrauterine AI using laparoscopy, AIL) in a categorical model. The most important factors influencing fertility after AI were farm, year, season, AI technique, and technician. AIL showed significantly higher fertility results than AIV (44.89% versus 31.25%). Season significantly affected fertility in both cases, but differences were more evident in AIV. Fertility dropped 1.74% (AIV) and 2.07% (AIL) per year as the ewes aged. Finally, AI fertility decreased when the lambing-insemination interval was lower than 10 weeks.

  7. The intrauterine device and the intrauterine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Searle, E

    2014-08-01

    Intrauterine contraception is used by about 100 million women worldwide, making it the most popular form of fertility regulation. In UK community contraception clinics, however, long-acting reversible contraception has increased to 28% of users, and intrauterine contraception accounts for only 8% of methods used by women accessing these services. Potential exists to increase uptake of these more effective methods. In this chapter, we review the clinical advantages, disadvantages and cost-effectiveness of intrauterine contraception. We discuss the management of complications along with advice for trainers, and briefly consider issues in developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ovarian transmigration of intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovati, Marco; Raveglia, Federico; Baisi, Alessandro; De Simone, Matilde; Cioffi, Ugo

    2016-12-01

    Extrauterine translocation of intrauterine device (IUD) to peritoneal cavity is an uncommon event, moreover the ovarian embedding of a transmigrated IUD is very rare, and only two previous cases have been reported in the literature. We present a single case treated with laparoscopy. The aims of this study were to focus attention on the utility of preoperative computed tomography in planning the best surgical approach and to describe the two-port technique. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Use of frozen-thawed semen in equine artificial insemination programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of equine frozen semen has variable results. Pregnancy rates per cycle may be between 10 to 70%. Although an inseminating dose of 280 a 320 millones progressive motile sperm (PMS has been recommended, under experimental conditions it is posible to obtain acceptable results with doses of 50 to 100 millones PMS. Deep intrauterine insemination is prefered when using frozen thawed semen, which consists in depositing the dose at the tip of the horn, ipsiltateral to ovulation. Young mares usually have better uterine condition and that increase their chance of become pregnant. It is important to make a correct follicular monitoring, in order to determine the right time to induce ovulation. Ovulation may be induced with Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG or deslorelin. It posible to perform a fixed time insemination or to choose an ultrasound follicular following protocol, inseminating within 6 h of ovulation. This option offers the best prenancy rates. Our laboratory manages a protocol which includes ultrasound monitoring every 6 hours, beginning 24 hous after induction of ovulation; this protocol had a first insemination pregnancy rate of 73%. If we consider that one of the main disadvantages of frozen-thawed semen is decreased fertility, these results are encouraging, since they are similar to those obtained with fresh or cooled semen, so it may represent an advantage when having stored semen of stallions that are dead, or have been sold or even castrated.

  10. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones

    OpenAIRE

    Ombelet, W.; Van Robays, J.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adap...

  11. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  12. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, W; Van Robays, J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones.

  13. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, W.; Van Robays, J.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today’s common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  14. Clinical Variables Affecting The Pregnancy Rate of Intracervical Insemination Using Cryopreserved Donor Spermatozoa:A Retrospective Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether several clinical variables can affectthe pregnancy rate of intracervical insemination (ICI using cryopreserved donor spermatozoa.Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, age, years of infertility, cervicitis, urinaryluteinizing hormone (LH surge, insemination number, uterus position, endometrial thickness andmorphology, maximal follicle diameter, and the number of dominant follicles on the day of humanchorionic gonadotropin (HCG administration were retrospectively analyzed in 501 women whounderwent their first ICI cycle using cryopreserved donor spermatozoa.Results: Increased age, length of infertility (>5 years, retroverted uterine position, and endometrialthickness (14 mm were associated with lower rates of pregnancy.Conclusion: In older women with infertile periods longer than five years, especially those with aretroverted uterus, intrauterine insemination (IUI combined with ovarian stimulation should berecommended. In vitro fertilization with donor spermatozoa (IVFD should be offered earlier toachieve a much higher success rate.

  15. Clinical variables affecting the pregnancy rate of intracervical insemination using cryopreserved donor spermatozoa: a retrospective study in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Li-Ping; Lan, Hai-Lian; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether several clinical variables can affect the pregnancy rate of intracervical insemination (ICI) using cryopreserved donor spermatozoa. In this retrospective study, age, years of infertility, cervicitis, urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, insemination number, uterus position, endometrial thickness and morphology, maximal follicle diameter, and the number of dominant follicles on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration were retrospectively analyzed in 501 women who underwent their first ICI cycle using cryopreserved donor spermatozoa. Increased age, length of infertility (>5 years), retroverted uterine position, and endometrial thickness (14 mm) were associated with lower rates of pregnancy. In older women with infertile periods longer than five years, especially those with a retroverted uterus, intrauterine insemination (IUI) combined with ovarian stimulation should be recommended. in vitro fertilization with donor spermatozoa (IVFD) should be offered earlier to achieve a much higher success rate.

  16. Use of a novel double uterine deposition artificial insemination technique using low concentrations of sperm in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo-Martín, R; Gil, L; Gómez-Rincón, C F; Dahmani, Y; García-Tomás, M; Úbeda, J L; Grandía, J

    2012-07-01

    Currently, the three most important non-surgical artificial insemination systems used in pigs are the conventional, the post-cervical (IUI), and the deep-intrauterine (DIUI) methods. In this study, a new system, termed double uterine deposition insemination (DUDI), which combines aspects of both IUI and DIUI, was evaluated. This method used a thinner, shorter and more flexible catheter than those normally used for DIUI and resulted in the deposition of semen post-cervically, approximately half-way along the uterine horn, thus potentially by-passing the threat of 'unilateral' insemination or pregnancy when using sperm of low concentration. The experiment was carried out over 8 weeks on a group of 166 sows, which were divided into seven groups, inseminated with semen of varying concentration, using the conventional system (control group) or by DUDI. There were no significant differences in fertility at day 35 post-insemination between the controls and the various DUDI sub-groups. Only sows inseminated with 500 million viable spermatozoa in a total of 30 mL of fluid using the DUDI system demonstrated decreased total litter sizes when compared to conventional insemination (Pinsemination normally uses 2.5-3.5 billion sperm, the findings of this study suggest that DUDI can be used under 'field' conditions with sperm concentrations as low as 750 million spermatozoa in 50-30 mL without any detrimental effect on fertility or litter size. DUDI may provide a viable, robust alternative to IUI and DIUI, and has the potential to become incorporated into on-farm insemination systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rouen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC. We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10(q25;p13 reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it.

  18. First successful artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen in rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Saragusty, J; Sós, E; Molnar, V; Reid, C E; Schwarzenberger, F; Hildebrandt, T B

    2009-02-01

    The first successful artificial insemination (AI) in a rhinoceros was reported in 2007 using fresh semen. Following that success, we decided to evaluate the possibility of using frozen-thawed semen for artificial insemination. Semen, collected from a 35-36 year old Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) in the UK was frozen using the directional freezing technique. This frozen semen was used in two intrauterine AI attempts on a 30 years old female rhinoceros in Hungary. The first attempt, conducted 30 days postpartum with an insemination dose of approximately 135 x 10(6) motile cells, failed. The second attempt, conducted two estrus cycles later with an insemination dose of approximately 500 x 10(6) motile cells, resulted in pregnancy and the birth of a healthy offspring. This represents the first successful AI using frozen-thawed semen in a rhinoceros, putting it among very few wildlife species in which AI with frozen-thawed semen resulted in a live birth. The incorporation of AI with frozen-thawed semen into the assisted reproduction toolbox opens the way to preserve and transport semen between distant individuals in captivity or between wild and captive populations, without the need to transport stressed or potentially disease carrying animals. In addition, cryopreserved spermatozoa, in combination with AI, are useful methods to extend the reproductive lifespan of individuals beyond their biological lifespan and an important tool for managing genetic diversity in these endangered mammals.

  19. When to inseminate the cow? Insemination, ovulation and fertilization in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: dairy cattle; oestrus; behaviour; pedometer; reproductive hormones; ovulation time; insemination strategyIn dairy practice, calving rates after first insemination are often less than 50%. Part of this low percentage might be explained by wrongly timed inseminations. The

  20. Effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on Dufour's gland chemical profiles and vitellogenin expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2011-09-01

    Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) mate in their early adult lives with a variable number of males (drones). Mating stimulates dramatic changes in queen behavior, physiology, gene expression, and pheromone production. Here, we used virgin, single drone- (SDI), and multi-drone- (MDI) inseminated queens to study the effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on the pheromone profiles of the Dufour's gland, and the expression of the egg-yolk protein, vitellogenin, in the fat body. Age, environmental conditions, and genetic background of the queens were standardized to specifically characterize the effects of these treatments. Our data demonstrate that insemination and insemination quantity significantly affect the chemical profiles of the Dufour's gland secretion. Moreover, workers were more attracted to Dufour's gland extract from inseminated queens compared to virgins, and to the extract of MDI queens compared to extract of SDI queens. However, while there were differences in the amounts of some esters between MDI queens and the other groups, it appears that the differences in behavioral responses were elicited by subtle changes in the overall chemical profiles rather than dramatic changes in specific individual chemicals. We also found a decrease in vitellogenin gene expression in the fat body of the MDI queens, which is negatively correlated with the quantities of Dufour's gland content. The possible explanations of this reduction are discussed.

  1. Efforts to Increase the Success Rate of Artificial Insemination on Small Ruminant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The success rate of artificial insemination (AI technology in Indonesia is still low, especially on small ruminants. At experimental station condition, it was reported that the success rate of intrauterine AI was high (78.9% lambing percentage, while intracervix AI technique was still low (47.6% lambing percentage. Various things that could affect the success rate of AI program are discussed in this paper. Efforts to improve the success of artificial insemination in small ruminants (goats and sheep can be done through the selection of productive female with good reproductive cycle, accurate dose of hormonal synchronization, followed by proper estrous detection and semen placement at the right time. Each stage is still open for more detailed study in order to obtain satisfactory results.

  2. Efficacy of Intrauterine Device in the Treatment of Intrauterine Adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Umme; Xue, Min; Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Xu, Dabao

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA. PMID:25254212

  3. Efficacy of Intrauterine Device in the Treatment of Intrauterine Adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umme Salma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs. All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA.

  4. (Bunaji) breeds of cattle following artificial insemination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the fertility rate of white Fulani (Bunaji) and Friesian breeds of cattle following artificial insemination (A. I). Artificial insemination was performed following Oestrus synchronization using prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) in 368 white Fulani and 230 Friesian cows at West Africa Milk Company ...

  5. Effects of timed artificial insemination following estrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate estrus response and pregnancy rates resulting from timed artificial insemination (AI) following estrus synchronization using CIDR in postpartum beef cattle. A total of 100 cows were randomly divided into three groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were artificially inseminated at 48-50 h ...

  6. Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic-H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez David L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1 was first recognized in humans with acute respiratory diseases in April 2009 in Mexico, in swine in Canada in June, 2009 with respiratory disease, and in turkeys in Chile in June 2009 with a severe drop in egg production. Several experimental studies attempted to reproduce the disease in turkeys, but failed to produce respiratory infection in turkeys using standard inoculation routes. We demonstrated that pH1N1 virus can infect the reproductive tract of turkey hens after experimental intrauterine inoculation, causing decreased egg production. This route of exposure is realistic in modern turkey production because turkey hens are handled once a week for intrauterine insemination in order to produce fertile eggs. This understanding of virus exposure provides an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and can improve poultry husbandry to prevent disease outbreaks.

  7. Intrauterin graviditet efter Cavatermbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouh-Amiri, Ali; Kjaergaard, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A case of intrauterine pregnancy occurring after successful balloon thermal endometrial ablation is described. Although rare, pregnancy after endometrial ablation is possible, and use of a supplemental contraceptive method should be planned. In case of pregnancy after endometrial ablation......, the woman should be informed of the high risk of pregnancy complications, and termination of the pregnancy should be discussed. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-16...

  8. First deliveries after estrus induction using deslorelin and endoscopic transcervical insemination in the queen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Daniele; Bini, Costanza; Küster, Daniel Gerhard; Molari, Valeria; Cunto, Marco

    2015-09-15

    The present study consists of two distinct parts, experiment 1 and experiment 2. In experiment 1, 13 anestrous queens were treated with a 4.7-mg deslorelin subcutaneous implant to assess its effectiveness in inducing estrus in the domestic cat. Deslorelin is currently used for the reversible suppression of ovarian and testicular activity in dogs and cats and for estrus induction in the bitch. Estrus induction is also reported in the queen but never reported with a targeted study. All the queens showed a positive response to the induction protocol, and estrus was detected within an average of 5.0 ± 2.2 days after the implant placement in 13 out of 13 subjects (100%). Seven of 13 queens exhibited behavioral manifestations of estrus, and the mean number of follicles detected at ultrasound examination was 4.8 ± 1.6 per subject. In experiment 2, three of the queens previously treated with deslorelin for estrus induction were submitted to artificial insemination through endoscopic transcervical catheterization, a new nonsurgical technique for intrauterine sperm deposition. All of them (100%) were pregnant after insemination and they gave birth to healthy litters. The study, as a whole, proves the effectiveness of the 4.7-mg deslorelin subcutaneous implants in inducing estrus in the domestic cat and is, to our knowledge, the first study assessing fertility of the induced estruses. Moreover, it shows the effectiveness of endoscopic transcervical catheterization for artificial insemination in the queen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.; Lewis, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  10. Performance of automated activity monitoring systems used in combination with timed artificial insemination compared to timed artificial insemination only in early lactation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-Robichaud, J; Cerri, R L A; Jones-Bitton, A; LeBlanc, S J

    2018-01-01

    Identifying cows in estrus remains a challenge on dairy cattle farms, and tools and technologies have been developed and used to complement or replace visual detection of estrus. Automated activity monitoring (AAM) systems and timed artificial insemination (TAI) are technologies available to dairy farmers, but many factors can influence their relative performance. The objective of the present study was to compare reproductive performance of cows managed with an AAM system combined with TAI, or with a TAI program (Double Ovsynch) for insemination before 88 DIM. From April 2014 to April 2015, 998 cows from 2 herds were randomly assigned either to be inseminated at 85 ± 3 DIM exclusively using the Double Ovsynch protocol for TAI, or to be inseminated based on estrus detection by AAM without hormonal intervention between 50 and 75 DIM; if no alarm was detected by 75 DIM, cows were inseminated following the single Ovsynch protocol (AAM + Ovsynch). The herds used different AAM systems. Parity, hyperketonemia at wk 1 and 2 postpartum (PP), purulent vaginal discharge at wk 5 PP, body condition score at wk 7 PP, and anovulation to wk 9 PP were recorded. These health indicators did not significantly differ between treatments, but did between herds. The effect of treatment on pregnancy at first insemination and by 88 DIM were assessed using logistic regression models. Time to pregnancy was assessed using survival analysis. Results are reported from intention-to-treat analyses. Treatment did not affect pregnancy at first insemination or pregnancy by 88 DIM, but we found significant interactions between treatment and herd for both outcomes. In herd 2, marginal mean pregnancy at first AI was greater with Double Ovsynch (38%) than AAM + Ovsynch (31%), but no difference was observed in herd 1 (Double Ovsynch = 31%; AAM + Ovsynch = 34%). By 88 DIM, a smaller proportion of cows in herd 1 were pregnant in Double Ovsynch (31%) than AAM + Ovsynch (49%), but there was no difference in

  11. Evaluation of hormone-free protocols based on the "male effect" for artificial insemination in lactating goats during seasonal anestrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Boissard, Karine; Forgerit, Yvonnick; Pougnard, Jean Louis; Bonné, Jean Luc; Leboeuf, Bernard

    2016-03-15

    Goat estrous and ovulatory responses to the "male effect" were characterized to determine the time range over which fertile ovulations occur after buck exposure. The results were used to explore the efficacy of different hormone-free artificial insemination (AI) protocols aimed at diminishing the number of inseminations needed to optimize fertility. Adult bucks and does were exposed to artificially long days during winter and then exposed to a natural photoperiod before buck exposure (Day 0). Most goats (>70%) ovulated twice, developing a short cycle followed by a normal cycle over 13 days after buck exposure. Among them, 21% were in estrus at the short cycle and 94% at the normal cycle. This second ovulation occurred within 48 hours of Day 6 and was the target for AI protocols. In protocol A (n = 79), goats were inseminated 12 hours after estrus detection from Day 5 to Day 9. Up to six AI times over 4 days were needed to inseminate goats in estrus. Forty-nine percent of the inseminated goats kidded. In protocol B (n = 145), estrus detection started on Day 5. The earlier (group 1) and later (group 2) buck-marked goats received one single insemination at fixed times on Days 6.5 or 7 and 8, respectively; unmarked goats (group 3) were inseminated along with group 2. In protocol C (n = 153), goats were inseminated twice on Days 6.5 or 7 and 8 without needing to detect estrus. Goats induced to ovulate by hormonal treatment were used as the control (n = 319). Fertility was lower in protocol B than in protocol C and controls (47% vs. 58% and 65% kidding; P ≤ 0.05), whereas this was higher in buck-marked goats than in unmarked ones (64% vs. 33%; P ≤ 0.05). In protocol B, fertility can increase (>60%) when only goats coming into estrus are inseminated. The best kidding rate (∼70%) was achieved when does were inseminated within 24 hours of the LH surge. Protocols involving insemination on Day 7 instead of Day 6.5 led to more goats being inseminated during this

  12. Effects of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen insemination volume on worker behavior and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colonies consist of tens of thousands of workers and a single reproductive queen that produces a pheromone blend which maintains colony organization. Previous studies indicated that the insemination quantity and volume alter queen mandibular pheromone profiles. In our 11-month long field s...

  13. Economic consequences of immediate or delayed insemination of a cowhhhh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Most dairy farmers are not certain whether immediate insemination or delaying the insemination is the best economic decision for a cow in oestrus. A model was developed for determining, based on herd and cow characteristics, the economic consequences of immediate or delayed insemination. The model

  14. Intravesical migration of an intrauterine device

    OpenAIRE

    Gyasi-Sarpong, Christian Kofi; Maison, Patrick Opoku Manu; Morhe, Emmanuel; Aboah, Ken; Appiah, Kwaku Addai-Arhin; Azorliade, Roland; Baah-Nyamekye, Kofi; Otu-Boateng, Kwaku; Amoah, George; Antwi, Isaac; Frimpong-Twumasi, Benjamin; Arthur, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Background Intrauterine contraceptive device is the most common method of reversible contraception in women. The intrauterine contraceptive device can perforate the uterus and can also migrate into pelvic or abdominal organs. Perforation of the urinary bladder by an intrauterine contraceptive device is not common. In West Africa, intravesical migration of an intrauterine contraceptive device has been rarely reported. In this report, we present a case of an intrauterine contraceptive device mi...

  15. ANTENATAL PROGNOSIS OF INTRAUTERINE INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Владимировна Ренге

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion. Taking into account the clinical and immunological predictors the integrated approach allows us to estimate the risk of intrauterine infection and the risk of complications during the neonatal period with a probability of 90 %.

  16. Harvesting Sperm and Artificial Insemination of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duselis, Amanda R.; Vrana, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    Rodents of the genus Peromyscus (deer mice) are the most prevalent native North American mammals. Peromyscus species are used in a wide range of research including toxicology, epidemiology, ecology, behavioral, and genetic studies. Here they provide a useful model for demonstrations of artificial insemination. Methods similar to those displayed here have previously been used in several deer mouse studies, yet no detailed protocol has been published. Here we demonstrate the basic method of artificial insemination. This method entails extracting the testes from the rodent, then isolating the sperm from the epididymis and vas deferens. The mature sperm, now in a milk mixture, are placed in the female’s reproductive tract at the time of ovulation. Fertilization is counted as day 0 for timing of embryo development. Embryos can then be retrieved at the desired time-point and manipulated. Artificial insemination can be used in a variety of rodent species where exact embryo timing is crucial or hard to obtain. This technique is vital for species or strains (including most Peromyscus) which may not mate immediately and/or where mating is hard to assess. In addition, artificial insemination provides exact timing for embryo development either in mapping developmental progress and/or transgenic work. Reduced numbers of animals can be used since fertilization is guaranteed. This method has been vital to furthering the Peromyscus system, and will hopefully benefit others as well. PMID:18978991

  17. Nonsurgical Artificial Insemination in the Ewe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination (AI) is not readily utilized with sheep because of a lack of knowledge and infrastructure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the timing of AI with a synchronized estrous on fertility and the impact of cryopreservation diluents on post-thaw sperm quality. The estrous...

  18. Control of estrus and ovulation: Fertility to timed insemination of gilts and sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rensis, F; Kirkwood, R N

    2016-10-01

    It is possible to control follicular development in gilts and sows with the use of hormones including the progestogen altrenogest, GnRH, eCG, hCG, and porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH). These hormones can be used to develop protocols for control of estrus with artificial insemination (AI) timed to estrus detection (timed artificial insemination; TAI) or to control estrus and ovulation with insemination at a fixed time without the requirement of estrus detection (fixed-timed artificial insemination; FTAI). In cyclic gilts, double TAI after protocols based on altrenogest and eCG plus hCG administration can achieve a 70% of farrowing rate. Valuable results can be obtained in weaned sows by the utilization of protocols based on eCG administration at weaning and then GnRH or pLH at estrus onset followed by single or double TAI. In cyclic gilts, single or double FTAI regardless of estrus expression can be applied after protocols based on altrenogest administration followed by eCG and then GnRH, hCG, or pLH some hours later; farrowing rates are similar to control animals inseminated at estrus detection. With sows, a protocol based on eCG administration at weaning and hCG, GnRH, or pLH some hours later followed by single or double FTAI can give fertility rates comparable to control animal inseminated at estrus. Most recently, injection or vaginal deposition of GnRH 96 hours after weaning followed by a single FTAI 24 to 30 hours later is resulting in reproductive performance not different to animals subject to multiple inseminations after natural estrus. It is possible to apply FTAI in lactating sows. The protocols are based on eCG during lactation followed by hCG and FTAI. These protocols will induce ovulation during lactation, but pregnancy rates are reduced. However, in the future, a better knowledge on the effect of hormone administration on follicular dynamics during lactation may allow the development of more effective protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Treatment of infertile women with unilateral tubal occlusion by intrauterine insemination and ovarian stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Huei Lin

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: Infertile patients with only unilateral proximal tubal occlusion detected on HSG can be treated initially by IUI combined with ovarian stimulation. The cycle outcomes in patients with proximal tubal occlusion are similar to patients with unexplained infertility. However, the stimulated IUI might not be a good choice for patients with unilateral mid-distal tubal occlusion because of a lower success rate, although further evidence is needed.

  20. Influencing factors in the pregnancy rate in obese women undergoing artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sánchez-Cruzat Albertín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of obesity on the outcome of assisted reproduction treatments is debatable. Several studies show that obese women have worse outcomes after undergoing fertility treatment. The researches show a worse response to ovulation induction. In the ovarian stimulation stage these women produce fewer follicles. Fertilization rates are poorer and the embryo quality is lower in young women suffering from obesity. According to some studies, pregnancy rates are lower in obese women and there is an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. Weight loss increases the chance of spontaneous ovulation and conception in women that suffer from overweight and obesity.The aim of this study is to describe the different influencing factors related to body mass index in pregnancy rate achieved by artificial insemination in our population.The results of this study show significant results in patients with higher body mass index was positively associated with duration of infertility, lower levels of luteinizing hormone and intrauterine artificial insemination indication increased .It appears more frequently, but without significant result, anovulation and unexplained cause of infertility among obese women, longer cycles, fewer antral follicles and get fewer mature follicles. The average of pregnancy rates was 12.6% but it did not differ significantly among the body mass index categories.

  1. [Antibody induction after intrauterine interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, J; Giers, G; Bald, R; Hansmann, M; Hanfland, P

    1993-06-01

    Immunohematologic and clinical data, i.e., antibody profile, location of the placenta, mode of cordocentesis, obtained from 48 pregnant patients with irregular erythrocyte antibodies during the last 2 years have been retrospectively evaluated. All fetuses of the patients received intrauterine transfusions for the treatment of fetal erythroblastosis. In 16 (33%) patients (group I) a secondarily induced antibody was detected after the onset of intrauterine transfusion therapy. 32 (67%) patients (group II) did not further develop new antibody specificities. Group I exhibited a significantly different distribution in the location of the placenta (p pregnant women. In group I a 5-fold higher rate of anterior than posterior placenta location was found. The mode of cordocentesis differed significantly (p antibodies by invasive intrauterine interventions in our patients depended indirectly on the location of the placenta and directly on the mode of the puncture (trans- vs. paraplacental access).

  2. Estrous cycle characterisation and artificial insemination using frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Yoshioka, M; Jensen, E; O'Brien, J K; Katsumata, E; Gili, C; McBain, J F; Sweeney, J; Monfort, S L

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive endocrinology of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, was characterized to facilitate the development of artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Specific objectives were: (i) to determine the excretory dynamics of urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovarian steroid metabolites during the estrous cycle; (ii) to evaluate the effect of an exogenously administered synthetic progesterone analog (altrenogest) on reproductive hormone excretion; (iii) to correlate follicular growth and ovulation (as determined by transabdominal ultrasound) to urinary LH and ovarian steroid metabolites; (iv) examine the in vivo fertilisation capacity of cryopreserved semen, and (v) to develop an intrauterine insemination technique. Based on urinary endocrine monitoring of natural estrous cycles (2 consecutive cycles) and nine post altrenogest cycles in ten females, estrous cycles were found to be 36 days long and comprised of an 8 day and 19 day follicular and luteal phase, respectively. Peak estrogen conjugates (EC; 5.4+/-3.8 ng/mg creatinine (Cr)) occurred 8 h prior to the LH surge (70.9+/-115.7 ng/mg Cr). The time of ovulation, as determined by ultrasonography, occurred 32.1+/-8.9 h and 24.3+/-7.0 h after the onset of the LH surge and LH peak, respectively. Mean preovulatory follicular diameter and circumference were 2.1+/-0.5 cm and 6.5+/-1.5 cm, respectively. Of the 27 estrous synchronisation attempts, 13 resulted in an ovulatory cycle, with ovulation occurring 21 days post-altrenogest treatment. Intrauterine (4 of 5) and intracornual (1 of 3) inseminations conducted across eight estrous cycles resulted in five pregnancies (63%), one pregnancy resulted from the use of liquid stored semen, whereas four were achieved using cryopreserved semen. These data provide new information on female bottlenose dolphin reproductive physiology, and demonstrate that the combination of endocrine monitoring and serial ultrasonography contributed to successful AI

  3. Training Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for Artificial Insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) K. V. Keller, Jr. 1a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT IlYai. WMt...ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (Tursiops truncatus) FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION Karl V. Keller Naval Ocean Systems Center, Hawaii Laboratory Kailua, HI 96734...INTRODUCTION The Naval Ocean Systems Center, Hawaii Laboratory, for the past eight years has maintained an artificial insemination (AI) program for

  4. Laparoscopic oviductal artificial insemination improves pregnancy success in exogenous gonadotropin-treated domestic cats as a model for endangered felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Valéria A; Bateman, Helen L; Schook, Mandi W; Newsom, Jackie; Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Deddens, James A; Swanson, William F

    2013-07-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) in cats traditionally uses equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce follicular development and ovulation, with subsequent bilateral laparoscopic intrauterine insemination. However, long-acting hCG generates undesirable secondary ovulations in cats. Uterine AI also requires relatively high numbers of spermatozoa for fertilization (~8 × 10(6) sperm), and unfortunately, sperm recovery from felids is frequently poor. Using short-acting porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) instead of hCG, and using the oviduct as the site of sperm deposition, could improve fertilization success while requiring fewer spermatozoa. Our objectives were to compare pregnancy and fertilization success between 1) uterine and oviductal inseminations and 2) eCG/hCG and eCG/pLH regimens in domestic cats. Sixteen females received either eCG (100 IU)/hCG (75 IU) or eCG (100 IU)/pLH (1000 IU). All females ovulated and were inseminated in one uterine horn and the contralateral oviduct using fresh semen (1 × 10(6) motile sperm/site) from a different male for each site. Pregnant females (11/16; 69%) were spayed approximately 20 days post-AI, and fetal paternity was genetically determined. The number of corpora lutea (CL) at AI was similar between hormone regimens, but hCG increased the number of CL at 20 days post-AI. Numbers of pregnancies and normal fetuses were similar between regimens. Implantation abnormalities were observed in the hCG group only. Finally, oviductal AI produced more fetuses than uterine AI. In summary, laparoscopic oviductal AI with low sperm numbers in eCG/hCG- or eCG/pLH-treated females resulted in high pregnancy and fertilization percentages in domestic cats. Our subsequent successes with oviductal AI in eCG/pLH-treated nondomestic felids to produce healthy offspring supports cross-species applicability.

  5. Short communication: Field fertility in Holstein bulls: Can type of breeding strategy (artificial insemination following estrus versus timed artificial insemination) alter service sire fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Carvalho, P D; Rivera, H; Cabrera, V; Wiltbank, M C; Baruselli, P S; Souza, A H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) from service sires used on artificial insemination after estrus detection (EAI) or timed artificial insemination (TAI) breedings. Confirmed artificial insemination outcome records from 3 national data centers were merged and used as a data source. Criteria edits were herd's overall P/AI within 20 and 60%, a minimum of 30 breedings reported per herd-year, service sires that were used in at least 10 different herds with no more than 40% of the breedings performed in a single herd, breeding records from lactating Holstein cows receiving their first to fifth postpartum breedings occurring within 45 to 375 d in milk, and cows with 1 to 5 lactations producing a minimum of 6,804 kg. Initially 1,142,859 breeding records were available for analysis. After editing, a subset of the data (n=857,539) was used to classify breeding codes into either EAI or TAI based on weekly insemination profile in each individual herd. The procedure HPMIXED of SAS was used and took into account effects of state, farm, cow identification, breeding month, year, parity, days in milk at breeding, and service sire. This model was used independently for the 2 types osires f breeding codes (EAI vs. TAI), and service sire P/AI rankings within each breeding code were performed for sires with >700 breedings (94 sires) and for with >1,000 breedings (n=56 sires) following both EAI and TAI. Correlation for service sire fertility rankings following EAI and TAI was performed with the PROC CORR of SAS. Service sire P/AI rankings produced with EAI and TAI were 0.81 (for sires with >700 breedings) and 0.84 (for sires with >1,000 breedings). In addition, important changes occurred in service sire P/AI ranking to EAI and TAI for sires with less than 10,000 recorded artificial inseminations. In conclusion, the type of breeding strategy (EAI or TAI) was associated with some changes in service sire P/AI ranking, but ranking changes

  6. Need of reevaluation of the parameters of semen straws to be used in artificial insemination programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Angel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In buffalo industry artificial insemination is being used in breeding programs of our country . It has limitations such us seasonality, difficult estrus detection and low pregnancy rates when compared with cattle. IATF programs using a single insemination show results from 10 to 50% pregnancy rate, little information is available about minimum requirements of spermatozoa for IA. The aim of this paper is to compare the pregnancy rates after using narual mating or frozen semen in a sincronization of ovulation program. This work were conducted in Pueblo Nuevo Cordoba Colombia in August during the breeding season of 2005-6. 99 multiparous crossbred females were used with 50 to 150 postpartum days. Body score condition of 3,5 to 4. All animals were palpated to exclude anatomical alterations. Ovsynch protocol for IATF reported by Baruselli (2000, they were allocated in two groups: Buffalo group, after the last GnRH analog injection 17 females were allocated with 5 bulls, and IATF Group 82 females were inseminated 16 hours later. The semen of 7 different buffalo bulls were used and evaluated and qualified as normal. Inseminations were performed by 3 different technicians. A blood sample was obtained 20 days after IA to determine pregnancy by determinations of P4 levels using chemiluminiscence, ≥1ng/ml were used as cut off value to determine pregnancy. Data were compared using Chi square test. 70% (12/17 females of the bull group and 29% (24/82 of IATF group were diagnosed us pregnant using P4, this difference were statistically significant (P≤0.001. Buffalo bulls mount all females. No statistical differences were found in pregnancy rates of the bulls used for IATF, from 12% to 37 %, one exceptional bull obtain 71%. As expected bulls have higher pregnancy rates than artificial insemination, the results obtained here allow researchers to evaluated semen quality, specially density to improve results IATF in buffaloes.

  7. A comparison of timed artificial insemination and automated activity monitoring with hormone intervention in 3 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K A; Silvia, W J; Heersche, G; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Bewley, J M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of cows inseminated based on automated activity monitoring with hormone intervention (AAM) to cows from the same herds inseminated using only an intensive timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. Cows (n=523) from 3 commercial dairy herds participated in this study. To be considered eligible for participation, cows must have been classified with a body condition score of at least 2.50, but no more than 3.50, passed a reproductive tract examination, and experienced no incidences of clinical, recorded metabolic diseases in the current lactation. Within each herd, cows were balanced for parity and predicted milk yield, then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: TAI or AAM. Cows assigned to the TAI group were subjected to an ovulation synchronization protocol consisting of presynchronization, Ovsynch, and Resynch for up to 3 inseminations. Cows assigned to the AAM treatment were fitted with a leg-mounted accelerometer (AfiAct Pedometer Plus, Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) at least 10 d before the end of the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP). Cows in the AAM treatment were inseminated at times indicated by the automated alert system for up to 90 d after the VWP. If an open cow experienced no AAM alert for a 39±7-d period (beginning at the end of the VWP), hormone intervention in the form of a single injection of either PGF2α or GnRH (no TAI) was permitted as directed by the herd veterinarian. Subsequent to hormone intervention, cows were inseminated when alerted in estrus by the AAM system. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 33 to 46 d after insemination. Pregnancy loss was determined via a second ultrasound after 60 d pregnant. Timed artificial insemination cows experienced a median 11.0 d shorter time to first service. Automated activity-monitored cows experienced a median 17.5-d shorter service interval. No treatment difference in probability of pregnancy to first AI, probability

  8. Insemination, pregnancy and abortion rates in a population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insemination, pregnancy and abortion rates in a population of Glossina palpalis palpalis (robineau-desvoidy) at a relict forest in the Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria. ... The results indicate that nutritional and physical stress were the likely constraints to optimum productivity. Keywords: insemination, pregnancy ...

  9. Oestrus synchronization with fixed-time artificial insemination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study obtained a farrowing rate of 82.6% and litter size of 9.2 ± 0.32 after oestrus synchronization with timed insemination. Oestrus synchronization facilitated the insemination of a batch of sows at particular locations covering two to three village clusters, which drastically reduced the transport costs for the semen.

  10. Constraints to adoption of artificial insemination techniques in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    constraints to adoption of artificial insemination techniques by livestock owners in Bauchi LGA were investigated using some randomly selected respondents. Of the constraints considered, the most important among the village livestock owners was lack of artificial insemination facilities (84. 3%) while the least was the ...

  11. Häufig gestellte Fragen zur intrauterinen Insemination (IUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zech J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lediglich Fachärzte für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe dürfen laut österreichischem Fortpflanzungsmedizingesetz intrauterine Inseminationen durchführen. Nach Vorlage eines Notariatsakts ist es auch unverheirateten Paaren gestattet, diesen Eingriff vornehmen zu lassen. In Österreich ist die Durchführung einer heterologen Insemination (Samen von Dritten in dafür zugelassenen Krankenanstalten erlaubt. Die häufigste Indikation für eine IUI ist die idiopathische Infertilität, aber auch bei Ejakulationsproblemen und bei Pathologien an der Portio und der Cervix uteri sowie bei immunologischen Erkrankungen findet die IUI ihre Anwendung. Grundsätzlich ist bei Frauen mit einem regelmäßigen Zyklus eine hormonelle Stimulation nicht vonnöten. Zu beachten ist, dass eine hormonelle Stimulation zwar zur Steigerung der Erfolgschancen führt, jedoch häufig auch mit Komplikationen, wie beispielsweise Mehrlingsschwangerschaften oder einer Überstimulation, verbunden ist. Wichtig bei der Samenaufbereitung für eine IUI ist die Trennung der Spermien von Seminalflüssigkeit, Bakterien, Leukozyten und Zelldebris sowie die Gewinnung von 2–5 Millionen gut beweglichen Spermien. Es gibt unterschiedliche Aufbereitungsmethoden wie die Swim-up-Technik oder die Dichte-Gradienten-Zentrifugation, welche jedoch für die Aufreinigung der Spermien Zentrifugationsschritte benötigen, was eine mechanische Belastung für die Spermien darstellt. Eine neue, sehr einfache, schonende und kostengünstige Methode bietet der Zech-Selector®, welcher als einzige Methode in der Lage ist, auf einfache Weise nahezu alle Spermien mit DNAStrangbrüchen zu eliminieren. Ein weiterer wichtiger Bestandteil für eine erfolgreiche IUI ist die Wahl des Katheters. Dieser muss für die IUI zugelassen sein und darf beim Einführen keine Schleimhautverletzungen herbeiführen. Des Weiteren sollten nicht mehr als 0,5 ml Flüssigkeit in das Cavum uteri eingespritzt werden. Optimal ist es, die

  12. Intrauterine Devices Penetrated and Migrated: CT Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Restrepo, Jorge; Lopez, Juan Esteban; Aldana Sepulveda, Natalia; Ruiz Zabaleta, Tania; Mazzaro Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine devices have been used for over 40 years, and they constitute the most widely accepted method of contraception among women because of the low rates of complications and low cost. Although uncommon, with the growing use of multidetector CT penetrated and migrated intrauterine devices have become a more common incidental finding. In some cases, intrauterine devices migrate to adjacent viscera, in particular the bladder and bowel and may give rise to symptoms. Consequently tomographic localization and characterization are essential for treatment planning.

  13. Fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Crepaldi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI in buffalo has limited use worldwide due the difficulties in the estrus detection and in finding an adequate moment for this procedure. Therefore, an alternative to increase the number of buffalo that are inseminated is the use of protocols that allow the AI without the need of estrus detection, usually called fixed-time AI (FTAI. Our expanding knowledge of the control of follicular wave dynamics during the buffalo estrous cycle has resulted in renewed enthusiasm for the prospects of precisely control of the follicular and luteal dynamics and finely controlling the time of ovulation. Follicular wave development can be controlled by treatments with GnRH or estradiol and progestogen/progesterone in combination. Treatment of buffalo with GnRH in combination with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α 7 d later and a second GnRH 48 h after PGF2α (known as Ovsynch has resulted in acceptable pregnancy rates after FTAI in cycling buffalo during the breeding season. FTAI protocols using progestin devices, estradiol and eCG have resulted in synchronous onset of a new follicular wave, synchronous ovulation and consistent pregnancy rates in anestrous buffalo during the off breeding season. The combination of these protocols permits the use of AI throughout the year, obtaining conception and calving even in anestrus buffalo during the off breeding season.

  14. Intravesical migration of an intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyasi-Sarpong, Christian Kofi; Maison, Patrick Opoku Manu; Morhe, Emmanuel; Aboah, Ken; Appiah, Kwaku Addai-Arhin; Azorliade, Roland; Baah-Nyamekye, Kofi; Otu-Boateng, Kwaku; Amoah, George; Antwi, Isaac; Frimpong-Twumasi, Benjamin; Arthur, Douglas

    2016-01-02

    Intrauterine contraceptive device is the most common method of reversible contraception in women. The intrauterine contraceptive device can perforate the uterus and can also migrate into pelvic or abdominal organs. Perforation of the urinary bladder by an intrauterine contraceptive device is not common. In West Africa, intravesical migration of an intrauterine contraceptive device has been rarely reported. In this report, we present a case of an intrauterine contraceptive device migration into the urinary bladder of a 33 year old African woman at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. A 33 year old African woman presented with persistent urinary tract infection of 7 months duration despite appropriate antibiotic treatments. An abdominal ultrasonography revealed a urinary bladder calculus which was found to be an intrauterine contraceptive device on removal at cystoscopy. She got pregnant whilst having the intrauterine contraceptive device in place and delivered at term. The presence of recurrent or persistent urinary tract infection in any woman with an intrauterine contraceptive device should raise the suspicion of intravesical migration of the intrauterine contraceptive device.

