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Sample records for single intra-peritoneal injection

  1. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-3350, Colyte Poisoning due to Intra-Peritoneal Leakage in an Elderly Patient

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    Jae Hee Chung

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350 is the most frequently used lavage solution for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy or elective surgery because its large molecular weight means that it is poorly absorbed. However, if it leaks into the peritoneal cavity, complications may arise. Few published studies have assessed the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of PEG. Moreover, no published clinical data regarding complications due to the intra-peritoneal leakage of PEG-3350 could be found. We report on an elderly patient who developed the poisoning caused by leaking of PEG-3350 during bowel preparation. It resulted in severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatremia, hyperosmolality and a high anion gap, but it was effectively treated with early continuous renal replacement therapy after surgery.

  2. Initial presentation of a giant gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the stomach with recurrent spontaneous intra-peritoneal haemorrhage

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    Margarida Vinagreiro

    2015-01-01

    Discussion and conclusion: GISTs are uncommon and rarely present with spontaneous intra-peritoneal haemorrhage, which may be life threatening. In our understanding, this is the first reported case of the reviewed literature presenting with a chronic hemoperitoneum, due to recurrent brisk episodes of tumour haemorrhage. Tumour rupture and large tumour size are two poor independent prognostic tumour factors for recurrence. Despite this, the patient remains free of disease after surgery and instituted adjuvant imatinib mesylate.

  3. Pressurized IntraPeritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma.

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    Giger-Pabst, Urs; Demtröder, Cédric; Falkenstein, Thomas A; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Götze, Thorsten O; Rezniczek, Günther A; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2018-04-18

    Patients with recurrent malignant epithelioid mesothelioma (MM) after surgery and standard chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed have limited treatment options. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with recurrent MM undergoing Pressurized IntraPeritoneal/Thoracal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC/PITAC) with doxorubicin 1.5 mg/m 2 and cisplatin 7.5 mg/m 2 . Data were retrospectively collected in a prospective registry of patients undergoing PIPAC/PITAC. Study outcomes were microscopic tumor regression grade (TRG), survival and adverse events (v4.0 CTCAE). A total of 29 patients (m/f = 17/12) with MM with a mean age of 62.4 (range: 42 to 84) years were analyzed. A total of 74 PIPAC and 5 PITAC procedures were performed. The mean number of PIPAC applications was 2.5 (range: 0 to 10) per patient. Twenty patients (69%) had > 2 PIPAC procedure and were eligible for TRG analysis. TRG 1 to 4 was observed in 75% (15/20) of patients. Major regression (TRG 3) or complete regression (TRG 4) was observed in 20% and 10%, respectively. PIPAC induced significant tumor regression in 51.7% (15/29) of patients with a cumulative effect after repetitive PIPACs (PIPAC #1 vs. PIPAC #2: p = 0.001; PIPAC #1 vs. PIPAC #3: p = 0.001; PIPAC #1 vs. PIPAC #4: p = 0.001). Postoperative CTCAE grade 4 complications were observed in two patients (6.9%) who had cytoreductive surgery (CC2) and intraoperative PIPAC. One patient (3.4%) died due to postoperative kidney insufficiency. After a follow up of 14.4 (95% CI: 8.1 to 20.7) months after the last PIPAC/PITAC application, median overall survival was 26.6 (95% CI: 9.5 to 43.7) months (from the first application). After prior abdominal surgery and systemic chemotherapy, repetitive PIPAC applications are feasible and safe for patients with end-stage MM. Furthermore, PIPAC induces significant histological regression of malignant mesothelioma in the majority of patients. PITAC is feasible, but its safety and efficacy

  4. Treatment of Enterococcal Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients by Oral Amoxicillin or Intra-Peritoneal Vancomcyin: a Retrospective Study

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    Cheuk Chun Szeto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Enterococcal peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients is associated with a high complication rate. The optimal treatment regimen of PD-related enterococcal peritonitis is controversial. The latest international guideline recommends intra-peritoneal (IP vancomycin. Although ampicillin is often effective for systemic enterococcal infections, they have little in vitro activity when added to common PD solutions. Since oral amoxicillin achieves therapeutic drug level in the peritoneal cavity, we explore the efficacy of oral amoxicillin for enterococcal peritonitis. Methods: We studied 105 episodes of enterococcal peritonitis over 20 years in our unit; 43 (41.0% were treated with oral amoxicillin, and 62 (59.0% with IP vancomycin. Their clinical outcome was reviewed. Result: The overall primary response rate to oral amoxicillin and IP vancomycin was 76.4% and 85.5%, respectively (p = 0.3. The complete cure rate of oral amoxicillin and IP vancomycin was 55.8% and 54.8%, respectively (p = 0.8. When the 5 episodes of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus episodes were excluded, the primary response rate and complete cure rate of oral amoxicillin were 86.8% and 63.2%, respectively. Conclusion: Oral amoxicillin has an excellent primary response rate and complete cure rate for PD-related peritonitis episodes caused by Enterococcus species, indicating that oral amoxicillin is a valid and convenient therapeutic option for enterococcal peritonitis episodes.

  5. Effect of intra-peritoneal fludarabine on rat spinal cord tolerance to fractionated irradiation

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    Gregoire, V; Ruifrok, A C.C.; Price, R E; Brock, W A; Hittelman, W N; Plunkett, W K; Ang, K K

    1995-07-01

    The effect of fludarabine (9-{beta}-d-arabinosyl-2-fluoroadenine-5'-monophosphate), an adenine nucleoside analogue, on the tolerance of the spinal cord to fractionated irradiation was studied in a rat model. Anesthesized female Fisher 344 rats received irradiation to 2 cm of the cervical spine with a telecobalt unit (dose rate 1.14 Gy/min). Radiation was administered in two, four or eight fractions spread over a 48-h period with or without fludarabine. Animals assigned to combined therapy received two daily intraperitoneal injections of fludarabine (150 mg/kg) given 3 h prior to the first daily radiation fraction. It was found that fludarabine reduced the iso-effect dose required to induce leg paresis at 9 months after irradiation for all fractionation schedules. Dose modification factors of 1.23, 1.29 and greater than 1.27 were obtained for two, four and eight fractions, respectively. Fitting the data with the direct analysis method of Thames et al. with an incomplete repair model [18] showed that the potentiating effect of fludarabine may be mediated through reduction in the number of 'tissue-rescuing units' (lnK). Alpha and {beta} values were slightly but not significantly decreased, whereas the ({alpha}({beta})) ratio was unchanged. These features suggest that fludarabine did not significantly inhibit cellular repair processes but rather reduced the spinal cord tolerance by a fixed additive toxic effect on the same target cells. In rodent models, the combination of fludarabine and fractionated radiation has previously been found to yield a therapeutic gain, i.e., the drug enhanced tumor response to a greater extent than it reduced normal tissue tolerance. However, given our results, caution should be exercised in extrapolating these findings to the clinic. Normal tissue reactions will have to be monitored rigorously in phase I clinical studies.

  6. Tunneling spin injection into single layer graphene.

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    Han, Wei; Pi, K; McCreary, K M; Li, Yan; Wong, Jared J I; Swartz, A G; Kawakami, R K

    2010-10-15

    We achieve tunneling spin injection from Co into single layer graphene (SLG) using TiO₂ seeded MgO barriers. A nonlocal magnetoresistance (ΔR(NL)) of 130  Ω is observed at room temperature, which is the largest value observed in any material. Investigating ΔR(NL) vs SLG conductivity from the transparent to the tunneling contact regimes demonstrates the contrasting behaviors predicted by the drift-diffusion theory of spin transport. Furthermore, tunnel barriers reduce the contact-induced spin relaxation and are therefore important for future investigations of spin relaxation in graphene.

  7. Pharmacological doses of daily ascorbate protect tumours from radiation damage after a single dose of radiation in an intracranial mouse glioma model

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    Carole eGrasso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological ascorbate is currently used as an anti-cancer treatment, potentially in combination with radiation therapy, by integrative medicine practitioners. In the acidic, metal-rich tumour environment, ascorbate acts as a pro-oxidant, with a mode of action similar to that of ionising radiation; both treatments kill cells predominantly by free radical-mediated DNA damage. The brain tumour, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, is very resistant to radiation; radiosensitising GBM cells will improve survival of GBM patients. Here we demonstrate that a single fraction (6 Gy of radiation combined with a one hour exposure to ascorbate (5 mM sensitised murine glioma GL261cells to radiation in survival and colony-forming assays in vitro. In addition, we report the effect of a single fraction (4.5 Gy of whole brain radiation combined with daily intra-peritoneal injections of ascorbate (1 mg/kg in an intra-cranial GL261 glioma mouse model. Tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: one group received a single dose of 4.5 Gy to the brain eight days after tumour implantation, a second group received daily intra-peritoneal injections of ascorbate (day 8-45 after implantation, a third group received both treatments and a fourth control group received no treatment. While radiation delayed tumour progression, intra-peritoneal ascorbate alone had no effect on tumour progression. Tumour progression was faster in tumour-bearing mice treated with radiation and daily ascorbate than those treated with radiation alone. Histological analysis showed less necrosis in tumours treated with both radiation and ascorbate, consistent with a radio-protective effect of ascorbate in vivo. Discrepancies between our in vitro and in vivo results may be explained by differences in the tumour micro-environment which determines whether ascorbate remains outside the cell, acting as a pro-oxidant or whether it enters the cells and acts as an anti-oxidant.

  8. Intra-peritoneal administration of interleukin-1 beta induces impaired insulin release from the perfused rat pancreas

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    Wogensen, L; Helqvist, S; Pociot, F

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a stimulatory effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on insulin and glucagon release from the perfused rat pancreas, accompanied by selective lysis of 20% of beta-cells as assessed by electronmicroscopy. However, we have not observed an inhibitory action of IL-1...... beta on insulin release from the perfused pancreas as shown for isolated islets. To test whether periodical exposure of the endocrine pancreas to circulating IL-1 beta in vivo affects insulin release from the intact perfused pancreas, rats were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of 4...

  9. Two injection digital block versus single subcutaneous palmar injection block for finger lacerations.

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    Okur, O M; Şener, A; Kavakli, H Ş; Çelik, G K; Doğan, N Ö; Içme, F; Günaydin, G P

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to compare two digital nerve block techniques in patients due to traumatic digital lacerations. This was a randomized-controlled study designed prospectively in the emergency department of a university-based training and research hospital. Randomization was achieved by sealed envelopes. Half of the patients were randomised to traditional (two-injection) digital nerve block technique while single-injection digital nerve block technique was applied to the other half. Score of pain due to anesthetic infiltration and suturing, onset time of total anesthesia, need for an additional rescue injection were the parameters evaluated with both groups. Epinephrin added lidocaine hydrochloride preparation was used for the anesthetic application. Visual analog scale was used for the evaluation of pain scores. Outcomes were compared by using Mann-Whitney U test and Student t-test. Fifty emergency department patients ≥18 years requiring digital nerve block were enrolled in the study. Mean age of the patients was 33 (min-max: 19-86) and 39 (78 %) were male. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of our main parameters; anesthesia pain score, suturing pain score, onset time of total anesthesia and rescue injection need. Single injection volar digital nerve block technique is a suitable alternative for digital anesthesias in emergency departments.

  10. Treatment of ovarian cancer ascites by intra-peritoneal injection of diphtheria toxin A chain-H19 vector: a case report

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    Abu-lail Rasha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ovarian cancer ascitic fluid, which contains malignant cells, is usually present in women with an advanced stage disease. There are currently no effective therapies for the treatment of ovarian cancer ascitic fluid. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target expression of the diphtheria toxin fragment A gene in ovarian tumor cells under the control of H19 regulatory sequences. Case presentation A 64-year-old Caucasian woman was diagnosed with a stage IIIc epithelial ovarian cancer. She suffered from progressive disease, accumulation of malignant ascites that needed to be drained weekly, abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia and severe weakness. Infusion of the diphtheria toxin A chain-H19 plasmid into the peritoneum of our patient resulted in complete resolution of the ascites with minimum adverse events. Conclusion On the basis of this preliminary experience, we are currently conducting an extensive Phase I study on a larger number of patients in order to assess the safety and preliminary efficacy of this novel patient-oriented treatment approach.

  11. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dyamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities of up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s

  12. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dynamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s

  13. Cost-Utility of a Single-Injection Combined Corticosteroid-Hyaluronic Acid Formulation vs a 2-Injection Regimen of Sequential Corticosteroid and Hyaluronic Acid Injections.

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    Belzile, Etienne L; Deakon, Robert T; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Bhandari, Mohit; Lamontagne, Martin; McCormack, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown early and sustained relief with a combination therapy of a corticosteroid (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This can be administered via a single injection containing both products or as separate injections. The former may be more expensive when considering only product cost, but the latter incurs the additional costs and time of a second procedure. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-utility of the single injection with the 2-injection regimen. The results of this analysis revealed that the single-injection formulation of a CS and HA may be cost-effective, assuming a willingness-to-pay of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life year gained, for symptomatic relief of OA symptoms. This treatment may also be more desirable to patients who find injections to be inconvenient or unpleasant.

  14. Efficacy of a single ultrasound-guided injection for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Atchia, Ismaël

    2011-01-01

    Intra-articular injection is effective for osteoarthritis, but the best single injection strategy is not known, nor are there established predictors of response. The objectives of this study were to assess and predict response to a single ultrasound-guided injection in moderate to severe hip osteoarthritis.

  15. Increasing energy efficiency of a gasoline direct injection engine through optimal synchronization of single or double injection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Michela; Sorge, Ugo; Allocca, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Advantages of split injection in a GDI engine are studied through numerical simulation. ► At high load and speed, rich conditions, split injection does not improve engine performance. ► At moderate load and speed, lean conditions, double injection improves charge stratification. ► Optimal double injection increases work, reduces HC and increases NO. - Abstract: The greatest fuel efficiency advantages of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are achieved under the so-called mixed mode boosting, where mixture characteristics are properly adapted to the specific working condition. In particular, in the medium range of load and speed, overall lean mixtures are suitable of being used in the so-called direct injection stratified charge operation. Present paper reports the results of numerical optimization analyses aimed at increasing the energetic efficiency of a GDI engine equipped with a high pressure multi-hole injector under both single and double injection events. In moderate-load moderate-speed lean conditions, the single or double injection synchronization in the working cycle is effected through a procedure that couples a 3D numerical model of the in-cylinder processes with an optimization tool. The choice of both the start of the injection events and the time of spark advance is realized to maximize the engine work. The optimal double injection solution is shown to increase the engine energy efficiency with respect to the case injection is realized in one shot, thus confirming that split injections improve the quality of the charge stratification under lean operation. The effect on the major pollutants is also discussed.

  16. Experimental investigations of a single cylinder genset engine with common rail fuel injection system

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    Gupta Paras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance and emissions characteristics of compression ignition (CI engines are strongly dependent on quality of fuel injection. In an attempt to improve engine combustion, engine performance and reduce the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder constant speed genset engine, a common rail direct injection (CRDI fuel injection system was deployed and its injection timings were optimized. Results showed that 34°CA BTDC start of injection (SOI timings result in lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and smoke opacity. Advanced injection timings showed higher cylinder peak pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate due to relatively longer ignition delay experienced.

  17. Optimal sampling strategies to assess inulin clearance in children by the inulin single-injection method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Lyonne K.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Cransberg, Karlien; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2003-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate in patients can be determined by estimating the plasma clearance of inulin with the single-injection method. In this method, a single bolus injection of inulin is administered and several blood samples are collected. For practical and convenient application of this method

  18. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  19. Single-needle temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis with hyaluronic acid injections. Preliminary data after a five-injection protocol.

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    Manfredini, D; Guarda-Nardini, L; Ferronato, G

    2009-10-01

    The classical technique for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthrocentesis provides a double access to the joint space, which may lead to patient's postoperatory discomfort. For this reason, a less invasive, single-needle approach has been recently described, and the present investigation reports findings on a case series of patients with TMJ osteoarthritis treated with hyaluronic acid injections following a single needle arthrocentesis. METHODS. Fourteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of TMJ osteoarthritis according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporo-mandibular Disorders were treated with a cycle of five weekly injections of hyaluronic acid after arthrocentesis. A number of subjective (pain at rest and mastication, masticatory efficiency, functional limitation, subjective efficacy of treatment, tolerability of treatment) and objective (maximum assisted and unassited mouth opening, protrusive and laterotrusive movements) outcome variables were assessed before and after the treatment period. At the end of the five-injection protocol, significant improvements were showed in almost all the subjective outcome variables. Tolerability of the treatment was good on a four-point ordinal scale since the time of the first injection. The present investigation suggested that the single needle technique for TMJ hyaluronic injection following arthrocentesis in osteoarthritic joints may have promising applications in the clinical setting, which have to be confirmed with future studies.

  20. Electroluminescence from single nanowires by tunnel injection: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmler, Mariano A; Bao Jiming; Shalish, Ilan; Yi, Wei; Yoon, Joonah; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh; Capasso, Federico

    2007-01-01

    We present a hybrid light-emitting diode structure composed of an n-type gallium nitride nanowire on a p-type silicon substrate in which current is injected along the length of the nanowire. The device emits ultraviolet light under both bias polarities. Tunnel injection of holes from the p-type substrate (under forward bias) and from the metal (under reverse bias) through thin native oxide barriers consistently explains the observed electroluminescence behaviour. This work shows that the standard p-n junction model is generally not applicable to this kind of device structure

  1. Voltage controlled nano-injection system for single-cell surgery

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    Seger, R. Adam; Actis, Paolo; Penfold, Catherine; Maalouf, Michelle; Vilozny, Boaz; Pourmand, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation and analysis of single cells is the next frontier in understanding processes that control the function and fate of cells. Herein we describe a single-cell injection platform based on nanopipettes. The system uses scanning microscopy techniques to detect cell surfaces, and voltage pulses to deliver molecules into individual cells. As a proof of concept, we injected adherent mammalian cells with fluorescent dyes. PMID:22899383

  2. Amplitude Noise Suppression and Orthogonal Multiplexing Using Injection-Locked Single-Mode VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; von Lerber, Tuomo; Lassas, Matti

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel.......We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel....

  3. 3D-CFD Simulation of Confined Cross-Flow Injection Process Using Single Piston Pump

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    M. Elashmawy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Injection process into a confined cross flow is quite important for many applications including chemical engineering and water desalination technology. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of the injection process into a confined cross-flow of a round pipe using a single piston injection pump. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis has been carried out to investigate the effect of the locations of the maximum velocity and minimum pressure on the confined cross-flow process. The jet trajectory is analyzed and related to the injection pump shaft angle of rotation during the injection duty cycle by focusing on the maximum instant injection flow of the piston action. Results indicate a low effect of the jet trajectory within the range related to the injection pump operational conditions. Constant cross-flow was used and injection flow is altered to vary the jet to line flow ratio (QR. The maximum jet trajectory exhibits low penetration inside the cross-flow. The results showed three regions of the flow ratio effect zones with different behaviors. Results also showed that getting closer to the injection port causes a significant decrease on the locations of the maximum velocity and minimum pressure.

  4. Single-use autoinjector for once-weekly intramuscular injection of IFNβ-1a.

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    Limmroth, Volker; Gerbershagen, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    IFNβ products and glatiramer acetate are established treatment first-line options in long-term disease-modifying therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). These self-injectable medications are used once weekly to once daily. Injection-related issues are common patient-cited reasons for nonadherence. Autoinjectors have been shown to support long-term adherence to injectable medications. The ability to self-inject in MS patients has been associated with a reduced risk of missed injections and drug discontinuation, and a beneficial effect on patient independence. The recently introduced easy-to-use prefilled once-weekly pen is a safe and effective device for intramuscular (IM) IFNβ-1a application and provides a convenient method for self-injection. We reviewed the available published evidence on the characteristics of this device. The once-weekly pen facilitates self-injection and was preferred over prefilled syringes by patients in a prospective open-label, multicenter Phase IIIb trial in MS patients who had been using IM IFNβ-1a in prefilled syringes. The simple and safe handling, shielded short needle, single-use disposable design and virtually painless injection by the device may contribute to adherence, quality of life and independence in patients using IM IFNβ-1a.

  5. Cluster endophthalmitis following multiple intravitreal bevacizumab injections from a single use vial

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    Perwez Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of endophthalmitis is always a concern when an intraocular procedure is performed. Intravitreal injection is a frequently used method for therapeutic management of many diseases, affecting the posterior segment of the eye. Hence, it is important to assess the risk of complications, especially endophthalmitis. Most studies conducted concentrate on risk assessment from single use from single drug vial. The present article reports the occurrence of cluster endophthalmitis following multiple intravitreal bevacizumab injections from a single vial. Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab was administered to eight eyes of eight patients. Administered dose was prepared from single 4-ml vial of bevacizumab and was injected in the eye, after patient preparation and under aseptic conditions. The procedure was repeated for the remaining patients, thereby imparting multiple pricks in the same vial. Four of the eight patients reported to the hospital on the 3rd day after injection with complaints of pain, watering, and diminution of vision. Two patients reported the following day with similar complaints. Two patients who did not report by the 4th day were contacted and recalled for an examination. All the patients were thoroughly examined using slit lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Six out of eight were clinically diagnosed to have endophthalmitis and were administered intravitreal antibiotics. The present report highlights possibility of microbial contamination of the drug vial or during compounding process. However, from the present incident, we are encouraged to stay vigilant and wary of contamination

  6. [Comparison of basic carboxypeptidases activity in male rats tissues at a single injection of haloperidol].

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    Pravosudova, N A; Bykova, I O

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a single injection of haloperidol on basic carboxypeptidases (biologically active peptide processing enzymes) activity in rat tissues was studied. Acute exposure to haloperidol increased the activity of carboxypeptidases H (CP H) in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system and cerebellum and reduced such activity in testes. Multidirectional changes of PMSF-inhibited carboxypeptidases activity (PMSF-CP) were observed after a single haloperidol injection in all studied tissues except testes. It is suggested that changes of CP H and PMSF-CP activity might affect levels of regulatory peptides in the brain and blood and thus may be involved in general and side effects of haloperidol on the organism.

  7. The efficacy of multiple versus single hyaluronic acid injections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Concoff, Andrew; Sancheti, Parag; Niazi, Faizan; Shaw, Peter; Rosen, Jeffrey

    2017-12-21

    Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IA-HA) is a common therapy used to treat knee pain and suppress knee inflammation in knee osteoarthritis (OA), typically prescribed in regimens ranging from a single injection to 5 weekly injections given once weekly. We conducted a systematic review to determine the efficacy of IA-HA, with subgroup analyses to explore the differences in knee pain and adverse events (AEs) across different dosing regimens. We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify studies evaluating IA-HA for the management of knee OA compared to IA-saline. Primary outcome measure was the mean knee pain score at 13 Weeks (3 months) or 26 weeks (6 months). Secondary outcome was the number of treatment-related AEs and treatment-related serious adverse events (SAEs). We evaluated differences in levels of pain and AEs/SAEs between dosing regimens compared to IA-Saline. Thirty articles were included. Overall, IA-HA injections were associated with less knee pain compared to IA-Saline injections for all dosing regimens. 2-4 injections of IA-HA vs. IA-Saline produced the largest effect size at both 3-months and 6-months (Standard mean difference [SMD] = -0.76; -0.98 to -0.53, 95% CI, P injection studies yielded a non-significant treatment effect at 3 and 6 months, while ≥5 5 injections demonstrated a significant improvement in pain only at 6 months. Five or more injections of IA-HA were associated with a higher risk of treatment-related AEs compared to IA-Saline (Risk ratio [RR] = 1.67; 1.09 to 2.56 95% CI, p = 0.02), which was a result not seen within the 1 and 2-4 injection subgroups. Overall, 2-4 and ≥5 injection regimens provided pain relief over IA-Saline, while single injection did not. Intra-articular injections of HA used in a 2-4 injection treatment regimen provided the greatest benefit when compared to IA-Saline with respect to pain improvement in patients with knee OA, and was generally deemed safe with few to no

  8. Successful treatment of unicameral bone cyst by single percutaneous injection of alpha-BSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawrani, Dinesh; Thai, Chia Che; Welch, Robert D; Copley, Lawson; Johnston, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    Unicameral bone cyst (UBC) is a benign bone lesion, recognized for its high rate of recurrence and need for repeat procedures to achieve healing. We hypothesized that the osteoconductive material apatitic calcium phosphate (alpha-BSM) could be effective in filling and stimulating resolution of UBC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes of UBC treated by a single injection of alpha-BSM. Thirteen patients (6 male, 7 female) with a mean age of 10.5 years, underwent single percutaneous injection of alpha-BSM for presumed UBC. The aspiration of the cysts was followed by vigorous saline lavage using 2 wide bore needles to disrupt the cyst walls. alpha-BSM "paste" was then injected under fluoroscopic guidance. Radiographs were digitized to measure cystic area (millimeter squares) on 2 orthogonal views. Healing was rated according to a modified Neer outcome grading system. Nine of the 13 patients had had pathologic fractures in the past. Eleven of the 13 patients had had past unsuccessful treatment: multiple steroid injections in 6, curettage and bone grafting in 3, and bone marrow and demineralized bone matrix (Grafton) injection in 2. Five cysts were grade 1 (healed 100%), 6 grade 2 (healed >50%), 2 grade 3 (healed <50% with increased cortical thickness), and none grade 4 (recurrence/enlargement). The average resolution of cystic area in 11/13 cysts was 85.7% at final follow-up of 35.8 months (P=0.0001) with 2.8 mm of average gain in cortical thickness (P=0.0018). None of the 13 lesions required an additional procedure or repeat injection. All patients were clinically asymptomatic at latest follow-up. This is the first study quantifying cyst resolution objectively according to actual decrease in area (millimeter squares). A single injection of alpha-BSM is a safe, minimally invasive and efficacious method to treat UBC in the pediatric population.

  9. Ultrasound-guided single-penetration dual-injection block for leg and foot surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Johansen, Karina; Christensen, Karen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new approach to blocking the sciatic and saphenous nerves in the proximal thigh (level of the lesser trochanter or immediately below) using a single-penetration dual-injection (SPEDI) technique. The popliteal-sciatic approach necessitates repositioning of the leg exposing the poplit......We describe a new approach to blocking the sciatic and saphenous nerves in the proximal thigh (level of the lesser trochanter or immediately below) using a single-penetration dual-injection (SPEDI) technique. The popliteal-sciatic approach necessitates repositioning of the leg exposing...... the popliteal fossa and an extra injection for the saphenous nerve (SAN) block at the midthigh level. We introduce an alternative, effective, and possibly faster method....

  10. All-in-polymer injection molded device for single cell capture using multilevel silicon master fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, S.; Larsen, S.T.; Matteucci, M.

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates a novel all-in-polymer device for single cell capture applicable for biological recordings. The chip is injection molded and comprises a "cornered" (non planar) aperture. It has been demonstrated how cornered apertures are straightforward to mold in PDMS [1,2]. In this stud...

  11. Single intra-articular injection of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid for hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fabrizio

    2016-03-01

    Intra-articular (IA) injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) into the hip joint appears to be safe and well tolerated but only a small number of randomized clinical trials in humans has been published. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single IA injection of high-molecular-weight (2800 kDa) HA (Coxarthrum) for hip osteoarthritis. All patients received a single IA administration of 2.5 % sodium hyaluronate (75 mg/3 mL) of high molecular weight. Fluoroscopy requires an iodized contrast medium (iopamidol, 1 ml) which highlights the capsule before administering HA. Patients were evaluated before IA injection (T0), after 3 months, after 6 months and after 1 year from injection. Results were evaluated by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI II), Harris Hip Score and a visual analog scale of pain (pain VAS). All treated patients were considered for statistical analysis. Two hundred seven patients were included at T0. The mean age was 67 years (range 46-81). Regarding BPI severity score, changes in pain between T0 and the three following visits were statistically highly significant (p injection of Coxarthrum is effective from the third month and that the results are stable or continue to improve up to 1 year. IV.

  12. Transfer of single dose of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab and bevacizumab into milk of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Cakmak Argun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether single-dose intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and ranibizumab transfer into milk. METHODS: This study included lactating 12 sheep and a single 3-month old suckling lamb of each sheep. Two groups consisting of 6 sheep and their lambs were constituted; the ranibizumab group and the bevacizumab group before the administration of intravitreal injections, blood and milk samples were obtained from all sheep and, following the injections, blood and milk samples of all sheep and blood samples of all lambs were collected at regular time points. Serum and milk concentrations of bevacizumab and ranibizumab were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The limit of determination was 0.9 ng/mL for bevacizumab and 0.62 ng/mL for ranibizumab. RESULTS: At 6h after intravitreal injections, bevacizumab concentration was above the limit of determination in the blood of all sheep. At 3wk, when the study was terminated, bevacizumab concentrations were high in 4 sheep. Even though bevacizumab concentrations in milk showed fluctuations, the drug transferred into the milk of all sheep at detectable concentrations. Ranibizumab drug concentrations in the blood and milk of sheep and those in the blood of lambs were below the limit of determination by the ELISA kit. CONCLUSION: This sheep model study demonstrate that intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, which did not transfer into the milk of sheep and suckling lambs, is safer than bevacizumab during lactation period.

  13. Ambiguity in measuring matrix diffusion with single-well injection/recovery tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessoff, S.C.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1997-01-01

    Single-well injection/recovery tracer tests are considered for use in characterizing and quantifying matrix diffusion in dual-porosity aquifers. Numerical modeling indicates that neither regional drift in homogeneous aquifers, nor heterogeneity in aquifers having no regional drift, nor hydrodynamic dispersion significantly affects these tests. However, when drift is coupled simultaneously with heterogeneity, they can have significant confounding effects on tracer return. This synergistic effect of drift and heterogeneity may help explain irreversible flow and inconsistent results sometimes encountered in previous single-well injection/recovery tracer tests. Numerical results indicate that in a hypothetical single-well injection/recovery tracer test designed to demonstrate and measure dual-porosity characteristics in a fractured dolomite, the simultaneous effects of drift and heterogeneity sometimes yields responses similar to those anticipated in a homogeneous dual-porosity formation. In these cases, tracer recovery could provide a false indication of the occurrence of matrix diffusion. Shortening the shut-in period between injection and recovery periods may make the test less sensitive to drift. Using multiple tracers having different diffusion characteristics, multiple tests having different pumping schedules, and testing the formation at more than one location would decrease the ambiguity in the interpretation of test data.

  14. Efficient spin-current injection in single-molecule magnet junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqing Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study theoretically spin transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM in the sequential and cotunneling regimes, where the SMM is weakly coupled to one ferromagnetic and one normal-metallic leads. By a master-equation approach, it is found that the spin polarization injected from the ferromagnetic lead is amplified and highly polarized spin-current can be generated, due to the exchange coupling between the transport electron and the anisotropic spin of the SMM. Moreover, the spin-current polarization can be tuned by the gate or bias voltage, and thus an efficient spin injection device based on the SMM is proposed in molecular spintronics.

  15. Efficient spin-current injection in single-molecule magnet junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiqing; Xu, Fuming; Jiao, Hujun; Wang, Qiang; Liang, J.-Q.

    2018-01-01

    We study theoretically spin transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) in the sequential and cotunneling regimes, where the SMM is weakly coupled to one ferromagnetic and one normal-metallic leads. By a master-equation approach, it is found that the spin polarization injected from the ferromagnetic lead is amplified and highly polarized spin-current can be generated, due to the exchange coupling between the transport electron and the anisotropic spin of the SMM. Moreover, the spin-current polarization can be tuned by the gate or bias voltage, and thus an efficient spin injection device based on the SMM is proposed in molecular spintronics.

  16. Injection of a single electron from static to moving quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoit; Hermelin, Sylvain; Mortemousque, Pierre-André; Takada, Shintaro; Yamamoto, Michihisa; Tarucha, Seigo; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Bäuerle, Christopher; Meunier, Tristan

    2016-05-27

    We study the injection mechanism of a single electron from a static quantum dot into a moving quantum dot. The moving quantum dots are created with surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in a long depleted channel. We demonstrate that the injection process is characterized by an activation law with a threshold that depends on the SAW amplitude and on the dot-channel potential gradient. By sufficiently increasing the SAW modulation amplitude, we can reach a regime where the transfer has unity probability and is potentially adiabatic. This study points to the relevant regime to use moving dots in quantum information protocols.

  17. Single intravitreal bevacizumab injection effects on contrast sensitivity in macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Carlos Preti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection on visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography-measured central macular thickness in eyes with macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion. METHODS: Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with macular edema from unilateral branch retinal vein occlusion were treated with a single bevacizumab injection. Patients were submitted to a complete evaluation including best corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography measurements before treatment and one and three months after injection. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography measurements were compared to baseline values. RESULTS: Mean visual acuity measurement improved from 0.77 logMAR at baseline to 0.613 logMAR one month after injection (P=0.0001 but worsened to 0.75 logMAR after three months. Contrast sensitivity test demonstrated significant improvement at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cycles/degree one month after injection and at the spatial frequency of 12 cycles/degree three months after treatment. Mean ± standard deviation baseline central macular thickness (552 ± 150 µm reduced significantly one month (322 ± 127 µm, P=0.0001 and three months (439 ± 179 µm, P=0.01 after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab injection improves visual acuity and contrast sensitivity and reduces central macular thickness one month after treatment. Visual acuity returns to baseline levels at the 3-month follow-up, but some beneficial effect of the treatment is still present at that time, as evidenced by optical coherence tomography-measured central macular thickness and contrast sensitivity measurements.

  18. Single injection thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB for breast surgery in morbidly obese patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidly obese (MO patients with associated restrictive airway disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and coronary artery disease pose challenge to an anesthesiologist. Regional block combined with general anesthesia (GA is the anesthetic technique of choice as it will decrease the requirement of opioids, anesthetics, and postoperative respiratory depression. A MO patient for modified radical mastectomy was successfully managed with single-injection thoracic paravertebral block and conventional GA.

  19. The data analysis of the single well injection-withdraw tracer experiment using the MACRO II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Toshihiko; Kanazawa, Yasuo; Hatanaka, Koichiro

    2001-04-01

    On understanding the radionuclide transport in natural barrier in radioactive waste isolation research, the macroscopic dispersion in heterogeneous permeability field in the underground rock is regarded as an important process. Therefore, we have conducted lots of tracer experiments by the MACRO II facility with an artificially constructed heterogeneous permeability field. In order to study the scale dependence of dispersion coefficients in case of laboratory experiments, we placed the flow cell horizontally, and conducted injection-withdraw tracer experiment with a single well. We have conducted 15 cases experiments. These cases were prepared by changing a position of single well and the injection-withdraw time. At each position we have conducted 9 cases and 6 cases experiments. In this report, we evaluated the macroscopic dispersion coefficients by the fitting of analytical solution to breakthrough curve measured by the 15 cases pumping tracer experiment. Consequently, we could evaluate the dispersion coefficients for 12 cases of 15 cases. Then, we discussed the relation between a injection-withdraw flow rate and a property of heterogeneous media and dispersion coefficient. The conclusions obtained from the results of the evaluation are summarized as follows, It was found that the macroscopic dispersion coefficients tend to be increased with increase of the average radius of tracer front spread around a single well. We have conducted any experiments with s single well settled at two positions. In case of that there is low permeability around a single well, we found dispersion coefficients are large. In case of that there is high permeability around a single well, we found dispersion coefficients are small. In three cases that we could not evaluate because of incorrect accuracy of fitting, we have found it possible that there is some points that dispersion coefficients were strikingly small in tracer front. (author)

  20. Diesel Combustion and Emission Using High Boost and High Injection Pressure in a Single Cylinder Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Yuzo; Kunishima, Eiji; Asaumi, Yasuo; Aihara, Yoshiaki; Odaka, Matsuo; Goto, Yuichi

    Heavy-duty diesel engines have adopted numerous technologies for clean emissions and low fuel consumption. Some are direct fuel injection combined with high injection pressure and adequate in-cylinder air motion, turbo-intercooler systems, and strong steel pistons. Using these technologies, diesel engines have achieved an extremely low CO2 emission as a prime mover. However, heavy-duty diesel engines with even lower NOx and PM emission levels are anticipated. This study achieved high-boost and lean diesel combustion using a single cylinder engine that provides good engine performance and clean exhaust emission. The experiment was done under conditions of intake air quantity up to five times that of a naturally aspirated (NA) engine and 200MPa injection pressure. The adopted pressure booster is an external supercharger that can control intake air temperature. In this engine, the maximum cylinder pressure was increased and new technologies were adopted, including a monotherm piston for endurance of Pmax =30MPa. Moreover, every engine part is newly designed. As the boost pressure increases, the rate of heat release resembles the injection rate and becomes sharper. The combustion and brake thermal efficiency are improved. This high boost and lean diesel combustion creates little smoke; ISCO and ISTHC without the ISNOx increase. It also yields good thermal efficiency.

  1. Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation with one single minimal contrast media injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Mattia; Maisano, Francesco; Haueis, Sabine; Binder, Ronald K; Taramasso, Maurizio; Nietlispach, Fabian

    2015-06-01

    Performing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the use of minimal contrast in patients at high-risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a major cause of AKI following TAVI and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The amount of contrast media used increases the risk for CIN. Computed tomography was omitted during the screening process. For the procedure transfemoral access was default. The self-expanding CoreValve prosthesis was chosen in all patients to minimize the risk of annular rupture in case of oversizing. Valve sizing was based on echocardiography, aortography, calcification on fluoroscopy, as well as weight and height of the patient. A single contrast injection was performed to confirm correct position of the pigtail catheter at the level of the annulus. The pigtail then served as the marker for the device landing zone. Intraprocedural assessment of the implantation result relied on echocardiography and hemodynamics. Five patients with severe aortic stenosis and at high risk for developing CIN were included. Device success was achieved in all patients and no major complications occurred. The median dose of injected contrast media was 8 ml (4-9). All but one patient had improved renal function after the intervention compared to baseline. Our study shows feasibility of performing TAVI with a single minimal contrast media injection, using a self-expandable valve. This technique has the potential to reduce the incidence of CIN. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Opto-injection into single living cells by femtosecond near-infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng

    This dissertation presents a novel technique to deliver membrane impermeable molecules into single living cells with the assistance of femtosecond (fs) near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. This approach merges ultrafast laser technology with key biological, biomedical, and medical applications, such as gene transfection, gene therapy and drug delivery. This technique promises several major advantages, namely, very high transfection efficiency, high cell survival rate (≈100%) and fully preserved cell viabilities. It is also a promising method to deliver molecules into cells that are difficult or even completely resistant to established physical methods, such as microinjection by glass pipettes, electroporation, and biolistics. In this work, the system for fs NIR opto-injection was designed and built. Successful fs NIR opto-injection has been performed on several cell systems including single mammalian cells (bovine aortic endothelial cells), marine animal eggs (Spisula solidissima oocytes), and human cancer cells (fibrosarcoma HT1080) cultured in a tissue-like environment. The connections between laser parameters and cell responses were explored through further experiments and in-depth analyses, especially the relationship between dye uptake rate and incident laser intensity, and the relationship between pore size created on cell membranes and incident laser intensity. Dye uptake rate of the target cells was observed to depend on incident laser intensity. Pore size was found dependent on incident laser intensity. The conclusion was made that laser-induced breakdown and plasma-induced ablation in cell membrane are the physical principles that govern the process of fs NIR opto-injection.

  3. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tok, Chung Hong; Kaur, Shaleen; Gangi, Afshin

    2011-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  4. Single injection 51Cr EDTA plasma clearance determination in children using capillary blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Christoffersen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of a determination of the total 51 Cr EDTA plasma clearance (e) (and with it the glomerular filtration rate), by a simplified single injection method (injected dose: 4.5 μCi per kg b.w.) using capillary blood samples (0.2 ml), was investigated in twenty children. Clearance values determined from capillary blood samples did not differ significantly from those measured simultaneously from venous blood samples, the mean ratio+-SD being 1.02+-0.06(n = 10). The reproducibility (total day-to-day variation) of E determined from capillary blood samples was 6.7% in children with decreased renal function (n = 3) and 6.9% in children with normal renal function (n = 7). The present data indicate that the use of capillary blood samples is an accurate and very precise approach for determination of E in children. (Auth.)

  5. Fat injection to correct contour deformities of the reconstructed breast: a single surgeon experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Tahiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Autologous fat grafting has gained acceptance as a technique to improve aesthetic outcomes in breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to share our clinical experience using autologous fat injection to correct contour deformities during breast reconstruction. Methods: A single surgeon, prospectively maintained database of patients who underwent autologous fat injection during breast reconstruction from January 2008 to November 2013 at McGill University Health Center was reviewed. Patient characteristics, breast history, type of breast reconstruction, volume of fat injected, and complications were analyzed. Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients benefited from autologous fat injection from January 2008 to November 2013, for a total of 187 treated breasts. The patients were on average 49.3 years old (΁ 8.9 years. Fat was harvested from the medial thighs (20.5%, flanks (39.1%, medial thighs and flanks (2.9%, trochanters (13.3%, medial knees (2.7%, and abdomen (21.9%. An average of 49.25 mL of fat was injected into each reconstructed breast. A total of 187 breasts in 124 patients were lipo-infiltrated during the second stage of breast reconstruction. Thirteen breasts (in 12 separate patients were injected several years after having undergone lumpectomy and radiotherapy. Of the 187 treated breasts, 118 were reconstructed with expanders to implants, 45 with deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps, 9 with latissimus dorsi flaps with implants, 4 with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, and 13 had previously undergone lumpectomy and radiotherapy. Six complications were noted in the entire series, for a rate of 3.2%. All were in previously radiated breasts. Average follow-up time was 12 months (range: 2-36 months. Conclusion: Fat injection continues to grow in popularity as an adjunct to breast reconstruction. Our experience demonstrates a low complication rate as compared to most surgical interventions of the breast

  6. Recovery of rat muscle size but not function more than 1 year after a single botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samuel R; Minamoto, Viviane B; Suzuki, Kentaro P; Hulst, Jonah B; Bremner, Shannon N; Lieber, Richard L

    2018-03-01

    Neurotoxin injection is used to treat a wide variety of neuromuscular disorders. The purpose of this study was to measure the functional and structural properties of botulinum toxin-injected adult rat skeletal muscle over nearly the entire lifespan. Ten groups of animals were subjected to either neurotoxin injection [Botox, Type A (BT-A); Allergan, Irvine, California] or saline solution injection. Neurotoxin-injected animals (n = 90) were analyzed at different time-points: 1 week; 1 month; 3 months; 6 months; 12 months; or 18 months. In spite of the recovery of structural features, such as muscle mass and fiber area, dorsiflexion torque production remained significantly depressed by 25%, even at 12 months after neurotoxin injection. The data demonstrate that, after a single BT-A injection, although gross muscle morphology recovered over a 12-month time period, loss of contractile function did not recover. Muscle Nerve 57: 435-441, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Single-Injection Infraclavicular Block Versus Ultrasound-Guided Double-Injection Axillary Block: A Noninferiority Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Ariane; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Dion, Nicolas; Lévesque, Simon; Nicole, Pierre C; Turgeon, Alexis F

    2016-01-01

    Single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block is a simple, reliable, and effective technique. A simplified double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block technique with a high success rate recently has been described. It has the advantage of being performed in a superficial and compressible location, with a potentially improved safety profile. However, its effectiveness in comparison with single-injection infraclavicular block has not been established. We hypothesized that the double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block would show rates of complete sensory block at 30 minutes noninferior to the single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block. After approval by our research ethics committee and written informed consent, adults undergoing distal upper arm surgery were randomized to either group I, ultrasound-guided single-injection infraclavicular block, or group A, ultrasound-guided double-injection axillary block. In group I, 30 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine was injected posterior to the axillary artery. In group A, 25 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine was injected posteromedial to the axillary artery, after which 5 mL was injected around the musculocutaneous nerve. Primary outcome was the rate of complete sensory block at 30 minutes. Secondary outcomes were the onset of sensory and motor blocks, surgical success rates, performance times, and incidence of complications. All outcomes were assessed by a blinded investigator. The noninferiority of the double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block was considered if the limits of the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were within a 10% margin of the rate of complete sensory block of the infraclavicular block. At 30 minutes, the rate of complete sensory block was 79% in group A (90% CI, 71%-85%) compared with 91% in group I (90% CI, 85%-95%); the upper limit of CI of group A is thus included in the established noninferiority margin of 10%. The rate of complete sensory block was lower in group A (proportion

  8. Single step production of Cas9 mRNA for zygote injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Bethany K; Beaton, Benjamin P; Spate, Lee D; Benne, Joshua A; Murphy, Stephanie L; O'Gorman, Chad W; Spate, Anna M; Prather, Randall S; Wells, Kevin D

    2018-03-01

    Production of Cas9 mRNA in vitro typically requires the addition of a 5´ cap and 3´ polyadenylation. A plasmid was constructed that harbored the T7 promoter followed by the EMCV IRES and a Cas9 coding region. We hypothesized that the use of the metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1) triplex structure downstream of an IRES/Cas9 expression cassette would make polyadenylation of in vitro produced mRNA unnecessary. A sequence from the mMalat1 gene was cloned downstream of the IRES/Cas9 cassette described above. An mRNA concentration curve was constructed with either commercially available Cas9 mRNA or the IRES/ Cas9/triplex, by injection into porcine zygotes. Blastocysts were genotyped to determine if differences existed in the percent of embryos modified. The concentration curve identified differences due to concentration and RNA type injected. Single step production of Cas9 mRNA provides an alternative source of Cas9 for use in zygote injections.

  9. Impact of charge carrier injection on single-chain photophysics of conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Felix J.; Vogelsang, Jan, E-mail: jan.vogelsang@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Lupton, John M. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-06-27

    Charges in conjugated polymer materials have a strong impact on the photophysics and their interaction with the primary excited state species has to be taken into account in understanding device properties. Here, we employ single-molecule spectroscopy to unravel the influence of charges on several photoluminescence (PL) observables. The charges are injected either stochastically by a photochemical process or deterministically in a hole-injection sandwich device configuration. We find that upon charge injection, besides a blue-shift of the PL emission and a shortening of the PL lifetime due to quenching and blocking of the lowest-energy chromophores, the non-classical photon arrival time distribution of the multichromophoric chain is modified towards a more classical distribution. Surprisingly, the fidelity of photon antibunching deteriorates upon charging, whereas one would actually expect the opposite: the number of chromophores to be reduced. A qualitative model is presented to explain the observed PL changes. The results are of interest to developing a microscopic understanding of the intrinsic charge-exciton quenching interaction in devices.

  10. Induction of generalized Shwartzman reaction (GSR) in irradiated rabbits by a single injection of endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronowski, T.; Uchanska-Dudzinska, B.; Teisseyre, E.; Kopec, M.

    1976-01-01

    Rabbits were prepared to GSR by either a single dose 30 μg/kg of Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin or by a single whole-body exposure to 850 R of x ray. After 24 hrs provocative dose of endotoxin 50 μg/kg was injected. Histological examinations of kidneys revealed that GSR occurred with equal frequency in both groups of rabbits but was more severe in the animals prepared by irradiation. Protamine gelation test detected soluble fibrin complexes in plasma in about 50% of rabbits 24 hrs after either of the preparatory procedures and virtually in 100% after the provocative endotoxin dose. During the preparatory phase of GSR the irradiation induced a profound decrease in blood lymphocyte count and in the weight of thymus and spleen. It is postulated that early postexposure lysis of lymphatic cells participates in mechanisms leading to thrombotic phenomena after irradiation

  11. Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zaid, M.

    2004-01-01

    A single cylinder Diesel engine study of water-in-Diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the effect of water emulsification on the engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Emulsified Diesel fuels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 water/Diesel ratios by volume, were used in a single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine, operating at 1200-3300 rpm. The results indicate that the addition of water in the form of emulsion improves combustion efficiency. The engine torque, power and brake thermal efficiency increase as the water percentage in the emulsion increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for 20% water emulsion is approximately 3.5% over the use of Diesel for the engine speed range studied. The proper brake specific fuel consumption and gases exhaust temperature decrease as the percentage of water in the emulsion increases

  12. [Utility and advantages of single tracer subareolar injection in sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Fayna; Hernández, María Jesús; Vega, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Isabel; Jiménez, Concepción; Pavcovich, Marta; Báez, Beatriz; Pérez-Correa, Pedro; Núñez, Valentín

    2005-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a reliable technique for determining axillary status in patients with early breast cancer. This technique is a minimally invasive procedure that can avoid the use of lymphadenectomy in patients without axillary involvement. We present a validation study of SLN biopsy with subareolar injection of 99mTc-nanocolloids. We studied 100 patients with early breast cancer (T1 and T2) over a 2-year period. All patients underwent deep subareolar-injection of 99mTc-nanocoloid for localization of the sentinel node. Images were obtained and when the sentinel node was seen, it was marked on the skin. All patients underwent tumor excision and radioguided SLN biopsy followed by complete lymphadenectomy. Histopathological analysis of sentinel nodes was performed by hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry with cytokeratins. The sentinel node was identified in all patients, and a mean of 1.95 sentinel nodes per patient were found. Lymphatic metastases in the sentinel node were found in 44 patients and in 15 of these tumoral spread was also found in the remaining axillary nodes. In the 56 remaining patients the sentinel node was free of metastasis, but in two of them a non-sentinel node was found to be positive (4.5% false negative rate). Sensitivity was 95.7% (44/46), specificity was 100% (54/54), the positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 96.4% (54/56). SLN biopsy is an accurate alternative to complete axillary lymph node dissection in patients with early-stage breast cancer. This technique improves the staging of these patients and decreases the morbidity associated with lymphadenectomy. The advantages of subareolar injection are that a single injection site is required, the tumor does not have to be located by other techniques, it allows rapid visualization of the sentinel node and avoids the "shine through phenomenon" when the tumor is located near the axilla.

