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Sample records for single intake

  1. Evaluation of the probability distribution of intake from a single measurement on a personal air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Muirhead, C.R.; James, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical expression has been derived for the k-sum distribution, formed by summing k random variables from a lognormal population. Poisson statistics are used with this distribution to derive distribution of intake when breathing an atmosphere with a constant particle number concentration. Bayesian inference is then used to calculate the posterior probability distribution of concentrations from a given measurement. This is combined with the above intake distribution to give the probability distribution of intake resulting from a single measurement of activity made by an ideal sampler. It is shown that the probability distribution of intake is very dependent on the prior distribution used in Bayes' theorem. The usual prior assumption, that all number concentrations are equally probable, leads to an imbalance in the posterior intake distribution. This can be resolved if a new prior proportional to w -2/3 is used, where w is the expected number of particles collected. (author)

  2. Single pyruvate intake induces blood alkalization and modification of resting metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olek, Robert A; Luszczyk, Marcin; Kujach, Sylwester; Ziemann, Ewa; Pieszko, Magdalena; Pischel, Ivo; Laskowski, Radoslaw

    2015-03-01

    Three separate studies were performed with the aim to 1) determine the effect of a single sodium pyruvate intake on the blood acid-base status in males and females; 2) compare the effect of sodium and calcium pyruvate salts and establish their role in the lipolysis rate; and 3) quantify the effect of single pyruvate intake on the resting energy metabolism. In all, 48 individuals completed three separate studies. In all the studies, participants consumed a single dose of pyruvate 0.1 g/kg 60 min before commencing the measurements. The whole blood pH, bicarbonate concentration, base excess or plasma glycerol, free fatty acids, glucose concentrations, or resting energy expenditure and calculated respiratory exchange ratio were determined. The analysis of variance for repeated measurements was performed to examine the interaction between treatment and time. The single dose of sodium pyruvate induced blood alkalization, which was more marked in the male than in the female participants. Following the ingestion of sodium or calcium pyruvate, the blood acid-base parameters were higher than in the placebo trial. Furthermore, 3-h postingestion glycerol was lower in both pyruvate trials than in placebo. Resting energy expenditure did not differ between the trials; however, carbohydrate oxidation was increased after sodium pyruvate ingestion. Pyruvate intake induced mild alkalization in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, it accelerated carbohydrate metabolism and delayed the rate of glycerol appearance in the blood, but had no effect on the resting energy expenditure. Furthermore, sodium salt seems to have had a greater effect on the blood buffering level than calcium salt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The My Meal Intake Tool (M-MIT): Validity of a Patient Self- Assessment for Food and Fluid Intake at a Single Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, J; Keller, H

    2018-01-01

    Hospital malnutrition is an under-recognized issue that leads to a variety of adverse outcomes, especially for older adults. Food/fluid intake (FFI) monitoring in hospital can be used to identify those who are improving and those who need further treatment. Current monitoring practices such as calorie counts are impractical for all patients and a patient-completed tool, if valid, could support routine FFI monitoring. The aim of this research was to determine whether the patient-completed My Meal Intake Tool (M-MIT) can accurately represent FFI at a single meal. Cross-sectional, multi-site. Four acute care hospitals in Canada. 120 patients (65+ yrs, adequate cognition). Participants completed M-MIT for a single meal. Food and fluid waste was visually estimated by a research dietitian at each hospital. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and overall agreement were calculated for both food and fluid intake by comparing M-MIT and dietitian estimations to determine criterion validity of M-MIT. Patient and research dietitian comments were used to make revisions to the M-MIT. Using a cut-point of ≤50% intake, Se was 76.2% and 61.9% and Sp was 74.0% and 80.5% for solid and fluids respectively (pMIT identified a greater proportion of participants (37.2%) as having low FFI (≤50%) than dietitians (25.0%), as well as a greater proportion identified with low fluid intake (28.3% vs. 24.6%). Modest revisions were made to improve the tool. This study has demonstrated initial validity of M-MIT for use in older patients with adequate cognition. Use of M-MIT could promote FFI monitoring as a routine practice to make clinical decisions about care.

  4. Measures of postprandial wellness after single intake of two protein-carbohydrate meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Brink, E.J.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The general feeling of wellness after food consumption may play an important role in regulating food intake. This exploratory study aimed at identifying and evaluating measures of such postprandial wellness, tentatively defined as subjective appreciation of life after food intake. The study had a

  5. Comparison of single questions and brief questionnaire with longer validated food frequency questionnaire to assess adequate fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amelia; Roberts, Kia; O'Leary, Fiona; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a single question (SQ) for fruit and a SQ or five-item questionnaire for vegetable consumption (VFQ) could replace a longer food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to screen for inadequate versus adequate intakes in populations. Participants (109) completed three test screeners: fruit SQ, vegetable SQ, and a five-item VFQ followed by the reference 74-item FFQ (version 2 of the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies [DQESv2]) including 13 fruit and 25 vegetable items. The five-item VFQ asked about intake of salad vegetables, cooked vegetables, white potatoes, legumes, and vegetable juice. The screeners were compared with the reference (DQESv2 FFQ) for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive powers (PPV, NPV) to detect intakes of two or more servings of fruit and three or more servings of vegetables. Relative validity was examined using Bland-Altman statistics. The fruit SQ showed a PPV of 56% and an NPV of 83%. The PPV for the vegetable SQ was 30% and the NPV was 89%. For the five-item VFQ, the PPV was 39% and the NPV was 85%. Bland-Altman plots and linear regression equations showed that although the screener showed good agreement for fruit (unstandardized b1 coefficient = 0.04) for vegetable intake the difference between methods increased at higher intake levels (unstandardized b1 coefficients = -0.3 for the SQ, b1 = -0.6 for five-item VFQ). The fruit SQ and the five-item VFQ are suitable replacements for longer FFQs to detect inadequate intake and assess population mean but not individual intakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Joint analysis of longitudinal feed intake and single recorded production traits in pigs using a novel horizontal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, M.; Strathe, A. B.; Mark, T.

    2017-01-01

    - and first-order Legendre polynomials of age on test, respectively. The fixed effect and random residual variance were estimated for each weekly FI trait. Residual feed intake (RFI) was derived from the conditional distribution of FI given the breeding values of ADG100 and LMP. The heritability of FI varied......A novel Horizontal model is presented for multitrait analysis of longitudinal traits through random regression analysis combined with single recorded traits. Weekly ADFI on test for Danish Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire boars were available from the national test station and were collected from 30...... to 100 kg BW. Single recorded production traits of ADG from birth to 30 kg BW (ADG30), ADG from 30 to 100 kg BW (ADG100), and lean meat percentage (LMP) were available from breeding herds or the national test station. The Horizontal model combined random regression analysis of feed intake (FI...

  7. Acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite, energy intake and mood. Is there a time of day effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, M; Tsofliou, F; Pitsiladis, Y P; Malkova, D; Mutrie, N; Higgins, S

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite sensations, energy intake and mood, and to determine if there was a time of day effect. Twelve healthy, young, normal weight females, who were non-regular exercisers, participated in four trials: morning control, morning exercise, evening control and evening exercise. Exercise trials were a one-hour class of aerobic and muscle conditioning exercise of varying intensities, to music. Control trials were a one-hour rest. Ratings of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the warm-up and muscle conditioning parts of the morning exercise trial compared to those of the evening exercise trial. Although both exercise trials, compared to control trials, produced an increase in appetite sensations, they did not alter energy intake and produced a decrease in 'relative' energy intake. In relation to mood, both exercise trials increased positive affect and decreased negative affect. These results suggest that a single exercise class, representative of that offered by many sports centres, regardless of whether it is performed in the morning or evening produces a short-term negative energy balance and improves mood in normal weight women. However, when this type of exercise was performed in the morning it was perceived to require more effort.

  8. Effect of intake swirl on the performance of single cylinder direct injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Mohan, Man; Mouli, Chandra

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, the effect of inlet manifold geometry and swirl intensity on the direct injection (DI) diesel engine performance was investigated experimentally. Modifications in inlet manifold geometry have been suggested to achieve optimized swirl for the better mixing of fuel with air. The intake swirl intensities of modified cylinder head were measured in swirl test rig at different valve lifts. Later, the overall performance of 435 CC DI diesel engine was measured using modified cylinder head. In addition, the performance of engine was compared for both modified and old cylinder head. For same operating conditions, the brake power and brake specific fuel consumption was improved by 6% and 7% respectively with modified cylinder head compared to old cylinder head. The maximum brake power of 9 HP was achieved for modified cylinder head. The results revealed that the intake swirl has great influence on engine performance.