  15. Fixed-time post-cervical artificial insemination in sows receiving porcine luteinising hormone at oestrus onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, D L; Ulguim, R R; Sbardella, P E; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2014-01-30

    Fixed-time post-cervical artificial insemination (FTPCAI) allows a wider use of high indexing boars and a considerable reduction in labour requirements in swine production. The aim of this study was to evaluate fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) efficiency using different artificial insemination protocols and porcine luteinising hormone (pLH) to induce ovulation. A total of 597 weaned sows in which oestrus detection was performed once daily (08:00 am) was allocated to three groups: FTPCAI1 (n=199) - sows received a 5-mg (4 ml) intramuscular injection of pLH at oestrus onset, and were inseminated 24h later; FTPCAI2 (n=199) - sows received 5mg of pLH and were inseminated at oestrus onset (0 h) and 24h after; and MultPCAI (n=199) - sows did not receive pLH, and the first AI was performed at oestrus onset (0 h) and repeated every 24h during oestrus. Homospermic doses (1.5 × 10(9) total sperm cells/50 ml) were used in post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI) in all the treatments. Hormonal treatment did not affect (P>0.05) the interval between oestrus onset and ovulation (overall 32.4h) and there were no differences (P>0.05) in farrowing rate (overall 91.6%) or litter size (overall 12.6 piglets born) among treatments. In sows treated with pLH at oestrus onset, a single PCAI with 1.5 billion sperm cells did not compromise reproductive performance compared with a double PCAI at 24h intervals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of intrauterine treatment with cephapirin in dairy cows with purulent vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tison, N; Bouchard, E; DesCôteaux, L; Lefebvre, R C

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of cephapirin intrauterine treatment preceding a timed artificial insemination protocol in lactating dairy cows with purulent vaginal discharges (PVDs). Holstein dairy cows (n = 1247) from 18 herds were enrolled in a controlled randomized clinical trial. At 34 days in milk (DIM; ±7 days), cows had a genital examination (transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy, and uterine bacteriology). They were randomly assigned to either the control group (CONT, no treatment) or the treatment group (CEPH) consisting of 1 intrauterine infusion of 500-mg cephapirin benzathine (RCL) (Metricure, Merck Animal Health, Montreal, Canada) regardless of the uterine health status. All cows were systematically enrolled in a presynch-ovsynch protocol for the first insemination. A second genital examination was made 2 weeks later. Cows that received any systemic or local antibiotics 10 days prior sampling to the end of the synchronization protocol were excluded from the study. Reproductive data of cows were collected for at least 300 DIM, entered in a databank, and validated (health record management software, DSAHR). Pregnancy diagnosis was done by transrectal palpation at the routinely scheduled veterinarian visits. On the basis of the highest sum of sensibility and specificity for pregnancy status at 120 DIM, the optimal cutoff for vaginal discharge score was determined as the presence of cloudy discharge with or without purulent material (PVD+, score 2). With a prevalence of 21.6% at 34 DIM, PVD+ was detrimental to the first-service conception rate (FSCR; PVD+: 26 ± 5%; PVD-: 40 ± 3%; P = 0.02). The negative effect of PVD+ was indicated by a hazard ratio of 0.72 (chi-square = 8.58; P < 0.01; 95% confidence interval = 0.56-0.91). Treatment with cephapirin was associated with a significant improvement of the FSCR in PVD+ cows (PVD+ CEPH: 36 ± 5%, PVD+ CONT: 23 ± 5%; P < 0.05), although it did not produce a

  17. Predictors of Pregnancy and Live Birth in Couples with Unexplained or Male-factor Infertility after Insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R.; Factor-Litvak, Pamela; Carson, Sandra A.; Guzick, David S.; Santoro, Nanette; Diamond, Michael P.; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for pregnancy outcomes in couples treated with intracervical or intrauterine insemination, with or without superovulation for unexplained or male-factor infertility. The treatment continued for four cycles unless pregnancy was achieved. Design Secondary analysis of data from a randomized superovulation and intrauterine insemination trial. Setting Academic medical centers. Intervention(s) None. Patients Out of 932 couples randomized to four treatment groups, 664 couples who had completed the lifestyle questionnaires were assessed for occurrence of pregnancy and live birth. Main outcome measure(s) pregnancy and live birth. Results The pregnancy and live birth rates were significantly higher in couples in which the female partners reported that they had consumed coffee or tea in the past or drank alcoholic beverages in the past (past users) when compared to those who had never consumed coffee or tea (4.0, 1.6–10.2 for pregnancy; 3.1, 1.2–8.1 for live birth) or alcoholic beverages (1.9, 1.1–3.3 for pregnancy; 2.1, 1.2–3.7 for live birth) (data are adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval). Past users also had significantly higher pregnancy and live birth rates than those who were currently consuming coffee or tea or alcoholic beverages. Demographic, occupational exposures and other lifestyle factors were not significant. Conclusion(s) Couples in which the female partners drank coffee, tea, or alcoholic beverages in the past had higher pregnancy and live birth rates when compared to never or current users. When discontinuing these habits, they might have made other lifestyle changes to improve the pregnancy outcome. PMID:22270557

  18. Laparoscopic Retrieval Of Perforated Intrauterine Device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of successful laparoscopic retrieval of a perforated intrauterine device (Lippes loop). The Lippes loop was inserted after manual intrauterine adhesiolysis as a treatment of uterine synaechia presenting as secondary amenorrhoea of 20 months duration. The uterine perforation in this patient did not occur at ...

  19. Successful Intrauterine Pregnancy following salpingostomy; Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by salpingostomy, after which she had spontaneous abortion of the associated intrauterine pregnancy. Result: Initial marital disharmony, followed by an uneventful intrauterine pregnancy carried to term with caesarean delivery of a live female baby. Conclusion: In well-selected cases, conservative tubal surgeries should be ...

  20. Artificial insemination: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, R

    2003-01-15

    The history of research into artificial insemination (AI) is over two centuries old and its commercial application now spans 75 years. It is appropriate to reflect on the contribution of this powerful method of gene dispersal. AI remains as one of the most important assisted reproductive technologies. The three cornerstones for its application are: it is simple, economical and successful. The importance of AI will be challenged in the next few decades. The remarkable progress made in other assisted reproductive technologies does have the potential to rapidly generate offspring. The challenge for any of these reproductive technologies to attain widespread use is to match AI in being simple, economical and successful. This review aims at capturing the salient advances in AI, the comparisons with natural mating and other reproductive technologies, and, whether the future of AI will be challenged. It predicts what the new horizon looks like and the role that AI will play in the overall reproductive technologies landscape.

  1. The effect of intrauterine inoculation with Ureaplasma diversum on bovine fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, C M; Ruhnke, H L; Miller, R B; Doig, P A

    1987-10-01

    To determine the influence of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine fertility 11 uninfected virgin heifers with normal ovarian cyclic activity were randomly allocated to test or control groups. At a synchronized estrus, five test heifers were given an intrauterine broth inoculum containing 1.09 x 10(8) to 1.4 x 10(9) colony forming units of U. diversum and six control animals were infused with sterile ureaplasma broth medium. All animals were artificially inseminated within one hour of infusion. Pregnancy was diagnosed in one of five test heifers and all of six controls by serum progesterone concentrations measured to 25 days postinsemination. The difference in pregnancy rates between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.0152). It was concluded that under the conditions of this experiment U. diversum is capable of causing infertility in cattle.

  2. The effect of slow release insemination on pregnancy rates: report of two randomized controlled pilot studies and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschalek, Julian; Franz, Maximilian; Gonen, Yael; Kruessel, Jan-Steffen; Weichselbaum, Amnon; Kuessel, Lorenz; Trofaier, Marie-Louise; Ott, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    A modified application technique of intrauterine insemination (IUI) is slow release insemination (SRI), first described by Muharib et al. (Hum Reprod 7(2):227-229, 1992), who postulated higher pregnancy rates with a slow release of spermatozoa for 3 h. To investigate this approach, two randomized controlled, cross-over pilot studies were performed from 2004 to 2006 in Israel and Germany to compare SRI with the standard bolus IUI. We aimed to present the results and perform a meta-analysis on available data for SRI. Univariate comparisons of pregnancy rates were performed using one-tailed z tests for method superiority. For meta-analysis, a fixed-effect Mantel-Haentzel weighted average of relative risk was performed. Fifty treatment cycles (IUI: n = 25, SRI: n = 25) were performed in Germany, achieving four pregnancies (IUI: 4%, SRI: 12%, p > 0.05). Thirty-nine treatment cycles (IUI: n = 19, SRI: n = 20) were performed in Israel achieving six pregnancies (IUI: 10.5%, SRI: 20%; p > 0.05). Meta-analysis of all eligible studies for SRI (n = 3) revealed a combined relative risk for pregnancy after SRI of 2.64 (95% CI 1.04-6.74), p = 0.02). In conclusion, these results lend support to the hypothesis that the pregnancy rate might be improved by SRI compared to the standard bolus technique.

  3. Glucocorticoid programming of intrauterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Valenzuela, O A; Vaughan, O R; Jellyman, J K; Forhead, A J

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important environmental and maturational signals during intrauterine development. Toward term, the maturational rise in fetal glucocorticoid receptor concentrations decreases fetal growth and induces differentiation of key tissues essential for neonatal survival. When cortisol levels rise earlier in gestation as a result of suboptimal conditions for fetal growth, the switch from tissue accretion to differentiation is initiated prematurely, which alters the phenotype that develops from the genotype inherited at conception. Although this improves the chances of survival should delivery occur, it also has functional consequences for the offspring long after birth. Glucocorticoids are, therefore, also programming signals that permanently alter tissue structure and function during intrauterine development to optimize offspring fitness. However, if the postnatal environmental conditions differ from those signaled in utero, the phenotypical outcome of early-life glucocorticoid receptor overexposure may become maladaptive and lead to physiological dysfunction in the adult. This review focuses on the role of GCs in developmental programming, primarily in farm species. It examines the factors influencing GC bioavailability in utero and the effects that GCs have on the development of fetal tissues and organ systems, both at term and earlier in gestation. It also discusses the windows of susceptibility to GC overexposure in early life together with the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of GC programming with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine phenotype of the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Artificial insemination in captive Whooping Cranes: Results from genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, Jane M.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.

  5. Estimating probability of insemination success using milk progesterone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavy, P; Friggens, N C; Nielsen, K R; Christensen, J M; Derks, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of progesterone profile features and other cow-level factors on insemination success to provide a real-time predictor equation of probability of insemination success. Progesterone profiles from 26 dairy herds were analyzed and the effects of profile features (progesterone slope, cycle length, and cycle height) and cow traits (milk yield, parity, insemination during the previous estrus) on likelihood of artificial insemination success were estimated. The equation was fitted on a training data set containing data from 16 herds (6,246 estrous cycles from 3,404 lactations). The equation was tested on a testing data set containing data from 10 herds (8,105 estrous cycles from 3,038 lactations). Predictors were selected to be implemented in the final equation if adding them to a base model correcting for timing of insemination and parity decreased the overall likelihood distance of the model. Selected variables (cycle length, milk yield, cycle height, and insemination during the previous estrus) were used to build the final model using a stepwise approach. Predictors were added 1 by 1 in different order, and the model that had the smallest likelihood distance was selected. The final equation included the variables timing of insemination, parity, milk yield, cycle length, cycle height, and insemination during the previous estrus, respectively. The final model was applied to the testing data set and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. On the testing data set, the final model had an AUC of 58%. When the farm effect was taken into account, the AUC increased to 63%. This equation can be implemented on farms that monitor progesterone and can support the farmer in deciding when to inseminate a cow. This can be the first step in moving the focus away from the current paradigm associated with poorer estrus detection, where each detected estrus is automatically inseminated, to near perfect estrus detection, where the

  6. A randomized, multi-center, clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of alginate carboxymethylcellulose hyaluronic acid compared to carboxymethylcellulose hyaluronic acid to prevent postoperative intrauterine adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tak; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Choi, Doo Seok; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Lee, Byoung Ick; Jung, Min Hyung; Kim, Jae Weon; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Cha, Sun Hee; Lee, Ki Hwan; Lee, Kyu Sup; Oh, Sung Tack; Cho, Chi Heum; Rhee, Jeong Ho

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the efficacy of alginate carboxymethylcellulose hyaluronic acid (ACH) gel to prevent intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopic surgery in comparison with carboxymethylcellulose hyaluronic acid (CH) gel, which is known as an effective adhesion inhibitor. Randomized, multicenter, single-blind, clinical trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). Tertiary university hospital. One hundred eighty-seven patients with a surgically treatable intrauterine lesion (myomas, polyps, septa, intrauterine adhesion, dysfunctional uterine bleeding). Patients were randomized to 2 groups: hysteroscopic surgery plus intrauterine application of ACH or CH. The rate of adhesion formation and the adhesion severity score with type and extent were calculated 4 weeks after surgery. The ACH group had results that were comparable to the CH group in terms of the development of intrauterine adhesions at 4 weeks follow-up. The adhesion severities were not different between the 2 groups. In a subgroup without baseline intrauterine adhesion, the ACH group showed a lower intrauterine adhesion rate than the CH group (p = .016). ACH had a comparable efficacy to CH in terms of the adhesion rate and severity. In the case of no baseline intrauterine adhesion, intrauterine application of ACH after hysteroscopic surgery had a lower rate of intrauterine adhesion than application of CH. Copyright © 2012 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Artificial insemination for breeding non-domestic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Temple, S.A.; Watson, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    Captive breeding of non-domestic birds has increased dramatically in this century, and production of young often exceeds that of the same number of birds in their native habitat. However, when infertility is a problem, artificial insemination can be a useful method to improve production. Artificial insemination programs with non-domestic birds are relatively recent, but several notable successes have been documented, especially with cranes and raptors. Three methods of artificial insemination are described--cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation. Cooperative artificial insemination requires training of birds imprinted on man and is used extensively in some raptor programs. The massage technique generally is used when there are larger numbers of birds to inseminate since it requires less training of the birds than with the cooperative method, and a larger number of attempted semen collections are successful. Although the best samples are obtained from birds conditioned to capture and handling procedures associated with the massage method, samples can be obtained from wild birds. Semen collection and insemination for the crane serves to illustrate some of the modifications necessary to compensate for anatomical variations. Collection of semen by electrical stimulation is not commonly used in birds. Unlike the other two methods which require behavioral cooperation by the bird, electroejaculation is possible in reproductively active birds without prior conditioning when properly restrained. Fertility from artificial insemination in captive non-domestic-birds has been good. Although some spermatozoal morphology has been reported, most aspects of morphology are not useful in predicting fertility. However, spermatozoal head length in the crane may have a positive correlation with fertility. Nevertheless, insemination with the largest number of live spermatozoa is still the best guarantee of fertile egg production.

  8. Neutrophil recruitment and phagocytosis of boar spermatozoa after artificial insemination of sows, and the effects of inseminate volume, sperm dose and specific additives in the extender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijs, A.; Engel, B.; Woelders, H.

    2003-01-01

    In this study the recruitment of leucocytes and phagocytosis of spermatozoa after artificial insemination of multiparous sows was investigated. In Expt 1, groups of sows received either no inseminate (n = 6) or inseminates with various concentrations of spermatozoa and seminal plasma or different

  9. Do intrauterine device/intrauterine system users check their threads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Amanda; Fleming, Charlotte

    2014-04-01

    Expulsion of an intrauterine device (IUD) occurs in about 1 in 20 women and expulsion may not be noticed by the user. Current guidance recommends that users are instructed to check regularly for their threads. This is the first study to explore the reality of how women feel about checking their threads and the details surrounding how frequently checks are done. One hundred consecutive IUD users were interviewed regarding their type of device, duration of use, frequency of thread checking, prompts for checking and reasons for not checking. Only 23% checked their threads regularly and 51% had never done so. The most common reason for not checking was forgetting about it. Despite being advised to do so, the majority of users do not check their threads at all and fewer than one-quarter of them check regularly. We propose that advice offered about thread checking should be given less emphasis and suggested more for user reassurance.

  10. Short communication: Optimization of a timed artificial insemination program for reproductive management of heifers in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, K; Loree, K; Mapletoft, R J; Colazo, M G

    2017-05-01

    Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) following the use of 1 of 2 timed AI (TAI) protocols and 2 different intervals between TAI and resynchronization were compared in heifers that were inseminated with either conventional or sex-sorted semen. Holstein heifers (n = 317; 527 inseminations) were submitted to a 5-d Cosynch protocol with (+) or without (-) GnRH at the time of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insertion on d 0, CIDR removal and a single PGF 2α treatment on d 5, and TAI plus GnRH on d 8 (72 h later). Visual estrus detection (ED) was conducted on d 6 in the afternoon and d 7 in the morning and heifers observed in estrus were artificially inseminated on d 7 in the afternoon. Heifers were alternately assigned conventional or sex-sorted semen. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 27 and 42 d after AI, and heifers diagnosed as nonpregnant were resynchronized, up to 3 times, starting on d 27 or 34 to provide an interbreeding interval of 35 or 42 d. Overall, TAI protocol had no effect on P/AI at 27 or 42 d after artificial insemination or on pregnancy loss, but P/AI following the first service tended to be higher in the -GnRH TAI group (66.3 vs. 56.8%). Pregnancy per AI at 27 d (61.9 vs. 55.5%) tended to differ between conventional and sex-sorted semen. Heifers artificially inseminated based on ED tended to have a greater P/AI (67.6 vs. 58.2%) and had decreased pregnancy loss (0.0 vs. 4.1%) than those submitted to TAI. A greater number of heifers in the -GnRH TAI protocol were artificially inseminated on ED than the +GnRH TAI protocol (21.5 vs. 13.7%). No difference in P/AI was observed between the 35- and 42-d interbreeding intervals; however, more heifers in the 42-d group were artificially inseminated based on ED than in the 35-d group (22.7 vs. 7.8%). A 5-d Cosynch+CIDR TAI protocol without the initial GnRH and with a single PGF 2α at CIDR removal is an acceptable alternative to achieve high P/AI when either conventional or sex-sorted semen is used in Holstein

  11. Chinese experience with intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilian, Xiao

    2007-06-01

    Changes in the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) for contraception in China in the past 10 years are reviewed. Replacement of the inert stainless steel ring with copper-bearing IUDs was an essential decision to improve the efficacy of the IUDs. The most commonly used, TCu380A, TCu220C and MLCu375, and those developed in China, such as the uterine-shaped UCu300 IUD and gamma Cu380 IUD, are reviewed. Studies of MLCu375 and TCu380A for emergency contraception revealed a highly effective method, which could prevent over 96% of unwanted pregnancies. Use of levonorgestrel-releasing system provides both contraceptive and therapeutic effects in the treatment of menorrhagia.

  12. Antenatal risk factor for intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study pregnancy and delivery characteristics in mothers who have given birth to infants with intrauterine growth restriction. Pregnancy and delivery outcomes were studied in 315 mothers who had given birth to infants with intrauterine growth restriction (a study group. The studies have shown that toxemia, anemia, and preeclampsia prevent physiological pregnancy that concurrent with placental insufficiency leads to serious metabolic disturbances in the mother-placenta-fetus system and eventually lead to intrauterine growth restriction. A set of pathological factors of pregnancy required surgical delivery in mothers with fetal growth restriction.

  13. Chronic Cervical Perforation by an Intrauterine Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Oruç Koltan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrauterine device (IUD is a widely used, highly effective method of birth control. Uterine perforation is a rare yet serious complication and is usually seen during insertion of the IUD. A regular examination is necessary for follow-up. We present a patient with an IUD that had perforated the cervix. The diagnosis was made during routine gynecological examination, and the patient was treated in a timely manner before any complications such as ectopic pregnancy, intrauterine pregnancy, infection or irreversible harm to the cervix arose. This case stresses the importance of regular visits to maintain health and diagnose possible adverse effects of intrauterine contraceptive methods.

  14. Intrauterine neuromuscular blockade in fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S Z; Huang, F Y; Lin, S Y; Wang, Y P; Hsieh, F J

    1990-03-01

    Antenatal intrauterine fetal therapy has now become the target of numerous invasive diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers. Fetal motion during intrauterine fetal therapy not only makes these procedures technically more difficult but also increases the likelihood of trauma to the umbilical vessels and the fetus. Combination of high doses of sedatives, tranquilizers, and narcotics rarely results in adequate suppression of fetal movement. Such medication puts the mother at risk of respiratory depression, regurgitation and aspiration. The use of pancuronium or atracurium to temporarily arrest fetal movement in ten fetus is reported. After an initial ultrasound assessment of fetal lie, placental location, and umbilical cord insertion site, the fetal weight was calculated by the ultrasound parameters of biparietal diameter and abdominal circumference. Under ultrasound guidance, we injected pancuronium 0.15 mg/kg or atracurium 1.0 mg/kg using a 23-gauge spinal needle into the fetal gluteal muscle. Short-term paralysis of the fetus was induced in all cases. Fetal movement stopped by sonographic observation within 5.8 +/- 2.3 min in the pancuronium group and 4.7 +/- 1.8 min in the atracurium group. Fetal movements returned both to maternal sensation or ultrasonic observation by 92 +/- 23 min in the first group and 36 +/- 11 min in the second group. No adverse effect of the relaxant has been observed in any of the mothers. There was no evidence of local soft tissue, nerve or muscle damage at the site of injection on initial examination of the neonates after delivery. The use of neuromuscular relaxant in fetus was a safe and useful method.

  15. Intrauterine nutritional programming of adult disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Siemelink M; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2001-01-01

    The intrauterine programming hypothesis states that the risk of acquiring diseases in adult life is determined in part by environmental factors during embryofetal development. Especially maternal nutrition has been related to the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and infectious

  16. Intrauterine growth retardation - small events, big consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intrauterine growth retardation refers to a rate of growth of a fetus that is less than normal for the growth potential of a fetus (for that particular gestational age. As one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity, intrauterine growth retardation has immense implications for the short term and long term growth of children. It is an important public health concern in the developing countries. Health statistics encompassing parameters for maternal and child health in the Indian subcontinent have shown improvement in the past few years but they are still far from perfect. Maternal health, education and empowerment bears a strong influence on perinatal outcomes including intrauterine growth retardation and should be the primary focus of any stratagem targeted at reducing the incidence of intrauterine growth retardation. A concerted liaison of various medical and social disciplines is imperative in this regard.

  17. Techniques for the insemination of low doses of stallion sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, J C; Plough, T

    2010-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the quality and commercial use of frozen equine semen. The emergence of new reproductive technologies, coupled with the high prices for an insemination dose from some stallions, the increasing costs of import and export and the marketing policies of stallion agents or owners in the sport horse industry has stimulated the fractionation of doses for insemination. Consequently, the sperm number and the volume of an insemination dose are significantly reduced. To deliver lower doses of sperm in lower volumes compared to the standard dose, two techniques are used in clinical practice. Semen can be delivered hysteroscopically (HI) or by rectally guiding a flexible pipette to the tip of the desired uterine horn (RI). Both techniques have been described with good success and have triggered an incentive to further reduce the number of spermatozoa without having a negative effect on fertility. This article will review the expected success of both techniques in clinical settings and will highlight their advantages and disadvantages both for the mare and stallion. In addition, some of the implications of reducing sperm numbers on the industry will be discussed. From the available information, it is evident that lower sperm numbers deposited by RI or HI to deliver the inseminate can result in acceptable pregnancy rates with fresh or frozen semen in commercial settings. These methods of insemination could have major implications in the implementation and commercialization of new and emerging technologies in the equine industry.

  18. Influence of insemination conditions on early pregnancy in pigs, with emphasis on embryonic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    In pig husbandry, reproductive performance (litter size, pregnancy rate) after either artificial insemination or natural mating is considered to be similar. However, under experimental conditions, boar stimulation around insemination has been found to influence reproductive performance. For

  19. Pregnancy outcome in women with an intrauterine contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganer, Hadas; Levy, Amalia; Ohel, Iris; Sheiner, Eyal

    2009-10-01

    To investigate pregnancy outcome in patients who conceived with an intrauterine contraceptive device. A retrospective study comparing the pregnancy outcome of women with retained intrauterine device (n = 98), patients after intrauterine device removal in early pregnancy (n = 194), and pregnancies without an intrauterine device (n = 141,191) was performed. A significant linear association was documented among the 3 groups and adverse outcomes such as preterm delivery (18.4% in the retained intrauterine device, 14.4 % in removed intrauterine device, and 7.3% in the no-intrauterine device group; P intrauterine device, 4.1% in removed intrauterine device and 0.7% in the no-intrauterine device group; P intrauterine device was found as an independent risk factor for both preterm delivery and chorioamnionitis in multivariable models. Women conceiving with an intrauterine device are at increased risk for adverse obstetric outcomes, whereas the risk is higher for pregnancies with retained intrauterine device compared with early intrauterine device removal.

  20. THE IMPROVEMENT AND APPLICATION OF EI-GUN (ELECTRICAL INSEMINATION GUN FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (AI USING GOAT FRESH SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsa Ita Dewi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Insemination Gun (EI-GUN was a tool for Artificial Insemination (AI using fresh semen with an electric control system. The research objective was to produced EI-GUN for AI using fresh semen on small ruminants (goat. The research was conducted from March to June 2015. The process of EI-GUN creation implemented in Design and Prototype Laboratory and Aero Modeling Research Laboratory at Engineering Faculty, University of Brawijaya (UB. Testing tools EI-GUN on goat was conducted in the Sumber Sekar Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, UB.  The methods of research were literature study, tool specification determination, designing EI-GUN, running test, semen evaluation passed EI-GUN and application on Goat. EI-GUN has seven important parts, which supports each other in this operating system. Those parts consist of stylet, servo, system controlled, insemination pump, connecting rod, battery, and holder. EI-GUN work system sucked the semen into insemination pump as much as 5 ml, and release the semen 0.25 ml appropriate standard of AI. It was applicable for 20 times AI. The results showed that the cell motility of spermatozoa ≥ 70% were still in ranging of Indonesian National Standard (SNI.   Keywords: artificial insemination, EI-GUN, fresh semen.

  1. Estrategies to improve fertility in cattle: artificial insemination following estrus versus timed artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruselli PS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI is currently the major biotechnique used worldwide to disseminate superior genetics and to improve reproductive efficiency in bovine herds. Conversely, reports from different parts of the world indicate low pregnancy rates in cattle submitted to AI, due to both mistakes in heat detection or a high incidence of anestrous. In dairy cattle, the use of AI following visual detection of estrus is relatively easier to be used because their routine of management is intense (milking two to three times a day, allowing a frequent contact with cows for estrus observation. However, for beef cattle, the implementation of AI programs based on estrus detection is harder to be used because of several management conditions. Beef cows are frequently raised extensively, with great walking distances between their pasture to the corral where the AI is performed, the number of employers designated for cattle management is reduced and they have several activities besides reproduction. Because of the necessity of at least two periods of estrus observation per day and the conduction of cattle to the corral around 12 h following estrus detection to be inseminated, the AI is somehow unfeasible in beef farms. The development of timed AI (TAI enabled insemination of cows in commercial scale, because it allows the programmed AI of large number of cows in the same day without the need for estrus detection. Besides, the use of TAI in early postpartum dairy and beef females reduces the interval partum-conception and, consequently the interval between parturitions, which has a dramatic effect on farm economic return. For beef cattle, TAI also brings the advantages of concentrating around half of the conceptions at the first days of the breeding season and stimulating cyclicity and a synchronous estrus return in cows that did not become pregnant at TAI. Thus, the calving season is also concentrate in the best periods of the year to generate offspring

  2. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from

  3. Long-time vs. short-time insemination of sibling eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Yue; Zhao, Junliang; Hao, Dayong; Zhang, Jianrui; Liu, Yanli; Wu, Wenbin; Wang, Xingling

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a short insemination procedure on embryo development, assess the reliability of a fertilization check prior to the appearance of pronuclei and elucidate the role of rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (R-ICSI). Patients who had ≥9 eggs, were aged insemination time, 20 h) and the other half for short insemination (insemination time, 5 h). R-ICSI was performed where total fertilization failure (TFF) was deemed to have occurred in the short insemination group. In total, 2,465 eggs were included. No significant differences were found in fertilization, abnormal fertilization, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates between the short insemination and conventional insemination groups. In the short insemination group, R-ICSI was performed in 11 cycles (6.7%); in 6 of these cycles, fertilization occurred in the patient's eggs in the 20 h insemination group, while in the other 5 cycles, the patient's eggs were not fertilized after 20 h insemination either. Following R-ICSI, 19 of 36 eggs were normally fertilized. Subsequently, 7 embryos were transferred in 4 fresh cycles resulting in one ectopic pregnancy. In conclusion, the short insemination procedure does not improve embryo development and pregnancy rates. Short insemination combined with early R-ICSI may be a method of preventing total fertilization failure, albeit with poor accuracy. PMID:28105107

  4. Artificial insemination practice in Nigeria – review of the dangers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first documented cattle artificial insemination (AI) in Nigeria dated back to 1949. Other recorded cattle artificial insemination in the country could be traced to when the Federal Government of Nigeria under the auspices of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, established Artificial Insemination Unit at the National Animal ...

  5. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Meta-analysis of progesterone supplementation during timed artificial insemination programs in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinotto, R S; Lean, I J; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-04-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effects of progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during timed artificial insemination (AI) programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. A total of 25 randomized controlled studies including 8,285 supplemented cows and 8,398 untreated controls were included in the meta-analysis. Information regarding the presence of corpus luteum (CL) at the initiation of the synchronization protocol was available for 6,883 supplemented cows and 6,879 untreated controls in 21 experiments. Studies were classified based on service number (first AI vs. resynchronized AI), use of presynchronization (yes vs. no), and insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol (inseminated in estrus and timed AI vs. timed AI only). Reproductive outcomes of interest were pregnancy per AI (P/AI) measured on d 32 (27 to 42) and 60 (41 to 71) after AI, and pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted and treatment effect was summarized into a pooled risk ratio with the Knapp-Hartung modification (RRK+H). The effect of moderator variables was assessed using meta-regression analyses. Progesterone supplementation increased the risk of pregnancy on d 32 [RRK+H = 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.14] and 60 after AI (RRK+H = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.03-1.17). The benefit of progesterone supplementation was observed mainly in cows lacking a CL at the initiation of the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.07-1.30) rather than those with CL (d 60: RRK+H = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.99-1.12). Progesterone supplementation benefited P/AI in studies in which all cows were inseminated at timed AI (d 60: RRK+H = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.10-1.29), but not in studies in which cows could be inseminated in estrus during the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.92-1.16). Progesterone supplementation tended to reduce the risk of

  7. Complications of the intrauterine device in nulliparous and parous women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H.M.; Vos, A.G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The intrauterine device (IUD) is still related to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), pregnancy, expulsion, perforation and menstrual problems, particularly in nulliparous women. We aimed to study the complications and symptoms of the intrauterine device in general practice, particularly

  8. Fixed-time post-cervical artificial insemination in weaned sows following buserelin use combined with/without eCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncello, E; Bernardi, M L; Kummer, A D; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2017-02-01

    Fixed-time post-cervical artificial insemination (FTAI) drastically reduces labour requirements and increases the use of boars with higher genetic merit. This study evaluated the efficiency of eCG administration combined with/without the GnRH agonist buserelin for the induction and synchronization of ovulation in weaned sows submitted to FTAI. The sows were allocated into three groups. In the control group, the first artificial insemination was performed at the onset of oestrus and repeated every 24 hr. In the eCG+GnRH group, sows received 600 IU eCG at weaning and buserelin (10 μg) after 86-89 hr of eCG, and in the GnRH group, sows received only buserelin after 86-89 hr of weaning. The hormone-treated sows received a single FTAI after 30-33 hr of buserelin application. All the sows were inseminated with homospermic doses (1.5 × 10 9  sperm cells/50 ml). The interval between weaning and ovulation was shorter (p insemination were considered, but lower farrowing rate and smaller litter size were observed in eCG+GnRH sows. The reproductive performance of eCG+GnRH sows was primarily compromised because the insemination was performed outside the optimal time relative to ovulation; therefore, it is advisable to inseminate them before 116-122 hr after weaning. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Forgotten intrauterine device contributing to infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel O. Igberase

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out.

  10. Optimizing model. 1. Insemination, replacement, seasonal production and cash flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delorenzo, M.A.; Spreen, T.H.; Bryan, G.R.; Beede, D.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic programming to solve the Markov decision process problem of optimal insemination and replacement decisions was adapted to address large dairy herd management decision problems in the US. Expected net present values of cow states (151,200) were used to determine the optimal policy. States

  11. Adoption and Donor Insemination: Factors Influencing Couples' Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Ken R.

    1994-01-01

    A study of 54 couples who gave birth to a child by means of donor insemination (DI) showed that most couples who had children by DI had previously considered adoption. Their reasons for choosing DI ranged from the practical to the emotional and from perceived negative aspects of adoption to perceived advantages of DI. (MDM)

  12. Review of the Use of Artificial Insemination Services in Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviewed artificial insemination (AI) services rendered at AI centres across Botswana over a five year period (2005 to 2010). The use of AI in cattle production in Botswana dates back to the mid-1960s. AI service in the country was mainly performed in beef production to improve herd quality in terms of improved ...

  13. Artificial insemination in black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, L; Cerda-Molina, A L; Páez-Ponce, D L; Rojas-Maya, S; Mondragón-Ceballos, R

    2007-01-15

    Artificial insemination (AI) was performed in spider monkeys; these primates are vulnerable to extinction and usually do not reproduce spontaneously in captivity. Uterine cycles were followed by daily assessment of vaginal cytology, and corroborated a posteriori by concentrations of 17-beta estradiol and progesterone, measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA), in fecal samples collected once daily. Five females between 13 to 27 years old were inseminated intravaginally (with fresh semen) twice each during the periovulatory phase (Days 9-12 of the menstrual cycle; Day 0, first day of menstrual bleeding), from September to the first 3 weeks of November (most fertile months). Transcervical AI was not useful in this primate because the liquid portion of the semen completely solidified instead of liquefying as in other primates. Pregnancies were apparently achieved in 5 of 14 attempts. One female became pregnant after the first round of inseminations, delivered a healthy infant, was inseminated and got pregnant again (subsequently aborted). One female aborted, apparently due to an intramural uterine leiomyoma. Another two females stopped menstruating for a few months, then restarted menstruating (these females may have been pregnant and aborted). In conclusion, in spider monkeys: (1) captivity-induced stress did not inhibit reproduction; (2) fecal steroid hormones were useful to assess cyclicity; (3) the semen coagulum, which apparently is a tightly packed and large reservoir of spermatozoa, must not be discarded but used in AI; (4) old female spider monkeys did not have cessation of reproductive function.

  14. The Potential use of Artificial Insemination in sustainable Breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of resources is, however, an obstacle for comprehensive recording schemes and progeny testing. Therefore, a breeding pyramid with detailed recording and performance testing of approximately 500 breeding does belonging to Mgeta farmers has been proposed, This opens up possibilities of insemination of some of ...

  15. Laparoscopic artificial insemination in dairy sheep with chilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... fertility trials and the effects of dilution methods on freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Cryobiology, 28: 36-42. Anel L, Kaabi M, Abroug B, Alvarez M, Anel E, Boixo JC, De La Fuente. LF, De Paz P (2005). Factors influencing the success of vaginal and laparoscopic artificial insemination in churra ...

  16. Acceptability of artificial insemination by donor among infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acceptability of artificial insemination by donor among infertile women attending the Gynaecological Clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan. ... Providing information on AID as a treatment option during counseling and routine infertility management may be the needed drive to improve awareness and promote ...

  17. Evaluation of the Artificial Insemination Programme for Small Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information from the study suggest that the artificial insemination program for the small scale farmers in Malawi requires a thorough revision. An inventory of the Malawian diary cattle population and its genetic composition are recommended to provide basic information for the development of an appropriate breeding ...

  18. Challenges to Farmers' Participation In Artificial Insemination (AI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock farming is an important source of animal based food products and income in Nigeria. To improve livestock production in the country, technologies such as artificial insemination have to be understood and transferred properly by Livestock Extension Agents (LEA) to farmers for proper adoption. This technology has ...

  19. Influence of insemination time on fertility of Rhodes island white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of insemination time on fertility of Rhodes island white chicken (Gallus domestica) raised in northern guinea savannah zone of Nigeria. D Zahraddeen, ISR Butswat, KM Bello, AA Washik. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 1 (4) 2007: pp. 378-383. Full Text:.

  20. Ectopic Intrauterine Device in the Bladder of a Pregnant Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdoglu, Zehra; Ceylan, Kadir; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Guler, Ayse; Sahin, Hanim Guler

    2010-01-01

    Background. Uterine perforation and transvesical migration of an intrauterine device are rare complications. Case. A 28-year-old woman who had an intrauterine device was admitted to our outpatient clinic with complaints of amenorrhea lasting 5 weeks and pelvic pain lasting a year. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed embedding of the intrauterine device in the bladder. The misplaced device was removed by laparotomy. Conclusion. The followup of intrauterine device localization with transvaginal ultrasonography is essential for early detection of possible serious complications. PMID:20811600

  1. Efficacy of intrauterine inseminations as a training modality for performing embryo transfer in reproductive endocrinology and infertility fellowship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Divya K; Missmer, Stacey A; Correia, Katharine F B; Racowsky, Catherine; Ginsburg, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    To assess pregnancy rates before and after a training intervention in which reproductive endocrinology and infertility fellows were required to perform 100 IUIs before performing ETs. Retrospective cohort study. Large, academic training program. Not applicable. Comparing pregnancy rates between two time periods: July 1998-June 2001 (before IUI intervention) and July 2001-June 2010 (after IUI intervention). Clinical pregnancy rate (PR) for the first 100 ETs performed by fellows before and after the IUI training; median attending physician PR during each time period served as the referent. Multivariate generalized estimating equations were used to calculate odds of pregnancy per ET for fellows as compared with attending physicians. Multivariate analyses revealed no significant difference in PR for the first 100 ETs performed by fellows as compared with attending physicians, before or after the IUI training requirement (odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.82-1.20 and odds ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.81-1.30, respectively). The median attending physician PR in the preintervention group was exceeded by fellows after the first 70 ETs; fellows in the postintervention group exceeded the median attending physician PR after 100 ETs. The PR in both groups improved as fellows progressed from the first 20 to 100 ETs. The PR for the first 100 ETs performed by fellows was unchanged after implementing an IUI training requirement. The substantial variation noted among individual fellows decreased as more ETs were completed. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does intrauterine insemination timing matter for achieving pregnancy during ovulation induction using gonadotropins? A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Hamid Yumusak

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: IUI performed at either 24 hours or 36 hours after ovulation triggered by hCG injection does not change clinical pregnancy rates for PCOS patients. Patients with unexplained infertility seem to benefit from earlier IUI procedures, which increases their fertility potential during ovulation induction with gonadotropins. Avoiding earlier than physiologically needed artificial-hCG triggering before IUI procedures results with better pregnancy rates.

  3. Development and evaluation of deep intra-uterine artificial insemination using cryopreserved sexed spermatozoa in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, Todd R; Montano, G A; Steinman, K J; Smolensky, P; Sweeney, J; Osborn, S; O'Brien, J K

    2013-06-01

    Since its development in bottlenose dolphins, widespread application of AI with sex-selected, frozen-thawed (FT) spermatozoa has been limited by the significant expense of the sorting process. Reducing the total number of progressively motile sperm (PMS) required for an AI would reduce the sorting cost. As such, this research compared the efficacy of small-dose deep uterine AI with sexed FT spermatozoa (SEXED-SMALL; ~50×10(6)PMS, n=20), to a moderate dose deposited mid-horn (SEXED-STD, ~200×10(6)PMS; n=20), and a large dose of FT non-sexed spermatozoa deposited in the uterine body (NONSEXED-LARGE, 660×10(6)PMS, n=9). Ten of the 11 calves resulting from use of sexed spermatozoa were of the predetermined sex. Similar rates of conception (NONSEXED-LARGE: 78%, SEXED-STD: 60%, SEXED-SMALL: 57%) and total pregnancy loss (TPL: NONSEXED-LARGE: 28.6%; SEXED-STD: 41.0%; SEXED-SMALL: 63.6%) were observed across groups, but early pregnancy loss (EPL,

  4. Individual versus standard dose of rFSH in a mild stimulation protocol for intrauterine insemination: a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour Freiesleben, N; Lossl, K; Bogstad, J

    2009-01-01

    -stimulating hormone (rFSH) dosage nomogram. The nomogram has now been tested. METHODS: Multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) including 228 ovulatory patients scheduled for COS and IUI. Patients were randomized to 'individual' (50-100 IU rFSH/day, n = 113) or 'standard' (75 IU rFSH/day, n = 115) dose......' group and 21/115 (18%) in the 'standard' group and the rate of multiple gestations was 1/113 (1%) versus 5/115 (4%), P = 0.21. CONCLUSIONS: This RCT is the first to clinically test a dosage nomogram in ovulatory IUI patients' first rFSH treatment cycle. Dosing according to the nomogram was superior...

  5. Metformin during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination for subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordewijk, Esmee M.; Nahuis, Marleen; Costello, Michael F.; van der Veen, Fulco; Tso, Leopoldo O.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van Wely, Madelon

    2017-01-01

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) is generally considered first-line treatment in women with anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; gonadotrophins) is second-line treatment for women who do not ovulate or conceive while taking CC.