  13. Multiple PRP injections are more effective than single injections and hyaluronic acid in knees with early osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görmeli, Gökay; Görmeli, Cemile Ayşe; Ataoglu, Baybars; Çolak, Cemil; Aslantürk, Okan; Ertem, Kadir

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of intraarticular (IA) multiple and single platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as well as hyaluronic acid (HA) injections in different stages of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A total of 162 patients with different stages of knee OA were randomly divided into four groups receiving 3 IA doses of PRP, one dose of PRP, one dose of HA or a saline injection (control). Then, each group was subdivided into two groups: early OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0 with cartilage degeneration or grade I-III) and advanced OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade IV). The patients were evaluated before the injection and at the 6-month follow-ups using the EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores. Adverse events and patient satisfaction were recorded. There was a statistically significant improvement in the IKDC and EQ-VAS scores in all the treatment groups compared with the control group. The knee scores of patients treated with three PRP injections were significantly better than those patients of the other groups. There was no significant difference in the scores of patients injected with one dose of PRP or HA. In the early OA subgroups, significantly better clinical results were achieved in the patients treated with three PRP injections, but there was no significant difference in the clinical results of patients with advanced OA among the treatment groups. The clinical results of this study suggest IA PRP and HA treatment for all stages of knee OA. For patients with early OA, multiple (3) PRP injections are useful in achieving better clinical results. For patients with advanced OA, multiple injections do not significantly improve the results of patients in any group. I.

  14. Efficacy Of A Single-Injection Sodium Hyaluronate Treatment In Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inam Ullah; Awan, Abdus Saboor; Khan, Aimal Sattar; Marwat, Imran; Meraj, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis or tennis elbow is a disease of tendons arising from common extensor origin at the lateral epicondyle of elbow and is commonly characterized by pain on supination of forearms as well as extension of fingers and wrists. This descriptive case series aims to determine the efficacy of a single-injection sodium hyaluronate treatment for lateral epicondylitis. The study was conducted at the Department of Orthopaedics. Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad. From February 1 to August 31, 2014. Patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis were administered 1 cc of 1% Sodium hyaluronate 1 cm from the lateral epicondyle into the soft tissue. Hyaluronic acid is more effective in patients with moderate pain of lateral epicondylitis (VAS score ≤7 than in patients with severe pain (VAS score >7). Paired sample t-test was used to compared the means of the pre- and post-procedure VAS score and the difference was found to be statistically very significant (p=0.00) with a mean±SD change in VAS of 2.31±1.35 at 4 weeks. A single injection of sodium hyaluronate is effective in management of moderate, but not severe pain of lateral epicondylitis.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) after single injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A; Lewbart, G A; Hancock-Ronemus, A; Papich, M G

    2018-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and the metabolite ciprofloxacin were studied in horseshoe crabs after a single injection of 5 mg/kg. Twelve Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) of undetermined age were injected with enrofloxacin into the dorsal cardiac sinus. Hemolymph samples were collected by syringe and needle at regular intervals for 120 hr. Samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and compartmental analysis performed on the results. Following injection, the elimination half-life (T½), peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and volume of distribution (VD) for enrofloxacin were 27.9 (29.13) hr, 8.98 (18.09) μg/ml, 367.38 (35.41) hr μg/ml, and 0.575 (20.48) L/kg, respectively (mean value, CV%). For ciprofloxacin, the elimination T½, peak concentration, and AUC were 61.36 (34.55) hr, 2.34 (24.11) μg/ml, and 304.46 (24.69) μg hr/ml. In these animals, the ciprofloxacin concentrations comprised an average of 45.8% of the total fluoroquinolone concentrations, which is substantial compared to other marine invertebrates. The total AUC produced (sum of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) was 682.69 ± 180.61 μg hr/ml. Concentrations that were achieved after a single dose of 5 mg/kg horseshoe crabs were sufficient to treat bacteria susceptible to enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Terunao; Takato, Tetsuya; Matsuzaki, Gen; Seko, Yoshinori; Fujii, Jun; Kawai, Sachio

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias that have been induced by electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus. This study investigated whether similar basal cardiomyopathy would develop in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline. Adrenaline was intravenously infused for 10-360 seconds in anesthetized rabbits. Colloidal carbon was injected after adrenaline infusion. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base was assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography. Animals were killed either 1 week or 3-4 weeks later. Pathological lesions were identified by deposits of carbon particles. Animals were divided into two groups according to the infused dose of adrenaline. The small-dose group (group S, n = 15) received 1-10 μg and the large-dose group (group L, n = 23) received 15-60 μg of adrenaline. Adrenaline infusion induced premature ventricular contractions followed by monomorphic ventricular tachycardias in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 1 of 15 animals in group S. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base decreased just after adrenaline infusion, remained low after 1 week, and recovered to near-baseline levels after 3-4 weeks in group L. Unique cardiac lesions identified by deposits of carbon particles were frequently observed on the left ventricular basal portion, almost always associated with the mitral valve and papillary muscles, but were never observed in the apical area. Lesions involving all areas of the left ventricular basal portion were observed in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 2 of 15 animals in group S. Basal cardiomyopathy developed in rabbits with ventricular tachycardias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

  17. Effects of Stator Shroud Injection on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Single-Stage Transonic Axial Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Cong-Truong; Ma, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kwang Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, stator shroud injection in a single-stage transonic axial compressor is proposed. A parametric study of the effect of stator shroud injection on aerodynamic performances was conducted using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The curvature, length, width, and circumferential angle of the stator shroud injector and the air injection mass flow rate were selected as the test parameters. The results of the parametric study show that the aerodynamic performances of the single-stage transonic axial compressor were improved by stator shroud injection. The aerodynamic performances were the most sensitive to the injection mass flow rate. Further, the total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency were the maximum when the ratio of circumferential angle was 10%.

  18. Effects of Stator Shroud Injection on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Single-Stage Transonic Axial Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Cong-Truong; Ma, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kwang Yong [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, stator shroud injection in a single-stage transonic axial compressor is proposed. A parametric study of the effect of stator shroud injection on aerodynamic performances was conducted using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The curvature, length, width, and circumferential angle of the stator shroud injector and the air injection mass flow rate were selected as the test parameters. The results of the parametric study show that the aerodynamic performances of the single-stage transonic axial compressor were improved by stator shroud injection. The aerodynamic performances were the most sensitive to the injection mass flow rate. Further, the total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency were the maximum when the ratio of circumferential angle was 10%.

  19. Critical firing and misfiring boundary in a spark ignition methanol engine during cold start based on single cycle fuel injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhaohui; Gong, Changming; Qu, Xiang; Liu, Fenghua; Sun, Jingzhen; Wang, Kang; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the mass of methanol injected per cycle, ambient temperature, injection and ignition timing, preheating methods, and supplying additional liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) injection into the intake manifold on the critical firing and misfiring boundary of an electronically injection controlled spark ignition (SI) methanol engine during cold start were investigated experimentally based on a single cycle fuel injection with cycle-by-cycle control strategy. The critical firing and misfiring boundary was restricted by all parameters. For ambient temperatures below 16 °C, methanol engines must use auxiliary start-aids during cold start. Optimal control of the methanol injection and ignition timing can realize ideal next cycle firing combustion after injection. Resistance wire and glow plug preheating can provide critical firing down to ambient temperatures of 5 °C and 0 °C, respectively. Using an additional LPG injection into the intake manifold can provide critical firing down to an ambient temperature of −13 °C during cold start. As the ambient temperature decreases, the optimal angle difference between methanol injection timing and LPG injection timing for critical firing of a methanol engine increases rapidly during cold start. - Highlights: • A single cycle fuel injection and cycle-by-cycle control strategy are used to study. • In-cylinder pressure and instantaneous speed were used to determine firing boundary. • For the ambient temperatures below 16 °C, an auxiliary start-aids must be used. • A preheating and additional LPG were used to expand critical firing boundary. • Additional LPG can result in critical firing down to ambient temperature of −13 °C

  20. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    .g. Germany and Italy. Those advanced features can be provided by next generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored...... in this paper. The RPI possibilities are: a) constant average active power control, b) constant active current control, c) constant peak current control and d) thermal optimized control strategy. All those strategies comply with the currently active grid codes, but are with different objectives. The proposed...... RPI strategies are demonstrated firstly by simulations and also tested experimentally on a 1 kW singe-phase grid-connected system in LVRT operation mode. Those results show the effectiveness and feasibilities of the proposed strategies with reactive power control during LVRT operation. The design...

  1. Baseline performance and emissions data for a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezelick, R. A.; Mcfadden, J. J.; Ream, L. W.; Barrows, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive fuel consumption, mean effective cylinder pressure, and emission test results for a supercharged, single-cylinder, direct-injected, four-stroke-cycle, diesel test engine are documented. Inlet air-to-exhaust pressure ratios were varied from 1.25 to 3.35 in order to establish the potential effects of turbocharging techniques on engine performance. Inlet air temperatures and pressures were adjusted from 34 to 107 C and from 193 to 414 kPa to determine the effects on engine performance and emissions. Engine output ranged from 300 to 2100 kPa (brake mean effective pressure) in the speed range of 1000 to 3000 rpm. Gaseous and particulate emission rates were measured. Real-time values of engine friction and pumping loop losses were measured independently and compared with motored engine values.

  2. Single injection techniques in determining age-related changes in porcine renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.

    1984-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were determined in 32 anaesthetised female Large White pigs, aged 4-24 months, from the plasma disappearance curves of [sup(99m)Tc]DTPA and [ 131 I]hippuran respectively. Clearance was also monitored by external counting over the heart. GFR and ERPF increased markedly with age in pigs up to 12 months old, reaching mean values of 242.06 +- 5.89 and 919.39 +- 79.01 mL/min. In pigs aged 12-24 months ERPF increased slightly but renal function remained essentially unchanged after 1 yr of age. These results for renal function were similar to previous estimates, using continuous infusion techniques inferring that GFR and ERPF could be accurately monitored using single injection procedures. (author)

  3. Influence of heat exchange of reservoir with rocks on hot gas injection via a single well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Vladimir E.; Ivanov, Gavril I.

    2017-11-01

    In the computational experiment the influence of heat exchange through top and bottom of the gas-bearing reservoir on the dynamics of temperature and pressure fields during hot gas injection via a single well is investigated. The experiment was carried out within the framework of modified mathematical model of non-isothermal real gas filtration, obtained from the energy and mass conservation laws and the Darcy law. The physical and caloric equations of state together with the Newton-Riemann law of heat exchange of gas reservoir with surrounding rocks, are used as closing relations. It is shown that the influence of the heat exchange with environment on temperature field of the gas-bearing reservoir is localized in a narrow zone near its top and bottom, though the size of this zone is increased with time.

  4. Interface inductive currents and carrier injection in hybrid perovskite single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Alexander; Pospisil, Jan; Krajcovic, Jozef; Weiter, Martin; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà

    2017-10-01

    Interfaces between the absorbing perovskite and transporting layers are gaining attention as the key locus that governs solar cell operation and long term performance. The interplay of ionic and electronic processes, along with the asymmetrical architecture of any solar cell, makes the interpretation of electrical measurements always inconclusive. A strategy to progress in relating electric responses, operating mechanisms, and device architecture relies upon simplifying the probing structure. Macroscopic CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals with symmetrical contacts are tested by means of long-time current transient and impedance spectroscopy. It is observed that interfaces govern carrier injection to (and extraction from) perovskite layers through an inductive (negative capacitance) mechanism with a response time in the range of ˜ 1 - 100 s under dark conditions and inert atmosphere. Current transient exhibits a slow recovering after the occurrence of an undershoot, signaling a complex carrier dynamics which involves changes in surface state occupancy.

  5. Electrically injected GaAsBi/GaAs single quantum well laser diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present electrically injected GaAs/GaAsBi single quantum well laser diodes (LDs emitting at a record long wavelength of 1141 nm at room temperature grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The LDs have excellent device performances with internal quantum efficiency of 86%, internal loss of 10 cm-1 and transparency current density of 196 A/cm2. The LDs can operate under continuous-wave mode up to 273 K. The characteristic temperature are extracted to be 125 K in the temperature range of 77∼150 K, and reduced to 90 K in the range of 150∼273 K. The temperature coefficient of 0.3 nm/K is extracted in the temperature range of 77∼273 K.

  6. Intraperitoneal Injection Is Not a Suitable Administration Route for Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xudong; Guo, Qing; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Li, Rui; Wu, Yang; Ma, Ping; Yang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Given the extensive application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in biomedical fields, there is increasing concern regarding unintentional health impacts. Research into safe usage is therefore increasingly necessary. This study investigated the responses of the mouse brain to single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) delivered via intraperitoneal (IP) injection and compared these results with the previous study where SWCNTs were delivered via intravenous (IV) injection so as to explore which administration route...

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of single co-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells after intracardial injection in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, J.; Adam, G.; Peldschus, K.; Wicklein, D.; Schumacher, U.; Didie, M.; Lange, C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to establish co-labeling of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for the detection of single MSC in-vivo by MRI and histological validation. Materials and Methods: Mouse MSC were co-labeled with fluorescent iron oxide micro-particles and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). The cellular iron content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cell proliferation and expression of characteristic surface markers were determined by flow cytometry. The chondrogenic differentiation capacity was assessed. Different amounts of cells (n1 = 5000, n2 = 15 000, n3 = 50 000) were injected into the left heart ventricle of 12 mice. The animals underwent sequential MRI on a clinical 3.0T scanner (Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands). For histological validation cryosections were examined by fluorescent microscopy. Results: Magnetic and fluorescent labeling of MSC was established (mean cellular iron content 23.6 ± 3 pg). Flow cytometry showed similar cell proliferation and receptor expression of labeled and unlabeled MSC. Chondrogenic differentiation of labeled MSC was verified. After cell injection MRI revealed multiple signal voids in the brain and fewer signal voids in the kidneys. In the brain, an average of 4.6 ± 1.2 (n1), 9.0 ± 3.6 (n2) and 25.0 ± 1.0 (n3) signal voids were detected per MRI slice. An average of 8.7 ± 3.1 (n1), 22.0 ± 6.1 (n2) and 89.8 ± 6.5 (n3) labeled cells per corresponding stack of adjacent cryosections could be detected in the brain. Statistical correlation of the numbers of MRI signal voids in the brain and single MSC found by histology revealed a correlation coefficient of r = 0.91. Conclusion: The study demonstrates efficient magnetic and fluorescent co-labeling of MSC and their detection on a single cell level in mice by in-vivo MRI and histology. The described techniques may broaden the methods for in-vivo tracking of MSC. (orig.)

  8. Single well injection withdrawal tests (SWIW) in fractured rock. Some aspects on interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, Ivars

    2007-08-01

    Single-Well-Injection-Withdrawal, SWIW, tests are used to try to extract information on fracture apertures, sorption and diffusion properties and dispersion information in individual fractures. It is done by injecting a given amount of traced water into an isolated fracture. After a waiting period water is withdrawn from the fracture and the tracer concentration is measured. The concentration time curve is fitted to a model and the parameter values quantifying the different interaction mechanisms are determined. A number of different mechanisms influence the recovery of the tracer. One or more of the following mechanisms are considered. They include: dispersion due to velocity differences, sorption on fracture surface and on infill, diffusion in rock fragments in the fracture, diffusion between 'streamlines', diffusion into rock matrix and other stagnant water volumes, sorption kinetics and slow drift of the plume caused by the natural gradient. Many of the interaction mechanisms can influence the recovery curve in a similar way. For example, diffusion into rock matrix water and into stagnant water in the fracture adjacent to the flowing channels cannot be distinguished if only one tracer is used. Tracers with different properties can in principle be used but they will encounter different parts of the fracture, the sorbing tracer will move out less from the injection point than a nonsorbing tracer will. Diffusion and sorption in small particles in the flowpath can influence the recovery curve in a similar way as rock matrix diffusion does. Dispersion caused by diffusion between 'streamlines', Taylor dispersion, can give very different results in channels of different shapes. Such dispersion effects can be difficult to distinguish from matrix diffusion effects. Dispersion coefficients obtained in a SWIW test may have little relation to dispersion of a tracer moving from A to B. This is partly due to the different mechanisms and partly due to different time scales

  9. Single well injection withdrawal tests (SWIW) in fractured rock. Some aspects on interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neretnieks, Ivars [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Single-Well-Injection-Withdrawal, SWIW, tests are used to try to extract information on fracture apertures, sorption and diffusion properties and dispersion information in individual fractures. It is done by injecting a given amount of traced water into an isolated fracture. After a waiting period water is withdrawn from the fracture and the tracer concentration is measured. The concentration time curve is fitted to a model and the parameter values quantifying the different interaction mechanisms are determined. A number of different mechanisms influence the recovery of the tracer. One or more of the following mechanisms are considered. They include: dispersion due to velocity differences, sorption on fracture surface and on infill, diffusion in rock fragments in the fracture, diffusion between 'streamlines', diffusion into rock matrix and other stagnant water volumes, sorption kinetics and slow drift of the plume caused by the natural gradient. Many of the interaction mechanisms can influence the recovery curve in a similar way. For example, diffusion into rock matrix water and into stagnant water in the fracture adjacent to the flowing channels cannot be distinguished if only one tracer is used. Tracers with different properties can in principle be used but they will encounter different parts of the fracture, the sorbing tracer will move out less from the injection point than a nonsorbing tracer will. Diffusion and sorption in small particles in the flowpath can influence the recovery curve in a similar way as rock matrix diffusion does. Dispersion caused by diffusion between 'streamlines', Taylor dispersion, can give very different results in channels of different shapes. Such dispersion effects can be difficult to distinguish from matrix diffusion effects. Dispersion coefficients obtained in a SWIW test may have little relation to dispersion of a tracer moving from A to B. This is partly due to the different mechanisms and partly due to

  10. Diffuse chorioretinal atrophy after a single standard low- dose intravitreal melphalan injection in a child with retinoblastoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, An- Ning; Kao, Ling-Yuh; Liu, Laura; Wang, Nan-Kai

    2016-03-15

    Controlling retinoblastoma with seeding is challenging despite advances in treatment modalities. Intravitreal melphalan is an alternative to external beam radiation or enucleation for recurrent or refractory vitreous seeds. Significant ocular side effects following intravitreal melphalan injections are uncommon. Complications have been reported in eyes receiving higher concentrations of melphalan and repetitive injections. We report a case in which diffuse chorioretinal atrophy was developed at the injection site after a single, standard low-dose intravitreal melphalan injection. A 12-month-old female child without a family history of retinoblastoma presented with unilateral group C retinoblastoma in her right eye. A solitary tumour with retinal breaks on the tumour surface, and vitreous seeds overlying the tumour were observed at the 8 o'clock position of the retina. After two cycles of intra-arterial chemotherapy with melphalan, the main tumour displayed significant regression, but the vitreous seeds overlying the main tumour were still active. Because of the persistence of vitreous seeds and the inadequate response to intra-arterial melphalan treatment, intravitreal melphalan (8 μg in 0.05 mL) was injected using a 32-gauge needle 2.5 mm from the 5 o'clock position of the limbus, the meridian opposite to the vitreous seeds. After 1 month, the retina around the injection site demonstrated diffuse retinal pigment epithelium alterations with dense hard exudates. Although the main retinal mass, and vitreous seeds resolved, the hard exudates persisted for more than 2 years after the single low-dose melphalan injection. Intravitreal melphalan injections should be cautiously used for eyes with refractory seeds, particularly when multiple injections are required to control retinoblastoma seeds. Dose- related retinal toxicity could occur in pre-treated eyes even when a relatively low standard dose is used. Such patients should be followed up closely to monitor the

  11. Numerical simulations of single and multi-staged injection of H2 in a supersonic scramjet combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abu-Farah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of a single staged injection of H2 through a central wedge shaped strut and a multi-staged injection through wall injectors are carried out by using Ansys CFX-12 code. Unstructured tetrahedral grids for narrow channel and quarter geometries of the combustor are generated by using ICEM CFD. Steady three-dimensional (3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes (RANS simulations are carried out in the case of no H2 injection and compared with the simulations of single staged pilot and/or main H2 injections and multistage injection. Shear stress transport (SST based on k-ω turbulent model is adopted. Flow field visualization (complex shock waves interactions and static pressure distribution along the wall of the combustor are predicted and compared with the experimental schlieren images and measured wall static pressures for validation. A good agreement is found between the CFD predicted results and the measured data. The narrow and quarter geometries of the combustor give similar results with very small differences. Multi-staged injections of H2 enhance the turbulent H2/air mixing by forming vortices and additional shock waves (bow shocks.

  12. Effects of a single glucocorticoid injection on propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Drift, Saskia G A; Houweling, Martin; Bouman, Marina; Koets, Ad P; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids when administered to propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis. Clinical ketosis was defined by depressed feed intake and milk production, and a maximal score for acetoacetate in urine. All cows received 250 mL oral propylene glycol twice daily for 3 days and were randomly assigned to a single intramuscular injection with sterile isotonic saline solution (n = 14) or dexamethasone-21-isonicotinate (n = 17). Metabolic blood variables were monitored for 6 days and adipose tissue variables for 3 days. β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in blood decreased in all cows during treatment, but were lower in glucocorticoid-treated cows. Cows treated with glucocorticoids had higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, whereas concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, 3-methylhistidine and growth hormone were unaffected. mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase, BHBA receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type γ in adipose tissue was not affected. This shows that lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in ketotic cows when glucocorticoids are combined with PG. Plasma 3-methyl histidine concentrations were similar in both groups, suggesting that glucocorticoids did not increase muscle breakdown and that the greater rise in plasma glucose in glucocorticoid-treated cows may not be due to increased supply of glucogenic amino acids from muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution and excretion of mercury compounds in rats over a long period after a single injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swensson, A; Ulfvarson, U

    1968-01-01

    Rats were given single subcutaneous injections of methyl mercuric hydroxide, mercury (II) nitrate and phenyl mercuric hydroxide. The elimination of the compounds and the concentration in the organs at different times were followed by means of isotope techniques, for almost 6 months. The rate of excretion changes during the observation period. A calculated biological half-life therefore will be different from time to time. If the elimination during the first 9 days is considered the half-life is 5 days for mercury (II) nitrate and phenyl mercuric hydroxide and 16 days for methyl mercuric hydroxide. After this the excretion rate becomes slower and slower. The distribution in the organs varies during the first part of the period. The blood concentration decreases rapidly for all compounds, while the concentrations in the kidneys increases and reaches a maximum after some days. The same holds true for the brain and testis when mercury (II) nitrate and methyl mercuric hydroxide are considered. The elimination from the kidneys, the brain and the testes is slower than from other organs for all compounds. The concentrations in different parts of the brain are rather similar, though somewhat higher concentration in lobus olfactorius is indicated.

  14. Single injection of basic fibroblast growth factor to treat severe vocal fold lesions and vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Komazawa, Daigo; Indo, Kanako; Akagi, Yusuke; Lee, Yogaku; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Matsushima, Koji; Kunieda, Chikako; Misawa, Kiyoshi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yusuke

    2015-10-01

    Severe vocal fold lesions such as vocal fold sulcus, scars, and atrophy induce a communication disorder due to severe hoarseness, but a treatment has not been established. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) therapies by either four-time repeated local injections or regenerative surgery for vocal fold scar and sulcus have previously been reported, and favorable outcomes have been observed. In this study, we modified bFGF therapy using a single of bFGF injection, which may potentially be used in office procedures. Retrospective chart review. Five cases of vocal fold sulcus, six cases of scars, seven cases of paralysis, and 17 cases of atrophy were treated by a local injection of bFGF. The injection regimen involved injecting 50 µg of bFGF dissolved in 0.5 mL saline only once into the superficial lamina propria using a 23-gauge injection needle. Two months to 3 months after the injection, phonological outcomes were evaluated. The maximum phonation time (MPT), mean airflow rate, pitch range, speech fundamental frequency, jitter, and voice handicap index improved significantly after the bFGF injection. Furthermore, improvement in the MPT was significantly greater in patients with (in increasing order) vocal fold atrophy, scar, and paralysis. The improvement in the MPT among all patients was significantly correlated with age; the MPT improved more greatly in younger patients. Regenerative treatments by bFGF injection—even a single injection—effectively improve vocal function in vocal fold lesions. 4 © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Single-mode Brillouin fiber laser passively stabilized at resonance frequency with self-injection locked pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirin, V V; Lopez-Mercado, C A; Megret, P; Fotiadi, A A

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-mode Brillouin fiber ring laser, which is passively stabilized at pump resonance frequency by using self-injection locking of semiconductor pump laser. Resonance condition for Stokes radiation is achieved by length fitting of Brillouin laser cavity. The laser generate single-frequency Stokes wave with linewidth less than 0.5 kHz using approximately 17-m length cavity

  16. Distribution of 14C-lindane in the rat after a single dose intraperitoneal and intravenous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievremont, Maurice; Le Flohic, J.-F.; Pascaud, Marc

    1981-01-01

    14 C-Lindane retentions in rat tissues were studied until 24 hrs after a single dose pesticide administration. Each organ shows particular kinetics. Adipose tissue is the most active in pesticide fixation but the lungs retain momentarily a large fraction of Lindane after intravenous injection [fr

  17. Administration of follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa combined in a single injection: a feasibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinetto Rita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotrophins are routinely administered in assisted reproductive technology (ART treatment protocols. Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH; follitropin alfa and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (r-hLH; lutropin alfa can be administered individually or in a fixed combination. The ability to vary the FSH to LH dose ratio in a single injection without compromising the bioactivity of either gonadotrophin or generating losses of active principle is important for physicians and patients alike. Methods This study investigated whether follitropin alfa (GONAL-f (R, as lyophilized powder for reconstitution or solution from the GONAL-f (R (filled-by-mass [FbM] Prefilled Pen, could be used to reconstitute Pergoveris TM (follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder. In Ratio Groups 1 and 2, the r-hFSH:r-hLH ratio was 3:1; in Ratio Groups 3 and 4, the ratios of r-hFSH:r-hLH were 5:1 and 8:1, respectively. The protein content and bioactivity of each mixed solution were evaluated. The r-hFSH and r-hLH content was determined using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The biological activity of r-hFSH and r-hLH was assessed using the Steelman-Pohley and Van Hell in vivo bioassays in rats, respectively. Results Follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder could be successfully mixed with follitropin alfa 75 IU FbM solution that was either reconstituted from lyophilized powder or injected directly from the prefilled pen to create solutions with ratios of r-hFSH and r-hLH from 3:1 to 8:1. The measured content of r-hFSH and r-hLH corresponded favourably with the target protein content in Ratio Groups 1–4. The in vivo target and measured bioactivity of r-hFSH and r-hLH were also closely matched in all Ratio Groups. Conclusion Follitropin alfa lyophilized powder or solution can be accurately mixed with follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder to

  18. Sustained neuroprotection from a single intravitreal injection of PGJ₂ in a nonhuman primate model of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Neil R; Johnson, Mary A; Nolan, Theresa; Guo, Yan; Bernstein, Alexander M; Bernstein, Steven L

    2014-10-08

    Prostaglandin J₂ (PGJ₂) is neuroprotective in a murine model of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). After assessing for potential toxicity, we evaluated the efficacy of a single intravitreal (IVT) injection of PGJ₂ in a nonhuman primate model of NAION (pNAION). We assessed PGJ₂ toxicity by administering it as a single high-dose intravenous (IV) injection, consecutive daily high-dose IV injections, or a single IVT injection in one eye of five adult rhesus monkeys. To assess efficacy, we induced pNAION in one eye of five adult male rhesus monkeys using a laser-activated rose bengal induction method. We then injected the eye with either PGJ₂ or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intravitreally immediately or 5 hours post induction. We performed a clinical assessment, optical coherence tomography, electrophysiological testing, fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography in all animals prior to induction and at 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after induction. Following analysis of the first eye, we induced pNAION in the contralateral eye and then injected either PGJ₂ or PBS. We euthanized all animals 5 weeks after final assessment of the fellow eye and performed both immunohistochemical and light and electron microscopic analyses of the retina and optic nerves. PGJ₂ caused no permanent systemic toxicity regardless of the amount injected or route of delivery, and there was no evidence of any ocular toxicity with the dose of PGJ₂ used in efficacy studies. Transient reduction in the amplitudes of the visual evoked potentials and the N95 component of the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) occurred after both IV and IVT administration of high doses of PGJ₂; however, the amplitudes returned to normal in all animals within 1 week. In all eyes, a single IVT dose of PGJ₂ administered immediately or shortly after induction of pNAION resulted in a significant reduction of clinical, electrophysiological, and histological damage compared

  19. GSK1265744 pharmacokinetics in plasma and tissue after single-dose long-acting injectable administration in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreen, William; Ford, Susan L; Chen, Shuguang; Wilfret, David; Margolis, David; Gould, Elizabeth; Piscitelli, Stephen

    2014-12-15

    GSK1265744 (744) is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor in clinical development as a long-acting (LA) injectable formulation. This study evaluated plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics after single-dose administration of 744 LA administered by intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous injections. This was a phase I, open-label, 9-cohort, parallel study of 744 in healthy subjects. 744 was administered as a 200 mg/mL nanosuspension at doses of 100-800 mg IM and 100-400 mg subcutaneous. Eight (6 active and 2 placebo) male and female subjects participated in each of the first 7 cohorts. All 8 subjects, 4 males and 4 females, received active 744 LA in cohorts 8 and 9 and underwent rectal and cervicovaginal tissue sampling, respectively. Plasma pharmacokinetic sampling was performed for a minimum of 12 weeks or until 744 concentrations were ≤0.1 μg/mL. Rectal and cervicovaginal tissue biopsies were performed at weeks 2 and 8 (cohort 8) and weeks 4 and 12 (cohort 9). 744 LA was generally safe and well tolerated after single injections. A majority of subjects reported injection site reactions, all graded as mild in intensity. Plasma concentration-time profiles were prolonged with measureable concentrations up to 52 weeks after dosing. 744 LA 800 mg IM achieved mean concentrations above protein adjusted-IC90 for approximately 16 weeks. Rectal and cervicovaginal tissue concentrations ranged from injection has potential application as a monthly or less frequent HIV treatment or prevention agent.

  20. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Estades-Rubio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence Grade II and III and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane® and Group II with HA (Go-ON®. Patient’s evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  1. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estades-Rubio, Francisco J; Reyes-Martín, Alvaro; Morales-Marcos, Victor; García-Piriz, Mercedes; García-Vera, Juan J; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan A; Montañez-Heredia, Elvira

    2017-03-17

    Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA) in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade II and III) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane ® ) and Group II with HA (Go-ON ® ). Patient's evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  2. The comparison of knee osteoarthritis treatment with single-dose bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells vs. hyaluronic acid injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncars, Valdis; Jakobsons, Eriks; Blums, Kristaps; Briede, Ieva; Patetko, Liene; Erglis, Kristaps; Erglis, Martins; Kalnberzs, Konstantins; Muiznieks, Indrikis; Erglis, Andrejs

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare treatment methods of the knee joint degenerative osteoarthritis, using autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells and hyaluronic acid injections and observe prevalence of adverse effects in both groups. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out. The analysis of pain and changes in osteoarthritis symptoms after a single intra-articular bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell injection into the knee joint in the Kellgren-Lawrence stage II-III osteoarthritis during the 12-month period were performed. The results were compared with the control group treated routinely by hyaluronic acid injections therapy. A therapy group of patients (n=28) received single bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell intra-articular injections. A control group of patients (n=28) was treated with a total of three sodium hyaluronate intra-articular injections each one performed a week apart. The clinical results were obtained using the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Knee Society Score (KSS) before and 3, 6, and 12 months after injection. A statistically significant improvement was observed in the mononuclear cell group over the starting point in all scores. At the endpoint at month 12, the KOOS score improved significantly (Phyaluronic acid versus the bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells group at time points 6 and 12 months demonstrated a statistically significant (Phyaluronic acid group. In both groups serious adverse effects were not observed. The intra-articular injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells is a safe manipulation with no side effects during the 12-month period. This treatment provides statistically significant clinical improvement between the starting point and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after. When compared to hyaluronic acid treatment, better pain relief in the long-term period of mononuclear cell group was observed. Copyright © 2017 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production

  3. Effect of injection pressure on performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of diesel-acetylene-fuelled single cylinder stationary CI engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anmesh Kumar; Soni, Shyam Lal; Sharma, Dilip; Jain, Narayan Lal

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of injection pressure on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a diesel-acetylene fuelled single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI) diesel engine with a rated power of 3.5 kW at a rated speed of 1500 rpm was studied. Experiments were performed in dual-fuel mode at four different injection pressures of 180, 190, 200, and 210 bar with a flow rate of 120 LPH of acetylene and results were compared with that of baseline diesel operation. Experimental results showed that highest brake thermal efficiency of 27.57% was achieved at injection pressure of 200 bar for diesel-acetylene dual-fuel mode which was much higher than 23.32% obtained for baseline diesel. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and smoke emissions were also measured and found to be lower, while the NO x emissions were higher at 200 bar in dual fuel mode as compared to those in other injection pressures in dual fuel mode and also for baseline diesel mode. Peak cylinder pressure, net heat release rate, and rate of pressure rise were also calculated and were higher at 200 bar injection pressure in dual fuel mode.

  4. Liposomal bupivacaine as a single-injection peripheral nerve block: a dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilfeld, Brian M; Malhotra, Nisha; Furnish, Timothy J; Donohue, Michael C; Madison, Sarah J

    2013-11-01

    Currently available local anesthetics approved for single-injection peripheral nerve blocks have a maximum duration of fashion. The end points included the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and tolerance to cutaneous electrical current in the femoral nerve distribution. Measurements were performed from baseline until quadriceps MVIC returned to 80% of baseline bilaterally. There were statistically significant dose responses in MVIC (0.09%/mg, SE = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.14, P = 0.002) and tolerance to cutaneous current (-0.03 mA/mg, SE = 0.01, 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.02, P 40 mg, tolerance to cutaneous current did not return to within 20% above baseline until after 24 hours in 100% of subjects (95% CI, 56%-100%). MVIC did not consistently return to within 20% of baseline until after 24 hours in 90% of subjects (95% CI, 54%-100%). Motor block duration was not correlated with bupivacaine dose (0.06 hour/mg, SE = 0.14, 95% CI, -0.27 to 0.39, P = 0.707). The results of this investigation suggest that deposition of a liposomal bupivacaine formulation adjacent to the femoral nerve results in a partial sensory and motor block of >24 hours for the highest doses examined. However, the high variability of block magnitude among subjects and inverse relationship of dose and response magnitude attests to the need for a phase 3 study with a far larger sample size, and that these results should be viewed as suggestive, requiring confirmation in a future trial.

  5. Experimental investigation of gasoline fumigation in a single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Z.; Durgun, O.; Bayram, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the presented study, the effects of gasoline fumigation have been investigated experimentally in a single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Gasoline has been introduced into the inlet air flow using an elementary carburetor and no other modification on the engine has been done. The effects of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% (by vol.) gasoline fumigation have been investigated experimentally at the speeds of (900-1600) (rpm) and at the selected compression ratios of (18-23). From the experimental results it is determined that by application of gasoline fumigation effective power output increases at the levels of 4-9%, effective efficiency increases by approximately 1.5-4% and specific fuel consumption decreases by approximately 1.5-4%. It is also determined that 4-6% fumigation ratio range is the most favorable percentage interval of gasoline at the selected compression ratios for this engine. Because cost of gasoline is higher than diesel fuel in Turkey as well as in many of the other countries and the decrease ratio of specific fuel consumption is low, gasoline fumigation is not economic for this engine. In the presented study, heat balance tests have also been performed for 18 and 21 compression ratios. The heat balance has been investigated experimentally in respect of effective power, heat rejected to the cooling water, heat lost through exhaust, and other losses (unaccounted-for losses). Heat lost through exhaust decreases until 4-6% gasoline fumigation ratios and after these fumigation ratios it starts to increase because of increasing exhaust gas temperature. Heat rejected to the cooling water decreases at low fumigation ratios, but at high fumigation ratios it increases. Other losses generally exhibit an increasing tendency at low fumigation ratios

  6. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after single intramuscular injection in Pacific white shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X; Zhou, J; Liu, X

    2018-02-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties and tissue distribution of enrofloxacin (EF) were investigated after single intramuscular (i.m.) dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) in Pacific white shrimp at 22 to 25°C. EF and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CF) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After i.m. administration, EF was absorbed quickly, and the peak of EF concentration (C max ) reached at first time point in hemolymph. The volume of distribution V d(area) of EF was 3.84 L/kg, indicating that the distribution of EF was good. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of EF was 90.1 and 274.2 μg hr/ml in muscle and hepatopancreas, respectively, which was higher than 75.8 μg hr/ml in hemolymph. The EF elimination was slow in muscle and hepatopancreas with the half-life (T 1/2β ) of 52.3 and 75.8 hr, respectively. CF, the mainly metabolite of EF, was detected in hemolymph, muscle and hepatopancreas. The C max was 0.030, 0.013 and 0.218 μg/ml, respectively. Based on a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.006-0.032 μg/ml for susceptible strains, EF i.m. injected at a dose 10 mg/kg could be efficacious against common pathogenic bacteria of Pacific white shrimp. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of single and repeated injections of selective D2-antagonist clebopride on maternal behavior of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaeva, K K; Dobryakova, Yu V; Dubynin, V A; Kamensky, A A

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the effect of clebopride at low concentration that did not modify the motor activity on the parental care in female albino rats. Single injection of the drug attenuated the parental care reactions on postinjection minute 20, but not one day thereafter. The daily injection of the drug during the post partum period (1-6 days) resulted in significantly more pronounced and stable effects. The data obtained substantiated the views on the major contribution of D(2)-receptors in the development of behavioral manifestations of puerperal depression.

  8. Injection-locked single-mode VCSEL for orthogonal multiplexing and amplitude noise suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipouline, Arkadi; Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Malekizandi, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown earlier, that the injection locked semiconductor lasers enable effective amplitude noise suppression [1] and makes possible an extra level of signal multiplexing-orthogonal modulation [2], where DPSK and ASK NRZ channels propagate at the same wavelength [3]. In our work we use...... an injection-locked 1550 nm VCSEL as a slave laser providing separation of amplitude and phase modulations, carrying independent information flows. To validate the possibility of phase modulation extraction by an injection-locked VCSEL, an experimental setup shown in Fig. 1 has been built....

  9. Rapid induction of dopamine sensitization in the nucleus accumbens shell induced by a single injection of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Bryan F; Bryan, Myranda A; Popov, Pavlo; Robinson, Terry E; Aragona, Brandon J

    2017-05-01

    Repeated intermittent exposure to cocaine results in the neurochemical sensitization of dopamine (DA) transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Indeed, the excitability of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is enhanced within hours of initial psychostimulant exposure. However, it is not known if this is accompanied by a comparably rapid change in the ability of cocaine to increase extracellular DA concentrations in the ventral striatum. To address this question we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in awake-behaving rats to measure DA responses in the NAc shell following an initial intravenous cocaine injection, and then again 2-h later. Both injections quickly elevated DA levels in the NAc shell, but the second cocaine infusion produced a greater effect than the first, indicating sensitization. This suggests that a single injection of cocaine induces sensitization-related plasticity very rapidly within the mesolimbic DA system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of acute toxicity and the effect of single injected doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... significant in therapeutic applications against diseases of diverse origins .... The rats were killed under ether anesthesia; one hour after injection and blood ..... that zerumbone could be safe for use in one dose treatment.

  11. Improved estimation of receptor density and binding rate constants using a single tracer injection and displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, A.; Delforge, J.; Mazoyer, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of improving receptor model parameter estimation using a displacement experiment in which an excess of an unlabeled ligand (J) is injected after a delay (t D ) following injection of trace amounts of the β + - labeled ligand (J*) is investigated. The effects of varying t D and J/J* on parameter uncertainties are studied in the case of 11 C-MQNB binding to myocardial acetycholine receptor using parameters identified in a dog experiment

  12. An Optical Method for Measuring Injection Timing in Diesel Engines, Using a Single Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    injection, naturally aspirated marine diesel engine with mechanical unit injectors and showed satisfactory results with blends ranging from 25% HRD/75... injector technology, they further concluded that the mechanical unit injectors found throughout the naval fleet and on the Detroit Diesel 3–53 in the...injection timing in a pump-line- nozzle system of blending Fischer- Tropsch derived diesel fuel with low sulfur, ultra-low sulfur and biodiesel fuels. The

  13. Sustained neuroprotection from a single intravitreal injection of PGJ2 in a rodent model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Valerie; Johnson, Mary A; Guo, Yan; Miller, Neil R; Bernstein, Steven L

    2013-11-11

    Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common cause of sudden optic nerve-related vision loss in persons older than 50 in the United States. There currently is no treatment for this disorder. We previously showed that systemic administration of 15-deoxy, delta (12, 14) prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) is neuroprotective in our rodent model of AION (rAION). In this study, we determined if a single intravitreal (IVT) injection of PGJ2 is neuroprotective after rAION, and if this method of administration is toxic to the retina, optic nerve, or both. TOXICITY was assessed after a single IVT injection of PGJ2 in one eye and PBS in the contralateral eye of normal, adult Long-Evans rats. EFFICACY was assessed by inducing rAION in one eye and injecting either PGJ2 or vehicle immediately following induction, with the fellow eye serving as naïve control. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and ERGs were performed before induction and at specific intervals thereafter. Animals were euthanized 30 days after induction, after which immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and quantitative stereology of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) numbers were performed. IVT PGJ2 did not alter the VEP or ERG compared with PBS-injected control eyes, and neither IVT PGJ2 nor PBS reduced overall RGC numbers. IVT PGJ2 preserved VEP amplitude, reduced optic nerve edema, and resulted in significant preservation of RGCs and axons in eyes with rAION. A single IVT injection of PGJ2 is nontoxic to the retina and optic nerve and neuroprotective when given immediately after rAION induction.

  14. Single-shot measurements of low emittance beams from laser-plasma accelerators comparing two triggered injection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    The success of laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications, such as a compact x-ray free electron laser (FEL), relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot energy-dispersed emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock-induced density down-ramp injection. Both injection mechanisms have gained in popularity in recent years due to their demonstrated stable LPA performance. For the down-ramp injection configuration, normalized emittances a factor of two lower were recorded: less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV. For both injection mechanisms, a contributing correlation of space charge to the emittance was identified. This measurement technique in general, and these results specifically, are critical to the evaluation of LPA injection methods and development of high-quality LPA beam lines worldwide. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1415596, and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  15. Long-term Dose Stability of OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection for Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia: A 19-Year Single Institution Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Paddle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesAdductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD is a focal dystonia predominantly involving the laryngeal adductor muscles. AdSD is reported to be a largely non-progressive neurological disorder, though fluctuations in symptom severity do occur. Repeated laryngeal onabotulinumtoxinA (BTX-A injections are the primary management for AdSD. A number of studies have demonstrated long-term dose stability as evidence of this long-term disease stability.MethodsA retrospective review was performed on all patients undergoing BTX-A injections for AdSD from April 1994 to September 2013 by a single laryngologist at a tertiary referral laryngology center. Patient demographics, injection doses, use of diazepam and/or lidocaine, and self-reported vocal function were recorded. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed.Results83 patients underwent a total of 1,168 injections over 19 years. The mean starting dose was 2.35 MU (0.79 SD. The mean long-term dose was 2.36 MU (0.79 SD. After adjusting for confounders, the change in the relative dose of BTX-A, with every year elapsed since initial dose was 0.13% (95% confidence interval −0.31 to 0.57%, p = 0.568.ConclusionBTX-A dose is stable over time in our large cohort of patients treated with bilateral thyroarytenoid injections for AdSD.

  16. Numerical Simulations of Two-Phase Reacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor Using NCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.

  17. Optimizing CT angiography in patients with Fontan physiology: single-center experience of dual-site power injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, K.L.; Markham, L.W.; Mah, M.L.; Byrum, E.P.; Williams, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify adult patients with single-ventricle congenital heart disease and Fontan procedure palliation who have been misdiagnosed with or incompletely evaluated for pulmonary embolism. Additionally, this study was designed to demonstrate that simultaneous, dual-injection of contrast medium into an upper and lower extremity vein is superior to single-injection protocols for CT angiography (CTA) of the chest in this population. Materials and methods: Patients included in the study were retrospectively selected from the Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) database. Search criteria included history of Fontan palliation and available chest CT examination. Patients were evaluated for (1) type of congenital heart disease and prior operations;(2) indication for initial CT evaluation;(3) route of contrast medium administration for the initial CT examination and resulting diagnosis;(4) whether or not anticoagulation therapy was initiated; and (5) final diagnosis and treatment plan. Results: The query of the ACHD database resulted in 28 individuals or patients with Fontan palliation (superior and inferior venae cavae anastomosed to the pulmonary arteries). Of these, 19 patients with Fontan physiology underwent CTA of the pulmonary circulation, and 17 had suboptimal imaging studies. Unfortunately, seven of these 17 patients (41%) were started on anticoagulation therapy due to a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism that was later excluded. Conclusion: Patients with single-ventricle/Fontan physiology are at risk of thromboembolic disease. Therefore, studies evaluating their complex anatomy must be performed with the optimal imaging protocol to ensure diagnostic accuracy, which is best achieved with dual-injection of an upper and lower extremity central vein. - Highlights: • The adult congenital heart disease population is growing. • Many of these patients have single ventricle/Fontan physiology. • Patients with Fontan physiology are at increased risk for

  18. Safe and Effective Use of the Once Weekly Dulaglutide Single-Dose Pen in Injection-Naïve Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matfin, Glenn; Van Brunt, Kate; Zimmermann, Alan G; Threlkeld, Rebecca; Ignaut, Debra A

    2015-04-21

    This 4-week, phase 3b, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, outpatient study demonstrated the safe and effective use of the dulaglutide single-dose pen containing 0.5 mL of placebo for subcutaneous injection in injection-naïve adult patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with A1C ≤ 8.5% (69 mmol/mol), BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and ≤ 45 kg/m(2). Patients completed a modified self-injecting subscale of the Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-Testing Questionnaire (mD-FISQ) and were trained to self-inject with the single-dose pen. Patients completed the initial self-injection at the site, injected at home for 2 subsequent weeks, and returned to the site for the final injection. The initial and final self-injections were evaluated for success; the final (initial) self-injection success rate was the primary (secondary) outcome measure, and the primary (secondary) objective was to demonstrate this success rate as being significantly greater than 80%. Patients recorded their level of pain after each injection. After the final injection, patients completed the mD-FISQ and the Medication Delivery Device Assessment Battery (MDDAB) to assess their perceptions of the single-dose pen, including ease of use and experience with the device. Among 211 patients (mean age: 61 years), the primary objective was met, with a final injection success rate of 99.1% (95% CI: 96.6% to 99.7%). Among 214 patients, the initial injection success rate was 97.2% (95% CI: 94.0% to 98.7%), meeting the key secondary objective. Overall, most patients (>96%) found the device easy to use, were satisfied with the device, and would be willing to continue to use the single-dose pen after the study. There was a significant reduction (P injecting, as measured by the mD-FISQ. The dulaglutide single-dose pen was found to be a safe and effective device for use by patients with T2D who were injection-naïve. A positive injection experience is an important factor for patients and providers when initiating injectable

  19. Injection molded polymer chip for electrochemical and electrophysiological recordings from single cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, Simone; Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    We present a novel method to fabricate an all in polymer injection molded chip for electrochemical cell recordings and lateral cell trapping. The complete device is molded in thermoplastic polymer and it results from assembling two halves. We tested spin-coated conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylen...

  20. Histopathological Alterations after Single Epidural Injection of Ropivacaine, Methylprednizolone Acetate, or Contrast Material in Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsou, Maria-Chrysanthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Vlachodimitropoulos, Demetrios; Soultanis, Konstantinos; Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Kelekis, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The consequences from the injection of different types of drugs in the epidural space remains unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that localized inflammation, fibrosis, and arachnoiditis can complicate sequential epidural blockades, or even epidural contrast injection. We investigate the in vivo effect of epidural injections in the epidural space in an animal model. Materials and Methods: A group of ten male adult pigs, five punctures to each at distinct vertebral interspaces under general anesthesia, were examined, testing different drugs, used regularly in the epidural space (iopamidol, methylprednisolone acetate, ropivacaine). Each site was marked with a percutaneous hook wire marker. Histological analysis of the epidural space, the meninges, and the underlying spinal cord of the punctured sites along with staining for caspase-3 followed 20 days later. Results: The epidural space did not manifest adhesions or any other pathology, and the outer surface of the dura was not impaired in any specimen. The group that had the contrast media injection showed a higher inflammation response compared to the other groups (P = 0.001). Positive staining for caspase-3 was limited to <5% of neurons with all substances used. Conclusion: No proof of arachnoiditis and/or fibrosis was noted in the epidural space with the use of the above-described drugs. A higher inflammation rate was noted with the use of contrast media.