  9. Do food provisions packaged in single-servings reduce energy intake at breakfast during a brief behavioral weight-loss intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Niemeier, Heather; Butryn, Meghan L; Wing, Rena R

    2009-11-01

    Larger portion sizes increase energy intake, yet it is unclear whether single-serving packages can reduce intake. This study examined the effects of providing breakfast foods in single-serving packages and nonportioned packages on energy intake of these foods during an 8-week behavioral weight-loss program. In fall 2005, 19 adults (mean body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=31.8+/-4.0) were randomized to conditions that provided foods in single-serving packages (Single-Serving) or in nonportioned packages (Standard). Overall amounts and types of foods provided were consistent across conditions: cereal and peaches (weeks 1, 3, 5, and 7) and applesauce and cheese (weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8). Participants were instructed to eat one serving of each food for breakfast and not to consume the provided foods at other times. Mean daily energy intake of the provided foods was the primary dependent variable. The Single-Serving group ate less energy from the combined pairs of foods provided together as compared to Standard (cereal and peaches, 117.0+/-3.2 kcal/day vs 143.5+/-39.3 kcal/day; P0.10). This suggests that single-serving packages may help reduce energy intake at breakfast within the context of a behavioral weight-control program.

  10. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. STUDY OF FLOW IN AIR-INTAKE SYSTEM FOR A SINGLE-CYLINDER GO-KART ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sulaiman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intake-air manifolds have a major effect on a vehicle’s engine performance and emission of noise and pollutants. Differences in engine outputs and applications require different designs of intake-air manifolds in order to achieve the best volumetric efficiency and thus the best engine performance. In the present work, the flow characteristics of air flowing in various designs of air-intake manifold of a 200-cc four-stroke Go-Kart engine are studied. The study is done by three dimensional simulations of the flow of air within six designs of air-intake manifold into the combustion chamber by using commercial CFD software, Fluent version 6.2. The simulation results are validated by an experimental study performed using a flow bench. The study reveals that the variations in the geometry of the air-intake system can result in a difference of up to 20% in the mass flow rate of air entering the combustion chamber.

  12. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: A single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Til, A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults.Design: A single blind randomised controlled trial.Setting: Rehabilitation

  13. Effect of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, van A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation centre.

  14. Evaluation of drug incorporation into hair segments and nails by enantiomeric analysis following controlled single MDMA intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Milena M; Steuer, Andrea E; Hysek, Cédric M; Liechti, Matthias E; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Incorporation rates of the enantiomers of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) into hair and nails were investigated after controlled administration. Fifteen subjects without MDMA use received two doses of 125 mg of MDMA. Hair, nail scrapings, and nail clippings were collected 9-77 days after the last administration (median 20 days). Hair samples were analyzed in segments of 1- to 2-cm length. After chiral derivatization with N-(2,4-dinitro-5-fluorophenyl)-L-valinamide, MDMA and MDA diastereomers were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations in hair segments corresponded to the time of MDMA intake. They ranged from 101 to 3200 pg/mg and 71 to 860 pg/mg for R- and S-MDMA, and from 3.2 to 116 pg/mg and 4.4 to 108 pg/mg for R- and S-MDA, respectively. MDMA and MDA concentrations in nail scrapings and clippings were significantly lower than in hair samples. There was no significant difference between enantiomeric ratios of R/S-MDMA and R/S-MDA in hair and nail samples (medians 2.2-2.4 for MDMA and 0.85-0.95 for MDA). Metabolite ratios of MDA to MDMA were in the same range in hair and nail samples (medians 0.044-0.055). Our study demonstrates that administration of two representative doses of MDMA was detected in the hair segments corresponding to the time of intake based on average hair growth rates. MDMA was detected in all nail samples regardless of time passed after intake. Comparable R/S ratios in hair and nail samples may indicate that incorporation mechanisms into both matrices are comparable.

  15. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, A J; Naumann, E; Cox-Claessens, I J H M; Kremer, S; Boelsma, E; de van der Schueren, M A E

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. A single blind randomised controlled trial. Rehabilitation centre. Older adults (≥ 55 years) admitted to a rehabilitation centre after hospital discharge (n=34). Participants received a high protein diet (protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt; n=17) or a regular diet (regular bread and regular drinking yoghurt; n=17) for three consecutive weeks. Total protein intake and protein intake per meal, measured twice weekly over a three weeks period (six measurements per participant). Compared with controls, patients who received the protein enriched products had a significantly higher protein intake (115.3 g/d vs 72.5 g/d, Pconsumption of protein enriched products improves protein distribution over the day.

  16. Intake port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  17. Effects of food intake on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac potassium soft gelatin capsules: a single-dose, randomized, two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallion, Ralph; Moore, Keith A

    2009-10-01

    Diclofenac potassium liquid-filled soft gelatin capsule (DPSGC) is an investigational formulation that uses dispersing agents designed to facilitate rapid and consistent absorption of this NSAID. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of food intake on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of oral DPSGC at doses of 25 and 50 mg. In this open-label, randomized, single-dose (2 distinct doses), 2-way crossover bioavailability study, healthy adult volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of DPSGC 25 or 50 mg after an overnight fast (fasted condition) or high-fat breakfast (fed condition) (period 1). After 7 days, the participants received the same dose under the opposite fed/fasted condition (period 2). Serial blood samples were obtained before and through 6 hours after study drug administration. Concentrations of diclofenac in plasma were determined using HPLC, and PK profiles were studied using ANCOVA. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored and recorded on each in-clinic day. Of 47 participants included in the study, 24 received the 25-mg dose of DPSGC and 23 received the 50-mg dose. The majority of participants were male (80.9%), and the mean age was 28.6 years. The mean (SD) AUC values for the fasted and fed states were 691 (195) and 680 (184) ng x h/mL, respectively, with the 25-mg dose, and 1521 (377) and 1416 (366) ng . h/mL, respectively, with the 50-mg dose, suggesting that the extent of absorption was similar with both dietary conditions at each dose. Food intake was associated with decreases in C(max) by nearly half in the 25-mg group (fasted vs fed, 1156 [482] vs 686 [411] ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.05) and the 50-mg group (2365 [1034] vs 1154 [592 ng/mL; P < 0.05) and delayed T(max) in the 25-mg group (0.49 [0.16] vs 1.02 [0.55] hours; P < 0.05) and 50-mg group (0.51 [0.19] vs 1.28 [0.71] hours; P < 0.05). Two mild AEs (nasal congestion and light-headedness) were reported in 2 participants who received 25 mg under fed conditions

  18. A Single Day of Excessive Dietary Fat Intake Reduces Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity: The Metabolic Consequence of Binge Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siôn A. Parry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Consuming excessive amounts of energy as dietary fat for several days or weeks can impair glycemic control and reduce insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. However, individuals who demonstrate binge eating behavior overconsume for much shorter periods of time; the metabolic consequences of such behavior remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single day of high-fat overfeeding on whole-body insulin sensitivity. Fifteen young, healthy adults underwent an oral glucose tolerance test before and after consuming a high-fat (68% of total energy, high-energy (78% greater than daily requirements diet for one day. Fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, and triglyceride were measured and the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index was calculated. One day of high-fat overfeeding increased postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC by 17.1% (p < 0.0001 and insulin AUC by 16.4% (p = 0.007. Whole-body insulin sensitivity decreased by 28% (p = 0.001. In conclusion, a single day of high-fat, overfeeding impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity in young, healthy adults. This highlights the rapidity with which excessive consumption of calories through high-fat food can impair glucose metabolism, and suggests that acute binge eating may have immediate metabolic health consequences for the individual.