  6. Metformin during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination for subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordewijk, Esmée M; Nahuis, Marleen; Costello, Michael F; Van der Veen, Fulco; Tso, Leopoldo O; Mol, Ben Willem J; van Wely, Madelon

    2017-01-24

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) is generally considered first-line treatment in women with anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; gonadotrophins) is second-line treatment for women who do not ovulate or conceive while taking CC. Metformin may increase the effectiveness of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins and may promote safety by preventing multiple pregnancy. To determine the effectiveness and safety of metformin co-treatment during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins with respect to rates of live birth and multiple pregnancy in women with PCOS. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility (CGF) Group specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAH) on 8 June 2016, and the reference lists of included and other relevant studies. We searched ongoing trials registries in the World Health Organization (WHO) portal and on clinicaltrials.gov on 4 September 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting data on comparison of clinical outcomes in women with PCOS undergoing ovulation induction with gonadotrophins plus metformin versus gonadotrophins alone or gonadotrophins plus placebo. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Primary review outcomes were live birth rate and multiple pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes were ovulation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rate, miscarriage rate, cycle cancellation rate and adverse effects. We included five RCTs (with 264 women) comparing gonadotrophins plus metformin versus gonadotrophins. The gonadotrophin used was recombinant FSH in four studies and highly purified FSH in one study. Evidence was of low quality: The main limitations were serious risk of bias due to poor reporting of study methods and blinding of participants and outcome assessors. Live birth Metformin plus FSH was associated with a higher cumulative live birth rate when compared with FSH (odds ratio (OR) 2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23 to 4.34; two RCTs, n = 180; I 2 = 0%; low-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of live birth after FSH is assumed to be 27%, then the chance after addition of metformin would be between 32% and 60%. Other pregnancy outcomes Metformin use was associated with a higher ongoing pregnancy rate (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.36 to 4.46; four RCTs, n = 232; I 2 = 0%; low-quality evidence) and a higher clinical pregnancy rate (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.46 to 4.31; five RCTs, n = 264; I 2 = 0%; low-quality evidence). Multiple pregnancy Results showed no evidence of a difference in multiple pregnancy rates between metformin plus FSH and FSH (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.95; four RCTs, n = 232; I 2 = 0%; low-quality evidence) and no evidence of a difference in rates of miscarriage or OHSS. Other adverse effects Evidence was inadequate as the result of limited available data on adverse events after metformin compared with after no metformin (OR 1.78, 95% CI 0.39 to 8.09; two RCTs, n = 91; I 2 = 0%; very low-quality evidence). Preliminary evidence suggests that metformin may increase the live birth rate among women undergoing ovulation induction with gonadotrophins. At this moment, evidence is insufficient to show an effect of metformin on multiple pregnancy rates and adverse events. Additional trials are necessary before we can provide further conclusions that may affect clinical practice.

  7. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human...... and piston from an intrauterine device. Six complete capsules and parts of two other capsules were expelled. None of the women became pregnant, compared with a pregnancy rate of 21% per aspiration following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer during the same period....

  8. Seasonality, estrous cycle characterization, estrus synchronization, semen cryopreservation, and artificial insemination in the Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Greenwell, M; Ramirez, K; Van Bonn, W; Yoshioka, M; Katsumata, E; Dalton, L; Osborn, S; O'Brien, J K

    2009-08-01

    The reproductive physiology of the Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, was characterized to facilitate the development of artificial insemination (AI) using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Specific objectives were to: 1) describe reproductive seasonality of the Pacific white sided dolphins; 2) describe urinary LH and ovarian steroid metabolites during the estrous cycle; 3) correlate LH and ovarian steroidal metabolite patterns to ultrasound-monitored follicular growth and ovulation; and 4) assess the efficacy of synchronizing estrus, sperm collection/cryopreservation, and intrauterine insemination. Ovulations (64%, n=37) and conceptions (83%, n=18) occurred from August to October. Peak mean serum testosterone (24 ng/ml), cross-sectional testicular area (41.6 cm(2)), and sperm concentration (144.3 x 10(7) sperm/ml) occurred in July, August, and September respectively. Spermatozoa were only found in ejaculates from July to October. Estrous cycles (n=22) were 31 d long and were comprised of a 10 d follicular and 21 d luteal phase. Ovulation occurred 31.2 h after the onset of the LH surge and 19.3 h after the LH peak. Follicular diameter and circumference within 12 h of ovulation were 1.52 and 4.66 cm respectively. Estrus synchronization attempts with altrenogest resulted in 17 (22%) ovulatory cycles with ovulation occurring 21 d post-altrenogest. Ten AI attempts using cryopreserved semen resulted in five pregnancies (50%). The mean gestation length was 356 days (range 348-367). These data provide new information on the Pacific white-sided dolphin's reproductive physiology and collectively enabled the first application of AI in this species.

  9. [Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppen, T; Eis-Hübinger, A M; Schild, R L; Enders, G; Hansmann, M; Rister, M; Bartmann, P

    2001-01-01

    Early fetal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rarely documented. Only the minority of affected fetuses survive this condition. At 19 weeks of gestation the first episode of a genital HSV-infection of a pregnant woman was treated with local interferon beta. At 34 weeks of gestation hydrocephalus with secondary microcephaly and microphthalmia of both eyes was detected by ultrasonography. In the amniotic fluid HSV type 2 (HSV-2) was isolated and HSV-2-DNA was detected by PCR. The serum of the mother proved positive for HSV-2 (glycoprotein G2)-specific IgG-antibodies. No other infectious causes were apparent on further testing. At 35 + 4 weeks gestation a small-for-gestational-age neonate (2130 g) with microcephaly (29 cm head circumference) was born by spontaneous vaginal delivery. Scarce ulcerative skin lesions and vesicles, hepatosplenomegaly and microphthalmia were diagnosed. Furthermore, encephalomalacia with parenchymal destruction, cataract of both eyes and aplasia of the maculae and papillae were found. HSV-2-PCR was tested positive in chorionic cells and an umbilical segment of the placenta as well as in swabs from both eyes, throat, and a herpetic skin lesion collected during the first 5 days of life. HSV-IgM-antibodies were found in the umbilical cord blood. Local and intravenous treatment with aciclovir was started. The infant exhibited signs of a severely malfunctioning central nervous system. At the age of 4 months the boy suffered from generalised cerebral seizures. He died at the age of 9 months as a consequence of respiratory insufficiency with consecutive circulation failure. The case of an intrauterine HSV-2-infection is presented. The time of onset of fetal infection was most probably at the time of the maternal disease (19 weeks of gestation). Inspite of the very early infection the fetus did not die in utero. Especially, if a primary genital HSV-2-infection of a pregnant woman is suspected, which can be proven by serological means only

  10. Developing a female-only flock for artificial insemination purposes in ostriches: Progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Maud; Malecki, Irek A; Brand, Zanell; Cloete, Schalk W P

    2017-05-01

    The development of a flock of females that can produce eggs and maintain egg production rate without the presence of males is a prerogative for a viable artificial insemination protocol in ostriches. Over six consecutive breeding seasons (May-December, 2009-2014), we recorded the egg production performance of 40 single-penned (ART) South African Black ostrich females (2-9 years of age), and compared these records with the egg production of 162 pair-mated females of comparable age from the breeding flock (BP). ART females laid significantly fewer eggs than BP females (mean±SEM: 3.49±0.13 eggs per month vs. 4.64±0.09 eggs per month respectively; Partificial insemination from high egg production performance parents could improve egg production of the ART flock. Studies are also needed to gain a better understanding of underlying physiological mechanisms promoting spontaneous ovulation in this species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of oxytocin and flunixin meglumine on uterine response to insemination in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, A M; Reilas, T; Muilu, L; Kareskoski, M; Katila, T

    2009-12-01

    The most probable reason for persistent postbreeding endometritis in mares is weak myometrial contractility. The influence of oxytocin (OT; an ecbolic agent) and flunixin meglumine (FLU; a prostaglandin inhibitor serving as a model for mares with decreased uterine contractility) on uterine response to artificial insemination (AI) was studied in mares with no history of reproductive failure. The mares were treated intravenously with 10 mL saline (Group C, n=10) or 0.01 IU/kg OT (Group OT, n=10) 2, 4, 8, and 25 h after AI. Group FLU (n=11) was treated with 1.1mg/kg FLU 2h after AI and with saline thereafter. The mares received the same treatments in the first and third cycles but were sampled either at 8 or 25 h. The amount of intrauterine fluid (IUF) and edema and the number of uterine contractions were recorded before AI and 10 min after the treatments using transrectal ultrasonography. At 8h after AI, the mares were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin, and, after 8-h or 25-h scans, a 500-mL uterine lavage and a biopsy were performed. Ovulation was confirmed at 48 h and pregnancy 14 to 17 d after AI. No manipulations were done during the second estrus. At 8h after AI, Group FLU had more polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the uterine lavage fluid than did Group OT (P<0.05), but uterine contractions did not differ significantly. At 25 h, the PMN concentrations were low in all groups. Group OT rarely showed IUF. The uterine biopsy specimens of Group FLU showed less inflammation of the stroma but more PMNs in the uterine lumen 8h after AI than that of the control group (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates did not differ between the groups (63% C, 53% OT, and 50% FLU). Oxytocin rapidly and effectively removed IUF and PMNs after AI and thereby shortened the duration of postbreeding inflammation.

  12. Decreased Implantation Number After In Utero Artificial Insemination Can Reflect an Impairment of Fertility in Adult Male Rats After Exogenous Leptin Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carla D B; Fernandes, Glaura S A; Favareto, Ana Paula A; Perobelli, Juliana E; Sanabria, Marciana; Kempinas, Wilma D G

    2017-02-01

    Leptin is a protein secreted by the adipocytes, which serves as a link between fat and brain. Its main action is to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure, but it is also involved in the control of different neuroendocrine systems, including gonadal axis. Although the effects of leptin deficiency on reproduction are well recognized, the effect of excess leptin on male reproductive function is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate fertility and sperm parameters of male rats exposed to exogenous leptin. A group of adult male rats received exogenous leptin intraperitoneally (30 μg/kg/day) for 42 days, and a control group received only the vehicle during the same period. After the treatment, animals were evaluated for sperm count, sperm motility, and fertility after intrauterine artificial insemination. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups related to sperm production, sperm concentration, and sperm motility. However, fertility evaluation after artificial insemination showed a quantitative decrease in the uterus plus fetuses weight, number of implantation sites, and number of live fetuses. The fertility potential showed a reduction of about 40%, whereas the preimplantation loss rate increased more than 2-fold in leptin-treated animals. In conclusion, leptin administration to nonobese male rats impairs ability of treated animals to generate offspring, since the occurrence of implantation was diminished. So leptin can impair sperm quality, affecting the reproductive capacity.

  13. Attitudes towards and knowledge about intrauterine contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. One of the strategies to reduce maternal mortality includes accessible and appropriate contraceptive services to all women. The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) has been identified as a cheap and effective means of contraception by the South African National Department of Health. Objective.

  14. Intra-uterine hematoma in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S; Nielsen, P H

    1991-01-01

    In 60 patients with a live fetus and an intra-uterine hematoma (IUH) proven by ultrasonic scanning the outcome of pregnancy was spontaneous abortion in 12% and premature delivery in 10%. No correlation between the outcome of the pregnancy and the maximum size of the hematoma or the week...

  15. Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Discontinuation Among Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, more effort should be directed to counseling for adherence to the IUD use to ensure longer duration of use. Provision of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system which reduces bleeding and dysmenorrhoea, in our clinic may increase the continuation rate of IUD. Key words; IUD, duration of use, discontinuation, ...

  16. Ectopic Pregnancy Coexisting with Intrauterine Pregnancy | Ifenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pelvic ultrasonography showed a singleton intrauterine pregnancy, a right adnexa mass and fluid in the rectouterine pouch. At laparotomy, a ruptured right ampulary gestation sac and 8 week size uterus were found and a right total salpingectomy done. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient delivered a live, ...

  17. Distinguishing intrauterine foetal demise versus abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy always poses a clinical dilemma. Transvaginal ultrasound is the ideal radiological procedure in locating these pregnancies. However in resource limited setting, abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds can be the only available yet unreliable modalities for distinguishing intrauterine versus ...

  18. Complications associated with intrauterine contraceptive devices at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is one of the reversible methods of contraception. Its use has increased steadily worldwide. However, some women reject it based on presumed complications associated with its use. Aim: To determine the complications reported by women, action taken on the ...

  19. Comparison of genital microbial isolates between intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the past, the use of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD), in particular, Dalkon Shield was found to be associated with increased risk of pelvic infection. Recent literature illustrates that the risk of pelvic infection after insertion of an IUCD is low and that the risk peaks in the 1st month after insertion. We set ...

  20. A prospective, randomized, cross-over comparison of two methods of artificial insemination by donor on the incidence of conception: intracervical insemination by straw versus cervical cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flierman, P A; Hogerzeil, H V; Hemrika, D J

    1997-09-01

    In a prospective, randomized study of insemination with donor semen, intracervical insemination by straw was compared with insemination using a cervical cap with an intracervical reservoir. A total of 91 patients completed 486 treatment cycles. There were no significant differences in age, parity, indication for insemination by donor, or method of cycle monitoring between women who became pregnant and those who did not conceive with either insemination method. In 236 standard intracervical insemination cycles, 14 patients became pregnant (5.9% per cycle), whereas 38 patients conceived in 250 cervical cap cycles (15.2% per cycle). Both the crude pregnancy rates and the cumulative pregnancy rates calculated by the Kaplan-Meier life-table method were significantly different (chi(2)-test, P < 0.001, and log-rank test, P < 0.005 respectively). Pregnancy rates in artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor semen may be improved by the use of a cervical cap when compared to cervical insemination by straw. The use of the cervical cap may prolong the exposure of the spermatozoa to the cervical mucus and prevent the backflow of semen into the vagina.

  1. Improved knowledge about conception rates influences the decision to stop insemination in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchaisri, C; De Vries, A; Jorritsma, R; Hogeveen, H

    2012-10-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated optimal insemination and replacement policy might differ from the real optimal insemination and replacement policy. The objective of this study was to evaluate different sets of conception rates with an increasing level of accuracy to determine the insemination policy. An existing dynamic program for optimal insemination and replacement was used to compare three different scenarios in the estimation of conception rates, based on the reproductive performance of Dutch dairy cattle: (i) constant conception rate throughout lactation, (ii) conception rate dependent on parity and months in milk, and (iii) conception rate dependent on parity, months in milk and insemination number. The time step of the model was 30.4 days (1 month). The discounted future cash flow of culling a cow at each time step (replace a heifer immediately) was compared with keeping that cow under optimal future decisions. The difference between immediate culling and optimal decisions is defined as the retention pay-off. The insemination value was calculated as the difference between the future cash flow between immediate insemination of a cow and waiting one time-step. The results show that the difference in the insemination values and the optimal time to stop insemination depend on parity, lactation stage and the relative milk yield. In older cows with equal milk yields and at the same months in milk, the insemination value was lower than in younger cows. Within a parity, the insemination value was higher for cows with a higher milk yield. On individual cow level, using more accurate conception rate as input in the optimal insemination and replacement model might reduce miscalculation of the economic

  2. Effect of Delayed Insemination on Holstein Cows’ Reproductive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sehested, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Holstein cows’ fertility has decreased in the last decade, creating a need for new management methods to improve the reproductive performance which in this case was defined by pregnancy rates and number of artificial inseminations (AI) per pregnancy. Previous studies showed that deliberately...... and number of insemination to pregnancy) of 62 Holstein cows involved in a 16 months extended lactation trial was recorded and compared with the reproductive performance of the previous and following 10 months lactation of the same cows. It was hypothesized that a late rebreeding (at eight months, 16 months...... delaying rebreeding until after peak lactation can improve reproductive performance compared with the traditional rebreeding in early lactation. The objective was to compare the reproductive performance of cows in consecutive lactations of different lengths. The reproductive performance (pregnancy rate...

  3. The insemination of goldfish ( Carassium auratus) oocyte matured in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renxue; Wu, Xianhan; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Shicui; Ma, Yingjie; Wu, Shangqin; Shi, Yingxian

    1991-03-01

    Full maturation of goldfish oocyte was induced in vitro by 17 α-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone. The oocyte maturation involves GV migration to the periphery of the oocyte and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). In the experiment, incubation duration for GVBD varied in different broods of oocytes. Generally, if the duration for GVBD was shorter than 6 h, oocytes would have a better chance to survive after maturation and insemination. The maturation of nucleus (GV) and cytoplasm are not synchronous. Cytoplasm maturation occurs several hs after GVBD. Oocytes inseminated 8 9 h after GVBD have the highest fertilizing and hatching rate. Fertilized ova matured in vitro can develop to sexually mature adults capable of reproduction.

  4. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P coconut oil lowered P4 levels in diestrus in a dose-dependent fashion and did not prolonged the luteal phase of the mares. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. AIDA Asia. Artificial Insemination Database Application. User manual. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Podesta, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA-Asia) is a computer application to store and analyze information from AI Services (farms, females, inseminated, semen, estrus characteristics, inseminator and pregnancy diagnosis data). The need for such an application arose during a consultancy undertaken by the author for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna) under the framework of its Regional Co-operative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA) which is implementing a project on 'Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency' (RAS/5/035). The detailed specifications for the application were determined through a Task Force Meeting of National Consultants from five RCA Member States, organized by the IAEA and held in Sri Lanka in April 2001. The application has been developed in MS Access 2000 and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) 6.0. However, it can run as a stand-alone application through its own executable files. It is based on screen forms for data entry or editing of information and command buttons. The structure of the data, the design of the application and VBA codes cannot be seen and cannot be modified by users. However, the designated administrator of AIDA-Asia in each country can customize it

  6. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Traumatic insemination and female counter-adaptation in Strepsiptera (Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinert, Miriam; Wipfler, Benjamin; Jetschke, Gottfried; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Beutel, Rolf G; Pohl, Hans

    2016-04-29

    In a few insect groups, males pierce the female's integument with their penis during copulation to transfer sperm. This so-called traumatic insemination was previously confirmed for Strepsiptera but only in species with free-living females. The more derived endoparasitic groups (Stylopidia) were suggested to exhibit brood canal mating. Further, it was assumed that females mate once and that pheromone production ceases immediately thereafter. Here we examined Stylops ovinae to provide details of the mating behaviour within Stylopidia. By using μCT imaging of Stylops in copula, we observed traumatic insemination and not, as previously suggested, brood canal mating. The penis is inserted in an invagination of the female cephalothorax and perforates its cuticle. Further we show that female Stylops are polyandrous and that males detect the mating status of the females. Compared to other strepsipterans the copulation is distinctly prolonged. This may reduce the competition between sperm of the first mating male with sperm from others. We describe a novel paragenital organ of Stylops females, the cephalothoracic invagination, which we suggest to reduce the cost of injuries. In contrast to previous interpretations we postulate that the original mode of traumatic insemination was maintained after the transition from free-living to endoparasitic strepsipteran females.

  8. Artificial insemination in South American camelids and wild equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G P; Ratto, M H; Collins, C W; Bergfelt, D R

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the present status of the use of artificial insemination (AI) in South American camelids and wild equids is offered. Technical aspects of semen collection, dilution and cryopreservation have limited the development and use of AI in camelid and equid species. To-date, efficiency is low but progress has been made and viable offspring have been produced through the use of AI in domestic South American camelids using both fresh and frozen semen. The origin, composition, and function of the viscous component of camelid seminal plasma remain a mystery and an obvious area for future research. A better understanding of the normal constituents of seminal plasma will enable the rational design of semen extenders suitable for camelids. Post-thaw sperm viability is very low, and studies are needed to address questions of optimal freezing and thawing procedures as well as the insemination dose. The basis for differences in reported pregnancy rates with sexed and frozen semen in domestic equids, and the ultimate success of AI in wild equids will require continued research into the "stallion effect", extenders and cryoprotectants, optimal volume and number of spermatozoa, temperatures during handling, processing an transport, and insemination techniques. In both camelids and equids, research on domestic species under controlled conditions provides and excellent opportunity to develop effective semen handling techniques for application in wild and endangered species of the respective families.

  9. Effect of intrauterine dextrose on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge under certified organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquivar, M G; Barragan, A A; Velez, J S; Bothe, H; Schuenemann, G M

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess responses to treatments (clinical cure and resumption of estrous cycles) of cows with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) that received intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (DEX) or untreated control (CON) cows and the subsequent pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) in cows with and without PVD. Cows (n=2,852) from 2 dairy herds were screened for PVD using the gloved hand technique at exam 1 [26±3 d in milk (DIM)]. Cows with vaginal discharge scores of 2 or 3 (0-3 scale) were stratified by parity and randomly allocated into 1 of 2 treatment groups: (1) intrauterine infusion (~200 mL) of 50% DEX solution (n=456), or (2) untreated control animals (CON, n=491). Fourteen days posttherapy (40±3 DIM), cows with PVD were re-examined at exam 2 (40±3 DIM) to assess the response to treatments. All cows were subjected to the same reproductive program, which consisted of estrus detection twice daily (using tail chalking and visual observation) for the first 5 artificial inseminations; then, open lactating cows were turned out with bulls. Cows displaying signs of standing estrus underwent AI and no reproductive hormones were used. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was performed via transrectal palpation at 40±3 d post-AI. The risk of culling within 14 d posttherapy was not different among treatment groups. Cows with PVD had greater cervical diameter at exam 1 and decreased PAI compared with cows without PVD. Treatment with DEX increased the proportion of cows with clear vaginal discharge (clinical cure) and cyclicity 14 d posttherapy compared with CON cows. Pregnancy per AI for DEX (29.2±2%) cows was significantly greater than that for CON (22.5±2%) cows. Cows without PVD had a greater proportion of cycling cows (65.6%) and PAI (37%) with reduced pregnancy losses (5.7%) compared with DEX or CON cows. The use of intrauterine DEX alone improved reproductive performance of cows with PVD. Copyright © 2015

  10. Misplaced intrauterine contraceptive device: an enigma

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Nigam; Ratna Biswas; Archana Mishra

    2010-01-01

    Aruna Nigam, Ratna Biswas, Archana MishraDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) migration subsequent to uterine wall perforation is an uncommon but serious complication. Three cases of misplaced IUCD at three different sites, ie, posterior fornix, rectal wall, and mesoappendix, are reported. An IUCD thread coming through the posterior fornix is reported in the literature for the first time.Key...

  11. Intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and transplacental digitalisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagashima, M; Asai, T; Suzuki, C; Matsushima, M; Ogawa, A

    1986-01-01

    Six newborn infants with intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (five cases of atrial flutter and one of supraventricular tachycardia) are described. Transplacental digitalisation was attempted in three cases. Supraventricular tachycardia associated with hydrops fetalis, detected in a fetus at a gestation of 31 weeks, was successfully converted to normal sinus rhythm eight days after the mother began treatment with digoxin. The serum concentration of digoxin in cord blood almost equal...

  12. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis and intrauterine infections in repeat breeder cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, H; Prunner, I; Wagener, K; Jaureguiberry, M; de la Sota, R L; Erber, R; Aurich, C; Ehling-Schulz, M; Drillich, M

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and the presence of common uterine pathogens in repeat breeder cows. A total of 121 cows with three or more consecutive artificial inseminations without conception and no clinical signs of disease were defined as repeat breeder cows and were enrolled in this trial. Intrauterine samples were collected with the cytobrush technique to determine the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and bacteriologic infections. Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in plasma to assess ovarian activity. Furthermore, breed, parity, history of calving and postpartum uterine infection, clinical findings of transrectal palpation, and backfat thickness were analyzed as potential factors for the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows was 12.7%; but common uterine pathogens, Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes, were found in only one and three cows, respectively. Ovarian activity was determined in 95.0% of all cows. Recorded variables had no effect on the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. In conclusion, subclinical endometritis and uterine infections linked to common pathogens were playing a minor role as a cause for repeat breeder cows in this study. Alternative reasons for failure to conceive in these cows are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. INTRAUTERINE FETAL DEATH CASES AT TERTIARY CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Bishnoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intrauterine fetal death is a tragic event for the parents and a great cause of stress for the caregiver. It is an important indicator of maternal and perinatal health of a given population. This study was undertaken to study the maternal and fetal factors associated with intrauterine fetal death. Aim and Objective- This was an Analytical study aimed to evaluate and understand the prevalence, socio-epidemiological and etiological factors of IUFD methodology should not be mixed with aims and objectives MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out at March 2017 to June 2017 (4 months study which was conducted at Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The details were entered in a preformed proforma. IUD is defined as fetal death beyond 20 weeks of gestation and/or birth weight >500g. The details of complaints at admission, obstetrics history, menstrual history, examination findings, per vaginal examination findings, mode and method of delivery and fetal outcomes and investigation reports were recorded. RESULTS A total of 227 intrauterine fetal deaths were reported amongst 6264 deliveries conducted during the study period. The incidence rate of intrauterine fetal death was 36/1000 live births. 192 (84.56% deliveries were unbooked and unsupervised and 133 (58.59% belonged to rural population and 126 (55.5% were preterm and 221 (97.55% were singleton pregnancy. Among the identifiable causes hypertensive disorders (24.22% and severe anemia (13.10% were most common followed by placental causes (9.97%. Congenital malformations were responsible for 12.39% and unidentifiable causes were 11.01%. Induction was done in 103 patients, 94 patients had spontaneous onset of labour and caesarean section was done in 30 patients. Incidence of intrauterine foetal demise gradually decreased as parity advanced. CONCLUSION Institutional deliveries should be promoted to prevent intrapartum fetal deaths. Decrease in the incidence of IUD would

  14. A suspicious reason for Raynaud's phenomenon: Intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Adem I; Yalçınkaya, Adnan; Aksoy, Eray; Yılmaz, Seyhan; Çağlı, Kerim

    2015-06-01

    Primary Raynaud's phenomenon may be insistent in patients under medical therapy, and intrauterine devices may be an unnoticed reason in these patients. Fluctuations in female sex hormone status were reported to be associated with the emergence of primary Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms. The use of intrauterine devices was not reported to be associated with Raynaud's phenomenon previously. Intrauterine device may stimulate vascular hyperactivity regarding hormonal or unknown mechanisms that result in Raynaud's phenomenon. We present a postmenopausal patient who complained of primary Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms and had recovery after the removal of her copper intrauterine device. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Ectopic Intrauterine Device in the Bladder of a Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Kurdoglu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine perforation and transvesical migration of an intrauterine device are rare complications. Case. A 28-year-old woman who had an intrauterine device was admitted to our outpatient clinic with complaints of amenorrhea lasting 5 weeks and pelvic pain lasting a year. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed embedding of the intrauterine device in the bladder. The misplaced device was removed by laparotomy. Conclusion. The followup of intrauterine device localization with transvaginal ultrasonography is essential for early detection of possible serious complications.

  16. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  17. Results of artificial insemination at home by the partner with cryopreserved donor semen: a randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerzeil, H. V.; Hamerlynck, J. V.; van Amstel, N.; Nagelkerke, N. J.; Lammes, F. B.

    1988-01-01

    The use of cryopreserved semen offers the possibility of home insemination by the instructed partner. A comparative study was designed whereby participants were randomly allocated to use home or clinic insemination for six cycles. If no pregnancy had occurred after six cycles, the site of

  18. DETERMINATION OF A MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATIONS BY DONOR CHILDREN PER SPERM DONOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, A; Oosterwijk, JC; RIGTERSARIS, CAE

    Objective: To determine a safe maximum number of artificial insemination (donor insemination [DI]) children per anonymous sperm donor. Design: Multiparameter calculation model of contribution of DI to inbreeding. Setting: Data of the collaborative DI centers and demographic population data of The

  19. Relationships between rabbit semen characteristics and fertilising ability after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theau-Clément, M; Ailloud, E; Sanchez, A; Saleil, G; Brun, J M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyse the relationship between rabbit semen characteristics and semen fertilising ability after insemination, which is generally found to be weak. Our hypothesis was that using high semen dilutions (1 : 19), non-oestrus-stimulated does, and homospermic inseminations would make it easier to predict semen fertilising ability. Semen characteristics were evaluated on 275 ejaculates of 128 INRA1001 bucks, distributed into five successive batches. A total of 1970 inseminations were performed. The continuous semen variables were subdivided into three classes of similar size to account for any non-linear relationship between semen characteristics and fertilising ability. Mass motility was divided into two classes according to the presence or absence of waves under microscope observation. Libido, the presence or absence of gel, volume, percentage of progressive sperms, curvilinear velocity, beat frequency of the flagellum, and straightness and linearity of sperm movement did not affect fertility, prolificacy or productivity. It was confirmed that mass motility, estimated by visual observation under the microscope, significantly influenced fertility as well as the percentage of motile and of rapid sperms, and the amplitude of lateral head displacement, estimated by a computer-assisted semen analysis system. To a lesser extent, the percentage of motile cells and of rapid cells significantly influenced prolificacy. Consequently, mass motility and the percentage of motile cells significantly influenced rabbit doe productivity (+1 live births/AI when the semen showed at least a beginning of wave movement, or when the percentage of motile cells was >84%). Interestingly, a gain of 1.5 rabbits was observed when the percentage of rapid cells changed from 64% to 79%, whereas productivity significantly dropped beyond 83% of rapid cells, reflecting a non-linear relationship.

  20. 9 CFR 147.27 - Procedures recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. 147.27 Section 147.27 Animals and Animal... recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. (a) The vehicle transporting the insemination crew should be left as far as practical from the turkey pens. (b) The personnel...

  1. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved interstate for insemination of swine or implantation into swine shall be accompanied by a document issued by...

  2. Reproduction in nondomestic birds: Physiology, semen collection, artificial insemination and cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Bertschinger, H.; Donoghue, A.M.; Blanco, J.; Soley, J.

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering work by Quinn and Burrows in the late 1930s led to successful artificial insemination (AI) programs in the domestic poultry industry. A variety of species specific modifications to the Quinn and Burrows massage technique made AI possible in nondomestic birds. Massage semen collection and insemination techniques span the entire range of species from sparrows to ostriches. Also, cooperative semen collection and electroejaculation have found limited use in some nondomestic species. Artificial insemination produces good fertility, often exceeding fertility levels in naturally copulating populations. However, aviculturists should explore other ways to improve fertility before resorting to AI. Artificial insemination is labor intensive and may pose risks to nondomestic birds as well as handlers associated with capture and insemination. Semen collection and AI makes semen cryopreservation and germ plasma preservation possible. Yet, semen cryopreservation techniques need improvement before fertility with frozen-thawed semen will equal fertility from AI with fresh semen.

  3. Quantifying sperm egg interaction to assess the breeding efficiency through artificial insemination in guinea fowls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, G H; Omprakash, A V; Premavalli, K; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2017-04-01

    1. Guinea fowl hens were inseminated weekly once with two doses of spermatozoa (75 million and 100 million) in two different diluents, Beltsville poultry semen extender (BPSE), and Instruments for Veterinary Medicine (IMV), each with and without pre-insemination vaginal douching. Per cent fertility, hatchability, dead germ, dead in shells along with data on sperm egg interaction and vaginal microbial counts were recorded. 2. Artificial insemination had significantly improved the per cent fertility and hatchability compared to natural mating. Dose dependent improvement in fertility was noticed with both diluents. 3. There was a beneficial effect of vaginal douching, which was more pronounced at lower insemination doses. 4. For optimum fertility and hatchability in guinea fowl, insemination of 75 million spermatozoa diluted in BPSE once in 4 d and 100 million spermatozoa diluted in BPSE or IMV once in 5 d coupled with vaginal douching is recommended.

  4. Comparison of three superovulation protocols with or without GnRH treatment at the time of artificial insemination on ovarian response and embryo quality in Thai native heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Pitchayapipatkul, Jakkhaphan; Chuawongboon, Phirawit; Rakwongrit, Dumrongrak; Sakhong, Denpong; Boonkum, Wuttigrai; Vongpralub, Thevin

    2017-03-01

    To optimize the superovulation protocol in Thai native cattle, the present research was designed to (1) compare three different protocols designed to induce superstimulation and (2) study the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration at insemination time (to induce ovulation) on ovarian follicular activities in terms of the number of large follicles, corpora lutea (CLs) and unovulated follicles, and the number and quality of ova/embryos recovered in Thai native heifers. Initially, the estrous cycles of animals (n = 36) at unknown stages were synchronized by two prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) injections at an interval of 12 days. Follicular development of heifers was randomly superstimulated with one of three different treatment protocols: treatment A-a total of 100 mg of pituitary-derived FSH (pFSH; Folltropin®-V) administered in eight decreasing doses; treatment B-a single dose of 100 mg pFSH dissolved in 30% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone; or treatment C-ablation of all follicles ≥5 mm with a single dose of pFSH. All heifers received PGF 2α 48 h after the initiation of FSH treatment to induce luteolysis from the previous cycle, and they were twice inseminated at 12 and 24 h after the onset of estrus. Heifers in each treatment were assigned to be injected or not with GnRH at the time of first insemination with frozen/thawed semen to induce ovulation. About 7 days after artificial insemination (AI), ova/embryos were collected and classified. The numbers of large follicles at the onset of estrus were not statistically significantly different; meanwhile, the maximum diameters of follicles at the time of first insemination in treatment C were smaller compared with the other treatment groups (p insemination time resulted in a greater number of CLs and fewer unovulated follicles at the time of ova/embryo collection (p = 0.001), which subsequently resulted in a higher number of total ova/embryos recovered (p = 0.030). Among

  5. Glucocorticoids as regulatory signals during intrauterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

    2015-12-01

    What is the topic of this review? This review discusses the role of the glucocorticoids as regulatory signals during intrauterine development. It examines the functional significance of these hormones as maturational, environmental and programming signals in determining offspring phenotype. What advances does it highlight? It focuses on the extensive nature of the regulatory actions of these hormones. It highlights the emerging data that these actions are mediated, in part, by the placenta, other endocrine systems and epigenetic modifications of the genome. Glucocorticoids are important regulatory signals during intrauterine development. They act as maturational, environmental and programming signals that modify the developing phenotype to optimize offspring viability and fitness. They affect development of a wide range of fetal tissues by inducing changes in cellular expression of structural, transport and signalling proteins, which have widespread functional consequences at the whole organ and systems levels. Glucocorticoids, therefore, activate many of the physiological systems that have little function in utero but are vital at birth to replace the respiratory, nutritive and excretory functions previously carried out by the placenta. However, by switching tissues from accretion to differentiation, early glucocorticoid overexposure in response to adverse conditions can programme fetal development with longer term physiological consequences for the adult offspring, which can extend to the next generation. The developmental effects of the glucocorticoids can be direct on fetal tissues with glucocorticoid receptors or mediated by changes in placental function or other endocrine systems. At the molecular level, glucocorticoids can act directly on gene transcription via their receptors or indirectly by epigenetic modifications of the genome. In this review, we examine the role and functional significance of glucocorticoids as regulatory signals during intrauterine

  6. First results from insemination with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupche Kochoski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Science has been searching for a long time for a reliable method for controlling the sex of mammalian offspring. Recently, the application of specific modern cellular methodologies has led to the development of a flow cytometric system capable of differentiating and separating living X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells in amounts suitable for AI and therefore, commercialization of this sexing technology. The aim of this work was to present the first results of heifers that introduce bovine AI with sex sorted semen, for the first time in Macedonia. Insemination with sex sorted cryopreserved semen (2x106 spermatozoa per dose imported from the USA was done at two dairy farms in ZK Pelagonija. In total, 74 heifers (Holstein Friesian were inseminated. Inseminations were carried out in a timely manner following a modified OvSynch protocol. During the insemination, the sperm was deposited into the uterine horn ipsi lateral to the ovary where a follicle larger than 1.6 cm was detected by means of transrectal ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was checked by ultrasound on day 30 after the insemination. Overall, the average pregnancy rate in both farms was 43,24% (40,54% and 45,95%, for farm 1 and farm 2, respectively. All pregnant heifers delivered their calves following a normal gestation length (274,3 days in average and of the 32 born calves, 30 (93,75% were female. In conclusion, since the first results from inseminations with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia are very promising, the introduction of this technique may bring much benefit to the local dairy sector. Average pregnancy rate seems similar with results obtained following ‘regular’ inseminations, notwithstanding the relatively low number of spermatozoa per insemination dose. Due to the latter, we however recommend inseminations only to be carried out by experienced technicians followinga TAI protocol and ultrasound examinations of the ovaries prior to insemination.

  7. Intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and transplacental digitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, M; Asai, T; Suzuki, C; Matsushima, M; Ogawa, A

    1986-10-01

    Six newborn infants with intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (five cases of atrial flutter and one of supraventricular tachycardia) are described. Transplacental digitalisation was attempted in three cases. Supraventricular tachycardia associated with hydrops fetalis, detected in a fetus at a gestation of 31 weeks, was successfully converted to normal sinus rhythm eight days after the mother began treatment with digoxin. The serum concentration of digoxin in cord blood almost equalled the maternal concentration in three cases. In the remaining three cases treatment with digitalis was effective in converting tachyarrhythmias to sinus rhythm after delivery. With maintenance digoxin therapy, the prognosis of fetal tachyarrhythmias seems to be good, once conversion to sinus rhythm has been accomplished.

  8. Immediate Intrauterine Device Insertion Following Surgical Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Eva; Bednarek, Paula H

    2015-12-01

    Placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after a first or second trimester surgical abortion is safe and convenient and decreases the risk of repeat unintended pregnancy. Immediate postabortion IUD placement is not recommended in the setting of postprocedure hemorrhage, uterine perforation, infection, or hematometra. Otherwise, there are few contraindications to IUD placement following surgical abortion. Sexually transmitted infection screening should follow US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. No additional antibiotics are needed beyond those used for the abortion. Placing immediate postabortion IUDs makes highly-effective long-acting reversible contraception more accessible to women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Meckel's diverticulum: the lead point of intrauterine intussusception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intussusception is a known complication of Meckel's diverticulum. However, intrauterine intussusception secondary to Meckel's diverticulum has unknown incidence. Our case describes the medical and surgical management of a newborn with intrauterine intussusception of a Meckel's diverticulum as a cause of the vascular ...

  10. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.1044a Section 529.1044a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution...

  11. 21 CFR 529.50 - Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.50 Section 529.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution...

  12. Consequences of intrauterine growth restriction for the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Schreuder; A. van Wijk (Ans); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractLow birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction is associated with various diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of intrauterine growth restriction

  13. Immediate postpartum versus 6-week postpartum intrauterine device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial of postpartum intrauterine device insertion and to demonstrate that the postpartum intrauterine device is acceptable to women. Women attending prenatal care at a maternity hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi were recruited into a trial ...

  14. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine. Contraceptive Device. Abdullahi Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Oluwagbemiga Olabisi Ogunleye. INTRODUCTION. Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are acceptable means of contraception world over.[1-4] There have been reports of its migration to other adjourning sites ...

  15. Cardiovascular adaptation to extrauterine life after intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Guerineau, Luciana; Perez-Cruz, Miriam; Gomez Roig, María D; Cambra, Francisco J; Carretero, Juan; Prada, Fredy; Gómez, Olga; Crispi, Fátima; Bartrons, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    Introduction The adaptive changes of the foetal heart in intrauterine growth restriction can persist postnatally. Data regarding its consequences for early circulatory adaptation to extrauterine life are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess cardiac morphometry and function in newborns with late-onset intrauterine growth restriction to test the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction causes cardiac shape and functional changes at birth. A comprehensive echocardiographic study was performed in 25 neonates with intrauterine growth restriction and 25 adequate-for-gestational-age neonates. Compared with controls, neonates with intrauterine growth restriction had more globular ventricles, lower longitudinal tricuspid annular motion, and higher left stroke volume without differences in the heart rate. Neonates with intrauterine growth restriction also showed subclinical signs of diastolic dysfunction in the tissue Doppler imaging with lower values of early (e') diastolic annular peak velocities in the septal annulus. Finally, the Tei index in the tricuspid annulus was higher in the intrauterine growth restriction group. Neonates with history of intrauterine growth restriction showed cardiac remodelling and signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Overall, there was a significant tendency to worse cardiac function results in the right heart. The adaptation to extrauterine life occurred with more globular hearts, higher stroke volumes but a similar heart rate compared to adequate-for-gestational-age neonates.