  1. Accelerated avascular necrosis after single intra-articular injection of corticosteroid into the hip joint

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam, A M

    2010-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) involves destruction of the hip joint. Long-term use of steroids has been shown to cause AVN. This article presents a case of intra-articular injection of steroid causing a rapid onset of AVN in the hip joint. Bone histology at time of total hip replacement showed evidence of AVN and no evidence of infection.

  2. Intraperitoneal Injection Is Not a Suitable Administration Route for Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Guo, Qing; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Li, Rui; Wu, Yang; Ma, Ping; Yang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Given the extensive application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in biomedical fields, there is increasing concern regarding unintentional health impacts. Research into safe usage is therefore increasingly necessary. This study investigated the responses of the mouse brain to single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) delivered via intraperitoneal (IP) injection and compared these results with the previous study where SWCNTs were delivered via intravenous (IV) injection so as to explore which administration route is potentially better for SWCNTs application. This study suggests SWCNTs delivered via IP injection can have negative effects on the mouse brain through oxidative stress and inflammation at high concentration exposure, but these responses were not consistent and showed no dose-dependent effect. In a previous study, the results showed that IV-delivered SWCNTs induced a more consistent and dose-dependent effect. The comparison of the 2 studies suggested that using SWCNTs at a safe dosage delivered via IV injection may be a better administration route for SWCNTs in biomedical applications.

  3. Rapid dual-injection single-scan 13N-ammonia PET for quantification of rest and stress myocardial blood flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, T C; DiBella, E V R; McGann, C J; Christian, P E; Hoffman, J M; Kadrmas, D J

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of myocardial blood flows at rest and stress using 13 N-ammonia PET is an established method; however, current techniques require a waiting period of about 1 h between scans. The objective of this study was to test a rapid dual-injection single-scan approach, where 13 N-ammonia injections are administered 10 min apart during rest and adenosine stress. Dynamic PET data were acquired in six human subjects using imaging protocols that provided separate single-injection scans as gold standards. Rest and stress data were combined to emulate rapid dual-injection data so that the underlying activity from each injection was known exactly. Regional blood flow estimates were computed from the dual-injection data using two methods: background subtraction and combined modelling. The rapid dual-injection approach provided blood flow estimates very similar to the conventional single-injection standards. Rest blood flow estimates were affected very little by the dual-injection approach, and stress estimates correlated strongly with separate single-injection values (r = 0.998, mean absolute difference = 0.06 ml min -1 g -1 ). An actual rapid dual-injection scan was successfully acquired in one subject and further demonstrates feasibility of the method. This study with a limited dataset demonstrates that blood flow quantification can be obtained in only 20 min by the rapid dual-injection approach with accuracy similar to that of conventional separate rest and stress scans. The rapid dual-injection approach merits further development and additional evaluation for potential clinical use

  4. Forecast of thermal-hydrological conditions and air injection test results of the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1996-12-01

    The heater in the Single Heater Test (SHT) in alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was turned on August 26, 1996. A large number of sensors are installed in the various instrumented boreholes to monitor the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical responses of the rock mass to the heat generated in the single heater. In this report the authors present the results of the modeling of both the heating and cooling phases of the Single Heater Test (SHT), with focus on the thermal-hydrological aspect of the coupled processes. Also in this report, the authors present simulations of air injection tests will be performed at different stages of the heating and cooling phase of the SHT

  5. EXPERIMENTAL TARGET INJECTION AND TRACKING SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION AND SINGLE SHOT TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETZOLDT, R.W.; ALEXANDER, N.B.; DRAKE, T.J.; GOODIN, D.T; JONESTRACK, K; VERMILLION, B.A

    2003-01-01

    Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 Hz. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy ± 150 (micro)m for indirect drive and ± 20 (micro)m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been constructed at General Atomics. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feedback to the target designers. Helium gas propels the targets down an 8 m gun barrel up to 400 m/s. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time will be predicted in real time based on early target position measurements. The system installation will be described. System testing to overcome excessive projectile wear and debris in the gun barrel is presented

  6. Methodological study on determining endogenous amino acid excretion of broiler chickens by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Junhu; Wang Kangning; Yang Feng; Zhou Anguo; Cai Xuelin; Duanmu Dao

    1999-01-01

    Forty broiler chickens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 20 groups. Every fifth group was force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or a NFd + 3.20% enzyme hydrolysed casein (EHC) diet or diets with 5% and 20% crude protein (CP) in which soybean meal (sol.) was the sole nitrogen source. 30μCi 3 H-leucine/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after the force-feeding. Venous blood samples were taken at 5 min, 4h, 24h, 36h and 48h after the injection, and the amount of excreta for the whole period of 48h was collected. The amino acids excreted after force-feeding NFD + 3.20% EHC of CP5% diet were theoretically endogenous. The ratios of specific radioactivity (SR) in excreta and the value of definite integral in free plasma from 0 to 48 h after injection of labelled leucine were not different (P > 0.05) when NFD, NFD + 3.20% EHC or CP5% diet was fed. From these results and theoretical analysis, it was suggested that for the birds with CP20% diet, the ratio of SR in endogenous leucine and value of definite integral in free plasma from 0 to 48 h after injection of labelled leucine would be the same as that of the birds with NFD diet, and thus endogenous losses of leucine and other amino acids, by the endogenous amino acid pattern measured with NFD diet, could be estimated for CP20% diet. The endogenous amino acid losses measured by this new technique was 120.50% of those measured by NFD method. It was suggested that single intravenous injection of 3 H-leucine first proposed would be more valuable for determining endogenous amino acid losses, especially when practical nitrogen-containing diet was fed

  7. A precise pointing nanopipette for single-cell imaging via electroosmotic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jian; Qian, Ruo-Can; Hu, Yong-Xu; Liu, Shao-Chuang; Cao, Yue; Zheng, Yong-Jie; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-11-24

    The precise transportation of fluorescent probes to the designated location in living cells is still a challenge. Here, we present a new addition to nanopipettes as a powerful tool to deliver fluorescent molecules to a given place in a single cell by electroosmotic flow, indicating favorable potential for further application in single-cell imaging.

  8. A single injection technique for subtraction of blood background in 131I-hippuran renograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method of subtracting blood background during probe-renography is presented which does not require a prior injection of RIHSA and which produces results approximately 11% higher than the RIHSA method. The new method treats the renogram up to two-and-a-half minutes as a combination of a fraction of the blood curve and a fraction of the integral of the blood curve. Analysis of the data, using either a computer or a programmed calculator, enables these two fractions to be calculated, hence producing the 'background subtraction factor' and the 'uptake constant'. (author)

  9. Conversion from non-orthogonally to orthogonally polarized optical single-sideband modulation using optically injected semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Han; Tseng, Chin-Hao; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang

    2018-06-01

    This Letter investigates an optically injected semiconductor laser for conversion from non-orthogonally to orthogonally polarized optical single-sideband modulation. The underlying mechanism relies solely on nonlinear laser characteristics and, thus, only a typical semiconductor laser is required as the key conversion unit. This conversion can be achieved for a broadly tunable frequency range up to at least 65 GHz. After conversion, the microwave phase quality, including linewidth and phase noise, is mostly preserved, and simultaneous microwave amplification up to 23 dB is feasible.

  10. Approximate and analytical solutions for solute transport from an injection well into a single fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.S.; Yates, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    In dealing with problems related to land-based nuclear waste management, a number of analytical and approximate solutions were developed to quantify radionuclide transport through fractures contained in the porous formation. It has been reported that by treating the radioactive decay constant as the appropriate first-order rate constant, these solutions can also be used to study injection problems of a similar nature subject to first-order chemical or biological reactions. The fracture is idealized by a pair of parallel, smooth plates separated by an aperture of constant thickness. Groundwater was assumed to be immobile in the underlying and overlying porous formations due to their low permeabilities. However, the injected radionuclides were able to move from the fracture into the porous matrix by molecular diffusion (the matrix diffusion) due to possible concentration gradients across the interface between the fracture and the porous matrix. Calculation of the transient solutions is not straightforward, and the paper documents a contained Fortran program, which computes the Stehfest inversion, the Airy functions, and gives the concentration distributions in the fracture as well as in the porous matrix for both transient and steady-state cases

  11. Stability of methadone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in single-dose plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, D D; Crews, J C; Grummich, K W; Stirm, E J; Sue, C A

    1991-03-01

    The stability of methadone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in flexible polyvinyl chloride containers was studied. Commercially available methadone hydrochloride 20 mg/mL and 25-mL single-dose bags of 0.9% sodium chloride injection were used. Six samples each were prepared at methadone hydrochloride concentrations of 1, 2, and 5 mg/mL. The solutions were stored at room temperature and were not protected from light. Immediately after preparation and after two, three, and four weeks of storage, each of the 18 samples was divided into three aliquots, each of which was analyzed in duplicate for methadone hydrochloride concentration by gas chromatography. There was less than 10% change in methadone hydrochloride concentration in any sample throughout the four-week study period. Methadone hydrochloride at concentrations of 1, 2, and 5 mg/mL prepared in commercially available flexible polyvinyl chloride containers of 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at room temperature without deliberate protection from light is stable for at least four weeks.

  12. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad E.; Seabron, Eric; Dunham, Simon N.; Du, Frank; Lin, Jonathan; Wilson, William L.; Rogers, John A., E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wahab, Muhammad A.; Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Li, Yuhang [Institute of Solid Mechanics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Tomic, Bojan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Huang, Jiyuan [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Burns, Branden [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Song, Jizhou [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Soft Matter Research Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Huang, Yonggang [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health, and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups.

  13. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad E.; Seabron, Eric; Dunham, Simon N.; Du, Frank; Lin, Jonathan; Wilson, William L.; Rogers, John A.; Wahab, Muhammad A.; Alam, Muhammad A.; Li, Yuhang; Tomic, Bojan; Huang, Jiyuan; Burns, Branden; Song, Jizhou; Huang, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups

  14. Estrus response and fertility of Menz and crossbred ewes to single prostaglandin injection protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuriaw, Zeleke; Assefa, Habtemariam; Tegegne, Azage; Muluneh, Dagne

    2016-01-01

    Natural lambing in sheep in Ethiopia occurs throughout the year in a scattered manner negatively affecting survival and growth rates of the lambs born during the unfavorable season of the year. Thus, controlling the time of mating artificially using exogenous source of hormones is considered as one of the ways to mitigated problems related to haphazard lambing. To this end, an experiment was conducted to evaluate efficacy of prostaglandin-based estrus synchronization protocol in local and crossbred ewes. A total of 160 ewes (80 local and 80 crossbreds) which lambed at least once and aged 3-5 years were used. Lutalyse® (dinoprost tromethamine sterile solution equivalent to 5 mg dinoprost per ml) and its analog, Synchromate® (cloprostenol sodium equivalent to 0.250 mg cloprostenol per ml), were tested at different doses. The treatments used were intramuscular injection of (1) 2.50 ml of Lutalyse® (12.5 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (2) 2 ml of Lutalyse® (10.0 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (3) 1 ml of Synchromate® (0.25 mg of cloprostenol Sodium), and (4) 0.8 ml of Synchromate® (0.20 mg of cloprostenol Sodium). Forty ewes (20 local and 20 crossbreds) were allocated per treatment. Following injection of the respective hormones, rams of known fertility were introduced into the flock for the duration of 96 h at the ratio of one ram to 10 ewes. All estrus synchronization protocols except treatment 4 (0.8 ml of Synchromate®) induced estrus (heat) in majority (55-65%) of local and crossbred ewes within 96 h post-hormone injection. The time interval from hormone administration to onset of estrus was also more or less similar for all treatment groups except for treatment group 4 which showed heat quicker. The highest lambing rate was recorded in local ewes (84.62% (11/13) treated with 2.5 ml of Lutalyse®, whereas the least was obtained in crossbreds (33.33% (3/9) treated with 0.8 ml Synchromate®. In conclusion, even though 2.5 ml and 2 ml of Lutalyse® or 1 ml of

  15. Pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uney, K; Altan, F; Cetin, G; Aboubakr, M; Dik, B; Sayın, Z; Er, A; Elmas, M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome (CFQ) following single intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) injections of 2 mg/kg body weight in red-eared slider turtles. Plasma concentrations of CFQ were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed using noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic parameters following IV injection were as follows: elimination half-life (t 1/2λz ) 21.73 ± 4.95 hr, volume of distribution at steady-state (V dss ) 0.37 ± 0.11 L/kg, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-∞ ) 163 ± 32 μg hr -1  ml -1 , and total body clearance (Cl T ) 12.66 ± 2.51 ml hr -1  kg -1 . The pharmacokinetic parameters after IM injection were as follows: peak plasma concentration (C max ) 3.94 ± 0.84 μg/ml, time to peak concentration (T max ) 3 hr, t 1/2λz 26.90 ± 4.33 hr, and AUC 0-∞ 145 ± 48 μg hr -1  ml -1 . The bioavailability after IM injection was 88%. Data suggest that CFQ has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a long half-life and a high bioavailability in red-eared slider turtles. Further studies are needed to establish a multiple dosage regimen and evaluate clinical efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Symptomatic hepatic cyst in a child: treatment with single-shot injection of tetracycline hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrizzi, Giancarlo; Lanza, Cecilia; Bolli, Valeria; Pieroni, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatic cysts is 0.1% to 0.5% based on autopsy studies, and 2.5% based on US examinations. Percutaneous therapies are a new alternative to surgery. They include simple percutaneous aspiration, catheter drainage alone, and catheter drainage with sclerotherapy. We present an 11-year-old boy admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain. A diagnosis of simple hepatic cyst was made, which was treated with aspiration and tetracycline hydrochloride solution (5%) injection into the cystic cavity. Complete regression was seen on US and MRI examination at 3 months, with total collapse and deflation of the cyst. The cyst regressed totally, leaving a hyperechoic linear scar on US examination at 1 year. On the basis of the clinical and imaging results obtained, percutaneous sclerotherapy of hepatic cysts can be recommended as the treatment of choice and as a valid alternative to laparoscopy in children. (orig.)

  17. Effect of intake swirl on the performance of single cylinder direct injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Mohan, Man; Mouli, Chandra

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, the effect of inlet manifold geometry and swirl intensity on the direct injection (DI) diesel engine performance was investigated experimentally. Modifications in inlet manifold geometry have been suggested to achieve optimized swirl for the better mixing of fuel with air. The intake swirl intensities of modified cylinder head were measured in swirl test rig at different valve lifts. Later, the overall performance of 435 CC DI diesel engine was measured using modified cylinder head. In addition, the performance of engine was compared for both modified and old cylinder head. For same operating conditions, the brake power and brake specific fuel consumption was improved by 6% and 7% respectively with modified cylinder head compared to old cylinder head. The maximum brake power of 9 HP was achieved for modified cylinder head. The results revealed that the intake swirl has great influence on engine performance.

  18. Modelling of profile control with LH wave injection in the HL-2A single-null divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Qingdi; Yuan Baoshan; Li Fangzhu; Wang, Aike; Budny, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    In the HL-2A tokamak a single-null divertor configuration has been established. The separatrix of the single-null diverted plasma was identified with a filament model, and the determined striking area on the target plate is in agreement with the measurements of electric probe array. Higher power LH wave (1.5MW) is injected to the diverted plasma with a nearly symmetric spectrum. Dominant electron heating and current profile control are investigated with numerical simulation. Plasma heating by electron Landau interaction results in operation scenarios of preferentially dominant electron heating. Due to the off-axis driven current, an optimized q-profile is formed, and an enhanced confinement regime with steep electron temperature gradient is produced. The clear decrease of the electron thermal conductivity in the LH power deposition region shows that an electron-ITB is developed. When higher LH power injects into the target plasma that is heated by NBI (0.5MW), the ion temperature has a large increment in addition to the high increase of electron temperature. The temperature profiles indicate that an enhanced core confinement is established with both ion-ITB and electron-ITB developed. (author)

  19. Observing Exoplanets with High-dispersion Coronagraphy. II. Demonstration of an Active Single-mode Fiber Injection Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawet, D.; Ruane, G.; Xuan, W.; Echeverri, D.; Klimovich, N.; Randolph, M.; Fucik, J.; Wang, J.; Dekany, R.; Delorme, J.-R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wallace, J. K.; Vasisht, G.; Mennesson, B.; Choquet, E.; Serabyn, E., E-mail: dmawet@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    High-dispersion coronagraphy (HDC) optimally combines high-contrast imaging techniques such as adaptive optics/wavefront control plus coronagraphy to high spectral resolution spectroscopy. HDC is a critical pathway toward fully characterizing exoplanet atmospheres across a broad range of masses from giant gaseous planets down to Earth-like planets. In addition to determining the molecular composition of exoplanet atmospheres, HDC also enables Doppler mapping of atmosphere inhomogeneities (temperature, clouds, wind), as well as precise measurements of exoplanet rotational velocities. Here, we demonstrate an innovative concept for injecting the directly imaged planet light into a single-mode fiber, linking a high-contrast adaptively corrected coronagraph to a high-resolution spectrograph (diffraction-limited or not). Our laboratory demonstration includes three key milestones: close-to-theoretical injection efficiency, accurate pointing and tracking, and on-fiber coherent modulation and speckle nulling of spurious starlight signal coupling into the fiber. Using the extreme modal selectivity of single-mode fibers, we also demonstrated speckle suppression gains that outperform conventional image-based speckle nulling by at least two orders of magnitude.

  20. Review: study of single-pellet injection experiments and development of pellet injector in JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Miura, Yukitoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Sengoku, Seio

    1987-10-01

    The single pellet injector developed for JFT-2M and the improvement of plasma characteristics in the auxiliary-heated discharges by single-pellet injection are reviewed for the period 1982 - 1986. The pellet injector is a pneumatic type and the designed pellet size is 1.65 mmD x 1.65 mmL and 1 mmD x 1 mmL. The hydrogen, deuterium and mixed (H 2 + D 2 ) pellets can be produced with good reproducibility. Maximum pellet velocity is about 970 m/s (pellet is deuterium and propellant gas is hydrogen). In the pellet injection experiments into auxiliary-heated (NB, ICRF) divertor or limiter discharges, the plasma confinement time is improved by a factor of 1.4 - 1.7 compared with the confinement time in the Ohmic discharges. The achieved confinement time is longer than that on the high confinement mode (H-mode) in gas fueled discharges, although the phenomena are transient. (author)

  1. Efficacy and safety of single injection of cross-linked sodium hyaluronate vs. three injections of high molecular weight sodium hyaluronate for osteoarthritis of the knee: a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, non-inferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chul-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Choi, Chong-Hyuk; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Lee, Ju-Hong; Yoo, Jae Doo; Yoo, Ju-Hyung; Choi, Choong-Hyeok; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Hee-Chun; Oh, Kwang-Jun; Bin, Seong-Il; Lee, Myung Chul

    2017-05-26

    This randomized, double-blind, multi-center, non-inferiority trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a cross-linked hyaluronate (XLHA, single injection form) compared with a linear high molecular hyaluronate (HMWHA, thrice injection form) in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Two hundred eighty seven patients with osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade I to III) were randomized to each group. Three weekly injections were given in both groups but two times of saline injections preceded XLHA injection to maintain double-blindness. Primary endpoint was the change of weight-bearing pain (WBP) at 12 weeks after the last injection. Secondary endpoints included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index; patient's and investigator's global assessment; pain at rest, at night, or in motion; OMERACT-OARSI responder rate; proportion of patients achieving at least 20 mm or 40% decrease in WBP; and rate of rescue medicine use and its total consumption. Mean changes of WBP at 12 weeks after the last injection were -33.3 mm with XLHA and -29.2 mm with HMWHA, proving non-inferiority of XLHA to HMWHA as the lower bound of 95% CI (-1.9 mm, 10.1 mm) was well above the predefined margin (-10 mm). There were no significant between-group differences in all secondary endpoints. Injection site pain was the most common adverse event and no remarkable safety issue was identified. This study demonstrated that a single injection of XLHA was non-inferior to three weekly injections of HMWHA in terms of WBP reduction, and supports XLHA as an effective and safe treatment for knee osteoarthritis. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01510535 ). This trial was registered on January 6, 2012.

  2. Small Molecule Injection into Single-Cell C. elegans Embryos via Carbon-Reinforced Nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Diane G.; Fellman, Shanna M.; Chung, SueYeon; Soltani, Mohammad; Kevek, Joshua W.; McEuen, Paul M.; Kemphues, Kenneth J.; Wang, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of chemical inhibitors into living cells at specific times in development is a useful method for investigating the roles of specific proteins or cytoskeletal components in developmental processes. Some embryos, such as those of Caenorhabditis elegans, however, possess a tough eggshell that makes introducing drugs and other molecules into embryonic cells challenging. We have developed a procedure using carbon-reinforced nanopipettes (CRNPs) to deliver molecules into C. elegans embryos with high temporal control. The use of CRNPs allows for cellular manipulation to occur just subsequent to meiosis II with minimal damage to the embryo. We have used our technique to replicate classical experiments using latrunculin A to inhibit microfilaments and assess its effects on early polarity establishment. Our injections of latrunculin A confirm the necessity of microfilaments in establishing anterior-posterior polarity at this early stage, even when microtubules remain intact. Further, we find that latrunculin A treatment does not prevent association of PAR-2 or PAR-6 with the cell cortex. Our experiments demonstrate the application of carbon-reinforced nanopipettes to the study of one temporally-confined developmental event. The use of CRNPs to introduce molecules into the embryo should be applicable to investigations at later developmental stages as well as other cells with tough outer coverings. PMID:24086620

  3. Heat transfer characteristics around a single heated rod immersed in sodium pool with gas jet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideto Niikura; Kazuo Soga; Ken-ichiro Sugiyama; Akira Yamaguchi

    2005-01-01

    In a steam generator using liquid sodium, water intensely reacts with sodium when it leaks out from a heat transfer tube. It is important to evaluate the influence of sodium-water reaction to surrounding tubes and the shell. Hence, it has been desired to develop the simulation code for the evaluation of sodium-water reaction. From this viewpoint, the Japan Nuclear Cycle is now developing the SERAPHIM code. We reported a preliminary study to establish an experimental method for a single heated rod immersed in sodium pool with steam jet impingement planned in the near future as well as to obtain a preliminary data to verify the adequacy of SERAPHIM code. We first measured local and mean heat transfer coefficients around a horizontal single heated rod immersed in a water pool and a sodium pool with a limited volume in the experimental apparatus. It was confirmed that the mean heat transfer coefficients fairly agreed with the existing data for natural convection in water and sodium. Secondary we measured local and mean heat transfer coefficients around a horizontal single heated rod with Ar gas jet impingement immersed in the limited water pool and in the limited sodium pool. It was clearly observed that the local heat transfer coefficients in the sodium pool keep almost the same values in every angle regardless of increase in Ar gas jet velocity varied from about 8.7m/s to about 78m/s. On the other hand, it was confirmed in the water pool that local heat transfer coefficients on the forward stagnation side exposed in the Ar gas jet impingement increase with increasing the jet velocity while the local heat transfer coefficients on the opposite surface keep almost same values regardless of increase in the velocity. (authors)

  4. Electron-Hole Asymmetry of Spin Injection and Transport in Single-Layer Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Wei; Wang, W. H.; Pi, K.; McCreary, K. M.; Bao, W.; Li, Yan; Miao, F.; Lau, C. N.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    Spin-dependent properties of single-layer graphene (SLG) have been studied by non-local spin valve measurements at room temperature. Gate voltage dependence shows that the non-local magnetoresistance (MR) is proportional to the conductivity of the SLG, which is the predicted behavior for transparent ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic contacts. While the electron and hole bands in SLG are symmetric, gate voltage and bias dependence of the non-local MR reveal an electron-hole asymmetry in which the non-...

  5. Improved healing of transected rabbit Achilles tendon after a single injection of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Carina; Aspenberg, Per

    2003-01-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures in humans might be treated more efficiently with the help of a growth factor. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 has been shown to induce formation of tendon-like tissue. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 has a positive effect on mechanical parameters for tendon healing in a rabbit model with Achilles tendon transection. Controlled laboratory study. The right Achilles tendon of 40 rabbits was transected without tendon suture. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 (10 micro g) or vehicle control (acetate buffer) was injected locally 2 hours postoperatively. All tendons were tested biomechanically at 8 and 14 days, and treated tendons were histologically and radiographically evaluated at 56 days. At 14 days, both failure load and stiffness of treated tendons were increased by 35%. The treated tendons had significantly larger callus size at 8 and 14 days. Histologic and radiographic examination showed no signs of ossification in the treated tendons after 56 days. A single injection of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 led to a stronger and stiffer tendon callus than that in the controls without inducing bone formation. Similar results from a larger animal model would suggest a possible future use of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 in the treatment of human Achilles tendon ruptures.

  6. Performance and combustion analysis of Mahua biodiesel on a single cylinder compression ignition engine using electronic fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran Anandkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, experiment is carried out on a 1500 rpm constant speed single cylinder Diesel engine. The test is carried out with Neat diesel, neat biodiesel, and blend B20. The engine considered was run with electronic fuel injection system supported by common rail direct injection to obtain high atomization and effective air utilization inside the combustion chamber. The performance of the engine in terms of break thermal efficiency and brake specific energy consumption was found and compared. The B20 blend shows 1.11% decrease in break thermal efficiency and 3.35% increase in brake specific energy consumption than diesel. The combustion characteristics found are in-cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate and compared for peak pressure load to understand the nature of combustion process. For each fuel test run, the maximum peak pressure is observed at part load condition. The rate of change of pressure and heat release rate of diesel is high compared to pure biodiesel and B20 blend. The diffusion combustion is observed to be predominant in case of B100 than B20 and Neat diesel.

  7. Self-assembling chimeric polypeptide-doxorubicin conjugate nanoparticles that abolish tumours after a single injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Mackay, J.; Chen, Mingnan; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Liu, Wenge; Simnick, Andrew J.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2009-12-01

    New strategies to self-assemble biocompatible materials into nanoscale, drug-loaded packages with improved therapeutic efficacy are needed for nanomedicine. To address this need, we developed artificial recombinant chimeric polypeptides (CPs) that spontaneously self-assemble into sub-100-nm-sized, near-monodisperse nanoparticles on conjugation of diverse hydrophobic molecules, including chemotherapeutics. These CPs consist of a biodegradable polypeptide that is attached to a short Cys-rich segment. Covalent modification of the Cys residues with a structurally diverse set of hydrophobic small molecules, including chemotherapeutics, leads to spontaneous formation of nanoparticles over a range of CP compositions and molecular weights. When used to deliver chemotherapeutics to a murine cancer model, CP nanoparticles have a fourfold higher maximum tolerated dose than free drug, and induce nearly complete tumour regression after a single dose. This simple strategy can promote co-assembly of drugs, imaging agents and targeting moieties into multifunctional nanomedicines.

  8. Single-well injection-withdrawal tests (SWIW). Investigation of evaluation aspects under heterogeneous crystalline bedrock conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordqvist, Rune; Gustafsson, Erik

    2004-08-01

    Single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests have been identified by SKB as an investigation method for solute transport properties in the forthcoming site investigations. A previous report presents a literature study as well as scoping calculations for SWIW tests in homogeneous crystalline bedrock environments. The present report comprises further scoping calculations under assumptions of heterogeneous bedrock conditions. Simple but plausible homogeneous evaluation models are tested on simulated SWIW tests in hypothetical heterogeneous two-dimensional fractures. The results from this study indicate that heterogeneity may cause effects of flow irreversibility when background hydraulic gradients are significant and the tested section is located in a dominating flow path. This implies that such conditions make it more difficult to interpret results from SWIW tests of longer duration with sorbing and/or diffusing tracers. Sorption and diffusion processes may be best studied when SWIW tests are conducted in borehole sections with low natural flow rates

  9. Optical trapping and binding of particles in an optofluidic stable Fabry-Pérot resonator with single-sided injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Noha; Malak, Maurine; Marty, Frédéric; Angelescu, Dan E; Richalot, Elodie; Bourouina, Tarik

    2014-07-07

    In this article, microparticles are manipulated inside an optofluidic Fabry-Pérot cylindrical cavity embedding a fluidic capillary tube, taking advantage of field enhancement and multiple reflections within the optically-resonant cavity. This enables trapping of suspended particles with single-side injection of light and with low optical power. A Hermite-Gaussian standing wave is developed inside the cavity, forming trapping spots at the locations of the electromagnetic field maxima with a strong intensity gradient. The particles get arranged in a pattern related to the mechanism affecting them: either optical trapping or optical binding. This is proven to eventually translate into either an axial one dimensional (1D) particle array or a cluster of particles. Numerical simulations are performed to model the field distributions inside the cavity allowing a behavioral understanding of the phenomena involved in each case.

  10. An injection seeded single frequency Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with precisely controllable laser pulse firing time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Frank F.; Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir

    2010-02-01

    We have realized a single frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with precisely controllable lasing time and thus enabled synchronization of multi-laser systems. The use of injection seeding to the slave ring oscillator results in unidirectional Q-switched laser oscillation with suppression of bidirectional Q-switched oscillation that otherwise would be initiated from spontaneous emission if the seeding laser is not present. Under normal condition, the cavity is high in loss during the pumping period; then a Pockels cell opens the cavity to form the pulse build up, with a second Pockels cell to perform cavity dumping, generating the Q-switched pulse output with optimized characteristics. The two Pockels cells can be replaced by a single unit if an adjustable gated electrical pulse is applied to the Pockels cell in which the pulse front is used to open the cavity and the falling edge to dump the laser pulse. Proper selection of the pump parameters and Pockels-cell gating enables operation of the system in a mode in which the Q-switched pulse can be formed only under the seeding condition. The advantage of the realized regime is in stable laser operation with no need in adjustment of the seeded light wavelength and the mode of the cavity. It is found that the frequency of the Q-switched laser radiation matches well to the injected seeded laser mode. By using two-stage amplifiers, an output energy better than 300 mJ has been achieved in MOPA configuration without active control of the cavity length and with pulse width adjustability from several nanoseconds to 20 ns. The Q-switched oscillator operates not only at precisely controlled firing time but also can be tuned over wide range. This will enable multi-laser systems synchronization and frequency locking down each other if necessary.

  11. [Incidence rate of adverse reaction/event by Qingkailing injection: a Meta-analysis of single rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Chun-ling; Xie, Yan-ming; Li, Ming-quan; Wang, Lian-xin; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction/event by Qingkailing injection. Such databases as the PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, VIP WanFang data and CBM were searched by computer from foundation to July 30, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and cross check data. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by using the R 3.2.0 software, subgroup sensitivity analysis was performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and research quality. Sixty-three studies involving 9,793 patients with Qingkailing injection were included, 367 cases of adverse reactions/events were reported in total. The incidence rate of adverse reaction in skin and mucosa group was 2% [95% CI (0.02; 0.03)]; the digestive system adverse reaction was 6% [95% CI(0.05; 0.07); the injection site adverse reaction was 4% [95% CI (0.02; 0.07)]. In the digestive system as the main types of adverse reactions/events, incidence of children and adults were 4.6% [0.021 1; 0.097 7] and 6.9% [0.053 5; 0.089 8], respectively. Adverse reactions to skin and mucous membrane damage as the main performance/event type, the observation time > 7 days and ≤ 7 days incidence of 3% [0.012 9; 0.068 3] and 1.9% [0.007 8; 0.046 1], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that different types of adverse reactions, combination in the incidence of adverse reactions/events were higher than that of single drug, the difference was statistically significant (P reactions occur, and clinical rational drug use, such as combination, age and other fators, and the influence factors vary in different populations. Therefore, clinical doctors for children and the elderly use special care was required for a clear and open spirit injection, the implementation of individualized medication.

  12. Curcumin protects dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-mediated damage and improves motor dysfunction induced by single intranigral lipopolysaccharide injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Sharma, Sheetal; Nehru, Bimla

    2017-06-01

    Various studies have indicated a lower incidence and prevalence of neurological conditions in people consuming curcumin. The ability of curcumin to target multiple cascades, simultaneously, could be held responsible for its neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the potential of curcumin in minimizing microglia-mediated damage in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced model of PD. Altered microglial functions and increased inflammatory profile of the CNS have severe behavioral consequences. In the current investigation, a single injection of LPS (5 ug/5 µl PBS) was injected into the substantia nigra (SN) of rats, and curcumin [40 mg/kg b.wt (i.p.)] was administered daily for a period of 21 days. LPS triggered an inflammatory response characterized by glial activation [Iba-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-1β) leading to extensive dopaminergic loss and behavioral abnormality in rats. The behavioral observations, biochemical markers, quantification of dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) using HPLC followed by IHC of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were evaluated after 21 days of LPS injection. Curcumin supplementation prevented dopaminergic degeneration in LPS-treated animals by normalizing the altered levels of biomarkers. Also, a significant improvement in TH levels as well as behavioral parameters (actophotometer, rotarod, beam walking and grid walking tests) were seen in LPS injected rats. Curcumin shielded the dopaminergic neurons against LPS-induced inflammatory response, which was associated with suppression of glial activation (microglia and astrocytes) and transcription factor NF-κB as depicted from RT-PCR and EMSA assay. Curcumin also suppressed microglial NADPH oxidase activation as observed from NADPH oxidase activity. The results suggested that one of the important mechanisms by which curcumin mediates its protective effects in the LPS-induced PD

  13. Single Dose Toxicity of Chukyu (spine-healing Pharmacopuncture Injection in the Muscle of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hohyun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the single dose toxicity of Chukyu (spine-healing pharmacopuncture. Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP regulations. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Chukyu (spine-healing pharmacopuncture, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution, 1.0 mL, was administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethic Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues except in one case, where interstitial infiltrating macrophages were found in one female rat in the 0.5-mL/animal experimental group. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that treatment with Chukyu (spine-healing pharmacopuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed to yield more concrete evidence.

  14. Enhanced long term microcircuit plasticity in the valproic acid animal model of autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.; Le Bé, J.-V.; Riachi, I.; Rinaldi, T.; Markram, K.; Markram, H.

    2009-01-01

    A single intra-peritoneal injection of valproic acid (VPA) on embryonic day (ED) 11.5 to pregnant rats has been shown to produce severe autistic-like symptoms in the offspring. Previous studies showed that the microcircuitry is hyperreactive due to hyperconnectivity of glutamatergic synapses and

  15. Will a single periarticular lidocaine-corticosteroid injection improve the clinical efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, Cemil; Altay, Mehmet Akif; Altay, Nuray; Kalender, Ali Murat; Öztürk, İbrahim Avşin

    2016-11-01

    A local injection of corticosteroid-lidocaine into the periarticular soft tissue structures is used commonly for rapid pain relief. It is hypothesized that knee pain associated with knee osteoarthritis would be relieved quickly and effectively in patients receiving intraarticular hyaluronic acid combined with a periarticular lidocaine-corticosteroid injection. To test this hypothesis, the clinical effect of the combined treatment with hyaluronic acid injection alone in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis as compared in this prospective single-blinded randomized trial. This study included 70 patients. Group 1 (n = 35) received intraarticular hyaluronic acid injections only, whereas group 2 (n = 35) received intraarticular hyaluronic acid injections combined with a single local injection of corticosteroid-lidocaine. Injections were administered to the most painful areas of the anterior or posterior medial condyle of the femur or tibia. The outcome was measured by independent assessors (blinded to treatment) using a linear VAS pain scale and WOMAC and HSS knee scores. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks. During the first 3 weeks, group 2 patients showed significantly better all scores than did group 1 patients (p hyaluronic acid alone in patients with knee osteoarthritis and can be considered a useful adjunctive treatment modality. This combined method may provide early return to patient's daily activity. Therapeutic study, Level I.

  16. A Single Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab Provides No Neuroprotection in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Moderate-to-Severe Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Neil R; Johnson, Mary A; Nolan, Theresa; Guo, Yan; Bernstein, Steven L

    2015-12-01

    Ranibizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor-antagonist, is said to be neuroprotective when injected intravitreally in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). We evaluated the efficacy of a single intravitreal (IVT) injection of ranibizumab in a nonhuman primate model of NAION (pNAION). We induced pNAION in one eye of four adult male rhesus monkeys using a laser-activated rose Bengal induction method. We then immediately injected the eye with either ranibizumab or normal saline (NS) intravitreally. We performed a clinical assessment, optical coherence tomography, electrophysiological testing, fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography in three of the animals (one animal developed significant retinal hemorrhages and, therefore, could not be analyzed completely) prior to induction, 1 day and 1, 2, and 4 weeks thereafter. Following the 4-week analysis of the first eye, we induced pNAION in the contralateral eye and then injected either ranibizumab or NS, whichever substance had not been injected in the first eye. We euthanized all animals 5 to 12 weeks after the final assessment of the second eye and performed both immunohistochemical and light and electron microscopic analyses of the retina and optic nerves of both eyes. A single IVT dose of ranibizumab administered immediately after induction of pNAION resulted in no significant reduction of clinical, electrophysiological, or histologic damage compared with vehicle-injected eyes. A single IVT dose of ranibizumab is not neuroprotective when administered immediately after induction of pNAION.

  17. Single, double or multiple-injection techniques for non-ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block in adults undergoing surgery of the lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ki Jinn; Alakkad, Husni; Cubillos, Javier E

    2013-08-08

    Regional anaesthesia comprising axillary block of the brachial plexus is a common anaesthetic technique for distal upper limb surgery. This is an update of a review first published in 2006 and updated in 2011. To compare the relative effects (benefits and harms) of three injection techniques (single, double and multiple) of axillary block of the brachial plexus for distal upper extremity surgery. We considered these effects primarily in terms of anaesthetic effectiveness; the complication rate (neurological and vascular); and pain and discomfort caused by performance of the block. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and reference lists of trials. We contacted trial authors. The date of the last search was March 2013 (updated from March 2011). We included randomized controlled trials that compared double with single-injection techniques, multiple with single-injection techniques, or multiple with double-injection techniques for axillary block in adults undergoing surgery of the distal upper limb. We excluded trials using ultrasound-guided techniques. Independent study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed by at least two investigators. We undertook meta-analysis. The 21 included trials involved a total of 2148 participants who received regional anaesthesia for hand, wrist, forearm or elbow surgery. Risk of bias assessment indicated that trial design and conduct were generally adequate; the most common areas of weakness were in blinding and allocation concealment.Eight trials comparing double versus single injections showed a statistically significant decrease in primary anaesthesia failure (risk ratio (RR 0.51), 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30 to 0.85). Subgroup analysis by method of nerve location showed that the effect size was greater when neurostimulation was used rather than the transarterial technique.Eight trials comparing multiple with single

  18. Reduction of waveform distortion in grid-injection current from single-phase utility interactive PV-inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Muhammad Imran; Jusoh, Awang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A reduction scheme for harmonics from utility interactive PV-inverter is proposed. • Single-phase conditioner with 3-phase expandability structure is used. • The single-phase conditioner in 3-phase structure work independently. • The scheme works effectively within overall operation range of the PV-inverter. • Conditioner in the scheme also improves the PV-inverter and plant’s utility factor. - Abstract: As the natural behavior of energy source and design characteristic, the current generated by a grid-interactive PV-inverter may contain harmonics. This distortion component will be carried on from the PV-inverter during injection power into the grid. Excessive harmonics in a grid will lead to a variety of power quality problems. This paper presents a distortion reduction scheme, utilizing a fed forward single-phase, generation-side power conditioner with a structure that can be expanded for use in a three-phase system and can work independently under imbalanced condition. Conditioner is placed in parallel with the photovoltaic plant and it functions to compensate the plant’s output current distortion, so that the total current flow to the grid is sinusoidal. This method also includes the implementation of a simpler control system for the conditioner, which consists of a combination of distortion current extraction, synchronization and a current control system, and realized through a TMS320F28335: a 150 MHz floating point DSP controller. Testing of the conditioner prototype, which was conducted on a real operation of a PV plant, showed that the scheme worked effectively within the overall operation range of the PV plant. This paper also discusses the potential of utility factor improvement of the PV-inverter and plant due to implementation of conditioner in the scheme

  19. A prospective, randomized, single - blind study comparing intraplaque injection of thiocolchicine and verapamil in Peyronie's Disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Toscano Jr.

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare the response to tiocolchicine and verapamil injection in the plaque of patients with Peyronie's disease. Materials and Methods: Prospective, single-blind, randomized study, selecting patients who have presented Peyronie's disease for less than 18 months. Thiocolchicine 4mg or verapamil 5mg were given in 7 injections (once a week. Patients who had received any treatment for Peyronie's disease in the past three months were excluded. The parameters used were the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 score, analysis of the curvature on pharmaco-induced erections and size of the plaque by ultrasonography. Results: Twenty-five patients were randomized, 13 received thiocolchicine and 12 were treated with verapamil. Both groups were statistically similar. The mean curvature was 46.7° and 36.2° before and after thiocolchicine, respectively (p=0.019 and 50.4° and 42.08° before and after verapamil, respectively (p=0.012. The curvature improved in 69% of patients treated with thiocolchicine and in 66% of those who received verapamil. Regarding sexual function, there was an increase in the IIEF-5 from 16.69 to 20.85 (p=0.23 in the thiocolchicine group. In the verapamil group the IIEF-5 score dropped from 17.50 to 16.25 (p=0.58. In the thiocolchicine group, the plaque was reduced in 61% of patients. In the verapamil group, 8% presented decreased plaque size. No adverse event was associated to thiocolchicine. Conclusion: The use of thiocolchicine in Peyronie's disease demonstrated improvement on penile curvature and reduction in plaque size. Thiocolchicine presented similar results to verapamil in curvature assessment. No significant side effects were observed with the use of tiocolchicine.

  20. A facile single injection Hydrothermal method for the synthesis of thiol capped CdTe Quantum dots as light harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jai Kumar, B.; Sumanth Kumar, D.; Mahesh, H.M., E-mail: hm_mahesh@rediffmail.com

    2016-10-15

    A facile, Single Injection Hydrothermal (SIH) method has been developed to synthesize high quality 3-Mercaptopropionic Acid (MPA) stabilized aqueous CdTe QDs, entirely in ambient environment. The synthesis protocol eliminates the use of inert atmosphere for reducing elemental Tellurium powder to Te precursor avoiding the oxidation of Te powder. The XRD result revealed that the synthesized QDs are in cubic zincblende type crystalline structure, without signature of Te oxidation. FTIR spectra have confirmed the attachment of short chained organic compound MPA to the surface of QDs by covalent bond. The Quantum confinement effect was clearly evident by shift in Longitudinal Optic (LO) peak of Raman spectra and absorption peak wavelength with respect to bulk CdTe materials. The optical direct band gap energy of CdTe QDs is between 3.63 eV to 1.96 eV and QDs size below 6 nm, confirm the QDs are well under strong Quantum confinement regime. Also, photoluminescence spectra depict a stable and high luminescence emission from green to dark red color. All these results corroborate that the synthesis of CdTe QDs procedure is very advantageous and present a simple, economical and easily up scalable method for large scale production.

  1. External and Intraparticle Diffusion of Coumarin 102 with Surfactant in the ODS-silica Gel/water System by Single Microparticle Injection and Confocal Fluorescence Microspectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    NAKATANI, Kiyoharu; MATSUTA, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The release mechanism of coumarin 102 from a single ODS-silica gel microparticle into the water phase in the presence of Triton X-100 was investigated by confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy combined with the single microparticle injection technique. The release rate significantly depended on the Triton X-100 concentration in the water phase and was not limited by diffusion in the pores of the microparticle. The release rate constant was inversely proportional to the microparticle radius s...

  2. Sustained Neuroprotection From a Single Intravitreal Injection of PGJ2 in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Neil R.; Johnson, Mary A.; Nolan, Theresa; Guo, Yan; Bernstein, Alexander M.; Bernstein, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) is neuroprotective in a murine model of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). After assessing for potential toxicity, we evaluated the efficacy of a single intravitreal (IVT) injection of PGJ2 in a nonhuman primate model of NAION (pNAION). Methods. We assessed PGJ2 toxicity by administering it as a single high-dose intravenous (IV) injection, consecutive daily high-dose IV injections, or a single IVT injection in one eye of five adult rhesus monkeys. To assess efficacy, we induced pNAION in one eye of five adult male rhesus monkeys using a laser-activated rose bengal induction method. We then injected the eye with either PGJ2 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intravitreally immediately or 5 hours post induction. We performed a clinical assessment, optical coherence tomography, electrophysiological testing, fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography in all animals prior to induction and at 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after induction. Following analysis of the first eye, we induced pNAION in the contralateral eye and then injected either PGJ2 or PBS. We euthanized all animals 5 weeks after final assessment of the fellow eye and performed both immunohistochemical and light and electron microscopic analyses of the retina and optic nerves. Results. Toxicity: PGJ2 caused no permanent systemic toxicity regardless of the amount injected or route of delivery, and there was no evidence of any ocular toxicity with the dose of PGJ2 used in efficacy studies. Transient reduction in the amplitudes of the visual evoked potentials and the N95 component of the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) occurred after both IV and IVT administration of high doses of PGJ2; however, the amplitudes returned to normal in all animals within 1 week. Efficacy: In all eyes, a single IVT dose of PGJ2 administered immediately or shortly after induction of pNAION resulted in a significant reduction of clinical, electrophysiological, and

  3. The mechanism of the transient depression of the erythropoietic rate induced in the rat by a single injection of uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giglio, M.J.; Brandan, N.; Leal, T.L.; Bozzini, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    With the purpose of assessing the effect of uranyl nitrate (UN) on the rate of erythropoiesis, 1 mg/kg of the compound was injected iv to adult female Wistar rats. The dosing vehicle was injected into control animals. A single injection of UN induced a transient depression of the rate of red cell volume 59 Fe uptake, which reached its lowest value (68% depression) by the seventh postinjection day. By 14 days, 59 Fe incorporation had returned to normal. The amount of iron going to erythroid tissue per hour, reticulocyte count, and immunoreactive erythropoietin concentration in both plasma and kidney extracts were also significantly depressed in UN-treated rats in relation to these values in vehicle-injected rats by the seventh postinjection day. Dose-response curves for exogenous erythropoietin (Epo) performed in polycythemic intact and UN-treated rats 7 days after drug injection revealed a significant depression of the response in UN-injected animals. Moreover, bone marrow cells obtained from rats pretreated with UN formed a reduced number of erythroid colonies in vitro in response to Epo. Therefore, possible mechanisms for the observed transient depression in the rate of erythropoiesis associated with acute UN treatment include decreased Epo production and direct or indirect damage of erythroid progenitor cells

  4. Comparative Investigation on 0.4 inch SBLOCA Scenario with Single and Dual Train Passive Safety Injection Systems using SMART-ITL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun-Sik; Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Jeon, Byong-Guk; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Yun, Eun-Koo; Choi, Nam-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ho; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Bang, Yoon-Gon; Kim, Myoung-Jun; Seo, Chan-Jong; Yi, Sung-Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Standard Design Approval (SDA) for SMART was certificated in 2012 at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). In December 2015, Saudi Arabia and Korea started conducting a three-year project of Pre-Project Engineering (PPE) to prepare a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and to review the feasibility of constructing SMART reactors in Saudi Arabia. In addition, an Integral Test Loop for the SMART design (SMART-ITL, or FESTA) has been constructed and it finished its commissioning tests in 2012. Consequently, a set of Design Base Accident (DBA) scenarios have been simulated using SMART-ITL. In this paper, a comparative investigation was performed on 0.4 inch SBLOCA scenario with single and dual train passive safety injection systems using SMART-ITL. In this paper, the effect of the train number of PSIS on a SBLOCA scenario is investigated for a break size of 0.4 inch. The single and dual train tests show a similar trend in general but the injected water migrates slightly differently in the RV and is discharged through the break nozzle. The parameters of the RV pressure, RV water level, accumulated break mass, and injection flowrates from the CMT and SIT were compared. Compared with the single train test, the increased injection rates from the two trains of the PSIS during the dual train test raised the RV water level, ensuring the safety of the reactor core.