  19. Changes in rat liver and adipose tissue lipogenesis after single lethal X-irradiation: modification by the restricted food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlakova, A.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1981-01-01

    Male rats of Wistar strain were adapted during a 4-week period to the nutritional regimes of meal feeding (MF) and ad libitum (AL) and were irradiated with the single whole-body lethal X-ray dose 14.35 Gy after 22 h of fasting. Within the intervals 1, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation lipogenesis changes in the liver were studied by measuring 1- 14 C-acetate incorporation (74 KBq) in the total lipids, fatty acids and cholesterol, and in the white adipose tissue pieces by measuring U- 14 C-glucose incorporation (74 KBq) in the total lipids, fatty acids and glyceride glycerol. Lipogenesis increased in the liver of the irradiated rats as compared with sham irradiated rats and reached the maximal values at 72 h after irradiation in AL animals and at 48 h after irradiation in MF animals. Lipogenesis in the adipose tissue decreased in the irradiated rats as compared with the sham irradiated ones and continued to decrease with the post-irradiation period. The adaptation to the nutritional regime of meal feeding markedly modified lipogenesis in the liver and the adipose tissue of the irradiated rats. Long-term fasting (before and after irradiation) was supposed to be another modifying factor in the lipogenesis changes. Lipogenesis changes in the liver depended on the MF nutritional regime. (author)

  20. Changes in rat liver and adipose tissue lipogenesis after single lethal X-irradiation: modification by the restricted food intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlakova, A; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie

    1981-01-01

    Male rats of Wistar strain were adapted during a 4-week period to the nutritional regimes of meal feeding (MF) and ad libitum (AL) and were irradiated with the single whole-body lethal X-ray dose 14.35 Gy after 22 h of fasting. Within the intervals 1, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation lipogenesis changes in the liver were studied by measuring 1-/sup 14/C-acetate incorporation (74 KBq) in the total lipids, fatty acids and cholesterol, and in the white adipose tissue pieces by measuring U-/sup 14/C-glucose incorporation (74 KBq) in the total lipids, fatty acids and glyceride glycerol. Lipogenesis increased in the liver of the irradiated rats as compared with sham irradiated rats and reached the maximal values at 72 h after irradiation in AL animals and at 48 h after irradiation in MF animals. Lipogenesis in the adipose tissue decreased in the irradiated rats as compared with the sham irradiated ones and continued to decrease with the post-irradiation period. The adaptation to the nutritional regime of meal feeding markedly modified lipogenesis in the liver and the adipose tissue of the irradiated rats. Long-term fasting (before and after irradiation) was supposed to be another modifying factor in the lipogenesis changes. Lipogenesis changes in the liver depended on the MF nutritional regime.

  1. A single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin that produces reduced food and water intake induces long-lasting expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and proopiomelanocortin in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Bo-Hyun; Hong, Chang Gwun; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Seung Keon; Kang, Seungwoo; Lee, Kuem-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism by which a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces food and water intake is unclear. We examined whether such a food and water intake-reducing single administration of TCDD induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in rat brain. To observe time-dependent changes in these neuropeptides, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given TCDD (50 μg/kg) and terminated 1, 2, 4, or 7 days later. In addition, to observe dose-dependent changes in feeding and neuropeptides, rats were also given a range of TCDD doses (12.5, 25, or 50 μg/kg) and terminated 14 days later. TCDD suppressed food and water intake over 14 days in a dose-dependent manner. TCDD treatment also increased CRF and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus, respectively, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These increases were related to decreased food intake following TCDD administration. TCDD treatment increased AVP and CRF mRNA levels in the PVN, and these increases were related to decreased water intake. Interestingly, the increases in CRF, AVP and POMC expression were observed 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration. These results suggest that a single administration of TCDD induced long-lasting increases in CRF, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and that these changes are related to reduced food and water intake 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration

  2. Restricted versus continued standard caloric intake during the management of refeeding syndrome in critically ill adults: a randomised, parallel-group, multicentre, single-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Gordon S; Simpson, Fiona; Heighes, Philippa T; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Chesher, Douglas; Caterson, Ian D; Reade, Michael C; Harrigan, Peter W J

    2015-12-01

    Equipoise exists regarding the benefits of restricting caloric intake during electrolyte replacement for refeeding syndrome, with half of intensive care specialists choosing to continue normal caloric intake. We aimed to assess whether energy restriction affects the duration of critical illness, and other measures of morbidity, compared with standard care. We did a randomised, multicentre, single-blind clinical trial in 13 hospital intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia (11 sites) and New Zealand (two sites). Adult critically ill patients who developed refeeding syndrome within 72 h of commencing nutritional support in the ICU were enrolled and allocated to receive continued standard nutritional support or protocolised caloric restriction. 1:1 computer-based randomisation was done in blocks of variable size, stratified by enrolment serum phosphate concentration (>0·32 mmol/L vs ≤0·32 mmol/L) and body-mass index (BMI; >18 kg/m(2)vs ≤18 kg/m(2)). The primary outcome was the number of days alive after ICU discharge, with 60 day follow-up, in a modified intention-to-treat population of all randomly allocated patients except those mistakenly enrolled. Days alive after ICU discharge was a composite outcome based on ICU length of stay, overall survival time, and mortality. The Refeeding Syndrome Trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR number 12609001043224). Between Dec 3, 2010, and Aug 13, 2014, we enrolled 339 adult critically ill patients: 170 were randomly allocated to continued standard nutritional support and 169 to protocolised caloric restriction. During the 60 day follow-up, the mean number of days alive after ICU discharge in 165 assessable patients in the standard care group was 39·9 (95% CI 36·4-43·7) compared with 44·8 (95% CI 40·9-49·1) in 166 assessable patients in the caloric restriction group (difference 4·9 days, 95% CI -2·3 to 13·6, p=0·19). Nevertheless, protocolised caloric

  3. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  4. Stable Caloric Intake and Continued Virologic Suppression for HIV-Positive Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced Women After Switching to a Single-Tablet Regimen of Emtricitabine, Rilpivirine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Prema; Mollan, Katie; Hoffman, Erin; Xie, Zimeng; Wills, Jennifer; Marcus, Cheryl; Rublein, John; Hudgens, Michael; Eron, Joseph J

    2018-05-02

    Benefits of switching to a single-tablet regimen (STR) of emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir (FTC/RPV/TDF) in virologically suppressed antiretroviral treatment (ART) experienced HIV-positive women include pregnancy category B rating and lack of clinically significant drug interactions between RPV and oral contraceptives. Unfortunately, studies involving switching to FTC/RPV/TDF enrolled fewer than 25% women. We undertook this 48-week study to assess the ability of virologically suppressed HIV-positive women switching to RPV STR to remain virologically suppressed and comply with the caloric intake requirement. HIV-positive women on ART with viral load phone calls on randomly chosen dates. For each 3-day food diary, the daily median caloric intake and median value for each macronutrient consumed concurrent with FTC/RPV/TDF were computed. Medication adherence was measured using a visual analog scale. We enrolled 33 women, 73% of whom were African American. At week 48, virologic suppression (HIV RNA phone call. Median kcal intake (food diary) did not change significantly from baseline (684 kcal) to week 48 (820 kcal); median change 102 kcal, p = .15. Women who reported noncompliance with a ≥400 kcal meal did not experience virologic failure. Significant concordance between caloric adherence and virologic suppression was not detected. Our study demonstrated that HIV-positive women who switched to STR FTC/RPV/TDF continued to experience virologic suppression and were readily able to comply with the recommended caloric intake requirement.

  5. Serum markers of bone turnover change in response to depletion and repletion of fruit and vegetable intake in adults: A 28-wk single-arm experimental feeding intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from controlled intervention trials are lacking to support observational evidence suggesting a positive association between intake of fruit and vegetable (FV) and bone health. The objective of this study was to assess serum markers of bone turnover change in response to FV depletion and repleti...

  6. [Dietary approach to improving the nutritional status in institutionalized elderly hemodialysis patients with a poor dietary intake: a single-arm pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Makiko; Komatsu, Rieko; Maruyama, Yuko; Takaki, Tomoyuki; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Osamu; Sawase, Kenji; Harada, Takashi; Funakoshi, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    The hemodialysis (HD) diet, which is a high-calorie and high-fat regimen, may inadvertently lead to an inadequate dietary intake, resulting in undernutrition among elderly HD patients. Therefore, an attempt was made to improve the dietary intake by implementing a modified diet regimen in eligible elderly HD patients. Elderly HD patients who had ingested nutritional index [GNRI], 83.5±8.3; normalized protein catabolic ratio [nPCR], 0.78±0.14). The modified diet regimen, which involved reducing food portion sizes and incorporating a liquid diet, led to a significant increase in their dietary intake from 48.1% at baseline to 97.1% of the meals provided 3 months after the start of the modified HD diet regimen. Their GNRI also significantly increased from 83.5±8.3 to 86.1±10.2, and their serum albumin levels significantly increased from 3.2±0.2 g/dL to 3.4±0.4 g/dL, suggesting improvements in their nutritional status. The attempted dietary approach for elderly HD patients was shown to potentially increase their dietary intake and improve their nutritional status without affecting the efficiency of HD being implemented.