  16. Intrauterine fetal death and risk of shoulder dystocia at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sandra; Dobbin, Joanna; McCallion, Oliver; Eskild, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Vaginal delivery is recommended after intrauterine fetal death. However, little is known about the risk of shoulder dystocia in these deliveries. We studied whether intrauterine fetal death increases the risk of shoulder dystocia at delivery. In this population-based register study using the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, we included all singleton pregnancies with vaginal delivery of offspring in cephalic presentation in Norway during the period 1967-2012 (n = 2 266 118). Risk of shoulder dystocia was estimated as absolute risk (%) and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Adjustment was made for offspring birthweight (in grams). We performed sub-analyses within categories of birthweight (Shoulder dystocia occurred in 1.1% of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death and in 0.8% of pregnancies without intrauterine fetal death (p shoulder dystocia occurred in 14.6% of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death and in 2.8% of pregnancies without intrauterine fetal death (p shoulder dystocia occurred in 57.1% of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death and 9.6% of pregnancies without intrauterine fetal death (p shoulder dystocia at delivery, and the absolute risk of shoulder dystocia was particularly high if offspring birthweight was high and the mother had diabetes. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Unprotected intercourse in the 2 weeks prior to requesting emergency intrauterine contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jessica N; Howell, Laura; Saltzman, Hanna M; Schwarz, E Bimla; Thompson, Ivana S; Turok, David K

    2016-11-01

    Previous emergency contraception studies have excluded women who report >1 episode of unprotected or underprotected intercourse. Thus, clinical recommendations are based on exposure to a single episode of underprotected intercourse. We sought to assess the prevalence and timing of underprotected intercourse episodes among women requesting emergency contraception and to examine the probability of pregnancy following an emergency contraception regimen including placement of either a copper intrauterine device or a levonorgestrel intrauterine device with simultaneous administration of an oral levonorgestrel pill in women reporting multiple underprotected intercourse episodes, including episodes beyond the Food and Drug Administration-approved emergency contraception time frame (6-14 days). Women seeking emergency contraception who had a negative pregnancy test and desired either a copper intrauterine device or levonorgestrel emergency contraception regimen enrolled in this prospective observational study. At enrollment, participants reported the number and timing of underprotected intercourse episodes in the previous 14 days. Two weeks later, participants reported the results of a self-administered home pregnancy test. Of the 176 women who presented for emergency contraception and received a same-day intrauterine device, 43% (n = 76) reported multiple underprotected intercourse episodes in the 14 days prior to presenting for emergency contraception. Women with multiple underprotected intercourse episodes reported a median of 3 events (range 2-20). Two-week pregnancy data were available for 172 (98%) participants. Only 1 participant had a positive pregnancy test. Pregnancy occurred in 0 of 97 (0%; 95% confidence interval, 0-3.7%) women with a single underprotected intercourse episode and 1 of 75 (1.3%; 95% confidence interval, 0-7.2%) women reporting multiple underprotected intercourse episodes; this includes 1 of 40 (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 0-13.2%) women

  18. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of endoscopic-assisted transcervical and laparotomy insemination with frozen-thawed dog semen: a retrospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, S J; Rous, N R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this retrospective clinical study was to compare pregnancy rates obtained after the use of endoscopic-assisted transcervical catheterization (EIU) or laparotomy (SIU) for insemination of frozen-thawed dog semen. Healthy bitches from various breeds were inseminated with semen from multiple donors processed by different freezing centers. Data from 118 inseminations (78 EIU and 40 SIU) performed between 2009 and 2011 were analyzed. Insemination timing was based on vaginal cytology, serum progesterone concentrations, and vaginoscopy. A ureterorenoscope and a CH-5 Transcervical insemination catheter were used for EIU; 28 of the bitches in this group were inseminated twice with the second insemination less than 12 hours after the first. The numbers of live morphologically normal sperm (LMNS) were determined to characterize insemination doses. Overall, pregnancy rate was greater (P inseminated regardless of insemination method; the greatest pregnancy rate was observed in the EIU group when this insemination dose was used (38/49; 78%). There was no significant difference in pregnancy rate whether one (69%) or two inseminations (64%) were performed in the EIU group. Complications in the SIU group included anesthetic-induced bradycardia during surgery, significant postsurgery pain, seroma formation over the abdominal incision, and delayed wound healing. No complications were noted during or after insemination in the EIU group. In conclusion, these results support the use of EIU as a noninvasive alternative to laparotomy for insemination of frozen-thawed dog semen. In addition, use of more than 100 × 10(6) LMNS is also recommended for insemination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Artificial insemination and eugenics: celibate motherhood, eutelegenesis and germinal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Martin

    2008-06-01

    This paper traces the history of artificial insemination by selected donors (AID) as a strategy for positive eugenic improvement. While medical artificial insemination has a longer history, its use as a eugenic strategy was first mooted in late nineteenth-century France. It was then developed as 'scientific motherhood' for war widows and those without partners by Marion Louisa Piddington in Australia following the Great War. By the 1930s AID was being more widely used clinically in Britain (and elsewhere) as a medical solution to male infertility for married couples. In 1935 English postal clerk, Herbert Brewer, promoted AID (eutelegenesis) as the socialization of the germ plasm in a eugenic scheme. The next year Hermann Muller, American Drosophila geneticist and eugenicist, presented his plan for human improvement by AID to Stalin. Some twenty years later, Muller, together with Robert Klark Graham, began planning a Foundation for Germinal Choice in California. This was finally opened in 1980 as the first practical experiment in eugenic AID, producing some 215 babies over the twenty years it functioned. While AID appeared to be a means of squaring a eugenic circle by separating paternity from love relationships, and so allowing eugenic improvement without inhibiting individual choice in marriage, it found very little favour with those who might use it, not least because of a couple's desire to have their 'own' children has always seemed stronger than any eugenic aspirations. No state has ever contemplated using AID as a social policy.

  1. Hypodermic self-insemination as a reproductive assurance strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Steven A; Schlatter, Aline; Poirier, Maude; Schärer, Lukas

    2015-07-22

    Self-fertilization occurs in a broad range of hermaphroditic plants and animals, and is often thought to evolve as a reproductive assurance strategy under ecological conditions that disfavour or prevent outcrossing. Nevertheless,selfing ability is far from ubiquitous among hermaphrodites, and may be constrained in taxa where the male and female gametes of the same individual cannot easily meet. Here, we report an extraordinary selfing mechanism in one such species, the free-living flatworm Macrostomum hystrix. To test the hypothesis that adaptations to hypodermic insemination of the mating partner under outcrossing also facilitate selfing, we experimentally manipulated the social environment of these transparent flatworms and then observed the spatial distribution of received sperm in vivo. We find that this distribution differs radically between conditions allowing or preventing outcrossing, implying that isolated individuals use their needle-like stylet (male copulatory organ) to inject own sperm into their anterior body region, including into their own head, from where they then apparently migrate to the site of (self-)fertilization. Conferring the ability to self could thus be an additional consequence of hypodermic insemination, a widespread fertilization mode that is especially prevalent among simultaneously hermaphroditic animals and probably evolves due to sexual conflict over the transfer and subsequent fate of sperm.

  2. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  3. Impact of cryptic female choice on insemination success: Larger sized and longer copulating male squid ejaculate more, but females influence insemination success by removing spermatangia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Noriyosi; Yoshida, Masa-Aki; Kasugai, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In polyandrous mating systems, sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC) are well recognized as postcopulatory evolutionary forces. However, it remains challenging to separate CFC from sperm competition and to estimate how much CFC influences insemination success because those processes usually occur inside the female's body. The Japanese pygmy squid, Idiosepius paradoxus, is an ideal species in which to separate CFC from sperm competition because sperm transfer by the male and sperm displacement by the female can be observed directly at an external location on the female's body. Here, we counted the number of spermatangia transferred to, removed from, and remaining on the female body during single copulation episodes. We measured behavioral and morphological characteristics of the male, such as duration of copulation and body size. Although males with larger body size and longer copulation time were capable of transferring larger amounts of sperm, females preferentially eliminated sperm from males with larger body size and shorter copulation time by spermatangia removal; thus, CFC could attenuate sperm precedence by larger males, whereas it reinforces sperm precedence by males with longer copulation time. Genetic paternity analysis revealed that fertilisation success for each male was correlated with remaining sperm volume that is adjusted by females after copulation. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemert, Martin J C van; Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den [Laser Centre and Department of Obstetrics, Laser Center, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lopriore, Enrico [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Pasman, Suzanne A; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A [Division of Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.vangemert@amc.uva.nl

    2008-04-07

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others. (note)

  5. Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemert, Martin J C van; Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A

    2008-01-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others. (note)

  6. NOTE: Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2008-04-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others.

  7. Comparison of copper intrauterine device with levonorgestrel-bearing intrauterine system for post-abortion contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgehan, Fatma; Dilbaz, Berna; Karadag, Burak; Deveci, Canan Dura

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the safety, bleeding pattern, effects, side-effects, complications and 6-month continuity rates of levonorgestrel-bearing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with conventional copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) inserted immediately after voluntary termination of pregnancy up to 10 weeks of gestation. One hundred women who underwent voluntary pregnancy termination and preferred IUD insertion as a contraceptive method after counseling were enrolled. The patients were randomly allocated to Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS and followed up at 10 days, and at 1, 3 and 6 months. The expulsion rates, continuation rates, side-effects, and bleeding patterns were compared. Fifty women in the Cu-IUD group and 44 women in the LNG-IUS group were followed up. The continuity and expulsion rate for Cu-IUD and LNG-IUS at the end of 6 months was 74%, 12%, and 75%, 11.3%, respectively. In LNG-IUS users, the incidence of amenorrhea and the number of spotting days were higher and hemoglobin increased throughout the follow-up period. The side-effects related to both methods were not different from interval insertions. Immediate post-abortion intrauterine contraception with Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS is a safe, reliable method. The incidence of side-effects is similar, and there is only a slightly higher rate of expulsion but an acceptable rate of method continuation. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Psychosocial adjustment among children conceived via donor insemination by lesbian and heterosexual mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R W; Raboy, B; Patterson, C J

    1998-04-01

    This study examined the relations among family structure (e.g., number of parents, parental sexual orientation), family process (e.g., parents' relationship satisfaction, interparental conflict), and the psychological adjustment of children who had been conceived via donor insemination. The 80 participating families, all of whom had conceived children using the resources of a single sperm bank, included 55 families headed by lesbian and 25 families headed by heterosexual parents. Fifty families were headed by couples and 30 by single parents. Participating children averaged 7 years of age. Results showed that children were developing in normal fashion, and that their adjustment was unrelated to structural variables such as parental sexual orientation or the number of parents in the household. These results held true for teacher reports as well as for parent reports. Variables associated with family interactions and processes were, however, significantly related to indices of children's adjustment. Parents who were experiencing higher levels of parenting stress, higher levels of interparental conflict, and lower levels of love for each other had children who exhibited more behavior problems.

  9. Conception following insemination with a freeze-preserved retrograde ejaculate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, E; Rao, R; Dmowski, W P; Scommegna, A

    1978-03-01

    Retrograde ejaculation, an infrequent cause of male infertility, may be the sequela of prostate or bladder neck surgery or the result of interruption in the sympathetic innervation to the bladder neck. The diagnosis is established by history and examination of the urine. In infertile couples artificial insemination homologous (AIH) using retrograde ejaculate recovered from the bladder has been successfully accomplished, but conception has occurred only in isolated cases. A literature review of the subject is presented. The technique of semen recovery from the bladder is time-consuming and uncomfortable to the patient, while the quality of the semen recovered is variable and the risk of iatrogenic urinary tract infection is increased. To avoid the above problems, and to have sperm available for AIH at the time of induced ovulation in an anovulatory wife, we were able to freeze-preserve ejaculate recovered from the bladder for future use. A case of conception following AIH with freeze-preserved retrograde ejaculate is presented.

  10. A longitudinal analysis of artificial insemination with donor semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulewski, J M; Eisenberg, F; Stenger, V G

    1978-05-01

    A longitudinal analysis of artificial insemination with donor semen (AID) in 114 consecutive couples revealed a 37% over-all pregnancy rate. The 45 pregnancies occurred in 39 patients, and approximately 90% of these pregnancies occurred within six cycles of AID. Pregnancy rates were higher in the age group 25 to 30, in those who received only fresh semen, and in those with a history of a previous pregnancy. Lower pregnancy rates were observed in patients age 31 or older, in those with pelvic disease, and in those randomly receiving freshly thawed semen or fresh semen. The use of a vaginal device for retaining semen, the use of patient positioning, or the duration of infertility did not appear to affect the success rate. When surgically correctable pelvic disease was treated, a pregnancy rate of 22% was obtained.

  11. Results of 6139 artificial insemination cycles with donor spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchan, A; Hauser, R; Gamzu, R; Yogev, L; Paz, G; Yavetz, H

    2001-11-01

    Artificial insemination by donor spermatozoa (AID) can prove a valuable treatment for a number of male factor disorders, although its success rate is variable. Retrospective analysis of the results of 6139 cycles performed in 1001 women during an 18 year period is presented. Pregnancy rates per cycle are presented as a function of: female fertility history, treatment modalities, medication used for induction of ovulation, female age, year of treatment, consecutive cycle effect and the use of fresh versus frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Overall pregnancy rate of 12.6% and cumulative pregnancy rate after 12 months of treatment of 75% were achieved. Age was found to be the most important determinant for success rate. Since the establishment of AID treatments, the mean age of the population of women receiving treatment has increased each year. Consequently, success rate did not improve, even with the use of more sophisticated medical modalities.

  12. Reproduction in females bufalinas: artificial insemination and assisted reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in females bufalinas has been studied for the detection of estrus. A system that works through radio telemetry has been developed and proposed to replace the daily visual observation to determine the estrous phase with efficiency and precision. The method used is the fixation on the back of the female with a sensor that emits radio waves every time suffer a pressure exerted by the mountain. Waves have been captured by an antenna and sent to a computer system. The knowledge that has been developed on the management and use of reproductive biotechnologies of reproduction in buffalo, have enabled the technicians and breeders evaluate and indicate which procedures can be used successfully, and increase the application of the fixed-time artificial insemination during the year [es

  13. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  14. Vesical transmigration of an intrauterine contraceptive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wei; Zhang, Wenlei; Jia, Guifeng; Cui, Miao; Cui, Lifeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Displacement of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is a rare and serious complication of IUD insertion. Theoretically, it can migrate to anywhere in the pelvic and abdominal cavity. However, it is not usual for an IUD to migrate to the bladder. Patient concerns: In this case report, we reported a patient with chronic urinary symptoms caused by the migration of an IUD into the bladder. The displacement of the IUD led to contraception failure and IUD retention in the bladder for 5 years. Diagnoses: Pelvic ultrasonography (US), radiography, and cystoscopy examinations confirmed the migration of IUD in bladder. Interventions: The patient underwent cystoscopy. Outcomes: The MCu IUD was successfully removed without any complications. Lessons: Our study demonstrated that a missing IUD should be followed up and removed early to avoid possible serious complications. PMID:28984781

  15. The intrauterine device: dispelling the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble-Haas, S L

    1998-11-01

    The worldwide popularity and usage of intrauterine devices (IUDs) plummeted in the 1970s, when grim reports of septic abortions and pelvic inflammatory disease were published. Although the Dalkon Shield ultimately was determined to be the culprit for these problems, the reputation of all IUDs was damaged, and their popularity spiraled downward. The stigma continues, despite the proven safety and efficacy of newer IUDs, particularly the ParaGard T 380A and the Progestasert, which are now the only two IUDs approved for use in the United States. This article will review how the IUD works and will focus on dispelling the misconceptions surrounding its use. Rigid patient-selection guidelines and strict aseptic insertion techniques can provide safe, long-term, cost-effective, and highly efficacious contraception for monogamous women. Practitioners who follow these guidelines should not fear prescribing IUDs as a contraceptive device in the appropriate female population.

  16. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: III. Comparing fixed-time artificial insemination to split-time artificial insemination with delayed administration of GnRH in postpartum cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-09-01

    This experiment was designed to compare pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows following split-time (STAI) or fixed-time (FTAI) artificial insemination. Estrus was synchronized for 671 cows at seven locations following administration of the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR insert [1.38 g progesterone] on d 0; 25 mg prostaglandin F 2α [PG] at CIDR removal on d 7). Cows were assigned to treatments that were balanced across locations based on age, body condition score, and days postpartum at the time treatments were initiated. All cows in treatment 1 (n = 333; FTAI) were inseminated at 66 h after PG and GnRH was administered concurrent with insemination regardless of estrus expression. For cows in treatment 2 (n = 338; STAI), inseminations were performed at 66 or 90 h after PG, and estrous status was recorded at these times. Cows in the STAI treatment that exhibited estrus by 66 h were inseminated at that time and did not receive GnRH, whereas AI was delayed 24 h until 90 h after PG for cows that failed to exhibit estrus by 66 h. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (100 μg) was administered concurrent with AI at 90 h only to cows failing to exhibit estrus. Estrus expression that occurred during the 24 h delay period among cows assigned to the STAI treatment increased the total proportion of cows that expressed estrus prior to insemination (1 = 60%; 2 = 86%; P inseminated at 66 h that exhibited estrus did not differ between treatments (1 = 58%; 2 = 58%; P = 0.93); however, pregnancy rates among non-estrous cows at 66 h were improved (1 = 35%; 2 = 51%; P = 0.01) among cows assigned to the STAI treatment when insemination was postponed by 24 h. Consequently, total AI pregnancy rate tended to be higher for cows that received STAI (1 = 49%; 2 = 56%; P = 0.06). In summary, following administration of the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol, total estrous response increased and pregnancy rates resulting from AI tended

  17. Investigation of knowledge level about intrauterine device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediye Dagdeviren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate a level of knowledge about intrauterine device between females who were examined in our gynecology department. Metods: The study was conducted at Gynecology and Obstetric Department of Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Teaching and Research Hospital between August 2012-November 2012. The study were included 189 patients who accepted to participate. For collecting data; a form of questionnaire was used which has gived information about the intrauterine device (IUD and status of socio-demographic characteristics of the patients. The questionnaire were administered by the researchers in a separate room as a face-to-face interviews. SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA program was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of the women in the study was 31.1 ± 9.9. 44.7% of women were not using any modern contraceptive method. IUD utilization rate was 3.2%. 1.6% of women had never heard IUD, %76.1 women heard copper IUD. 42% of respondents gave the wrong answer to IUD inserted into ovaries. Conclusion: The IUD which is a cheap, does not require patient compliance, and has high efficacy. In this study, we were not found a statisfically significant difference for answers to questions in patients with different socio-demographic characteristics. The main result of the study was; among all parcipitians ,even health care workers there was an important disability about level of knowledge for IUD. It is great importance the whole society, including health professionals must train about family planning. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 440-445

  18. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures

  19. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  20. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.

    2016-10-01

    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly ( P insemination based on forecasted temperatures can improve the success of AI in goats and sheep.

  1. Implementing artificial insemination as an effective tool for ex situ conservation of endangered avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captive propagation programs have proven useful in maintaining genetic diversity and restoring wild populations of certain species, including the Peregrine falcon, California condor and Whooping crane. Artificial insemination (AI) has the potential of solving problems inherent to reproductive manage...

  2. A comparison of intrauterine balloon, intrauterine contraceptive device and hyaluronic acid gel in the prevention of adhesion reformation following hysteroscopic surgery for Asherman syndrome: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaona; Wei, Minling; Li, T C; Huang, Qiongxiao; Huang, Dong; Zhou, Feng; Zhang, Songying

    2013-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of intrauterine balloon, intrauterine contraceptive device and hyaluronic acid gel in the prevention of the adhesion reformation after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis for Asherman's syndrome. Retrospective cohort study of 107 women with Asherman's syndrome who were treated with hysteroscopic division of intrauterine adhesions. After hysteroscopic adhesiolysis, 20 patients had intrauterine balloon inserted, 28 patients had intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) fitted, 18 patients had hyaluronic acid gel instilled into the uterine cavity, and 41 control subjects did not have any of the three additional treatment measures. A second-look hysteroscopy was performed in all cases, and the effect of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis was scored by the American Fertility Society classification system. Both the intrauterine balloon group and the IUD group achieved significantly (Pintrauterine balloon or intrauterine device is more effective than the use of hyaluronic acid gel in the prevention of intra-uterine adhesion reformation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Unconventional conceptions : family planning in lesbian-headed families created by donor insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Lisa Katherine

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to systematically describe the decision-making phase of family formation in German lesbians planning to parent via donor insemination, to assess the issues pertinent to each mother role and those involved in donor type choice using a retrospective, structured questionnaire. Data was collected from 105 self-identified lesbian women, 55 of whom were birthmothers and 50 of whom were social mothers. The process of planning a lesbian-headed family created by donor insemination ...

  4. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sraïri, MT.; Farit, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al) database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of...

  5. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of intrauterine fetal growth restriction in interspecies sheep pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-García, A; Vázquez-Martínez, E R; Murcia, C; Rodríguez, A; Cerbón, M; Mejía, O

    2015-10-01

    Interspecies pregnancies between closely related species are usually performed in livestock to obtain improved and enriched offspring. Indeed, different hybrids have been obtained for research purposes since many years ago, and the maternal-fetal interactions have been studied as a possible strategy for species preservation. The aim of this study was to characterize by physiological and molecular approaches the interspecies pregnancy between bighorn sheep () and domestic sheep (). Hybrids were obtained by artificial insemination; the blood pressure and protein urine levels were measured during the last two-thirds of gestation. After parturition, offspring and placentas were weighed and measured and cotyledons were counted and weighed and their surface area determined. Plasma samples were obtained between wk 8 and 21 of gestation to assess progesterone (P4), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and placental growth factor (PlGF) levels and cell-free RNA was isolated during the same period to assess hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (α) gene expression. Hybrid and normal pregnancies were analyzed using physiological and molecular parameters during the last two-thirds of gestation (wk 8-21). The results show that during the measurement period, ewes with a hybrid pregnancy presented normal blood pressure and no alteration in urinary protein content. However, compared with sheep with a normal pregnancy, those with a hybrid pregnancy had a decrease in fetal and placental growth as well as in the cotyledonary surface area. Furthermore, in the hybrid group, there was placental insufficiency, characterized by a decrease in P4 production, as well as indications of endothelial dysfunction, characterized an increase in plasma levels of VEGF and PlGF as well as in plasma gene expression of α. Overall, the results indicate that hybrids of and presented intrauterine growth restriction, essentially due to altered endothelial function and chronic placental insufficiency

  6. Meckel's diverticulum: the lead point of intrauterine intussusception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meckel's diverticulum: the lead point of intrauterine intussusception with subsequent intestinal atresia in a newborn. Viet H. Le, Paul A. Perry, Allyson L. Hale, Robert L. Gates, John C. Chandler ...

  7. Sources of spermatozoa loss during collection and artificial insemination of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Michelle A; Blum, Katherine M; Burd, Matthew A

    2011-07-01

    During artificial insemination of horses, it is important to accurately estimate the number of spermatozoa in each insemination dose. However, little research exists regarding sources of spermatozoa loss during collection and artificial insemination. Therefore, spermatozoal losses were quantified in the dismount loss (187.6×10(6)±62.5×10(6)spermatozoa), gel fraction (179.8×10(6)±61.7×10(6)spermatozoa), and the collection receptacle (136.1×10(6)±26.9×10(6)spermatozoa). Spermatozoal losses were examined in the centrifuge tube (25.8×10(6)±2.1×10(6)spermatozoa), AI pipette during the air removal (90.9×10(6)±8.5×10(6)spermatozoa), and spermatozoa remaining in the AI pipette after insemination (342.9×10(6)±21.4×10(6)spermatozoa). The average cumulative loss was 14.2±2.9% of the total spermatozoa ejaculated with approximately half of the loss due to the process of semen collection and half due to the process of artificial insemination. Spermatozoa retained in the AI pipette, after insemination with extended semen, represented the greatest source of loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep with experimentally contaminated frozen semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalter, Angélica; Silva, Andressa F; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Matos, Luis F; de Oliveira, Francisco C R; Leite, Juliana S; Silva, Franciele B F; Ferreira, Ana M R

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite considered one of the major causes of reproductive problems in sheep. Furthermore, the presence of the agent in ram semen urges the possibility of sexual transmission in this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate if ram's frozen semen spiked with T. gondii tachyzoites would be able to cause infection in sheep by laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Nine ewes tested seronegative to anti-T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) were superovulated and inseminated to collect embryos. Animals were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 5), ewes inseminated with semen containing 4 × 10 7 tachyzoites; and G2 (n = 4), ewes inseminated with tachyzoite-free semen (control group). To confirm infection, ewe's blood samples were collected on days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49 and 57 after AI for analysis by MAT and PCR. Tissue samples of these ewes were also collected for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven days after AI, all ewes of group G1 had specific antibodies to T. gondii, while those of G2 were negative. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the blood of one ewe and parasites were observed in tissues of all five animals inseminated with contaminated semen, indicating that semen freezing protocol does not affect T. gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alteration of placental haemostatic mechanisms in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    García-Robles, Reggie; Deparatamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Ayala-Ramírez, Paola Andrea; Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,; Espinosa, Alejandra; Departamento de Patología, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio-Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,; Olaya, Mercedes; Departamento de Patología, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio-Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.; Rojas, Juan Diego; Unidad de Medicina Materno Fetal, Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología. Hospital Universitario San Ignacio-Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,; Bermúdez, Martha; Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,; Bernal, Jaime Eduardo; Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is a complication of pregnancy with a high probability of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It appears to be caused by abnormal development of placental vasculature. Haemostatic processes are important for the development of the placenta, and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors has been associated with risk of intrauterine growth restriction. Objective. To evaluate coagulation abnormalities in placenta of pregnancies complicated with id...

  10. Postplacental intrauterine device expulsion by 12 weeks: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldthwaite, Lisa M; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Hyer, Jennifer; Tocce, Kristina; Teal, Stephanie B

    2017-12-01

    An intrauterine device placed immediately following a delivery can serve as an effective and safe contraceptive strategy in the postpartum period. There is limited evidence that the levonorgestrel intrauterine system may have a higher rate of expulsion compared to the copper intrauterine device; however, rates of expulsion for these 2 intrauterine device types have not been compared directly. We sought to compare expulsion rates by 12 weeks' postpartum for the levonorgestrel intrauterine system and copper intrauterine device. We enrolled women who received postplacental intrauterine devices at 2 urban hospitals. Eligible women were ≥18 years old, English- or Spanish-speaking, with singleton vaginal delivery at ≥35 weeks' gestation. Intrauterine devices were inserted within 10 minutes of placental delivery by trained providers using ring forceps or the operator's hand. Intrauterine device location was evaluated via abdominal ultrasound at 24-48 hours' postpartum, and via transvaginal ultrasound 6 and 12 weeks later, categorizing position of the intrauterine device at the fundus, below the fundus but above the internal os, any part of the intrauterine device below the internal os (partial expulsion), or no intrauterine device visualized. Outcomes included intrauterine device expulsion and method continuation. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with expulsion. We enrolled 123 women ages 18-40 years. Of these, 68 (55%) initiated levonorgestrel intrauterine system and 55 (45%) initiated copper intrauterine device. Groups were similar except more copper intrauterine device users were Hispanic (66% vs 38%) and fewer were primiparous (16% vs 31%). Among the 96 (78%) with 12-week follow-up, expulsion was higher for levonorgestrel intrauterine system users (21/55 or 38%) than for copper intrauterine device users (8/41 or 20%) (odds ratio, 2.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-6.55; P = .05). At 24 hours' postpartum, there was no

  11. Continuation of copper and levonorgestrel intrauterine devices: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sharon J; Hofler, Lisa G; Modest, Anna M; Harvey, Lara F B; Wu, Lily H; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-07-01

    Studies conflict on whether the duration of use of the copper intrauterine device is longer than that of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and whether women who continue using intrauterine devices differ from those who discontinue. We sought to assess continuation rates and performance of levonorgestrel intrauterine devices compared with copper intrauterine devices over a 5-year period. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1164 individuals who underwent intrauterine device placement at an urban academic medical center. The analysis focused on a comparison of continuation rates between those using levonorgestrel intrauterine device and copper intrauterine device, factors associated with discontinuation, and intrauterine device performance. We assessed the differences in continuation at discrete time points, pregnancy, and expulsion rates using χ 2 tests and calculated hazard ratios using a multivariable Cox model. Of 1164 women who underwent contraceptive intrauterine device insertion, 956 had follow-up data available. At 2 years, 64.9% of levonorgestrel intrauterine device users continued their device, compared with 57.7% of copper intrauterine device users (P = .11). At 4 years, continuation rates were 45.1% for levonorgestrel intrauterine device and 32.6% for copper intrauterine device (P intrauterine device and 23.8% for copper intrauterine device (P = .33). Black race, primiparity, and age were positively associated with discontinuation; education was not. The hazard ratio for discontinuation of levonorgestrel intrauterine device compared with copper intrauterine device >4 years was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.93) and >5 years was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.05) after adjusting for race, age, parity, and education. Copper intrauterine device users were more likely to experience expulsion (10.2% copper intrauterine device vs 4.9% levonorgestrel intrauterine device, P intrauterine device vs 0.1% levonorgestrel intrauterine

  12. A retrospective clinical study of endoscopic-assisted transcervical insemination in the bitch with frozen-thawed dog semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, S J

    2017-04-01

    Since the conclusion of data collation from previously published work, a further 352 inseminations using frozen-thawed dog semen by endoscopic-assisted transcervical insemination (EIU) have been performed by the author. Insemination was performed on the second day in which crenulation of the anterior vagina was detected in conjunction with a progesterone concentration of >10 ng/ml. All semen samples were analysed for total number of sperm, total motility and progressive motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). The insemination dose was based on the progressively motile normal spermatozoa (PMNS). Insemination was performed on all bitches as previously described using a ureterorenoscope. Additional extender was inseminated subsequent to the semen to expand and fill the uterus. The semen and additional extender were inseminated slowly over a period of 15-20 min. Pregnancy was determined by B-mode ultrasound equipped with a 7.5-MHz probe whilst standing and/or via the whelping rate. The number of sperm inseminated ranged from 9 × 10 6 PMNS to 519 × 10 6 PMNS, with progressive motility values ranging between 20% and 80%. The overall pregnancy rate was 68% (238/352). When stratified by PMNS, pregnancy rates were as follows: >150 × 10 6 PMNS - 76% (110/145), 100-150 × 10 6 - 68% (87/128) and 150 × 10 6 PMNS (p = .003) or 100-150 ×10 6 PMNS (p = .027) were inseminated compared to insemination of >150 × 10 6 PMNS to maximize pregnancy rate. These results indicate that one optimally timed EIU insemination results in similar pregnancy rates to previous publications of one optimally timed, or two or more non-optimally timed inseminations using the Norwegian catheter. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. [Intra-uterine device and nulliparous women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trignol-Viguier, N; Blin, E; Marret, H

    2014-06-01

    Intra-uterine device (IUD) is one of the birth control methods, which is available for nulliparous women, even though misconceptions still remain in medical or popular opinion. Only 1.3 % of nulliparous have a IUD as contraception in France while it is the second methods used by all women, after pill. The best contraception is the one chosen by women; however, the choice for a nulliparous of an IUD may be really difficult, despite the increasing number of women wishing to use it. Long-acting reversible contraceptives utilization, including IUD, is probably one of the issues to decrease the unintended pregnancies. An exhaustive and clear information about IUD is necessary to allow an informed and real choice. This prescription must consider contraindications and medical conditions for safe insertion, especially to avoid infection by screening STD (Chlamydia trachomatis and Nesseria gonorrhoeae) in nulliparous womeneffected with usual precautions and short or SL IUD preferred. Even if side effects such as expulsion, pelvic pains or dysmenorrhea are more frequent by nulliparous, IUD is a first intention choice for contraception to be consider, that women could obtain easily, including in emergency contraception situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Hungry for an Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined in several ways, but in general describes a condition in which the fetus exhibits poor growth in utero. This complication of pregnancy poses a significant public health burden as well as increased morbidity and mortality for the offspring. In human IUGR, alteration in fetal glucose and insulin homeostasis occurs in an effort to conserve energy and survive at the expense of fetal growth in an environment of inadequate nutrient provision. Several animal models of IUGR have been utilized to study the effects of IUGR on fetal glucose handling, as well as the postnatal reprogramming of energy metabolite handling, which may be unmasked in adulthood as a maladaptive propensity for cardiometabolic disease. This developmental programming may be mediated in part by epigenetic modification of essential regulators of glucose homeostasis. Several pharmacological therapies and nonpharmacological lifestyle modifications have shown early promise in mitigating the risk for or severity of adult metabolic phenotypes but still require further study of unanticipated and/or untoward side effects. PMID:26889018

  15. Factors affecting fertility after cervical insemination with cooled semen in meat sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacín, I; Yániz, J L; Fantova, E; Blasco, M E; Quintín-Casorrán, F J; Sevilla-Mur, E; Santolaria, P

    2012-06-01

    Field results of 18,328 cervical artificial inseminations (AI) with cooled semen in Rasa Aragonesa meat sheep under field conditions in north-eastern Spain AI were analyzed. Logistic regression procedures were used including fertility at AI as the dependent variable (measured by lambing, 0 or 1) and year, month of AI, farm, hours between extraction and insemination, number of ewes inseminated in a set of AI, parity, lambing-treatment interval, total number of synchronization treatment per ewe, inseminating ram and AI technician as independent factors. Previous parturitions, lambing-AI interval, month, farm, inseminating ram and technician were factors with significant impact on AI fertility. Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of pregnancy decreased: in ewes with more than five previous parturitions (by a factor of 0.87, 0.79 and 0.66 for the 6th, 7th and ≥8 parturitions, respectively); in ewes with lambing-AI interval higher than 240 days (by a factor of 0.8); and for inseminations performed during the spring period, (March, April, May and June, 0.70, 0.76, 0.66, and 0.76, respectively). We noted a higher fertility in seven inseminating rams (odds ratios between 1.4 and 1.7) and lower in two rams (odds ratios between 0.6 and 0.7). Of the 17 AI technicians, two were related to fertilities improved by odds ratio of 1.6, and 1.30, whereas two technicians were attributed fertility rates reduced by odds ratios of 0.68 and 0.40. These findings should be taken into account to evaluate the AI technique performance and make decisions to enhance fertility results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of spermiogenesis in the externally fertilizing Hemigrammus erythrozonus and the inseminating Corynopoma riisei (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pecio

    Full Text Available Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure were analyzed in two species of characids with different modes of fertilization: externally fertilizing Hemigrammus erythrozonus and inseminating Corynopoma riisei. Spermiogenesis in H. erythrozonus is characterized by lateral development of the flagellum, nuclear rotation, formation of a shallow nuclear fossa, condensation of the chromatin by elimination of the electron-lucent area from the peripheral region of the nucleus, and renewal of the nuclear membrane. Multilammelated membrane and multivesicular bodies were also observed during elimination of the excess cytoplasm. The spermatozoon exhibits characters typical of "aquasperm," i.e. a spherical head containing a spherical nucleus with highly condensed chromatin, several small mitochondria located at the base of the nucleus within a cytoplasmic collar that extends into a long cytoplasmic sleeve surrounding the anterior part of the single flagellum, which is contained within a cytoplasmic canal. The flagellum lacks fins. The proximal and distal centrioles are nearly parallel to one another, with the anterior tips of both located within shallow nuclear fossae. Spermiogenesis in C. riisei is characterized by nuclear elongation alongside the forming flagellum, formation of an elongate cytoplasmic canal, displacement and elongation of the mitochondria, and uniform condensation of chromatin throughout the nucleus through enlargement of the diameter of the chromatin granules. The spermatozoon has an elongate nucleus with two elongate mitochondria localized to one side. Mitochondria are also located posterior to the nucleus forming a mitochondrial region. The single flagellum, which lacks fins, is lateral to the nucleus and initially contained within the greatly elongate cytoplasmic canal before exiting the canal at its posterior terminus. The spermatozoon of C. riisei exhibits several characters typical of "introsperm," such as an elongate nucleus and

  17. Fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The study was designed to test the effect of fixed-time artificial insemination (fixed-AI) after the slightly modified Ovsynch protocol on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle in Finnish field conditions. The modification was aimed to optimize the number of offsprings per AI dose. Methods Ninety Charolais cows and heifers were entered into the program an average of 1.8 times. Thus, 164 animal cases were included. Animals were administered 10-12 μg of buserelin. Seven days later animals without a corpus luteum (CL) were rejected (20.7%) while the remaining 130 cases with a CL were administered prostaglandin F2α, followed 48 h later with a second injection of buserelin (8-10 μg). Fixed-AI was performed 16-20 hours after the last injection. Results The pregnancy rate was 51.5% (67/130). The pregnancy rate after a short interval (50-70 d) from calving to entering the program was significantly higher than that after a long interval (>70 d). Conclusion This protocol seems to give acceptable pregnancy results in beef herds and its effect on saving labour is notable. PMID:19948052

  18. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Christensen, Bruce W.; Smith, Fran; Young, Julie K.

    2017-01-01

    Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age. These studies are relevant to a long-standing controversy about the identity of the red wolf (Canis rufus), the existence of a proposed new species (Canis lycaon) of gray wolf, and to the role of hybridization in mammalian evolution.

  19. Review of The Artificial Insemination Result Based on Anestrus Post Insemination in Bali Cattle Herds at The Regency of Sikka, East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsisius Considus Topianong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anestrus is one of indirect clinical signs of cattle pregnancy. Based on the present of sufficient progesterone on the blood,  the cattle with pregnancy condition will not show the signs of estrus.  The success of artificial insemination (AI is the occurrence of fertilization followed by pregnancy and parturition. This involves a complex relationship between semen quality and oocytes, estrus detection, AI punctuality, inseminator and farmers ability. Artificial insemination should be performed at the relative optimum time to ovulation. Estrus detection is an important factor to determine the time of AI. Estrus Detection of Bali cattles of the farmer is often difficult observed or not observed, especially in semi-intensive system maintenance. From this review it can be seen that there is the different proportion of inseminators on the incidence of estrus after AI. However, determination of  the role of inseminator on the success of AI and  then the other factors that affect the success of the AI should be under ideal conditions. Straw from the different bulls breed gave the same of AI result. The estimate of pregnancy rate of 80 cows after AI is 55 %.  Estrus detection on 21st days after AI can be used as a detection method for early diagnosis of pregnancy, especially for the  farmers who did not have any ability or authority to perform  medical acts of reproduction which is only owned by a veterinarian. Observation, recording and evaluation of the implementation of the AI should be made until the end of pregnancy  followed by the process of parturition.

  20. A prognostic model to predict the success of artificial insemination in dairy cows based on readily available data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, C J; Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Huijps, K; Nielen, M; Hogeveen, H

    2016-08-01

    A prognosis of the likelihood of insemination success is valuable information for the decision to start inseminating a cow. This decision is important for the reproduction management of dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model for the likelihood of successful first insemination. The parameters considered for the model are readily available on farm at the time a farmer makes breeding decisions. In the first step, variables are selected for the prognostic model that have prognostic value for the likelihood of a successful first insemination. In the second step, farm effects on the likelihood of a successful insemination are quantified and the prognostic model is cross-validated. Logistic regression with a random effect for farm was used to develop the prognostic model. Insemination and test-day milk production data from 2,000 commercial Dutch dairy farms were obtained, and 190,541 first inseminations from this data set were used for model selection. The following variables were used in the selection process: parity, days in milk, days to peak production, production level relative to herd mates, milk yield, breed of the cow, insemination season and calving season, log of the ratio of fat to protein content, and body condition score at insemination. Variables were selected in a forward selection and backward elimination, based on the Akaike information criterion. The variables that contributed most to the model were random farm effect, relative production factor, and milk yield at insemination. The parameters were estimated in a bootstrap analysis and a cross-validation was conducted within this bootstrap analysis. The parameter estimates for body condition score at insemination varied most, indicating that this effect varied most among Dutch dairy farms. The cross-validation showed that the prognosis of insemination success closely resembled the mean insemination success observed in the data set. Insemination success depends on

  1. Mechanisms of action of intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, M E; Croxatto, H B; Bardin, C W

    1996-12-01

    The major effect of all intrauterine devices (IUD) is to induce a local inflammatory reaction in the endometrium whose cellular and humoral components are released into the uterine cavity. This inflammatory reaction has a variable effect on the reproductive strategy of the species studied. For example, this foreign body reaction can be localized within the uterus of rodents; and in farm animals it can have striking extrauterine effects. Thus, the action of IUDs in humans cannot be discerned from animals. In humans, copper ions released from Cu-IUDs enhance the inflammatory response and reach concentrations in the luminal fluids of the genital tract that are toxic for spermatozoa and embryos. In women using the IUD, the entire genital tract seems affected, at least in part, because of luminal transmission of the fluids that accumulates in the uterine lumen. This affects the function or viability of gametes, decreasing the rate of fertilization and lowering the chances of survival of any embryo that may be formed, even before it reaches the uterus. Studies on the recovery of eggs from women using IUDs and from women not using contraception show that embryos are formed in the tubes of IUD users at a much lower rate compared with nonusers. This is believed to be the major action of IUDs. Therefore, the common belief that the major mechanism of action of IUDs in women is through destruction of embryos in the uterus (i.e., abortion) is not supported by the available evidence. In Cu-IUD users, it is likely that few spermatozoa reach the distal segment of the fallopian tube, those that encounter an egg may be in poor condition. Thus, the few eggs that are fertilized have little chance for development and their possibility for survival in the altered tubal milieu become worse as they approach the uterine cavity.

  2. Great expectations--German debates about artificial insemination in humans around 1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghaus, Christina

    2007-06-01

    In May 1912, reports on successful attempts at artificial insemination hit the German papers. Over the following months, the topic was taken up in medical lectures, in the debates of medical associations, and in medical journals. The technique--which had not much changed since the days of James Marion Sims--apparently triggered the imagination of scientists, medical doctors, journalists and authors. That artificial insemination met such interest, however, was not primarily due to its medical usefulness or proven success. Given that insemination with donor sperm was out of the question for most doctors and that ideas about the fertile period within the menstrual cycle were erroneous, contemporary attempts at insemination in humans hardly ever worked. Public interest in this topic rather reflects the desires and expectations which contemporaries associated with artificial insemination and with modern, scientific medicine. What appears to be a comparatively straight forward, low-tech operation today was imagined as a way or creating life artificially. Thus the topic was able to mobilise fears and expectations. The debate not only reflected contemporary beliefs about the possibilities and dangers of modern medicine, it also addressed the meaning of reproduction and infertility and the future of gender relations.

  3. An assessment of the breeding maturity of insemination boars based on ejaculate quality changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszewska, Dorota; Kondracki, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    We examined the sexual development and insemination capability of boars representing five breeds used at Polish sow insemination stations. The speed of attaining full breeding maturity by the boars and their insemination usefulness was assessed based on the results of experiments analysing age-related changes in the physical characteristics of the ejaculates. Directly after sampling, the ejaculates were analysed for the following physical parameters: ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa per ejaculate. The total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculates and the number of insemination doses obtained from one ejaculate were calculated using SYSTEM SUL v. 6.1 software. The sexual development of boars continues during insemination use, leading to improved ejaculatory performance. The physical parameters of the ejaculate change along with the age of the boar. The Duroc and Hampshire boars represent a pattern of sexual development that is different from that of the PLW, PL and Pietrain males, with an evident earlier termination of growth. The American boars (Duroc and Hampshire) acquire top ejaculatory performance approximately 6 months earlier.