  5. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of single platelet-rich plasma injection on different types and grades of facial wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnehrawy, Naema Y; Ibrahim, Zeinab A; Eltoukhy, Azza M; Nagy, Hala M

    2017-03-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is considered as a growing modality for tissue regeneration and a developing research area for clinicians and researchers. PRP injection treatment provides supraphysiological concentrations of growth factors that may help in accelerated tissue remodeling and regeneration. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of single autologous PRP intradermal injection for treatment of facial wrinkles and for facial rejuvenation. A total of 20 subjects with different types of facial wrinkles were included in this study. All subjects received single PRP intradermal injection and were clinically assessed before and after treatment for a period of 8 weeks using Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS), Skin Homogeneity and Texture (SHnT) Scale, Physician Assessment Scale, and Subject Satisfaction Scale. The mean value of WSRS reduced from 2.90 ± 0.91 before treatment to 2.10 ± 0.79 after 8 weeks of treatment. The most significant results were with younger subjects that have mild and moderate wrinkles of the nasolabial folds (NLFs). Fourteen of seventeen subjects with NLFs showed more than 25% improvement in their appearance. Side effects of PRP treatment were minimal to mild and with excellent tolerability. Single PRP intradermal injection is well tolerated and capable of rejuvenating the face and producing a significant correction of wrinkles especially the NLFs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Single peak parameters technique for simultaneous measurements: Spectrophotometric sequential injection determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, J; Paluch, J; Węgrzecka, A; Kozak, M; Wieczorek, M; Kochana, J; Kościelniak, P

    2016-02-01

    Spectrophotometric sequential injection system (SI) is proposed to automate the method of simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) on the basis of parameters of a single peak. In the developed SI system, sample and mixture of reagents (1,10-phenanthroline and sulfosalicylic acid) are introduced into a vessel, where in an acid environment (pH≅3) appropriate compounds of Fe(II) and Fe(III) with 1,10-phenanthroline and sulfosalicylic acid are formed, respectively. Then, in turn, air, sample, EDTA and sample again, are introduced into a holding coil. After the flow reversal, a segment of air is removed from the system by an additional valve and as EDTA replaces sulfosalicylic acid forming a more stable colorless compound with Fe(III), a complex signal is registered. Measurements are performed at wavelength 530 nm. The absorbance measured at minimum of the negative peak and the area or the absorbance measured at maximum of the signal can be used as measures corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations, respectively. The time of the peak registration is about 2 min. Two-component calibration has been applied to analysis. Fe(II) and Fe(III) can be determined within the concentration ranges of 0.04-4.00 and 0.1-5.00 mg L(-1), with precision less than 2.8% and 1.7% (RSD), respectively and accuracy better than 7% (RE). The detection limit is 0.04 and 0.09 mg L(-1) for Fe(II) and Fe(III), respectively. The method was applied to analysis of artesian water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 3D pulmonary perfusion MRI and MR angiography of pulmonary embolism in pigs after a single injection of a blood pool MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Christian; Ley, Sebastian; Puderbach, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bock, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced 3D perfusion MRI and MR angiography (MRA) of pulmonary embolism (PE) in pigs using a single injection of the blood pool contrast Gadomer. PE was induced in five domestic pigs by injection of autologous blood thrombi. Contrast-enhanced first-pass 3D perfusion MRI (TE/TR/FA: 1.0 ms/2.2 ms/40 ; voxel size: 1.3 x 2.5 x 4.0 mm 3 ; TA: 1.8 s per data set) and high-resolution 3D MRA (TE/TR/FA: 1.4 ms/3.4 ms/40 ; voxel size: 0.8 x 1.0 x 1.6 mm 3 ) was performed during and after a single injection of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of Gadomer. Image data were compared to pre-embolism Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI and post-embolism thin-section multislice CT (n=2). SNR measurements were performed in the pulmonary arteries and lung. One animal died after induction of PE. In all other animals, perfusion MRI and MRA could be acquired after a single injection of Gadomer. At perfusion MRI, PE could be detected by typical wedge-shaped perfusion defects. While the visualization of central PE at MRA correlated well with the CT, peripheral PE were only visualized by CT. Gadomer achieved a higher peak SNR of the lungs compared to Gd-DTPA (21±8 vs. 13±3). Contrast-enhanced 3D perfusion MRI and MRA of PE can be combined using a single injection of the blood pool contrast agent Gadomer. (orig.)

  8. Study of the post-equilibrium slope approximation in the calculation of glomerular filtration rate using the 51Cr-EDTA single injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmon, C.C.; McAlister, J.M.; Hickson, B.; Cattell, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison of methods for calculating the renal clearance of EDTA from the plasma disappearance curve, after a single injection, has been made. Measurements were made on 38 patients, using external monitoring and venous blood sampling techniques, over a period of 24 h after an injection of 100 μCi of 51 Cr-EDTA. The results indicate that the period 3 - 6 h after injection is suitable for sampling the post-equilibrium part of the plasma disappearance curve for values of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the range 0 - 140 ml/min. It was also found that, to within the individual measurement errors, the values of the clearance calculated by using the post-equilibrium period only (PES clearance) can be considered to show a constant proportionality to the values calculated by using the entire plasma disappearance curve (total clearance). (author)

  9. Determination of the optional time for taking blood samples by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Delian; Yao Junhu; Lu Jinyin; Wu Xiaobin; Liu Jun

    2003-01-01

    Twenty four young hens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Every group was diet free (FAS) or force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or the diet with 20% crude protein in which soybean meal or cotton seed meal was the sole nitrogen source (30 g DM/kg BW). 30 μCi 3 H-Leu/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after force-fed or on fasting. Venous blood samples were taken at 5, 30 min, 4,24,36 and 48h after injection. The excreta during the whole period of 48h after injection was collected. Special radioactivities of nonprotein plasma at every time point and excreta were measured. The optional time of taking blood samples was 20-24 hours after injected 3 H-Leu

  10. Single-dose Intramuscular-injection Toxicology Test of Water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum Pharmacopuncture in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunju Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS after approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Dosages for the control, high dose, middle dose and low dose groups were 0.5 mL/animal of saline and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mL/animal of WCFC, respectively. WCFC was injected into the muscle of the left femoral region by using a disposable syringe (1 mL, 26 gauge. The general symptoms and mortality were observed 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the first injection and then daily for 14 days after the injection. The body weights of the SD rats were measured on the day of the injection (before injection and on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the injection. Serum biochemical and hematologic tests, necropsy examinations, and histopathologic examinations at the injection site were performed after the observation period. Results: No deaths, abnormal clinical symptoms, or significant weight changes were observed in either male or female SD rats in the control or the test (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal groups during the observation period. No significant differences in hematology and serum biochemistry and no macroscopic abnormalities at necropsy were found. No abnormal reactions at injection sites were noted on the topical tolerance tests. Conclusion: The results of this single-dose toxicity study show that WCFC is safe, its lethal doses in male and female SD rats being estimated to be higher than 0.5 mL/animal.

  11. Summary of air permeability data from single-hole injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Apache Leap Research Site: Results of steady-state test interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, A.G.; Geddis, A.M.; Henrich, M.J.; Lohrstorfer, C.F.; Neuman, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    This document summarizes air permeability estimates obtained from single hole pneumatic injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Covered Borehole Site (CBS) within the larger apache Leap Research Site (ALRS). Only permeability estimates obtained from a steady state interpretation of relatively stable pressure and flow rate data are included. Tests were conducted in five boreholes inclined at 45 degree to the horizontal, and one vertical borehole. Over 180 borehole segments were tested by setting the packers 1 m apart. Additional tests were conducted in segments of lengths 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 m in one borehole, and 2.0 m in another borehole, bringing the total number of tests to over 270. Tests were conducted by maintaining a constant injection rate until air pressure became relatively stable and remained so for some time. The injection rate was then incremented by a constant value and the procedure repeated. The air injection rate, pressure, temperature, and relative humidity were recorded. For each relatively stable period of injection rate and pressure, air permeability was estimated by treating the rock around each test interval as a uniform, isotropic porous medium within which air flows as a single phase under steady state, in a pressure field exhibiting prolate spheroidal symmetry. For each permeability estimate the authors list the corresponding injection rate, pressure, temperature and relative humidity. They also present selected graphs which show how the latter quantities vary with time; logarithmic plots of pressure versus time which demonstrate the importance of borehole storage effects during the early transient portion of each incremental test period; and semilogarithmic plots of pressure versus recovery time at the end of each test sequence

  12. Dynamic renal and static bone imaging after a single foot injection of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.R.; Cohen, M.; Moran, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Much better information regarding the renal anatomy and physiology can be obtained by imaging the kidneys immediately after the injection of Tc-99m MDP, rather than on the bone scan a few hours later. Evaluation of inferior vena cava is possible if the radiotracer is injected in the foot and dynamic images of the abdomen are obtained. It is possible to differentiate renal from extra-renal masses during bone scanning without any additional radiation to the patient

  13. Effect of steam injection on nox emissions and performance of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with soy methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manickam Madhavan V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel attracts most of the researchers and automotive industries in recent years as an alternative fuel for diesel engines, because of its better lubricity property, higher cetane number, and less greenhouse gas emissions. The use of bio diesel leads to reduction in hydro carbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter, but increase in NOx emissions. Increase in biodiesel blends in standard diesel leads to increase in NOx emission. In this study, an attempt is made to reduce the NOx emis-sions of a diesel engine fueled with pure soy methyl ester (B100 with low pressure steam injection. Experiments were carried out and studied for both standard diesel and pure biodiesel of soy methyl ester with steam injection ratio of 5, 10, and 15% on mass ratio basis of air in the inlet manifold. The present study has shown that around 30% reduction in NOx can be achieved for the steam injection rate of 10% and considerable reduction for all other steam injection rates when compared to standard diesel and B100. It is also observed that steam injection having signifi-cant impact on reduction of other emissions such as HC, CO, and CO2. The study also noted marginal improvement in the engine brake power, brake thermal effi-ciency and reduction in specific fuel consumption at part loads and minor increase during peak load operation for the low pressure steam injection on B100.

  14. The 15N-leucine single-injection method allows for determining endogenous losses and true digestibility of amino acids in cecectomized roosters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujiu Hu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary protein content in poultry when using the 15N-leucine single-injection method to determine endogenous amino acid losses (EAALs in poultry. Forty-eight cecectomized roosters (2.39 ± 0.23 kg were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments containing protein levels of 0, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21%. Each bird was precisely fed an experimental diet of 25 g/kg of body weight. After feeding, all roosters were subcutaneously injected with a 15N-leucine solution at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight. Blood was sampled 23 h after the injection, and excreta samples were continuously collected during the course of the 48-h experiment. The ratio of 15N-enrichment of leucine in crude mucin to free leucine in plasma ranged from 0.664 to 0.763 and remained relatively consistent (P > 0.05 across all treatments. The amino acid (AA profiles of total endogenous AAs, except isoleucine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, proline and serine, were not influenced (P > 0.05 by dietary protein contents. The predominant endogenous AAs in the excreta were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonine, serine and proline. The order of the relative proportions of these predominant AAs also remained relatively constant (P > 0.05. The endogenous losses of total AAs determined with the 15N-leucine single-injection method increased curvilinearly with the dietary protein contents. The true digestibility of most AAs and total AAs was independent of their respective dietary protein levels. Collectively, the 15N-leucine single-injection method is appropriate for determining EAALs and the true digestibility of AAs in poultry fed varying levels of protein-containing ingredients.

  15. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children with subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection: a single-centre, 7-year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biočíc, Mihovil; Todoríc, Jakov; Budimir, Dražen; Roíc, Andrea Cvitkovíc; Pogorelíc, Zenon; Juríc, Ivo; Šušnjar, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of medical intervention in patients with vesicoureteral reflux are to allow normal renal growth, prevent infections and pyelonephritis, and prevent renal failure. We present our experience with endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children by subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer injection. Methods Under cystoscopic guidance, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer underneath the intravesical portion of the ureter in a subureteral or submucosal location was injected in patients undergoing endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux. Results A total of 282 patients (120 boys and 162 girls) underwent the procedure. There were 396 refluxed ureters altogether. The mean age of patients was 4.9 years. The mean overall follow-up period was 44 months. Among the 396 ureters treated, 76% were cured with a single injection. A second and third injection raised the cure rate to 93% and 94%, respectively. Twenty-two (6%) ureters failed all 3 injections, and were converted to open surgery. Conclusion Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux can be recommended as a first-line therapy for most cases of vesicoureteral reflux, because of the short hospital stay, absence of complications and the high success rate. PMID:22854114

  16. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uney, Kamil; Altan, Feray; Aboubakr, Mohammed; Cetin, Gul; Dik, Burak

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after single IV and IM injections in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). ANIMALS 8 healthy red-eared slider turtles. PROCEDURES Turtles received 1 dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) IV or IM (4 turtles/route), a 30-day washout period was provided, and then turtles received the same dose by the opposite route. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for measurement of plasma meloxicam concentration. Pharmacokinetic values for each administration route were determined with a 2-compartment open model approach. RESULTS For IV administration, mean ± SD values of major pharmacokinetic variables were 1.02 ± 0.41 hours for distribution half-life, 9.78 ± 2.23 hours for elimination half-life, 215 ± 32 mL/kg for volume of distribution at steady state, 11.27 ± 1.44 μg•h/mL for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, and 18.00 ± 2.32 mL/h/kg for total body clearance. For IM administration, mean values were 0.35 ± 0.06 hours for absorption half-life, 0.72 ± 0.06 μg/mL for peak plasma concentration, 1.5 ± 0.0 hours for time to peak concentration, 3.73 ± 2.41 hours for distribution half-life, 13.53 ± 1.95 hours for elimination half-life, 11.33 ± 0.92 μg•h/mL for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, and 101 ± 6% for bioavailability. No adverse reactions were detected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Long half-life, high bioavailability, and lack of immediate adverse reactions of meloxicam administered IM at 0.2 mg/kg suggested the possibility of safe and effective clinical use in turtles. Additional studies are needed to establish appropriate administration frequency and clinical efficacy.

  17. Long-term correction of obesity and diabetes in genetically obese mice by a single intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding mouse leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John E.; Zhou, Shangzhen; Giese, Klaus; Williams, Lewis T.; Escobedo, Jaime A.; Dwarki, Varavani J.

    1997-01-01

    The ob/ob mouse is genetically deficient in leptin and exhibits a phenotype that includes obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes melitus. This phenotype closely resembles the morbid obesity seen in humans. In this study, we demonstrate that a single intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding mouse leptin (rAAV-leptin) in ob/ob mice leads to prevention of obesity and diabetes. The treated animals show normalization of metabolic abnormalities including hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and lethargy. The effects of a single injection have lasted through the 6-month course of the study. At all time points measured the circulating levels of leptin in the serum were similar to age-matched control C57 mice. These results demonstrate that maintenance of normal levels of leptin (2–5 ng/ml) in the circulation can prevent both the onset of obesity and associated non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Thus a single injection of a rAAV vector expressing a therapeutic gene can lead to complete and long-term correction of a genetic disorder. Our study demonstrates the long-term correction of a disease caused by a genetic defect and proves the feasibility of using rAAV-based vectors for the treatment of chronic disorders like obesity. PMID:9391128

  18. External and Intraparticle Diffusion of Coumarin 102 with Surfactant in the ODS-silica Gel/water System by Single Microparticle Injection and Confocal Fluorescence Microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Matsuta, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The release mechanism of coumarin 102 from a single ODS-silica gel microparticle into the water phase in the presence of Triton X-100 was investigated by confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy combined with the single microparticle injection technique. The release rate significantly depended on the Triton X-100 concentration in the water phase and was not limited by diffusion in the pores of the microparticle. The release rate constant was inversely proportional to the microparticle radius squared, indicating that the rate-determining step is the external diffusion between the microparticle and the water phase.

  19. External and intraparticle diffusion of coumarin 102 with surfactant in the ODS-silica gel/water system by single microparticle injection and confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Matsuta, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The release mechanism of coumarin 102 from a single ODS-silica gel microparticle into the water phase in the presence of Triton X-100 was investigated by confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy combined with the single microparticle injection technique. The release rate significantly depended on the Triton X-100 concentration in the water phase and was not limited by diffusion in the pores of the microparticle. The release rate constant was inversely proportional to the microparticle radius squared, indicating that the rate-determining step is the external diffusion between the microparticle and the water phase. (author)

  20. Development and validation of double and single Wiebe function for multi-injection mode Diesel engine combustion modelling for hardware-in-the-loop applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroteaux, Fadila; Saad, Charbel; Aubertin, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modelling of Diesel engine combustion with multi-injection mode was conducted. • Double and single Wiebe correlations for pilot, main and post combustion processes were calibrated. • Ignition delay time correlations have been developed and calibrated using experimental data for each injection. • The complete in-cylinder model has been applied successfully to real time simulations on HiL test bed. - Abstract: The improvement of Diesel engine performances in terms of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions has a huge impact on management system and diagnostic procedure. Validation and testing of engine performances can benefit from the use of theoretical models, for the reduction of development time and costs. Hardware in the Loop (HiL) test bench is a suitable way to achieve these objectives. However, the increasing complexity of management systems rises challenges for the development of very reduced physical models able to run in real time applications. This paper presents an extension of a previously developed phenomenological Diesel combustion model suitable for real time applications on a HiL test bench. In the earlier study, the modelling efforts have been targeted at high engine speeds with a very short computational time window, and where the engine operates with single injection. In the present work, a modelling of in-cylinder processes at low and medium engine speeds with multi-injection is performed. In order to reach an adequate computational time, the combustion progress during the pilot and main injection periods has been treated through a double Wiebe function, while the post combustion period has required a single Wiebe function. This paper describes the basic system models and their calibration and validation against experimental data. The use of the developed correlations of Wiebe coefficients and ignition delay times for each combustion phase, included in the in-cylinder crank angle global model, is applied for the prediction

  1. Watt-level widely tunable single-mode emission by injection-locking of a multimode Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Paul; Piccardo, Marco; Anand, Sajant; Mejia, Enrique A.; Wang, Yongrui; Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Xie, Feng; Lascola, Kevin; Belyanin, Alexey; Capasso, Federico

    2018-02-01

    Free-running Fabry-Perot lasers normally operate in a single-mode regime until the pumping current is increased beyond the single-mode instability threshold, above which they evolve into a multimode state. As a result of this instability, the single-mode operation of these lasers is typically constrained to few percents of their output power range, this being an undesired limitation in spectroscopy applications. In order to expand the span of single-mode operation, we use an optical injection seed generated by an external-cavity single-mode laser source to force the Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser into a single-mode state in the high current range, where it would otherwise operate in a multimode regime. Utilizing this approach, we achieve single-mode emission at room temperature with a tuning range of 36 cm-1 and stable continuous-wave output power exceeding 1 W at 4.5 μm. Far-field measurements show that a single transverse mode is emitted up to the highest optical power, indicating that the beam properties of the seeded Fabry-Perot laser remain unchanged as compared to free-running operation.

  2. Single well field injection test of humate to enhance attenuation of uranium and other radionuclides in an acidic plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This report documents the impact of the injected humate on targeted contaminants over a period of 4 months and suggests it is a viable attenuation-based remedy for uranium, potentially for I-129, but not for Sr-90. Future activities will focus on issues pertinent to scaling the technology to full deployment.

  3. Safety and effectiveness of a single and repeat intramuscular injection of a GnRH vaccine (GonaCon™) in adult female domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansandt, L M; Kutzler, M A; Fischer, A E; Morris, K N; Swanson, W F

    2017-04-01

    Sterilization is a key strategy to reduce the number of domestic cats entering and killed in shelters each year. However, surgical sterilization is expensive and labour-intensive and cannot fully address the 70 million free-roaming cats estimated to exist in the United States. GonaCon™ is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine originally developed for use as a wildlife immunocontraceptive. An earlier formulation was tested in domestic cats and found to be safe and effective for long-term contraception. However, the current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered formulation consists of a different antigen-carrier protein and increased antigen concentration and has never been tested in cats. A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term safety of a single GonaCon immunization, assess the consequences of vaccinated cats receiving an accidental second GonaCon injection and determine the humoral immune response to immunization. During Phase 1, cats in Group A (n = 3) received a single intramuscular injection of GonaCon and Group B (n = 3) received a single intramuscular injection of saline. During Phase 2, Group A received a second GonaCon injection and Group B received their initial GonaCon injection. All cats developed GnRH antibodies within 30 days of vaccine administration. The endpoint titre (1:1,024,000) was similar among all cats, and levels remained high throughout the duration of the study. Four cats developed a sterile, painless, self-limiting mass at the site of injection. The mean number of days to mass development was 110.3 (range, 18-249 days). In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests that the EPA-registered GonaCon formulation is safe for continued testing in domestic cats, an accidental revaccination should not increase the risk of a vaccine reaction and the EPA-registered formulation effectively elicits a strong humoral immune response. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Reliability Analysis of Single-Phase PV Inverters with Reactive Power Injection at Night Considering Mission Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anurag, Anup; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    loading, considering the operation outside active feed-in hours. An analytical lifetime model is then employed for lifetime quantization based on the Palgrem Miner rule. Thereafter, considering the lifetime reduction of the PV inverter under different mission profiles with reactive power injection......The widespread adoption of mixed renewables urgently require reactive power exchange at various feed-in points of the utility grid. Photovoltaic (PV) inverters are able to provide reactive power in a decentralized manner at the grid-connection points even outside active power feed-in operation......, especially at night when there is no solar irradiance. This serves as a motivation for utilizing the PV inverters at night for reactive power compensation. Thus, an analysis on the impact of reactive power injection by PV inverters outside feed-in operation on the thermal performance and the reliability has...

  5. The comparison of knee osteoarthritis treatment with single-dose bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells vs. hyaluronic acid injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdis Goncars

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The intra-articular injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells is a safe manipulation with no side effects during the 12-month period. This treatment provides statistically significant clinical improvement between the starting point and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after. When compared to hyaluronic acid treatment, better pain relief in the long-term period of mononuclear cell group was observed.

  6. High-power actively Q-switched single-mode 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 ring laser, injection-locked by a cw single-frequency microchip laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2015-11-30

    In this paper we report on the realization of a single-mode Q-switched Nd:YVO4 ring laser at 1342 nm. Unidirectional and single-mode operation of the ring laser is achieved by injection-locking with a continuous wave Nd:YVO4 microchip laser, emitting a single-frequency power of up to 40 mW. The ring laser provides a single-mode power of 13.9 W at 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency with a pulse duration of 18.2 ns and an excellent beam quality (M2 laser, a power of 8.7 W at 671 nm with a pulse duration of 14.8 ns and a beam propagation factor of M2 < 1.1 is obtained. The 671 nm radiation features a long-term spectral width of 75 MHz.

  7. Single-injection method for evaluation of renal function with 14C-inulin and 3H-tetraethylammonium bromide in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettman, M.J.; Allen, T.A.; Wilke, W.L.; Radin, M.J.; Eubank, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    A double-isotope single-injection method without urine collection for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in dogs and cats was evaluated. The GFR was determined, using 14 C-inulin and ERPF was determined, using [ 3 H]tetraethylammonium bromide. Using a modified single exponential, 1-compartment mathematical model, the renal clearance of these solutes was estimated with a plasma radioactivity disappearance curve constructed from samples collected over a 150-minute time period. In 25 dogs, GFR, ERPF, and filtration fraction were 3.55 +/- 0.14 ml/kg/min, 10.51 +/- 0.72 ml/kg/min, and 0.34 +/- 0.02, respectively. In 25 cats, GFR, ERPF, and filtration fraction were 3.24 +/- 0.14 ml/kg/min, 8.14 +/- 0.53 ml/kg/min, and 0.39 +/- 0.02, respectively. This time-efficient and reliable method, using beta-emitting isotopes, yielded renal functional values well within the normal ranges reported by a variety of other isotopic and nonisotopic procedures. The advantages of the present procedure over previous double-isotope single-injection methods include the use of less costly, lower energy-using, and less penetrating beta emittors, as well as a shortened blood sampling schedule

  8. Identification and weighting factors influencing the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in plastic injection industry using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Hashemzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single minute exchange of dies (SMED is one of the most important tools to achieve lean production system. The main idea of this system is to provide methods and to use creative and innovative solutions for continuous improvement. Due to the importance of this issue and its effect on reducing waste during the production process, this study presents a method to identify and to weight factors in the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in 14 plastic injection factories. In this study, fourteen factories in injection industry were chosen and the factors influencing the implementation of single minute exchange of dies were identified. Following data collection, decision matrix was formed and the weight of each factor was determined by using Shannon Entropy. Then, in order to determine the readiness of factories, VIKOR method was used to rank companies. The results indicate priorities of the following factors in establishing SMED that include: Senior management support, technical capabilities, technical knowledge of staff and consultants, knowledge of mold design, manufacturing infrastructure, team work, combination of the project team work, benchmarking, training, clear understanding of project objectives, rewards and motivation, proper management expectation, project management, teamwork and organizational culture. Practical implications: Due to the factors, Top manager can make the best decision for implementing of SMED technique. This study develops factors influencing on SMED implementation based on Shannon and VIKOR methods for ranking parameters and plants.

  9. Predictive Factors of Patients' and Their Partners' Sexual Function Improvement After Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection for Peyronie's Disease: Results From a Multi-Center Single-Arm Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocci, Andrea; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Salonia, Andrea; Cito, Gianmartin; Regis, Federica; Polloni, Gaia; Giubilei, Gianluca; Cacciamani, Giovanni; Capece, Marco; Falcone, Marco; Greco, Isabella; Timpano, Massimiliano; Minervini, Andrea; Gacci, Mauro; Cai, Tommaso; Garaffa, Giulio; Giammusso, Bruno; Arcaniolo, Davide; Mirone, Vincenzo; Mondaini, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH; Xiapex) injections represent the only licensed medical treatment for Peyronie's disease (PD). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CCH injections in men with stable PD, using a modified treatment protocol and to assess partners' bother improvement in a large cohort of White-European sexually active heterosexual men treated in a single tertiary-referral center. All the 135 patients enrolled underwent a thorough assessment, which included history taking, physical examination, and pharmacologically induced artificial erection test (intra-cavernous injection) to assess the degree of penile curvature (PC) at baseline and after the completion of the treatment. Patients with calcified plaque and/or ventral curvature were excluded. All patients underwent a modified treatment protocol, which consisted of 3 intra-lesional injections of 0.9 mg of CCH performed at 4-week intervals at the point of maximum curvature. After each injection, patients were instructed to follow a strict routine involving daily penile stretching in the intervals between injections. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15, Global Assessment of PD, PD questionnaires (PDQ), and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire were performed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Overall, 135 patients completed the study protocol. Before treatment, 18 (13.33%) partners showed a degree of sexual dysfunction. Baseline median IIEF-15, FSFI, and PDQ scores were, respectively, 59.0, 35.0, and 23.0. Overall, both IIEF-total and all domains significantly improved after treatment (all P < .01). A PC mean change of 19.07 (P = .00) was measured. At the univariate linear regression analysis, IIEF-15, IIEF-erectile function, IIEF-sexual desire, and IIEF-intercourse satisfaction were positively associated with FSFI (all P ≤ .03); conversely, PDQ-penile pain, PDQ-symptom bother, and post-treament penile curvature (P ≤ .04) were associated with a decreased

  10. Pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadar, Miranda J; Hawkins, Michelle G; Byrne, Barbara A; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Keel, Kevin; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Tell, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects at the injection site of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) following IM administration of 1 dose to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 7 adult nonreleasable healthy red-tailed hawks. In a randomized crossover study, CCFA (10 or 20 mg/kg) was administered IM to each hawk and blood samples were obtained. After a 2-month washout period, administration was repeated with the opposite dose. Muscle biopsy specimens were collected from the injection site 10 days after each sample collection period. Pharmacokinetic data were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for various bacterial isolates were assessed. Mean peak plasma concentrations of ceftiofur-free acid equivalent were 6.8 and 15.1 μg/mL for the 10 and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively. Mean times to maximum plasma concentration were 6.4 and 6.7 hours, and mean terminal half-lives were 29 and 50 hours, respectively. Little to no muscle inflammation was identified. On the basis of a target MIC of 1 μg/mL and target plasma ceftiofur concentration of 4 μg/mL, dose administration frequencies for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms were estimated as every 36 and 45 hours for the 10 mg/kg dose and every 96 and 120 hours for the 20 mg/kg dose, respectively. Study results suggested that CCFA could be administered IM to red-tailed hawks at 10 or 20 mg/kg to treat infections with ceftiofur-susceptible bacteria. Administration resulted in little to no inflammation at the injection site. Additional studies are needed to evaluate effects of repeated CCFA administration.

  11. Sentinel node mapping in endometrial cancer following Hysteroscopic injection of tracers: A single center evaluation over 200 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Fabio; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Bogani, Giorgio; Chiappa, Valentina; Lorusso, Domenica; Scaffa, Cono; Recalcati, Dario; Perotto, Stefania; Haeusler, Edward; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    To analyze detection-rate(DR) and diagnostic-accuracy (A) of sentinel-nodes(SLNs) mapping following hysteroscopic-injection of tracer. To compare DR and A between tracers: ICG and Tc99m. Evaluation of endometrial-cancer patients who underwent SLNs mapping after hysteroscopic-peritumoral-injection of tracer±lymphadenectomy. Analysis of DR (overall-bilateral-aortic) and A in the entire cohort and comparison between tracers. 202 procedures were performed from January/2005 to February/2017. Mean age:60years (28-82); mean BMI: 26.8 kg/m 2 (15-47). In 133 cases (65.8%) hysterectomy and mapping procedure were performed laparoscopically. The overall-DR of the technique was 93.2% (179/192) (10 cases were excluded: 9 for technical-equipment failure; 1 for vagal reaction). Bilateral pelvic mapping was found in 59.7% of cases (107/179) and was more frequent in the ICG group (72.8% vs 53.3%; p: 0.012). In 50.8% of cases (91/179) SLNs were mapped both in pelvic and aortic nodes, and in 5 cases (2.8%) only in the aortic area. The mean number of detected SLNs was 3.7 (1-8). 22 patients (12.3%) had nodal involvement: 10-(45.5%)-macrometastases; 5-(22.7%)-micrometastases; 7-(31.8%)-ITCs. In 6 cases (27.3%) only aortic nodes were positive; in 5 cases (22.7%) both pelvic and aortic nodes and in 11 cases (50%) only pelvic nodes were involved. Three false-negative results were found, all in the Tc99m group. All had isolated aortic metastases with negative pelvic nodes. Overall-sensitivity was 86.4% (95%CI: 68.4-100) and overall-negative-predictive-value (NPV) was 96.4% (95%CI 86.7-100). No differences in terms of overall-DR, overall-sensitivity and overall-NPV were found between the two tracers. Hysteroscopic-injection of tracer for SLNs mapping in endometrial cancer is as accurate as cervical injection with a higher DR in the aortic area. ICG improves bilateral-DR. Further investigation is warranted on this topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Single-anode and Double-anode Magnetron Injection Guns for 127.5 GHz 1 MW Gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Kumar, Anil; Purohit, Laxmi Prasad; Sinha, Ashok Kumar

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the design of two types of magnetron injection guns (MIG's) for 1 MW, 127.5 GHz gyrotron. TE24,8 mode has been chosen as the operating mode. In-house developed code MIGSYN has been used to estimate the initial gun parameters. The electron trajectory tracing program EGUN and in-house developed code MIGANS have been used to optimize the single-anode and the double-anode design for 80 kV, 40 A MIG. The parametric analysis of MIG has also been presented. The advantages and the disadvantages of each kind of configuration have been critically examined.

  13. Stable CW Single Frequency Operation of Fabry-Perot Laser Diodes by Self-Injection Phase Locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, single-frequency semiconductor laser operation using fiber Bragg gratings has been achieved by tWo methods: 1) use of the FBG as the output coupler for an anti-reflection-coated semiconductor gain element'; 2) pulsed operation of a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode with FBG-optical and RF-electrical feedback'. Here, we demonstrate CW single frequency operation from a non-AR coated Fabry-Perot laser diode using only FBG optical feedback.

  14. Distribution of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in the Amazon molly, Poecilla formosa (Girard), after a single intraperitoneal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Cao, E.H.; Melgar, T.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution and accumulation of labelled N-methyl-N nitrosourea (MNU) has been described in the Amazon molly following intraperitoneal injection. Two hours after injection the label was present throughout the body, with enhanced deposition in the macrophages of the atrium of the heart, the kidney and the spleen; about half of the liver cells were labelled. The compound was taken up by the cells of the renal excretory tubules, and certain cells in the optic tectum and corpus cerebelli of the brain. By 6 h, the distribution picture had changed radically. There was little label remaining, except in a few macrophages in the heart and kidneys, and in the nuclei of the renal tubule cells. There was a slight decrease in the numbers of cells in the brain that were labelled, but the amount of material that the individual cells had accumulated had increased. By 48 h there was further loss and only brain cells were labelled. Our findings indicate preferential accumulation of MNU in undifferentiated, pluripotential cells of the optic tectum and corpus cerebelli. 28 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  15. Effect of Pilot Injection Timings on the Combustion Temperature Distribution in a Single-Cylinder CI Engine Fueled with DME and ULSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Joonho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of DiMethyl Ether (DME as an alternative fuel in Compression-Ignition (CI engines have been performed. Although diverse DME engine research has been conducted, the investigation of combustion behavior and temperature distribution in the combustion engine has not progressed due to the fact that there is no sooting flame in DME combustion. In order to investigate the combustion characteristics in this study, the KIVA-3 V code was implemented to research various pilot injection strategies on a single-cylinder CI engines with DME and Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel (ULSD fuels. The combustion distribution results obtained from the numerical investigation were validated when compared with the measurement of flame temperature behaviors in the experimental approach. This study showed that long intervals between two injection timings enhanced pilot combustion by increasing the ambient pressure and temperature before the start of the main combustion. Different atomization properties between DME and ULSD fuels contributed to the formation of a fuel-air mixture at the nozzle tip and piston lip regions, separately, which strongly affected the temperature distribution of the two fuels. In addition, the pilot injection timing played a vital role in regard to ignition delay and peak combustion temperatures. Exhaust emissions, such as NOx and soot, are related to the local equivalence ratio and temperature in the combustion chamber, also illustrated by the contrary result on a Φ (equivalence ratio – T (temperature map.

  16. Tritium retention in the femoral bone marrow and spleens of mice receiving single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshima, Hisamasa; Matsushita, Satoru; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Kashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    To derive parameters necessary for evaluating the possible hazards of tritium, retention of tritium in total and TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen of mice were observed after single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine. Retention curves of tritium in TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen were resolved fairly well into two exponential components. After injecting tritiated thymidine, most of the activity was detected in the TCA-insoluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction decreased with half-times of 2.2 days in the femoral marrow and 3.6 days in the spleen as the first component, and 23.9 days and 30.5 days, respectively, as the second component. After tritiated water injections, the tritium incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction was quite small. Most of the activity was considered to be in the TCA-soluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction was estimated to decrease with half-times of 2.6 days in the femoral marrow and 2.3 days in the spleen as the first component, and 8.0 days and 8.2 days, respectively, as the second component. It is concluded that the retention curves of tritium in the bone marrow are similar to those in the spleen for tritiated water, but not for tritiated thymidine. (author)

  17. A single intracoronary injection of midkine reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in swine hearts: a novel therapeutic approach for acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaaki eIshiguro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Several growth factors are effective for salvaging myocardium and limiting infarct size in experimental studies with small animals. Their benefit in large animals and feasibility in clinical practice remains to be elucidated. We investigate the cardioprotective effect of midkine (MK in swine subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. I/R was created in swine by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 45 min using a percutaneous over-the-wire balloon catheter. MK protein was injected as a bolus through the catheter at the initiation of reperfusion (midkine injected group; MKT. Saline was injected in controls (CONT. Survival rate 24h after I/R was significantly higher in MKT than in CONT, whereas infarct size/area at risk was almost 5 times smaller. Echocardiography in MKT revealed a significantly higher percent wall thickening of the interventricular septum, a higher % fractional shortening and a lower E/e’ compared with CONT. LV catheterization in MKT showed a lower LVEDP, and a higher dP/dtmax compared with CONT. TUNEL-positive myocytes and CD45-positive cell infiltration in the peri-infarct area were significantly less in MKT than in CONT. Here, we showed that a single intracoronary injection of MK protein in swine hearts at the onset of reperfusion dramatically reduces infarct size and mortality and ameliorates systolic/diastolic LV function. This beneficial effect is associated with a reduction of apoptotic and inflammatory reactions. MK application during percutaneous coronary intervention may become a promising adjunctive therapy in acute coronary syndromes.

  18. Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

    2014-03-14

    A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD≤0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD≤0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stable CW Single-Frequency Operation of Fabry-Perot Laser Diodes by Self-Injection Phase Locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, single-frequency semiconductor laser operation using fiber Bragg gratings has been achieved by two methods: 1) use of the FBG as the output coupler for an anti-reflection-coated semiconductor gain element'; 2) pulsed operation of a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode with FBG-optical and RF-electrical feedback. Here, we demonstrate CW single frequency operation from a non-AR coated Fabry-Perot laser diode using only FBG optical feedback. We coupled a nominal 935 run-wavelength Fabry-Perot laser diode to an ultra narrow band (18 pm) FBG. When tuned by varying its temperature, the laser wavelength is pulled toward the centerline of the Bragg grating, and the spectrum of the laser output is seen to fall into three discrete stability regimes as measured by the side-mode suppression ratio.

  20. Intra-Articular, Single-Shot Hylan G-F 20 Hyaluronic Acid Injection Compared with Corticosteroid in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammachote, Nattapol; Kanitnate, Supakit; Yakumpor, Thanasak; Panichkul, Phonthakorn

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of knee osteoarthritis with hyaluronic acid or corticosteroid injection has been widely used. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (hylan G-F 20) with triamcinolone acetonide as a single intra-articular injection for knee osteoarthritis. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis were recruited. They were randomized to receive a single-shot, intra-articular injection of either 6 mL of hylan G-F 20 or 6 mL of a solution comprising 1 mL of 40-mg triamcinolone acetonide and 5 mL of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine. The primary outcomes were knee pain severity, knee function, and range of motion at 6 months. Ninety-nine patients were assessed before injection and underwent a 6-month follow-up. Patients and evaluators were blinded. Multilevel regression models were used to estimate differences between the groups. At the 6-month follow-up, compared with patients who took hylan G-F 20, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide had similar improvement in knee pain, knee function, and range of motion. The difference in mean outcome scores between groups was, with regard to knee pain, a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 3 points (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -6 to 11 points); with regard to knee function, a modified Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score of 0 points (95% CI, -8 to 6 points); and, with regard to range of motion, flexion of -1° (95% CI, -5° to 2°) and extension of 0° (95% CI, -0.5° to 0.5°). However, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide had better pain improvement from 24 hours until 1 week after injection; the mean difference between groups with regard to the VAS score was 12 points (95% CI, 5 to 20 points; p = 0.002) at 24 hours and 9 points (95% CI, 1 to 15 points; p = 0.018) at 1 week. At 2 weeks after injection, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide also had better knee

  1. Cell turnover in the odontogenic organ of the rat incisor as visualized by graphic reconstructions following a single injection of 3H-thymidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C E

    1980-07-01

    Turnover of cells within the odontogenic organ was studied in three dimensions by preparing serial sections of incisors from young male rats killed at various times following a single intraperitoneal injection of 1 muCi/g body weight of 3H-thymidine. Radioautographs showed that at 1 hour after injection labeled cells were present in all cell layers throughout the entire depth of the odontogenic organ. They were encountered frequently within the inner dental epithelium and stratum intermedium but appeared less abundant within the stellate reticulum and outer dental epithelium. With time, the frequency of labeled cells in each layer declined progressively, and more rapidly at the anterior and labial side of the odontogenic organ than toward its posterior and lingual side. Hence labeled cells were observed over the longest time interval in regions where cell layers were in closest proximity to the opening of the apical foramen, that is, near the apical and cervical loops. By 32 days after injection, numerous labeled cells could still be identified within the outer dental epithelium and stellate reticulum near the apical loop (bulbous part of the odontogenic organ) and the outer dental epithelium near the cervical loops ("U"-shaped part of the odontogenic organ). These findings support the hypothesis that cells originate within the bulbous part of the odontogenic organ and migrate anteriorly through the "U"-shaped and root sheath parts of the odontogenic organ during renewal of the incisor. It appears that individual stem cell compartments may be maintained for surface (outer/inner dental epithelium) and intermediate layers (stellate reticulum/stratum intermedium) in the odontogenic epithelium.

  2. Spray and atomization of diesel fuel and its alternatives from a single-hole injector using a common rail fuel injection system

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, PinChia

    2013-01-01

    Fuel spray and atomization characteristics play an important role in the performance of internal combustion engines. As the reserves of petroleum fuel are expected to be depleted within a few decades, finding alternative fuels that are economically viable and sustainable to replace the petroleum fuel has attracted much research attention. In this work, the spray and atomization characteristics were investigated for commercial No. 2 diesel fuel, biodiesel (FAME) derived from waste cooking oil (B100), 20% biodiesel blended diesel fuel (B20), renewable diesel fuel produced in house, and civil aircraft jet fuel (Jet-A). Droplet diameters and particle size distributions were measured by a laser diffraction particle analyzing system and the spray tip penetrations and cone angles were acquired using a high speed imaging technique. All experiments were conducted by employing a common-rail high-pressure fuel injection system with a single-hole nozzle under room temperature and pressure. The experimental results showed that biodiesel and jet fuel had different features compared with diesel. Longer spray tip penetration and larger droplet diameters were observed for B100. The smaller droplet size of the Jet-A were believed to be caused by its relatively lower viscosity and surface tension. B20 showed similar characteristics to diesel but with slightly larger droplet sizes and shorter tip penetration. Renewable diesel fuel showed closer droplet size and spray penetration to Jet-A with both smaller than diesel. As a result, optimizing the trade-off between spray volume and droplet size for different fuels remains a great challenge. However, high-pressure injection helps to optimize the trade-off of spray volume and droplet sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that the smallest droplets were within a region near the injector nozzle tip and grew larger along the axial and radial direction. The variation of droplet diameters became smaller with increasing injection pressure.

  3. Detection of active alveolar bone destruction in human periodontal disease by analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake after a single injection of 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffcoat, M.K.; Williams, R.C.; Holman, B.L.; English, R.; Goldhaber, P.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, following a single injection of 99m-Tc-MDP, measurement of bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake can detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in beagle dogs, as determined by radiographs taken at the time of, and several months after, the nuclear medicine procedure. The efficacy of this diagnostic test, however, had not been assessed in human periodontal disease. The ability of a single boneseeking radiopharmaceutical uptake examination to detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in human patients was assessed by comparing a single uptake measurement to the rate of bone loss determined from serial radiographs taken over a 6-month period. Uptake was expressed as a ratio of the cpm from the alveolar bone divided by the cpm from the non-tooth supporting bone of the nuchal crest. High uptake ratios were associated with ''active'' loss and low uptake ratios were associated with little if any change in alveolar bone height (p<0.001). The nuclear medicine examination was an accurate detector of periodontal disease activity in nearly 80% of the individual teeth studied. These data indicate that high bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake ratios may be pathognomonic of active bone loss in human periodontal disease. (author)

  4. Detection of active alveolar bone destruction in human periodontal disease by analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake after a single injection of 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffcoat, M.K.; Williams, R.C.; Holman, B.L.; English, R.; Goldhaber, P.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, following a single injection of 99m-Tc-MDP, measurement of bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake can detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in beagle dogs, as determined by radiographs taken at the time of, and several months after, the nuclear medicine procedure. The efficacy of this diagnostic test, however, had not been assessed in human periodontal disease. The ability of a single boneseeking radiopharmaceutical uptake examination to detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in human patients was assessed by comparing a single uptake measurement to the rate of bone loss determined from serial radiographs taken over a 6-month period. Uptake was expressed as a ratio of the cpm from the alveolar bone divided by the cpm from the non-tooth supporting bone of the nuchal crest. High uptake ratios were associated with ''active'' loss and low uptake ratios were associated with little if any change in alveolar bone height (p<0.001). The nuclear medicine examination was an accurate detector of periodontal disease activity in nearly 80% of the individual teeth studied. These data indicate that high bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake ratios may be pathognomonic of active bone loss in human periodontal disease.

  5. Immersed single-drop microextraction interfaced with sequential injection analysis for determination of Cr(VI) in natural waters by electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Single-drop microextraction (SDME) and sequential injection analysis have been hyphenated for ultratrace metal determination by Electrothermal-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS). The novel method was targeted on extraction of the Cr(VI)-APDC chelate and encompasses the potential of SDME as a miniaturized and virtually solvent-free preconcentration technique, the ability of sequential injection analysis to handle samples and the versatility of furnace autosamplers for introducing microliter samples in ETAAS. The variables influencing the microextraction of Cr(VI) onto an organic solvent drop, i.e., type of organic solvent, microextraction time, stirring rate of the sample solution, drop volume, immersion depth of the drop, salting-out effect, temperature of the sample, concentration of the complexing agent and pH of the sample solution were fully investigated. For a 5 and 20 min microextraction time, the preconcentration factors were 20 and 70, respectively. The detection limit was 0.02 μg/L of Cr(VI) and the repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation was 7%. The SDME-SIA-ETAAS technique was validated against BCR CRM 544 (lyophilized solution) and applied to ultrasensitive determination of Cr(VI) in natural waters

  6. Immersed single-drop microextraction interfaced with sequential injection analysis for determination of Cr(VI) in natural waters by electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bendicho, Carlos [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es

    2008-04-15

    Single-drop microextraction (SDME) and sequential injection analysis have been hyphenated for ultratrace metal determination by Electrothermal-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS). The novel method was targeted on extraction of the Cr(VI)-APDC chelate and encompasses the potential of SDME as a miniaturized and virtually solvent-free preconcentration technique, the ability of sequential injection analysis to handle samples and the versatility of furnace autosamplers for introducing microliter samples in ETAAS. The variables influencing the microextraction of Cr(VI) onto an organic solvent drop, i.e., type of organic solvent, microextraction time, stirring rate of the sample solution, drop volume, immersion depth of the drop, salting-out effect, temperature of the sample, concentration of the complexing agent and pH of the sample solution were fully investigated. For a 5 and 20 min microextraction time, the preconcentration factors were 20 and 70, respectively. The detection limit was 0.02 {mu}g/L of Cr(VI) and the repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation was 7%. The SDME-SIA-ETAAS technique was validated against BCR CRM 544 (lyophilized solution) and applied to ultrasensitive determination of Cr(VI) in natural waters.

  7. Experiences of using a single post-contrast CT scan of the urinary tract after triphasic contrast injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Carl Pretorius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available I was alerted to an article in Radiology Vol. 255 No. 2 (May 20101 by a colleague. The article, entitled ‘Kidney and urinary tract imaging: Triple-bolus multidetector CT urography as a one-stop shop – Protocol design, opacification, and image quality analysis’, clearly describes the technique, while the quotation below, from the article, summarises the findings: ‘We have shown that triple-bolus multidetector CT urography allowed visualization of renal parenchymal, excretory, and vascular contrast-enhancement phases in a single dose-efficient acquisition and provided sufficient opacification of the UUT, with simultaneous and adequate image quality of renal parenchyma and vascular anatomy.’ The main emphasis on this technique is to reduce the number of unnecessary CT scans when assessing the urinary tract. Our previous protocol for scanning the urinary tract for pathology included four phases: a pre-contrast, corticomedullary, nephrographic and delay excretory phase.

  8. An Experimental Investigation of Self-Excited Combustion Dynamics in a Single Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejji, Rohan M.

    The management of combustion dynamics in gas turbine combustors has become more challenging as strict NOx/CO emission standards have led to engine operation in a narrow, lean regime. While premixed or partially premixed combustor configurations such as the Lean Premixed Pre-vaporized (LPP), Rich Quench Lean burn (RQL), and Lean Direct Injection (LDI) have shown a potential for reduced NOx emissions, they promote a coupling between acoustics, hydrodynamics and combustion that can lead to combustion instabilities. These couplings can be quite complex, and their detailed understanding is a pre-requisite to any engine development program and for the development of predictive capability for combustion instabilities through high-fidelity models. The overarching goal of this project is to assess the capability of high-fidelity simulation to predict combustion dynamics in low-emissions gas turbine combustors. A prototypical lean-direct-inject combustor was designed in a modular configuration so that a suitable geometry could be found by test. The combustor comprised a variable length air plenum and combustion chamber, air swirler, and fuel nozzle located inside a subsonic venturi. The venturi cross section and the fuel nozzle were consistent with previous studies. Test pressure was 1 MPa and variables included geometry and acoustic resonance, inlet temperatures, equivalence ratio, and type of liquid fuel. High-frequency pressure measurements in a well-instrumented metal chamber yielded frequencies and mode shapes as a function of inlet air temperature, equivalence ratio, fuel nozzle placement, and combustor acoustic resonances. The parametric survey was a significant effort, with over 105 tests on eight geometric configurations. A good dataset was obtained that could be used for both operating-point-dependent quantitative comparisons, and testing the ability of the simulation to predict more global trends. Results showed a very strong dependence of instability amplitude on

  9. Effects on mitochondrial metabolism in livers of guinea pigs after a single or repeated injection of As sub 2 O sub 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, F.X.; Kreppel, H.; Forth, W. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Walter-Straub-Institut fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie); Szinicz, L. (Akademie des Sanitaets- und Gesundheitswesens der Bundeswehr, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie)

    1989-09-01

    Differences in the metabolite pattern were observed in previous experiments in guinea pig livers after a single injection or prolonged (5 days) treatment with AS{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Reichl et al. 1988). To elucidate the underlying mechanism the effect of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} on liver metabolism was therefore investigated. Male guinea pigs received either a single dose (s.d.) of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} 10 mgxkg{sup -1} s.c. or repeated doses (r.d.) of 2.5 mgxkg{sup -1} b.i.d. on 5 consecutive days. One hour after the s.d. or 1 h and 16 h after the last injection in the r.d. groups the animals were sacrificed in anaesthesia. The livers were removed by freeze clamping for the determination of various metabolites. In the s.d. group a significant decrease in hydroxybutyrate, acetylCoA, adenosinemonophosphate and in the ratio of hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate and an increase in pyruvate, citrate, malate, and adenosinetriphosphate were observed. A significant decrease in glycogen, pyruvate, {alpha}-ketoglutarate, acetylCoA, and acetoacetate and a significant increase in malate and in the ratios of lactate/pyruvate and hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate were observed in the r.d.1-h group. In the r.d.16-h group a significant decrease in glycogen, pyruvate, lactate, and adenosinemonophosphate was found, but the values tended towards control values. The data are consistent with mechanisms of As{sub 2}O toxicity in other species as PDH inhibition with consecutive citric acid cycle and gluconeogenesis inhibition and excessive carbohydrate depletion. (orig.).