  7. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Kiuchi; Yasushi Ohashi; Reibin Tai; Toshiyuki Aoki; Sonoo Mizuiri; Toyoko Ogura; Atsushi Aikawa; Ken Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) < 92; these patients were ...

  8. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Aki; Ohashi, Yasushi; Tai, Reibin; Aoki, Toshiyuki; Mizuiri, Sonoo; Ogura, Toyoko; Aikawa, Atsushi; Sakai, Ken

    2016-10-23

    Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005-2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) patients were more likely to be older, have a greater proteinuria, and have lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. Dietary protein intake was significantly lower in older patients ( r = -0.33, p protein to nitrogen calorie ratio was independently associated with GNRI. Reduced GNRI was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.61-15.42, p = 0.012) and cardiovascular events (HR = 9.37; 95% CI = 2.49-37.34, p = 0.006), but not with adverse renal outcomes. Restricting protein intake may be harmful to patients with any nutrition-related risk, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status should be a high priority.

  9. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Kiuchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9% had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI < 92; these patients were more likely to be older, have a greater proteinuria, and have lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. Dietary protein intake was significantly lower in older patients (r = −0.33, p < 0.001 and those with lower glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.47, p < 0.001. The non-protein to nitrogen calorie ratio was independently associated with GNRI. Reduced GNRI was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR = 4.94; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.61–15.42, p = 0.012 and cardiovascular events (HR = 9.37; 95% CI = 2.49–37.34, p = 0.006, but not with adverse renal outcomes. Restricting protein intake may be harmful to patients with any nutrition-related risk, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status should be a high priority.

  10. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measurements at each intake, use an average value for verifying compliance to § 1065.520(b)(2). (2) Humidity. You may use a single shared humidity measurement for intake air as long as your equipment for handling... engines with multiple intakes with separate humidity measurements at each intake, use a flow-weighted...

  11. Coffee intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  13. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  14. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  15. Iodine intake in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  16. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  17. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated......The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour...... the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes...

  18. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    initial consumption share of fiber-rich products— families with children—appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than that of the average......This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers’ fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products—i.e., households without children...... (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children)—experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...

  19. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    with the lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - families with children - appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than the average......This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers' fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - i.e., households without children...... (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children) - experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...

  20. Intake of Total and Subgroups of Fat Minimally Affect the Associations between Selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the PPARγ Pathway and Changes in Anthropometry among European Adults from Cohorts of the DiOGenes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Østergaard, Jane N

    2016-01-01

    nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 4 genes in the PPARγ pathway are associated with the OR of being a BW gainer or with annual changes in anthropometry and whether intake of total fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, or saturated fat has a modifying effect on these associations. METHODS: A case......-noncase study included 11,048 men and women from cohorts in the European Diet, Obesity and Genes study; 5552 were cases, defined as individuals with the greatest BW gain during follow-up, and 6548 were randomly selected, including 5496 noncases. We selected 4 genes [CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (CEBPB...

  1. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.

    1982-10-01

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by means of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter that have the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The 'annual limit of intake' (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experimental animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbtion factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increase for plutonium and protactinium, and decrease for neptunium. An attempt to predict possible future changes of the ALI for members of the general public is also made. (Author)

  2. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.

    1982-11-01

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by members of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter which has the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The annual limit of intake (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake figures in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experiment animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbation factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increases for plutonium and protactinium, and decreases for neptunium. (Author)

  3. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  4. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  5. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    and caffeine intake from different sources on the probability of conception. From 1992 to 1995, a total of 430 couples were recruited after a nationwide mailing of a personal letter to 52,255 trade union members who were 20 to 35 years old, lived with a partner, and had no previous reproductive experience...... of menstrual cycle. No dose-response relationship was found among smokers. Among males, the same decline in point estimates of the FR was present. Smoking women whose only source of caffeine was coffee (>300 mg/d) had a reduced fecundability odds-ratio (FR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12-0.98). An interaction between...

  6. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Increasing water intake influences hunger and food preference, but does not reliably suppress energy intake in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Naomi J; Belous, Ilona V; Temple, Jennifer L

    2018-04-17

    Increasing water intake is often purported to reduce energy intake, and is recommended as a weight loss strategy. The few experimental studies that have been conducted to verify these claims have examined the impact of a single pre-load of water before a meal. Although correlational data indicate a relationship between hydration, energy intake, and weight status, there is very little experimental research in this area. The current studies examined the hypothesis that elevated hydration, through increased water intake, would suppress energy intake. In Experiment 1, participants (n = 49) were asked to consume either one, two, or three 500 ml bottles of water throughout the morning before a lunch buffet in the laboratory. When participants categorized as normal weight drank three bottles of water they consumed less energy at lunch, but there was no effect on participants categorized as overweight or obese. In addition, increased water intake suppressed liking of food items in all participants and hunger in females. A follow-up study (n = 45) was conducted to test if four bottles of water throughout the morning would result in a similar energy suppression in participants categorized as overweight or obese. Surprisingly, in the second experiment, there was no effect of water intake on energy intake at lunch in any of the conditions. There was, however, a similar suppression of hunger and food liking. In conclusion, increasing water intake throughout the morning only suppressed energy intake in individuals categorized as normal weight under certain circumstances, and had no effect on individuals categorized as overweight/obese. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  9. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  10. Intake and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi

    1979-01-01

    Of radioiodine metabolism in man, the relations between intake, thyroidal uptake and excretion are explained. The internal radiation dose to the thyroid for public population is mainly given through the intake of contaminated food in all the ages. In the gestation, the fetus is exposed most to radioiodine immediately before delivery and the dose is estimated to amount a few times higher than the maternal thyroid. Importance of both the cow's milk and the breast milk as the sources of contaminant, is emphasized. Babyhood for 6 months after delivery, in this age are estiperiod as to the thyroidal exposure by radioiodine because the dose in his age are estimated to be over 30 times for 131 I and about 9 times for 129 I as compared with that to the adult. Because of its long-term residence in the environment, 129 I is incorporated into cereals, leafy vegetables and meat besides milk. However, the critical age is still in the babyhood for 6 months after birth. Radioiodine given in a form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroidal uptake rate and the biological half-life are depresesed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine given in the form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroids uptake rate and the biological half-life are depressed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine both in the protein-binding fraction and in the total fraction of metabolised cow's milk, reaches the thyroid in the same manner as that given in a form of inorganic iodide. While, rats given radioiodine incorporated into seaweed, excreted tremendous amount of the nuclide into feces which resulted in very low uptake of the nuclide by the thyroid. To estimate population dose from radioiodine, the absorption rate of radioiodine may be one of the most important parameters. (author)

  11. Lake Mead Intake No. 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hurt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a sustained drought in the Southwestern United States, and in order to maintain existing water capacity in the Las Vegas Valley, the Southern Nevada Water Authority constructed a new deep-water intake (Intake No. 3 located in Lake Mead. The project included a 185 m deep shaft, 4.7 km tunnel under very difficult geological conditions, and marine works for a submerged intake. This paper presents the experience that was gained during the design and construction and the innovative solutions that were developed to handle the difficult conditions that were encountered during tunneling with a dual-mode slurry tunnel-boring machine (TBM in up to 15 bar (1 bar = 105 Pa pressure. Specific attention is given to the main challenges that were overcome during the TBM excavation, which included the mode of operation, face support pressures, pre-excavation grouting, and maintenance; to the construction of the intake, which involved deep underwater shaft excavation with blasting using shaped charges; to the construction of the innovative over 1200 t concrete-and-steel intake structure; to the placement of the intake structure in the underwater shaft; and to the docking and connection to an intake tunnel excavated by hybrid TBM. Keywords: Sub-aqueous tunneling, Tunnel-boring machine excavation, Water intakes

  12. Intake acoustics of naturally aspirated racing engines

    OpenAIRE

    Dolinar, A

    2006-01-01

    The intake system is one of the components on the internal combustion engine most linked with the achievement of the high volumetric efficiency required of naturally aspirated engines. High performance racing engine intake systems have unusual geometry with separate intake pipes (often known as intake trumpets) housed in a common airbox. These intake trumpets are short pipes that are sometimes cylindrical but often conical. The flow within the intake system is ve...