  4. Pregnancy success of lactating Holstein cows after a single administration of a sustained-release formulation of recombinant bovine somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez CG

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results regarding the use of bovine somatotropin for enhancing fertility in dairy cattle are variable. Here, the hypothesis was tested that a single injection of a sustained-release preparation of bovine somatotropin (bST during the preovulatory period would improve pregnancy success of lactating dairy cows at first service. Results The first experiment was conducted in a temperate region of Mexico. Cows inseminated following natural estrus or timed artificial insemination were given a single injection of bST or a placebo injection at insemination (n = 100 cows per group. There was no significant difference between bST and control groups in the proportion of inseminated cows diagnosed pregnant (29 vs 31% pregnant. The second experiment was performed during heat stress in Florida. Cows were subjected to an ovulation synchronization regimen for first insemination. Cows treated with bST received a single injection at 3 days before insemination. Controls received no additional treatment. As expected, bST did not increase vaginal temperature. Treatment with bST did not significantly increase the proportion of inseminated cows diagnosed pregnant although it was numerically greater for the bST group (24.2% vs 17.8%, 124–132 cows per group. There was a tendency (p = 0.10 for a smaller percent of control cows to have high plasma progesterone concentrations (≥ 1 ng/ml at Day 7 after insemination than for bST-treated cows (72.6 vs 81.1%. When only cows that were successfully synchronized were considered, the magnitude of the absolute difference in the percentage of inseminated cows that were diagnosed pregnant between bST and control cows was reduced (24.8 vs 22.4% pregnant for bST and control. Conclusion Results failed to indicate a beneficial effect of bST treatment on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

  5. Outcome of intrauterine pregnancies with intrauterine device in place and effects of device location on prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgu-Erdinc, A Seval; Tasdemir, Ufuk Goker; Uygur, Dilek; Aktulay, Ayla; Tasdemir, Nicel; Gulerman, H Cavidan

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the outcome of pregnancies with retained or removed intrauterine devices (IUDs) and the effect of IUD location on pregnancy outcome. In a retrospective cohort study, we searched 27,578 records of women who had CuT380 IUD inserted, and 144 pregnancies with IUD were analyzed. IUDs were removed from 114 patients and retained for 30 patients. The combined risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, intrauterine fetal death, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm birth and preterm premature rupture of membranes) was 36.8% in the IUD-removed group and 63.3% in the IUD-retained group [p<.01; relative risk (RR)=2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.3]. Newborns of the IUD-retained women had significantly lower Apgar scores and significantly higher admission rate to the neonatal intensive care unit (p=.01; RR=10.8; 95% CI 1.04-111.6 and p<.01; RR=4.5; 95% CI 1.5-12.9, respectively). There were more miscarriages and adverse pregnancy outcome when the IUD was retained (16.9% vs. 66.7%) in patients with an IUD in low-lying position (p<.01; RR=3.9; 95% CI 1.8-8.6). Women who conceived with an IUD in place and chose to continue the pregnancy without removing the IUD need close follow-up, as there appears to be higher risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcome. Furthermore, when the IUD is retained in the low-lying position, there is increased risk of miscarriage and adverse pregnancy outcome compared to removal of the IUD. Future randomized controlled studies are needed to determine the outcome of pregnancies with retained or removed IUD. In this study, we have evaluated the IUD location and its effect on pregnancy outcome in women with a retained or removed IUD. This study is the first to investigate the relationship between IUD location and pregnancy outcome in women who conceived with an IUD. We need evidence from a collaborative multicenter randomized trial to answer the question of whether the IUD should be removed in case of

  6. Fertility of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination versus artificial insemination after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V G; Carvalho, P D; Maia, C; Carneiro, B; Valenza, A; Fricke, P M

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to compare the AI submission rate and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) at first service of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination (TAI) versus artificial insemination (AI) to a detected estrus after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range. Lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive their first TAI after a Double-Ovsynch protocol (DO; n = 294) or to receive their first AI after a synchronized estrus (EST; n = 284). Pregnancy status was determined 33 ± 3 d after insemination and was reconfirmed 63 ± 3 d after insemination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). By design, days in milk at first insemination did not differ between treatments (76.9 ± 0.2 vs. 76.7 ± 0.3 for DO vs. EST cows, respectively), but more DO cows were inseminated within 7 d after the end of the voluntary waiting period than EST cows (100.0 vs. 77.5%). Overall, DO cows had more P/AI than EST cows at both 33 d (49.0 vs. 38.6%) and 63 d (44.6 vs. 36.4%) after insemination, but pregnancy loss from 33 to 63 d after insemination did not differ between treatments. Primiparous cows had more P/AI than multiparous cows 33 and 63 d after insemination, but the treatment by parity interaction was not significant. Synchronization rate to the hormonal protocols was 85.3%, which did not differ between treatments; however, synchronized DO cows had more P/AI 33 d after insemination than synchronized EST cows (54.7 vs. 44.5%). In summary, submission of lactating Holstein cows to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and TAI for first insemination increased the percentage of cows inseminated within 7 d after the end of the voluntary waiting period and increased P/AI at 33 and 63 d after first insemination resulting in 64 and 58% more pregnant cows, respectively, than submission of cows for first AI after detection

  7. A Lower-Cost Option for Intrauterine Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In March 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Liletta (Actavis, Dublin, Ireland), a new intrauterine device for contraception. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) as first-line pregnancy prevention. LARC efficacy rates are similar to those of sterilization, with the possibility for quick return of fertility upon removal of the device. Despite benefits and recommendations for this form of contraception, access and high cost remain barriers to use. Liletta is the first lower-cost option for intrauterine contraception. Available to qualified clinics and health centers at a reduced rate, this device may increase availability and decrease the overall cost to women who desire intrauterine contraception. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  8. Anticipated pain as a predictor of discomfort with intrauterine device placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Blair; Peipert, Leah J; Zhao, Qiuhong; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2018-02-01

    Intrauterine devices have been gaining popularity for the past 2 decades. Current data report that >10% of women who use contraception are using an intrauterine device. With intrauterine device is one of the most effective forms of long-acting reversible contraception, yet evidence shows that fear of pain during intrauterine device placement deters women from choosing an intrauterine device as their contraceptive method. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the association between anticipated pain with intrauterine device placement and experienced pain. We also assessed other factors associated with increased discomfort during intrauterine device placement. We hypothesized that patients with higher levels of anticipated pain would report a higher level of discomfort during placement. We performed a secondary analysis of the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. There were 9256 patients enrolled in Contraceptive CHOICE Project from the St. Louis region from 2007-2011; data for 1149 subjects who came for their first placement of either the original 52-mg levonorgestrel intrauterine system or the copper intrauterine device were analyzed in this study. Patients were asked to report their anticipated pain before intrauterine device placement and experienced pain during placement on a 10-point visual analog scale. We assessed the association of anticipated pain, patient demographics, reproductive characteristics, and intrauterine device type with experienced pain with intrauterine device placement. The mean age of Contraceptive CHOICE Project participants in this subanalysis was 26 years. Of these 1149 study subjects, 44% were black, and 53% were of low socioeconomic status. The median expected pain score was 5 for both the levonorgestrel intrauterine system and the copper intrauterine device; the median experienced pain score was 5 for the levonorgestrel intrauterine system and 4 for the copper intrauterine device. After we controlled for parity, history of

  9. Artificial insemination and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Bakst, M.R.; Wishart, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of Al and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds began because of the increased emphasis on conservation of avian species threatened with extinction. Over the years, aviculturists have developed techniques for Al and cryopreservation of semen obtained from a variety of birds ranging from passerines to Andean condors. Generally, for each new species, we develop a practical semen collection technique and then evaluate the semen. A commercial semen extender (Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender) is modified and used to dilute the semen and provide support for the sperm during the freezing process (the pH and osmolality of the extender is adjusted to reflect the pH and osmolality of the semen being frozen). We find that the freezing schedule developed by Sexton (1977), which utilizes dimethylsulfoxide (DMS0) as cryoprotectant, works well for many species. We cool the sample sequentially in an ethanol bath, in liquid nitrogen vapor, and lastly in liquid nitrogen. Although we have experimented with a variety of freezing protocols, we prefer a 15-min equilibration period in DMSO at 5 C. We begin the freezing process by cooling at -1 C/min from 5 to -20 C in the ethanol bath. The samples are transferred into a vapor tank at a location just above liquid nitrogen and frozen at -50 C/min to -80 C. To complete the freezing process, the samples are plunged into the liquid nitrogen in the bottom of the vapor tank. The samples remain in liquid nitrogen until they are thawed just before insemination. If necessary, the freezing equipment can be transported in a van to remote locations.

  10. A prognostic model to predict the success of artificial insemination in dairy cows based on readily available data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C.J.; Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Huijps, K.; Nielen, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A prognosis of the likelihood of insemination success is valuable information for the decision to start inseminating a cow. This decision is important for the reproduction management of dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model for the likelihood of successful first

  11. A prognostic model to predict the success of artificial insemination in dairy cows based on readily available data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C J; Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Huijps, K; Nielen, M; Hogeveen, H

    2016-01-01

    A prognosis of the likelihood of insemination success is valuable information for the decision to start inseminating a cow. This decision is important for the reproduction management of dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model for the likelihood of successful first

  12. Ovulation induction and artificial insemination of a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus) using fresh semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Erin; Wyatt, Jeff; Sorel, Lawrence J; MacKinnon, Katherine M; Roth, Terri L

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, polar bears were listed as a species threatened with extinction by the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Unfortunately, reproductive success has been poor despite breeding recommendations for almost every reproductively viable bear by the Species Survival Plan. Assisted reproductive technologies could complement breeding efforts by overcoming the challenges of behavioral incompatibilities and deficiencies, facilitating genetic management and increasing cub production. The goal of this study was to artificially inseminate a female polar bear after inducing ovarian activity and ovulation with exogenous hormones (equine chorionic gonadotropin and porcine luteinizing hormone). Fresh semen collected from an adult male via electroejaculation/urethral catheterization was used for the insemination. Fecal steroid monitoring indicated that the female ovulated following the exogenous hormone treatment. Progestin concentrations increased in late summer, at the time implantation was expected to occur; however, no cubs were produced. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of ovulation induction and artificial insemination in a polar bear.

  13. The return of the Inseminator: Eutelegenesis in past and contemporary reproductive ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John

    2007-06-01

    Eugenicists in the 1930s and 1940s emphasised our moral responsibilities to future generations and the importance of positively selecting traits that would benefit humanity. In 1935 Herbert Brewer recommended 'Eutelegenesis' (artificial insemination with sperm from specially selected males) so that that future generations are not only protected from hereditary disease but also become more intelligent and fraternal than us. The development of these techniques for human use and animal husbandry was the catalyst for the cross fertilization of moral ideas and the development of a critical procreative morality. While eugenicists argued for a new critical morality, religious critics argued against artificial insemination because of its potential to damage important moral institutions. The tension between critical and conservative procreative morality is a feature of the contemporary debates about reproductive technologies. This and some of the other aspects of the early and contemporary debates about artificial insemination and reproductive technologies are discussed in this article.

  14. Intrauterine devices and risk of uterine perforation: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Sam; Oloto, Emeka; Horwell, David H

    2016-01-01

    Uterine perforation is an uncommon complication of intrauterine device insertion, with an incidence of one in 1,000 insertions. Perforation may be complete, with the device totally in the abdominal cavity, or partial, with the device to varying degrees within the uterine wall. Some studies show a positive association between lactation and perforation, but a causal relationship has not been established. Very rarely, a device may perforate into bowel or the urinary tract. Perforated intrauterine devices can generally be removed successfully at laparoscopy. PMID:29386934

  15. Removal of an intraabdominal levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, David; Latta, Richard

    2013-06-01

    A woman with a viable intrauterine 12-week pregnancy and an intraabdominal levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device had the device successfully removed under local anesthesia. The pregnancy continued without complication. The decision to remove an intraabdominal levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device during pregnancy remains controversial. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 884.5360 - Contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) and introducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) and... Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5360 Contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) and introducer. (a) Identification. A contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) is a device used to prevent pregnancy. The device is...

  17. Polarization microscopy imaging for the identification of unfertilized oocytes after short-term insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Liu, Wenqiang; Wang, Yu; Pan, Jiaping; Liang, Shanshan; Ruan, Jingling; Teng, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    To develop a unique approach using polarization microscopy (PM) to determine whether the presence of a spindle can be used as an indicator associated with fertilization failure 5 hours after short-term insemination. Observational study. Assisted reproduction center. Eighty-five patients undergoing short-term insemination. Oocytes imaged via PM at 4, 5, and 6 hours after standard insemination. Spindle visualization and fertilization rate, with rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) results determined by rates of normal fertilization, abnormal fertilization, and good-quality embryo formation. After standard insemination, comparisons of spindle visualization at three time points indicated that the predictive accuracy rates were 84.30% at 5 hours, 86.80% at 6 hours, and 62.20% at 4 hours, with the rates at 5 and 6 hours statistically significantly higher than at 4 hours. A spindle was present in 242 of the 788 metaphase-II oocytes 5 hours after insemination, and there were 204 failed fertilizations on day 1. The positive predictive value was 0.84. After rescue ICSI, the abnormal fertilization rate of the polar body group (assessed using the polar body visualization method) was statistically significantly higher than that of the PM group (assessed using the spindle visualization method) and the regular ICSI group (9.37%, 5.88%, and 4.87%, respectively). The presence of a spindle 5 hours after insemination in in vitro fertilization is an accurate indicator of unfertilized oocytes. Spindle imaging combined with rescue measures effectively prevents fertilization failure and decreases the polyspermy rate. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. XY sperm separation and use in artificial insemination and other ARTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cran, David G

    2007-01-01

    Many tens of thousands of calves resulting from artificial insemination (AI) have been born worldwide after XY sperm separation and commercial production is underway in several countries. Accuracy of sex selection is some 90% and can be achieved both in research facilities and at AI studs in rural locations. Most facilities sort X- sperm which have also be utilised for superovulation and embryo transfer projects and for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) as well as AI. Sort rates of some 15 x 10(6) sperm/h are currently achievable and are used for low dose insemination, generally at 2 x 10(6) frozen sperm per dose, at a minimum of 35% post thaw motility. Pregnancy rates are some 70% to 80% of normal "high" dose unsexed inseminates. Good herd management is essential for high pregnancy rates with sexed sperm. In addition to cattle, offspring of predetermined sex have been born in the human, sheep, pig, horse, rabbit, elk, buffalo, cat and dolphin. Each species has its own challenge with regard to sperm handling and insemination procedure. In pigs, horses and sheep, the available dose of sexed sperm is very considerably lower than that which is used for conventional AI and special approaches have been devised for each species. In the pig a flexible catheter has been used to deliver a small dose of semen as close to the site of ovulation as possible. In the horse, hysteroscopic insemination at the utero tubal junction has resulted in fertilisation and, in the sheep, laparoscopic insemination into the uterus is the standard procedure for both sexed and unsexed sperm. Further advances in the efficiency of sorting together with improvements in sperm handling should result in acceptable pregnancy rates in these species.

  19. THE IMPACT OF HEPARIN IMPLEMENTER (GAG IN THE RABBIT INSEMINATION DOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of implementer heparin in insemination dose in rabbits selected on reproductive parameters.The experiment was monitored reproductive parameters (conceptual relationship, the number of live-born pups per litter, the number of dead-born pups per litter, the number of live-born pups per inseminated does 156 does in the experimental group and 165 does in the control group. We used the ejaculate of synthetic broiler rabbit population with concentration of sperm 25-50 mil. / 0.5 ml / 1 ID. Heparin was added at a dose - 0.06 ml = 10 mg per 0.5 ml semen / 1 ID. Assessing selected reproductive parameters in does inseminated with insemination dose with the addition of heparin, we observed a higher conceptual proportion of 14.12 % in the experimental group compared to the control group. These differences did not show a statistically significant difference (χ 2 3.56-. The number of live-born pups per litter was 8.69 ± 4.10 pc in the experimental group and 8.41 ± 3.62 pc in the control group (P> 0.05. The number of dead-born pups was recorded 0.74 pc in the experimental group and 0.76 pc in the control group (P> 0.05. The number of live-born pups per litter per inseminated does we have seen improvement in favor of experimental group by 1.39 pc. This parameter was within each of experiments ranged from 0.91 to 1.66 pc live-born pups to inseminated does.

  20. Artificial insemination of cows with semen in vitro contaminated with Neospora caninum tachyzoites failed to induce neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Nuno; Meireles, Carla Sofia; Ferreira, Paulo; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Rocha, António

    2006-06-30

    Neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle all over the world. Congenital transmission as well as horizontal transmission by ingestion of oocysts has been described. The detection of Neospora caninum DNA in bull semen warrants the investigation of possible transmission through the use of contaminated semen. In this experiment four cows were artificially inseminated with frozen-thawed semen contaminated in vitro with viable N. caninum tachyzoites (group A) and four control cows were inseminated with tachyzoites-free frozen-thawed semen, from the same bull (group B). Serum samples were collected 15 days before the artificial insemination (AI) and at days 10, 14, 21, 28, 45, 60 and 75 post-insemination. All sera samples were tested for neosporosis by direct agglutination test (DAT). Three of the cows from group A had negative DAT titers (neosporosis by artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen is an unlikely event.

  1. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Agustín; Carceller, Raquel; Tobajas, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs in order to avoid some confounding factors. IUGR incidence in newborns would be between 3% and 7% of the total population. In our experience it is 5.13% a figure similar to the one obtained by other authors but with a progressively higher incidence during the last decade. There are multiple maternal factors that can generally be grouped into constitutional and general factors given that they affect age, weight, race, maternal cardiac volume, etc, socioeconomic factors with key incidence in the mother's nutrition level, where a poor maternal nutrition level would be the key factor in this group. We have evaluated multiple factors as possible contributors to the IUGR risk: race, parents' age, mother's height (cm), mother's birth weight and before pregnancy (kg), ponderal gain and blood pressure during pregnancy, and previous SGA newborns. Socioeconomic factors like social class, parents' profession, habitual residence, salary, immigration, and diet were also evaluated. We also included variables such as total daily working time and time mothers spent standing up, daily sleeping time (hrs), stress self-perception test at work and primiparity age. Toxic factors during pregnancy: tobacco (active and passive), alcohol, drugs and coffee consumption. Fetal or utero-placental factors were considered. In our study, the most significant etiologic factors were: Active and passive tobacco consuming, mother's stress level, increase of total months worked during pregnancy, total daily working hours and time mothers spent standing up and finally, the parent's height. Our data support the main objective of reducing the incidence of SGA newborns after IUGR by fighting

  2. Delayed insemination of non-estrous heifers and cows when using conventional semen in timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that pregnancy rates after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef heifers and cows may be improved by delaying insemination of females that have not expressed estrus before FTAI. In Exp. 1, estrus was synchronized for 931 heifers across 3 locations using the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol (controlled internal drug-release [CIDR] insert [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0 with removal of CIDR insert on d 14; 25 mg PGF2α 16 d after CIDR insert removal on d 30; and 100 μg GnRH on d 33, 66 h after PGF2α). Estrous detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α on d 30, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 33. Heifers within each location were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments based on weight and reproductive tract score (RTS): 1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after PGF2α) regardless of estrous expression or 2) FTAI for heifers expressing estrus and delayed AI (20 h after GnRH) for heifers failing to express estrus. Heifers assigned to treatment 2 achieved a higher AI pregnancy rate than heifers assigned to treatment 1 (54 versus 46%; P = 0.01). The observed increase in AI pregnancy rate is attributed to the delayed AI of non-estrous heifers in treatment 2, as AI pregnancy rates for non-estrous heifers were significantly higher for treatment 2 (49 versus 34%; P = 0.02), while AI pregnancy rates of estrous heifers did not differ by treatment (P = 0.24). In Exp. 2, estrus was synchronized for 951 mature, suckled cows across 9 locations using the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR insert [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0; 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR insert removal on d 7; and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR insert removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR insert removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows within each location were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments based on age, days postpartum, and BCS: 1) FTAI (concurrent with Gn

  3. Spermatozoon and its relationship with the ovarian lamellae in the internally inseminating catfish Trachelyopterus galeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Gleydes G; Chiarini-Garcia, Hélio; Melo, Rossana C N; Vieira, Francisco O; Godinho, Hugo P

    2009-11-01

    We examined the spermatozoa and their relationship with the ovarian lamellae in the catfish Trachelyopterus galeatus by classical light microscopy, high-resolution light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Trachelyopterus galeatus is an internally inseminating species the spermatozoon of which presented an elongated cylindrical head (12.3 +/- 1.5 microm), elongated midpiece (5.0 +/- 0.7 microm), and flagellum (23.9 +/- 2.8 microm). Fertilized eggs or embryos were not found in its ovaries. Spermatozeugmata were demonstrated for the first time in this species. At the ultrastructural level, the anterior region of the head was devoid of chromatin with its shape being rounded with a hyaline tip in frontal sections and flattened in sagittal sections. The proximal centriole and most of the distal centriole were contained within a nuclear fossa. Mitochondria with lamellar cristae, as well as glycogen granules, were located just caudal to the nuclear fossa and distally in the midpiece. A single row of accessory microtubules ran peripherally in the midpiece. The flagellar axoneme had the typical 9 + 2 arrangement, having electron-dense and electron-lucent A-tubules at different points along the flagellum; flagellar fins were lacking. The ovarian lamellae were covered by a simple cuboidal epithelium. In maturing/mature females, spermatozoa were free in the ovarian lumen or inserted in pits of the lamellar epithelial cells. Tight junctions and desmosomes were seen between the epithelial cells. In addition to nourishment of the spermatozoon, the lamellar epithelial cells may play a role in protecting the spermatozoa against the female immune system. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Effect of insemination site and diameter of the pre-ovulatory follicle on the odds of pregnancy in heifers using sexed or non-sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenhoff, L; Hall, E; Ranjbar Ni, S; House, J K

    2017-09-01

    To determine if insemination site or pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) affects the odds of pregnancy when heifers are inseminated with sexed semen. The study was conducted in 422 Holstein heifers enrolled into 531 inseminations. Inseminations were randomly allocated to 1 of 16 treatment combinations involving three variables: semen type (sexed vs non-sexed), insemination site (uterine horn vs uterine body) and one of four sires. Ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasound prior to FTAI to determine the follicle diameter and location. AI technician, times bred, age, weight and temperature-humidity index were also recorded. Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted 29 days post-insemination. Follicle diameter and body weight were categorised according to arbitrary cut-points. Each variable was analysed by logistic regression to determine the effect on pregnancy per AI and compare between sexed and non-sexed inseminations. Insemination site did not affect pregnancy per AI for either sexed (P = 0.528) or non-sexed (P = 0.886) inseminations. Heifers with an 18-22 mm follicle had better odds of pregnancy than heifers that did not (odds ratio (OR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.004-2.09), although no effect was detected for only sexed or only non-sexed inseminations. Heifers weighing 310-370 kg had a higher pregnancy per AI than heifers weighing > 370 kg for non-sexed inseminations (P = 0.004) and sexed semen from sire 4 caused lower odds of pregnancy than semen from sire 1 (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.89). Insemination site did not affect pregnancy per AI, but heifers with an 18-22 mm pre-ovulatory follicle at insemination had better odds of pregnancy for both sexed and non-sexed inseminations. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Comparison of conventional and computer-assisted semen analysis in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and evaluation of different insemination dosages for artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D; Neumann, D; Wehrend, A; Lierz, M

    2014-09-01

    Many psittacine species are threatened in the wild and also rare in captivity. Therefore, successful conservation and breeding programs are important to save these species. Unfortunately, clutches in conservation programs are frequently infertile. Semen evaluation is beneficial to investigate the causes of infertility and is advisable before artificial insemination (AI). In this study, we analyzed the semen of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) using two different methods and investigated different insemination dosages for AI. Cockatiels (n = 30) were divided into two groups (group A: nine males; group B: six males). The males in group B were endoscopically sterilized, whereas the males in group A were used as semen donors. In the first part of the study, the semen of males in group A was evaluated by semen analysis. Semen samples were collected by the massage technique and examined using a conventional light microscope and a computer-assisted semen analyzer for comparison. Results demonstrated that the evaluations of motility, progressive motility, and sperm concentration, but not of live/dead ratio, correlated strongly for both methods. However, the results for sperm concentration, progressive motility, and live/dead ratio differed significantly. In the second part of our study, the volume and quantity of spermatozoa of the semen samples were adjusted and used for AI of females of group B. Intravaginal insemination with 250,000 spermatozoa resulted in five of 17 (29%) eggs fertilized; however, intracloacal insemination resulted in only four of 57 (7%) eggs fertilized at 232,000 and 250,000 spermatozoa but none at higher or lower dosages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. To compare the effectiveness of density gradient centrifugation and swim-up wash semen preparation technique on the clinical outcome in intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ihgnait

    2013-01-01

    CONCLUSION: DGC method of sperm preparation has better outcome in terms of live birth rate and pregnancy rate in couples who have been subjected to IUI treatment. However there is higher multiple pregnancy rate and ectopic pregnancy rate swim-up method of sperm preparation.

  7. Effect of Gonadotropin Types and Indications on Homologous Intrauterine Insemination Success: A Study from 1251 Cycles and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie Cabry-Goubet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the IUI success factors relative to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS and infertility type, this retrospective cohort study included 1251 couples undergoing homologous IUI. Results. We achieved 13% clinical pregnancies and 11% live births. COS and infertility type do not have significant effect on IUI clinical outcomes with unstable intervention of various couples’ parameters, including the female age, the IUI attempt rank, and the sperm quality. Conclusion. Further, the COS used seemed a weak predictor for IUI success; therefore, the indications need more discussion, especially in unexplained infertility cases involving various factors. Indeed, the fourth IUI attempt, the female age over 40 years, and the total motile sperm count <5 × 106 were critical in decreasing the positive clinical outcomes of IUI. Those parameter cut-offs necessitate a larger analysis to give infertile couples more chances through IUI before carrying out other ART techniques.

  8. Use of porcine luteinizing hormone at oestrous onset in a protocol for fixed-time artificial insemination in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulguim, R R; Fontana, D L; Rampi, J Z; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) given at oestrous onset in gilts, by different routes and doses, on the interval between onset of oestrus and ovulation (IOEO) and reproductive performance using a single fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). A total of 153 gilts were submitted to oestrous detection at 8-h intervals and assigned to three groups: control - without hormone application and inseminated at 0, 24 and 48 h after oestrous onset; VS2.5FTAI - 2.5 mg pLH by the vulvar submucosal route at oestrous onset and a single FTAI 16 h later; IM5FTAI - 5 mg pLH by the intramuscular route at oestrous onset and a single FTAI 16 h later. More VS2.5FTAI gilts (47.1%; p gilts (25.5%) whereas IM5FTAI gilts had an intermediate percentage (31.4%; p > 0.05). The IOEO tended to be shorter (p = 0.06) in VS2.5FTAI (30.2 ± 1.4 h) than in control (34.7 ± 1.4 h) gilts, but there was no difference (p > 0.05) between control and IM5FTAI (32.8 ± 1.4 h) gilts. Farrowing rate was not different (p > 0.05) among treatments. Total born piglets (TB) was lower (p gilts (14.1 ± 0.4), whereas intermediate TB was observed in IM5FTAI gilts (13.3 ± 0.4). Due to the advancement of ovulation, reduction of the hormonal dose and the ease of application, the vulvar submucosal route would be the best option for FTAI protocols, but their negative impact on litter size remains to be elucidated. Taking into account the good fertility results obtained in IM5FTAI gilts whose ovulation was not advanced, the possibility of a single FTAI without any hormonal treatment should be further investigated, to establish reliable FTAI protocols for gilts. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Intrauterine bacterial findings and hormonal profiles in post-partum cows with normal puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekana, M; Jonsson, P; Kindahl, H

    1996-01-01

    The post-partum intrauterine bacterial flora, prostaglandin release, uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activity were studied in 9 Swedish dairy cows during the first 8-week period. Uterine involution was monitored by transrectal examinations of the reproductive tract 3 times weekly. Bacteriological examination was performed from twice weekly uterine biopsies. The main PGF2 alpha metabolite (15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha) was monitored from twice daily blood plasma samples, while morning samples were used for progesterone determinations. The cows were assigned to 2 groups: Group I (n = 7) with an uncomplicated puerperal period and Group II (n = 2) with signs of intrauterine infections. A total of 143 biopsies were collected, of which 129 (90.2%) were found to be bacteriologically negative. Thirteen (9.1%) of the remaining 14 biopsies were bacteriologically positive, while one (0.7%) was probably a contamination on a single occasion. The 13 bacteriologically positive biopsies belonged to the Group II cows from which 31 isolates contained 6 different genera of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria. Actinomyces pyogenes along with Bacteroides sp. and Fusobacterium necrophorum were found to predominate in a mixed flora. The bacteria were rapidly eliminated and disappeared completely from the uteri towards the end of the third week post-partum. The average number of days required for completion of uterine involution was 21.8 +/- 3.0 for all animals. The plasma levels of the PGF2 alpha metabolite were significantly elevated for the first 12-18, and 18 and 27 days in Group I and Group II, respectively. There was no significant relationship between the duration of PGF2 alpha release and the time required for completion of uterine involution (p > 0.05). Progesterone analysis showed resumption of ovarian activity and subsequent ovulation in 4 of the 9 cows 44-55 days post-partum. Thus, intrauterine infections are not commonly seen in cows with normal calving and

  10. Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with delivery after intrauterine death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifnan, F.; Jameel, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the maternal morbidity and mortality associated with delivery after intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) and to find out the place of fetal destructive procedures and cesarean section. All women were included in the present study who presented before the onset of labour pains, after intrauterine fetal death at 26 weeks or onward with singleton pregnancy. Assessment of maternal demographic characteristics, gestational age at fetal demise, delivery-IUFD interval, mode of delivery; vaginal with or without fetal destructive procedures/cesarean section and maternal complications were the main outcome measures. There were 1834 live birth and 63 deliveries with intrauterine fetal death. Mode of delivery was vaginal in 87.4% and cesarean section in 12.6% of the cases. Twelve (21%) of the vaginal deliveries were complicated by lower urogenital tract injuries in certain cases, whereas 75% (6/8) of patients delivered by cesarean section developed major postoperative complications like postpartum haemorrhage, shock, endometritis, peritonitis and wound dehiscence. No maternal death was identified. Rate of delivery with intrauterine fetal death was 34.3/1000 live-birth deliveries. (author)

  11. Intrauterine adhesions at the University of Maiduguri Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context; Menstrual abnormalities and infertility are leading gynaecological complaints which can be caused by intrauterine adhesion, a preventable condition. Hence, the need to know the common aetiological factors in our environment. Objective; To determine the mode of presentation, aetiological factors and outcome of ...

  12. Major complication after intrauterine vesico-amniotic shunting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major complication after intrauterine vesico-amniotic shunting. A Springer, R Fartacek, CA Reck, E Horcher, D Bettelheim. Abstract. Bilateral foetal uropathy is the leading cause of chronic renal failure in childhood. Vesico-amniotic shunting (VAS) is a simple, feasible, and widely used procedure for decompressing the foetal ...

  13. Reasons for Intrauterine Device Use, Discontinuation and Non-Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC1; UNC Project,. Lilongwe, Malawi2 ... Keywords: Intrauterine Device, IUD, Africa, Malawi, Sub-Saharan Africa, Qualitative Research. Résumé ... factors affecting method choice include individuals' knowledge and beliefs as.

  14. Indications for removal of intrauterine contraceptive devices in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) are commonly used reversible methods of contraception. The CuT 380A is recommended for use for 10 years but common observation has shown that they are removed much earlier than the recommended duration of use. Methodology: A retrospective study of all clients ...

  15. Pelvic actinomycosis associated with intrauterine device use: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfuhaid, T. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Univ. Health Centre and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Reinhold, C. [Radiology, Gastroenterology and Gynecology, McGill Univ. Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    Pelvic actinomycosis is a rare disease that may complicate longstanding intrauterine device (IUD) use. Its timely recognition is crucial to minimize morbidity and avoid the erroneous diagnosis of malignancy with subsequent, unnecessary surgery. We describe a case of pelvic actinomycosis. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in recognizing this infectious disease process is stressed. (author)

  16. Rectal perforation with an intrauterine device: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichengreen, Courtney; Landwehr, Haley; Goldthwaite, Lisa; Tocce, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented for routine examination 1 year after intrauterine device (IUD) placement; strings were not visualized. The device was found to be penetrating through the rectal mucosa. It was removed easily through the rectum during an examination under anesthesia. Perforated IUDs with rectal involvement require thoughtful surgical planning to optimize outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive Device amongst Clients in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Missing intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a known complication of IUCD use. Objective To examine the methods of diagnosis and Management modalities of missing IUCD at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Materials and Method This was a retrospective review of the records of all ...

  18. Profile Of Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Acceptors At The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Use of modern contraceptive methods has been shown to reduce unwanted pregnancy, high parity and maternal mortality. Intrauterine contraceptive devices which are among the safest and most effective reversible contraceptives available, are particularly suitable for women in developing countries as they ...

  19. Reasons for Intrauterine Device Use, Discontinuation and Non-Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is a safe, long-acting, and effective method of contraception that is under-utilized in many countries, including Malawi. A unique cohort of women who had enrolled in a trial of postpartum IUD use one year earlier gave insights into reasons for using, discontinuing, or not using the IUD.

  20. Bladder stone formation over a partially migrated intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of a 42-year-old woman with a forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) presenting with irritative bladder symptoms and cyclical haematuria is reported. The threads of the IUCD were seen in the vagina during speculum examination. Partial migration of the IUCD into the bladder and formation of a large ...

  1. Intrauterine retained fetal bones as a cause of secondary infertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is believed that bones re-tained freely in the endometrial cavity behave as an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). Be-cause of the many complications associated with mid-trimester dilatation and evacuation of the uterus, its role in modern gynaecology should be limited. It is suggested that retained fetal bones should ...

  2. Bladder stone formation over a partially migrated intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the past 3 years and cyclical haematuria for the past 6 months. Menstrual cycles were regular. She had undergone puerperal sterilisation 20 years ago. Vaginal speculum examination revealed threads of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). The threads snapped during attempts to remove the device. The patient ...

  3. Good reasons to reconsider the copper intrauterine device for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern Copper Intrauterine Devices [Cu IUDs] are extremely safe, highly effective, long acting yet rapidly reversible contraceptives. They are also very cost effective and suitable for use by a wide range of women, including nulliparous as well as HIV infected women. Despite a large body of scientific evidence attesting to its ...

  4. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravesical migration of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is rare. Early diagnosis of this rare entity is difficult because of its non‑specific manifestations and very low index of suspicion. We present this case of bladder stone following intravesical migration of IUCD found to have been missing since insertion 10 years ...

  5. Intravesical Migration of a Failed and Forgotten Intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a commonly utilized reversible contraceptive technique especially in the developing world. Though effective, it is not immune to complications. Migration of the device is a rare but serious complication which may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. We report a case of a 45yr old ...

  6. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szostak-Wegierek D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Szostak-WegierekDepartment of Human Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. Keywords: maternal

  7. Intrauterine device quo vadis? Why intrauterine device use should be revisited particularly in nulliparous women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman; Hasskamp, Thomas; Jandi, Sohela; Pett, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, including intrauterine devices (IUDs) and the contraceptive implant, are considered the best methods for preventing unintended pregnancies, rapid repeat pregnancy, and abortion in young women. An opinion paper of 2012 by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends Mirena and Paragard for use in nulliparous and adolescent women. However, these IUDs are not designed for young women and are not optimal as they often lead to early discontinuation. Objective This article was written with the objective to respond to the urgent need to improve intrauterine contraception as it is likely that the objectives of LARC will not be met without significant improvement of IUD design. Anatomical variations in size and shape of the uterus are not sufficiently considered, producing harm and suffering, which often lead to early removal of the IUD. Proposed problem solving The article describes why IUDs should be revisited to meet the challenge of LARC and proposes how to solve these problems. The opinion statement presented here may be considered provocative but is based on hundreds of women with IUD problems who consult or are referred to the practices of the authors of this article due to the disproportion between the IUD and their small uterine cavity. The solution is simple but requires a revision of the current design of IUDs. One-dimensional (longitudinal) IUDs are likely to be the first option. Framed devices with shortened transverse arm and IUDs which adapt to the width of the given uterus are viewed as second best. Conclusion One of the reasons of the high unintended pregnancy rate in the USA may be the paucity of suitable IUDs. Also, the legal climate in the USA seems to be a problem for developers as many lawsuits have recently been reported. Clinical studies conducted in young nulliparous and adolescent women suggest that IUDs that fit well in the uterine cavity, like a shoe, result in

  8. Intrauterine device quo vadis? Why intrauterine device use should be revisited particularly in nulliparous women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildemeersch D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirk Wildemeersch,1 Norman Goldstuck,2 Thomas Hasskamp,3 Sohela Jandi,4 Ansgar Pett4 1Gynecological Outpatient Clinic and IUD Training Center, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa; 3GynMünster, Münster, 4Gynecological Outpatient Clinic, Berlin, Germany Background: Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC methods, including intrauterine devices (IUDs and the contraceptive implant, are considered the best methods for preventing unintended pregnancies, rapid repeat pregnancy, and abortion in young women. An opinion paper of 2012 by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends Mirena and Paragard for use in nulliparous and adolescent women. However, these IUDs are not designed for young women and are not optimal as they often lead to early discontinuation. Objective: This article was written with the objective to respond to the urgent need to improve intrauterine contraception as it is likely that the objectives of LARC will not be met without significant improvement of IUD design. Anatomical variations in size and shape of the uterus are not sufficiently considered, producing harm and suffering, which often lead to early removal of the IUD. Proposed problem solving: The article describes why IUDs should be revisited to meet the challenge of LARC and proposes how to solve these problems. The opinion statement presented here may be considered provocative but is based on hundreds of women with IUD problems who consult or are referred to the practices of the authors of this article due to the disproportion between the IUD and their small uterine cavity. The solution is simple but requires a revision of the current design of IUDs. One-dimensional (longitudinal IUDs are likely to be the first option. Framed devices with shortened transverse arm and IUDs which adapt to the width of the given

  9. Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in Goats during Low Breeding Season-A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmood*, S. M. H Andrabi, M. Anwar and M. Rafiq

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A pilot project was initiated to introduce artificial insemination (AI in goats at farmer level with chilled semen. Does (n=18 were synchronized with progesterone impregnated vaginal sponges (60 mg Medroxyprogesterone acetate; MAP for 11 days. At 48 hrs prior to removal of the sponges, intramuscular injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and cloprostenol (0.075 mg was given. Fixed time vaginal insemination (43-45 hrs after sponge removal was done twice (at 12 hrs interval in 17 does with chilled Beetal buck semen (4°C extended with Tris-citric acid (TCA or skimmed milk (SM based extender (75 x 106 sperm/ml. Pregnancy test was performed at 45 days post insemination through ultrasonography. An overall 94.5% (17/18 of does showed heat signs and 78% of them were detected in heat between 12 - 24 hrs after sponge removal. An overall 29.4% (5/17 pregnancy rate was recorded. Higher pregnancy rate (44.4% was obtained in does inseminated with SM extended semen as compared to 12.5% for TCA extended semen. Results were encouraging in the sense that to the best of our knowledge it was the first report of kidding through AI in heat induced does in Pakistan. Moreover, it indicated the feasibility of using synchronization and fixed time AI during low breeding season to enhance the reproductive efficiency in local goats.

  10. PCR assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection of semen specimens processed for artificial insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Y.; Westenberg, S. M.; de Vries, J.; Repping, S.; Spanjaard, L.; Eijk, P. P.; van der Ende, A.; Dankert, J.

    2000-01-01

    In order to ascertain the microbiological quality of stored semen specimens processed for artificial insemination by a donor (AID), we developed a PCR assay targeting the chlamydial plasmid to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in semen. The lower limit of detection of this assay corresponded to 2.5 to 5

  11. Reproductive performance and backflow study in cervical and post-cervical artificial insemination in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Caravaca, Iván; Izquierdo-Rico, M José; Matás, Carmen; Carvajal, Juan A; Vieira, Luis; Abril, Dario; Soriano-Úbeda, Cristina; García-Vázquez, Francisco A

    2012-12-01

    The present study was developed to evaluate multiparous sow reproductive performance and backflow in post-cervical artificial insemination (post-CAI) using a reduced number of sperm than in cervical artificial insemination (CAI). The experimental groups were divided into sows inseminated by: 1) cervical artificial insemination (CAI): 3×10(9) spermatozoa/80 ml; 2) post-CAI: 1.5×10(9) spermatozoa/40 ml (post-CAI 1); 3) post-CAI using 1×10(9) spermatozoa/26 ml (post-CAI 2). Post-CAI 1 reproductive parameters were similar to those of post-CAI 2 (except for live born litter size which was greater in post-CAI 1) and better than for the CAI group (pinsemination dose incubated inside a colostomy bag (sperm quality control group). The present study shows that the use of post-CAI (either post-CAI 1 or 2) in field conditions can be recommended because the efficiency is similar (in the case of post-CAI 2) or higher (post-CAI 1) than when using the traditional method (CAI), representing a reduction cost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Collaborative Bovine Artificial Insemination Short Course for Students Attending a Caribbean Veterinary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…

  13. 19 Beef cattle pregnancy rates following insemination with aged frozen angus semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination has proven to be a valuable asset to the cattle industry. It is assumed that once good quality semen is frozen in liquid nitrogen it should remain viable indefinitely; however, semen viability has not been systematically evaluated after being stored for several decades. In th...