  10. Identification of Hürthle cell tumor by single-injection, double-phase scintigraphy with technetium-99m-sestamibi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Bertelli, P; Cintorino, M; Burroni, L; Volterrani, D; Vella, A

    1995-05-01

    Early and late (double-phase) scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI was used in a comparative study of the scintigraphic aspects of Hürthle cell tumors and other thyroid tumors. Single-injection, dual-phase (15-30 min and 3-4 hr) thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) was performed on 41 patients who displayed a cold nodule on previous 99mTc scintigraphy. Visual scoring of nodular uptake was done to compare thyroidal and background tracer uptake. In addition, the nodular-to-thyroid (N/T) uptake ratio in the early and late images and the washout rate from the nodule (WON) and thyroidal tissue (WOT) were measured. Cytologic results were obtained for all patients; histopathologic results were obtained for the 20 patients who had surgery. In eight patients (Group A), the nodule displayed intense and persistent uptake of MIBI (N/T = 1.77 +/- 0.46 and 3.20 +/- 1.37; WON = 17.2% +/- 6.3%; WOT = 24.6% +/- 7.5%); histopathology revealed Hürthle cell tumors (two carcinomas and three adenomas) in five surgical patients. In 15 patients (Group B), the nodule displayed intense uptake in the early image with fading activity in the late image (N/T = 1.45 +/- 0.54 and 0.84 +/- 0.30; WON = 30.0% +/- 7.3%; WOT = 24.5% +/- 6.8%); histopathology revealed a colloid nodule (n = 1), papillary carcinoma (n = 4) and follicular carcinoma (n = 5) in 10 surgical patients. In the remaining 18 patients (Group C), the nodule was cold and late images were not acquired. Histopathology revealed colloid nodules (n = 2) and follicular adenoma (n = 3) in five surgical patients. Single-injection, dual-phase MIBI scintigraphy of the thyroid can identify Hürthle cell tumors because these tumors have intense, persistent tracer uptake in contrast to other thyroid tumors.

  11. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  12. Enhanced long-term microcircuit plasticity in the valproic Acid animal model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Guilherme Testa; Le Bé, Jean-Vincent; Riachi, Imad

    2009-01-01

    A single intra-peritoneal injection of valproic acid (VPA) on embryonic day (ED) 11.5 to pregnant rats has been shown to produce severe autistic-like symptoms in the offspring. Previous studies showed that the microcircuitry is hyperreactive due to hyperconnectivity of glutamatergic synapses and ...... and hyperplastic due to over-expression of NMDA receptors. These changes were restricted to the dimensions of a minicolumn (...

  13. Enhanced long term microcircuit plasticity in the valproic acid animal model of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme T Silva; Guilherme T Silva; Jean-Vincent Le Bé; Imad Riachi; Tania Rinaldi; Kamila Markram; Henry Markram

    2009-01-01

    A single intra-peritoneal injection of valproic acid (VPA) on embryonic day (ED) 11.5 to pregnant rats has been shown to produce severe autistic-like symptoms in the offspring. Previous studies showed that the microcircuitry is hyperreactive due to hyperconnectivity of glutamatergic synapses and hyperplastic due to over-expression of NMDA receptors. These changes were restricted to the dimensions of a mini-column (<50μm). In the present study, we explored whether Long Term Microcircuit ...

  14. Enhanced Long-Term Microcircuit Plasticity in the Valproic Acid Animal Model of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Guilherme Testa; Le Bé, Jean-Vincent; Riachi, Imad; Rinaldi, Tania; Markram, Kamila; Markram, Henry

    2009-01-01

    A single intra-peritoneal injection of valproic acid (VPA) on embryonic day (ED) 11.5 to pregnant rats has been shown to produce severe autistic-like symptoms in the offspring. Previous studies showed that the microcircuitry is hyperreactive due to hyperconnectivity of glutamatergic synapses and hyperplastic due to over-expression of NMDA receptors. These changes were restricted to the dimensions of a minicolumn (

  15. Comparison of clinical applications of single-dose intravenous injection of mivacurium and cisatracurium in adults’ vocalcordpolyps resection under self-retaining laryngoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Fanglei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Through comparing the clinical observation of mivacurium and cisatracurium in vocal polyp extraction, to study the advantage of mivacurium in vocal polyp extraction. Methods: Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists(ASA physical status I~II patients for vocal polyp extraction, aged 18~60 years old, were randomly divided into two groups as Mivacurium injection group(Group M and Cis-atracurium injection group(Group C, each group includes 20 subjects. None of the patients are allergic, has serious diseases of cardiovascular system, liver or kidney.None of them has asthma, airway high response, difficult airway or neuromuscular diseases.Those patients who use beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers for a long time were excluded .All the subjects had the same premedication, fasting and fluid fobidden time. All the subjects who get into the operating room get the routine monitoring of electrocardiogram(EEG, blood pressure(BP, heart rate(HR, pulse oxygen saturation(SpO2 and the TOF WATCH SX. Each group gives the same medicine other than the muscle relaxant during induction of general anesthesia to do the vocal polyp extraction by the same experienced operator. Two groups were recorded in each index of anesthesia induction and tracheal intubation conditions, operation conditions, anesthesia, muscle relaxation monitoring. Results: There are no statistically significant in Cormack-Lehane grading system,Cooper’s grading system and operation satifaction(p>0.05. 2. Group A have shorter intubation time than Group B(p0.05. Conclusion: 1. A single intubating dose of mivacurium can provide similar intubation and surgeon satisfaction for the vocal polyp extraction. 2. Compared with cis-atracurium, mivacurium can shorten the intubation time and the recovery time of anesthesia. The adverse reactions of mivacurium is mild, and it has less Residual muscle relaxation. Therefore mivacurium is more suitable for the vocal polyp extraction than cis-atracurium.

  16. A single intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin in rats induces long-lasting modifications in behavior and brain protein levels of TNF-α and IL-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossù Paola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic inflammation might cause neuronal damage and sustain neurodegenerative diseases and behavior impairment, with the participation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-18. However, the potential contribution of these cytokines to behavioral impairment in the long-term period has not been fully investigated. Methods Wistar rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg or vehicle. After 7 days and 10 months, the animal behavior was evaluated by testing specific cognitive functions, as mnesic, discriminative, and attentional functions, as well as anxiety levels. Contextually, TNF-α and IL-18 protein levels were measured by ELISA in defined brain regions (that is, frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and hypothalamus. Results Behavioral testing demonstrated a specific and persistent cognitive impairment characterized by marked deficits in reacting to environment modifications, possibly linked to reduced motivational or attentional deficits. Concomitantly, LPS induced a TNF-α increase in the hippocampus and frontal cortex (from 7 days onward and cerebellum (only at 10 months. Interestingly, LPS treatment enhanced IL-18 expression in these same areas only at 10 months after injection. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the chronic neuroinflammatory network elicited by systemic inflammation involves a persistent participation of TNF-α accompanied by a differently regulated contribution of IL-18. This leads to speculation that, though with still unclear mechanisms, both cytokines might take part in long-lasting modifications of brain functions, including behavioral alteration.

  17. Urinary excretion and patterns of protein binding of iodipamide (Biligrafin forte). A comparison of the infusion technique with the single bolus injection in intravenous cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husband, J; Saxton, H M [Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)

    1978-01-01

    It has been suggested that the bile ducts are seen better during intravenous cholangiography when the contrast medium is given by infusion rather than by injection in a single bolus. As an explanation, it has been proposed that a greater amount of contrast medium is bound to plasma proteins after infusion, resulting in a smaller quantity of contrast medium being excreted in the urine, so leaving a larger total for excretion by the liver. In this study, the urinary excretion of /sup 125/I labelled iodipamide methylglucamine (50% w/v Biligrafin forte) has been measured in 42 patients. The patients were divided into two groups. One group received a slow infusion of radioactive iodipamide over 45 minutes and the other an intravenous injection over five minutes. When a relatively high dose (0.6 mg/kg body weight) was used, no difference in urinary excretion was noted between these two groups; but with a lower dose (0.2 mg/kg body weight), slow infusion resulted in a reduced urinary excretion; however the total difference in contrast lost in the urine was too small to affect biliary concentration. The patterns of protein binding of iodipamide have been examined in 12 of these patients. The results showed that at the low dose a higher percentage of radioactive iodipamide was bound to protein in patients given contrast by infusion. There was clear evidence that the contrast binding capacity of plasma was limited so that with higher doses, much contrast remained unbound. At any given dose level, there was inverse correlation between the proportion of contrast bound to protein and the urinary excretion. The factors affecting contrast binding in individual subjects were not clear.

  18. Time-resolved generation of membrane potential by ba3 cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus coupled to single electron injection into the O and OH states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siletsky, Sergey A; Belevich, Ilya; Belevich, Nikolai P; Soulimane, Tewfik; Wikström, Mårten

    2017-11-01

    Two electrogenic phases with characteristic times of ~14μs and ~290μs are resolved in the kinetics of membrane potential generation coupled to single-electron reduction of the oxidized "relaxed" O state of ba 3 oxidase from T. thermophilus (O→E transition). The rapid phase reflects electron redistribution between Cu A and heme b. The slow phase includes electron redistribution from both Cu A and heme b to heme a 3 , and electrogenic proton transfer coupled to reduction of heme a 3 . The distance of proton translocation corresponds to uptake of a proton from the inner water phase into the binuclear center where heme a 3 is reduced, but there is no proton pumping and no reduction of Cu B . Single-electron reduction of the oxidized "unrelaxed" state (O H →E H transition) is accompanied by electrogenic reduction of the heme b/heme a 3 pair by Cu A in a "fast" phase (~22μs) and transfer of protons in "middle" and "slow" electrogenic phases (~0.185ms and ~0.78ms) coupled to electron redistribution from the heme b/heme a 3 pair to the Cu B site. The "middle" and "slow" electrogenic phases seem to be associated with transfer of protons to the proton-loading site (PLS) of the proton pump, but when all injected electrons reach Cu B the electronic charge appears to be compensated by back-leakage of the protons from the PLS into the binuclear site. Thus proton pumping occurs only to the extent of ~0.1 H + /e - , probably due to the formed membrane potential in the experiment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality Assessment of Kumu Injection, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparation, Using HPLC Combined with Chemometric Methods and Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Alkaloids by Single Marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Li, Zhi-Yong; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Li, Qiao; Yang, Xin; Xu, Hui

    2018-04-09

    Kumu injection (KMI) is a common-used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation made from Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. rich in alkaloids. An innovative technique for quality assessment of KMI was developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with chemometric methods and qualitative and quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS). Nigakinone (PQ-6, 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one), one of the most abundant alkaloids responsible for the major pharmacological activities of Kumu, was used as a reference substance. Six alkaloids in KMI were quantified, including 6-hydroxy- β -carboline-1-carboxylic acid (PQ-1), 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one (PQ-2), β -carboline-1-carboxylic acid (PQ-3), β -carboline-1-propanoic acid (PQ-4), 3-methylcanthin-5,6-dione (PQ-5), and PQ-6. Based on the outcomes of twenty batches of KMI samples, the contents of six alkaloids were used for further chemometric analysis. By hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), radar plots, and principal component analysis (PCA), all the KMI samples could be categorized into three groups, which were closely related to production date and indicated the crucial influence of herbal raw material on end products of KMI. QAMS combined with chemometric analysis could accurately measure and clearly distinguish the different quality samples of KMI. Hence, QAMS is a feasible and promising method for the quality control of KMI.

  20. 241Am distribution and retention in pregnant mice, in their offspring and in non-pregnant mice: comparison between continuous Am administration and single injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huevel, R. Van Den; Vander Plaetse, F.; Leppens, H.; Schoeters, G.

    1992-01-01

    Pregnant BALB/c mice and age and sex matched nulliparous controls were contaminated with 241 Am (13 kBq per mouse). Five days after the termination of contamination, 241 Am incorporation was measured in the tissues of adults and in the liver an the femur of newborn and one-month-old mice. Pregnancy resulted in higher 241 Am concentrations in bone but lower concentrations in the liver of the mothers. Protracted administration of 241 Am compared to a single injection resulted in a lower concentration of 241 Am in the livers of pregnant mice, their nulliparous controls and from newborn mice. The higher 241 Am concentration in the femur at birth after protected exposure before 14 days of gestation compared to protracted exposure after 14 days of gestation could reflect the increased placental transfer of 241 Am with advancing gestational age. Radiation doses to the femur were estimated between 4 and 20 mGy. Haemopoietic changes were noticed at these dose levels in all groups until at least 6 months after birth. (author)

  1. sup 241 Am distribution and retention in pregnant mice, in their offspring and in non-pregnant mice: comparison between continuous Am administration and single injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huevel, R. Van Den; Vander Plaetse, F.; Leppens, H.; Schoeters, G. (Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium))

    1992-01-01

    Pregnant BALB/c mice and age and sex matched nulliparous controls were contaminated with {sup 241}Am (13 kBq per mouse). Five days after the termination of contamination, {sup 241}Am incorporation was measured in the tissues of adults and in the liver an the femur of newborn and one-month-old mice. Pregnancy resulted in higher {sup 241}Am concentrations in bone but lower concentrations in the liver of the mothers. Protracted administration of {sup 241}Am compared to a single injection resulted in a lower concentration of {sup 241}Am in the livers of pregnant mice, their nulliparous controls and from newborn mice. The higher {sup 241}Am concentration in the femur at birth after protected exposure before 14 days of gestation compared to protracted exposure after 14 days of gestation could reflect the increased placental transfer of {sup 241}Am with advancing gestational age. Radiation doses to the femur were estimated between 4 and 20 mGy. Haemopoietic changes were noticed at these dose levels in all groups until at least 6 months after birth. (author).

  2. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of marbofloxacin as a single injection for Pasteurellaceae respiratory infections in cattle using population pharmacokinetics and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, A; Schneider, M; Dron, F; Woehrle, F

    2018-02-01

    Population pharmacokinetic of marbofloxacin was investigated with 52 plasma concentration-time profiles obtained after intramuscular administration of Forcyl® in cattle. Animal's status, pre-ruminant, ruminant, or dairy cow, was retained as a relevant covariate for clearance. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using a stratification by status, and 1000 virtual disposition curves were generated in each bovine subpopulation for the recommended dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg as a single injection. The probability of target attainment (PTA) of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios associated with clinical efficacy and prevention of resistance was determined in each simulated subpopulation. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) of animals achieving a PK/PD ratio predictive of positive clinical outcome was then calculated for the simulated dosage regimen, taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Histophilus somni. When considering a ratio of AUC 0-24 hr /MIC (area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration) greater than 125 hr, CFRs ranging from 85% to 100% against the three Pasteurellaceae in each bovine subpopulation were achieved. The PTA of the PK/PD threshold reflecting the prevention of resistances was greater than 90% up to MPC (mutant prevention concentration) values of 1 μg/ml in pre-ruminants and ruminants and 0.5 μg/ml in dairy cows. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Should continuous rather than single-injection interscalene block be routinely offered for major shoulder surgery? A meta-analysis of the analgesic and side-effects profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobeichik, L; Brull, R; Bowry, R; Laffey, J G; Abdallah, F W

    2018-04-01

    Major shoulder surgery is associated with moderate-to-severe pain, but consensus on the optimal analgesic approach is lacking. Continuous catheter-based interscalene block (CISB) prolongs the analgesic benefits of its single-injection counterpart (SISB), but concerns over CISB complications and difficulties in interpreting comparative evidence examining major and minor shoulder procedures simultaneously, despite their differences in postoperative pain, have limited CISB popularity. This meta-analysis evaluates the CISB analgesic role and complications compared with SISB for major shoulder surgery. We retrieved randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of CISB to SISB on analgesic outcomes and side-effects after major shoulder surgery. Postoperative opioid consumption at 24 h was designated as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included 24-48 h opioid consumption, postoperative rest and dynamic pain scores up to 72 h, time-to-first analgesic, recovery room and hospital stay durations, patient satisfaction, postoperative nausea and vomiting, respiratory function, and block-related complications. Data from 15 RCTs were pooled using random-effects modelling. Compared with SISB, CISB reduced 24- and 48-h oral morphine consumption by a weighted mean difference [95% confidence interval] of 50.9 mg [-81.6, -20.2], (P=0.001) and 44.7 mg [-80.9, -8.7], (Pshoulder surgery, without increasing side-effects, compared with SISB. The importance of CISB-related changes in respiratory indices is questionable. Copyright © 2017 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A single exposure to cocaine during development elicits regionally-selective changes in basal basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) gene expression and alters the trophic response to a second injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Giuseppe; Caffino, Lucia; Malpighi, Chiara; Melfi, Simona; Racagni, Giorgio; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    During adolescence, the brain is maturing and more sensitive to drugs of abuse that can influence its developmental trajectory. Recently, attention has been focused on basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) given that its administration early in life enhances the acquisition of cocaine self-administration and sensitization at adulthood (Turner et al. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav 92:100-4, 2009), Clinton et al. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav103:6-17, 2012)). Additionally, we found that abstinence from adolescent cocaine exposure long lastingly dysregulates FGF-2 transcription (Giannotti et al. (Psychopharmacology (Berl) 225:553-60, 2013 ). The objectives of the study are to evaluate if (1) a single injection of cocaine (20 mg/kg) at postnatal day 35 alters FGF-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and (2) the first injection influences the trophic response to a second injection (10 mg/kg) provided 24 h or 7 days later. We found regional differences in the FGF-2 expression pattern as either the first or the second injection of cocaine by themselves upregulated FGF-2 mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens while downregulating it in the hippocampus. The first injection influences the trophic response of the second. Of note, 24 h after the first injection, accumbal and hippocampal FGF-2 changes produced by cocaine in saline-pretreated rats were prevented in cocaine-pretreated rats. Conversely, in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus 7 days after the first injection, the cocaine-induced FGF-2 changes were modified by the subsequent exposure to the psychostimulant. These findings show that a single cocaine injection is sufficient to produce enduring changes in the adolescent brain and indicate that early cocaine priming alters the mechanisms regulating the trophic response in a brain region-specific fashion.

  5. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  6. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  8. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  9. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  10. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  12. Comprehensive low-dose imaging of carotid and coronary arteries with a single-injection dual-source CT angiography protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognolini, A.; Arellano, C.S.; Marfori, W.; Heidari, G.; Sayre, J.W.; Krishnam, M.S.; Ruehm, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the feasibility of a fast single-bolus combined carotid and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol in asymptomatic patients. Materials and methods: Thirty-three consecutive patients (18 women and 15 men) with a median age of 61 ± 14 years old (range 37–87 years) with known or suspected atherosclerotic disease were enrolled in this prospective study. A single breath-hold, single biphasic injection protocol (50 ml at 3 ml/s, 50 ml at 5 ml/s, 50 ml saline flush at 5 ml/s) was used for combined CTA imaging of the supra-aortic (SAA) and coronary arteries (CA) on a 64-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) machine. Helical CTA acquisition of the SAA was followed by prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered coronary CTA. Subjective (four-point scale) image quality and objective signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) measurements were performed. Vascular disease was graded on a four-point scale (grade 1: absent; grade 2: mild, grade 3: moderate; grade 4: severe). The radiation dose was recorded for each patient. Results: The average enhancement and subjective quality score of SAA and CA segments were 396 HU/358 HU and 1.2 ± 0.3/1.72 ± 0.4, respectively. The SNR was 27.1 ± 1.7 in the SAA and 21.6 ± 1.6 in the CA (p < 0.0001). The CNR was 18.1 ± 1.2 and 15.9 ± 1.8, respectively (p = 0.4). Four percent of SAA and 14% of CA segments (mostly due to peri-venous streak artefacts and small calibre, respectively) produced non-diagnostic images. SAA findings were as follows: 26/33 (79%) patients showed no disease and 6/33 (18%) had grade 2 and 1/33 (3%) had grade 3 disease. CA findings were as follows: 25/33 (76%) showed no disease and 6/33 (18%) patients had grade 2 and 2/33 (6%) had grade 3 disease. Five patients had disease in both districts. The average radiation dose for the combined CTA angiogram was 4.3 ± 0.6 mSv. Conclusion: A fast, low-dose combined DSCT angiography protocol appears technically feasible for imaging carotid and

  13. Comprehensive low-dose imaging of carotid and coronary arteries with a single-injection dual-source CT angiography protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognolini, A; Arellano, C S; Marfori, W; Heidari, G; Sayre, J W; Krishnam, M S; Ruehm, S G

    2014-03-01

    To assess the feasibility of a fast single-bolus combined carotid and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol in asymptomatic patients. Thirty-three consecutive patients (18 women and 15 men) with a median age of 61 ± 14 years old (range 37-87 years) with known or suspected atherosclerotic disease were enrolled in this prospective study. A single breath-hold, single biphasic injection protocol (50 ml at 3 ml/s, 50 ml at 5 ml/s, 50 ml saline flush at 5 ml/s) was used for combined CTA imaging of the supra-aortic (SAA) and coronary arteries (CA) on a 64-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) machine. Helical CTA acquisition of the SAA was followed by prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered coronary CTA. Subjective (four-point scale) image quality and objective signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) measurements were performed. Vascular disease was graded on a four-point scale (grade 1: absent; grade 2: mild, grade 3: moderate; grade 4: severe). The radiation dose was recorded for each patient. The average enhancement and subjective quality score of SAA and CA segments were 396 HU/358 HU and 1.2 ± 0.3/1.72 ± 0.4, respectively. The SNR was 27.1 ± 1.7 in the SAA and 21.6 ± 1.6 in the CA (p grade 2 and 1/33 (3%) had grade 3 disease. CA findings were as follows: 25/33 (76%) showed no disease and 6/33 (18%) patients had grade 2 and 2/33 (6%) had grade 3 disease. Five patients had disease in both districts. The average radiation dose for the combined CTA angiogram was 4.3 ± 0.6 mSv. A fast, low-dose combined DSCT angiography protocol appears technically feasible for imaging carotid and coronary atherosclerotic disease. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Myocardial blood flow rate and capillary permeability for 99mTc-DTPA in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Evaluation of the single-injection, residue detection method with intracoronary indicator bolus injection and the use of a mobile gamma camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Kelbaek, H; Efsen, F

    1994-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantitate myocardial perfusion and capillary permeability in the human heart by means of the single-injection, residue detection method using a mobile gamma camera. With this method, the intravascular mean transit time and the capillary extraction fraction (E...

  15. A Three-arm Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Continuous Femoral Plus Single-injection Sciatic Peripheral Nerve Blocks versus Periarticular Injection with Ropivacaine or Liposomal Bupivacaine for Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Adam W; Johnson, Rebecca L; Abdel, Matthew P; Mantilla, Carlos B; Panchamia, Jason K; Taunton, Michael J; Kralovec, Michael E; Hebl, James R; Schroeder, Darrell R; Pagnano, Mark W; Kopp, Sandra L

    2017-06-01

    Multimodal analgesia is standard practice for total knee arthroplasty; however, the role of regional techniques in improved perioperative outcomes remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that peripheral nerve blockade would result in lower pain scores and opioid consumption than two competing periarticular injection solutions. This three-arm, nonblinded trial randomized 165 adults undergoing unilateral primary total knee arthroplasty to receive (1) femoral catheter plus sciatic nerve blocks, (2) ropivacaine-based periarticular injection, or (3) liposomal bupivacaine-based periarticular injection. Primary outcome was maximal pain during postoperative day 1 (0 to 10, numerical pain rating scale) in intention-to-treat analysis. Additional outcomes included pain scores and opioid consumption for postoperative days 0 to 2 and 3 months. One hundred fifty-seven study patients received peripheral nerve block (n = 50), ropivacaine (n = 55), or liposomal bupivacaine (n = 52) and reported median maximal pain scores on postoperative day 1 of 3, 4, and 4.5 and on postoperative day 0 of 1, 4, and 5, respectively (average pain scores for postoperative day 0: 0.6, 1.7, and 2.4 and postoperative day 1: 2.5, 3.5, and 3.7). Postoperative day 1 median maximal pain scores were significantly lower for peripheral nerve blockade compared to liposomal bupivacaine-based periarticular injection (P = 0.016; Hodges-Lehmann median difference [95% CI] = -1 [-2 to 0]). After postanesthesia care unit discharge, postoperative day 0 median maximal and average pain scores were significantly lower for peripheral nerve block compared to both periarticular injections (ropivacaine: maximal -2 [-3 to -1]; P bupivacaine: maximal -3 [-4 to -2]; P bupivacaine over ropivacaine in periarticular injections for total knee arthroplasty.

  16. Dose-dependent effect of a single GnRHa injection on the spawning of meagre (Argyrosomus regius broodstock reared in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipolito Fernandez-Palacios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the spawning efficacy, egg quality and quantity of captive breed meagre induced with a single gonadotrophin‐releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa injection of 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 or 50 µg kg-1 to determine a recommended optimum dose to induce spawning. The doses 10, 15 and 20 μg kg-1 gave eggs with the highest quality (measured as: percentage of viability, floating, fertilisation and hatch and quantity (measured as: total number of eggs, number of viable eggs, number of floating eggs, number of hatched larvae and number of larvae that reabsorbed the yolk sac. All egg quantity parameters were described by Gaussian regression analysis with R2=0.89 or R2=0.88. The Gaussian regression analysis identified that the optimal dose used was 15 μg kg-1. The regression analysis highlighted that this comprehensive study examined doses that ranged from low doses insufficient to stimulate a high spawning response (significantly lower egg quantities, p<0.05 compared to 15 μg kg-1 through to high doses that stimulated the spawning of significantly lower egg quantities and eggs with significantly lower quality (egg viability. In addition, the latency period (time from hormone application to spawning decreased with increasing doses to give a regression (R2=0.93 which suggests that higher doses accelerated oocyte development that in turn reduced egg quality and quantity. The identification of an optimal dose for the spawning of meagre, which has high aquaculture potential, represents an important advance for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry.

  17. Combined Effect of food deprivation and serotonin injection on plasma prolactin and glucose levels in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, R.B.; Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Khamis, F.I.; Abu Zaid, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the role of serotonin (5-HT) on the homeostasis of plasma prolactin and glucose in rats induced by gamma irradiation and food deprivation. Animals were divided into seven groups; control, irradiated at a dose level of 6 Gy, injected with 500 mg/kg b.wt. 5-HT intra-peritoneally, injected with 5-HT before irradiation food deprived for 48 hrs then irradiated, food deprived then injected with 5-HT, and food deprived then injected with 5-HT before whole body irradiation. Samples were collected at 1,3, 7 and 14 days post irradiation. The results showed that gamma irradiation firstly elevated prolactin (PRL) levels in plasma (1 and 3 days) then the levels decreased after 7 and 14 days as compared to control values. Rats received serotonin before irradiation exhibited an increased level of PRL after 14 days post irradiation compared to control value, while the level decreased after 1, 3, 7 days post irradiation. Food deprivation for 48 hrs altered the effect of serotonin and /or irradiation on PRL levels in plasma. Rats injected with serotonin showed a decreased level of plasma prolactin in food deprived rats, 3 days post injection. The obtained results showed that serotonin causes variable effects on plasma prolactin compared to control values. Glucose plasma levels were increased in both irradiated and serotonin injected rats before irradiation, and also in serotonin injected rats as compared to control values. Irradiation of rats after 48 hrs food deprivation induced an increase in plasma glucose levels measured throughout the different experimental periods. Injection of serotonin to rats after 48 hrs food deprivation before irradiation increased plasma glucose levels after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days compared to control value. Also, injection of serotonin to 48 hrs food deprived rats increased glucose levels during all examined days of experiment.It could be concluded that serotonin may have a variable mechanism controlling prolactin

  18. Long-term effects on biotransformation of labelled choline in different parts of the rat brain induced by single choline injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, A.; Wahlstroem, G.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term effects of single choline (Ch) injections on the uptake and metabolism of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch were studied in male rats. Choline was administered as a threshold infusion to obtain convulsions 10 and 4 weeks before sacrific (group 1). At a single threshold infusion of choline 4 weeks before sacrifice no convulsions were induced in 50% of the animals in a second group (group 2-) whereas convulsions were induced in the remainder of the animals in this group (group 2+). Group 3 contained control animals. One min. after administration of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch the animals were sacrificed and examined for /sup 3/H-total activity, /sup 3/H-Ch, /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (/sup 3/H-ACh) and /sup 3/H-phosphorylcholine (/sup 3/-H-PhCh). These activities were determined in three parts of the brain (cortex, striatum, midbrain + medulla oblongata). In the cortex a significant negative correlation between brain weight and /sup 3/H-ACh synthesis was seen in group 1. A comparison between group 2+ and group 2- indicated that induced convulsions were not critical for this effect. In the striatum there was a significant reduction in the total uptake of radioactivity in group 1 and group 2- when values were compared to the control group. Furthermore a significant positive correlation was detected between the concentration of radiolabel and /sup 3/H-ACh synthesis and a negative relationship with the level of /sup 3/H-Ch. In the midbrain preparation the synthesis of /sup 3/H-ACh was reduced in group 1 where a significant negative correlation was found between the average threshold dose of choline and both /sup 3/H-Ach and /sup 3/H-PhCh synthesis. Thus the Ch threshold doses given several weeks before testing seem to have long term effects on the uptake and utilization of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch in the cortex and striatum.

  19. Ultrasound-guided versus fluoroscopy-guided sacroiliac joint intra-articular injections in the noninflammatory sacroiliac joint dysfunction: a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Haemi; Lee, Ji-Hae; Park, Ki Deok; Ahn, Jaeki; Park, Yongbum

    2014-02-01

    To compare the short-term effects and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injections with fluoroscopy (FL)-guided SIJ injections in patients with noninflammatory SIJ dysfunction. Prospective, randomized controlled trial. University hospital. Patients (N=120) with noninflammatory sacroiliac arthritis were enrolled. All procedures were performed using an FL or US apparatus. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the FL or US group. Immediately after the SIJ injections, fluoroscopy was applied to verify the correct placement of the injected medication and intravascular injections. Treatment effects and functional improvement were compared at 2 and 12 weeks after the procedures. The verbal numeric pain scale and Oswestry Disability Index improved at 2 and 12 weeks after the injections without statistical significances between groups. Of 55 US-guided injections, 48 (87.3%) were successful and 7 (12.7%) were missed. The FL-guided SIJ approach exhibited a greater accuracy (98.2%) than the US-guided approach. Vascularization around the SIJ was seen in 34 of 55 patients. Among the 34 patients, 7 had vascularization inside the joint, 23 had vascularization around the joint, and 4 had vascularization both inside and around the joint. Three cases of intravascular injections occurred in the FL group. The US-guided approach may facilitate the identification and avoidance of the critical vessels around or within the SIJ. Function and pain relief significantly improved in both groups without significant differences between groups. The US-guided approach was shown to be as effective as the FL-guided approach in treatment effects. However, diagnostic application in the SIJ may be limited because of the significantly lower accuracy rate (87.3%). Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of single injection of local anesthetic agents on intervertebral disc degeneration: ex vivo and long-term in vivo experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Analgesic discography (discoblock can be used to diagnose or treat discogenic low back pain by injecting a small amount of local anesthetics. However, recent in vitro studies have revealed cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on intervertebral disc (IVD cells. Here we aimed to investigate the deteriorative effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on rabbit IVDs using an organotypic culture model and an in vivo long-term follow-up model.For the organotypic culture model, rabbit IVDs were harvested and cultured for 3 or 7 days after intradiscal injection of local anesthetics (1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine. Nucleus pulposus (NP cell death was measured using confocal microscopy. Histological and TUNEL assays were performed. For in vivo study, each local anesthetic was injected into rabbit lumbar IVDs under a fluoroscope. Six or 12 months after the injection, each IVD was prepared for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological analysis.In the organotypic culture model, both anesthetic agents induced time-dependent NP cell death; when compared with injected saline solution, significant effects were detected within 7 days. Compared with the saline group, TUNEL-positive NP cells were significantly increased in the bupivacaine group. In the in vivo study, MRI analysis did not show any significant difference. Histological analysis revealed that IVD degeneration occurred to a significantly level in the saline- and local anesthetics-injected groups compared with the untreated control or puncture-only groups. However, there was no significant difference between the saline and anesthetic agents groups.In the in vivo model using healthy IVDs, there was no strong evidence to suggest that discoblock with local anesthetics has the potential of inducing IVD degeneration other than the initial mechanical damage of the pressurized injection. Further studies should be performed to investigate the deteriorative effects of the local injection of analgesic agents

  1. A Single-blind, Split-face, Randomized, Pilot Study Comparing the Effects of Intradermal and Intramuscular Injection of Two Commercially Available Botulinum Toxin A Formulas to Reduce Signs of Facial Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Priya; Sapra, Sheetal; Khanna, Julie; Mraud, Kelli; Bonadonna, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effectiveness of intradermal botulinum toxin type A injection in improving skin texture and midface lift while reducing pore size and sebum production, as well as investigate the differences in effectiveness between onabotulinumtoxinA and abobotulinumtoxinA using intradermal and intramuscular injection methods. Design: A 16-week, single-blind, split-face, randomized study. Each patient served as their own control, receiving onabotulinumtoxinA and abobotulinumtoxinA randomized to either the left or right side of the face. Patients received intradermal botulinum toxin type A injections at Week 0 and intramuscular botulinum toxin type A injections at Week 2. Participants: Ten women aged 35 to 65 years who exhibited static rhytids in the glabellar and periorbital area. Measurements: The primary endpoint was efficacy of split-face treatment of intradermal and intramuscular onabotulinumtoxinA and abobotulinumtoxinA as assessed by a blinded evaluator using baseline and post-treatment photographs. The secondary endpoints included safety as assessed by adverse events and patient satisfaction measured by questionnaires completed at baseline and post-treatment. Results: Intradermal injection of botulinum toxin type A led to a statistically significant improvement in skin texture (p=0.004) while also resulting in mild midface lift (p=0.024), but did not provide a significant reduction of pore size and sebum production. There was no statistically significant difference between onabotulinumtoxinA and abobotulinumtoxinA when injected intradermally or intramuscularly. Conclusion: Intradermal injection of botulinum toxin type A appears to be a safe and effective therapy that provides an improvement in facial skin texture and midface lift. Registry: clinicaltrials.gov (ID#: NCT02907268). PMID:28367260

  2. Clinical and instrumental evaluation of a cross-linked hyaluronic acid filler dermal injection: effects on nasolabial folds skin biophysical parameters and augmentation from a single-dose, monocentric, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Serio, Mirko; Berardesca, Enzo

    2016-10-01

    When a hyaluronic acid dermal device to fill soft tissues is chosen, efficacy, safety and durability are key concerns. This is an open-label prospective study to instrumentally evaluate the effects of HA filler dermal injection on nasolabial folds skin biophysical parameters and augmentation. A single Italian site treated female subjects aged 40-55, for nasolabial folds, with a single standardized injection. The outcome was evaluated with objective quantitative measurements after 90 (T1) and 180 days (T2) from the injection comparing to baseline (T0) by means of Corneometer (skin hydration measurement), Cutometer (skin elasticity measurement), and Visioface devices for digital and UV computerized image analysis. Secondary endpoints were safety assessment, subject investigator satisfaction with the intervention. Assessment of aesthetic results included photographic documentation. The computerized image analysis confirmed the clinical assessment showing statistically significant reduction in nasolabial folds both at T1 and T2. Visioface® indexes showed a marked and statistical significant response. An excellent profile of satisfaction of the product at T2 from investigators and patients was recorded. Skin hydration and elasticity did not show significant changes. In our study, a standardized HA filler dermal injection on nasolabial folds did not influence skin biophysical parameters such as skin hydration and elasticity. Nasolabial folds showed a persistent and significative response at T2 confirmed by instrumental evaluation. The tolerability and safety profile of the product was excellent.

  3. Complete Resolution of a Giant Pigment Epithelial Detachment Secondary to Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration after a Single Intravitreal Ranibizumab (Lucentis Injection: Results Documented by Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Loukianou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim:To describe a patient with a giant pigment epithelial detachment (PED secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD successfully treated with a single intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis injection (0.5 mg/0.05 ml.Methods:An 89-year-old woman presented with a six-day history of reduced vision and distortion in the left eye. Best-corrected visual acuity in that eye was 6/15. Fundoscopy revealed a giant PED and exudates temporally to the fovea. Optical coherence tomography showed a PED associated with subretinal and intraretinal fluid. Fluorescein angiography confirmed the diagnosis of an occult choroidal neovascularization. Treatment with intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (Lucentis was recommended, although the increased risk of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE rip was mentioned. Results:Four weeks after the first intravitreal Lucentis injection, the visual acuity in the left eye improved to 6/7.5, with a significant improvement of the distortion and a complete anatomical resolution of the PED confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Conclusion:Giant PED secondary to exudative ARMD can be successfully treated with intravitreal ranibizumab, despite the increased risk of RPE rip. To our knowledge, this is the first case presenting with complete resolution of PED after a single ranibizumab injection.

  4. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  5. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  6. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  7. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  8. Arterio-venous concentration difference of [51Cr]EDTA after a single injection in man. Significance of renal function and local blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehling, M; Hyldstrup, L; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1989-01-01

    , whereas the difference was very sensitive to even small changes in forearm blood flow within the physiological range. For measurement of renal plasma clearance it is recommended to use one long period: from the time of injection until 300 min p.i. or longer. If the clearance period is too short, the use...... introduced in the measurement of renal plasma clearance and total plasma clearance by using venous blood samples instead of arterial. In 13 patients with GFR ranging from 29 to 150 ml min-1, Ca was higher than Cv immediately after the injection. After mean 38 min (range 12-82 min) the two curves crossed...... of venous samples will overestimate the true renal clearance. Plasma clearance determined by venous and arterial blood samples does not differ significantly as long as the concentration is followed from the time of injection and a long period is applied. When simplified plasma clearance techniques are used...

  9. Efficacy and safety of cross-linked hyaluronic acid single injection on osteoarthritis of the knee: a post-marketing phase IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashaireh K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Khaldoon Bashaireh,1 Ziad Naser,2 Khaled Al Hawadya,2 Sorour Sorour,2 Rami Nabeel Al-Khateeb3 1Department of Orthopedics Surgery, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 2Private Clinic, 3Elaf Medical Supplies Company, Amman, Jordan Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and duration of action of viscosupplementation with Crespine® Gel over a 9-month period.Materials and methods: The study was a post-marketing phase IV study. A total of 109 participants with osteoarthritis of the knee (grades 1–4 in the tibio–femoral compartment were recruited in Jordan. Data were collected from each participant during the baseline visit. Each participant received Crespine® Gel injection, and follow-up visits took place at 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months post-injection.Main outcome measure(s: An assessment of participants by phone was conducted at 1 month, 2 months, 4 months, 5 months, 7 months, and 8 months post-injection. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index questionnaires were completed during each visit. A 72-hour visit questionnaire was used to assess the safety of the injection. Statistical analysis included a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between pain scores across visits, and the percent change from baseline was calculated.Main results: The full analysis included 84 participants who gave their informed consent and finished the necessary baseline and follow-up visits needed to assess efficacy and safety. Peak improvement was noted at 5 months post-injection, when pain and physical performance scores had decreased to 2.60 and 9.90, respectively, and the stiffness score was 0.33. The peak improvement in stiffness was noted at 8 months post-injection, when the stiffness score had decreased to 0.32. Significant improvements were still apparent at 9 months post-injection, when the pain score was 3

  10. Whole-body microvascular permeability of small molecules in man: clinical aspects, basic concepts and limitations of the single injection technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1985-01-01

    In order to estimate whole-body permeability-surface area (PS) product, the initial slope of the plasma disappearance curve was determined after simultaneous i.v. injection of 24Na+ (mol.wt 24) and 51Cr-EDTA (mol.wt 342). Twelve subjects were studied. Plasma volume (PV) was measured by the indica......In order to estimate whole-body permeability-surface area (PS) product, the initial slope of the plasma disappearance curve was determined after simultaneous i.v. injection of 24Na+ (mol.wt 24) and 51Cr-EDTA (mol.wt 342). Twelve subjects were studied. Plasma volume (PV) was measured...

  11. Pellet injection in WVIIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.; Wuersohing, E.; Weller, A.; Jaeckel, H.; Hartfuss, H.; Hacker, H.; Ringler, H.; Buechl, K.

    1986-01-01

    The results of pellet injection experiments in the Wendelstein VII A stellarator are presented. The injector was a single shot pneumatic gun using deuterium pellets. Experiments were carried out in both ECRH and NI plasmas. Data is shown for plasma density, energy confinement, penetration depth and pellet ablation. Results are compared to a neutral gas shielding model

  12. Efficacy and safety of cross-linked hyaluronic acid single injection on osteoarthritis of the knee: a post-marketing Phase IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaireh, Khaldoon; Naser, Ziad; Hawadya, Khaled Al; Sorour, Sorour; Al-Khateeb, Rami Nabeel

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and duration of action of viscosupplementation with Crespine® Gel over a 9-month period. The study was a post-marketing Phase IV study. A total of 109 participants with osteoarthritis of the knee (grades 1-4) in the tibio-femoral compartment were recruited in Jordan. Data were collected from each participant during the baseline visit. Each participant received Crespine® Gel injection, and follow-up visits took place at 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months post-injection. An assessment of participants by phone was conducted at 1 month, 2 months, 4 months, 5 months, 7 months, and 8 months post-injection. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index questionnaires were completed during each visit. A 72-hour visit questionnaire was used to assess the safety of the injection. Statistical analysis included a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between pain scores across visits, and the percent change from baseline was calculated. The full analysis included 84 participants who gave their informed consent and finished the necessary baseline and follow-up visits needed to assess efficacy and safety. Peak improvement was noted at 5 months post-injection, when pain and physical performance scores had decreased to 2.60 and 9.90, respectively, and the stiffness score was 0.33. The peak improvement in stiffness was noted at 8 months post-injection, when the stiffness score had decreased to 0.32. Significant improvements were still apparent at 9 months post-injection, when the pain score was 3.36, the stiffness score was 0.42, and the physical performance score was 11.5. All side effects were local and transient, and included pain, swelling, and redness of the knee. Most side effects were treated. Hyaluronan should be encouraged as an alternative or adjunct treatment to oral analgesics to reduce their required doses, and delay potential future surgical intervention.

  13. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  14. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  15. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  16. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  17. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  18. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  19. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  20. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  1. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  2. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  3. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  4. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  5. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  6. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  7. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  8. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  9. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  10. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  11. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  12. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  13. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  14. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  15. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  16. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  17. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  18. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  19. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  20. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  1. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...

  2. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Evolocumab injection may ...

  3. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  4. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  5. Collagenase injections for the treatment of single cords in cases of Dupuytren’s contracture – a prospective intervention study of long-term experience with Xiapex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, Lisa Maria

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The gold standard in the treatment of Dupuytren’s contracture is surgical therapy. Alternatives are percutaneous needle fasciotomy and radiation in exceptional cases. Injection treatments with Xiapex (Pfizer are a new therapy option. This collagenase, extracted from clostridium histolyticum, is used to break down the affected tissue cords. The objective of this study is to examine the effect and long-term success of treatment with Xiapex.Methods: In this study, Xiapex treatment was conducted on a sample group of 19 patients with Dupuytren’s contracture. The injection was placed either on the cord at the level of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP joint (n=17 or of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP joint (n=7. Break-up of the cord occurred 24 hours after the injection. The neutral zero method was used to assess the extent of movement. The Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ was selected for evaluation of the general hand function in 16 patients. The WHO-5 and the EQ-5D VAS Score were used as a measure of the patients’ satisfaction and their state of health. All values were collected both pre-injection as well as 1 year post-injection.Results: Out of 19 patients in our sample group, 16 patients (≈84% benefitted in terms of improvement in mobility. Overall, the range of movement increased by Ø 26° in the affected finger. A separate assessment demonstrated that:The range of movement increased by 77% in the MCP joint. The extent of movement pre-injection was Ø (0-28-78 and post-injection it was Ø (0-9-81 with an improvement of Ø 22°. In the PIP joint, only slight improvement was observed (Ø pre (0-27-93; post (0-24-95.The MHQ increased from Ø 76% (R: 32–97% to 81% (R: 39–100%.The painfulness decreased from Ø 19% (R: 0–55% to Ø11% (R: 0–55%, corresponding to Ø 43%. Satisfaction increased in 72% of patients by Ø 21%.According to WHO-5, patient satisfaction pre-injection was Ø 20 (R: 11–25, and 1 year after

  6. Relative Bioavailability of a Single 4-mg Dose of Somatropin Administered by Subcutaneous Injection or by Needle-free Device and Coadministered With the Growth Hormone Inhibitor Octreotide Acetate in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, Darin B; Petri, Niclas; D'Angelo, Pina

    2018-05-01

    Somatropin, used to treat growth hormone deficiency, has been traditionally administered by subcutaneous (SC) injection with needle and syringe. Needle-free devices offer ease of administration and may improve adherence and outcomes. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability of somatropin delivered with a needle-free device compared with traditional SC injection. In this randomized, single-dose, crossover study, healthy adults aged 18 to 35 years received single 4-mg doses of somatropin via a needle-free device or SC injection, along with octreotide to suppress endogenous growth hormone production. Blood samples were analyzed for serum somatropin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations over 24 hours after somatropin dosing. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were evaluated by using noncompartmental methods, and bioequivalence was determined based on ln transformation of the AUC 0-24 , AUC 0-∞ , C max , area under the effect-time curve from time 0 to 24 hours (AUEC 0-24 ), and maximum effect concentration (E max ). Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% CIs of the needle-free device compared with the SC injection, constructed by using the two 1-sided hypotheses at the α = 0.05 level, for these pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters fell within the 80.00% to125.00% regulatory acceptance range. A total of 57 subjects completed both study periods and were included in the pharmacokinetic analyses. Point estimates (90% CIs) of the geometric mean ratio (needle-free device/SC injection) based on serum somatropin were 1.013 (0.987-1.040) for AUC 0-24 , 1.012 (0.986-1.038) for AUC 0-∞ , and 1.200 (1.137-1.267) for C max . For IGF-1, baseline-corrected point estimates (90% CIs) were 0.901 (0.818-0.993) for AUEC 0-24 and 0.867 (0.795-0.946) for E max . Non-baseline-corrected values were 0.978 (0.953-1.004) for AUEC 0-24 and 0.953 (0.923-0.984) for E max . Both treatments were well tolerated; blood glucose levels increased in nearly

  7. 5.7  W cw single-frequency laser at 671  nm by single-pass second harmonic generation of a 17.2  W injection-locked 1342  nm Nd : YVO4 ring laser using periodically poled MgO : LiNbO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Ruebel, Felix; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2015-11-20

    We demonstrate a continuous wave single-frequency laser at 671.1 nm based on a high-power 888 nm pumped Nd:YVO4 ring laser at 1342.2 nm. Unidirectional operation of the fundamental ring laser is achieved with the injection-locking technique. A Nd:YVO4 microchip laser serves as the injecting seed source, providing a tunable single-frequency power of up to 40 mW. The ring laser emits a single-frequency power of 17.2 W with a Gaussian beam profile and a beam propagation factor of M2beam profile and a beam propagation factor of M2lasers. This work opens possibilities in cold atoms experiments with lithium, allowing the use of larger ensembles in magneto-optical traps or higher diffraction orders in atomic beam interferometers.

  8. Thermal Performance and Reliability Analysis of Single-Phase PV Inverters with Reactive Power Injection Outside Feed-In Operating Hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anurag, Anup; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Reactive power support by photovoltaic (PV) systems is of increasingly interest, when compared to the conventional reactive power compensation devices. PV inverters can exchange reactive power with the utility grid in a decentralized manner even outside feed-in operation, especially at nights when...... there is no solar irradiance. However, reactive power injection causes additional power losses in the switching components leading to a temperature rise in the devices. Thus, this paper analyses the impact of reactive power injection by PV inverters outside feed-in operation on the thermal performance...... of their power switching components. A thermal analysis based on the mission profile (i.e., solar irradiance and ambient temperature) has been incorporated, so as to determine the additional temperature rise in the components induced by the operation outside feed-in hours. An analytical lifetime model has been...

  9. Oxytocin via Uniject (a prefilled single-use injection) versus oral misoprostol for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage at the community level: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ayisha Diop, MPH; Bocar Daff, MD; Maimouna Sow, MA; Jennifer Blum, MPH; Mamadou Diagne, PhD; Nancy L Sloan, DrPH; Beverly Winikoff, MD

    2016-01-01

    Background: Access to injectable uterotonics for management of postpartum haemorrhage remains limited in Senegal outside health facilities, and misoprostol and oxytocin delivered via Uniject have been deemed viable alternatives in community settings. We aimed to compare the efficacy of these drugs when delivered by auxiliary midwives at maternity huts. Methods: We did an unmasked cluster-randomised controlled trial at maternity huts in three districts in Senegal. Maternity huts with auxili...