  13. Executive Cognitive Function and Food Intake in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated relations among neurocognitive skills important for behavioral regulation, and the intake of fruit, vegetables, and snack food in children. Design: Participants completed surveys at a single time point. Setting: Assessments took place during school. Participants: Participants were 107 fourth-grade children…

  14. Radioactive iodine intake through foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omomo, Yoichiro

    1974-01-01

    The transition of radioactive iodine to human bodies is affected by the amount of coexisting stable iodine. The intake of stable iodine through foodstuffs was studied from the stand point of I) discussion of the literature which states the approximate amounts of stable iodine contained in environmental materials, and II) the authors' research on the consumption of foodstuffs. For example, the amounts of iodine intake of fishermen living in Kuji-cho (Ibaragi Prefecture) was estimated from I and II, and was revealed as 2704p. The national average iodine intake was about 800p indicating that the former estimated value was remarkably high. Eighty Four per cent of the 2.7 mg iodine intake was taken from marine products, indicating that marine products are important sources of iodine supply. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  15. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  16. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  17. Food intake of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greyce Luci BERNARDO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This narrative literature review aimed to analyze the results of studies on the food intake of university students. A literature search was conducted in July 2014 and updated in July 2016 in the Scopus, MedLine/PubMed, and SciELO databases, using descriptors related to university students and food intake in English and Portuguese. Overall, 37 studies that analyzed university students’ food intake were included in this review, eight of which were conducted in Brazil. The results demonstrated that most university students have unhealthy eating behaviors, such as high intake of fast foods, snacks, sweets, soft drinks, and alcoholic beverages, and low intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, whole grains, and legumes. Undergraduate students of health sciences, such as nursing, nutrition, and medicine, did not have healthier diets. University students’ food intake was characterized as unhealthy, regardless of undergraduate program or sex, especially among students who left the parents’ home and became responsible for their own food. Therefore, there is a need of developing public policies that promote healthy eating habits among students, such as interventions to change their eating habits and increase their access to healthy foods at the university environment.

  18. Longitudinal Change of Perceived Salt Intake and Stroke Risk in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Huang, Zhe; Jin, Cheng; Xing, Aijun; Liu, Yesong; Huangfu, Chunmei; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-06-01

    Data for a relationship between salt intake and stroke have been inconsistent. This inconstancy could be because of the majority of studies evaluated salt intake at a single time point, which may be insufficient to accurately characterize salt intake throughout the observation period. Included were 77 605 participants from the Kailuan study. We assessed perceived salt intake via questionnaire in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Salt intake trajectories from 2006 to 2010 were identified using latent mixture models. Incident stroke cases were identified from 2010 to 2015 and confirmed by review of medical records. Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the association between salt intake trajectories and stroke risk after adjusting for possible confounders, including age, sex, lifestyle, social economic status, body mass index, use of medicines, blood pressure, and lipoprotein profiles. Identified were 5 distinct salt intake trajectories: moderate-stable (n=59 241), moderate-decreasing (n=9268), moderate-increasing (n=2975), low-increasing (n=2879), and high-decreasing (n=3242). During the 5-year follow-up period, there were 1564 incident strokes cases. Compared with individuals with the moderate-stable salt intake trajectory, individuals with moderate-decreasing salt intake trajectory had significantly lower cerebral infarction stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.92) but not intracerebral hemorrhage risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.29). Further adjustment for 2006 or 2010 perceived salt intakes generated similar results. When baseline perceived salt intake only was used as the exposure, a significant dose-response relationship between higher perceived salt intake and higher stroke risk was observed ( P trend=0.006). Change in salt intake was associated with the stroke risk. These data support the dietary recommendation to the reduction of salt intake. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Dietary intakes of essential nutrients among Arab and Berber ethnic groups on rural Tunisian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Thouraya; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Abid, Hafaoua Kammoun; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Alouane, Leila Trabelsi

    2010-01-01

    The dietary intake was investigated and food sources were identified among Tunisian ethnic groups from Jerba Island in the south of Tunisia. Ninety-four subjects of moderate socioeconomic status (47 Berbers and 47 Arabs) aged 32 to 64 y completed a 1-mo qualitative food-frequency questionnaire and a single 24-h dietary recall, and dietary intakes and demographic status were observed from 2006 to 2007. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was not significantly associated with Arab men compared with Berber men. Therefore, obesity was significantly associated with Berber women (PBerber women (PBerber group were significantly different from the Arab group. Intakes of calcium, zinc, iron, and folate were below recommended nutrient intakes in men and women in the two ethnic groups. Vitamin E intake was greater in Berbers than in Arabs (P<0.01). Ethnicity was significantly associated with dietary intakes in the two ethnic groups of Jerba Island.

  20. Intake retention functions and their applications to bioassay and the estimation of internal radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; French, C.S.; La Bone, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a way of obtaining and gives applications of intake retention functions. These functions give the fraction of an intake of radioactive material expected to be present in a specified bioassay compartment at any time after a single acute exposure or after onset of a continuous exposure. The intake retention functions are derived from a multicompartmental model and a recursive catenary kinetics equation that completely describe the metabolism of radioelements from intake to excretion, accounting for the delay in uptake from compartments in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and the recycling of radioelements between systemic compartments. This approach, which treats excretion as the 'last' compartment of all catenary metabolic pathways, avoids the use of convolution integrals and provides algebraic solutions that can be programmed on hand held calculators or personal computers. The estimation of intakes and internal radiation doses and the use of intake retention functions in the design of bioassay programs are discussed along with several examples

  1. Impulsivity, "advergames," and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Westerik, Henk; Buijzen, Moniek

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Hunger, taste, and normative cues in predictions about food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Reily, Natalie M; Spanos, Samantha; McGuirk, Lucy C; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Normative eating cues (portion size, social factors) have a powerful impact on people's food intake, but people often fail to acknowledge the influence of these cues, instead explaining their food intake in terms of internal (hunger) or sensory (taste) cues. This study examined whether the same biases apply when making predictions about how much food a person would eat. Participants (n = 364) read a series of vignettes describing an eating scenario and predicted how much food the target person would eat in each situation. Some scenarios consisted of a single eating cue (hunger, taste, or a normative cue) that would be expected to increase intake (e.g., high hunger) or decrease intake (e.g., a companion who eats very little). Other scenarios combined two cues that were in conflict with one another (e.g., high hunger + a companion who eats very little). In the cue-conflict scenarios involving an inhibitory internal/sensory cue (e.g., low hunger) with an augmenting normative cue (e.g., a companion who eats a lot), participants predicted a low level of food intake, suggesting a bias toward the internal/sensory cue. For scenarios involving an augmenting internal/sensory cue (e.g., high hunger) and an inhibitory normative cue (e.g., a companion who eats very little), participants predicted an intermediate level of food intake, suggesting that they were influenced by both the internal/sensory and normative cue. Overall, predictions about food intake tend to reflect a general bias toward internal/sensory cues, but also include normative cues when those cues are inhibitory. If people are systematically biased toward internal, sensory, and inhibitory cues, then they may underestimate how much food they or other people will eat in many situations, particularly when normative cues promoting eating are present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolomics investigation of whey intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan

    syndrome are complex disorders and are not caused by a high-calorie diet and low exercise level alone. The specific nature of the nutrients, independent of their caloric value, also play a role. The question is which. In the quest to answer this question the qualitative intake of protein is of special...... and prevention of the metabolic syndrome related to obesity and diabetes. In this thesis the effects of whey intake on the human metabolome was investigated using a metabolomics approach. We demonstrated that intake of whey causes a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to other protein sources....... Therefore this thesis will also present and discuss state-of-the-art tools for computer-assisted compound identification, including: annotation of adducts and fragments, determination of the molecular ion, in silico fragmentation, retention time mapping between analytical systems and de novo retention time...