  14. Investigation of a novel non-surgical method of artificial insemination for sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcervical artificial insemination (AI) with sheep is not frequently used in the US due to low fertility rates. Consequently, laparoscopic AI has been employed to circumvent this situation. The problem with this technique is that while it provides satisfactory levels of fertility the degree of ...

  15. Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination.

  16. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  17. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  18. Milk progesterone on day 5 following insemination in the dairy cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the importance of progesterone on the fertility of lactating dairy cows, the factors that affect post ovulatory progesterone concentration are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the post ovulatory progesterone rise following 1st insemination in lactating dairy cows.

  19. Use of flunixin meglumine in Santa Inês ewes submitted to laparoscopic and transcervical insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Travassos Beltrame

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of flunixim meglumine in Santa Ines ewes submitted to artificial insemination (AI. Forty-four Santa Inês ewes were synchronized and inseminated at fixed times, by the transcervical or laparoscopic route, between 52 and 58 hours after sponge removal. The ewes were split into two treatment groups, to receive intramuscular injections of 2 mL of saline (control treatment or 2.2 mg/kg flunixin meglumine (FM treatment, twice a day between days 9 and 19 after AI. The pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasound 30 days after the AI. The chi-square test was used to compare the pregnancy rate between the control and flunixin meglumine treatment and between type of insemination, while the t-test, at 5% probability was used to compare the average weight and body condition, using the SAS statistical software. Flunixin meglumine was not effect in increasing the pregnancy rate in Santa Ines ewes undergoing laparoscopic and transcervical insemination.

  20. The effect of insemination/injection time on the results of IVF and ICSI.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.; Stolwijk, A.M.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a pre-incubation time between oocyte retrieval and insemination or injection had any effect on the success rate of IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Based on previously published data, many laboratories retain a time interval

  1. Differential effects of insemination volume and substance on reproductive changes in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, E L; Tarpy, D R; Grozinger, C M

    2013-06-01

    Mating causes dramatic changes in female insects at the behavioural, physiological and molecular level. The factors driving these changes (e.g. seminal proteins, seminal volume) and the molecular pathways by which these factors are operating have been characterized only in a handful of insect species. In the present study, we use instrumental insemination of honey bee queens to examine the role of the insemination substance and volume in triggering post-mating changes. We also examine differences in gene expression patterns in the fat bodies of queens with highly activated ovaries to determine if events during copulation can cause long-term changes in gene expression. We found that the instrumental insemination procedure alone caused cessation of mating flights and triggered ovary activation, with high-volume inseminated queens having the greatest ovary activation. Hierarchical clustering grouped queens primarily by insemination substance and then insemination volume, suggesting that while volume may trigger short-term physiological changes (i.e. ovary activation) substance plays a greater role in regulating long-term transcriptional changes. The results of gene ontology analysis and comparison with previous studies suggest that both insemination substance and volume trigger molecular post-mating changes by altering overlapping gene pathways involved in honey bee reproduction. We also discuss the effects on two genes (vitellogenin and transferrin) involved in reproduction and defence responses. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Comparison of clinical outcomes betweenin vitrofertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in IVF-ICSI split insemination cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hyun; Park, Yong-Seog; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lim, Chun Kyu

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in sibling oocytes. Additionally, we evaluated whether the implementation of split insemination contributed to an increase in the number of ICSI procedures. A total of 571 cycles in 555 couples undergoing split insemination cycles were included in this study. Among them, 512 cycles (89.7%) were a couple's first IVF cycle. The patients were under 40 years of age and at least 10 oocytes were retrieved in all cycles. Sibling oocytes were randomly allocated to IVF or ICSI. Total fertilization failure was significantly more common in IVF cycles than in ICSI cycles (4.0% vs. 1.4%, p insemination or ICSI was performed in 18 of the 95 cycles in which a second IVF cycle was performed. The clinical outcomes did not differ between IVF and ICSI in split insemination cycles. Split insemination can decrease the risk of total fertilization failure. However, unnecessary ICSI is carried out in most split insemination cycles and the use of split insemination might make ICSI more common.

  3. Studies on the causes of inefficiency in artificial insemination systems in dairy cattle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongiardino, M.E.; Rodriguez de Vinals, L.

    2001-01-01

    Information was obtained on reproductive efficiency and management from 17 dairy farms which use artificial insemination (AI) in Argentina. The methods included use of questionnaires, body condition scoring at calving and AI, measurement of progesterone in milk samples on day of AI (day 0), day 10-12 and day 22-24 by radioimmunoassay, and measurement of milk urea on day 0. The overall conception rate (OCR) from 504 inseminations was 41.5%. There was non-fertilization or early embryo death in 27.8% of cases and late embryo death in 10.4%. Three percent of inseminations were performed on pregnant animals, 8.2% with intermediate progesterone values (1.25-3.18 nmol/L) and more than 2% during anoestrus or with ovarian cysts. Calving season did not affect OCR, but first service conception rate (FSCR) was higher for cows calved during winter and bred in spring. Cows fed pastures and hay (P+H) had lower body condition at the time of AI than those fed pastures plus concentrates with or without hay. The P+H group showed delayed interval to first AI and conception, but higher FSCR. Both groups fed concentrates had higher milk urea that was related to lower OCR. Mean milk urea on the day of AI for cows that conceived was 43.81 ± 1.42 mg/100mL, statistically different from the 48.87 ± 1.58 mg/100mL for those that did not conceive (P<0.05). Inseminators formally trained for more than a month, employed on government farms and paid fixed salaries had better performances than those trained less than a month, employed on commercial farms and paid on the basis of inseminations or conceptions, respectively. OCR was also higher when cows were inseminated into the uterus, when uterine tone was slight, and mucus was clear, compared with those inseminated in the cervix, with marked uterine tone and without the presence of mucus, respectively. Semen of known good quality resulted in higher OCR than semen which was unexamined or without good information on its quality. However, 12

  4. Synchronized ovulation for first insemination improves reproductive performance and reduces cost per pregnancy in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T V; Lima, F S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-11-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of synchronizing estrus and ovulation to implement a timed artificial insemination (AI) at first insemination on reproductive performance and cost per pregnancy in dairy heifers. Six hundred eleven Holsteins heifers at approximately 400 d of age from 3 farms were enrolled in the study. Six days before moving to the breeding pens, heifers were allocated randomly to AI after detected estrus from study d 0 to 84 (CON, n=306), or to timed AI for first AI followed by detected estrus for the remainder of the 84-d study (TAI, n=305). Heifers receiving TAI were enrolled in the 5-d timed AI protocol on study d -6 (d -6, GnRH and a progesterone insert; d -1, PGF2α and insert removal; d 0, PGF2α; d 2, GnRH + AI), and they were allowed to be bred the day before scheduled timed AI if detected in estrus. Starting on study d 0, estrus was detected daily. Heifers in estrus were inseminated on the same morning as detected estrus. Control heifers not inseminated by study d 7 received PGF2α and this treatment was repeated every 2 wk until AI. The study lasted 84 d to allow a period of breeding equivalent to four 21-d estrous cycles. A herd budget accounting for inputs for both treatments was created to determine the cost per pregnancy. Sensitivity analysis compared economic differences between the 2 treatments under different input scenarios when detection of estrus after the first AI varied from 50 to 80%. Interval to first AI was 8 d shorter for TAI than for CON. Pregnancy at first AI did not differ between treatments (CON=58.3 vs. TAI=62.8%). In contrast, TAI increased pregnancy per AI (P/AI) compared with CON in heifers inseminated with sex-sorted semen (CON=31.6 vs. TAI=54.8%). The 21-d cycle insemination rate was greater for TAI (91.4%) than for CON (82.4%), even when evaluated after the first 21 d in the study (CON=68.2 vs. TAI=77.1%). The increased insemination rate improved the 21-d cycle pregnancy rate from 47.9% in CON to 57

  5. Immediate vs. delayed insertion of intrauterine contraception after second trimester abortion: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background We describe the rationale and protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess whether intrauterine contraception placed immediately after a second trimester abortion will result in fewer pregnancies than current recommended practice of intended placement at 4 weeks post-abortion. Decision analysis suggests the novel strategy could substantially reduce subsequent unintended pregnancies and abortions. This paper highlights considerations of design, implementation and evaluation of a trial expected to provide rigorous evidence for appropriate insertion timing and health economics of intrauterine contraception after second trimester abortion. Methods/Design Consenting women choosing to use intrauterine contraception after abortion for a pregnancy of 12 to 24 weeks will be randomized to insertion timing groups either immediately (experimental intervention) or four weeks (recommended care) post abortion. Primary outcome measure is pregnancy rate at one year. Secondary outcomes include: cumulative pregnancy rates over five year follow-up period, comprehensive health economic analyses comparing immediate and delayed insertion groups, and device retention rates, complication rates (infection, expulsion) and, contraceptive method satisfaction. Web-based Contraception Satisfaction Questionnaires, clinical records and British Columbia linked health databases will be used to assess primary and secondary outcomes. Enrolment at all clinics in the province performing second trimester abortions began in May 2010 and is expected to complete in late 2011. Data on one year outcomes will be available for analysis in 2014. Discussion The RCT design combined with access to clinical records at all provincial abortion clinics, and to information in provincial single-payer linked administrative health databases, birth registry and hospital records, offers a unique opportunity to evaluate such an approach by determining pregnancy rate at one through five years among

  6. Immediate vs. delayed insertion of intrauterine contraception after second trimester abortion: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Judith A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the rationale and protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT to assess whether intrauterine contraception placed immediately after a second trimester abortion will result in fewer pregnancies than current recommended practice of intended placement at 4 weeks post-abortion. Decision analysis suggests the novel strategy could substantially reduce subsequent unintended pregnancies and abortions. This paper highlights considerations of design, implementation and evaluation of a trial expected to provide rigorous evidence for appropriate insertion timing and health economics of intrauterine contraception after second trimester abortion. Methods/Design Consenting women choosing to use intrauterine contraception after abortion for a pregnancy of 12 to 24 weeks will be randomized to insertion timing groups either immediately (experimental intervention or four weeks (recommended care post abortion. Primary outcome measure is pregnancy rate at one year. Secondary outcomes include: cumulative pregnancy rates over five year follow-up period, comprehensive health economic analyses comparing immediate and delayed insertion groups, and device retention rates, complication rates (infection, expulsion and, contraceptive method satisfaction. Web-based Contraception Satisfaction Questionnaires, clinical records and British Columbia linked health databases will be used to assess primary and secondary outcomes. Enrolment at all clinics in the province performing second trimester abortions began in May 2010 and is expected to complete in late 2011. Data on one year outcomes will be available for analysis in 2014. Discussion The RCT design combined with access to clinical records at all provincial abortion clinics, and to information in provincial single-payer linked administrative health databases, birth registry and hospital records, offers a unique opportunity to evaluate such an approach by determining pregnancy rate at one

  7. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongtip, Nikorn; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote; Pongsopavijitr, Pornsawan; Kornkaewrat, Kornchai; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Jansittiwate, Saran; Rungsri, Ronnachit; Boonprasert, Khajornpat; Wongkalasin, Warut; Homkong, Pongpon; Dejchaisri, Suthathip; Wajjwalku, Worawit; Saikhun, Kulnasan

    2009-01-01

    Background Artificial insemination (AI) using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI). Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years) by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years) were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod) inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao) inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population. PMID:19615097

  8. New approaches in buffalo artificial insemination programs with special reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, A K

    2016-07-01

    Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chicks produced in the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) after cloacal insemination of frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Justine Kellie; Steinman, Karen J; Montano, Gisele A; Dubach, Jean M; Robeck, Todd R

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro and in vivo functionality of cryopreserved spermatozoa was examined over two breeding seasons in a zoological colony of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). Frozen-thawed semen was inseminated into five anesthetized females, over a total of eight egg production cycles, with a different male used for each artificial insemination (AI) within each season. Females were maintained within the colony in cordoned nest sites to prevent copulation with their paired male, and were inseminated every 3-10 days until the first oviposition. Semen frozen from seven males using a straw method retained 39.8%, 25.7%, 74.0%, and 52.1% of its initial total motility, progressive motility, average path velocity, and plasma membrane integrity, respectively. Normal morphology of motile cells was reduced (P inseminations before the first oviposition, with 19.2 ± 1.6 × 10(6) motile, morphologically normal spermatozoa per insemination. Overall fertility was 53.3% (8/15 eggs), hatchability was 50.0% (4/8), and genetic analyses confirmed that all embryos and hatchlings were sired by the AI male. Fertile eggs were laid at 4.0-12.1 days after AI, indicating that frozen-thawed spermatozoa resided in the female reproductive tract for up to ∼7.2 days prior to fertilization. Results demonstrate that frozen-thawed Magellanic penguin spermatozoa are fully functional in vivo and support the use of genome banking and AI as tools for managing the sustainability of zoological penguin populations. Zoo Biol. 35:326-338, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Influence of seasonality, timing of insemination and rectal temperature on conception rate of crossbred dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransérgio Rocha de Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of rectal temperature (RT on conception rate (CR, as well as the effects of seasonality (spring-summer vs. autumn-winter and timing of artificial insemination (AI (morning vs. afternoon on RT and CR in crossbred dairy cows (Holstein x Gyr. The experiment was conducted on a dairy farm in Centralina, MG, where 1,219 conventional and fixed-time inseminations were analyzed. The RT was measured immediately before AI using a digital thermometer. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed using ultrasonography between 28 and 60 days after AI. T The effects of seasonality and timing of AI on RT were analyzed with a Mann-Whitney U test and the effects of RT (above or below the average, seasonality and timing of AI on CR were analyzed with a Chi-squared test, both using the SAS program. The RT average was 39.4°C. Cows with RT ? 39.4°C had lower CR than cows with RT < 39.4°C (25.78% vs. 32.54%; P = 0.0096. During spring-summer, cows had higher RT (39.44°C ± 0.025 vs. 39.27°C ± 0.022; P < 0.0001 and lower CR (25.49% vs. 31.75%; P = 0.0146 compared with autumn-winter. Cows inseminated in the morning had lower RT (38.96°C ± 0.022 vs. 39.60°C ± 0.018; P < 0.0001 and higher CR (32.86% vs. 26.06%; P = 0.0102 than cows inseminated in the afternoon. In conclusion, crossbred dairy cows with rectal temperature equal to or greater than 39.4°C had lower conception rate. Moreover, rectal temperature and conception rate were affected by seasonality and insemination time.

  11. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongkalasin Warut

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination (AI using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI. Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population.

  12. Eccentrically located intrauterine pregnancy misdiagnosed as interstitial ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Adam; Ko, Patrick; Dewar, Christopher; Raio, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    This is a case report of an eccentrically located intrauterine pregnancy initially diagnosed as an interstitial ectopic pregnancy. Although interstitial ectopic pregnancy represents a well-known pitfall in first-trimester sonography, the common error is to misidentify the ectopic pregnancy as intrauterine, not the reverse. Such an error is potentially catastrophic because it may lead to the inadvertent termination of a viable pregnancy. Although the role of ultrasonography for evaluation of ectopic pregnancy is well established, its diagnostic accuracy for interstitial ectopic pregnancy remains uncertain. Because of this, sonographic findings should be considered suggestive, but not diagnostic, in this setting. Copyright © 2010 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Treatment of postpartum hemorrhage with intrauterine hydrostatic condom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval García-Travesí, F A; Hinojosa-Cruz, J C; Reyes-Hernández, M U; Sandoval-Barajas, D; Lorca-Jiménez, G; Mendoza-Reyes, E; Cruz-Durán, J G

    2016-04-01

    To report of experience of intrauterine hydrostatic condom to control obstetric hemorrhage. Descriptive, retro-prospective study. The method was use in patients who had obstetric hemorrhage and do not responded to medical management during the period from March 1st to August27, 2015 in a rural facility. 955 patients that had a vaginal delivery were identified, 40 (4.1%) of which needed the application of the method. The method was unsuccessful in 2 of 40 patients (5%), one requiring emergency obstetric hysterectomy and other exploratory laparotomy with conservative measures. 11 of 40 patients (2 7.5%) required at least 1-3 globular packs transfusion. None of the 38 patients (95%) who responded to the method presented endometritis in the postpartum follow up or complications associated with the use of hydrostatic condom. The use of intrauterine hydrostatic condom is an effective method to control postpartum obstetric hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony unresponsive to medical management.

  14. [Effectiveness research of medicated γ intrauterine device and medicated genefix intrauterine device inserted immediately after abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Cheng, Y; Yang, H; Tang, Y H; Jiang, J; Ji, F; Li, L B; Wu, S C

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of medicated γ intrauterine device (IUD) and medicated genefix IUD inserted immediately after abortion. A multicenter clinical trail was performed for the study from Mar. 2012 to Jan. 2013. Totally 840 women who volunteered to participate were randomly allocated to γ-group (medicated γ IUD) or genefix-group (medicated genefix IUD) immediately after abortion. While 464 abortion women who had not used IUD or steroids contraceptive methods were chosen as control group. The effectiveness of the IUD were followed up for 1 year. All women were required to record the number of vaginal bleeding days and blood volume of vaginal bleeding within 3 months after abortion. At the 12(th) month, the expulsion was the most common reason for termination. The expulsion rates of genefix-group and γ-group were 2.48/100 women years and 3.12/100 women years, respectively (P>0.05). For the expulsion reasons, IUD moving down could account for more than seventy percent. The removal rate for IUD usage of two IUD groups were almost equal (3.91/100 women years verus 4.35/100 women years), the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). At the 90(th) day after abortion, comparing with control group, the bleeding and (or) spotting days of genefix-group and γ-group extended by 3.9 and 2.6 days respectively, the differences had statistical significance between the three groups (P0.05). The insertion of medicated genefix IUD and medicated γ IUD immediately after abortion is safe, feasible, has slight side effects and could be effective contraception.

  15. Effect of insemination after estrous detection on pregnancy per artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, S; Haimerl, P; Heuwieser, W

    2016-03-01

    Presynchronization of cows with 2 injections of prostaglandin administered 14d apart (Presynch-Ovsynch) is a widely adopted procedure to increase pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) for the first service. In a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, 2 different management strategies can be observed. Either all cows receive timed artificial insemination (onlyTAI) or cows detected in estrus after the second PGF2α injection are inseminated and the remaining cows without signs of estrus will be subject to timed AI (EDAI+TAI). A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effect of insemination after estrous detection during a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol for the first service on fertility in lactating dairy cows. Two statistical approaches were conducted using either a fixed or a random effects meta-analysis based on the heterogeneity among the experimental groups. Reproductive outcomes of interest were P/AI measured on d32 (d 28 to 42) and pregnancy loss between d32 and 60 (d 42 to 74) of gestation. In approach 1, 3 randomized controlled studies including 1,689 cows with the primary objective to evaluate the effect of insemination after estrous detection in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol were used. The incorporation of insemination after estrous detection decreased the odds of pregnancy by 35% [odds ratio=0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53-0.80] on d32 after AI using a fixed effects model. We detected no effect on pregnancy loss on d60 of gestation (odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI=0.55-1.43). There was no heterogeneity among the 3 studies regarding P/AI and pregnancy loss. In approach 2, cows from approach 1 and cohorts from another 17 experimental groups including 8,124 cows submitted to first AI using a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol were used. Information regarding pregnancy loss was available for 5,200 cows. In the random effects model, the overall proportion of P/AI was 30.9% (95% CI=26.71-35.28; n=2,400) and 41.7% (95% CI=39.76-42.01; n=7

  16. Distribution pattern and migration of 131I-labelled sperma in the uterine cervix of sheep, following insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.

    1983-01-01

    Distribution pattern of ram sperma in the uterine cervix of inseminated sheep were determined using 131 I for labelling. Emphasis in these studies was laid on comparison between diluted native sperma and deep-frozen sperma. All results so far obtained suggested that the migration capacity of most of the ram sperms had been impaired by the freezing-melting process. The amount of deep-frozen sperms present in the cranial region of the uterine cervix, a few hours after insemination, was significantly below that of native sperms. The difference was equally high and significant between native and deep-frozen sperma regarding the presence of labelled sperma between caudal and cranial regions. Evidence was produced to unambiguous nest formation of inseminated sperma in the uterine cervix. These findings are followed by a discussion of the role played by the uterine cervix as a site of sperma selection and as sperma reservoir following insemination. (author)

  17. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk.

  18. Artificial insemination field data on the use of sexed and conventional semen in nulliparous Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, A A; House, J K; Thomson, P C

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated conception rates and other reproductive outcomes achieved with artificial insemination (AI) of nulliparous Holstein heifers using sexed and conventional semen in a commercial Australian dairy herd in central western New South Wales from January 2004 to April 2009. Retrospective data from on-farm records of 9,870 inseminations of 4,456 heifers were analyzed using several mixed models to assess the effect of temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, insemination sire, artificial insemination technician, service number, and heifer weight and age at breeding on reproductive traits (conception rates, sex ratios, gestation length, and abortion and stillbirth rates). Semen was used from 15 sexed sires and 41 unsexed sires. Sexed semen was primarily used at first and second service. Empirical conception rates of 31.6 and 39.6% were achieved for sexed and unsexed semen respectively, whereas model-based predictions were lower, at 21.3 and 32.1%. Conception rates were significantly affected by insemination sire, sex-sorting, heifer age at breeding, temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, service number, and AI technician. Sexed semen yielded 86% heifers, compared with 48% for conventional semen. Significant predictors of calf sex included semen sexing, gestation length, and insemination sire. Twinning rate was high, at 3.6% for both semen types, and gestation length and heifer weight at breeding were significant predictors of twinning. Abortion rates for sexed and unsexed conceptions were similar at 6.1 and 6.5%, respectively, and were affected by heifer age at breeding. Stillbirth rate was affected by calf sex, twinning, gestation length, and AI technician; semen sorting, age at breeding, and temperature and humidity were marginally significant predictors. No abnormalities were observed in the development of offspring, except for a marginally higher stillbirth rate for sexed calves, a finding that needs further investigation. Many

  19. Is it Beneficial to Inseminate Cow Early after Calving in smallholder Dairy Herds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebe, B.O.; Udo, H.M.J.; Jalvingh, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Insemination of cows after calving is often more prolonged than recommended by the extension service in the smallholder dairy herds. The rationale behind the practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate through simulation, the potential benefits of implementing early insemination of cows after calving as recommended by the extension. The simulation was based on a reference herd reflecting an average performing smallholder dairy herd in the Kiambu peri-urban area. Data inputs displaying collapsed lactation curve were obtained from the National Dairy Development Project reports. The study used a dynamic stochastic model designed for on-farm decision support in dairying which can be modified to farm specific situation. Simulations was performed till steady state was derived reflecting the reproductive and productivity which corresponds with the estimated input and output variable of the reference herd. This form the basic situation in which insemination is on 165 days after calving. This resulted in 465 days calving interval (CI), and on annual basis 2355 kg milk per cow, 2.7 calvings, 25.8% culling rates giving gross margins of Ksh. 14,933 per cow. Compare to the basic situation, inseminating cows on day 105 after calving (60 days earlier) improved the annual gross margins per cow by Ksh 1060. The improved gross margins resulted from Shortened CI by 41 days, increased annual calvings in the herd by 0.1, increased milk production by 74 kg per cow annually and reduce culling rate by 4.8% annually. The resultant effect of these did offset the increased costs of feeding which was Ksh 473 and 11 per cow annually for the concentrates and Napier, respectively. The results showed that early insemination has potential economic benefits to smallholders. Implementing early insemination decisions need consider the investment feeding. The study showed that it is difficult to get a replacement heifer at the present level of reproductive performance in

  20. The concurrent and carry over effects of long term changes in energy intake before insemination on pregnancy per artificial insemination in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, M H; Crowe, M A; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Fair, T; Diskin, M G

    2015-06-01

    Follicle development in a period of negative energy balance (NEB), as experienced by the postpartum dairy cow, could be affected by undesirable metabolic changes, and may contain a developmentally incompetent oocyte with an impaired potential to establish a pregnancy. A differential feeding model in heifers was developed to evaluate the concurrent and carryover effects of reduced energy intake before insemination on pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI). Heifers were randomly assigned to either (i) control feed intake group (CF), n=68, 1.3 times estimated maintenance energy (M) requirements for 50 days and 2.0 M for 83 days or (ii) restricted feed intake (RF), n=88, 0.65 M for 50 days and 2.0 M for 83 days. Pregnancy per AI was determined by transrectal ultrasonography at day 30 following AI. Despite significant loss of live weight (LW; 5.8±2.1 vs 70.5±2.8 kg, respectively) and body condition score (BCS; 0.05±0.03 vs 0.45±0.03) and a significant elevation in systemic concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids in RF heifers, there was no concurrent effect on P/AI (69 vs 72%) following AI at day 50. However, there was a carryover effect on P/AI as there was an 18 percentage point difference (64 vs 82%) between CF and RF heifers following AI on day 93. The results of the study indicate that a reduction in energy intake for a 50-day period pre-insemination had no concurrent effect but had a positive carryover effect on P/AI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Delayed insemination of nonestrous cows improves pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen in timed artificial insemination of suckled beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Lock, S L; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2014-04-01

    This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that delayed insemination of nonestrous cows would increase pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen in conjunction with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Estrus was synchronized for 656 suckled beef cows with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR [1.38 g progesterone] on d 0, 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR removal on d 7, and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after CIDR removal) with conventional semen regardless of estrous expression, 2) FTAI with sex-sorted semen regardless of estrous expression, or 3) FTAI with sex-sorted semen for cows having expressed estrus and delayed AI 20 h after final GnRH for cows failing to express estrus. A treatment × estrous expression interaction was found (P insemination with sex-sorted semen yielded higher (P < 0.0001) pregnancy rates than with sex-sorted semen at the standard time (Treatments 2 and 3; 3 versus 36%, respectively). Furthermore, among cows that failed to express estrus, FTAI pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen at the delayed time (36%) were comparable (P = 0.9) to those achieved using conventional semen at the standard time (Treatment 1; 37%). These results indicate that delaying AI of nonestrous cows by 20 h from the standard FTAI improves pregnancy rates when sex-sorted semen is used with FTAI.

  2. Outpatient hysteroscopy with combined local intracervical and intrauterine anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdi, Mohammed; Tulandi, Togas

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the degree of pain during and after office hysteroscopy with combined intracervical and intrauterine anesthesia compared to intracervical anesthesia only. We evaluated the amount of pain experienced during office hysteroscopy using combined local intracervical and intrauterine anesthesia, 10, 30, and 60 min after, and during endometrial biopsy prospectively in 37 infertile women (study group). We used a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 10. Seventy-six women who received only intracervical anesthesia served as historical controls. The mean ages of patients in the control and study groups were comparable. Patients' perception of pain was significantly higher during endometrial biopsy than during or after hysteroscopy in the study patients (p < 0.01, 95% CI 0-3). The mean pain score in the control group was significantly higher than that in the study group during hysteroscopy (3.3 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3; p < 0.05, 95% CI 0-2). However, there was no significant difference in the pain scores between the control and study groups during endometrial biopsy and 10, 30, and 60 min after the procedure. Endometrial biopsy is associated with more pain than office hysteroscopy. Additional intrauterine anesthesia with 1% lidocaine significantly reduces pain sensation during office hysteroscopy. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Laparoscopic removal of migrated intrauterine device embedded in intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnemai-Azar, Amir A; Apfel, Tehilla; Naghshizadian, Rozhin; Cosgrove, John Morgan; Farkas, Daniel T

    2014-01-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is a popular family planning method worldwide. Some of the complications associated with insertion of an IUD are well described in the literature. The frequency of IUD perforation is estimated to be between 0.05 and 13 per 1000 insertions. There are many reports of migrated intrauterine devices, but far fewer reports of IUDs which have penetrated into the small intestine. Herein we report a case of perforated intrauterine device embedded in the small intestine. By using a wound protector retraction device, and fashioning the anastomosis extra-corporeally, we were able to more easily perform this laparoscopically. This left the patient with a quicker recovery, and a better cosmetic result. IUD perforation into the peritoneal cavity is a known complication, and necessitates close follow-up. Most, if not all, should be removed at the time of diagnosis. In the majority of previously reported cases, removal was done through laparotomy. Even in cases where removal was attempted laparoscopically, many were later converted to laparotomy. Surgeons should be aware of different techniques, including using a wound protector retraction device, in order to facilitate laparoscopic removal.

  4. Intrauterine device insertion in the postpartum period: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonalkar, Sarita; Kapp, Nathalie

    2015-02-01

    Given new research on postpartum placement of levonorgestrel and copper intrauterine devices (IUDs), our objective was to update a prior systematic review of the safety and expulsion rates of postpartum IUDs. We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS, POPLINE, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for articles between the database inception until July 2013. We included studies that compared IUD insertion time intervals and routes during the postpartum period. We used standard abstract forms and the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system to summarise and assess the quality of the evidence. We included 18 articles. New evidence suggests that a levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) insertion within 48 hours of delivery is safe. Postplacental insertion and insertion between 10 minutes and 48 hours after delivery result in higher expulsion rates than insertion 4 to 6 weeks postpartum, or non-postpartum insertion. Insertion at the time of caesarean section is associated with lower expulsion rates than postplacental insertion at the time of vaginal delivery. This review supports the evidence that insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive within the first 48 hours of vaginal or caesarean delivery is safe. Expulsion rates should be further studied in larger randomised controlled trials.

  5. Adverse Intrauterine Environment and Cardiac miRNA Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell C. Lock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Placental insufficiency, high altitude pregnancies, maternal obesity/diabetes, maternal undernutrition and stress can result in a poor setting for growth of the developing fetus. These adverse intrauterine environments result in physiological changes to the developing heart that impact how the heart will function in postnatal life. The intrauterine environment plays a key role in the complex interplay between genes and the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate their expression. In this review we describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs and how these changes may impact heart development. Potential consequences of altered miRNA expression in the fetal heart include; Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF activation, dysregulation of angiogenesis, mitochondrial abnormalities and altered glucose and fatty acid transport/metabolism. It is important to understand how miRNAs are altered in these adverse environments to identify key pathways that can be targeted using miRNA mimics or inhibitors to condition an improved developmental response.

  6. [Definitions: small for gestational age and intrauterine growth retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ego, A

    2013-12-01

    Screening for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major component of antenatal care, but the debate about the choice of birthweight standards is longstanding. The objective of this first chapter is to provide guidelines about optimal definition of IUGR. Literature review about available birthweight curves to define IUGR, including the analysis of their diagnosis accuracy and their relevance to identify babies at risk of poor perinatal outcomes. Intrauterine growth curves are more suitable for "normal" growth modeling than birth weight curves, and fetal growth is influenced by individual characteristics, fetal gender being the most important among them (EL2). Infants with a low birth weight are either constitutionally small babies or babies with pathological fetal growth failure. Use of "SGA" for all Small for Gestational Age infants is now recommended, "IUGR" being appropriate only for infants with pathological growth restriction (Professional consensus). Depending on reference curves, identified SGA babies and pregnancy outcomes may be different. Customized birth weight standards are based on an intrauterine growth modeling adjusted for fetal gender, maternal height, weight and parity, and appear to be the most accurate to identify SGA births at risk (EL3). However, their benefit on perinatal morbidity and mortality has not been demonstrated by prospective studies. Benefits and drawbacks of customized birth weight curves seem in favor of their use. Their application in ante and postnatal investigations is a real opportunity to standardize clinical practice and make information provided to parents more consistent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of different artificial insemination techniques and sperm doses on fertility of normal mares and mares with abnormal reproductive history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieme, H; Bonk, A; Hamann, H; Klug, E; Katila, T

    2004-09-01

    The effects of different artificial insemination (AI) techniques and sperm doses on pregnancy rates of normal Hanoverian breed mares and mares with a history of barrenness or pregnancy failure using fresh or frozen-thawed sperm were investigated. The material included 187 normal mares (148 foaling and 39 young maiden mares) and 85 problem mares with abnormal reproductive history. Mares were randomly allotted into groups with respect to AI technique (routine AI into the uterine body, transrectally controlled deep intracornual AI ipsilateral to the preovulatory follicle, or hysteroscopic AI onto the uterotubal junction ipsilateral to the preovulatory follicle), storage method of semen (fresh, frozen-thawed), AI volume (0.5, 2, 12 ml), and sperm dose (50 x 10(6) or 300 x 10(6) progressively motile sperm (pms) for fresh semen and 100 or 800 x 10(6) frozen-thawed sperm with >35% post-thaw motility). The mares were inseminated once per cycle, 24 h after hCG administration when fresh semen was used, or 30 h for frozen-thawed semen. Differences in pregnancy rates between treatment groups were analyzed by Chi-squared test, and for most relevant factors (insemination technique, mare, semen, and stallion) expectation values and confidence intervals were calculated using multivariate logistic models. Neither insemination technique, volume, sperm dose, nor mare or stallion had significant effects (P > 0.05) on fertility. Type of semen, breeding mares during foal heat, and an interaction between insemination technique, semen parameters, and mares did have significant effects (P insemination into the uterine body appears to be superior to hysteroscopic insemination and in normal mares, the highest pregnancy rates can be expected by hysteroscopic insemination.

  8. Effect of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration 2 days after insemination on progesterone concentration and pregnancy per artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J M; Randi, F; Passaro, C; Mathew, D J; Butler, S T; Lonergan, P

    2018-03-28

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a single administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) during the establishment of the corpus luteum (CL) on progesterone (P4) concentration and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in lactating dairy cows. Postpartum spring-calving lactating dairy cows (n = 800; mean ± SD days in milk and parity were 78.5 ± 16.7 and 2.3 ± 0.8, respectively) on 3 farms were enrolled on the study. All cows underwent the same fixed-time AI (FTAI) protocol involving a 7-d progesterone-releasing intravaginal device with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration at device insertion, prostaglandin at device removal followed by GnRH 56 h later, and AI 16 h after the second GnRH injection. Cows were blocked on days postpartum, body condition score, and parity and randomly assigned to receive either 3,000 IU of hCG 2 d after FTAI or no further treatment (control). Blood samples were collected on d 7 and 14 postestrus by coccygeal venipuncture on a subset of 204 cows to measure serum P4 concentration, and pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography approximately 30 and 70 d after FTAI. Administration of hCG caused an increase in circulating P4 concentrations compared with the control treatment on d 7 (+22.2%) and d 14 (+25.7%). The P/AI at 30 d after FTAI was affected by treatment, farm, body condition score, and calving to service interval. Overall, administration of hCG decreased P/AI (46.3% vs. 55.1% for the control). Among cows that did not become pregnant following AI, a greater proportion of control cows exhibited a short repeat interval (≤17 d) compared with cows treated with hCG (8.6% vs. 2.8%, respectively). In addition, the percentages of cows pregnant at d 21 (59.6% vs. 52.0%) and d 42 (78.3% vs. 71.9%) were greater in control than in hCG-treated cows. The overall incidence of embryo loss was 10.7% and was not affected by treatment. There was a tendency for an interaction between treatment and CL

  9. Pregnancy and conception rate after two intravaginal inseminations with dog semen frozen either with 5% glycerol or 5% ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Ada; Milani, C; Romagnoli, S; Zucchini, P; Mollo, A

    2010-03-01

    The primary goal of this study was to compare the effects of 5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 5% glycerol (G) on fertility of frozen-thawed dog semen following intravaginal insemination. The sperm-rich fraction of the ejaculate of three male dogs was collected, pooled and divided into two aliquots, and then frozen with a Tris-glucose-egg yolk-citric acid extender containing either 5% G or 5% EG. A total of 10 bitches were inseminated twice, five with G-frozen-thawed semen and five with EG-frozen-thawed semen; intravaginal inseminations were performed the 4th and the 5th day after the estimated LH peak; four straws, thawed in a 37 degrees C water bath for 1 min and diluted in a Tris buffer, were used for insemination (200 x 10(6) spermatozoa); the insemination dose was introduced in the cranial vagina of the bitch using a sterile plastic catheter. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in all bitches between days 29 and 31 after the calculated LH surge, and pregnancy status, and the number of conceptuses and corpora lutea were recorded. All bitches were pregnant. Neither the number of conceptuses, nor the ratio of conceptuses to corpora lutea (conception rate) was significantly different between groups. In this first screening, with a limited number of bitches, EG-frozen semen did not show a higher fertility than G-frozen semen when used for two intravaginal inseminations. Irrespective of the semen used, conception rate was 0.50.

  10. DINAMIKA FOLIKEL OVARIUM DOMBA PASCATRANSPLANTASI INTRAUTERIN PADA KELINCI PSEUDOPREGNANST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhan Sumarmin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi dinamika folikel pada ovarium domba pascatransplantasi secara intrauterin pada kelinci pseudopregnansi. Transplantasi dilakukan pada kelinci pseudopregnant hari ke 1 atau ke 7. Ovarium kembali diambil pada hari ke 5, 7, atau 9 setelah transplantasi. Untuk menentukan dinamika folikel pada ovarium domba pascatransplantasi dan menghitung jumlah folikel pada berbagai tahap perkembangan, ovarium domba pascatransplantasi dijadikan preparat histologis dengan metode parafin dan pewarnaan HE. Hasilnya masih ditemukan semua tahapan perkembangan folikel (folikel primordial, primer, preantral, dan antral pada semua kelompok perlakuan. Jumlah folikel pada 5, 7 atau 9 hari pascatransplantasi menurun nyata (p<0,05 kecuali jumlah folikel primordial pada kelompok 5 hari pascatransplantasi (634,7±56,88 tidak berbeda nyata dengan kontrol (683,7±61,55. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa dinamika folikel ovarium domba pascatransplantasi pada kelinci pseudopregnansi masih dapat ditemukan pada semua kelompok perlakuan. THE FOLLICLE DYNAMICS OF EWE OVARIAN POST-INTRAUTERINE TRANSPLANTATION TO PSEUDOPREGNANCY RABBIT ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the follicle dynamics of ewe ovarium post-intrauterine transplantation to pseudopregnanty rabbit. The experiment was concerned with the 1st or 7th days of pseudopregnancy to receive the ewe ovarium. After 5, 7, and 9 days transplantation the ewe ovarium were recollected. In order to determine the follicle dynamics of ewe ovari post-intrauterin transplantation and to count the number of each stage, the ewe ovari was prepared using the paraffin methods and staining with HE. The results showed all stages of the follicle dynamics (Primordial, Primary, Preantral and Antral follicle stages were still found in all groups of treatment. The number of follicles decreased significantly (p<0.05 except the number of Primordial follicles of the 5 days post transplantation

  11. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, Michael; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Müller, Heiner; Wink, Michael; Neumann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (polygamous versus monogamous birds). Using semen samples for artificial insemination resulted in the production of offspring in various families, such as Macaws and Cockatoos, for the first time ever. The present technique represents a breakthrough in species conservation programs and will enable future research into the ecology and environmental factors influencing endangered species. PMID:23797622

  12. [Artificial insemination with donor sperm in the Netherlands: future-proof?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, P A L Femke; Janssens, Pim M W; Mochtar, Monique H

    2014-01-01

    In recent years much has changed in care for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID). Since new laws and regulations were implemented, a large number of sperm banks have closed and the total number of sperm donors and their availability have decreased. Long waiting times and the use of sperm donors recruited by foreign commercial sperm banks can indicate a shortage of sperm donors. The fact that the internet offers women the possibility of ordering donor sperm and starting treatment without the intervention of a sperm bank means that future donor-conceived children may be prevented from obtaining the identity of their sperm donor as stipulated in the Dutch law on donor information in the context of artificial insemination. In order to comply with this law, an active recruitment policy is needed for Dutch sperm donors, to prevent waiting lists and treatments outside Dutch sperm banks. Only then can current AID care be guaranteed in the Netherlands in the future.

  13. Vibratory ejaculation in 140 spinal cord injured men and home insemination of their partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønksen, J; Fode, Mikkel; Löchner-Ernst, D

    2012-01-01

    Study design:Retrospective cohort study.Objectives:Anejaculation is commonly found in spinal cord injured (SCI) men. Clinical treatments and assisted reproductive techniques allow SCI men to father children but few home pregnancies have been reported. The objective of this paper is to evaluate...... the results from the last 20 years' of treatment with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) and vaginal self-insemination at home in SCI men and their partners.Setting:The data originate from two European centers and one American center.Methods:A total of 140 SCI men with anejaculation and their healthy partners...... were available for this analysis. Men who obtained antegrade ejaculation by PVS and had motile sperm in the ejaculate were offered the possibility of PVS combined with vaginal self-insemination at home. Couples were instructed to perform PVS and to instill the ejaculate intravaginally. Outcome measures...

  14. Severe anaphylactic reaction to bovine serum albumin at the first attempt of artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B; Stern, A; Johansson, S G

    1995-02-01

    A 33-year-old woman without history of previous atopic diseases or drug allergies developed a severe anaphylactic reaction with asthma, vomiting, itching, generalized urticaria, and angioedema during artificial insemination with her husband's sperm. The sperm-processing medium contained bovine serum albumin (BSA). Skin prick test and RAST demonstrated an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to BSA as well as a polyvalent atopic sensitization to pollens, animal danders, cow's milk, beef, pork, and mutton. SDS-PAGE studies indicated serum albumin to be the appropriate allergen with a high degree of cross-reactivity between serum albumin from different animal species. Artificial insemination with fluid containing potential allergens can, therefore, represent an unnecessary risk for atopic females, even in the absence of prior clinical symptoms of allergic diseases. Preoperative testing with the medium is recommended.