  10. Single center experience with endoscopic subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection as first line treatment in 1,551 children with intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Prem; Kutasy, Balazs; Colhoun, Eric; Hunziker, Manuela

    2012-10-01

    In recent years the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid has become an established alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and the surgical management of vesicoureteral reflux. We determined the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid as first line treatment for high grade vesicoureteral reflux. Between 2001 and 2010, 1,551 children (496 male, 1,055 female, median age 1.6 years) underwent endoscopic correction of intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid soon after the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux on initial voiding cystourethrogram. Vesicoureteral reflux was unilateral in 761 children and bilateral in 790. Renal scarring was detected in 369 (26.7%) of the 1,384 patients who underwent dimercapto-succinic acid imaging. Reflux grade in the 2,341 ureters was II in 98 (4.2%), III in 1,340 (57.3%), IV in 818 (34.9%) and V in 85 (3.6%). Followup ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months after the outpatient procedure, and renal ultrasound was performed annually thereafter. Patients were followed for 3 months to 10 years (median 5.6 years). Vesicoureteral reflux resolved after the first, second and third endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in 2,039 (87.1%), 264 (11.3%) and 38 (1.6%) ureters, respectively. Febrile urinary tract infections developed during followup in 69 (4.6%) patients. None of the patients in the series needed reimplantation of ureters or experienced any significant complications. Our results confirm the safety and efficacy of the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in the eradication of high grade vesicoureteral reflux. We recommend this 15-minute outpatient procedure as the first line of treatment for high grade vesicoureteral reflux. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of the GnRH Analogs in the Form of Solution and Zn2+-Suspension After Single Subcutaneous Injection in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszka-Świtek, Aleksandra; Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Dec, Renata; Danch, Alojzy; Filipczyk, Łukasz; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard

    2017-04-01

    Although many synthetic gonadoliberin analogs have been developed, only a few of them, including buserelin, were introduced into clinical practice. Dalarelin, which differs from buserelin by just one aminoacid in the position 6 (D-Ala), is not widely used so far. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs are used to treat many different illnesses and are available in different forms like solution for injection, nasal spray, microspheres, etc. Unfortunately, none of the above drug formulations can release the hormones for 24 h. We assumed that classical suspension could solve this problem. Two sets of experiments were performed. In the first one, buserelin and dalarelin were injected into mature female rats in two forms: suspension, in which the analogs are bounded by Zn 2+ ions and solution. The pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability of the analogs were calculated, based on their concentration in the plasma measured by high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). In the second experiment, the hormones in two different forms were injected into superovulated immature female rats and then the concentration of Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and 17β-estradiol in the serum was measured by radioimmunological method. The Extent of Biological Availability (EBA), calculated on the base of AUC 0-∞ , showed that in the form of solution buserelin and dalarelin display, respectively, only 13 and 8 % of biological availability of their suspension counterparts. Comparing both analogs, the EBA of dalarelin was half (53 %) that of buserelin delivered in the form of solution and 83 % when they were delivered in the form of suspension. The injection of buserelin or dalarelin, in the form of solution or suspension, into superovulated female rats increased LH, FSH and estradiol concentration in the serum. However, after injection of the analogs in the form of suspension, the high concentration of LH and FSH in the serum persisted

  12. Comparative efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid and corticoid injections in osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint: results of a 6-month single-masked randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, Jordi; Rotés-Sala, Delfin; Segalés, Nuria; Montañes, Francisco-Jose; Orellana, Cristobal; Llorente-Onaindia, Jone; Mojal, Sergi; Padró, Isabel; Benito, Pere

    2015-03-01

    The study aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid and betamethasone in the management of patients with osteoarthritis of the thumb. Eighty-eight evaluable patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the thumb (Kellgren-Lawrence grade II-III) received ultrasound-guided intra-articular treatment with hyaluronic acid (48) or betamethasone (40). In total, 3 local injections were scheduled at 7-day intervals. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days. In both study groups, the pain Visual Analogue Scale and Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis scores decreased significantly during follow-up compared to baseline. There were no significant differences between the groups. However, at 90 days, the functional score showed a trend towards greater clinical improvement in the hyaluronic acid group (P 0.071). A subanalysis of patients with Functional Index score≥5 and Visual Analogue Scale score≥3 at baseline showed a significantly higher median functionality score in the hyaluronic acid group (P 0.005 at 90 days and P 0.020 at 180 days). Further limiting analysis to a baseline pain score≥5 showed significantly greater improvement in functionality score (P 0.004 at 180 days), which was already apparent after the second intra-articular injection at 14 days (P 0.028). In this patient subset, the mean pain score also improved significantly at 180 days (P 0.02). Both hyaluronic acid and betamethasone were effective and well-tolerated for the management of rhizarthrosis. Hyaluronic acid was more effective over time and more efficiently improved functionality and pain in patients with more severe symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Bringing SASI back: Single session selective arterial secretin injection and transarterial embolization of intrahepatic pancreatic neuroendocrine metastasis in a MEN-1 patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad S. Hussain, MD, MS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available SASI (selective arterial secretin injection is a form of ASVS (arterial stimulation and venous sampling used to localize pancreatic gastrinomas. This report aims to review the protocol for SASI and demonstrate its utility in localizing functional and nonfunctional gastrinomas. Even if a patient has a pancreatic mass and a laboratory profile fitting a specific endocrine syndrome, these may or may not be associated as has been previously demonstrated with adrenal vein sampling. We present a case where a patient underwent simultaneous SASI and bland embolization of a hepatic metastasis to facilitate partial pancreatectomy for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Keywords: SASI, ASVS, Gastrinoma, Sampling

  14. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  15. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  16. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  17. Optimum time of blood sampling for determination of glomerular filtration rate by single-injection [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Roedbro, P.

    1976-01-01

    We have investigated the influence on reproducibility of total [ 51 Cr]EDTA plasma clearance (E) of various times and numbers of blood samples in patients with normal (13 patients) and low (14 patients) renal function. The study aims at fixing a clinically useful procedure suitable for all levels of renal function. Six different types of E were evaluated with time periods for blood sampling between 3 and 5 h after tracer injection, and the variation from counting radioactivity, s 1 , was determined as part of the total variation, s 2 . Optimum mean time, t(E), for blood sampling was calculated as a function of E, as the mean time giving the least change in E for a given change in the 'final slope' of the plasma curve. For patients with normal E, s 1 did not contribute significantly to s 2 , and t(E) was about 2h. For patients with low renal function s 1 contributed significantly to s 2 , and t(E) increased steeply with decreasing E. The relative error in s 1 from fixed Etypes was calculated for all levels of renal function. The results indicate that blood sampling individualized according to predicted E values is not necessary. A sufficient precision of E can be achieved for all function levels from three blood samples drawn at 180, 240, and 300 min after injection. (Auth.)

  18. Experimental study of the injection conditions influence over n-dodecane and diesel sprays with two ECN single-hole nozzles. Part I: Inert atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimeno, Jaime; Bracho, Gabriela; Martí-Aldaraví, Pedro; Peraza, Jesús E.

    2016-01-01

    In this research, two Engine Combustion Network (ECN) mono-orifice nozzles, referred to as Spray C and Spray D respectively, were analyzed by performing visualization tests through Schlieren and Diffused Backlight Illumination (DBI) techniques under a wide range of ambient conditions in a non-reactive atmosphere. Spray C presents a straight nozzle designed with a sharp fillet in opposition to Spray D that has similar hydraulic properties, but with a convergent nozzle construction and a smoother corner. The experiments were carried out injecting two distinct fuels at different injection pressure ranges, from 50 MPa to 150 MPa with n-dodecane and to 200 MPa for diesel. The images were processed with Matlab home-built routines to calculate parameters as spray penetration, spreading angle, quasi-steady liquid length, as well as the spray penetration derivative respect to the square root of time, presented in this document as R-parameter. The results showed a clear influence of nozzle geometry in all measured parameters, due mainly to the nature of Spray C to cavitation, which increase the spreading angle and consequently a reduction in vapor penetration. On the other hand, fuel properties also affected spray penetration due to its dependency on viscous forces expressed in terms of the Reynolds number and its volatility in case of liquid length. This last parameter was calculated employing two processing methodologies, finding a good general agreement between them.

  19. Validation of single-fluid and two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic models of the helicity injected torus spheromak experiment with the NIMROD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcay, Cihan; Victor, Brian S.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Kim, Charlson C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comparison study of 3-D pressureless resistive MHD (rMHD) and 3-D presureless two-fluid MHD models of the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection (HIT-SI). HIT-SI is a current drive experiment that uses two geometrically asymmetric helicity injectors to generate and sustain toroidal plasmas. The comparable size of the collisionless ion skin depth d i to the resistive skin depth predicates the importance of the Hall term for HIT-SI. The simulations are run with NIMROD, an initial-value, 3-D extended MHD code. The modeled plasma density and temperature are assumed uniform and constant. The helicity injectors are modeled as oscillating normal magnetic and parallel electric field boundary conditions. The simulations use parameters that closely match those of the experiment. The simulation output is compared to the formation time, plasma current, and internal and surface magnetic fields. Results of the study indicate 2fl-MHD shows quantitative agreement with the experiment while rMHD only captures the qualitative features. The validity of each model is assessed based on how accurately it reproduces the global quantities as well as the temporal and spatial dependence of the measured magnetic fields. 2fl-MHD produces the current amplification (I tor /I inj ) and formation time τ f demonstrated by HIT-SI with similar internal magnetic fields. rMHD underestimates (I tor /I inj ) and exhibits much a longer τ f . Biorthogonal decomposition (BD), a powerful mathematical tool for reducing large data sets, is employed to quantify how well the simulations reproduce the measured surface magnetic fields without resorting to a probe-by-probe comparison. BD shows that 2fl-MHD captures the dominant surface magnetic structures and the temporal behavior of these features better than rMHD

  20. Comparison of single-injection ultrasound-guided approach versus multilevel landmark-based approach for thoracic paravertebral blockade for breast tumor resection: a retrospective analysis at a tertiary care teaching institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saran JS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jagroop Singh Saran,1 Amie L Hoefnagel,1 Kristin A Skinner,2 Changyong Feng,3 Daryl Irving Smith1 1Acute Pain Service, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 2Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, 3Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA Background: The role of thoracic paravertebral blockade (TPVB in decreasing opioid requirements in breast cancer surgery is well documented, and there is mounting evidence that this may improve survival and reduce the rate of malignancy recurrence following cancer-related mastectomy. We compared the two techniques currently in use at our institution, the anatomic landmark-guided (ALG multilevel versus an ultrasound-guided (USG single injection, to determine an optimal technique.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients who received TPVB from January 2013 to December 2014. Perioperative opioid use, post anesthesia care unit (PACU pain scores and length of stay, block performance, and complications were compared between the two groups.Results: We found no statistical difference between the two approaches in the studied outcomes. We did find that the number of times attending physicians in the ALG group took over the blocks from residents was significantly greater than that of the USG group (p=0.006 and more local anesthetic was used in the USG group (p=0.04.Conclusion: This study compared the ALG approach with the USG approach for patients undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer. Based on our observations, an attending physician is more likely to take over an ALG injection, and more local anesthetic is administered during USG single injection. Keywords: thoracic paravertebral block, regional anesthesia, mastectomy, breast cancer 

  1. The efficacy of preventive parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on intubation time, blood gas parameters, narcotic requirement, and pain relief after open heart surgery: A randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Saeidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postsurgical pain usually results in some complications in the patients. This study has tried to investigate the effects of parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on postoperative pulmonary and pain consequences in patients after open heart surgery. Methods: : In a prospective double blind clinical study, 100 consenting patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were randomized into two groups. In case group, bupivacaine was injected at both sides of sternum, immediately before sternal closure. In the control group, no intervention was performed. Then, the patients were investigated regarding intubation period, length of ICU stay, arterial blood gas (ABG parameters, morphine requirement, and their severity of postoperative pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS device. Results: No differences were found between the two groups regarding to age, sex, pump time, operation time, and body mass index and preoperative cardiac ejection fraction. Mean intubation length in case group was much shorter than that in control group. Mean PaO 2 in case group was lower in different checking times in postoperative period. The patients in the case group needed less morphine compared to those in the control group during the 24-hour observation period in the ICU. Finally, mean VAS scores of pain in case group were significantly lower than those in control group at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Conclusions: Patients′ pain relief by parasternal single injection of bupivacaine in early postoperative period can facilitate earlier ventilator weaning and tracheal extubation after open heart surgery as well as achieving lower pain scores and narcotic requirements.

  2. Effect of palm methyl ester-diesel blends performance and emission of a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mazlan; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Said, Mohd Farid Muhamad

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate engine performance and exhaust emission when using several blends of neat palm oil methyl ester (POME) with conventional diesel (D2) in a small direct injection diesel engine, and to compare the outcomes to that of the D2 fuel. Engine performances, exhaust emissions, and some other important parameters were observed as a function of engine load and speed. In addition, the effect of modifying compression ratio was also carried out in this study. From the engine experimental work, neat and blended fuels behaved comparably to diesel (D2) in terms of fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and rate of heat released. Smoke density showed better results than that emitted by D2, operating under similar conditions due to the presence of inherited oxygen and lower sulphur content in the biofuel and its blends. The emissions of CO, CO2, and HC were also lower using blended mixtures and in its neat form. However, NOx concentrations were found to be slight higher for POME and its blends and this was largely due to higher viscosity of POME and possibly the presence of nitrogen in the palm methyl ester. General observation indicates that biofuel blends can be use without many difficulties in this type of engine but for optimized operation minor modifications to the engine and its auxiliaries are required.

  3. Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of a Newly Developed Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) Versus Hyaluronic Acid on Pain and Function of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Ahangar, Azadeh Gharooee; Abadi, Porya Hassan; Mojgani, Parviz; Ahangar, Omid Gharooi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injection of a newly developed plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) versus hyaluronic acid (HA) on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee were assigned to receive 2 intra-articular injections of our newly developed PRGF in 3 weeks or 3 weekly injections of HA. Our primary outcome was the mean change from baseline until 2 and 6 months post intervention in scores of visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Lequesne index. We used analysis of variance for repeated-measures statistical test. Results: A total of 69 patients entered final analysis. The mean age of patients was 58.2 ± 7.41 years and 81.2% were women. In particular, total WOMAC index decreased from 42.9 ± 13.51 to 26.8 ± 13.45 and 24.4 ± 16.54 at 2 and 6 months in the newly developed PRGF group (within subjects P = .001), and from 38.8 ± 12.62 to 27.8 ± 11.01 and 27.4 ± 11.38 at 2 and 6 months in the HA group (within subjects P = .001), respectively (between subjects P = .631). There was no significant difference between PRGF and HA groups in patients’ satisfaction and minor complications of injection, whereas patients in HA group reported significantly lower injection-induced pain. Conclusions: In 6 months follow up, our newly developed PRGF and HA, both are effective options to decrease pain and improvement of function in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. PMID:29051707

  4. Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of a Newly Developed Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) Versus Hyaluronic Acid on Pain and Function of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Ahangar, Azadeh Gharooee; Abadi, Porya Hassan; Mojgani, Parviz; Ahangar, Omid Gharooi

    2017-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injection of a newly developed plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) versus hyaluronic acid (HA) on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee were assigned to receive 2 intra-articular injections of our newly developed PRGF in 3 weeks or 3 weekly injections of HA. Our primary outcome was the mean change from baseline until 2 and 6 months post intervention in scores of visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Lequesne index. We used analysis of variance for repeated-measures statistical test. A total of 69 patients entered final analysis. The mean age of patients was 58.2 ± 7.41 years and 81.2% were women. In particular, total WOMAC index decreased from 42.9 ± 13.51 to 26.8 ± 13.45 and 24.4 ± 16.54 at 2 and 6 months in the newly developed PRGF group (within subjects P  = .001), and from 38.8 ± 12.62 to 27.8 ± 11.01 and 27.4 ± 11.38 at 2 and 6 months in the HA group (within subjects P  = .001), respectively (between subjects P  = .631). There was no significant difference between PRGF and HA groups in patients' satisfaction and minor complications of injection, whereas patients in HA group reported significantly lower injection-induced pain. In 6 months follow up, our newly developed PRGF and HA, both are effective options to decrease pain and improvement of function in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis.

  5. Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of a Newly Developed Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF Versus Hyaluronic Acid on Pain and Function of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injection of a newly developed plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF versus hyaluronic acid (HA on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee were assigned to receive 2 intra-articular injections of our newly developed PRGF in 3 weeks or 3 weekly injections of HA. Our primary outcome was the mean change from baseline until 2 and 6 months post intervention in scores of visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, and Lequesne index. We used analysis of variance for repeated-measures statistical test. Results: A total of 69 patients entered final analysis. The mean age of patients was 58.2 ± 7.41 years and 81.2% were women. In particular, total WOMAC index decreased from 42.9 ± 13.51 to 26.8 ± 13.45 and 24.4 ± 16.54 at 2 and 6 months in the newly developed PRGF group (within subjects P  = .001, and from 38.8 ± 12.62 to 27.8 ± 11.01 and 27.4 ± 11.38 at 2 and 6 months in the HA group (within subjects P  = .001, respectively (between subjects P  = .631. There was no significant difference between PRGF and HA groups in patients’ satisfaction and minor complications of injection, whereas patients in HA group reported significantly lower injection-induced pain. Conclusions: In 6 months follow up, our newly developed PRGF and HA, both are effective options to decrease pain and improvement of function in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis.

  6. Influence of Spirulina platensis exudates on the endocrine and nervous systems of a mammalian model

    OpenAIRE

    Samah M.M. Fathy; Ashraf M.M. Essa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of intra-peritoneal injection of purified exudates of axenic Spirulina platensis on the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems. Methods: The intra-peritoneal injection of the cyanobacterial exudates in mice was applied. Sex hormonal levels of testosterone and progesterone were measured using radioimmunoassay while the follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were evaluated by direct chemiluminescence. In addition, superoxide dismutase, ca...

  7. Impact of intracoronary injection of mononuclear bone marrow cells in acute myocardial infarction on left ventricular perfusion and function: a 6-month follow-up gated 99mTc-MIBI single-photon emission computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipiec, Piotr; Krzeminska-Pakula, Maria; Plewka, Michal; Kasprzak, Jaroslaw D.; Kusmierek, Jacek; Plachcinska, Anna; Szuminski, Remigiusz; Robak, Tadeusz; Korycka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the impact of intracoronary injection of autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells (BMC) in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on left ventricular volumes, global and regional systolic function and myocardial perfusion. The study included 39 patients with first anterior STEMI treated successfully with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. They were randomly assigned to the treatment group or the control group in a 2:1 ratio. The patients underwent baseline gated single-photon emission computed tomography (G-SPECT) 3-10 days after STEMI with quantitative and qualitative analysis of left ventricular perfusion and systolic function. On the following day, patients from the BMC treatment group were subjected to bone marrow aspiration, mononuclear BMC isolation and intracoronary injection. No placebo procedure was performed in the control group. G-SPECT was repeated 6 months after STEMI. Baseline and follow-up G-SPECT studies were available for 36 patients. At 6 months in the BMC group we observed a significantly enhanced improvement in the mean extent of the perfusion defect, the left ventricular perfusion score index, the infarct area perfusion score and the infarct area wall motion score index compared to the control group (p=0.01-0.04). However, the changes in left ventricular volume, ejection fraction and the left ventricular wall motion score index as well as the relative changes in the infarct area wall motion score index did not differ significantly between the groups. Intracoronary injection of autologous mononuclear BMC in patients with STEMI improves myocardial perfusion at 6 months. The benefit in infarct area systolic function is less pronounced and there is no apparent improvement of global left ventricular systolic function. (orig.)

  8. VCSEL Transmission at 10 Gb/s for 20 km Single Mode Fiber WDM-PON without Dispersion Compensation or Injection Locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Prince, Kamau; Pham, Tien Thang

    2011-01-01

    how off-center wavelength filtering of the VCSEL spectrum at an array waveguide grating can be used to mitigate the effect of chirp and the dispersion penalty. Transmission at 10Gb/s VCSEL over 23.6 km of single mode fiber is experimentally demonstrated, with a dispersion penalty of only 2.9 d......B. Simulated results are also presented which show that off-center wavelength filtering can extend the 10 Gb/s network reach from 11.7 km to 25.8 km for a 4 dB dispersion penalty. This allows for cheap and simple dispersion mitigation in next generation VCSEL based optical access networks....

  9. Oxytocin via Uniject (a prefilled single-use injection) versus oral misoprostol for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage at the community level: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Ayisha; Daff, Bocar; Sow, Maimouna; Blum, Jennifer; Diagne, Mamadou; Sloan, Nancy L; Winikoff, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    Access to injectable uterotonics for management of postpartum haemorrhage remains limited in Senegal outside health facilities, and misoprostol and oxytocin delivered via Uniject have been deemed viable alternatives in community settings. We aimed to compare the efficacy of these drugs when delivered by auxiliary midwives at maternity huts. We did an unmasked cluster-randomised controlled trial at maternity huts in three districts in Senegal. Maternity huts with auxiliary midwives located 3-21 km from the closest referral centre were randomly assigned (1:1; via a computer-generated random allocation overseen by Gynuity Health Projects) to either 600 μg oral misoprostol or 10 IU oxytocin in Uniject (intramuscular), stratified by reported previous year clinic volume (deliveries) and geographical location (inland or coastal). Maternity huts that had been included in a previous study of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage were excluded to prevent contamination. Pregnant women in their third trimester were screened for eligibility either during community outreach or at home-based prenatal visits. Only women delivered by the auxiliary midwives in the maternity huts were eligible for the study. Women with known allergies to prostaglandins or pregnancy complications were excluded. The primary outcome was mean change in haemoglobin concentration measured during the third trimester and after delivery. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01713153. 28 maternity hut clusters were randomly assigned-14 to the misoprostol group and 14 to the oxytocin group. Between June 6, 2012, and Sept 21, 2013, 1820 women were recruited. 647 women in the misoprostol group and 402 in the oxytocin group received study drug and had recorded pre-delivery and post-delivery haemoglobin concentrations, and overall 1412 women delivered in the study maternity huts. The mean change in haemoglobin concentrations was 3·5 g/L (SD 16·1) in the misoprostol group

  10. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  11. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, a novel mutated butyrylcholinesterase treatment for cocaine addiction, after single and multiple intramuscular injections in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Wildeman, Jacqueline; van de Wetering, Jeroen; Hettinga, Judith; Schuilenga-Hut, Petra; Gross, Aviva; Clark, Shane; Bassan, Merav; Gilgun-Sherki, Yossi; Mendzelevski, Boaz; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2015-05-01

    Human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) contributes to cocaine metabolism and has been considered for use in treating cocaine addiction and cocaine overdose. TV-1380 is a recombinant protein composed of the mature form of human serum albumin fused at its amino terminus to the carboxy-terminus of a truncated and mutated BChE. In preclinical studies, TV-1380 has been shown to rapidly eliminate cocaine in the plasma thus forestalling entry of cocaine into the brain and heart. Two randomized, blinded phase I studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, following single and multiple administration in healthy subjects. TV-1380 was found to be safe and well tolerated with a long half-life (43-77 hours) and showed a dose-proportional increase in systemic exposure. Consistent with preclinical results, the ex vivo cocaine hydrolysis, TV-1380 activity clearly increased upon treatment in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, there was a direct relationship between ex vivo cocaine hydrolysis (kel ) and TV-1380 serum concentrations. There was no evidence that TV-1380 affected heart rate, the uncorrected QT interval, or the heart-rate-corrected QTcF interval. TV-1380, therefore, offers a safe once-weekly therapy to increase cocaine hydrolysis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Safety and Potential Effect of a Single Intracavernous Injection of Autologous Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cells in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Martha Kirstine; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and radical prostatectomy (RP) often results in erectile dysfunction (ED) and a substantially reduced quality of life. The efficacy of current interventions, principal treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors, is not satisfactory and this condi......BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and radical prostatectomy (RP) often results in erectile dysfunction (ED) and a substantially reduced quality of life. The efficacy of current interventions, principal treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors, is not satisfactory...... and this condition presents an unmet medical need. Preclinical studies using adipose-derived stem cells to treat ED have shown promising results. Herein, we report the results of a human phase 1 trial with autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) freshly isolated after a liposuction. METHODS: Seventeen...... men suffering from post RP ED, with no recovery using conventional therapy, were enrolled in a prospective phase 1 open-label and single-arm study. All subjects had RP performed 5-18 months before enrolment, and were followed for 6 months after intracavernosal transplantation. ADRCs were analyzed...

  13. Does intravenous ketamine enhance analgesia after arthroscopic shoulder surgery with ultrasound guided single-injection interscalene block?: a randomized, prospective, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jae Hee; Kim, Youn Jin; Baik, Hee Jung; Han, Jong In; Chung, Rack Kyung

    2014-07-01

    Ketamine has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antihyperalgesic effect and prevents pain associated with wind-up. We investigated whether low doses of ketamine infusion during general anesthesia combined with single-shot interscalene nerve block (SSISB) would potentiate analgesic effect of SSISB. Forty adult patients scheduled for elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery were enrolled and randomized to either the control group or the ketamine group. All patients underwent SSISB and followed by general anesthesia. During an operation, intravenous ketamine was infused to the patients of ketamine group continuously. In control group, patients received normal saline in volumes equivalent to ketamine infusions. Pain score by numeric rating scale was similar between groups at 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hr following surgery, which was maintained lower than 3 in both groups. The time to first analgesic request after admission on post-anesthesia care unit was also not significantly different between groups. Intraoperative low dose ketamine did not decrease acute postoperative pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery with a preincisional ultrasound guided SSISB. The preventive analgesic effect of ketamine could be mitigated by SSISB, which remains one of the most effective methods of pain relief after arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  14. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    This paper discusses the feasibility study on the utilization of biodiesel ester of Honge oil (EHO) in common rail direct injection. (CRDI) engine. Biodiesel of EHO has been obtained by transesterification process and characterization has been done. Existing single cylinder diesel engine fitted with conventional mechanical ...

  15. Standardized Follow-up of Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Treated with a Single Intra-articular Injection of a Combination of Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid and Mannitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Conrozier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of this study is to obtain pilot data from daily practice conditions of a viscosupplement made of a cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA combined with mannitol in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA. Methods The data of 40 consecutive patients, 29 women and 11 men, who were prospectively followed up for 6 months, using a standardized procedure, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients have received a single intra-articular injection of H Anox-M-XL (4.4 mL, viscosupplement made of a cross-linked HA (16 mg/mL + mannitol (35 mg/mL, in the target knee. The primary outcome was safety. The secondary end points included 3- and 6-month change in the WOMAC pain (0–50 and WOMAC total (0–240 and patient's global assessment (PGA. Patient's self-assessment of treatment efficacy (0–3 and analgesic consumption were obtained at months 3 and 6. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed. Results Mean (SD age was 60.7 (13.9 years, and mean BMI was 28.6 (5.0. Kellgren–Lawrence radiological grade was I/II and III/IV in 13 and 27 of the subjects, respectively. The average WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores at baseline were 21.5 (9.8 and 89.9 (42.8, respectively. Thirty-nine patients completed the follow-up. HAnox-M-XL was well tolerated; two patients experienced knee pain after injection, which resolved within three days. No treatment-related severe adverse event was reported. Mean (SD variations in WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores were –8.2 (8.9 and –38.4 (35.6, respectively, at month 6 ( P = 0.001. PGA decreased from 5.5 (2.0 to 3.0 (2.2 ( P = 0.006. Efficacy was rated as good or very good in 76.9% of the cases. Most of the regular analgesics users decreased their consumption. Conclusion Treatment with one injection of 4.4 mL HAnox-M-XL is effective to alleviate KOA symptoms over six months, without safety concern. Controlled trials are needed to confirm these pilot data.

  16. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene ... injection practices lead to high prevalence of NSSIs in operating rooms. .... guidelines, the availability of training courses to HCWs, and provi-.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafful, Claudia; Wagner, Karla D; Werb, Dan; González-Zúñiga, Patricia E; Verdugo, Silvia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-11-01

    Injecting drugs in the neck has been related to adverse health conditions such as jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, aneurysm, haematomas, airway obstruction, vocal cord paralysis and wound botulism, among others. We identified prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico. Beginning in 2011, PWID aged ≥18 years who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective cohort. At baseline and semi-annually, PWID completed interviewer-administered surveys soliciting data on drug-injecting practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injecting in the neck as the most frequent injection site at a single visit. Of 380 PWID, 35.3% injected in the neck at least once in the past 6 months, among whom 71.6% reported it as their most common injection site, the most common injecting site after the arms (47%). Controlling for age, years injecting and injecting frequency, injecting heroin and methamphetamine two or more times per day and having sought injection assistance were associated with injecting in the neck [adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 2.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.27-3.53 and AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.52-4.53 respectively]. Injecting in the neck was very common among PWID in Tijuana and was associated with polydrug use and seeking injection assistance. Tailoring harm reduction education interventions for individuals who provide injection assistance ('hit doctors') may allow for the dissemination of safe injecting knowledge to reduce injection-related morbidity and mortality. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  19. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  20. Effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: an analysis of 27,158 singleton infants born after fresh single-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Mikiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru; Saito, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 27,158 singleton infants born between 2007 and 2012 after fresh single-embryo transfer. None. Proportion of male infants among liveborn infants. There were 14,996 infants born after IVF, 12,164 infants born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm, and 646 infants born after ICSI with nonejaculated sperm. The sex ratio of IVF was 53.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3-53.9); the sex ratio of ICSI with ejaculated and nonejaculated sperm demonstrated as statistically significant reduction (48.2%; 95% CI, 47.3-49.1 and 47.7%; 95% CI, 43.8-51.6, respectively). In IVF, lower sperm motility, including asthenozoospermia (sperm motility ratio compared with normal sperm (51.0%; 95% CI, 48.6-53.3 vs. 53.4%; 95% CI, 52.5-54.3). In ICSI with ejaculated sperm, there was no association between sperm motility and sex ratio. Sperm concentration was not associated with sex ratio in both IVF and ICSI. In IVF, lower sperm motility was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio; ICSI with either ejaculated or nonejaculated sperm was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio regardless of semen quality. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Time-resolved C-arm cone beam CT angiography (TR-CBCTA) imaging from a single short-scan C-arm cone beam CT acquisition with intra-arterial contrast injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinsheng; Garrett, John W.; Li, Ke; Wu, Yijing; Johnson, Kevin; Schafer, Sebastian; Strother, Charles; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2018-04-01

    Time-resolved C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) angiography (TR-CBCTA) images can be generated from a series of CBCT acquisitions that satisfy data sufficiency condition in analytical image reconstruction theory. In this work, a new technique was developed to generate TR-CBCTA images from a single short-scan CBCT data acquisition with contrast media injection. The reconstruction technique enabling this application is a previously developed image reconstruction technique, synchronized multi-artifact reduction with tomographic reconstruction (SMART-RECON). In this new application, the acquired short-scan CBCT projection data were sorted into a union of several sub-sectors of view angles and each sub-sector of view angles corresponds to an individual image volume to be reconstructed. The SMART-RECON method was then used to jointly reconstruct all of these individual image volumes under two constraints: (1) each individual image volume is maximally consistent with the measured cone-beam projection data within the corresponding view angle sector and (2) the nuclear norm of the image matrix is minimized. The difference between these reconstructed individual image volumes is used to generated the desired subtracted angiograms. To validate the technique, numerical simulation data generated from a fractal tree angiogram phantom were used to quantitatively study the accuracy of the proposed method and retrospective in vivo human subject studies were used to demonstrate the feasibility of generating TR-CBCTA in clinical practice.

  2. Charge Injection and Transport in Organic Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Bøggild, Peter; Rubahn, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    the injection barrier height equal to the difference between the metal electrode work function and the HOMO energy level of the organic semiconductor. Semiquantitative modeling suggests that the weak temperature dependence is due to injection into a distribution of states rather than into a single energy level...

  3. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.

  4. Effects of hypertonic dextrose injections in the rabbit carpal tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Schmelzer, James D; Low, Phillip A; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of different doses of hypertonic dextrose injection on the carpal tunnel subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) and median nerve in a rabbit model. Thirty-eight New Zealand white rabbits weighing 4.0-4.5 kg were used. One forepaw carpal tunnel was randomly injected with one of five different treatments: saline-single injection; saline-two injections 1 week apart; 10% dextrose-single injection; 20% dextrose-single injection; or 10% dextrose-two injections 1 week apart. Animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks after the initial injection and were evaluated by electrophysiology (EP), SSCT mechanical testing and histology. There were significant increases in the energy absorption of the SSCT in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline injection groups. SSCT stiffness was also significantly increased in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the other groups. There was a significant increase in the thickness of the SSCT in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline-single injection group and a significant decrease in the nerve short-long diameter ratio in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline-single injection group. There were no changes in EP among the groups. SSCT fibrosis is present for up to 12 weeks after dextrose injection; multiple injections have bigger effects, including what appears to be a secondary change in nerve flattening. This model may be useful to study the effects of external fibrosis on nerve morphology and physiology, such as occurs clinically in carpal tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  5. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  6. Successful Intra-peritoneal Antibiotic Therapy for Primary Abdominal Nocardiosis in an Immunocompetent Young Female Masquerading as Carcinoma Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi N Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocardiosis is a common opportunistic infection in the immunocompromised and in patients with chronic debilitating diseases,e.g continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients. Primary abdominal nocardiosis is rare and is indeed a very rare infection in immunocompetent persons. Only two cases have been reported in immunocompetent patients so far and this may be third case to the best of our knowledge and first in India. About 11 cases have been reported in CAPD patients and AIDS patients.We report a case of Nocardiosis in an immunocompetent young female who presented with an abdomino-pelvic mass masquerading as carcinoma ovary.After initial resistance to various antibiotics, she responded to intraperitoneal and oral linezolid and oral ciprofloxacin.

  7. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  8. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  9. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  11. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  12. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  13. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  14. Impact of physical properties of biodiesel on the injection process in a common-rail direct injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudy, Frederic; Seers, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of biodiesel fuel properties on the injection mass flow rate of a diesel common-rail injection system. Simulations are first performed with ISO 4113 diesel fuel on a four-cylinder common-rail system to evaluate a single and triple injection strategies. For each injection strategy, the impact of modifying a single fuel property at a time is evaluated so as to quantify its influence on the injection process. The results show that fuel density is the main property that affects the injection process, such as total mass injected and pressure wave in the common-rail system. The fuel's viscosity and bulk modulus also influence, but to a lessen degree, the mass flow rate of the injector notably during multiple injection strategies as individual properties change the fuel's dampening property and friction coefficient.

  15. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  16. An experimental study on the effects of high-pressure and multiple injection strategies on DI diesel engine emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study on effects of high-pressure injections in conjunction with split fuel injections were conducted on an AVL single cylinder DI diesel engine. Various injection schemes were studied through the use of an electronically controlled

  17. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  18. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  19. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... and disorders: physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lobo ...

  20. Electron injection in microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the methods of injecting electrons in the microtron is presented. A special attention is paid to efficient injection systems developed by Wernholm and Kapitza. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages of both systems is made in relation to the purpose of the microtron. (author)

  1. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  2. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump inje...

  3. Evaluation of group versus individual physiotherapy following lower limb intra-muscular Botulinum Toxin-Type A injections for ambulant children with cerebral palsy: A single-blind randomized comparison trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rachel E; Johnston, Leanne M; Sakzewski, Leanne; Kentish, Megan J; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate efficacy of group (GRP) versus individual (IND) physiotherapy rehabilitation following lower limb intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-Type A (BoNT-A) for ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP). Following lower limb BoNT-A injections, 34 children were randomly allocated to GRP (n=17; mean age 7y8m SD 2.0; 13 males; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) I=5, II=8, III=4) or IND physiotherapy (n=17; mean age 8y7m SD 2.0; 11 males; GMFCS I=9, II=5, III=3). Primary outcomes were the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS) assessed at baseline, 10 and 26 weeks post intervention. There were no baseline differences between groups. GRP intervention had greater, but not clinically meaningful, improvement in COPM satisfaction (estimated mean difference EMD 1.7, 95% CI 0.4-3.1; pphysiotherapy (either GRP or IND) with an additional indirect dose (median 16 episodes) of individualized home programme activities following lower limb BoNT-A injections, however, was inadequate to drive clinically meaningful changes in lower limb motor outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of tritium-labeled pyrimidine nucleosides on epithelial cell proliferation in the mouse. I. Cytodynamic perturbations in normal circadian rhythms after a single injection of 3H-thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, L.

    1976-01-01

    In a combined stathmokinetic, autoradiographic, and microspectrophotometric study on the cytodynamics in mouse epidermis, cirdardian rhythms were observed in the number of cells within the various phases (except G 2 ) of the mitotic cell cycle, and in mitotic rate. S-Phase influx and efflux were computed and were found to vary during a 24-hr period. No diurnal rhythm was observed in mitotic rate in the epithelium of small intestine. 3 H-Thymidine (1 μCi/g; sp act 5 Ci/mmol) induced mitotic delay in labeled cells 2 to 8 hr after administration. A supranormal mitotic activity in unlabeled cells was observed 12 to 24 hr after injection of 3 H-TdR. ''Cold'' thymidine had no effects on epidermal cell proliferation. S-Phase duration and average cell cycle time were estimated by traditional cell kinetic methods. The results suggest a 3 H-TdR-induced synchrony in cells entering the S phase 0 to 15 hr after injection of the precursor. A mitotic delay was seen in small intestinal epithelium 2 to 6 hr after injection of the precursor

  5. Long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, I S

    1982-03-01

    Injectable hormonal preparations can be highly effective and satisfactory contraceptives. The two main preparations available today are depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-OEN), but several other approaches are currently under clinical trial. Injectable contraceptives have some unique advantages which give them justifiably wide appeal amongst many groups of women. However, they do have a number of disadvantages including invariable menstrual disturbance and a delay in the return of fertility. One formulation of DMPA, Depo-Provera, is probably the most extensively investigated single hormonal contraceptive ever made. These studies indicate that it is remarkably safe and does not face any more unresolved issues than the combined pill, intrauterine device or tubal sterilization. However, for a number of disparate emotional and political reasons it has attracted the attention of several consumer and feminist groups, who have waged a prolonged and quite unjustified campaign against it. It is to be hoped that future debate will be conducted on a more informed, rational and less emotional basis. Injectable contraceptives should have an important place in the family planning armamentarium of all countries, and current developments should lead to a decrease in concerns about presently available agents. This should further increase the widespread acceptability of this approach to contraception.

  6. Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection following a primary intraosseous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joanne; Nusstein, John; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 minutes after a primary intraosseous injection. Using a crossover design, 55 subjects randomly received a primary X-tip intraosseous injection (Dentsply Inc, York, PA) of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (using the Wand; Milestone Scientific, Deerfield, IL) and a repeated intraosseous or mock injection at 30 minutes in two appointments. The first molar and adjacent teeth were pulp tested every 2 minutes for a total of 120 minutes. Success was defined as obtaining two consecutive 80 readings with the electric pulp tester. Success of the initial intraosseous injection was 100% for the first molar. The repeated intraosseous injection mimicked the initial intraosseous injection in terms of pulpal anesthesia and statistically provided another 15 minutes of pulpal anesthesia. In conclusion, using the methodology presented, repeating the intraosseous injection 30 minutes after an initial intraosseous injection will provide an additional 15 minutes of pulpal anesthesia.

  7. Effect of the Ethanol Injection Moment During Compression Stroke on the Combustion of Ethanol - Diesel Dual Direct Injection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Zhou, Liying; Huang, Haomin; Xu, Mingfei; Guo, Mei; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    A set of GDI system is installed on a F188 single-cylinder, air-cooled and direct injection diesel engine, which is used for ethanol injection, with the injection time controlled by the crank angle signal collected by AVL angle encoder. The injection of ethanol amounts to half of the thermal equivalent of an original diesel fuel. A 3D combustion model is established for the ethanol - diesel dual direct injection engine. Diesel was injected from the original fuel injection system, with a fuel supply advance angle of 20°CA. The ethanol was injected into the cylinder during compression process. Diesel injection began after the completion of ethanol injection. Ethanol injection starting point of 240°CA, 260°CA, 280°CA, 300°CA and 319.4°CA were simulated and analyzed. Due to the different timing of ethanol injection, the ignition of the ethanol mixture when diesel fires, results in non-uniform ignition distribution and flame propagation rate, since the distribution and concentration gradients of the ethanol mixture in the cylinder are different, thus affecting the combustion process. The results show that, when ethanol is injected at 319.4°CA, the combustion heat release rate and the pressure rise rate during the initial stage are the highest. Also, the maximum combustion pressure, with a relatively advance phase, is the highest. In case of later initial ethanol injection, the average temperature in the cylinder during the initial combustion period will have a faster rise. In case of initial injection at 319.4°CA, the average temperature in the cylinder is the highest, followed by 240°CA ethanol injection. In the post-combustion stage, the earlier ethanol injection will result in higher average temperature in the cylinder and more complete fuel combustion. The injection of ethanol at 319.4°CA produces earlier and highest NOX emissions.

  8. Bolus injections of measured amounts of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowski, C.A.; Hogendoorn, P.; Vandierendonck, R.; Driedger, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Many time-based radionuclide techniques, such as glomerular filtration rate measurement (GFR), require prompt intravenous delivery of and accurately measured tracer bolus with minimal residual tracer retention at the injection site. The quality assurance aspects of two antecubital vein, quantitative injection techniques were investigated. A flush bolus technique using a tuberculin syringe piggybacked onto a 10-ml saline flush was compared to a single blood pressure cuff injection technique. Scintillation camera data for each technique were compared for bolus duration in the abdominal aorta and for residual activity at the injection site at 5 min. Bolus times were measured as the FWHM of the gamma variate fit to the abdominal aortic regional time-activity curves. Relatively little focal activity was seen in the antecubital injection site following the flush bolus: marked residual activity was seen following the blood pressure cuff injections. The injection site/arm background ratios averaged 1.3 for the flush bolus and 30.1 for the cuff technique. Although both methods allowed accurate in vitro determination of administered radioactivity, only the tuberculin syringe flush bolus technique was acceptable for time-based quantitation because of its superior in vivo characteristics

  9. AA injection kicker in its tank

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    For single-turn injection of the antiprotons, a septum at the end of the injection line made the beam parallel to the injection orbit, and a quarter of a betatron-wavelength downstream a fast kicker corrected the angle. Kicker type: lumped delay line. PFN voltage 56 kV. Bending angle 7.5 mrad; kick-strength 0.9 Tm; fall-time 95%-5% in 150 ns. The injection orbit is to the left, the stack orbit to the far right. A fast shutter near the central orbit had to be closed before the kicker fired, so as to protect the stack core from being shaken by the kicker's fringe field. The shutter is shown in closed position.

  10. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  11. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  12. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  13. UV-visible digital imaging of split injection in a Gasoline Direct Injection engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merola Simona Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever tighter limits on pollutant emissions and the need to improve energy conversion efficiency have made the application of gasoline direct injection (GDI feasible for a much wider scale of spark ignition engines. Changing the way fuel is delivered to the engine has thus provided increased flexibility but also challenges, such as higher particulate emissions. Therefore, alternative injection control strategies need to be investigated in order to obtain optimum performance and reduced environmental impact. In this study, experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder GDI optical engine fuelled with commercial gasoline in lean-burn conditions. The single-cylinder was equipped with the head of a commercial turbocharged engine with similar geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio and wall guided fuel injection. Optical accessibility was ensured through a conventional elongated hollow Bowditch piston and an optical crown, accommodating a fused-silica window. Experimental tests were performed at fixed engine speed and injection pressure, whereas the injection timing and the number of injections were adjusted to investigate their influence on combustion and emissions. UV-visible digital imaging was applied in order to follow the combustion process, from ignition to the late combustion phase. All the optical data were correlated with thermodynamic analysis and measurements of exhaust emissions. Split injection strategies (i.e. two injections per cycle with respect to single injection increased combustion efficiency and stability thanks to an improvement of fuel air mixing. As a consequence, significant reduction in soot formation and exhaust emission with acceptable penalty in terms of HC and NOx were measured.

  14. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine into the joint. The provider uses a real-time x-ray (fluoroscopy) to see where to place ... Wakefield RJ. Arthrocentesis and injection of joints and soft tissue. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, ...

  15. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  16. Imipenem and Cilastatin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imipenem and cilastatin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria, including ... area), gynecological, blood, skin, bone, and joint infections. Imipenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  17. Quinupristin and Dalfopristin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are in a class of medications called streptogramin antibiotics. They work by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as quinupristin and dalfopristin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  18. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox - larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography - guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy - guided botulinum toxin treatment; ...

  19. The PEP injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Avery, R.T.; Peterson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A system to transport 10-to-15-GeV electron and positron beams from the Stanford Linear Accelerator and to inject them into the PEP storage ring under a wide variety of lattice configurations has been designed. Optically, the transport line consists of three 360/degree/ phase-shift sections of FODO lattice, with bending magnets interspersed in such a way as to provide achromaticity, convenience in energy and emittance definition, and independent tuning of the various optical parameters for matching into the ring. The last 360/degree/ of phase shift has 88 milliradians of bend in a vertical plane and deposits the beam at the injection septum via a Lambertson magnet. Injection is accomplished by launching the beam with several centimeters of radial betatron amplitude in a fast bump provided by a triad of pulsed kicker magnets. Radiation damping reduces the collective amplitude quickly enough to allow injection at a high repetition rate

  20. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P. [Department of Combustion Engines and Transport, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  1. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  2. The biological effects of radium-224 injected into dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    A life-span study was conducted in 128 beagle dogs to determine the biological effects of intravenously injected 224 Ra chloride. The 224 Ra chloride was prepared by the same method used for intravenous injections in humans who were treated for ankylosing spondylitis and tuberculosis. Thus the results obtained from dogs can be compared directly to the population of treated humans, both for the elucidation of the effect of exposure rate and for comparison with other radionuclides for which data for humans are unavailable. Using equal numbers of males and females, the dogs were injected with one of four levels of 224 Ra resulting in initial body burdens of approximately 13, 40, 120 or 350 kBq of 224 Ra kg -1 body mass. A control group of dogs was injected with diluent only. All dogs were divided further into three groups for which the amount of injected 224 Ra (half-life of 3.62 days) or diluent was given in a single injection or divided equally into 10 or 50 weekly injections. As a result of these three injection schedules, the accumulation of dose from the injected 224 Ra was distributed over approximately 1, 3 or 12 months. Each injection schedule included four different injection levels resulting in average absorbed α-particle doses to bone of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 Gy, respectively. The primary early effect observed was a hematological dyscrasia in the dogs receiving either of the two highest injection levels. The effect was most severe in the dogs receiving a single injection of 224 Ra and resulted in the death of three dogs injected at the highest level. The late-occurring biological effects were tumors. Bone tumors were the most common followed by tumors in the nasal mucosa. 52 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Calculation of injection and extraction orbits for the IPCR SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, A.; Yano, Y.; Kishida, N.; Nakanishi, N.; Wada, T.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations of beam trajectories in the injection and extraction systems for the IPCR SSC were done and the characteristics of those elements were determined. Beam centering for single turn extraction by use of first harmonic fields were also studied. The rather simple conditions at the injection point for a well-centered acceleration orbit are also discussed

  4. 40 CFR 146.5 - Classification of injection wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establishment septic tank. The UIC requirements do not apply to single family residential septic system wells, nor to non-residential septic system wells which are used solely for the disposal of sanitary waste... whether what is injected is a radioactive waste or not. (9) Septic system wells used to inject the waste...

  5. Validation of the extension of the range of application and of the single system of injection for the determination of total nitrogen in petroleum and its derivatives by chemiluminescence; Validacao da ampliacao da faixa de aplicacao e do sistema unico de injecao para a determinacao de nitrogenio total em petroleos e derivados por quimiluminescencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria de Fatima Pereira dos [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG(Brazil)]. E-mail: santos@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Tamanqueira, Juliana Boechat [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Julio Cesar Dias [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao de Petroleo; Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Logistica e Planejamento; Vaitsman, Delmo Santiago [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2003-12-01

    With the objectives of using a single system of injection and of extending the range of application for the method ASTM D4629/02 'Total Nitrogen in Petroleum Derivatives by the System of Injection with a Syringe and Detection by Chemo- Luminescence', it was studied a procedure by statistical validation with the objective of guaranteeing the analytical reliability of the assay and allowing the inclusion of samples of petroleum and heavy derivatives in one single methodology. The determination of total nitrogen for petroleum and derivatives is traditionally assayed using the method of Kjeldahl - a time-consuming methodology that requires a large amount of time for giving the final result, at the same time that is not recommended for concentrations below 0.1%w/w, which does not meet the requirements for the specifications of the product, in the petroleum industry. An alternative for the method of Kjeldahl is the pyro-chemo luminescence, which allows the achievement of more repetitive results for total nitrogen. In the detection of nitrogen, the technique combines the reliability of oxidative combustion with the sensitivity of chemiluminescence. Therefore, it was developed a protocol of validation in the methodology ASTM D4629/02 for the validation of the extension of the range of application and for the evaluation of the performance of the equipment in analytical conditions, according to the calibration curve. (author)

  6. Dual fuel injection piggyback controller system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Hassanal, Muhammad Amirul Hafeez; Lee, Chua King; Fawzi, Mas; Zulkifli, Fathul Hakim

    2017-09-01

    Dual-fuel injection is an effort to reduce the dependency on diesel and gasoline fuel. Generally, there are two approaches to implement the dual-fuel injection in car system. The first approach is changing the whole injector of the car engine, the consequence is excessive high cost. Alternatively, it also can be achieved by manipulating the system's control signal especially the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) signal. Hence, the study focuses to develop a dual injection timing controller system that likely adopted to control injection time and quantity of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel fuel. In this system, Raspberry Pi 3 reacts as main controller unit to receive ECU signal, analyze it and then manipulate its duty cycle to be fed into the Electronic Driver Unit (EDU). The manipulation has changed the duty cycle to two pulses instead of single pulse. A particular pulse mainly used to control injection of diesel fuel and another pulse controls injection of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The test indicated promising results that the system can be implemented in the car as piggyback system. This article, which was originally published online on 14 September 2017, contained an error in the acknowledgment section. The corrected acknowledgment appears in the Corrigendum attached to the pdf.