  4. Salt intakes around the world: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ian J; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Candeias, Vanessa; Elliott, Paul

    2009-06-01

    High levels of dietary sodium (consumed as common salt, sodium chloride) are associated with raised blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular health. Despite this, public health efforts to reduce sodium consumption remain limited to a few countries. Comprehensive, contemporaneous sodium intake data from around the world are needed to inform national/international public health initiatives to reduce sodium consumption. Use of standardized 24-h sodium excretion estimates for adults from the international INTERSALT (1985-87) and INTERMAP (1996-99) studies, and recent dietary and urinary sodium data from observational or interventional studies--identified by a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature--presented separately for adults and children. Review of methods for the estimation of sodium intake/excretion. Main food sources of sodium are presented for several Asian, European and Northern American countries, including previously unpublished INTERMAP data. Sodium intakes around the world are well in excess of physiological need (i.e. 10-20 mmol/day). Most adult populations have mean sodium intakes >100 mmol/day, and for many (particularly the Asian countries) mean intakes are >200 mmol/day. Possible exceptions include estimates from Cameroon, Ghana, Samoa, Spain, Taiwan, Tanzania, Uganda and Venezuela, though methodologies were sub-optimal and samples were not nationally representative. Sodium intakes were commonly >100 mmol/day in children over 5 years old, and increased with age. In European and Northern American countries, sodium intake is dominated by sodium added in manufactured foods ( approximately 75% of intake). Cereals and baked goods were the single largest contributor to dietary sodium intake in UK and US adults. In Japan and China, salt added at home (in cooking and at the table) and soy sauce were the largest sources. Unfavourably high sodium intakes remain prevalent around the world. Sources of dietary sodium vary largely worldwide

  5. Effects of caffeine and Bombesin on ethanol and food intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietze, M.A.; Kulkosky, P.J. (Univ. of Southern Colorado, Pueblo (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal doses of caffeine and bombesin on 5% w/v ethanol solution and food intake in deprived rats. Deprived male and female Wistar rats received access to 5% ethanol or Purina chow for 30 minutes after i.p. injections. In single doses, CAF and BBS significantly decreased both ethanol and food consumption, at 50 mg/kg and 10 {mu}g/kg, respectively. CAF and BBS combinations produced infra-additive, or less-than-expected inhibitory effects on ethanol intake, but simple additive inhibitory effects on food intake. This experimental evidence suggests a reciprocal blocking of effects of CAF and BBS on ethanol intake but not food intake. Caffeine, when interacting and bombesin, increases alcohol consumption beyond expected values. Caffeine could affect the operation of endogenous satisfy signals for alcohol consumption.

  6. In-cylinder tumble flows and performance of a motorcycle engine with circular and elliptic intake ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R. F.; Lin, K. H.; Yeh, C.-N.; Lan, J.

    2009-01-01

    The temporal and spatial evolution processes of the flows in the cylinder of a four-valve, four-stroke, single cylinder, reciprocating motorcycle engine installed with the elliptic and circular intake ports were experimentally studied by using the particle image velocimetry (PIV). The engine was modified to fit the requirements of PIV measurement. The velocity fields measured by the PIV were analyzed and quantitatively presented as the tumble ratio and turbulence intensity. In the symmetry plane, both the circular and elliptic intake ports could initiate a vortex around the central region during the intake stroke. During the compression stroke, the central vortex created in the cylinder of the engine with the circular intake port disappeared, while that in the engine cylinder with the elliptic intake port further developed into the tumble motion. In the offset plane, weak vortical structures were initiated by the bluff-body effect of the intake valves during the intake stroke. The vortical structures induced by the elliptic intake port were more coherent than those generated by the circular intake port; besides, this feature extends to the compression stroke. The cycle-averaged tumble ratio and the turbulence intensity of the engine with the elliptic intake port were dramatically larger than those of the engine with the circular intake port. The measured engine performance was improved a lot by installing the elliptic intake port. The correlation between the flow features and the enhancement of the engine performance were argued and discussed.

  7. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  8. Vortex Whistle in Radial Intake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tse, Man-Chun

    2004-01-01

    In a radial-to-axial intake with inlet guide vanes (IGV) at the entry, a strong flow circulation Gamma can be generated from the tangential flow components created by the IGVs when their setting exceed about halfclosing (approx. 45 deg...

  9. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarro, Jorge E; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. A total of 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed up as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an 8 year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P for trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 to 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P for trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 to 1.12; 0.07). Furthermore, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P =.007). Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.

  10. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...

  11. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  12. Coanda hydro intake screen testing and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this project has been to evaluate the effectiveness, suitability and cost benefit of the Aquashear Coanda effect, maintenance free intake screen for use in small hydro system intakes. (author)

  13. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  14. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, G B M; Fletcher, R; Gurinovic, M; Huybrechts, I; Lafay, L; Serra-Majem, L; Szponar, L; Tetens, I; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Baka, A; Stephen, A M

    2013-08-01

    Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B₁, B₂, B₆, B₁₂, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country.

  15. Intake Procedures in College Counseling Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, James P.; And Others

    Intake procedures is the common subject of four papers presented in this booklet. James P. Pappas discusses trends, a decision theory model, information and issues in his article "Intake Procedures in Counseling Centers--Trends and Theory." In the second article "The Utilization of Standardized Tests in Intake Procedures or 'Where's the Post…

  16. Fish intake in pregnancy and child growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratakis, N.; Roumeliotaki, T.; Oken, E.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Maternal fish intake in pregnancy has been shown to influence fetal growth. The extent to which fish intake affects childhood growth and obesity remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To examine whether fish intake in pregnancy is associated with offspring growth and the risk of childhood overweig...

  17. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  18. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared...

  19. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P. III; Cook, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  20. The Oslo Health Study: A Dietary Index Estimating Frequent Intake of Soft Drinks and Rare Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Negatively Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Alvær, Kari; Meyer, Haakon E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD), we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density. PMID:21772969

  1. FTO polymorphisms moderate the association of food reinforcement with energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Jennifer L; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-10

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251kbp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9-7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  3. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Food intake monitoring: an acoustical approach to automated food intake activity detection and classification of consumed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Päßler, Sebastian; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim; Wolff, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and nutrition-related diseases are currently growing challenges for medicine. A precise and timesaving method for food intake monitoring is needed. For this purpose, an approach based on the classification of sounds produced during food intake is presented. Sounds are recorded non-invasively by miniature microphones in the outer ear canal. A database of 51 participants eating seven types of food and consuming one drink has been developed for algorithm development and model training. The database is labeled manually using a protocol with introductions for annotation. The annotation procedure is evaluated using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The food intake activity is detected by the comparison of the signal energy of in-ear sounds to environmental sounds recorded by a reference microphone. Hidden Markov models are used for the recognition of single chew or swallowing events. Intake cycles are modeled as event sequences in finite-state grammars. Classification of consumed food is realized by a finite-state grammar decoder based on the Viterbi algorithm. We achieved a detection accuracy of 83% and a food classification accuracy of 79% on a test set of 10% of all records. Our approach faces the need of monitoring the time and occurrence of eating. With differentiation of consumed food, a first step toward the goal of meal weight estimation is taken. (paper)

  5. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  6. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Bradley, E J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)

    1984-09-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3..mu..Sv, 41..mu..Sv and 13..mu..Sv respectively.

  7. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.; Bradley, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3μSv, 41μSv and 13μSv respectively. (U.K.)

  8. Use of the isotope method to measure breast milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, I.; Victoria, C.G.

    2000-01-01

    A study to test the efficacy of the nutrition counselling (NC) contents of integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Course (IMCI, WHO/UNICEF), funded by WHO, was planned and conducted in Pelotas (southern Brazil). The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial with the random allocation of 14 municipal health centres to receive the NC training and 14 other centres to the control group (current nutrition counselling, if any). The study included testing the knowledge of doctors, observing consultations and visiting the children at home 8, 45 and 180 days after the initial consultation. Dietary intakes were studied on a sub-sample of 66 children (two per health care provider), through daylong observations. Breast milk intake was assessed by the frequency and duration of feeds. The deuterium study was carried out in the same population to validate breast milk intake estimates. The deuterium study was a cross-sectional assessment of breast milk intake among those children enrolled in the day long sub-sample. From the 66 children visited by the day long study, 18 were still breast fed and were selected for the deuterium study. A total of 11 saliva samples were collected from each mother/child pair at a 15-day interval: four from the mother (on days 0, 1, 6 and 14) and seven from the child (on days 0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 13, and 14). The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the amount of milk as estimated by observation and the amount calculated through the deuterium technique (gold standard) was equal to 0.53. This result indicates that the estimates based on the frequency and the duration of breastfeeding through observation correlated to the results of the gold standard method for breast milk intake assessment, although this correlation was of moderate strength. As the gold standard, the deuterium method showed to be practical and easily to perform at field setting. (author)