  15. The shift from biological to social fatherhood--counselling men and their partners considering donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Petra

    2013-03-01

    Men and women are likely to suffer from infertility in similar ways, but gender differences account for different ways in revealing--and not revealing--this emotional pain. The following article is based on this understanding. It seeks to describe counselling tasks and interventions that support men and their partners considering donor insemination. This pre-treatment counselling comprises a range of issues, including the provision of medical and legal information, supporting the grieving process, managing the taboo and stigma surrounding donor insemination, supporting disclosure, and last but not least raising awareness of the needs of the future child. The aim of counselling is to explore the short- and long-term implications and thus facilitate the shift from biological to social fatherhood for men and their partners.

  16. Immediate postpartum intrauterine device and implant program outcomes: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggebroten, Jennifer L; Sanders, Jessica N; Turok, David K

    2017-07-01

    In-hospital placement of intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants following vaginal and cesarean delivery is increasingly popular and responds to maternal motivation for highly effective postpartum contraception. Immediate postpartum intrauterine device insertion is associated with higher expulsion than interval placement, but emerging evidence suggests that the levonorgestrel intrauterine device may have a higher expulsion rate than the copper intrauterine device. This study evaluated in-hospital provision, expulsion, and 6-month continuation of immediate postpartum copper T380 intrauterine devices, levonorgestrel intrauterine devices, and contraceptive implants. We offered enrollment in this prospective observational trial to women presenting to the University of Utah labor and delivery unit from October 2013 through February 2016 who requested an intrauterine device or implant for postpartum contraception during prenatal care or hospitalization at the time of delivery. Following informed consent, participants completed questionnaires prior to hospital discharge and at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Data on expulsions at 6 months were validated by chart abstraction. During the study period, 639 patients requested a postpartum intrauterine device or implant and 350 patients enrolled in prospective follow-up prior to discharge from the hospital. Among enrollees, 325 (93%) received their preferred contraceptive device prior to hospital discharge: 88 (27%) copper intrauterine device users, 123 (38%) levonorgestrel intrauterine device users, and 114 (35%) implant users. Participants predominantly were Hispanic (90%), were multiparous (87%), reported a household income device recipients (89%) completed follow-up. Among levonorgestrel intrauterine device users 17% reported expulsions relative to 4% of copper intrauterine device users. The adjusted hazard ratio for expulsion was 5.8 (confidence interval, 1.3-26.4). There was no statistically significant difference in

  17. Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in Tunisian cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimane, Naceur; Haffar, M.A.; Chetoui, C.; Bahri, M.

    2005-01-01

    Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in tunisian and pregnancy in tunisian cattle Results saved during field application in four Tunisian farms from 924 dairy cows. A total of 2830 milk samples were collected from these cows at 3 fixed intervals to evaluate the level of Progesterone: at Artificial Insemination (AI) time (1034), 12th day (948) and at 22nd to 24th days after AI (848). Progesterone concentrations in samples done at AI moment (n=1034) revealed that 10.1% of cows was inseminated at improper moment (progesterone level higher or equal to 1nmol/l). In the second category (samples collected 12 days after AI, n=948), allowed distinguishing between two different situations: (1)- Cycling cows: progesterone concentration was higher or equal to 3nmol/l (69.4%). (2)- Non cycling cows: progesterone level was strictly lower than 3nmol/l (30.6%). The aim of progesterone assay of samples collected in the third category (22 to 24 days after AI) is to establish the Early Non Pregnancy Diagnosis (ENPD). Recorded data allow distinguishing: (1)- Non pregnant females: progesterone concentration is strictly less than 2nmol/l. The confirmation of this situation was carried out by rectal palpation. The gathered information indicated that ENPD accuracy is equal to 96.6%. (2)- Pregnant females: progesterone level is to be higher than or equal to 3.5nmol/l. The ENPD accuracy is 73.3% after confirmation using rectal palpation. (3)- Doubtful females: progesterone concentration is to be between (2 and 3.5nmol/l). Fertility and fecundity criteria were determined by using AIDA software, the analysis considered some variation factors such as cow parity, body score condition, number of services, inseminator, and milk production

  18. Probing the germline-dependence of epigenetic inheritance using artificial insemination in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohacek, Johannes; von Werdt, Sarah; Mansuy, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We developed a simple, noninvasive artificial insemination technique to study epigenetic germline inheritance in mice. This technique avoids interfering factors introduced by superovulation, surgery, in vitro culture or mating that can confound the transmission of acquired epigenetic information through the germline. Using a stress model, we demonstrate that our method is suited to test the causal involvement of the male germline in transmitting acquired information from father to offspring. PMID:29492284

  19. Risk factors associated with cytological endometritis diagnosed at artificial insemination in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascottini, O Bogado; Hostens, Miel; Sys, P; Vercauteren, P; Opsomer, G

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine risk factors associated with cytological endometritis (CYTO) diagnosed at artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows. The CYTO risk factors were evaluated based on 1.625 AI-CYTO samples obtained from 873 Holstein-Friesian cows from in total 18 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium). The endometrial cytology samples were obtained using the cytotape technique, which consisted of adapting a 1.5 cm piece of paper tape to a standardly loaded AI catheter, covered with a double guard sheet. The polymorphonuclear cells' (PMNs) cut-off point for CYTO at AI was set at ≥ 1%. We constructed multilevel generalized mixed effect models in order to identify the risk factors associated with the presence of CYTO at AI. The CYTO prevalence at AI was 27.8% at the animal level, while the within-herd level prevalence ranged from 10.7 to 39.7%, with an average of 28.1%. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of CYTO were parity ≥2 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8], days in milk (DIM) at AI ≥ 124 (OR = 0.4), and warm months of the year [July (OR = 2.9), August (OR = 2.3), and September (OR = 1.4)]. In conclusion, the present study supports that multiparous cows and cows that are inseminated in the summer months have a higher risk to suffer from CYTO at insemination, while the risk for CYTO is lower when the insemination is taking place at ≥ 124 DIM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gamete Therapeutics: Recombinant Protein Adsorption by Sperm for Increasing Fertility via Artificial Insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gallardo, Horacio; Kjelland, Michael E.; Moreno, Juan F.; Welsh, Thomas H.; Randel, Ronald D.; Lammoglia, Miguel A.; Pérez-Martínez, Mario; Lara-Sagahón, Alma V.; Esperón-Sumano, A. Enrique; Romo, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs), specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system’s response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA) and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2) to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI) program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS), of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal) measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB), Celosil® (PGF2α) (Shering-Plough) and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL) and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL). In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P = 0.0037). Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented. PMID:23762288

  1. Gamete therapeutics: recombinant protein adsorption by sperm for increasing fertility via artificial insemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Alvarez-Gallardo

    Full Text Available A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs, specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2, act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system's response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2 to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS, of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB, Celosil® (PGF2α (Shering-Plough and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL. In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P = 0.0037. Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented.

  2. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraïri, MT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.

  3. Oviductal Transcriptome Is Modified after Insemination during Spontaneous Ovulation in the Sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Úbeda, Rebeca; García-Vázquez, Francisco A; Romar, Raquel; Gadea, Joaquín; Muñoz, Marta; Hunter, Ronald H F; Coy, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Gene Expression Microarray technology was used to compare oviduct transcriptome between inseminated and non-inseminated pigs during spontaneous oestrus. We used an in vivo model approaching the study from a physiological point of view in which no hormonal treatment (animals were in natural oestrus) and no artificial sperm selection (selection was performed within the female genital) were imposed. It is therefore emphasised that no surgical introduction of spermatozoa and no insemination at a site other than the physiological one were used. This approach revealed 17 genes that were two-fold or more up-regulated in oviducts exposed to spermatozoa and/or developing embryos and 9 genes that were two-fold or more down-regulated. Functional analysis of the genes revealed that the top canonical pathways affected by insemination were related to the inflammatory response and immune system (Network 1) to molecular transport, protein trafficking and developmental disorder (Network 2) and to cell-to-cell signalling and interaction (Network 3). Some of the genes in network 1 had been previously detected in the oviduct of human and animals, where they were over-expressed in the presence of spermatozoa or pre-implantation embryos (C3, IGHG1, ITIH4, TNF and SERPINE1) whereas others were not previously reported (SAA2, ALOX12, CD1D and SPP1). Genes in Network 2 included RAB1B and TOR3A, the latter being described for the first time in the oviduct and clearly expressed in the epithelial cells of the mucosa layer. Network 3 integrated the genes with the highest down-regulation level (CYP51, PTH1R and TMOD3). Data in the present study indicate a change in gene expression during gamete encounter at the site of fertilization after a natural sperm selection within the female genital tract. These changes would indicate a modification of the environment preparing the oviduct for a successful fertilization and for an adequate embryo early development.

  4. Fertility response in postpartum anoestrus buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis using modified Ovsynch based timed insemination protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Suboestrus constitutes the largest factor responsible for poor reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. Therefore, oestrus synchronization (OS and fixed-time artificial insemination (AI is considered an alternative approach to enhance reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. Thus, the present study was carried out to study the efficacy of modified Ovsynch protocol with fixed time insemination in post-partum anoestrus buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Total 50 post-partum anoestrus dairy buffaloes were selected and randomly divided into 5 Groups, each comprising ten animals (n=10. Animals of Group I received buserelin acetate 10 μg(GnRH at day 0 and 9, and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α at day 7; in Group II similar to Group I except double dose of Gn RH (20 μg at day 0; in Group III, similar to Group I plus additional administration of insulin on day 0, 1 and 2; in Group IV, similar to Group II plus additional administration of insulin on day 0,1 and 2; in Group V similar to Group I except replacement of first Gn RH with insulin on day 0,1 and 2. Animal of all groups were inseminated at fixed time using frozen semen at 60 h and 72 h after PGF2α administration and confirmed for pregnancy at day 60 post-insemination. Results: The results revealed satisfactory and comparable synchronization of oestrus (60-80% and conception rate (20-40% among the various treatment groups in the present study. The better synchronization was observed in modified protocols. However, non-significantly higher conception rate was recorded in modified Ovsynch protocol (40% each in Group II-V as compared to 20% in Group-I (p>0.05. Conclusion: In this study comparatively higher OS and conception following insulin modified Ovsynch based timed AI protocols in post-partum anoestrus buffaloes was found satisfactory and comparable.

  5. Hit or Miss: Fertilization Outcomes of Natural Inseminations by Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Variation in fertilization success underlies sexual selection, yet mating does not guarantee fertilization. The relationship between natural inseminations and fertilization success is essential for understanding sexual selection, yet that relationship and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in sperm-storing vertebrates such as birds. Here the relationship is analyzed in mating trials using Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), which show striking variation in the fertilizing success of inseminations. Failures of males’ inseminations to fertilize eggs were mainly due to failures prior to sperm-egg contact. Fertilization probabilities on any given day were unrelated to whether the female had laid an egg the previous day, arguing against stimulation of sperm release from sperm storage tubules by the events of the daily egg-laying cycle. Instead, an unfertilized egg laid between two fertilized eggs predicted a longer sperm storage interval. Both sexes gained similar numbers of fertilized eggs by mating with a second partner the next day, but males, unlike females in a previous study, did not gain by having two females to mate with at the same time. Instead, they were both behaviorally and sperm limited, whereas females gain by mating twice in quick succession. Even double inseminations often failed to fertilize any eggs, and multiple matings would be needed for an entire clutch to be fertilized with high certainty. Paradoxically, this low and probabilistic fertilization success co-occurs with other notable characteristics of male quail suggestive of past sexual selection for increased success, including vigorous copulatory behavior, forced copulations, foamy secretion aiding in sperm competition, large testes and unusual sperm morphology. PMID:26222780

  6. Hit or Miss: Fertilization Outcomes of Natural Inseminations by Japanese Quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Variation in fertilization success underlies sexual selection, yet mating does not guarantee fertilization. The relationship between natural inseminations and fertilization success is essential for understanding sexual selection, yet that relationship and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in sperm-storing vertebrates such as birds. Here the relationship is analyzed in mating trials using Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, which show striking variation in the fertilizing success of inseminations. Failures of males' inseminations to fertilize eggs were mainly due to failures prior to sperm-egg contact. Fertilization probabilities on any given day were unrelated to whether the female had laid an egg the previous day, arguing against stimulation of sperm release from sperm storage tubules by the events of the daily egg-laying cycle. Instead, an unfertilized egg laid between two fertilized eggs predicted a longer sperm storage interval. Both sexes gained similar numbers of fertilized eggs by mating with a second partner the next day, but males, unlike females in a previous study, did not gain by having two females to mate with at the same time. Instead, they were both behaviorally and sperm limited, whereas females gain by mating twice in quick succession. Even double inseminations often failed to fertilize any eggs, and multiple matings would be needed for an entire clutch to be fertilized with high certainty. Paradoxically, this low and probabilistic fertilization success co-occurs with other notable characteristics of male quail suggestive of past sexual selection for increased success, including vigorous copulatory behavior, forced copulations, foamy secretion aiding in sperm competition, large testes and unusual sperm morphology.

  7. Complications Associated with Insertion of Intrauterine Pressure Catheters: An Unusual Case of Uterine Hypertonicity and Uterine Perforation Resulting in Fetal Distress after Insertion of an Intrauterine Pressure Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara M. Rood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of intrauterine pressure catheters is a routine procedure performed in labor and delivery departments, with few associated complications. There are several reports of maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with the use of intrauterine pressure catheters and their rare adverse outcomes. We report an unusual case of uterine hypertonicity resulting in fetal distress, immediately after the placement of an intrauterine pressure catheter. An emergent Cesarean section was performed for fetal distress and revealed a 5 cm vertical rent in the posterior lower uterine segment. The uterine perforation was repaired intraoperatively. Mother and infant did well and were discharged home on postoperative day four.

  8. Assessment of the immunocrit ratio assay for evaluation of colostrum quality in sows induced to farrow and inseminated using single dose fixed time insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problem Statement: Sufficient intake of quality colostrum is essential for the success of newborn piglets. Relatively high levels of immunoglobulins (Ig) generally indicate colostrum of high quality. IgG is the predominant Ig in colostrum. The immunocrit ratio assay has been developed as a simple me...

  9. The effect of intrauterine devices on acquisition and clearance of human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbach, Sarah H; Ma, Yifei; Smith-McCune, Karen; Shiboski, Stephen; Moscicki, Anna B

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown a decrease in cervical cancer associated with intrauterine device use. It has been hypothesized that intrauterine device use may alter the natural history of human papillomavirus infections, preempting development of precancerous lesions of the cervix and cervical cancer, but the effect of intrauterine devices on the natural history of human papillomavirus infection and subsequent development of cervical cancer is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between intrauterine device use and cervical high-risk human papillomavirus acquisition and clearance. This is a prospective cohort study conducted from October 2000 through June 2014 among 676 sexually active young women and girls enrolled from family planning clinics in San Francisco, CA. Data were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model, including time-varying indicators of intrauterine device use, and adjusting for fixed and time-dependent predictor variables. A total of 85 women used an intrauterine device at some time during follow-up. Among 14,513 study visits, women reported intrauterine device use at 505 visits. After adjusting for potential behavioral confounders, there was no association between intrauterine device use and human papillomavirus acquisition (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-1.23; P = .13) or clearance of human papillomavirus infection (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-2.72; P = .26). Current intrauterine device use is not associated with acquisition or persistence of human papillomavirus infection. Intrauterine device use is safe among women and girls with human papillomavirus infections and at risk for human papillomavirus acquisition. Intrauterine device use may play a role further downstream in the natural history of cervical cancer by inhibiting the development of precancerous lesions of the cervix in human papillomavirus-infected women, or enhancing clearance of established

  10. Pregnancy and delivery with an intrauterine device in situ: outcomes in the National Inpatient Sample Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson Schaeffer, Sandy; Gimovsky, Alexis C; Aly, Hany; Mohamed, Mohamed A

    2017-10-26

    Pregnancy with intrauterine device in place is rare and there are limited data that exist regarding associated perinatal outcomes. The objective of this study is to determine the association between presence of an intrauterine device during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, and preterm or small for gestational age delivery outcomes. The National Inpatient Sample database was analyzed for the years 2010 and 2011. Maternal records with an intrauterine device in situ during delivery were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnostic codes. Primary outcome was incidence of spontaneous abortion. Secondary outcomes were incidence of induced abortion, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of abortion in association with intrauterine device in situ during pregnancy. Maternal birth records were further analyzed for adverse neonatal outcomes using logistic regression models, controlling for possible confounding variables. The data included 8,597,284 maternal birth records; 0.02% with an intrauterine device in situ. Patients with an intrauterine device in situ experienced a higher frequency of the pregnancy ending in spontaneous abortion (OR: 7.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.06-10.09; p intrauterine device in place. Adjusted odds ratio for preterm delivery among women with an intrauterine device in situ was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.71-2.43; p intrauterine device, and adjusted odds ratio for delivery of a small for gestational age infant among intrauterine device cohort was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.34-0.92; p = .022), after controlling for associated demographic and clinical variables. The presence of an intrauterine device in situ during pregnancy was associated with increased spontaneous and induced abortions, and increased incidence of delivery of a preterm, but not small for gestational age infant.

  11. Physiological predictors of ovulation and pregnancy risk in a fixed-time artificial insemination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance and contribution of several physiological factors as predictors of pregnancy risk in an Ovsynch (GnRH-1 - 7d - PGF 2α - 56h - GnRH-2 - 16h - artificial insemination) timed artificial insemination program: (1) age of the corpus luteum (CL; original CL, new CL, or both in response to GnRH-1) and resulting progesterone concentrations as they affected luteolysis, ovulation after GnRH-2, and pregnancy risk; (2) progesterone concentration before GnRH-1 and GnRH-2 on subsequent ovulatory response to GnRH-1 and GnRH-2 as well as pregnancy risk; and (3) a combination of these factors in a multivariable logistic regression model to predict pregnancy risk. Original data from 7 published studies were combined including ovulatory responses to both GnRH injections, blood progesterone concentrations before GnRH-1, before PGF 2α , and at 48h after PGF 2α , pregnancy per artificial insemination at d 32 and 60 after artificial insemination, and intervening pregnancy loss. Ovulation outcomes were greater at lesser progesterone concentrations after both GnRH injections despite the fact that pregnancy outcomes were greatest when progesterone exceeded 3ng/mL before GnRH-1 and PGF 2α , suggesting that greater progesterone concentration before GnRH-1 and incidence of ovulation act via different mechanisms to improve subsequent fertility. Ovulation after GnRH-2 and subsequent pregnancy outcome were positively related to lesser concentrations of progesterone at 48h after PGF 2α ; however, for maximal pregnancy outcome, progesterone should be artificial insemination program. Receiver operator curves produced cut points of progesterone concentration that predicted ovulation and pregnancy risk. Selected cut points of progesterone concentration 48h after PGF 2α produced true positive risks greater than 90% and false positive risks less than 25%, thus demonstrating the high predictability of ovulation after GnRH-2 and

  12. Long term prostaglandin based-protocols improve the reproductive performance after timed artificial insemination in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, S; Viñoles, C; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the reproductive performance of ewes synchronized with two doses of prostaglandin F 2α (PG) at different intervals and inseminated at a fixed time. During the breeding season (April to June), 370 multiparous Corriedale ewes were assigned to five groups according to body condition score and body weight, and synchronized with two doses of PG administered 7, 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart (groups PG7, PG10, PG12, PG14 or PG16; n = 73, 76, 74, 72, 75; respectively). Cervical timed artificial insemination (Day 0) was performed at 48 ± 1.0 h (group PG7) or 56 ± 1.0 h (groups PG10, PG12, PG14 and PG16) after the second PG injection, with diluted fresh semen pooled from six adult rams. The percentage of ovulating ewes after the second PG injection and the ovulation rate (number of corpus luteum/ovulating ewes) were assessed on Day 10 by trans-rectal ultrasonography. The rate of non return to service (ewes not returning to service/inseminated ewes × 100; NRR-21) was evaluated using painted vasectomized rams. Pregnancy rate (pregnant ewes/inseminated ewes × 100) and prolificacy (foetuses/pregnant ewes) were determined on Day 60 by trans-abdominal ultrasonography. Higher NRR-21 and pregnancy rates was observed in groups PG12 (46.0%, 46.0%), PG14 (59.7%, 56.9%) and PG16 (58.7%, 56.0%) compared to PG7 (30.1%, 28.8%) and PG10 (30.3%, 30.3%; respectively P  0.05). Under the condition of this trial, 12, 14 or 16 days interval between PG injections enhances the pregnancy rate of ewes at cervical timed artificial insemination with fresh semen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Communication requested: Boar semen transport through the uterus and possible consequences for insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, D; Knorr, C; Taylor, U

    2016-01-01

    Recent insemination techniques bypass the interactions between sperm and the uterine wall because the semen is deposited deep into the tip of uterine horn or directly into the oviduct. Such techniques allow high dilution of the ejaculates. After normal mating, semen entering the uterus communicates with the uterine milieu. Intact sperm of high mitochondrial membrane potential bind to uterine epithelial cells, whereas most of the unbound sperm in the uterine lumen have damaged membranes. Lectins are the most likely factors to mediate these sperm-uterine interactions. The lectin wheat germ agglutinin is known to induce the strongest binding of sperm, whereas binding is impaired when sialic acid receptors are blocked by wheat germ agglutinin. This suggests that sialic acid is involved in porcine sperm-endometrium interactions, and it is hypothesized that the use of a semen extender supplemented with sialidase would allow insemination with reduced sperm numbers. A lack of contact of sperm and seminal plasma with the uterine wall, as a result of deep insemination, may adversely affect (1) events during ovulation, (2) induction of immunologic tolerance against paternal antigens, (3) preparation of the endometrium for implantation and placentation, and (4) immunologic support required for the fetus during pregnancy. Seminal plasma is known to signal post-insemination changes in the uterine endometrium involving the redistribution of leukocytes. This may involve migration of leukocytes from the uterine wall to the ovary, as seminal plasma particularly increases the appearance of the major histocompatibility complex class II-positive cells. Uterine epithelial cells respond to sperm binding by the production of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines may include synchronizing substances, transferred through a counter-current pathway to the ipsilateral ovary, thereby accelerating the final maturation of preovulatory follicles and advancing time of ovulation. In

  14. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Young Cho

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation.We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL.Sixty-four patients (46.7% required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1% had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64 for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all p<0.05. The drainage amount over 1 hour was 500 mL (20-1200 mL in the balloon failure group and 60 mL (5-500 mL in the balloon success group (p<0.01.Intrauterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon is an adequate adjunct management for postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance.

  15. Sugar Deprivation Reduces Insemination of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae), Despite Daily Recruitment of Adults, and Predicts Decline in Model Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    STONE, C. M.; TAYLOR, R. M.; ROITBERG, B. D.; FOSTER, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Our research tests the hypothesis that the inability to sugar-feed reduces the insemination rate in mosquito populations. To test this, we measured the effects of sugar availability on cumulative insemination performance of male Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) during 10-d periods of continual emergence of equal numbers of both sexes, and we evaluated the implications at the population level with a matrix population model. On each day of each of four replicates, 20 newly emerged mosquitoes of each sex were recruited into the populations within two mesocosms, large walk-in enclosures with simulated natural conditions. Each mesocosm contained a cage to replicate the experiment on a small scale. Scented sucrose was absent or present (control). A human host was available nightly as a bloodmeal source in both mesocosms. Sugar availability and enclosure size significantly influenced female insemination. In the mesocosms, with sugar 49.7% of the females were inseminated, compared with 10.9% of the females without sugar. In the small cages, the insemination rates were 76.0 and 23.5%, respectively. In the mesocosms, cumulative survival of females after 10 d was 51.6% with sugar and 25.6% without sugar. In the cages, female survival was 95 and 73%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis of the population projection matrix shows that both reduced male survival and reduced mating capability due to a lack of sugar contributed to lower insemination rates in females, and in the absence of sugar the insemination rate was lowered to an extent that led to population decline. PMID:19960677

  16. New developments in intrauterine device use: focus on the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson AL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anita L Nelson,1 Natasha Massoudi2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Los Angeles BioMedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Torrance, CA, USA; 2American University of the Caribbean School of Medicine, Cupecoy, Sint Maarten Abstract: Many more women in the US today rely upon intrauterine devices (IUDs than in the past. This increased utilization may have substantially contributed to the decline in the percentage of unintended pregnancies in the US. Evidence-based practices have increased the number of women who are medically eligible for IUDs and have enabled more rapid access to the methods. Many women enjoy freedom to use IUDs without cost, but for many the impact of the Affordable Care Act has yet to be realized. Currently, there are three hormonal IUDs and one copper IUD available in the US. Each IUD is extremely effective, convenient, and safe. The newer IUDs have been tested in populations not usually included in clinical trials and provide reassuring answers to older concerns about IUD use in these women, including information about expulsion, infection, and discontinuation. On the other hand, larger surveillance studies have provided new estimates about the risks of complications such as perforation, especially in postpartum and breastfeeding women. This article summarizes significant features of each IUD and provides a summary of the differences to aid clinicians in the US and other countries in advising women about IUD choices. Keywords: copper intrauterine device, levonorgestrel intrauterine systems, noncontraceptive benefits, same-day/quick start initiation, safety, bleeding patterns, placement pain, medical eligibility

  17. Predicting painful or difficult intrauterine device insertion in nulligravid women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaislasuo, Janina; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Lähteenmäki, Pekka; Suhonen, Satu

    2014-08-01

    To assess the relationship of preinsertion vaginal ultrasound assessment and menstrual and gynecologic history as predictors of difficult or painful intrauterine device insertion in nulligravid women. Nulligravid women seeking contraception were invited to participate in this nonrandomized study and given the choice between the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or a copper-releasing intrauterine device. All 165 enrolled women were interviewed and a pelvic examination, including vaginal ultrasonography, was performed before insertion. Insertion difficulties and pain intensity were recorded and assessed against uterine measurements and background characteristics. Most insertions were assessed as easy (n=144 [89.4%]) and only two (1.2%) failed. Most women had uterine measurements smaller than the studied devices. Odds for difficulties at insertion decreased with every increasing millimeter in total uterine length (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.96, P=.006) and cervical length (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.97, P=.02) and similarly with every decreasing degree of (straighter) flexion angle (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99, P=.005). No absolute threshold measurements could be determined. Still, the majority of insertions in small and flexed uteri were uneventful. Severe insertion pain was common (n=94 [58.4%]). Severe dysmenorrhea was the only predictor of insertion pain (OR 8.16 95% CI 2.56-26.02, P<.001). Ultrasonographic evaluation does not give additional information compared with clinical pelvic examination and sound measure. Although smaller uterine length measurements and steeper flexion angle more often predicted difficulties, the majority of insertions were uneventful in women with small measures. Dysmenorrhea was the only predictor of pain. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01685164. II.

  18. Economic analysis comparing induction of labour and expectant management for intrauterine, growth restriction at term (DIGITAT trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Boers, Kim E.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Bijlenga, Denise; Bekedam, Dick J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; de Boer, Karin; Bremer, Henk A.; le Cessie, Saskia; Delemarre, Friso M. C.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Hasaart, Tom H. M.; Kwee, Anneke; van Lith, Jan M. M.; van Meir, Claudia A.; van Pampus, Maria G.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Rijken, Monique; Roumen, Frans J. M. E.; van der Salm, Paulien C. M.; Spaandermann, Marc E. A.; Willekes, Christine; Wijnen, Ella J.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Scherjon, Sicco A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for neonatal morbidity and mortality. The Dutch nationwide disproportionate intrauterine growth intervention trial at term (DIGITAT trial) showed that induction of labour and expectant monitoring were

  19. Which intrauterine growth restricted fetuses at term benefit from early labour induction? A secondary analysis of the DIGITAT randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajik, Parvin; van Wyk, Linda; Boers, Kim E.; le Cessie, Saskia; Zafarmand, Mohammad Hadi; Roumen, Frans; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Porath, Martina; van Pampus, Maria G.; Spaanderdam, Marc E. A.; Kwee, Anneke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Bremer, Henk A.; Delemarre, Friso M. C.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Willekes, Christine; van Lith, Jan M. M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Scherjon, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    The Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial at Term (DIGITAT trial) showed that in women with suspected intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at term, there were no substantial outcome differences between induction of labour and expectant monitoring. The objective of the present

  20. Which intrauterine growth restricted fetuses at term benefit from early labour induction? A secondary analysis of the DIGITAT randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajik, Parvin; van Wyk, Linda; Boers, Kim E.; le Cessie, Saskia; Zafarmand, Mohammad Hadi; Roumen, Frans; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Porath, Martina; van Pampus, Maria G.; Spaanderdami, Marc E. A.; Kwee, Anneke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Bremer, Henk A.; Delemarre, Friso M. C.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Willekes, Christine; van Lith, Jan M. M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Scherjon, Sicco A.

    Objective: The Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial at Term (DIGITAT trial) showed that in women with suspected intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at term, there were no substantial outcome differences between induction of labour and expectant monitoring. The objective of the

  1. Intrauterine Idiopathic Amputation of the Head of a Porcine Foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J. S.; Garoussi, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Contents An anencephalic full-term porcine foetus accompanied by a mummified head was submitted for examination. The neck almost entirely lacked skin and was covered by granulation tissue as were the exposed parts of the spine and spinal cord. The case represents a rare case of intrauterine...... amputation. A definitive cause could not be established because the placenta was not available. The most likely cause is strangulation of the neck. Such strangulation could be due to a defect of the allantoamnion with herniation of the foetal head or entanglement by amniotic constriction bands....

  2. Intrauterine extremity gangrene and cerebral infarction at term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, M; Jørgensen, J S; Nybo, M

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine extremity gangrene in combination with cerebral infarction is a serious and rare event. We present a case with a healthy mother who gave birth to a child with this condition. At term, the mother presented at the antenatal clinic with decreased fetal movements. Cardiotocography (CTG...... resonance imaging (MRI). At one year of age the boy was doing well and had prosthesis as a left arm. He had no signs of further complications. Despite thorough examination of the parents and the child, the reason for the thrombosis is still unknown....

  3. [Intrauterine device: about a rare complication and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallat, Adil; Ibrahimi, Ahmed; Fahsi, Otheman; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2017-01-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is the most common contraceptive method used in the world. Transuterine migration is a rare complication, accounting for 1/350 - 1/10000 insertions in the literature. We report the case of a 40-year old patient, who had had an IUD insertion 12-year before, presenting with pelvic and right lower back pain associated with intermittent hematuria and burning during urination. Radiological assessment showed calcific deposits on intra bladder IUD. The patient underwent cystostomy, without any difficulty, allowing stone and IUD extraction. A urinary catheter was left in place for 5 days and then withdrawn. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  4. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Ogunleye, Oluwagbemiga Olabisi

    2013-01-01

    Intravesical migration of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is rare. Early diagnosis of this rare entity is difficult because of its non-specific manifestations and very low index of suspicion. We present this case of bladder stone following intravesical migration of IUCD found to have been missing since insertion 10 years earlier. Lower abdominal discomfort and a missing vaginal string may be the only pointer to this unfortunate event in the immediate post insertion period. It is pertinent to consider the possibility of an intravesical migration of a missing IUCD in a patient presenting with lower abdominal discomfort, urinary frequency, and missing IUCD string on vaginal examination. PMID:24470853

  5. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  6. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marroun, H. el; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Brink, W. van den; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study

  7. Intrauterine cannabis exposure affects fetal growth trajectories: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the

  8. Intrauterine cannabis exposure affects fetal growth trajectories: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; van den Brink, W.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study

  9. An Estimation of the Risk of Pseudotumor Cerebri among Users of the Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valenzuela, Reuben M; Rai, Ruju; Kirk, Brian H

    2017-01-01

    Because of a previous association of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) with levonorgestrel, we wished to evaluate the use of levonorgestrel-eluting intrauterine devices ("levonorgestrel intrauterine systems", LNG-IUS) in our University of Utah and Rigshospitalet PTC patients. In our retrospective series...

  10. Endoscopic Treatment of Intrauterine Device Migration into the Bladder with Stone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Masayuki; Nemoto, Kaoru; Miura, Takafumi; Suzuki, Yasutomo

    2017-01-01

    Background: An intrauterine device is commonly used for contraception globally. Although intrauterine device placement is an effective and safe method of contraception, migration into the bladder with stone formation is a rare and serious complication. The management approaches for an intrauterine device embedded in the bladder include endoscopic procedures and open surgical removal. In this study, we report the case of a patient with recurrent urinary tract infection associated with intrauterine device migration and urolithiasis, who successfully underwent endoscopic treatment combined with laser fragmentation. Case Presentation: A 22-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a 1-month history of lower abdominal pain, hematuria, and pain on urination. Transvaginal ultrasound showed a hyperechoic lesion in the bladder. A plain abdominal radiograph showed the presence of a T-shaped intrauterine device with calculus formation in the pelvis. CT revealed a vesical stone fixed to the top of the bladder wall, and there was no vesicovaginal fistula formation. She had undergone intrauterine device insertion several years previously. Cystoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. She underwent endoscopic lithotripsy, and the intrauterine device was extracted from the bladder wall. Repair of the bladder wall and disappearance of symptoms were confirmed. Conclusion: Endoscopic treatment combined with laser fragmentation of stones surrounding a migrated intrauterine device should be considered as a minimally invasive approach, which can be performed safely.

  11. [Diagnosis and management of uterine perforations after intrauterine device insertion: a report of 11 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyon, C; Giraudet, G; Guérin Du Masgenêt, B; Lucot, J-P; Goeusse, P; Vinatier, D

    2013-05-01

    Intrauterine device insertion is common. It is however not harmless and uterine perforation can be serious. Eleven cases of uterine perforation after intrauterine device insertion were listed at Tourcoing hospital between 2005 and 2009. They were analyzed to identify risk factors of uterine perforation and specify management. The main symptom was pelvic pain (4 cases), pregnancy occurrence (3 cases) or inability to remove the IUD (2 cases). The intrauterine device was set during the first 9 months of post-partum in 7 cases, 2 patients were still breastfeeding. Seven patients underwent laparoscopy, 2 needed switch for laparotomy, one was treated by laparotomy only and one was lost of follow-up. Incidence of uterine perforation after IUD insertion ranges from 0,1 to 3/1000. Pelvic pain is the most revealing symptom. Fifteen percent of perforations complicate with adjacent organ lesion. Perforation incidence seems greater if the intrauterine device is set during the 6 first weeks of post-partum and breastfeeding, but non influenced by operator practical experience. Ultrasound follow-up of patients carrying intrauterine device is controversial. Facing a suspicion of ectopic intrauterine device, pelvic ultrasound examination is the first step imaging modality and using 3D could be useful. If it fails to localize the intrauterine device, an abdominal X-ray must be performed. Ectopic intrauterine device removal is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Trend in the use of Intra-uterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD ,TCU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the acceptance rate and trend of Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) use in Enugu,Nigeria PATIENTS AND METHODS: A review of all new acceptors of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) over a nine year period(1999-2007) . RESULTS: A total of 133,375 clients were seen at the UNTH ...

  13. Fatal illness associated with pulmonary hypertension in a neonate caused by intrauterine echovirus 11 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, A.; Benne, CA; Timmer, A; Bergman, K.A.

    Nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) infections are known to cause a wide range of illnesses in the neonatal period. In most cases, NPEV is presumed to be contracted during birth. Intrauterine NPEV infections occur infrequently. A case of Intrauterine echovirus 11 infection with pneumonia, persistent

  14. Folic acid sensitive birth defects in association with intrauterine exposure to folic acid antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.M.; Walle, H.E.K.de; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2005-01-01

    Since the protective effect of folic acid (FA) on birth defects is well known, it is reasonable to assume intrauterine exposure to FA antagonists increases the risk on these defects. We have therefore performed case-control analyses to investigate the risk of intrauterine exposure to FA antagonists,

  15. A randomized comparison of a novel nitinol-frame low-dose-copper intrauterine contraceptive and a copper T380S intrauterine contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Matthew F; Katz, Bob H; Canela, Juan M; Hathaway, Mark J; Tal, Michael G

    2017-06-01

    We sought to compare VeraCept (VC175), a novel nitinol intrauterine contraceptive (IUC) with 175 square-mm of copper surface area, to a copper T380S IUC. We enrolled parous women into a randomized subject-blinded comparison of VC175 and a copper T380S in a 2:1 fashion at a single clinic. The primary outcomes were total adverse events and continuation at 12 months. We also examined pain on insertion, ease of placement, expulsion, tolerability and pregnancy. Subjective ratings were on a 5-point Likert scale (0, no pain to 5, worst pain). We followed subjects through 24-month follow-up. We enrolled 300 women with 199 randomized to VC175 and 101 to the T380S. Insertion was successful in 198 subjects for VC175 and 100 for the T380S. Mean age was 25 years (range 18, 41), and median parity was 2 (range 1, 8), with 39% having only had Cesarean deliveries. No subjects developed clinical infection or reported serious adverse events. In the VC175 and T380S groups, mean pain at insertion was 1.4 and 2.4, respectively (p<.01). At the 12-month primary endpoint for VC175 and T380S, respectively, continuation was 84% and 68% (p<.002) with expulsions in 5.0% and 12.0% (p<.05) and removal for pain/bleeding in 3.5% and 17.0% (p<.01). At the 24-month visit for VC175 and T380S, respectively, continuation was 77% and 62% (p<.02 by log-rank). One ectopic pregnancy was identified at the 12-month follow-up in a VC175 user. No other pregnancies were diagnosed. With 297.3 and 132.4 woman-years, pregnancy rates were 0.3 and 0.0 per 100 woman-years for VC175 and T380S, respectively. VC175 resulted in less pain at insertion, fewer expulsions and higher total continuation than the T380S, with similar contraceptive efficacy. VC175 is a promising new intrauterine copper contraceptive on a nitinol frame that warrants further clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors influencing sperm transfer and insemination in cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) fed on an artificial membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Susan R; Meola, Roger W

    2002-05-01

    Sperm transfer through the epididymis, a prerequisite for insemination of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) was stimulated by exposure of unfed male fleas to juvenile hormone III residues for 3 d at 25 degrees C or exposure of unfed fleas to 37 degrees C for 6 d. Sperm transfer was completed at least three times faster in unfed males held at 37 degrees C than in those held at 25 degrees C. Although percentage sperm transfer in fleas fed water or 0.15 M saline at 37 degrees C was not significantly increased over that of unfed fleas, a significantly greater percentage of blood-fed males completed sperm transfer at 2, 3, and 6 d. At least two factors influenced insemination: exposure of fleas to host body temperature and amount of food consumption. When blood-fed males and females were paired and fed 0.15 M saline, 0% were inseminated at 25 degrees C versus 35% at 37 degrees C. Because percentage insemination did not increase in blood-fed males and females that were paired and fed 0.15 M saline at 37 degrees C for an additional 48 h, continuous bloodfeeding appeared to be required for maximal rates of mating and insemination. Furthermore, no females were inseminated when blood-fed males and females were paired at 37 degrees C and starved. Treatment of unfed fleas with juvenile hormone III did not substitute for bloodfeeding in stimulating mating and insemination; when blood-fed males were paired with JH III-treated females and vice versa and fed 0.15 M saline at 37 degrees C, 0% were inseminated. However, when fleas were fed 0.15 M saline and exposed to 1,250 ppm juvenile hormone III or fed whole blood and exposed to 12.5, 125, or 1,250 ppm juvenile hormone III, percent insemination was significantly increased in comparison to the controls. Therefore, juvenile hormone secretion in blood-fed fleas may regulate mating success indirectly by stimulating sperm transfer.