  7. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  8. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  9. Rapid colorimetric assay for gentamicin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbutton, P

    1987-01-01

    A rapid colorimetric method for determining gentamicin concentration in commercial preparations of gentamicin sulfate injection was developed. Methods currently available for measuring gentamicin concentration via its colored complex with cupric ions in alkaline solution were modified to reduce the time required for a single analysis. The alkaline copper tartrate (ACT) reagent solution was prepared such that each milliliter contained 100 mumol cupric sulfate, 210 mumol potassium sodium tartrate, and 1.25 mmol sodium hydroxide. The assay involves mixing 0.3 mL gentamicin sulfate injection 40 mg/mL (of gentamicin), 1.0 mL ACT reagent, and 0.7 mL water; the absorbance of the resulting solution at 560 nm was used to calculate the gentamicin concentration in the sample. For injections containing 10 mg/mL of gentamicin, the amount of the injection was increased to 0.5 mL and water decreased to 0.5 mL. The concentration of gentamicin in samples representing 11 lots of gentamicin sulfate injection 40 mg/mL and 8 lots of gentamicin sulfate injection 10 mg/mL was determined. The specificity, reproducibility, and accuracy of the assay were assessed. The colored complex was stable for at least two hours. Gentamicin concentration ranged from 93.7 to 108% and from 95 to 109% of the stated label value of the 40 mg/mL and the 10 mg/mL injections, respectively. No components of the preservative system present in the injections interfered with the assay. Since other aminoglycosides produced a colored complex, the assay is not specific for gentamicin. The assay was accurate and reproducible over the range of 4-20 mg of gentamicin. This rapid and accurate assay can be easily applied in the hospital pharmacy setting.

  10. Reactor water injection facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-05-02

    A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

  11. Chronic active arthritis driven by macrophages without involvement of T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagert, Cecilia; Sareila, Outi; Kelkka, Tiina

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a new chronic RA model which is driven by the innate immune system. METHOD: The injection of a cocktail of four monoclonal antibodies against collagen type II followed by intra-peritoneal injections of mannan (from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on days 5 and 60 led to the develo...

  12. Radial oil injection applied to main engine bearings: evaluation of injection control rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupiñan, EA; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    , the dynamic behaviour of the main bearing of a medium-size engine is theoretically analysed when the engine operates with controllable radial oil injection and four different injection control rules. The theoretical investigation is based on a single-cylinder combustion engine model. The performance......The performance of main bearings in a combustion engine affects key functions such as durability, noise and vibration. Thus, with the aim of reducing friction losses and vibrations between the crankshaft and the bearings, the work reported here evaluates different strategies for applying...... controllable radial oil injection to main crankshaft journal bearings. In an actively lubricated bearing, conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with controllable hydrostatic lubrication, where the oil injection pressures can be modified depending on the operational conditions. In this study...

  13. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  14. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  15. Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... botulinum neurotoxin as much art as it is science. It is in your best interest to locate the most well-trained and experienced doctor you can find. Before making an appointment to receive botulinum neuro toxin injections, ask the office personnel which doctor ...

  16. Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called penicillin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection. Tazobactam is ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying piperacillin.Antibiotics ... injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  17. Meropenem and Vaborbactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Vaborbactam is in a class ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying meropenem.Antibiotics such as meropenem and vaborbactam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  18. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

  20. RHIC injection kicker impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Zhang, W.

    1995-01-01

    The longitudinal impedance of the RHIC injection kicker is measured using the wire method up to a frequency of 3 GHz. The mismatch between the 50 ohm cable and the wire and pipe system is calibrated using the TRL calibration algorithm. Various methods of reducing the impedance, such as coated ceramic pipe and copper strips are investigated

  1. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets. Lifting the tank-lid reveals the inner structure. For a more detailed description see 7502072X. See also 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, p.162. To the left: Roland Tröhler; to the right: Giacomo Busetta.

  2. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  3. Injection characteristics of dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glensvig, M.

    1996-09-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has proved to be a new ultra-clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. Engine tests have shown considerably lower NO{sub x} emissions, no particle emissions and lower noise compared to that obtained from normal diesel engine operation. DME also has demonstrated favorable response to Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this investigation was to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental spray behavior of DME. Fundamental spray behaviour was characterized by fuel spray penetration and angle, atomization and droplet size and evaporation. The influence of fuel characteristics, nozzle geometry and ambient pressure on the DME and diesel spray behavior was investigated. Fuel was injected into an unheated injection chamber with a ambient pressure of 15 bar and 25 bar, respectively, giving a simplified simulation of the environment in an operating engine. Two nozzles were studied: a single hole nozzle and a pintle nozzle. A conventional fuel injection system was used for both nozzles. Injection parameters of RPM, throttle position, fuel line length and chamber environment were held constant for both nozzles. The sprays were visualized using schlieren and high speed photography. Results show that the general appearance of the DME spray is similar to that of diesel spray. The core of the DME spray seems less dense and the spray tip less sharp compared to diesel spray, indicating smaller droplets with a lower momentum in the core of the DME spray. Schlieren film shows that with both DME and diesel fuel, the spray tip only consists of liquid and that evaporation occurs after a brief time interval. Penetration of DME is about one third that of diesel using the pintle nozzle. Also, the spray angle is considerably larger for the DME spray compared to the diesel spray. A comparatively smaller difference in penetration is observed using the hole nozzle. Differences in penetration for the hole nozzle are within the limit of the penetration

  4. Radiotracer injections through microfilters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.; Maschek, G.; Pichler, R.; Giesen, I.; Hatzl-Griesenhofer, M.; Maschek, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Problems with the injection of radiotracers ( 99m Tc-HAMS, 99m Tc-DPD) to infants when administered through polar-filter-protected venous pathways caused us to get a closer look of what happens to a tracer in such a system. We simulated injections of the tracers mainly used at our institution in an in-vitro array and measured full and empty tracer syringes, filters (0.2 μm micropores) and the post-filter receptacle of the radioactivity. We calculated the percentage of filter-trapped activity and of activity in the receptacle. For several tracers we repeated this process with a neutral filter of the same pore size to get a comparison between the behavior in polarized and electrically inert filters. In general injection of a soluble radiotracer through a polar filter system means a dose loss in the filter of about 10 %, up to the tracer molecule size of IgG-antibodies. Suspended tracers, which consist of comparatively large particles, like RES- or pulmonary perfusion markers, are blocked by the filter, as can be foreseen with a particle size of >> 0.2 μm. DMSA and DPD (a biphosphonate), although both being soluble and rather small molecules, were blocked by the polar filter to a high extent, and by the neutral filter to a much lower, almost neglectable degree. The conclusions are: if possible avoid any use of a filter in your tracer injection pathway. Never use a filter with bone scan or DMSA applications. When doing uptake calculations you have to add the filter counts to the empty syringe value in the formula. If you cannot avoid to inject the radiotracer through a filter you have to replace the filter afterwards and treat the used filter as radioactive waste. The polarity of the filter material might severely affect retention of radiotracer in the filter. (author)

  5. Immunization of chickens with an agonistic monoclonal anti-chicken CD40 antibody-hapten complex: rapid and robust IgG response induced by a single subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Hsin; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Chou, Wen-Ko; Farnell, Morgan B; Mwangi, Waithaka; Berghman, Luc R

    2012-04-30

    Producing diagnostic antibodies in chicken egg yolk represents an alternate animal system that offers many advantages including high productivity at low cost. Despite being an excellent counterpart to mammalian antibodies, chicken IgG from yolk still represents an underused resource. The potential of agonistic monoclonal anti-CD40 antibodies (mAb) as a powerful immunological adjuvant has been demonstrated in mammals, but not in chickens. We recently reported an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 mAb (designated mAb 2C5) and showed that it may have potential as an immunological adjuvant. In this study, we examined the efficacy of targeting a short peptide to chicken CD40 [expressed by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs)] in enhancing an effective IgG response in chickens. For this purpose, an immune complex consisting of one streptavidin molecule, two directionally biotinylated mAb 2C5 molecules, and two biotinylated peptide molecules was produced. Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with doses of this complex ranging from 10 to 90 μg per injection once, and relative quantification of the peptide-specific IgG response showed that the mAb 2C5-based complex was able to elicit a strong IgG response as early as four days post-immunization. This demonstrates that CD40-targeting antigen to chicken APCs can significantly enhance antibody responses and induce immunoglobulin isotype-switching. This immunization strategy holds promise for rapid production of hapten-specific IgG in chickens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. AN EXPERIMENTAL NOX REDUCTION POTENTIAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PARTIAL HCCI APPLICATION, ON A HIGH PRESSURE FUEL INJECTION EQUIPPED DIESEL ENGINE BY IMPLEMENTING FUMIGATION OF GASOLINE PORT INJECTION

    OpenAIRE

    ERGENÇ, Alp Tekin; YÜKSEK, Levent; ÖZENER, Orkun; IŞIN, Övün

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the effects of partial HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) application on today's modern diesel engine tail pipe NOx emissions. Gasoline fumigation is supplied via a port fuel injection system located in the intake port of DI(Direct injection) diesel engine to maintain partial HCCI conditions and also diesel fuel injected directly into the combustion chamber before TDC(Top dead center). A single cylinder direct injection diesel research engine equipped w...

  7. Injection dynamics of gelled propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Changjin

    Gel propellants have been recognized as attractive candidates for future propulsion systems due to the reduced tendency to spill and the energy advantages over solid propellants. One of strong benefits emphasized in gel propellant applications is a throttling capability, but the accurate flow control is more complicated and difficult than with conventional Newtonian propellants because of the unique rheological behaviors of gels. This study is a computational effort directed to enhance understanding of the injector internal flow characteristics for gel propellants under rocket injection conditions. In simulations, the emphasized rheology is a shear-thinning which represents a viscosity decrease with increasing a shear rate. It is described by a generalized Newtonian fluid constitutive equation and Carreau-Yasuda model. Using this rheological model, two injection schemes are considered in the present study: axially-fed and cross-fed injection for single-element and multi-element impinging injectors, respectively. An axisymmetric model is developed to describe the axially-fed injector flows and fully three-dimensional model is utilized to simulate cross-fed injector flows. Under axially-fed injection conditions investigated, three distinct modes, an unsteady, steady, and hydraulic flip mode, are observed and mapped in terms of Reynolds number and orifice design. In an unsteady mode, quasi-periodic oscillations occur near the inlet lip leading mass pulsations and viscosity fluctuations at the orifice exit. This dynamic behavior is characterized using a time-averaged discharge coefficient, oscillation magnitude and frequency by a parametric study with respect to an orifice design, Reynolds number and rheology. As a result, orifice exit flows for gel propellants appear to be significantly influenced by a viscous damping and flow resistance due to a shear thinning behavior and these are observed in each factors considered. Under conditions driven by a manifold crossflow

  8. Can a Compact Pre-Filled Auto-Disable Injection System (cPAD) Save Costs for DTP-HepB-Hib Vaccine as Compared with Single-Dose (SDV) and Multi-Dose Vials (MDV)? Evidence from Cambodia, Ghana, and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogier, Cyril; Hanlon, Patrick; Wiedenmayer, Karin; Maire, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    A compact pre-filled auto-disable injection (cPAD) presentation is being developed for the fully liquid pentavalent DTP-HepB-Hib vaccine. A cost analysis (CA) to compare this presentation with the presently used single-dose vial (SDV) and multi-dose vial (MDV) was conducted in Cambodia, Ghana, and Peru. The CA included the development of an excel-based costing model and considered the costs of vaccine, safe injection equipment, procurement, storage, transport and distribution, vaccine administration by health staff, medical waste management, start-up activities, as well as coverage, birth cohort, vaccine, and safe injection equipment wastage rates. The outcome was the change in cost per pentavalent fully immunized child (PFIC) for a switch to cPAD. Field visits to health facilities, and interviews with key informants from immunization services and regulatory authorities, were conducted to collect data and to test the costing model in country context. Cost data were also obtained from manufacturers, published price lists, and author estimates. A sensitivity analysis (SA) was conducted to explore possible variations in values of data collected. Based on vaccine price trends estimated for 2016, cPAD is less costly in Ghana [incremental cost per PFIC: $US-0.59 (-6.46 %)] than the current presentation (ten-dose MDV) and in Peru (SDV): $US-0.89 (-7.14 %). In Cambodia, cPAD is more costly than SDV: $US+0.33 (+3.90 %). The most significant cost item per PFIC is the vaccine (reflecting wastage rates) in all presentations. The dominance of the vaccine price per dose and, to a lesser extent, the wastage rates in the incremental cost per PFIC show potential to simplify future analyses. Other relevant considerations at country level for a change of presentation include the potential for improved safety with cPAD, planned introduction of other vaccines, environmental and safety issues, and financial sustainability.

  9. Diagnosing the PEP-II Injection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, G.C.; Weaver, M.; /SLAC

    2005-05-09

    The injection of beam into the PEP-II B-Factory, especially into the High Energy Ring (HER) has some challenges. A high background level in the BaBar detector has for a while inhibited us from trickling charge into the HER similar to the Low Energy Ring (LER). Analyzing the injection system has revealed many issues which could be improved. The injection bump between two kickers was not closed, mainly because the phase advance wasn't exactly 180{sup o} and the two kicker strengths were not balanced. Additionally we found reflections which kick the stored beam after the main kick and cause the average luminosity to drop about 3% for a 10 Hz injection rate. The strength of the overall kick is nearly twice as high as the design, indicating a much bigger effective septum thickness. Compared with single beam the background is worse when the HER beam is colliding with the LER beam. This hints that the beam-beam force and the observed vertical blow-up in the HER pushes the beam and especially the injected beam further out to the edge of the dynamic aperture or beyond.

  10. Diagnosing the PEP-II Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, G.C.; Weaver, M.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The injection of beam into the PEP-II B-Factory, especially into the High Energy Ring (HER) has some challenges. A high background level in the BaBar detector has for a while inhibited us from trickling charge into the HER similar to the Low Energy Ring (LER). Analyzing the injection system has revealed many issues which could be improved. The injection bump between two kickers was not closed, mainly because the phase advance wasn't exactly 180 o and the two kicker strengths were not balanced. Additionally we found reflections which kick the stored beam after the main kick and cause the average luminosity to drop about 3% for a 10 Hz injection rate. The strength of the overall kick is nearly twice as high as the design, indicating a much bigger effective septum thickness. Compared with single beam the background is worse when the HER beam is colliding with the LER beam. This hints that the beam-beam force and the observed vertical blow-up in the HER pushes the beam and especially the injected beam further out to the edge of the dynamic aperture or beyond

  11. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  12. Ceramic injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1988-01-01

    Interest in making complex net-shape ceramic parts with good surface finishing and sharp tolerances without machining is a driving force for studying the injection molding technique. This method consists of softhening the ceramic material by means of adding some plastic and heating in order to inject the mixture under pressure into a relatively cold mold where solidification takes place. Essentially, it is the same process used in thermoplastic industry but, in the present case, the ceramic powder load ranges between 80 to 90 wt.%. This work shows results obtained from the fabrication of pieces of different ceramic materials (alumina, barium titanate ferrites, etc.) in a small scale, using equipments developed and constructed in the laboratory. (Author) [es

  13. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. SPEAR 3 INJECTION KICKER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straight-forward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed

  15. Gallium arsenide injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.B.

    1975-01-01

    The semiconductor injection laser includes a thin inner GaAs p-n junction layer between two outer GaAlAs layers which are backed by further thin outer GaAlAs layers with a heavier doping of AlAs. This reduces optical losses. Optical energy is further confined within the inner layers and the lasing threshold reduced by added outer GaAs layers of low electrical and thermal resistivity

  16. Hydrogen pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Masahiro.

    1992-01-01

    In a hydrogen pellet injection device, a nozzle block having a hydrogen gas supply channel is disposed at the inner side of a main cryogenic housing, and an electric resistor is attached to the block. Further, a nozzle block and a hydrogen gas introduction pipe are attached by way of a thermal insulating spacer. Electric current is supplied to the resistor to positively heat the nozzle block and melt remaining solid hydrogen in the hydrogen gas supply channel. Further, the effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor is prevented from reaching the side of the hydrogen gas introduction pipe by the thermal insulation spacer. That is, the temperature of the nozzle block is directly and positively elevated, to melt the solid hydrogen rapidly. Preparation operation from the injection of the hydrogen pellet to the next injection can be completed in a shorter period of time compared with a conventional case thereby enabling to make the test more efficient. Further, only the temperature of the nozzle block is elevated with no effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor to other components by the thermal insulation flange. (N.H.)

  17. Direct injection of high pressure gas : scaling properties of pulsed turbulent jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.S.G.; Klaassen, A.; Doosje, E.

    2010-01-01

    Existing gasoline DI injection equipment has been modified to generate single hole pulsed gas jets. Injection experiments have been performed at combinations of 3 different pressure ratios (2 of which supercritical) respectively 3 different hole geometries (i.e. length to diameter ratios). Injection

  18. 76 FR 22610 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Enrofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Enrofloxacin AGENCY: Food... the indications for use of enrofloxacin solution in cattle, as a single injection, for the treatment... supplement to NADA 141-068 for BAYTRIL 100 (enrofloxacin), an injectable solution. The supplemental NADA...

  19. Dimensional accuracy of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene injection molded parts produced in a pilot produc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischkot, Michael; Davoudinejad, Ali; Charalambis, Alessandro

    of a geometry including micro-features have been injection-molded in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) with a single 20x20x2.5 mm^3 injection molding insert manufactured in a photopolymer composite material. This research investigates the dimensional accuracy of the injection molded parts as a function...

  20. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G injection is used to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ...

  1. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  2. C-stop production by micro injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    of engineering micro product which integrate many features like beam snapfit, annular snapfit, hinge connection, filter grid, house, lid etc in a single product. All the features are in micro dimensional scale and manufactured by single step of injection moulding. This presentation will cover industrial...

  3. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  4. Water injection profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

  5. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  6. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  7. A new electrode design for ambipolar injection in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasekaran, Thangavel; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Ryota; Hitosugi, Taro; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2017-10-17

    Organic semiconductors have attracted much attention for low-cost, flexible and human-friendly optoelectronics. However, achieving high electron-injection efficiency is difficult from air-stable electrodes and cannot be equivalent to that of holes. Here, we present a novel concept of electrode composed of a bilayer of tetratetracontane (TTC) and polycrystalline organic semiconductors (pc-OSC) covered by a metal layer. Field-effect transistors of single-crystal organic semiconductors with the new electrodes of M/pc-OSC/TTC (M: Ca or Au) show both highly efficient electron and hole injection. Contact resistance for electron injection from Au/pc-OSC/TTC and hole injection from Ca/pc-OSC/TTC are comparable to those for electron injection from Ca and hole injection from Au, respectively. Furthermore, the highest field-effect mobilities of holes (22 cm 2  V -1  s -1 ) and electrons (5.0 cm 2  V -1  s -1 ) are observed in rubrene among field-effect transistors with electrodes so far proposed by employing Ca/pc-OSC/TTC and Au/pc-OSC/TTC electrodes for electron and hole injection, respectively.One of technological challenges building organic electronics is efficient injection of electrons at metal-semiconductor interfaces compared to that of holes. The authors show an air-stable electrode design with induced gap states, which support Fermi level pinning and thus ambipolar carrier injection.

  8. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cannot be used to treat pregnant or nursing women or babies. The single use vials do not contain benzyl alcohol and may be used to treat pregnant or nursing women or babies, but they are only safe to ...

  9. Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, M.A.I.

    2010-06-01

    Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)

  10. Single beam pass migmacell method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglich, B.C.; Nering, J.E.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Miller, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The invention provides improvements in migmacell apparatus and method by dispensing with the need for metastable confinement of injected molecular ions for multiple precession periods. Injected molecular ions undergo a 'single pass' through the reaction volume. By preconditioning the injected beam such that it contains a population distribution of molecules in higher vibrational states than in the case of a normal distribution, injected molecules in the single pass exper-ience collisionless dissociation in the migmacell under magnetic influence, i.e., so-called Lorentz dissociation. Dissociationions then form atomic migma

  11. Modelling the effect of injection pressure on heat release parameters and nitrogen oxides in direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksek Levent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and modelling the effect of injection pressure on heat release parameters and engine-out nitrogen oxides are the main aim of this study. A zero-dimensional and multi-zone cylinder model was developed for estimation of the effect of injection pressure rise on performance parameters of diesel engine. Double-Wiebe rate of heat release global model was used to describe fuel combustion. extended Zeldovich mechanism and partial equilibrium approach were used for modelling the formation of nitrogen oxides. Single cylinder, high pressure direct injection, electronically controlled, research engine bench was used for model calibration. 1000 and 1200 bars of fuel injection pressure were investigated while injection advance, injected fuel quantity and engine speed kept constant. The ignition delay of injected fuel reduced 0.4 crank angle with 1200 bars of injection pressure and similar effect observed in premixed combustion phase duration which reduced 0.2 crank angle. Rate of heat release of premixed combustion phase increased 1.75 % with 1200 bar injection pressure. Multi-zone cylinder model showed good agreement with experimental in-cylinder pressure data. Also it was seen that the NOx formation model greatly predicted the engine-out NOx emissions for both of the operation modes.

  12. Experimental optimization of a direct injection homogeneous charge compression ignition gasoline engine using split injections with fully automated microgenetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M. [Kocaeli Univ., Izmit (Turkey); Reitz, R.D. [Wisconsin Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is receiving attention as a new low-emission engine concept. Little is known about the optimal operating conditions for this engine operation mode. Combustion under homogeneous, low equivalence ratio conditions results in modest temperature combustion products, containing very low concentrations of NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) as well as providing high thermal efficiency. However, this combustion mode can produce higher HC and CO emissions than those of conventional engines. An electronically controlled Caterpillar single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE), originally designed for heavy-duty diesel applications, was converted to an HCCI direct injection (DI) gasoline engine. The engine features an electronically controlled low-pressure direct injection gasoline (DI-G) injector with a 60 deg spray angle that is capable of multiple injections. The use of double injection was explored for emission control and the engine was optimized using fully automated experiments and a microgenetic algorithm optimization code. The variables changed during the optimization include the intake air temperature, start of injection timing and the split injection parameters (per cent mass of fuel in each injection, dwell between the pulses). The engine performance and emissions were determined at 700 r/min with a constant fuel flowrate at 10 MPa fuel injection pressure. The results show that significant emissions reductions are possible with the use of optimal injection strategies. (Author)

  13. Dramatic changes in muscle contractile and structural properties after 2 botulinum toxin injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Viviane B; Suzuki, Kentaro P; Bremner, Shannon N; Lieber, Richard L; Ward, Samuel R

    2015-10-01

    Botulinum toxin is frequently administered serially to maintain therapeutic muscle paralysis, but the effect of repeated doses on muscle function are largely unknown. This study characterized the muscle response to 2 onabotulinum toxin (BoNT) injections separated by 3 months. Animal subjects received a single toxin injection (n = 8), 2 BoNT injections separated by 3 months (n = 14), or 1 BoNT and 1 saline injection separated by 3 months (n = 8). The functional effect of 2 serial injections was exponentially greater than the effect of a single injection. While both groups treated with a single BoNT injection had decreased torque in the injected leg by approximately 50% relative to contralateral legs, the double BoNT injected group had decreased torque by over 95% relative to the preinjection level. Both single and double BoNT injections produced clear signs of fiber-type grouping. These experiments demonstrate a disproportionately greater effect of repeated BoNT injections. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Safe injection practices for administration of propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cecil A; Ogg, Mary

    2012-03-01

    Sepsis and postoperative infection can occur as a result of unsafe practices in the administration of propofol and other injectable medications. Investigations of infection outbreaks have revealed the causes to be related to bacterial growth in or contamination of propofol and unsafe medication practices, including reuse of syringes on multiple patients, use of single-use medication vials for multiple patients, and failure to practice aseptic technique and adhere to infection control practices. Surveys conducted by AORN and other researchers have provided additional information on perioperative practices related to injectable medications. In 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a group of clinicians to gain a better understanding of the issues related to infection outbreaks and injectable medications. The meeting participants proposed collecting data to persuade clinicians to adopt new practices, developing guiding principles for propofol use, and describing propofol-specific, site-specific, and practitioner-specific injection techniques. AORN provides resources to help perioperative nurses reduce the incidence of postoperative infection related to medication administration. Copyright © 2012 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigations of needle-free jet injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm-Baxter, J R; Mitragotri, S

    2004-01-01

    Jet injection is a needle-free drug delivery method in which a high-speed stream of fluid impacts the skin and delivers drugs. Although a number of jet injectors are commercially available, especially for insulin delivery, they have a low market share compared to needles possibly due to occasional pain associated with jet injection. Jets employed by the traditional jet injectors penetrate deep into the dermal and sub-dermal regions where the nerve endings are abundantly located. To eliminate the pain associated with jet injections, we propose to utilize microjets that penetrate only into the superficial region of the skin. However, the choice of appropriate jet parameters for this purpose is challenging owing to the multiplicity of factors that determine the penetration depth. Here, we describe the dependence of jet injections into human skin on the power of the jet. Dermal delivery of liquid jets was quantified using two measurements, penetration of a radiolabeled solute, mannitol, into skin and the shape of jet dispersion in the skin which was visualized using sulforhodamine B. The dependence of the amount of liquid delivered in the skin and the geometric measurements of jet dispersion on nozzle diameter and jet velocity was captured by a single parameter, jet power.

  16. Low energy, high power injection in JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Makoto; Dairaku, Masayuki; Horiike, Hiroshi

    1988-05-01

    JT-60 neutral beam injector (JT-60 NBI) is designed to inject 20 MW neutral hydrogen beam at energies of 70 ∼ 100 keV and the injection power decreases significantly at low energies (∼40 keV). For the extention of operation region aiming at the low density plasma heating and achieving H-mode by plasma periphery heating, increment of the injection power at low beam energies was required. The single-stage acceleration system was investigated in advance at the Prototype Injector Unit. From this result, the total injection power of 17 MW at 40 keV, 48 A per source was expected at the JT-60 NBI. This system was adopted in the JT-60 NBI from June, 1987 to July, 1987 and 17.6 MW neutral beam injection power was achieved. In the NB heating experiment, the H-mode transition phenomena was observed in JT-60 plasma. (author)

  17. Effect of aqueous extract of alligator pepper (Zingiberaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty female and ten male Sprague-Dawley rats of proven fertility from a pilot study were randomly mated in groups of two females and one male. Three days later, female rats in the ... weight gain reduction. Key words: Gestational weight gain, Aqueous Extract, Intra-peritoneal injection, Alligator Pepper, Nutrition.

  18. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greer, SC; Lacy, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  19. MgO by injection CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrutis, A.; Kubilius, V.; Teiserkis, A.; Bigelyte, V.; Vengalis, B.; Jukna, A.; Butkute, R.

    1997-01-01

    Epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 layers with 45 in-plane orientation have been grown by injection CVD on MgO substrates polished off-axis to within 1.4-1.9 of the [100] direction. This new single-source CVD process is based on computer-controlled injection of precise microdoses of a metal-organic precursor solution into a CVD reactor. A wide range of solution compositions was tested to investigate compositional effects on phase purity, surface morphology, texturing and superconducting properties of the prepared films. The highest quality films with pure 45 texture had a smooth surface, zero resistance T c (R=0) of 88-89 K, and critical current density J c (77 K) above 10 6 A/cm 2 . (orig.) and critical current density J c (77 K) above 10 6 A/cm 2 . (orig.)

  20. VLF wave injections from the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments on wave-particle interactions using VLF whistler-mode waves injected into the magnetosphere from Antartica are described. The injected signals are single-frequency coherent waves whose amplitudes and frequencies may be changed slowly with time, or else two or more coherent wave trains transmitted simultaneously to determine the nature of the response to multifrequency excitation. The waves may be amplified 30 dB or more and may trigger intense emissions having bandwidths that vary from a few to several hundred Hertz. In most cases significant growth and triggering occur only when the driving signal is essentially monochromatic (bandwidth 10 Hz). If two frequencies are transmitted simultaneously the signal at the lower frequency tends to be suppressed by 20 dB or more. These results are interpreted in terms of a feedback interaction between the waves and counter-streaming cyclotron resonant electrons in a region several hundred wavelengths long, centered on the magnetic equator.

  1. Sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections: where does the injectate go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Eugene; Presley, James C; Murthy, Naveen; Pawlina, Wojciech; Smith, Jay

    2013-08-01

    To determine the distribution of sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections in an unembalmed cadaveric model. A single experienced operator completed 10 sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections in 10 unembalmed cadaveric specimens (5 right and 5 left) obtained from 6 donors (2 male and 4 female) aged 49 to 95 years (mean, 77.5 years) with a mean body mass index of 23.2 kg/m(2) (range, 18.4-26.3 kg/m(2)). A 12-3-MHz linear array transducer was used to direct a 22-gauge, 38-mm stainless steel needle deep to the plantar fascia at the anterior aspect of the calcaneus using an in-plane, medial-to-lateral approach. In each case, 1.5 mL of 50% diluted colored latex was injected deep to the plantar fascia. After a minimum of 72 hours, study coinvestigators dissected each specimen to assess injectate placement. All 10 injections accurately placed latex adjacent to the deep side of the plantar fascia at the anterior calcaneus. However, the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) origin from the plantar fascia variably limited direct latex contact with the plantar fascia, and small amounts of latex interdigitated with the FDB origin in 90% (9 of 10). In all 10 specimens, latex also covered the traversing first branch of the lateral plantar nerve (FBLPN, ie, Baxter nerve) between the FDB and quadratus plantae muscles. No latex was found in the plantar fat pad or plantar fascia in any specimen. Sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections reliably deliver latex deep to the plantar fascia while avoiding intrafascial injection. However, the extent of direct plantar fascia contact is variable due to the intervening FDB. On the contrary, the traversing FBLPN is reliably covered by the injection. Deep plantar fascia injections may have a role in the management of refractory plantar fasciitis, particularly following failed superficial perifascial or intrafascial injections, in cases of preferential deep plantar fascia involvement, or when entrapment

  2. Systematic assessment of microneedle injection into the mouse cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Mario; Meng, Huan; Bhutto, Imran; Xu, Qingguo; Boelke, Edwin; Hanes, Justin; Jun, Albert S

    2012-06-20

    Corneal intrastromal injection is an important mode of gene-vector application to subepithelial layers. In a mouse model, this procedure is substantially complicated by the reduced corneal dimensions. Furthermore, it may be difficult to estimate the corneal area reached by the volume of a single injection. This study aimed to investigate intrastromal injections into the mouse cornea using different microneedles and to quantify the effect of injecting varying volumes. A reproducible injection technique is described. Forty eyes of 20 129 Sv/J mice were tested. India ink was intrastromally injected using 30° beveled 33 G needles, tri-surface 25° beveled 35 G needles, or hand-pulled and 25° beveled glass needles. Each eye received a single injection of a volume of 1 or 2 μL. Corneoscleral buttons were fixed and flat mounted for computer-assisted quantification of the affected corneal area. Histological assessment was performed to investigate the intrastromal location of the injected dye. A mean corneal area of 5.0 ± 1.4 mm(2) (mean ± SD) and 7.7 ± 1.4 mm(2) was covered by intrastromal injections of 1 and 2 μL, respectively. The mean percentage of total corneal area reached ranged from 39% to 53% for 1 μL injections, and from 65% to 81% for 2 μL injections. Injections using the 33 G needles tended to provide the highest distribution area. Perforation rates were 8% for 30° beveled 33 G needles and 44% for tri-surface beveled 35 G needles. No perforation was observed with glass needle; however, intrastromal breakage of needle tips was noted in 25% of these cases. Intracorneal injection using a 30° beveled 33 G needle was safe and effective. The use of tri-surface beveled 35 G needles substantially increased the number of corneal perforations. Glass needles may break inside the corneal stroma. Injections of 1 μL and 2 μL resulted in an overall mean of 49% and 73% respectively of total corneal area involved.

  3. Systematic assessment of microneedle injection into the mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthaei Mario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corneal intrastromal injection is an important mode of gene-vector application to subepithelial layers. In a mouse model, this procedure is substantially complicated by the reduced corneal dimensions. Furthermore, it may be difficult to estimate the corneal area reached by the volume of a single injection. This study aimed to investigate intrastromal injections into the mouse cornea using different microneedles and to quantify the effect of injecting varying volumes. A reproducible injection technique is described. Methods Forty eyes of 20 129 Sv/J mice were tested. India ink was intrastromally injected using 30° beveled 33 G needles, tri-surface 25° beveled 35 G needles, or hand-pulled and 25° beveled glass needles. Each eye received a single injection of a volume of 1 or 2 μL. Corneoscleral buttons were fixed and flat mounted for computer-assisted quantification of the affected corneal area. Histological assessment was performed to investigate the intrastromal location of the injected dye. Results A mean corneal area of 5.0 ±1.4 mm2 (mean ± SD and 7.7 ±1.4 mm2 was covered by intrastromal injections of 1 and 2 μL, respectively. The mean percentage of total corneal area reached ranged from 39% to 53% for 1 μL injections, and from 65% to 81% for 2 μL injections. Injections using the 33 G needles tended to provide the highest distribution area. Perforation rates were 8% for 30° beveled 33 G needles and 44% for tri-surface beveled 35 G needles. No perforation was observed with glass needle; however, intrastromal breakage of needle tips was noted in 25% of these cases. Conclusions Intracorneal injection using a 30° beveled 33 G needle was safe and effective. The use of tri-surface beveled 35 G needles substantially increased the number of corneal perforations. Glass needles may break inside the corneal stroma. Injections of 1 μL and 2 μL resulted in an overall mean of 49% and 73% respectively

  4. Injection system of compact SR light source 'AURORA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Takeshi; Yano, Takashi; Sasaki, Yasushi; Yasumitsu, Naoki

    1991-01-01

    A half-integer-resonance injection method is introduced for a superconducting SR-ring of 1 m orbit diameter, which is made of a weak focussing single-body magnet. The present method makes it possible to inject an electron beam of an energy of as high as 150 MeV into the ring of a magnetic field strength of 1 T. Several new injection devices are introduced in order to guide the beam under the strong magnetic fringing field, and to excite the half-integer-resonance. The field index of 0.73 is selected for the half-integer-resonance injection. The field index of 0.35 at the maximum magnetic field strength of 4.3 T is to get a sufficiently long quantum lifetime. A new device named resonance jumper is used to pass quickly several resonances of betatron motion without beam loss. The resonances occur when the magnetic field is ramped up and the field index decreases from 0.73 to 0.35. The injection devices except the inflector are air-core magnets in order to work in the strong magnetic field. In November of 1989, the beam was successfully injected and stored. The injection devices and the half-integer-resonance injection method were established. (author)

  5. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  6. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification

  7. Analysis of pulsed injection for microgravity receiver tank chilldown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Scott C.; Pietrzyk, Joe R.; Schuster, John R.

    The dominant heat transfer mechanism during the hold phase of a tank chilldown cycle in a low-gravity environment is due to fluid motion persistence following the charge. As compared to the single-charge per vent cycle case, pulsed injection maintains fluid motion and the associated high wall heat transfer coefficients during the hold phase. As a result, the pulsed injection procedure appears to be an attractive method for reducing the time and liquid mass required to chill a tank. However, for the representative conditions considered, no significant benefit can be realized by using pulsed injection as compared to the single-charge case. A numerical model of the charge/hold/vent process was used to evaluate the pulsed injection procedure for tank chilldown in microgravity. Pulsed injection results in higher average wall heat transfer coefficients during the hold, as compared to the single-charge case. However, these high levels were not coincident with the maximum wall-to-fluid temperature differences, as in the single-charge case. For representative conditions investigated, the charge/hold/vent process is very efficient. A slightly shorter chilldown time was realized by increasing the number of pulses.

  8. Selective injection locking of a multi-mode semiconductor laser to a multi-frequency reference beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, Mysore Srinivas; Yang, Tao; Pandey, Kanhaiya; Giudici, Massimo; Wilkowski, David

    2014-07-01

    Injection locking is a well known and commonly used method for coherent light amplification. Usually injection locking is obtained on a single-mode laser injected by a single-frequency seeding beam. In this work we show that selective injection locking of a single-frequency may also be achieved on a multi-mode semiconductor laser injected by a multi-frequency seeding beam, if the slave laser provides sufficient frequency filtering. This selective injection locking condition depends critically on the frequency detuning between the free-running slave emission frequency and each injected frequency component. Stable selective injection locking to a set of three seeding components separated by 1.2 GHz is obtained. This system provides an amplification up to 37 dB of each component. This result suggests that, using distinct slave lasers for each frequency line, a set of mutually coherent high-power radiation modes can be tuned in the GHz frequency domain.

  9. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  10. Tratamento de gestação cervical viável com aplicação intra-amniótica de metotrexato: relato de um caso Treatment of a viable cervical pregnancy with a single-intraamniotic methotrexate injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juvenal Linhares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Gestação cervical é uma condição rara, em que ocorre implantação do ovo no canal cervical distendendo-o à medida que cresce. Corresponde a menos de 1% de todas as gestações ectópicas. A hemorragia indolor é sua característica clínica habitual e ao exame físico visualiza-se um colo hipertrófico e vascularizado, com tecido saindo pelo orifício externo do colo. Ultra-sonografia pode ser usada para complementar o diagnóstico, mostrando a presença do saco gestacional. Relatamos um caso de tratamento bem sucedido de gestação cervical viável de sete semanas. Morte fetal foi conseguida com uma injeção intra-amniótica única de metotrexato (25 mg guiada por ultra-sonografia transvaginal. Metotrexato sistêmico em dose única intramuscular (50 mg/m² foi associado. O tratamento conservador da gestação cervical com metotrexato foi efetivo e seguro.Cervical pregnancy is a rare condition in which the egg is implanted in the cervical canal causing it to distend as the egg grows. Cervical pregnancy constitutes less than 1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Painless hemorrhage is a habitual clinical characteristic and on physical examination a very vascularized hypertrophic cervix is observed with a tissue surpassing the external orifice. Ultrasonography may be used as a complementary diagnostic tool to show directly the presence of a gestational sac. A successful management of a viable seven-week gestation cervical pregnancy is reported herein. Feticide was performed with a single intraamniotic methotrexate injection (25 mg guided by transvaginal ultrasonography. Systemic methotrexate in a single dose intramuscular (50 mg/m² was associated. The conservative management of cervical ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate was effective and safe.

  11. Performance Analysis of Multi Stage Safety Injection Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    In general the integral reactor has such characteristics, the integral reactor requires a high flow rate of coolant safety injection at the initial stage of the accident in which the core level is relatively fast decreased, A medium flow rate of coolant safety injection at the early and middle stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is relatively large due to a high internal pressure of the reactor vessel, and a low flow rate of coolant safety injection is required at the middle and late stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is greatly reduced due to a decreased pressure of the reactor vessel. It is noted that a high flow rate of the integral reactor is quite smaller compared to a flow rate required in the commercial loop type reactor. However, a nitrogen pressurized safety injection tank has been typically designed to quickly inject a high flow rate of coolant when the internal pressure of the reactor vessel is rapidly decreased, and a core makeup tank has been designed to safely inject at a single mode flow rate due to a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor vessel and core makeup tank. As a result, in order to compensate such a disadvantage, various type systems are used in a complicated manner in a reactor according to the required characteristic of safety injection during an accident. In the present study, we have investigated numerically the performance of the multi stage safety injection tank. A parameter study has performed to understand the characteristics of the multi stage safety injection tank. The performance of the multi stage safety injection tank has been investigated numerically. When an accident occurs, the coolant in the multi stage safety injection tank is injected into a reactor vessel by a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor and tank. At the early stages of the accident, the high flow rate of

  12. Performance Analysis of Multi Stage Safety Injection Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In general the integral reactor has such characteristics, the integral reactor requires a high flow rate of coolant safety injection at the initial stage of the accident in which the core level is relatively fast decreased, A medium flow rate of coolant safety injection at the early and middle stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is relatively large due to a high internal pressure of the reactor vessel, and a low flow rate of coolant safety injection is required at the middle and late stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is greatly reduced due to a decreased pressure of the reactor vessel. It is noted that a high flow rate of the integral reactor is quite smaller compared to a flow rate required in the commercial loop type reactor. However, a nitrogen pressurized safety injection tank has been typically designed to quickly inject a high flow rate of coolant when the internal pressure of the reactor vessel is rapidly decreased, and a core makeup tank has been designed to safely inject at a single mode flow rate due to a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor vessel and core makeup tank. As a result, in order to compensate such a disadvantage, various type systems are used in a complicated manner in a reactor according to the required characteristic of safety injection during an accident. In the present study, we have investigated numerically the performance of the multi stage safety injection tank. A parameter study has performed to understand the characteristics of the multi stage safety injection tank. The performance of the multi stage safety injection tank has been investigated numerically. When an accident occurs, the coolant in the multi stage safety injection tank is injected into a reactor vessel by a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor and tank. At the early stages of the accident, the high flow rate of

  13. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  14. Fetal Intra-Peritoneal Transfusion for the Management of Very Early Spontaneous Twin Anemia-Polycythemia Sequence in an Obese Patient With a Whole Anterior Placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenot, Cécile; Robyr, Romaine; Jastrow, Nicole; Vial, Yvan; Raio, Luigi; Baud, David

    2016-04-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is a rare condition in monochorionic twin pregnancies. Small intertwin placental vascular communications allow transfusion, which results in a hemoglobin difference in the twins in the absence of oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios. We report here a case of TAPS diagnosed at 17 weeks' gestation in an obese patient (BMI 42) with a whole anterior placenta. The only possible treatment at this stage of pregnancy was intra-uterine transfusion (IUT), which was repeated weekly until photocoagulation of placental anastomoses was feasible. Fetoscopic laser surgery is the only curative treatment, but is challenging in TAPS because of the absence of polyhydramnios and the presence of minuscule anastomoses. An anterior placenta and high BMI can make the procedure even more challenging. This case report demonstrates that very early and rapidly progressing TAPS with technically complicated conditions (elevated BMI and anterior placenta) can be successfully managed with IUT until laser procedure is achievable.

  15. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  16. Injection and lessons for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, C.; Barnes, M.J.; Bartmann, W.; Cornelis, K.; Drosdal, L.N.; Goddard, B.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mertens, V.; Uythoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and one nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the Transfer Line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking de-bunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by- shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular re-steering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches. (authors)

  17. Injection and lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Bartmann, W; Cornelis, K; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and a nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished during MD time. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the transfer line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking debunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by-shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular resteering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches.

  18. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  19. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  20. Spin injection into a two-dimensional electron gas using inter-digital-ferromagnetic contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, C.M.; Nitta, J.; Jensen, Ane

    2002-01-01

    We present a model that describes the spin injection across a single interface with two electrodes. The spin-injection rate across a typical hybrid junction made of ferromagnet (FM) and a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is found at the percentage level. We perforin spin-injection-detection ex......-injection-detection experiment on devices with two ferromagnetic contacts on a 2DEG confined in an InAs quantum well. A spin-injection rate of 4.5% is estimated from the measured magnetoresistance....

  1. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  2. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  3. Hydrogen pellet injection into Alcator C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, M.

    1983-09-01

    A four-shot pneumatic pellet injector, based on an ORNL design, has been built and operated on the Alcator C tokamak at MIT. The injector fires four independently-timed frozen hydrogen pellets with velocities in the range 8 x 10 4 - 1 x 10 5 cm/sec. Each contains 6 x 10 19 particles which corresponds to = 2 x 10 14 /cm 3 . The objectives of this experiment are to study pellet fueling and penetration, particle confinement, dependence of energy confinement on density profile and fueling mode, and edge physics and recycling as a function of fueling mode. Typical pre-injection plasmas have had anti n/sub e/ = 2 - 3 x 10 14 , Bt = 80 - 100 kG, Ip = 400 - 500 kA, T/sub e/(0) = 1200 - 1500 ev. A single pellet injected into this plasma will roughly double the electron density. Record plasma densities have been obtained by multiple injections. Line average densities in excess of 8 x 10 14 have been achieved, with highly peaked profiles. Central densities of 1.5 - 2 x 10 15 have been measured

  4. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  5. CFD analysis of poison injection in AHWR calandria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, A.K.; Kamble, M.T.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present work intends to give details of design and performance validation of SDS-2. The performance is evaluated on the basis of dispersion of poison in calandria in a given period of time. Location of injection tube and injection holes, size of jet hole and number of holes are some of the design parameters which greatly affect dispersion of poison in calandria. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) study for axial and radial injection of poison was carried out using open source CFD code OpenFOAM. CFD benchmarking was done using experiments performed by Johari (Johari et al. 1997) to identify suitable turbulence model for this problem. An experimental facility simulating poison injection in moderator in presence of calandria tubes was used to further validate the CFD model is shown in the paper. CFD analysis was carried out for axial as well as radial injection for AHWR geometry. CFD analysis using OpenFOAM has been carried out to study high pressure poison injection for single jet of Shut Down System - 2 (SDS- 2) of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) for various design options. CFD model used in analysis have been validated with experimental data available in literature as well as experiments performed for AHWR specific geometry. Various turbulence models are tested and their adequacy for such flow problems has been established. The CFD model is then used to simulate poison injection for two design options for AHWR and their performance is compared. (author)

  6. Embolic stroke associated with injection of buprenorphine tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Lee, Sze Haur; Wong, Yee-Choon; Hui, Francis

    2009-09-15

    Drug users who crush, dissolve, and inject buprenorphine tablets parenterally may be at risk of severe thromboembolic complications or death. We describe patients with neurologic complications after injecting buprenorphine tablets. Brain MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients admitted to the neurologic department after injecting buprenorphine tablets were reviewed. Seven men had neurologic complications after buprenorphine tablet injection. In 5 patients, multiple small scattered hyperintense lesions were detected on DWI in the cortex, white matter, and basal ganglia of the cerebral hemisphere; one patient had a single small lesion. The side of MRI abnormality corresponded to the side of needle marks on the neck except in one patient who had bilateral injections. One patient, who denied injecting into the neck, had DWI abnormalities in the middle cerebral artery territory on one side and occlusion of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Buprenorphine tablets can be intentionally or inadvertently injected into the carotid artery, causing a characteristic appearance on diffusion-weighted imaging, consistent with embolic cerebral infarction.

  7. The biological effects of 224Ra injected into dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Lloyd, R.D.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of injected 224 Ra in the dog. Radium-224 is a short-lived isotope of radium with a half-life of 3.62 d. When administered parenterally, it deposits on bone surfaces; because of its short half-life, most of its energy is deposited on bone surfaces, in a manner similar to plutonium. The experimental design included a comparison to the exposed human population. Instead of using a single injection of 224 Ra, groups were included in which dogs were injected once, 10 times, or 50 times. This design provided groups that could be compared to the multiple injections often used in people for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis

  8. Low pressure powder injection moulding of stainless steel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieron, J.V.; Soares, J.P.; Mathias, F.; Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, F.A. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Low-pressure powder injection moulding was used to obtain AISI 316L stainless steel parts. A rheological study was undertaken using gas-atomised powders and binders. The binders used were based on carnauba wax, paraffin, low density polyethylene and microcrystalline wax. The metal powders were characterised in terms of morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. These results were correlated to the rheological behaviour. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection process in the green state, and after sintering. The parameters such as injection pressure, viscosity and temperature were analysed for process optimisation. The binders were thermally removed in low vacuum with the assistance of alumina powders. Debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time. (orig.)

  9. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  10. Spin-injection into epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Keita; Cui, Zhixin; Hiraki, Takahiro; Yoh, Kanji

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the spin-injection properties in epitaxial graphene on SiC. The ferromagnetic metal (FM) electrodes were composed of a tunnel barrier layer AlOx (14 Å) and a ferromagnetic Co (600 Å) layer. We have successfully observed the clear resistance peaks indicating spin-injection both in the "local" and "non-local" spin measurement set-ups at low temperatures. We estimate spin-injection rate of 1% based on "non-local" measurement and 1.6% based on local measurements. Spin-injection rate of multilayer graphene by mechanical exfoliation method was twice as high as single layer graphene on SiC based on "local" measurement.

  11. Discretely tunable micromachined injection-locked lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, H; Yu, M B; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L; Zhang, X M; Liu, A Q; Liu, B

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a micromachined injection-locked laser (ILL) to provide tunable discrete wavelengths. It utilizes a non-continuously tunable laser as the master to lock a Fabry–Pérot semiconductor laser chip. Both lasers are integrated into a deep-etched silicon chip with dimensions of 3 mm × 3 mm × 0.8 mm. Based on the experimental results, significant improvements in the optical power and spectral purity have been achieved in the fully locked state, and optical hysteresis and bistability have also been observed in response to the changes of the output wavelength and optical power of the master laser. As a whole system, the micromachined ILL is able to provide single mode, discrete wavelength tuning, high power and direct modulation with small size and single-chip solution, making it promising for advanced optical communications such as wavelength division multiplexing optical access networks.