  9. Use of the isotope method to measure breast milk intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dos Santos, I; Victoria, C G [Departamento de Medicina Social, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    A study to test the efficacy of the nutrition counselling (NC) contents of integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Course (IMCI, WHO/UNICEF), funded by WHO, was planned and conducted in Pelotas (southern Brazil). The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial with the random allocation of 14 municipal health centres to receive the NC training and 14 other centres to the control group (current nutrition counselling, if any). The study included testing the knowledge of doctors, observing consultations and visiting the children at home 8, 45 and 180 days after the initial consultation. Dietary intakes were studied on a sub-sample of 66 children (two per health care provider), through daylong observations. Breast milk intake was assessed by the frequency and duration of feeds. The deuterium study was carried out in the same population to validate breast milk intake estimates. The deuterium study was a cross-sectional assessment of breast milk intake among those children enrolled in the day long sub-sample. From the 66 children visited by the day long study, 18 were still breast fed and were selected for the deuterium study. A total of 11 saliva samples were collected from each mother/child pair at a 15-day interval: four from the mother (on days 0, 1, 6 and 14) and seven from the child (on days 0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 13, and 14). The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the amount of milk as estimated by observation and the amount calculated through the deuterium technique (gold standard) was equal to 0.53. This result indicates that the estimates based on the frequency and the duration of breastfeeding through observation correlated to the results of the gold standard method for breast milk intake assessment, although this correlation was of moderate strength. As the gold standard, the deuterium method showed to be practical and easily to perform at field setting. (author)

  10. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Simpson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation. Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers.

  11. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  12. The intake of carotenoids in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette; Andersen, N. L.

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the intake of carotenoids in the Danish population Danish fruits and vegetables were screened with an HPLC method consisting of extraction with ethanol:tetrahydrofuran, separation by reversed phase HPLC with the mobile phase acetonitril:methanol:dichlormethan, triethylamin, BHT...... in the foods the mean intake and intake distribution of the carotenoids were calculated. Carrots and tomatoes have both high contents of carotenoids (8,450 mu g/100 g alpha- + beta-carotene and 4,790 mu g/100 g lycopene, respectively) and high intakes (19 and 15 g/day, respectively) and were responsible for 47......% and 32%, respectively, of the mean intake of carotenoids of 4.8 mg/day A median value of 4.1 mg/day was found indicating skewed intake distributions. The difference between men and women was 0.4 mg/day (p carotenoids, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene, contributed...

  13. The endocrinology of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C

    2013-10-01

    Many questions must be considered with regard to consuming food, including when to eat, what to eat and how much to eat. Although eating is often thought to be a homeostatic behaviour, little evidence exists to suggest that eating is an automatic response to an acute shortage of energy. Instead, food intake can be considered as an integrated response over a prolonged period of time that maintains the levels of energy stored in adipocytes. When we eat is generally determined by habit, convenience or opportunity rather than need, and meals are preceded by a neurally-controlled coordinated secretion of numerous hormones that prime the digestive system for the anticipated caloric load. How much we eat is determined by satiation hormones that are secreted in response to ingested nutrients, and these signals are in turn modified by adiposity hormones that indicate the fat content of the body. In addition, many nonhomeostatic factors, including stress, learning, palatability and social influences, interact with other controllers of food intake. If a choice of food is available, what we eat is based on pleasure and past experience. This article reviews the hormones that mediate and influence these processes.

  14. Calcium intake in health maintenance – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Uusi-Rasi

    2013-05-01

    found no consistent association between cardiovascular outcomes and Ca intake except for blood pressure. A small decrease of 2–4 mmHg in systolic blood pressure was found in pregnant and in hypertensive subjects with Ca supplementation. Reviewed studies did not show consistent evidence relating Ca intake to either mortality or obesity. Conclusion: Based on this evidence, there is no need to change the Nordic recommendations for Ca intake. However, due to heterogeneity in the studies it is difficult to interpret the results and provide single summary statement.

  15. Ethnic differences in the nutrient intake adequacy of premenopausal US women: results from the Third National Health Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Carriquiry, Alicia; Steck-Scott, Susan; Gaudet, Mia M

    2003-08-01

    To examine the adequacy of dietary intake of calcium; folate; and vitamins C, D, E, B-6, and B-12 in premenopausal US women of differing ethnicity. Analyses of single and duplicate 24-hour recalls were conducted to determine dietary intake during the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Three thousand five hundred eighty-five randomly selected women aged 20 to 50 years from across the United States who were not pregnant or lactating were examined between 1988 and 1994. Usual nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the Iowa State University method for adjustment of the distribution. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method was used to determine the proportion of women with inadequate intake for each nutrient in each ethnic group. More than 75% of women irrespective of ethnic group had usual intakes of calcium lower than the new Adequate Intake. More than 90% of the women had inadequate intakes of folate and vitamin E from food sources alone. More than half of smokers had inadequate intakes of vitamin C. Intakes of vitamins B-6 and B-12 were low in less than 10% of these women. This article provides evidence that a high proportion of premenopausal US women are underconsuming a variety of nutrients. Dietary intakes alone are not currently adequate to meet the new recommended intakes. Nutritional supplement use is widespread and effective, but does not eliminate the concerns for at-risk populations. Awareness of the general inadequacies in intakes of vitamin E and folic acid at large, and in many women vitamin C as well, can help direct individual dietary recommendations and place the emphasis in group counseling on nutrients that are of widespread concern. In addition, foods rich in vitamins B-6 and of general nutritional benefit should be emphasized among African American women in the United States as a substantial proportion of this group is still showing inadequate intakes from foods.

  16. Internal Dosimetry Intake Estimation using Bayesian Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Martz, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    New methods for the inverse problem of internal dosimetry are proposed based on evaluating expectations of the Bayesian posterior probability distribution of intake amounts, given bioassay measurements. These expectation integrals are normally of very high dimension and hence impractical to use. However, the expectations can be algebraically transformed into a sum of terms representing different numbers of intakes, with a Poisson distribution of the number of intakes. This sum often rapidly converges, when the average number of intakes for a population is small. A simplified algorithm using data unfolding is described (UF code). (author)

  17. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  18. Food intake and dietary diversity of farming households in Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of fat was also low by 53% compared to the recommended intake for adults. The intake of iron, zinc, and calcium was 40, 53 and 64%, respectively, which was not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Low intake of nutrients was generally attributed to inadequate food intake due to low feeding frequency, poorly ...

  19. Herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.A.C.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature is given of
    - nine possible methods for estimating herbage intake by grazing ruminants, with special attention to the sward-cutting and indirect animal methods
    - the factors determining the herbage intake by grazing ruminants.

    The

  20. Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other

  1. Johnson screen for cooling water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Johnson surface-water screens provide an alternative to vertical traveling screens for power plant cooling water intakes. In this paper, flow field modeling is discussed, and a series of case studies is presented. The hydraulic information obtained is discussed as it applies to the exclusion of biota and debris from cooling water intake systems

  2. Nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university athletes. Fifty-one university athletes volunteered to participate in this survey study. Results showed the nutritional supplement intake was significantly higher compared to the knowledge that they have about the ...

  3. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health.

  4. PREDICTING VOLUNTARY INTAKE ON MEDIUM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found a good relationship between the rate constant for fermentation and ... By dividing voluntary feed intake into the ... voluntary feed intake will be equal to the rate at which the rumen is ... per abomosum to prevent any deficiency in protein restricting .... McDougall's saliva and was not included in the calculation of the lust ...

  5. N-acylethanolamines, anandamide and food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Diep, Thi Ai

    2009-01-01

    in their biosynthesis in specific tissues are not clarified. It has been suggested that endogenous anandamide could stimulate food intake by activation of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and/or in the intestinal tissue. On the other hand, endogenous OEA and PEA have been suggested to inhibit food intake by acting...... on receptors in the intestine. At present, there is no clear role for endogenous anandamide in controlling food intake via cannabinoid receptors, neither centrally nor in the gastrointestinal tract. However, OEA, PEA and perhaps also LEA may be involved in regulation of food intake by selective prolongation...... OEA is less clear. Prolonged intake of dietary fat (45 energy%) may promote over-consumption of food by decreasing the endogenous levels of OEA, PEA and LEA in the intestine....