  17. Effects of intrauterine retention and postmortem interval on body weight following intrauterine death: implications for assessment of fetal growth restriction at autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, J; Hutchinson, J C; Ashworth, M; Heazell, A E; Levine, S; Sebire, N J

    2016-11-01

    According to the classification system used, 15-60% of stillbirths remain unexplained, despite undergoing recommended autopsy examination, with variable attribution of fetal growth restriction (FGR) as a cause of death. Distinguishing small-for-gestational age (SGA) from pathological FGR is a challenge at postmortem examination. This study uses data from a large, well-characterized series of intrauterine death autopsies to investigate the effects of secondary changes such as fetal maceration, intrauterine retention and postmortem interval on body weight. Autopsy findings from intrauterine death investigations (2005-2013 inclusive, from Great Ormond Street Hospital and St George's Hospital, London) were collated into a research database. Growth charts published by the World Health Organization were used to determine normal expected weight centiles for fetuses born ≥ 24 weeks' gestation, and the effects of intrauterine retention (maceration) and postmortem interval were calculated. There were 1064 intrauterine deaths, including 533 stillbirths ≥ 24 weeks' gestation with a recorded birth weight. Of these, 192 (36%) had an unadjusted birth weight below the 10 th centile and were defined as SGA. The majority (86%) of stillborn SGA fetuses demonstrated some degree of maceration, indicating a significant period of intrauterine retention after death. A significantly greater proportion of macerated fetuses were present in the SGA population compared with the non-SGA population (P = 0.01). There was a significant relationship between increasing intrauterine retention interval and both more severe maceration and reduction in birth weight (P autopsy and, as postmortem interval increased, fetal weight loss increased (P = 0.0001). Based on birth weight alone, 36% of stillbirths are classified as SGA. However, fetuses lose weight in utero with increasing intrauterine retention and continue to lose weight between delivery and autopsy, resulting in erroneous overestimation of

  18. Comparison of 4- versus 5-day Co-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) + timed artificial insemination protocols in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Roberto A; Fishman, Heidi J; Jones, Arthur L; Ferrer, Maria S; Jenerette, Mathews; Vaughn, Aimee

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pregnancy rate after timed artificial insemination (P/TAI) in dairy heifers treated with 4- versus 5-day Co-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocols. A total of 120 Holstein heifers were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The heifers received an intravaginal CIDR insert containing 1.38 g of progesterone for 4 days (Monday-Friday 4-day Co-Synch + CIDR; n = 60) or 5 days (5-day Co-Synch + CIDR; n = 60). At the time of CIDR removal, 25 mg of PGF2α was injected intramuscularly, and 72 hours after CIDR removal, the heifers received 100 μg of GnRH intramuscularly and were artificially inseminated. Artificial insemination was performed by an experienced technician, using commercial frozen-thawed semen from a single sire. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography per rectum 32 days after TAI. Categorical data were analyzed using proc logistic and the chi-square test, whereas continuous variables were analyzed using the t-test of Statistical Analysis Systems. Heifers in the 4-day Co-Synch + CIDR group had an acceptable P/TAI32 (55.0%, 33 of 60), which was not different (P = 0.35) from that observed in the 5-day Co-Synch + CIDR group (63.3%, 38 of 60). Progesterone concentration at CIDR insertion or estradiol concentration at TAI did not influence the pregnancy outcomes. Interestingly, estradiol concentration at TAI was greater in the 4-day Co-Synch + CIDR group compared to the 5-day Co-Synch + CIDR group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the Monday to Friday 4-day Co-Synch + CIDR protocol resulted in adequate P/TAI in dairy heifers, which was similar to that of the 5-day Co-Synch + CIDR protocol. This novel protocol might represent a promising hormonal treatment for TAI in dairy heifers, facilitating their reproductive management routine, while maintaining an adequate fertility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A field study on artificial insemination of swamp and crossbred buffaloes with sexed semen from river buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan

    2015-10-01

    Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P inseminations performed in different seasons (P insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bovine serum albumin contained in culture medium used in artificial insemination is an important anaphylaxis risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Juan A; Postigo, Idoia; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Jorge R; Peña, Maribel; Guisantes, Jorge A; Martínez, Jorge

    2008-11-01

    To analyze the cause of the anaphylactic reaction after a standard artificial insemination process in a patient diagnosed with asthma. Case report. Residencia Sanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca (Murcia, Spain) and University of the Basque Country (Vitoria, Spain). A 30-year-old woman with a previous medical history compatible with respiratory allergy who suffered an anaphylactic reaction after an artificial insemination with spermatozoids in capable medium (Upgraded B2 INRA medium; Laboratories CCD, Paris, France). Cutaneous tests and specific IgE levels to inhalant allergens, grass and Olea pollens, and insemination medium were performed. Specific IgE levels to mammal epithelia and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Skin prick tests were positive for inhalant allergens such as mites, cat, dog, horse, and rabbit epithelia, grasses and Olea pollens, and the insemination medium. The beta-lactamic tests were negative. The determination of specific IgE demonstrated positive values to mammal epithelia and mammal serum albumins including BSA. We report a case of an anaphylactic reaction to the BSA included in the insemination culture medium induced by a subclinical sensitivity to serum albumins of mammal epithelia. A previous testing with the medium is recommended and specific testing might be needed in women who have a history of animal epithelium allergies.

  1. Ultrastructure investigation of the secondary insemination system of the gamasid mite Hattena cometis domrow (Acari: Anactinotrichida: Ameroseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Antonella; Seeman, Owen; Alberti, Gerd

    2013-08-01

    Many gamasid mites, mainly of the taxon Dermanyssina, possess a secondarily evolved insemination system that is generally described as occurring in two types, the laelapid and the phytoseiid-type, which are structurally considerably different. Considering that Dermanyssina represent the most recent and most diverse group of gamasid mites, it was expected that a greater diversity of insemination system than reflected by the two types could be present and could give an idea of its evolution within the taxon. Here, the authors present a description of the fine-structure of the female secondary insemination system in the dermanyssine mite Hattena cometis. The system consists of a pair of sperm induction pores (solenostomes) and short sperm access ducts (tubules) which end in a syncytium. The syncytial strands of both sides meet medially under the ovary s.str., where they form a spherical syncytial spermatheca. Mature sperm cells of a modified ribbon type were seen in the syncytial parts of the system. The insemination system of Hattena cometis is regarded as a modification of the laelapid type. However, it is much simpler than that of Varroa destructor, the only other gamasid mite with the laelapid type studied ultrastructurally until now, and shows also some structural differences (e.g., no presence of an unpaired sperm duct). Hence, the present study suggests that some intermediate types might be revealed in future ultrastructure studies representing steps in the evolution of the insemination system in the Dermanyssina. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Interactions between intrauterine contraceptive device use and breast-feeding status at time of intrauterine contraceptive device insertion: analysis of TCu-380A acceptors in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, G; Rivera, R

    1992-07-01

    This paper is a reassessment of earlier findings from a preliminary analysis of data from a multicenter international trial regimen on breast-feeding and non-breast-feeding women in which events related to insertion, expulsion, and removal of the TCu-380A intrauterine contraceptive device (ParaGard 380) were investigated. Performance of the TCu-380A through 12 months after insertion was compared with life-table rate analysis, chi 2, Fisher exact test, or Student's t test. Variables were events reported during intrauterine contraceptive device insertion and events throughout the 12 months of study participation by breast-feeding status. Breast-feeding among intrauterine contraceptive device users was associated with fewer insertion-related complaints and lower removal rates for bleeding and pain. No uterine perforations were reported throughout the study. Differences in the performance of the TCu-380A intrauterine contraceptive device suggest physiologic effects associated with lactational amenorrhea. The TCu-380A intrauterine contraceptive device is a viable option for women breast-feeding at the time of intrauterine contraceptive device insertion.

  3. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  4. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorre Stuen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF, is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5–6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220. Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30% were PCR-positive (qPCR, of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  6. Intrauterine Telemetry to Measure Mouse Contractile Pressure In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Cara C.; Pierce, Stephanie L.; Grotegut, Chad A.; England, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    A complex integration of molecular and electrical signals is needed to transform a quiescent uterus into a contractile organ at the end of pregnancy. Despite the discovery of key regulators of uterine contractility, this process is still not fully understood. Transgenic mice provide an ideal model in which to study parturition. Previously, the only method to study uterine contractility in the mouse was ex vivo isometric tension recordings, which are suboptimal for several reasons. The uterus must be removed from its physiological environment, a limited time course of investigation is possible, and the mice must be sacrificed. The recent development of radiometric telemetry has allowed for longitudinal, real-time measurements of in vivo intrauterine pressure in mice. Here, the implantation of an intrauterine telemeter to measure pressure changes in the mouse uterus from mid-pregnancy until delivery is described. By comparing differences in pressures between wild type and transgenic mice, the physiological impact of a gene of interest can be elucidated. This technique should expedite the development of therapeutics used to treat myometrial disorders during pregnancy, including preterm labor. PMID:25867820

  7. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuen, Snorre; Okstad, Wenche; Sagen, Anne Mette

    2018-02-28

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF), is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5-6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220). Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30%) were PCR-positive (qPCR), of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  8. Intrauterine contraceptive device embedded in the omentum – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolnierczyk P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Piotr Zolnierczyk, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Wlodzimierz Sawicki Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Oncology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: This report describes the case of a 29-year-old patient, female (nulliparous who had an intrauterine device (IUD inserted in 2010 and who has had no gynecological control since then (for 4 years. After this time, the asymptomatic patient had a gynecological appointment, during which a doctor did not find the strings of IUD in the speculum. Ultrasound examination did not reveal the presence of the IUD in the uterine cavity, which led to the suspicion of its presence outside the uterus. The patient was referred to a hospital, where she underwent ultrasound and X-ray examination of the pelvis that confirmed the presence of the IUD outside the uterus. Laparoscopy was performed during which the IUD was localized as being embedded in the omentum. It was removed by performing a resection of a part of the omentum with inflammatory infiltration. The patient was discharged home on the second postoperative day in a good condition. This case confirms the need for gynecological control and ultrasound examination shortly after insertion. An ultrasound or/and X-ray is mandatory in any case of absence of IUD strings previously visible in the vagina, if the patient did not observe its expulsion. Keywords: intrauterine device, myometrium, IUD threads, uterine cavity, ultrasound examination

  9. Nonpalpable intrauterine device threads: Is it a cause for worry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathpalia, S K; Singh, M K; Grewal, D S

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine contraceptive device is a popular and effective method of contraception. It can be inserted either as an interval procedure or after abortion or delivery. Threads are attached to the vertical limb so that the user can find out the location of the device. Sometimes the threads are not palpable by the user; this study was conducted to find out the reasons for inability to palpate the threads. The retrospective study was conducted over a period of eight years; 110 female patients who complained of inability to feel the threads were included in the study. In most of the cases the device was in the right place. In four cases the device could not be felt on uterine sounding; this could have been due to subendometrial placement of the device. There was no case of perforation by the device. Inability to feel the threads is a common complaint by the patients who are using intrauterine contraceptive device. In most of the cases the device was in correct position and could be localized by clinical examination. Ultrasonography can help in localization of the device; if used at the time of insertion it can confirm proper insertion and location of the device. This will reassure the client and the health care providers.

  10. Intra-uterine exposure of horses to Sarcocystis spp. antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens, determining the number of foals with detectable concentrations of antibodies against these agents in the serum, before colostrum ingestion and collect data about exposure of horses to the parasite. Serum samples were collected from 195 thoroughbred mares and their newborns in two farms from southern Brazil. Parasite specific antibody responses to Sarcocystis antigens were detected using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and immunoblot analysis. In 84.1% (159/189 of the pregnant mares and in 7.4% (14/189 of foals we detected antibodies anti-Sarcocystis spp. by IFAT. All samples seropositive from foals were also positive in their respective mares. Serum samples of seropositive foals by IFAT, showed no reactivity on the immunoblot, having as antigens S. neurona merozoites. In conclusion, the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens in horses was demonstrated, with occurrence not only in mares, but also in their foals, before colostrum ingestion these occurrences were reduced.

  11. Identification of changes in bovine oviductal mRNA expression by RNAseq from animals with high and low circulating estradiol concentrations during timed artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timed artificial insemination of beef cows with high concentrations of estradiol at time of insemination are known to impact pregnancy success by 27%±5% compared to animals with low estradiol. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms responsible for this biological variation is key to improving repro...

  12. Pregnancy rate in Bulgarian White milk goats with natural and synchronized estrus after artificial insemination by frozen semen during breeding season

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    Stanimir A. Yotov

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The goats with natural estrus and GnRH treatment tend to enhance pregnancy rate after double artificial insemination 8 h apart. The insemination number has no significant impact on pregnancy rate in synchronized goats as the overall pregnancy rate is better than in animals with natural estrus without GnRH administration.

  13. Sperm dosage and site of insemination in relation to fertility in bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kumar Mohanty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Low sperm numbers in artificial insemination (AI-doses are being used widely to make the best use of high genetic value bulls as well as sex-sorted semen. Sperm concentration needed for AI to obtain reasonable fertility, taking genetic value of bull and numerous others components into consideration is one of the essential constituents for successful AI breeding program. However, low sperm concentrations in AI-doses lead to reducing post-thaw viability. The reduction in viability of low sperm doses may be affected by fresh semen volume, sperm number and seminal plasma level at final dilution. Reduction in quality and fertility of low sperm doses is one of the limitations for their use in successful AI programme. Sperm number per AI required to achieve optimum fertility is one of the main crucial things to AI industry, and numerous efforts have been made in this regard. Due to great variability among bulls, sperm number per AI could be a limiting factor in achieving acceptable fertility values. Fertility of low sperm doses may vary among bulls, and non-return rates (NRRs with low sperm doses may be determined by fertility level of bull. On the basis of individual bulls, sperm numbers in AI doses needed to be adjusted to reduce the variations in NRRs among bulls. Utilizing high fertile bulls for low sperm doses with acceptable non-return rates (NRRs may be a way to cover a large number of bovines under AI in countries like India. Deposition site within the uterine horn may alter non return rates following inseminations with low sperm doses. Following deep-uterine inseminations, acceptable pregnancies may be achieved with low sperm doses and even if ovulation side is unknown.

  14. Effect of Dimethylsulfoxide (Dmso on Selected Quality Indicators of Insemination Dose of Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An ejaculate was collected from male of synthetic broiler line and was diluted to concentration of 25 to 50 million./0.5 ml/1 ID. Dimethylsulfoxid was added to the ID (insemination dose in two concentrations –  0.5 M DMSO in ID (0.5 ml and 1.75 M DMSO in ID (0.5 ml. Control insemination dose was without DMSO. ID was evaluated by CASA system Sperm Vision with a microscope Olympus BX 51st. Motility and progressive mobility was monitored. Qualitative indicators of the insemination doses were evaluated on CASA in the time of the 1st hour and 6 hours after dilution. In a sample of DMSO 1.75 was recorded an increase of motility of the 1st hour after dilution in the level 60.21% and after 6 hours only 3.91%. In the sample of DMSO 0.5 was the level of motility after 1st hour 36.84% and after the 6 hours 39.33%. In the control group the level of motility was observed after 1st hour 47.30% and after 6 hours 64.65%. In evaluation of progressive motility we recorded in the sample of DMSO 1.75 after 1st hour 33.32% and 6th hours 0%. In the sample of 0.5 DMSO we observed progressive motility after 1st hour 18.06% and after 6 hours 31.61%. In the control group was observed progressive sperm mobility after 1st hour 30.50% and after 6 hours 31.61%.

  15. Deep insemination with sex-sorted Cashmere goat sperm processed in the presence of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y; Yang, S; Xu, J; Xia, C; Li, X; An, L; Tian, J

    2018-02-01

    Flow cytometrically sex-sorted sperm have been widely used for improving reproductive management in the dairy industry. However, the industrial application of this technology in other domestic species is largely limited by the lower fertility after insemination. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of antioxidant supplementation during the sex-sorting and freezing process on the quality and functions of sorted sperm from Liaoning Cashmere goats. We tested the effects of antioxidant supplementation during sex-sorting and freezing process, including ascorbic acid-2-glucoside AA-2G, glutathione, melatonin and vitamin C (VC), on the quality and functions of sex-sorted fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. Based on these experiments, we performed deep insemination with sex-sorted sperm using our improved strategy, in comparison to unsorted sperm. In Experiment 1, compared with control group and other antioxidants, AA-2G supplementation significantly alleviated the degradation of motility and viability of fresh sperm after sorting and showed the highest percentage of sperm with normal morphology. In addition, AA-2G supplementation showed an evident protection against the sorting process-induced membrane and acrosome damage. In Experiment 2, AA-2G supplementation was most effective in protecting motility, while melatonin supplementation appears to facilitate the degradation of quality of frozen-thawed sex-sorted sperm. In Experiment 3, we performed deep insemination with sperm that were sorted and frozen in the presence of AA-2G and obtained a satisfying pregnancy rate comparable to that from unsorted sperm. The results showed that AA-2G supplementation efficiently protects quality and function of both fresh and frozen-thawed sex-sorted sperm of Cashmere goats, thus obtaining a satisfying pregnancy outcome. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Improving productivity through the use of artificial insemination in dual purpose farms in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, S.; Perez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify the major causes of inefficiency in the AI services provided to dual-purpose farms in the region of Tilaran, Guanacaste. The study included four representative farms from the region, where AI was done on a routine basis in which 80 to 100 first services were done annually. The overall conception rate (CR) was 42.7% (271/635) and was significantly influenced by three variables: lactation, oestrus signs and technician. Cows that were inseminated during their lactation number 5 had 2.17 times greater chance of getting pregnant (P<0.001) than cows inseminated during any other lactation. Cows inseminated after detecting oestrus because they were mounting others had 1.2 less chance to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat, but those cows detected by other signs such as restlessness or bellowing had 1.8 more opportunity to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat. The interval from calving to first service was 114.1 days and three variables had significant (P<0.05) effects on this interval: farm, calving season and lactation. Cows calving during the rainy season had a shorter interval than those calving in the dry season. There was a significant difference between the first lactation and the others. Only lactation had significant effect on first service CR. It was concluded that farm type, lactation, season, and heat signs were the most important factors having an influence on the efficiency of AI. Variables involved are closely related to management and should be targeted in future work aimed at improving reproductive efficiency. (author)

  17. Human resources in artificial insemination of beef cattle: profile of managers and inseminators Recursos humanos na inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte: perfil dos administradores e inseminadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia dos Santos Russi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to outline the profile of managers and inseminators involved in beef cattle artificial insemination programs to characterize the management processes involved in this activity. Additionally, by interviewing managers and inseminators, it was searched to detect particularities concerned to personal life and work that can be used to evaluate the quality of life of inseminators on farms. The open questions were analyzed by frequency of answer, after being grouped by similarity. Accordingly to the results, managers associate the concept of human resource management to work supervision, mainly, prioritizing technical factors such as professional experience and indexes in the selection processes, although problems in interpersonal relationships have been shown as the main reason for dismissal. In general, education level of the inseminators is not good because most of these workers studied only to the first series of primary school. Inseminators prefer conventional artificial insemination although they recognize that fixed-time artificial insemination can make animal handling on the farm easier. The performance of these workers seems to be determined more by interpersonal relationships than by the salaries.Objetivou-se delinear o perfil de administradores e inseminadores envolvidos em programas de inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte no intuito de caracterizar os processos gerenciais envolvidos nesta atividade. Adicionalmente, por meio de entrevistas com administradores e inseminadores, buscou-se detectar fatores ligados à vida pessoal e ao trabalho que possam ser utilizados como medida da qualidade de vida dos inseminadores nas propriedades rurais. As questões abertas foram analisadas por frequência de respostas, depois de agrupadas por similaridade. De acordo com os resultados, os administradores associam o conceito de gestão de recursos humanos principalmente à supervisão do trabalho priorizando

  18. THE IMPACT OF SEASON OF BIRTH AND BREEDING OF BOARS OF POLISH LANDRACE BREED ON THEIR INSEMINATION EFFICIENCY

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    Kazimierz Pokrywka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of breeding boars in insemination depends mainly on the skill of optimal use of their reproductive potential. Nevertheless, their semen is highly variable in its quality and physical characteristics, which makes it difficult to organise semen production for artificial insemination purposes. The present study contains an analysis of semen collected from Polish Landrace breed boars - the most popular pigs bred in Poland. It demonstrates that there is a statistically significant interaction between season of birth and reproductive season of Polish Landrace boars. What is more, it proves that these significant differences between reproductive performances of boars are closely connected to their breeding season and seasons of their birth and life. The results also illustrate how to improve organisation of insemination centres and make them better financially efficient.

  19. Progesterone profiles around the time of insemination do not show clear differences between of pregnant and not pregnant dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorzecka, Justyna; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Friggens, Nicolas C

    2011-01-01

    differences between the groups. However, the analysis correctly classified 75% of true pregnant cows. Conversely, only 60% of not pregnant animals were classified as such by the discriminate analysis. Individual analysis of progesterone profile features in pregnant and not pregnant groups of estrous cycles......In this study, features of progesterone profiles were examined in relation to the outcome of insemination. Three groups of estrous cycles were analyzed: resulting in pregnancy, not resulting in pregnancy and resulting in lost pregnancy. The aim of the study was to identify a complex of progesterone...... profile features associated with successful insemination. The features used were (1) from the estrous cycle preceding the artificial insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone, luteal phase peak, pre-estrus maximum rate of decline in progesterone...

  20. Provision of intrauterine contraception in association with first trimester induced abortion reduces the need of repeat abortion: first-year results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoranta, Elina; Mentula, Maarit; Gissler, Mika; Suhonen, Satu; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2015-11-01

    -up visit and further contraceptive services according to national guidelines. The women were followed-up to 28 February 2014 by using the Finnish National Abortion Registry, Helsinki University Hospital electronic database and clinical follow-up visit at 1 year. The median age of the whole study group was 27 years and 44% had a history of induced abortion(s). During the follow-up year the number of women requesting subsequent abortion was significantly lower in the intervention than in the control group (9/375 [2.4%] versus 20/373 [5.4%], difference -3.0 [95% CI -6.0 to -0.2] percentage points, P = 0.038, according to intention-to-treat analysis and 5/346 [1.4%] versus 20/357 [5.6%], difference -4.2(-7.2 to -1.4) percentage points, P = 0.003, according to per-protocol analysis, respectively). Provision of intrauterine contraception was safe with rate of infection and expulsion similar to those reported previously. The power calculation was calculated for a 5-year follow-up. However, significant differences between the two groups were already seen after 1 year. The present study was performed in a single clinic, where, ∼15% of all abortions in Finland are performed. In order to decrease the need of subsequent abortions, IUDs should be provided at the time of abortion. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01223521). 18 October 2010. 18 October 2010. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Use of immobilized cryopreserved bovine semen in a blind artificial insemination trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standerholen, Fride Berg; Waterhouse, Karin Elisabeth; Larsgard, Anne Guro; Garmo, Randi Therese; Myromslien, Frøydis Deinboll; Sunde, Jan; Ropstad, Erik; Klinkenberg, Geir; Kommisrud, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    To make timing of artificial insemination (AI) relative to ovulation less critical, methods for prolonging shelf life of spermatozoa in vivo after AI have been attempted to be developed. Encapsulation of sperm cells is a documented technology, and recently, a technology in which sperm cells are embedded in alginate gel has been introduced and commercialized. In this study, standard processed semen with the Biladyl extender (control) was compared with semen processed by sperm immobilization technology developed by SpermVital AS in a blind field trial. Moreover, in vitro acrosome and plasma membrane integrity was assessed and compared with AI fertility data for possible correlation. Semen from 16 Norwegian Red young bulls with unknown fertility was collected and processed after splitting the semen in two aliquots. These aliquots were processed with the standard Biladyl extender or the SpermVital extender to a final number of 12 × 10(6) and 25 × 10(6) spermatozoa/dose, respectively. In total, 2000 semen doses were produced from each bull, divided equally by treatment. Artificial insemination doses were set up to design a blinded AI regime; 5 + 5 straws from each extender within ejaculates in ten-straw goblets were distributed to AI technicians and veterinarians all over Norway. Outcomes of the inseminations were measured as 56-day nonreturn rate (NRR). Postthaw sperm quality was assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide and Alexa 488-conjugated peanut agglutinin to assess the proportion of plasma membrane and acrosome-intact sperm cells, respectively. In total, data from 14,125 first inseminations performed over a 12-month period, 7081 with Biladyl and 7044 with SpermVital semen, were used in the statistical analyses. There was no significant difference in 56-day NRR for the two semen categories, overall NRR being 72.5% and 72.7% for Biladyl and SpermVital, respectively. The flow cytometric results revealed a significant higher level of acrosome-intact live

  2. Conception Rates following Oestrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in the Nubian Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubara, A. S.

    1996-07-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck semen. From a flock of 150 females of mixed breeds and crosses, 34 female Nubian goats were selected and grouped by ages. They were then randomly assigned to different treatments Viz: Four females were allowed to cycle naturally as control (Treatment A): ten were injected intramuscularly with 125 μ g Cloprosterol, two doses gives 13 days apart (Treatment C): the last ten females were treated as C but were injected intramuscularly with 300 I:U pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) two days before removal of sponges (Treatment D): one vasectomized buck and other aspermic were immediately introduced to the treated groups to aid in detection and initiation of oestrus. Conception rates were estimated as non return rates, and early pregnancy (3-10 weeks) after insemination was diagnosed by progesterone Radio -Immuno -Assay (RIA) and late pregnancy (90-110 days) post-insemination was diagnosed by abdominal palpation technique. The obtained results indicated that all employed treatments were capable of inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats. Treatment B being significantly higher than other treatments (P≤ 0.05). There was significant difference between treatments (P≤0.05) as far as the duration of oestrus period is concerned in this study. Pregnancy rates were significantly different between treatments (P≤0.05). Treatment B has more advantages than C and D in oestrus induction and synchronization and could easily be applied in a large flock of different ages with minimal labour required, while C and D proved to be difficult in its application in non- parous goats and requires assistance and some hygienic measures during application. This study recommended cloprosterol (Treatment B), fixed time

  3. Stress effect on conception rate in Nellore cows submmited to fixed time artificial insemination. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In beef cattle, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI provides a method to inseminate large numbers of females in a specific time, which result in economical gains due, among others, to a more uniform calf crop. However, FTAI requires frequent manipulation of animals in order to inject hormones and for clinical examination. Consequently, animals seemed stressed in less or higher extent at the time of insemination. This can be a problem because it has been demonstrated that application of an acute stress treatment (electric shock, confinement, restraint and rotation twice a day during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle prevents the pre-ovulatory LH surge. This study aimed to evaluate if FTAI efficiency of Nellore cows is affected by the degree of stress observed at time of AI. Nellore cows (n=92 were treated (Day 0 with a progesterone intravaginal devise (Primer®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil containing 1 g of progesterone and injected with estradiol benzoate (2mg EB, Estrogin, AUSA, Brazil. Primer was removed on Day 8 (08:00 AM and administered one injection of cloprostenol (125 mcg, Prolise®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four hours later, cows received 2 mg EB and insemination (semen from one sire was done on the afternoon (14:00 to 16:00 PM of day 10. At time of FTAI, the stress condition was classified as 1 (low, 2 (moderate or 3 (high according the reactivity of cows to enter in the squeeze chute and apparent nervous behavior. Pregnancy status was evaluated by transrectal ultrasound on day 40 after FTAI. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Cows with moderate or high degree of stress had lower conception rate than low stressed cows (P<0.01. These results suggest that cow temperament must be considered in the planning of FTAI programs. Studies are in progress in order to measure hormonal parameters (cortisol and Alpha amylase that better reflects the “fight-or-flight” response to immediate stressors in order to

  4. The distribution of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas in the genital tract of normal artificial insemination bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, N A; Rosendal, S; Miller, R B

    1985-01-01

    Bull semen is commonly contaminated with mycoplasmas. To determine the source of contamination, semen and the genital tracts of 45 artificial insemination bulls were cultured for these organisms. The results indicate that mycoplasmas colonize the prepuce and the distal part of the urethra. Only rarely were they found in the ampullae or seminal vesicles. In 92% of the bulls with contaminated semen the same Mycoplasma species or Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from the prepuce and urethral orifice as was found in the semen. This suggests that the prepuce and distal urethra is the source of contamination. Colonization of the genital tracts with Mycoplasmas or U. diversum was not associated with histological changes.

  5. Simultaneous laparoscopic cholecystectomy and removal of an intrauterine device translocated to the right subdiaphragmal region: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Salih; Ahmeti, Elvis; Hoxha, Sejdullah A; Ymeri, Halit; Shaqiri, Ismet; Kastrati-Spahija, Nexhmije B; Krasniqi, Avdyl S

    2009-08-25

    Intrauterine devices are often accompanied by various complications, of which the uterine perforation constitutes the most dangerous one. We present a case of a 41-year-old woman complaining of right upper quadrant pain. She had an intrauterine device inserted 12 years earlier without regular follow-up. Abdominal plain X-ray revealed the intrauterine device trans-located into the right subdiaphragmal area. Abdominal ultrasound showed gallbladder stones without any other sonographic pathologic finding. Patient underwent simultaneous laparoscopic cholecystectomy and removal of the intrauterine device from the right subdiaphragmal area. Laparoscopy is an appropriate method for removal of intrauterine device translocated to the right subdiaphragmatic region.

  6. Time of insemination culture and outcomes of in vitro fertilization: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X D; Liu, J X; Liu, W W; Gao, Y; Han, W; Xiong, S; Wu, L H; Huang, G N

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Conflicting results have been reported regarding the technique of brief insemination used in IVF. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine if better clinical outcomes of IVF are associated with a brief co-incubation of gametes than with a standard overnight co-incubation. METHODS A computerized search was conducted of the published literature of four databases, using search terms related to gamete, time of co-incubation and outcome measure. Eligible studies compared outcomes of IVF with a brief co-incubation of gametes to that of a control group of standard insemination and reported rates of live birth (primary outcome), normal fertilization, polyspermy, good quality embryos, implantation, clinical pregnancy or ongoing pregnancy (secondary outcomes). A total of 11 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the data. Statistical heterogeneity was tested using Cochran Q and I² values. RESULTS Brief co-incubation of gametes was associated with significantly higher rates of clinical pregnancy (RR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.24-2.73) and ongoing pregnancy (RR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.27-2.33) than standard insemination. Brief co-incubation of gametes was associated also with a significantly higher rate of implantation (RR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.43-2.26) than standard insemination. However, the rates of normal fertilization (RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.02), good quality embryos (RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.0-1.53) and polyspermy (RR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.7-1.01) were not significantly different with brief co-incubation of gametes compared with standard insemination. CONCLUSIONS Reduced gamete exposure time may be associated with beneficial outcomes. Drawbacks inherent to the quality of several studies limit the quality of the available evidence. Adequately powered randomized controlled studies need to be performed to evaluate the efficacy of brief insemination.

  7. Development of a modified artificial insemination technique combining penile vibration stimulation and the swim-up method in the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Shuji; Suzuki, Yuiko; Katoh, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is used as a New World monkey species in biomedical studies because of its small body size and good reproduction in captivity. A modified artificial insemination technique was developed in this species to encourage breeding of lines carrying interesting genes and traits. Fresh semen was collected by penile vibratory stimulation. Medium containing highly motile sperm was inseminated into the uterus using a catheter. Seven females were inseminated using freshly prepared sperm from different males every day for 3 days including the expected ovulation day. As a result, four females conceived, and three females delivered six offspring in total (two singletons and one quadruplet). The paternity of the newborns was determined using microsatellite markers to accurately pinpoint the timing of insemination and ovulation. It is expected that our artificial insemination protocol can be effectively used to establish marmoset lines and genetically manage marmoset colonies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of 22-hours liquid preservation on migration of /sup 131/I-labelled sperma in the genital tract of ewes, following artificial insemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin); Kaempfer, I. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1984-02-15

    Comparative studies on migration and distribution of /sup 131/I-labelled ram sperma in the genital tract of estrus-synchronized ewes at different points of time after insemination (40, 120, 180, and 240 minutes). The sperma had been preserved in liquid condition for 4 or 22 hours. The results suggested that up to 2 hours after insemination the migration of sperma preserved 22 hours was clearly slower (lower transcervical passage and smaller amount in oviducts) than that of sperma preserved 4 hours. These differences were significant 2 hours after insemination and were reduced, with mutual adjustment of distribution patterns, between 2 and 4 hours after insemination. The pattern of migration was affected by certain physiological factors. Obviously the optimum timing of insemination is of great importance in applying 22 hours preserved ram sperma.

  9. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 3 of 4): Chapter 7--Intrauterine Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Mansouri, Shireen

    2016-02-01

    To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality. Overall efficacy of cited contraceptive methods, assessing reduction in pregnancy rate, safety, ease of use, and side effects; the effect of cited contraceptive methods on sexual health and general well-being; and the relative cost and availability of cited contraceptive methods in Canada. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Database from January 1994 to January 2015 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., contraception, sexuality, sexual health) and key words (e.g., contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from January 1994 to January 2015. Searches were updated on a regular basis in incorporated in the guideline to June 2015. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of the evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). CHAPTER 7: INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTION: 1. Intrauterine contraceptives are as effective as permanent contraception methods. (II-2) 2. The use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) 52 mg by patients taking tamoxifen is not associated with recurrence of breast cancer. (I) 3. Intrauterine contraceptives have a number of noncontraceptive benefits. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) 52 mg significantly decreases menstrual blood loss (I) and dysmenorrhea. (II-2) Both the copper intrauterine

  10. Maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction in Goa, India: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Motghare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at a tertiary care Hospital in the year 2009. Ninety eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 98 controls, matched for newborns sex and type of delivery. Data was collected by interviewing the mother using a structured pretested schedule and perusal of antenatal records. Intrauterine growth restriction was defined as occurring if birth weight of the newborn is below 10th percentile for gestational age on the intrauterine growth curve. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 17 package. Percentages, odds ratios with 95% CI and multiple logistic regression analysis were used wherever appropriate. Results: Maternal age, education, socioeconomic status and number of antenatal visits were found to be the significant socio-demographic factors associated with Intrauterine growth restriction while, maternal height, parity, previous spontaneous abortion, direct obstetric morbidity, indirect obstetric morbidity and anemia were the maternal biological factors found to be significantly associated on bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified parity, previous spontaneous abortion, direct obstetric morbidity, indirect obstetric morbidity and antenatal visits as significant maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction. Conclusions: A focus on good antenatal care, especially on high risk pregnancies would go a long way in reducing the problem of intrauterine growth restriction in the community thereby ensuring a safe and healthy future for our youngest generation.

  11. Assessment of Risk Factors of Intrauterine Adhesions in Patients With Induced Abortion and the Curative Effect of Hysteroscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiaoliang; Qin, Guirong; Zhou, Zhoulin; Jiang, Xiaoli

    2017-10-03

    To explore the risk factors for intrauterine adhesions in patients with artificial abortion and clinical efficacy of hysteroscopic dissection. 1500 patients undergoing artificial abortion between January 2014 and June 2015 were enrolled into this study. The patients were divided into two groups with or without intrauterine adhesions. Univariate and Multiple logistic regression were conducted to assess the effects of multiple factors on the development of intrauterine adhesions following induced abortion. The incidence rate for intrauterine adhesions following induced abortion is 17.0%. Univariate showed that preoperative inflammation, multiple pregnancies and suction evacuation time are the influence risk factors of intrauterine adhesions. Multiple logistic regression demonstrates that multiple pregnancies, high intrauterine negative pressure, and long suction evacuation time are independent risk factors for the development of intrauterine adhesions following induced abortion. Additionally, intrauterine adhesions were observed in 105 mild, 80 moderate, and 70 severe cases. The cure rates for these three categories of intrauterine adhesions by hysteroscopic surgery were 100.0%, 93.8%, and 85.7%, respectively. Multiple pregnancies, high negative pressure suction evacuation and long suction evacuation time are independent risk factors for the development of intrauterine adhesions following induced abortions. Hysteroscopic surgery substantially improves the clinical outcomes of intrauterine adhesions.

  12. Intrauterine growth restriction and hypospadias: is there a connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital malformations of the genitourinary tract in males. It is an incomplete fusion of urethral folds early in fetal development and may be associated with other malformations of the genital tract. The etiology is poorly understood and may be hormonal, genetic, or environmental, but most often is idiopathic or multifactorial. Among many possible risk factors identified, of particular importance is low birth weight, which is defined in various ways in the literature. No mechanism has been identified for the association of low birth weight and hypospadias, but some authors propose placental insufficiency as a common inciting factor. Currently, there is no standardized approach for evaluating children with hypospadias in the setting of intrauterine growth restriction. We reviewed the available published literature on the association of hypospadias and growth restriction to determine whether it should be considered a separate entity within the category of disorders of sexual differentiation. PMID:25337123

  13. Use of levonorgestrel intrauterine system for medical indications in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Lisa L; Hillard, Paula J Adams

    2013-04-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is an underused contraceptive method in adolescent populations. In addition to being a highly effective, reversible, long-acting contraception, the LNG-IUS has many noncontraceptive health benefits including reduced menstrual bleeding, decreased dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain related to endometriosis, and menstruation suppression in teens with physical or developmental disabilities. The LNG-IUS can also provide endometrial protection in teens with chronic anovulation, and may be used to treat endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. This review examines the evidence supporting the use of the LNG-IUS in adolescents for these noncontraceptive benefits. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is the term describing a foetus that has not reached its genetic growth potential. There is no international consensus on the definition of IUGR. The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of weight-restricted neonates and their mothers...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24......%) and placental infarction (17%). Hypoglycaemic episodes developed in 31% of the neonates. At 12 months, 90% had caught up growth and 7% had a neurologically poor outcome. No infants died. CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking and gestational hypertension are important risk factors for the development of IUGR. Special...

  15. Successful intrauterine treatment of a patient with cobalamin C defect

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    Friedrich K. Trefz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin C (cblC defect is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder that affects cobalamin metabolism. Patients are treated with hydroxycobalamin to ameliorate the clinical features of early-onset disease and prevent clinical symptoms in late-onset disease. Here we describe a patient in whom prenatal maternal treatment with 30 mg/week hydroxycobalamin and 5 mg/day folic acid from week 15 of pregnancy prevented disease manifestation in a girl who is now 11 years old with normal IQ and only mild ophthalmic findings. The affected older sister received postnatal treatment only and is severely intellectually disabled with severe ophthalmic symptoms. This case highlights the potential of early, high-dose intrauterine treatment in a fetus affected by the cblC defect.

  16. Intrauterine Exposure to Methylmercury and Neurocognitive Functions: Minamata Disease.

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    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Kado, Yoko; Tokinobu, Akiko; Yamakawa, Michiyo; Tsuda, Toshihide; Sanada, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale food poisoning caused by methylmercury was identified in Minamata, Japan, in the 1950s. The severe intrauterine exposure cases are well known, although the possible impact of low-to-moderate methylmercury exposure in utero are rarely investigated. We examined neurocognitive functions among 22 participants in Minamata, mainly using an intelligence quotient test (Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III), in 2012/2013. The participants tended to score low on the Index score of processing speed (PS) relative to full-scale IQ, and discrepancies between PS and other scores within each participant were observed. The lower score on PS was due to deficits in digit symbol-coding and symbol search and was associated with methylmercury concentration in umbilical cords. The residents who experienced low-to-moderate methylmercury exposure including prenatal one in Minamata manifested deficits in their cognitive functions, processing speed in particular.

  17. A CASE OF PELVIC ACTINOMYCOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH AN INTRAUTERINE DEVICE

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    Mateja Pirš

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Actinomycosis is a rare slowly progressive infection caused by Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria from the genus Actinomyces. The disease is characterized by the formation of the abscesses surrounded by dense fibrosis that extend slowly across natural anatomic boundaries.Patients and methods. The case of a 49-year-old patient with pelvic actinomycosis associated with an intrauterine device is presented. The patient was successfully treated with the combination of antibiotic and surgical therapy.Conclusions. Pelvic actinomycosis is a rare disorder. The infection may occur as a consequence of an abdominal disease or an ascending infection from the genito-urinary tract. Diagnosis of the actinomycosis can be difficult, malignant disease if often suspected. The diagnosis is frequently not established until after surgery.

  18. Aspirin for the Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

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    Roberge, Stephanie; Odibo, Anthony O; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Low-dose aspirin (LDA) has been used for several years for the prevention of preeclampsia (PE). LDA started in early pregnancy is associated with improvement of placental implantation. The best evidence suggest that LDA can prevent more than half of PE cases in high-risk women when started before 16 weeks of gestation. Moreover, LDA started in early pregnancy reduces the risk of other placenta-mediated complications such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and perinatal death. The efficacy of LDA has been demonstrated in women with abnormal first-trimester uterine artery Doppler or with prior history of chronic hypertension or preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic Value of Fetal Thymus Size in Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

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    Ekin, Atalay; Gezer, Cenk; Taner, Cuneyt Eftal; Solmaz, Ulas; Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ozeren, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the size of the fetal thymus by sonography in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to search for a possible relationship between a small fetal thymus and adverse perinatal outcomes. The transverse diameter of the fetal thymus was prospectively measured in 150 healthy and 143 IUGR fetuses between 24 and 40 weeks' gestation. The fetuses with IUGR were further divided according to normal or abnormal Doppler assessment of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries and ductus venosus. Measurements were compared with reference ranges from controls. To determine which perinatal outcomes were independently associated with a small fetal thymus, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Thymus size was significantly lower in IUGR fetuses compared to controls (P thymus size was significantly smaller in IUGR fetuses with abnormal Doppler flow compared to normal flow (P thymus in IUGR fetuses was independently associated with early delivery (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.49; P= .023), respiratory distress syndrome (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P= .005), early neonatal sepsis (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.11-2.42; P= .001), and a longer stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.08-1.71; P = .017). Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with fetal thymic involution, and a small fetal thymus is an early indicator of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by IUGR. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term: DIGITAT

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    Huisjes Anjoke JM

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 80% of intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR infants are born at term. They have an increase in perinatal mortality and morbidity including behavioral problems, minor developmental delay and spastic cerebral palsy. Management is controversial, in particular the decision whether to induce labour or await spontaneous delivery with strict fetal and maternal surveillance. We propose a randomised trial to compare effectiveness, costs and maternal quality of life for induction of labour versus expectant management in women with a suspected IUGR fetus at term. Methods/design The proposed trial is a multi-centre randomised study in pregnant women who are suspected on clinical grounds of having an IUGR child at a gestational age between 36+0 and 41+0 weeks. After informed consent women will be randomly allocated to either induction of labour or expectant management with maternal and fetal monitoring. Randomisation will be web-based. The primary outcome measure will be a composite neonatal morbidity and mortality. Secondary outcomes will be severe maternal morbidity, maternal quality of life and costs. Moreover, we aim to assess neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral outcome at two years as assessed by a postal enquiry (Child Behavioral Check List-CBCL and Ages and Stages Questionnaire-ASQ. Analysis will be by intention to treat. Quality of life analysis and a preference study will also be performed in the same study population. Health technology assessment with an economic analysis is part of this so called Digitat trial (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term. The study aims to include 325 patients per arm. Discussion This trial will provide evidence for which strategy is superior in terms of neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality, costs and maternal quality of life aspects. This will be the first randomised trial for IUGR at term. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register and ISRCTN