  12. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  14. Intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane for the treatment of vitreomacular traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Wan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane(C3F8in releasing vitreomacular traction. METHODS: Twelve eyes of 12 consecutive patients with vitreomacular traction received a single intravitreal injection of 0.3mL 100%(C3F8were retrospectively analyzed. The best corrected vision acuity and the neural epithelium thickness of central macular were observed. RESULTS: One month following treatment, vitreomacular traction was released in 5 eyes(42%, mean final visual acuity(VAimproved 0.04 and mean central foveal thickness decreased by 69μm. The vision acuity before and after treatment were 0.20±0.07, 0.25±0.04 respectively.CONCLUSION: Intravitreal C3F8 injection could offer a minimally invasive alternative to pars plana vitrectomy in patients with vitreomacular traction.

  15. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  16. Effect of fuel injection pressure and injection timing of Karanja biodiesel blends on fuel spray, engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Dhar, Atul; Gupta, Jai Gopal; Kim, Woong Il; Choi, Kibong; Lee, Chang Sik; Park, Sungwook

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of FIP on microscopic spray characteristics. • Effect of FIP and SOI timing on CRDI engine performance, emissions and combustion. • Fuel injection duration shortened, peak injection rate increased with increasing FIP. • SMD (D 32 ) and AMD (D 10 ) of fuel droplets decreased for lower biodiesel blends. • Increase in biodiesel blend ratio and FIP, fuel injection duration decreased. - Abstract: In this investigation, effect of 10%, 20% and 50% Karanja biodiesel blends on injection rate, atomization, engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of common rail direct injection (CRDI) type fuel injection system were evaluated in a single cylinder research engine at 300, 500, 750 and 1000 bar fuel injection pressures at different start of injection timings and constant engine speed of 1500 rpm. The duration of fuel injection slightly decreased with increasing blend ratio of biodiesel (Karanja Oil Methyl Ester: KOME) and significantly decreased with increasing fuel injection pressure. The injection rate profile and Sauter mean diameter (D 32 ) of the fuel droplets are influenced by the injection pressure. Increasing fuel injection pressure generally improves the thermal efficiency of the test fuels. Sauter mean diameter (D 32 ) and arithmetic mean diameter (D 10 ) decreased with decreasing Karanja biodiesel content in the blend and significantly increased for higher blends due to relatively higher fuel density and viscosity. Maximum thermal efficiency was observed at the same injection timing for biodiesel blends and mineral diesel. Lower Karanja biodiesel blends (up to 20%) showed lower brake specific hydrocarbon (BSHC) and carbon monoxide (BSCO) emissions in comparison to mineral diesel. For lower Karanja biodiesel blends, combustion duration was shorter than mineral diesel however at higher fuel injection pressures, combustion duration of 50% blend was longer than mineral diesel. Up to 10% Karanja biodiesel blends in a CRDI

  17. Pellet injection experiments on tokamaks in ASIPP, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Bao, Y.; Li, J.; Gu, X.; He, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Pellet injection has been proved to be an effective method for deep fueling of fusion devices. Improvements of both the particle confinement and the energy confinement were observed in many experiments. In HT-6M and HT-7 tokamaks, single and multi-pellet experiments are tried, and attractive results are obtained. (author)

  18. Pellet injection experiments on tokamaks in ASIPP, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Bao, Y.; Li, J.; Gu, X.; He, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Pellet Injection has been proven to be an effective method for deep fuelling of fusion devices. Improvements of both the particle confinement and the energy confinement were observed in many experiments. In HT-6M and HT-7 tokamaks, single and multi-pellet experiments are tried, and attractive results are obtained

  19. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with chronic ... severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Do not rush to return to sports after trigger finger injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeehae; Jo, Leechan; Lee, Jong In

    2015-04-01

    Trigger finger, or digital stenosing tenosynovitis, is a common hand problem. A widely accepted treatment is steroid injection into the flexor tendon sheath. This can cause rupture of the flexor tendon. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on tendon rupture after a single corticosteroid injection. Moreover, there are no guidelines for patients with tendinopathy who want to return to sports after corticosteroid injection. Clinicians who perform local steroid injections for tendinopathy treatment should be aware of the possible dangers of tendon rupture and should confirm that steroids are not administrated into the tendon. Patients should also be warned about returning to sports prematurely and should be encouraged to gradually resume sports after the injection to prevent further damage. Herein, we report an unusual case of flexor digitorum profundus rupture after a single corticosteroid injection in a 57-yr-old male golfer and we also present a review of the literature.

  1. Injecting drug use: Gendered risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnow, Renee; Winstock, Adam R; Maier, Larissa J; Levy, Jay; Ferris, Jason

    2018-06-01

    Research demonstrates gender related differences in drug-use practices and risk behaviours. Females' structural vulnerability stemming from traditional gender roles and gender-power relations may enhance their propensity to experience injecting related risk. In this paper we explore gender differences in injection practices at the initiation event, during the first year of injecting and in the most recent 12-month period, to inform more effective harm reduction strategies. Data used in this study were drawn from the Global Drug Survey 2015. The study employs chi-square and logistic regression to assess gender differences in injection behaviours in a sample of current injectors residing in six global regions: North-West Europe; Southern Eastern Europe; North America. South America and Oceania. Females were more likely than males to report being injected by an intimate partner at initiation (OR = 4.4, 95%CI: 2.2-8.8), during the first year of injecting (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.4-9.3) and in the most recent 12-month period (OR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.0-6.2). Females reported greater difficulties accessing sterile equipment (X 2 (2,N = 453) = 8.2, p = 0.02) and were more likely to share injecting equipment than males (X 2 (1,N = 463) = 3.9, p = 0.05). Our findings highlight females' continued dependence on their intimate partner to administer the injection into the first year of their injecting career. Females remained more likely than males to rely on intimate partners for injection during the most recent 12-month period. Females report greater difficulties in sourcing sterile equipment and are more likely to share injecting equipment. We suggest that these findings reflect the broader social structure in which females are disempowered through traditional gender roles and the lack of gender appropriate harm reduction services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Vikash K

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can cause glottic insufficiency that can result in hoarseness, chronic cough, dysphagia, and/or aspiration. In rare circumstances, UVFP can cause airway obstruction necessitating a tracheostomy. The treatment options for UVFP include observation, speech therapy, vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty, thyroplasty, and laryngeal reinnervation. In this chapter, the author will discuss the technique of vocal fold injection for medialization of a UVFP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Accidental epidural injection of Atropine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayan Bakshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal injection of drugs for anesthesia, regional analgesia, and chronic pain management are common practice now. Local anesthetic, adjuvants, and opioids are in common use. Human error in the Operation Theater and the Intensive Care Unit setup is also known and reported, due to stress and overwork. A case of unintentional atropine injection intrathecally, which was closely observed for any untoward effects, is reported here.

  4. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, P.

    1994-01-01

    External ion sources for cyclotrons are needed for polarised and heavy ions. This calls for injection systems, either radial or axial. Radial injection is also needed when a cyclotron works as a booster after another cyclotron or a linear accelerator (usually tandem). Requirements for injection differ from separated sector cyclotrons where there is plenty of room to house inflectors and/or strippers, to superconducting cyclotrons where the space is limited by a small magnet gap, and high magnetic field puts other limitations to the inflectors. Several extraction schemes are used in cyclotrons. Stripping injection is used for H - and also for heavy ions where the q/m ratio is usually doubled. For other cases, electric and magnetic deflection has to be used. To increase the turn separation before the first deflector, both resonant and non-resonant schemes are used. In this lecture, external injection systems are surveyed and some rules to thumb for injection parameters are given. Extraction schemes are also reviewed. (orig.)

  5. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  6. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal

  7. Multidose Botulinum Toxin A for Intralaryngeal Injection: A Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R; Young, VyVy N; Smith, Libby J; Rosen, Clark A

    2018-01-04

    Botulinum toxin A (BtxA) injection is the mainstay treatment for laryngeal dystonias. BtxA product labeling states that reconstituted toxin should be used within 4 hours on a single patient despite several studies that have demonstrated multidose BtxA to be safe and effective. Many insurance carriers mandate the use of an outside pharmacy which necessitates a single-use approach. This study compares the cost savings of multidose BtxA for laryngeal dystonia compared to single-use. This is a retrospective review and projected cost savings analysis. Records and billing information were reviewed for patients receiving BtxA for intralaryngeal injection at a single laryngology division in 2015. Inclusion criteria included CPT 64617 or J0585; exclusion criteria included CPT 64616. The price of BtxA 100 unit vial for calculation was $670. A total of 142 patients were seen for intralaryngeal BtxA injection resulting in 337 visits over 1 year. The average BtxA dose per visit was 2.86 units with an average of 3.06 procedure visits per year. The calculated cost of BtxA treatment using a single vial approach was found to be $2,050 per patient per year. If billed instead for $7/unit with 5 units wastage charge per visit, the yearly per patient charge is $168. Single vial-use of BtxA injection thus represents a 1,118% price increase versus multidose use. When estimated for yearly prevalence of spasmodic dysphonia, multidose BtxA use would save almost $100 million annually. Multidose botulinum toxin A application utilizing per unit billing is significantly less expensive than per single-use vial billing and would save the health-care system significant amount of money without any sacrifice in safety or effectiveness. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  9. Effect of main injection timing for controlling the combustion phasing of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine using a new dual injection strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Pranab; Subbarao, P.M.V.; Subrahmanyam, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new dual injection concept is developed by minimum geometry modification. • The occurrence of combustion parameters strongly depend on main injection timing. • At higher load, premixed equivalence ratio dominates over main injection timing. • Retarded of main injection timing tends to retard combustion phasing. • Slightly retarded main injection timing is recommended to avoid intense knocking. - Abstract: Homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion of diesel fuel is implemented using a novel dual injection strategy. A new experimental technique is developed to modify a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine to run on homogeneous combustion mode. Effect of main injection timing is investigated covering a range from 26 to 8 crank angle degrees before top dead center with an interval of 3°. Retarded main injection timing is identified as a control strategy for delaying combustion phasing and a means of controlled combustion phasing of direct injection homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. Two load conditions were investigated and it was observed that at higher load, start of combustion depends more on fuel air equivalence ratio than main injection timing, whereas at low load, it significantly varies with varying main injection timing. Significant improvements in smoke and oxides of nitrogen emissions are observed when compared with the baseline conventional combustion. By studying different combustion parameters, it is observed that there is an improvement in performance and emissions with marginal loss in thermal efficiency when the main injection timing is 20° before top dead center. This is identified as the optimum main injection timing for such homogeneous combustion under the same operating condition

  10. Pseudorandom binary injection of levitons for electron quantum optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.

    2018-03-01

    The recent realization of single-electron sources lets us envision performing electron quantum optics experiments, where electrons can be viewed as flying qubits propagating in a ballistic conductor. To date, all electron sources operate in a periodic electron injection mode, leading to energy spectrum singularities in various physical observables which sometimes hide the bare nature of physical effects. To go beyond this, we propose a spread-spectrum approach where electron flying qubits are injected in a nonperiodic manner following a pseudorandom binary bit pattern. Extending the Floquet scattering theory approach from periodic to spread-spectrum drive, the shot noise of pseudorandom binary sequences of single-electron injection can be calculated for leviton and nonleviton sources. Our new approach allows us to disentangle the physics of the manipulated excitations from that of the injection protocol. In particular, the spread-spectrum approach is shown to provide better knowledge of electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel correlations and to clarify the nature of the pulse train coherence and the role of the dynamical orthogonality catastrophe for noninteger charge injection.

  11. Proton accumulator ring injection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Protons may be created in an accelerator or storage ring by stripping electrons from neutral hydrogen atoms that have been injected into the machine. Because Liouville's theorem is violated by this type of injection, particles may be continually injected into a region of phase space that is already populated, and the density in that region increases with time. A computational investigation was made of the evolution of the distribution of particles in longitudinal phase space during such an injection process for a storage ring operating below the transition energy. In one calculation, an rf cavity is present in the ring and particles are injected into the stable phase region once each revolution. The purpose of this calculation is to determine the rf voltage necessary to overcome the longitudinal self-forces and contain the particles within the region of stable phase. In a second calculation, the rf is turned off, so that there is spreading in azimuth of the injected particles (i.e., de-bunching). The de-bunching occurs because of the initial energy spread and the action of the self-forces. One purpose of the calculation is to determine the total energy spread after a given number of revolutions. Another purpose is to elucidate the effect of finite resistance in the vacuum tank walls. For sufficiently high current, the finite resistance can cause bunching of a beam that is initially uniform in azimuth. Therefore it might be expected that the finite resistance would inhibit or prevent de-bunching once the number of particles injected reaches some threshold, and that this threshold would depend upon the energy spread in the beam

  12. On-line grid impedance estimation based on harmonic injection for grid-connected PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    two different signal processing algorithms. The DFT technique is used for the single harmonic injection and the statistic technique is used for the double harmonic injection. The grid impedance estimation is used for compliance with the anti-islanding requirements of the German standard (VDE0126...

  13. Injection of demineralized bone matrix with bone marrow concentrate improves healing in unicameral bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Claudia; Dozza, Barbara; Frisoni, Tommaso; Cevolani, Luca; Donati, Davide

    2010-11-01

    Unicameral bone cysts are benign lesions that usually spontaneously regress with skeletal maturity; however, the high risk of pathologic fractures often justifies treatment that could reinforce a weakened bone cortex. Various treatments have been proposed but there is no consensus regarding the best procedure. We compared the healing rates and failures of two methods of cure based on multiple injections of corticosteroid or a single injection of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) in association with bone marrow concentrate (BMC). We retrospectively reviewed 184 patients who had one of the two treatments for unicameral bone cysts with cortical erosion. Clinical records were reviewed for treatment failures and radiographs for healing in all patients. The minimum followup was 12 months for the Steroids Group (mean, 48 months; range, 12-120 months) and 12 months for the DBM + BMC Group (mean, 20 months; range, 12-28 months). After one treatment we observed a lower healing rate of cysts treated with multiple injections of steroids compared with the healing after the first injection of DBM + BMC (21% versus 58%, respectively). At last followup, 38% healed with steroids and 71% with DBM + BMC. The rate of failure after one steroid injection was higher than after a single injection of BDM + BMC (63% versus 24%, respectively). We observed no difference in fracture rates after treatment between the two groups. A single injection of DBM added with autologous bone marrow concentrate appears to provide a higher healing rate with a lower number of failures compared with a single injection of steroids.

  14. An experimental study on the effects of high-pressure and multiple injection strategies on DI diesel engine emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2013-03-25

    An experimental study on effects of high-pressure injections in conjunction with split fuel injections were conducted on an AVL single cylinder DI diesel engine. Various injection schemes were studied through the use of an electronically controlled, common rail injection system capable of injection pressures up to 200 MPa and a maximum of six injections per combustion event. Up to 100 MPa of the fuel injection pressure, the higher injection pressures create faster combustion rates that result in the higher in-cylinder gas temperatures as compared to conventional low-pressure fuel injection systems. When applying high-pressure injections, particulate emission reductions of up to 50% were observed with no change in hydrocarbon emissions, reductions of CO emissions and only slightly higher NOx emissions. Over 100 MPa, on the other hand, the higher injection pressures still reduced up to almost zero-level of particulate emission, at the same time that the NO emission is reduced greatly. Under these high-pressure injection conditions, strong correlations between soot and CO emissions were observed, which compete for the oxidizing OH species. Multiple or split high-pressure injections also investigated as a means to decrease particulate emissions. As a result, a four-split injection strategy resulted in a 55% reduction in particulates and with little or no penalty on NOx emissions. The high pressure split injection strategy with EGR was more effective in reducing particulate and CO emissions simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 TSAE.

  15. Physics of the current injection process during localized helicity injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Edward Thomas

    An impedance model has been developed for the arc-plasma cathode electron current source used in localized helicity injection tokamak startup. According to this model, a potential double layer (DL) is established between the high-density arc plasma (narc ˜ 1021 m-3) in the electron source, and the less-dense external tokamak edge plasma (nedge ˜ 10 18 m-3) into which current is injected. The DL launches an electron beam at the applied voltage with cross-sectional area close to that of the source aperture: Ainj ≈ 2 cm 2. The injected current, Iinj, increases with applied voltage, Vinj, according to the standard DL scaling, Iinj ˜ V(3/2/ inj), until the more restrictive of two limits to beam density nb arises, producing Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj), a scaling with beam drift velocity. For low external tokamak edge density nedge, space-charge neutralization of the intense electron beam restricts the injected beam density to nb ˜ nedge. At high Jinj and sufficient edge density, the injected current is limited by expansion of the DL sheath, which leads to nb ˜ narc. Measurements of narc, Iinj , nedge, Vinj, support these predicted scalings, and suggest narc as a viable control actuator for the source impedance. Magnetic probe signals ≈ 300 degrees toroidally from the injection location are consistent with expectations for a gyrating, coherent electron beam with a compact areal cross-section. Technological development of the source has allowed an extension of the favorable Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj) to higher power without electrical breakdown.

  16. Thermorespiratory Response of West African Dwarf Does to Progestagen Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundana, FA.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological responses in terms of respiration rate (RR and rectal temperature (RT of 30 West African Dwarf (WAD does were monitored after a single im injection of different doses of progestagens meant for synchronising oestrus. The treatments involved im injection of 1 2 ml of sterile water (Control; 2 25 mg Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, MPA; 3 50 mg MPA; 4 50 mg Progesterone and 5 100 mg progesterone. The RR and RT of each animal were measured at 9:00, 13:00 and 17:00 h for 21 days after each injection. In all the treatment groups the RT did not change significantly (P> 0.05 during the weeks following treatment. On the contrary the RR was significantly higher (P< 0.05 in the week after injection than in the pre-injection period. Both the RR and the RT were higher at 13:00 h and 17:00 h than at 9:00 h. The RR was more influenced by the animal body size than the RT, while the ambient temperature and humidity affected both the animal's RT and RR. These results indicate that the thermorespiratory function of WAD does under their native humid environment is not negatively affected by injecting ≤ 100 mg progesterone or ≤ 50 mg MPA to synchronize oestrus.

  17. Mycobacterium massiliense outbreak after intramuscular injection, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Cho, Y; Lee, S; Kook, Y; Lee, D; Lee, J; Park, B J

    2012-10-01

    SUMMARY We conducted an epidemic investigation to discover the route of transmission and the host factors of an outbreak of post-injection abscesses. Of the 2984 patients who visited a single clinic, 77 cases were identified and 208 age- and sex-matched controls were selected for analysis. Injected medications per se were not found to be responsible, and a deviation from safe injection practice suggested the likelihood of diluent contamination. Therefore the injected medications were classified according to whether there was a need for a diluent, and two medications showed a statistically significant association, i.e. injection with pheniramine [adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 5·93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·97-11·87] and ribostamycin (aOR 47·95, 95% CI 11·08-207·53). However, when considered concurrently, pheniramine lost statistical significance (aOR 8·71, 95% CI 0·44-171·61) suggesting that normal saline was the causative agent of this outbreak. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggested that this post-injection outbreak was caused by saline contaminated with Mycobacterium massiliense without direct microbiological evidence.

  18. Rituals in nursing: intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Kathleen

    2014-12-01

    To consider to what extent intramuscular injection technique can be described to remain entrenched in ritualistic practice and how evidence-based practice should be considered and applied to the nursing practice of this essential skill. The notion of rituals within nursing and the value or futile impact they afford to this essential nursing skill will be critically reviewed. Discursive paper. Literature review from 2002-2013 to review the current position of intramuscular injection injections. Within the literature review, it became clear that there are several actions within the administration of an intramuscular injection that could be perceived as ritualistic and require consideration for contemporary nursing practice. The essential nursing skill of intramuscular injection often appears to fit into the description of a ritualised practice. By providing evidence-based care, nurses will find themselves empowered to make informed decisions based on clinical need and using their clinical judgement. For key learning, it will outline with rationale how site selection, needle selection, insertion technique and aspiration can be cited as examples of routinised or ritualistic practice and why these should be rejected in favour of an evidence-based approach. The effect on some student nurses of experiencing differing practices between what is taught at university and what is often seen in clinical practice will also be discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Co-Injection Resin Transfer Molding for Optimization of Integral Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, B

    1998-01-01

    ... enhancement over existing defense industry practices. CIRTM was invented and developed for single-step manufacturing of integral armor by enabling simultaneous injection of multiple resins into multi-layer preform...

  20. Can Repeat Injection Provide Clinical Benefit in Patients with Lumbosacral Diseases When First Epidural Injection Results Only in Partial Response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is known to be an effective treatment for lower back or radicular pain due to herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) and spinal stenosis (SS). Although repeat ESI has generally been indicated to provide more pain relief in partial responders after a single ESI, there has been little evidence supporting the usefulness of repeat injections in cumulative clinical pain reduction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeat ESI at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection would provide greater clinical benefit in patients with partial pain reduction than that provided by intermittent injection performed only when pain was aggravated. An Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved retrospective chart review. Spine hospital. Two hundred and four patients who had underwent transforaminal ESI (TFESI) for treatment of lower back and radicular pain due to HIVD or SS and could be followed-up for one year were enrolled. We divided the patients into 2 groups. Group A (N = 108) comprised partial responders (NRS = 3 after first injection) who underwent repeat injection at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection. Group B (N = 96) comprised partial responders who did not receive a repeat injection at the prescribed interval, but received repeat injections only for aggravation of pain. Various clinical data including total number of injections during one year, duration of NRS group A, or after first injection in group B (time to reinjection), were assessed. These data were compared between groups A and B in terms of total population, HIVD, and SS. In the whole population, the mean time to reinjection was 6.09 ± 3.02 months in group A and 3.69 ± 2.07 months in group B. The NRS groups A and B, respectively. In HIVD patients, the mean time to reinjection was 5.82 ± 3.23 months in group A and 3.84 ± 2.34 months in group B, and NRS groups A and B, respectively. In SS patients, the mean time to

  1. TARA beamline and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.S.; Brindza, P.; Coleman, J.W.; Torti, R.P.; Blackfield, D.T.; Goodrich, P.

    1983-01-01

    The TARA beamline for neutral beam injection will permit one to three sources to fire into each plug (60 degree or optional 90 degree injection with respect to the TARA axis) or into each anchor (90 degree injection only). The sources, pre-aimed on their mounting plate at the NB test stand, may be fired into neutralizer ducts or optionally through a magnesium curtain, and the unneutralized fraction is dumped by the TARA fringing field onto a receiver plate. The beamline is housed in a cylindrical tank with the beam axis along the tank diameter at the midplane. The tank will be sorption pumped using LN + T/sub I/ or N/sub B/ and/or e-beam gettering. The beam burial tank contains sed arrays and a thin foil dump which reaches sufficiently high temperatures during the shot to boil out gas between shots

  2. Automated injection of slurry samples in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, M.H.F.M.; Hulsman, M.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of injectors are described for introducing solid samples as slurries in flow analysis systems. A time-based and a volume-based injector based on multitube solenoid pinch valves were built, both can be characterized as hydrodynamic injectors. Reproducibility of the injections of dispersed

  3. Foam injection method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, W C; Parmley, J B; Shepard, J C

    1977-05-10

    A method is described for more efficiently practicing in situ combustion techniques by generating a gas-water mist or foam adjacent to the combustion formation within the injection well. The mist or foam is forced out of the well into the formation to transport heat away from the burned region of the formation toward the periphery of the combustion region to conserve fuel. Also taught are a method and system for fluid treating a formation while maintaining enhanced conformance of the fluid injection profile by generating a mist or foam down-hole adjacent to the formation and then forcing the mist or foam out into the formation. (19 claims)

  4. Injection heating scenarios for TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Holmes, J.A.

    1977-07-01

    Neutral beam injection heating is a prime contender for heating TNS. However, injection into a full bore high density plasma during start-up will not give adequate beam penetration even with deuteron energies up to 300 keV and Z/sub eff/ < 1.5. But low density start-up may be feasible with deuteron energies of approximately 150 keV if advantage is taken of the α-heating and flux surface shifts which occur when β is increased

  5. Beam Scraping for LHC Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, H; Fischer, C; Gras, J-J; Koschik, A; Kramer, Daniel; Pedersen, S; Redaelli, S

    2007-01-01

    Operation of the LHC will require injection of very high intensity beams from the SPS to the LHC. Fast scrapers have been installed and will be used in the SPS to detect and remove any existing halo before beams are extracted, to minimize the probability for quenching of superconducting magnets at injection in the LHC. We briefly review the functionality of the scraper system and report about measurements that have recently been performed in the SPS on halo scraping and re-population of tails.

  6. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  7. Pellet injection and toroidal confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The proceedings of a technical committee meeting on pellet injection and toroidal confinement, held in Gut Ising, Federal Republic of Germany, 24-26 October, 1988, are given in this report. Most of the major fusion experiments are using pellet injectors; these were reported at this meeting. Studies of confinement, which is favorably affected, impurity transport, radiative energy losses, and affects on the ion temperature gradient instability were given. Studies of pellet ablation and effects on plasma profiles were presented. Finally, several papers described present and proposed injection guns. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Risk factors associated with injection initiation among drug users in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriyanon Vinai

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circumstances surrounding injection initiation have not been well addressed in many developing country contexts. This study aimed to identify demographic factors, sexual behaviors and drug use characteristics related to injection initiation among drug users in northern Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,231 drug users admitted to the Northern Drug Treatment Center in Mae Rim, Chiang Mai, Thailand, between February 1, 1999 and December 31, 2000. A multiple logistic regression was employed to identify the independent effects from potential risk factors of transition into injection. Results After controlling for other covariates, being 20 years of age or older, single, ever receiving education, urban residence, and having a history of smoking or incarceration were significantly associated with higher likelihood of injection initiation. Multiple sex partners and an experience of sex abuse were associated with an increased risk of injection initiation. Comparing to those whose first drug was opium, individuals using heroin as their initiation drug had greater risk of injection initiation; conversely, those taking amphetamine as their first drug had less risk of injection initiation. Age of drug initiation was negatively associated with the risk of injection initiation: the older the age of drug initiation, the less the risk of injection initiation. Conclusion Injection initiation was related to several demographic factors, sexual behaviors and drug use characteristics. Understanding these factors will benefit the design of approaches to successfully prevent or delay transition into injection.

  9. The popularity of injections in the Third World: origins and consequences for poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, H V

    1984-01-01

    Paralysis from poliomyelitis may follow injections yet injections are extremely popular in the Third World. Some injections are given by hospital doctors and nurses but the majority are given by traditional healers, pharmacists and paramedical workers who have acquired syringes. Many injections may be given to a sick child. I suggest that the early use of vaccines did not persuade people of the mystic of injections and that the mystic predated the use of penicillin. The earliest mystical result would have been the injection of quinine for malaria and antrypal for sleeping sickness. The words brilliant, spectacular and dramatic were first used to describe the mass campaigns against yaws and kala-azar in the 1920s and 1930s. A single injection healed the ugly lesions in a week: cause and effect were visible. In the 1950s penicillin was used in mass eradication campaigns. The countries where injections are so popular correspond roughly with the areas of mass eradication programmes. Many or perhaps most of the injections are not sterile and present a great risk of attendant paralysis. Proof that injections are causal may be impossible. Meanwhile we need to know why injections are so popular and how they can be less so.

  10. Pellet injection experiments on the TFR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    Single pellet injection experiments have been carried out on TFR with the aim to improve the experimental knowledge of ablation physical processes and also to get a better description of the heat and matter transport during and after pellet evaporation. Ablation clouds have been photographed, providing experimental penetration depths in rough agreement with the neutral shielding model. Observation of striations in the cloud has led to an experimental determination of the safety factor profile. Parameters of the plasma in the ablation cloud have been spectroscopically determined. Fast heat transport has been evidenced during pellet evaporation (∼ 100 μs) which exhibits some features of minor or major disruptions (appearance of a m = 1, n = 1 island on the q = 1 surface, bursts of density fluctuations, comparable heat diffusivity, ...). Matter transport takes place on a larger time scale (∼ 10 ms). This long temporal relaxation is well accounted for by the 1D-MAKOKOT computer code without changing the transport coefficients after pellet injection. Heat and matter transport are affected by the presence of the m = 1, n = 1 island on the q = 1 surface

  11. Compact toroid injection into C-2U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Thomas; Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Asai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, J.; Putvinski, S.; Allfrey, I.; Beall, M.; Cordero, M.; Granstedt, E.; Kinley, J.; Morehouse, M.; Sheftman, D.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; the TAE Team

    2015-11-01

    Sustainment of an advanced neutral beam-driven FRC for a period in excess of 5 ms is the primary goal of the C-2U machine at Tri Alpha Energy. In addition, a criteria for long-term global sustainment of any magnetically confined fusion reactor is particle refueling. To this end, a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun has been developed. Compact toroids (CT) are to be injected perpendicular to the axial magnetic field of C-2U. To simulate this environment, an experimental test-stand has been constructed. A transverse magnetic field of B ~ 1 kG is established (comparable to the C-2U axial field) and CTs are fired across it. As a minimal requirement, the CT must have energy density greater than that of the magnetic field it is to penetrate, i.e., 1/2 ρv2 >=B2 / 2μ0 . This criteria is easily met and indeed the CTs traverse the test-stand field. A preliminary experiment on C-2U shows the CT also capable of penetrating into FRC plasmas and refueling is observed resulting in a 20 - 30% increase in total particle number per single-pulsed CT injection. Results from test-stand and C-2U experiments will be presented.

  12. MD2190: Q" Stabilization during injection

    CERN Document Server

    Schenk, Michael; Li, Kevin Shing Bruce; Malina, Lukas; Metral, Elias; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    This MD is a follow-up study of MD1831, where single bunches were stabilized against impedance-driven instabilities at 6.5 TeV in the LHC with Q''. The goals are (i) to explore whether an amplitude detuning free Q'' knob can be implemented at injection energy, and (ii) whether Q'' can provide beam stability at injection, where the beams suffer mostly from electron cloud effects. Ideally, this would relax the use of the Landau octupoles and may help in preserving the beam quality by reducing dynamic aperture limitations originating from the octupoles. The MD has been split into two parts: First, optics corrections were put in place to minimize beta-beating and linear coupling introduced by the knobs. The corrections were achieved by means of orbit bumps and skew quadrupole knobs. Machine safety was then validated with loss maps. While the betatron loss maps were approved, the off-momentum maps showed a priori unexpected losses in several arcs and the MD was stopped at this point for reasons of machine protecti...

  13. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.; Harding, J.; Kingsly, A.; Bradley, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  14. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  15. Failure of botulinum toxin injection for neurogenic detrusor overactivity: Switch of toxin versus second injection of the same toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyronnet, Benoit; Castel-Lacanal, Evelyne; Manunta, Andréa; Roumiguié, Mathieu; Marque, Philippe; Rischmann, Pascal; Gamé, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a second injection of the same toxin versus switching to a different botulinum toxin A after failure of a first detrusor injection in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The charts of all patients who underwent detrusor injections of botulinum toxin A (either abobotulinumtoxinA or onabotulinumtoxinA) for the management of neurogenic detrusor overactivity at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients in whom a first detrusor injection had failed were included in the present study. They were managed by a second injection of the same toxin at the same dosage or by a new detrusor injection using a different botulinum toxin A. Success was defined as a resolution of urgency, urinary incontinence and detrusor overactivity in a patient self-catheterizing seven times or less per 24 h. A total of 58 patients were included for analysis. A toxin switch was carried out in 29 patients, whereas the other 29 patients received a reinjection of the same toxin at the same dose. The success rate was higher in patients who received a toxin switch (51.7% vs. 24.1%, P = 0.03). Patients treated with a switch from abobotulinumtoxinA to onabotulinumtoxinA and those treated with a switch from onabotulinumtoxinA to abobotulinumtoxinA had similar success rates (52.9% vs. 50%, P = 0.88). After failure of a first detrusor injection of botulinum toxin for neurogenic detrusor overactivity, a switch to a different toxin seems to be more effective than a second injection of the same toxin. The replacement of onabotulinumtoxin by abobotulinumtoxin or the reverse provides similar results. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  16. Multi-shot type pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masaki; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuribayashi, Shitomi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To inject pellets at high speed without melting or sublimating not-injected pellets even at a long pellet injection interval. Constitution: In the conventional multi-shot pellet injection device, the pellet injection interval is set depending on the plasma retention time. However, as the pellet injection interval is increased, not-injected pellets are melted or sublimated due to the introduced heat of acceleration gases supplied from an acceleration gas introduction pipe to give an effect on the dimensional shape of the pellets. In view of the above, a plurality of pellet forming and injection portions each comprising a carrier, an injection pipe and a holder are disposed independently of each other and pellets are formed and injected independently to thereby prevent the thermal effects of the acceleration gases. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Multi-shot type pellet injection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masaki; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuribayashi, Shitomi.

    1988-07-27

    Purpose: To inject pellets at high speed without melting or sublimating not-injected pellets even at a long pellet injection interval. Constitution: In the conventional multi-shot pellet injection device, the pellet injection interval is set depending on the plasma retention time. However, as the pellet injection interval is increased, not-injected pellets are melted or sublimated due to the introduced heat of acceleration gases supplied from an acceleration gas introduction pipe to give an effect on the dimensional shape of the pellets. In view of the above, a plurality of pellet forming and injection portions each comprising a carrier, an injection pipe and a holder are disposed independently of each other and pellets are formed and injected independently to thereby prevent the thermal effects of the acceleration gases. (Kamimura, M.).

  18. Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

  19. Gas injected washer plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, K.K.; John, P.I.; Punithavelu, A.M.; Rao, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    A plasma gun similar in geometry to the washer plasma gun has been operated with gas injected externally. hydrogen, nitrogen and argon plasmas have been ionised and accelerated to velocities of the order of 10 7 mm s -1 and densities 10 11 mm -3 . Higher parameter range is possible with higher electrical input power. (author)

  20. ENDOSCOPIC MACROPLASTIQUETM INJECTION FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mucosally 1 cm distal to the bladder neck at 3, 6 and 9 o' clock positions. In 26 cases the 12 o' clock position was chosen to ensure a good occlusion of the bladder neck. The mean volume of Macroplastique injected was 3 ml. Results At a mean ...

  1. Medical simulator with injection device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    medical simulator 611 comprises a vessel 609 representing a simulated blood vessel. The vessel comprises a simulated vessel wall capable of being punctured by an electrically conductive injection needle 503. The vessel wall comprises a first electrically conductive layer for closing an electric

  2. PLT neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) neutral beam injection system is given and its performance characteristics are outlined. A detailed operational procedure is included, as are some tips on troubleshooting. Proper operation of the source is shown to be a crucial factor in system performance

  3. Preface to the injection tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Twelve groups of dogs received intravenous injections of various doses of 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 249 Cf, or 252 Cf at approximately 17 months of age. The animals were euthanized when death appeared imminent. Data are presented on the calculated radiation dose to the skeleton and pathological changes observed at autopsy

  4. SIMULATIONS OF BOOSTER INJECTION EFFICIENCY FOR THE APS-UPGRADE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvey, J.; Borland, M.; Harkay, K.; Lindberg, R.; Yao, C.-Y.

    2017-06-25

    The APS-Upgrade will require the injector chain to provide high single bunch charge for swap-out injection. One possible limiting factor to achieving this is an observed reduction of injection efficiency into the booster synchrotron at high charge. We have simulated booster injection using the particle tracking code elegant, including a model for the booster impedance and beam loading in the RF cavities. The simulations point to two possible causes for reduced efficiency: energy oscillations leading to losses at high dispersion locations, and a vertical beam size blowup caused by ions in the Particle Accumulator Ring. We also show that the efficiency is much higher in an alternate booster lattice with smaller vertical beta function and zero dispersion in the straight sections.

  5. Injection Locking of a Semiconductor Double Quantum Dot Micromaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-Y; Stehlik, J; Gullans, M J; Taylor, J M; Petta, J R

    2015-11-01

    Emission linewidth is an important figure of merit for masers and lasers. We recently demonstrated a semiconductor double quantum dot (DQD) micromaser where photons are generated through single electron tunneling events. Charge noise directly couples to the DQD energy levels, resulting in a maser linewidth that is more than 100 times larger than the Schawlow-Townes prediction. Here we demonstrate a linewidth narrowing of more than a factor 10 by locking the DQD emission to a coherent tone that is injected to the input port of the cavity. We measure the injection locking range as a function of cavity input power and show that it is in agreement with the Adler equation. The position and amplitude of distortion sidebands that appear outside of the injection locking range are quantitatively examined. Our results show that this unconventional maser, which is impacted by strong charge noise and electron-phonon coupling, is well described by standard laser models.

  6. Pneumatic hydrogen pellet injection system for the ISX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.; Foster, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    We describe the design and operation of the solid hydrogen pellet injection system used in plasma refueling experiments on the ISX tokamak. The gun-type injector operates on the principle of gas dynamic acceleration of cold pellets confined laterally in a tube. The device is cooled by flowing liquid helium refrigerant, and pellets are formed in situ. Room temperature helium gas at moderate pressure is used as the propellant. The prototype device injected single hydrogen pellets into the tokamak discharge at a nominal 330 m/s. The tokamak plasma fuel content was observed to increase by (0.5--1.2) x 10 19 particles subsequent to pellet injection. A simple modification to the existing design has extended the performance to 1000 m/s. At higher propellant operating pressures (28 bars), the muzzle velocity is 20% less than predicted by an idealized constant area expansion process

  7. Multiturn Injection into Accumulators for Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Prior, C R

    1996-01-01

    The injection of heavy ions into high current rings is complicated because it is impossible to use charge exchange in material foils to produce the singly charged heavy ions needed to keep space charge manageable on the one hand, and because losses need to be rigorously restricted to < 1 % on the other. With these constraints, the number of turns that may be injected by conventional multiturn injection is limited. This paper describes how the number may be increased by a two-dimensional technique of painting Lissajous-like patterns in x-y space, using an inclined or a corner septum. Simulation examples are presented showing the nature of the beam created in the accumulator and the likely effects of space charge forces.

  8. Polymeric microchip for the simultaneous determination of anions and cations by hydrodynamic injection using a dual-channel sequential injection microchip electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Adam J; Nai, Yi Heng; Guijt, Rosanne M; Breadmore, Michael C

    2014-04-01

    A dual-channel sequential injection microchip capillary electrophoresis system with pressure-driven injection is demonstrated for simultaneous separations of anions and cations from a single sample. The poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchips feature integral in-plane contactless conductivity detection electrodes. A novel, hydrodynamic "split-injection" method utilizes background electrolyte (BGE) sheathing to gate the sample flows, while control over the injection volume is achieved by balancing hydrodynamic resistances using external hydrodynamic resistors. Injection is realized by a unique flow-through interface, allowing for automated, continuous sampling for sequential injection analysis by microchip electrophoresis. The developed system was very robust, with individual microchips used for up to 2000 analyses with lifetimes limited by irreversible blockages of the microchannels. The unique dual-channel geometry was demonstrated by the simultaneous separation of three cations and three anions in individual microchannels in under 40 s with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 1.5 to 24 μM. From a series of 100 sequential injections the %RSDs were determined for every fifth run, resulting in %RSDs for migration times that ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 (n = 20) and 2.3 to 4.5 for peak area (n = 20). This system offers low LODs and a high degree of reproducibility and robustness while the hydrodynamic injection eliminates electrokinetic bias during injection, making it attractive for a wide range of rapid, sensitive, and quantitative online analytical applications.

  9. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-09-08

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0-10) was reduced to zero, but the elevated insulin requirements continued for 4 weeks after the injection. This finding suggests that steroid injections for shoulder pain in diabetics may not always be as safe as previously thought. We propose that medical practitioners advise their patients to monitor their glucose levels more carefully after such injections and that caution is exercised when considering administrating these injections to those who have poorly controlled blood glucose levels preinjection to avoid ketoacidosis. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Sustainment of spherical tokamak by means of repetitive injection of compact torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Shin; Matsura, Ken; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nogi, Yasuyuki

    2000-01-01

    Sustainment of spherical tokamak (S.T.) has been studied. A compact torus (C.T.) plasma was injected into confinement region by magnetized coaxial gun. For start-up and sustainment of large main spherical tokamak, single pulsed injection of small C.T. is not sufficient in many cases. C.T.plasma injection of high repetition rate is required. For this purpose magnetized coaxial gun was driven with high repetition rate current. The first injected C.T. plasma could start-up S.T. without other help. The repetitive C.T. injection grew and sustained the S.T. plasma. A CCD camera with fast gated image intensifier took a cross sectional view of S.T. during the repetitive C.T. injection. (author)

  11. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  12. Swine dysentery: protection of pigs by oral and parenteral immunisation with attenuated Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M J; Alexander, T J; Lysons, R J; Prescott, J F

    1976-11-01

    An attenuated strain of Treponema hyodysenteriae was used to immunise 18 pigs in three experiments. Live attenuated spirochaetes were dosed orally and injected intra-peritoneally, and killed spirochaetes were injected intramuscularly with adjuvant. The vaccinated pigs, which developed high serum agglutination titres against T hyodysenteriae, and 18 unvaccinated litter-mates were repeatedly challenged with virulent T hyodysenteriae. Nine vaccinated pigs and 16 control pigs developed typical swine dysentery.

  13. Measured emittance dependence on injection method in laser plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Samuel; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Lehe, Remi; Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly; Steinke, Sven; Nakamura, Kei; Geddes, Cameron; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2017-10-01

    The success of many laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot transverse emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock induced density down-ramp injection. Notably, the measurements reveal that ionization injection results in significantly higher emittance. With the down-ramp injection configuration, emittances less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV were measured. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the NSF under Grant No. PHY-1415596, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  14. Injection locking of optomechanical oscillators via acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Hossein-Zadeh, Mani

    2018-04-01

    Injection locking is a powerful technique for synchronization of oscillator networks and controlling the phase and frequency of individual oscillators using similar or other types of oscillators. Here, we present the first demonstration of injection locking of a radiation-pressure driven optomechanical oscillator (OMO) via acoustic waves. As opposed to previously reported techniques (based on pump modulation or direct application of a modulated electrostatic force), injection locking of OMO via acoustic waves does not require optical power modulation or physical contact with the OMO and it can easily be implemented on various platforms. Using this approach we have locked the phase and frequency of two distinct modes of a microtoroidal silica OMO to a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). We have characterized the behavior of the injection locked OMO with three acoustic excitation configurations and showed that even without proper acoustic impedance matching the OMO can be locked to the PZT and tuned over 17 kHz with only -30 dBm of RF power fed to the PZT. The high efficiency, simplicity and scalability of the proposed approach paves the road toward a new class of photonic systems that rely on synchronization of several OMOs to a single or multiple RF oscillators with applications in optical communication, metrology and sensing. Beyond its practical applications, injection locking via acoustic waves can be used in fundamental studies in quantum optomechanics where thermal and optical isolation of the OMO are critical.

  15. Injecting Artificial Memory Errors Into a Running Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Granat, Robert A.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2008-01-01

    Single-event upsets (SEUs) or bitflips are computer memory errors caused by radiation. BITFLIPS (Basic Instrumentation Tool for Fault Localized Injection of Probabilistic SEUs) is a computer program that deliberately injects SEUs into another computer program, while the latter is running, for the purpose of evaluating the fault tolerance of that program. BITFLIPS was written as a plug-in extension of the open-source Valgrind debugging and profiling software. BITFLIPS can inject SEUs into any program that can be run on the Linux operating system, without needing to modify the program s source code. Further, if access to the original program source code is available, BITFLIPS offers fine-grained control over exactly when and which areas of memory (as specified via program variables) will be subjected to SEUs. The rate of injection of SEUs is controlled by specifying either a fault probability or a fault rate based on memory size and radiation exposure time, in units of SEUs per byte per second. BITFLIPS can also log each SEU that it injects and, if program source code is available, report the magnitude of effect of the SEU on a floating-point value or other program variable.

  16. Spiral CT portography: correlation with different injection rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dong; Zhou Kangrong; Chen Zuwang; Chen Gang; Chen Jin; Chen Huiming

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To choose optimal injection rate in spiral CT portography(CTP) by comparing 3D CTP images using different injection rates. Methods: Thirty-seven patients were randomly divided into 2 groups (11 and 26 cases in each group). Single-level dynamic scan was completed at the first liver hilus, starting at 15s or 30s after initial contrast injection(2 ml/kg) with injection rate 1.5 ml/s (slow group) or 3.0 ml/s (rapid group). The continuous scan were repeated every 5s for 120s or 135s. ROI was used to measure the CT value of the portal vein and the liver parenchyma, respectively, and then the time-density curves were drawn. Spiral CT portography were performed at injection rate of 1.5 ml/s or 3.0 ml/s as the delay time designed described above, including 98 cases in rapid group and 12 cases in slow group. Both MPVR (multi-projection volume reconstruction) and MIP (maximum intensity projection) were employed for reconstruction. All images were ranked according to the grade of portal vein, the different CT value between the portal vein and the liver parenchyma, the edge's definition of blood vessel, the grade of hepatic vein and the display of IVC by 2 radiologists. Results: The maximum density difference in average between the portal vein and the liver parenchyma was 53.4 HU and 83.9 HU, respectively (t = 16.418, P < 0.001) in slow group and rapid one, and the mean reaching time was 80s and 60s, respectively (t = 13.394, P < 0.001). In slow injection group, the average score of MPVR image was 9.3, while it was 12.5 (t = 3.514, P < 0.01) in rapid injection group. Rapid group was better than slow one at the PV-L, the grade of the portal vein, and the edge's definition of blood vessel. Conclusion: Using rapid injection rate (3.0 ml/s), the maximum density difference between the portal vein and the liver parenchyma increases, and the mean reaching time shortens. The quality of 3D CTP image of rapid injection rate (3.0 ml/s) is superior to that of slow injection rate

  17. Three-Dimensional Changes in the Midface Following Malar Calcium Hydroxyapatite Injection in a Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatherwright, James R; Brown, Matthew S; Katira, Kristopher M; Rowe, David J

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) changes in the midface following malar calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHa) injection have not been systematically analyzed. The authors analyzed 3D volume changes in midface and naso-labial fold (NLF) volume, as well as lateral movement in the NLF/naso-labial crease (NLC) junction following malar injection of CaHa in a cadaver model. A single surgeon injected CaHa in the supraperiosteal plane. Sequential images were obtained with the VECTRA 3D system pre- and post-1.5- and 3-cc CaHa injections. All measurements were performed by a single examiner. Injection location was verified anatomically. Injections were performed in 16 fresh cadaver hemi-faces. Maximal increases in projection were centered on the malar injection site, with associated decreases in projection and volume in the infero-medial locations. Relative mean increases in volume of 3.16 cc and 4.94 cc were observed following the 1.5-cc and 3-cc injections, respectively. There was a relative decrease in the volume of the NLF of -0.3 cc and -0.4 cc following the 1.5- and 3-cc injections, respectively. Injection of CaHa was associated with lateral movements of the NLF-NLC junction at the level of the nasal sill, philtral columns, and oral commissure, measuring 2.7, 2.5, and 1.9 mm and 2.8, 2.9, and 2.4 mm following the 1.5- and 3-cc injections, respectively. Anatomical dissection verified the location in the supraperiosteal space and within the middle malar fat pad. Following malar CaHa injection, 3D photographic analysis showed a measureable lifting effect with recruitment of ptotic tissue and lateral movement of the NLF-NLC junction in a cadaver model. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Evaluation of performance, safety, subject acceptance, and compliance of a disposable autoinjector for subcutaneous injections in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteau, Cecile; Schwarzenbach, Florence; Donazzolo, Yves; Latreille, Mathilde; Berube, Julie; Abry, Herve; Cotten, Joël; Feger, Celine; Laurent, Philippe E

    2010-10-05

    A disposable autoinjector was developed for subcutaneous (SC) self-injection by patients with chronic diseases. To verify its performance and evaluate its acceptance, a clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, comparing SC injections performed by subjects using the autoinjector with SC injections performed by nurses using a syringe. This was a randomized, single-center, crossover study comparing SC self-injection using an autoinjector with SC nurse-administered injection using a syringe. Two volumes (0.2 mL and 1 mL) were injected into healthy volunteers. Study objectives included assessment of the accuracy and consistency of the volume injected by the injection systems, and skin reaction and pain associated with the injection. The fluid depot in the SC tissue layer was evaluated by ultrasound. Subject acceptance was evaluated using questionnaires on attitudes and emotions towards the injection technique, and challenged by seeking the subjects' preferred system for a final study injection or future treatment. A total of 960 injections (480 with autoinjector, 480 with syringe) were performed in 40 subjects. There were no significant differences in mean fluid leakage and injected volumes between the systems. Pain associated with the injection was significantly lower with the auto-injector than with the syringe. Local skin reaction at the injection site was overall satisfactory. Injections were appropriately performed by all subjects. At study end, all 40 subjects preferred the autoinjector for a final study injection and for future treatment. This study indicated that the autoinjector used by the subject was similar to a syringe used by a nurse in terms of performance and safety in administering the injections, and better in terms of pain, overall acceptance, and preference.

  19. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9804-8] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; BASF... exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste [[Page 23247...

  20. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...