  6. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  7. Estimating trajectories of energy intake through childhood and adolescence using linear-spline multilevel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Emmett, Pauline; Cribb, Victoria; Northstone, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D

    2013-07-01

    Methods for the assessment of changes in dietary intake across the life course are underdeveloped. We demonstrate the use of linear-spline multilevel models to summarize energy-intake trajectories through childhood and adolescence and their application as exposures, outcomes, or mediators. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children assessed children's dietary intake several times between ages 3 and 13 years, using both food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 3-day food diaries. We estimated energy-intake trajectories for 12,032 children using linear-spline multilevel models. We then assessed the associations of these trajectories with maternal body mass index (BMI), and later offspring BMI, and also their role in mediating the relation between maternal and offspring BMIs. Models estimated average and individual energy intake at 3 years, and linear changes in energy intake from age 3 to 7 years and from age 7 to 13 years. By including the exposure (in this example, maternal BMI) in the multilevel model, we were able to estimate the average energy-intake trajectories across levels of the exposure. When energy-intake trajectories are the exposure for a later outcome (in this case offspring BMI) or a mediator (between maternal and offspring BMI), results were similar, whether using a two-step process (exporting individual-level intercepts and slopes from multilevel models and using these in linear regression/path analysis), or a single-step process (multivariate multilevel models). Trajectories were similar when FFQs and food diaries were assessed either separately, or when combined into one model. Linear-spline multilevel models provide useful summaries of trajectories of dietary intake that can be used as an exposure, outcome, or mediator.

  8. FINDIET 2007 Survey: energy and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietinen, Pirjo; Paturi, Merja; Reinivuo, Heli; Tapanainen, Heli; Valsta, Liisa M

    2010-06-01

    The National FINDIET surveys are carried out every 5 years to monitor dietary habits and nutrient intake of the adult Finnish population. The latest survey was carried out in 2007. Cross-sectional population-based study. Dietary assessment was carried out using 48 h recall interviews. A picture book of food portions was used to estimate portion sizes and the national Food Composition Database Fineli(R) to calculate nutrient intakes. A representative sample taken in five regions in Finland. A total of 730 men and 846 women aged 24-64 years. The percentage contribution of fat to the total energy intake was 33 % in men and 31 % in women. The respective percentages for SFA in men and women were 13 % and 12 %, respectively, and 0.4 % for trans fatty acids in both genders. The average intakes of folate, vitamin D and fibre fell below the recommended levels, whereas the average salt intake was somewhat higher than the recommendations. Women's diet was higher in protein, dietary fibre and sucrose compared to that of men. According to the FINDIET 2007 Survey, the dietary habits of the adult Finnish population have headed in a positive direction overall. However, although the quality of the fats consumed has continued to improve, and the intake of salt has decreased, they still do not meet the recommended levels of intake. Similarly, the average intakes of folate and vitamin D continue to fall below the recommendations. There is also a need to increase fibre intake and to cut down the intake of sucrose.

  9. High incidence of multinodular toxic goitre in the elderly population in a low iodine intake area vs. high incidence of Graves' disease in the young in a high iodine intake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Pedersen, K M; Vestergaard, H

    1991-01-01

    Little is known about the optimum level of iodine intake for iodine supplementation programmes, or about the effects of the high levels of iodine intake that are found in some countries. We compared the incidence of different types of hyperthyroidism in East-Jutland Denmark with a low average...... that even mild iodine deficiency has a significant effect on population health, since it leads to a high incidence of autonomous thyroid nodules with hyperthyroidism in the elderly population. However, population iodine intake probably should not exceed a level much higher than that necessary to avoid...... iodine intake but no endemic goitre, and the incidence in Iceland with a relatively high iodine intake. Hyperthyroidism was more common in East-Jutland than in Iceland, due to a much higher incidence of multinodular toxic goitre and also of single toxic adenoma. Most of the patients with these diseases...

  10. Time trends in alcohol intake in early pregnancy and official recommendations in Denmark, 1998-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Petersen, Gitte L; Henriksen, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1999, Danish health authorities modified their recommendation to pregnant women, condoning some alcohol intake. In 2007, the recommendation was changed to one of alcohol abstention. We aimed to assess changes in average alcohol intake (drinks/week) and alcohol binge drinking...... in early pregnancy from 1998 to 2013 in relation to the changes in official recommendations in 1999 (condoning some intake) and 2007 (abstention). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University...... on a single occasion), and the timing (gestational week) of these episodes. Additional questions on binge drinking defined as ≥3 drinks on a single occasion were asked separately from 2000. A question assessed the average number of alcohol-containing drinks per week the woman consumed currently at the time...

  11. Radiobiological effects of fractionated intake of 3H-nucleosides by mammalian organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetchueva, M.Eh.

    1987-01-01

    Results of experimental study of fractionated intake of 3 H-TgP and 3 H-TsdP by mice organism are presented. As biological tests changes of testic mass and frequency of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) were chosen. Authetic difference in changes of testis mass indices was observed after a single, three-time and ten-time administration of 3 H-DgP to animal organism. During 10-time 3 H-TsdP incorporation 2.2 times as many cells died than in single intake of equal tritium activity. Similar result is obtained in experiment carried out according DLM technique. Necessity of accounting results of fractionated intake of tritium by mice organism in extrapolation to people is pointed out

  12. Assessment of beverage intake and hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    Water is the main constituent of the human body. It is involved in practically all its functions. It is particularly important for thermoregulation and in the physical and cognitive performance. Water balance reflects water intake and loss. Intake of water is done mainly through consumption of drinking water and beverages (70 to 80%) plus water containing foods (20 to 30%). Water loss is mainly due to excretion of water in urine, faeces and sweat. The interest in the type and quantity of beverage consumption is not new, and numerous approaches have been used to assess beverage intake, but the validity of these approaches has not been well established. There is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of water intake in the general population. Sometimes, the information comes from different sources or from different methodological characteristics which raises problems of the comparability. In the European Union, current epidemiological studies that focus exclusively on beverage intake are scarce. Biomarkers of intake are able to objectively assess dietary intake/status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also overcome the problem of intra-individual diet variability. Furthermore, some methods of measuring dietary intake used biomarkers to validate the data it collects. Biological markers may offer advantages and be able to improve the estimates of dietary intake assessment, which impact into the statistical power of the study. There is a surprising paucity of studies that systematically examine the correlation of beverages intake and hydration biomarker in different populations. A pilot investigation was developed to evaluate the comparative validity and reliability of newly developed interactive multimedia (IMM) versions compared to validated paper-administered (PP) versions of the Hedrick et al. beverage questionnaire. The study showed that the IMM appears to be a valid and reliable measure to assess

  13. Fat intake and injury in female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Kristen E; Burton, Harold W; Dorn, Joan M; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Peter J

    2008-01-03

    Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 +/- 20 vs. 80 +/- 50 g/d) and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 +/- 5 vs. 30 +/- 8 %) compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  14. Effect of amphetamine on human macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Kelly, T H; Fischman, M W

    1995-11-01

    Six male subjects participated in a 15-day residential study examining the effects of amphetamine on macronutrient intake. During the first 11 days, carbohydrate intake was manipulated by providing lunch meals high (155 g) or low (25 g) in carbohydrate. Subjects received oral d-amphetamine (5, 10 mg/70 kg, BID) or placebo. Total daily caloric intake was similar under both lunch conditions (approximately 3400/Kcal), but carbohydrate contributed more energy under the high-carbohydrate condition. Both doses of amphetamine decreased total caloric intake to approximately 2600 Kcal, by decreasing the number of eating bouts, without affecting macronutrient selection. During the last four days subjects received a higher daily dose of amphetamine (30 mg/70 kg in four doses) or placebo, and were allowed to self-select lunch. Although 30 mg amphetamine decreased intake of all macronutrients, the relative contribution of carbohydrate to total caloric intake was increased from 54% to 62%, while the contribution of fat was decreased from 32% to 26% and the contribution of protein was decreased from 14% to 12%. Thus, at a high dose, amphetamine altered the relative contribution of specific macronutrients to total caloric intake.

  15. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kaganov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  16. Fat intake and injury in female runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 % compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  17. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition.

  18. (H2O)-H-2 turnover method as a means to detect bias in estimations of intake of nonbreast milk liquids in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Barros, A; Victora, CG; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    Objective: Firstly, to compare food, and macronutrient intake as obtained from a single 24-h recall and a frequency questionnaire (FQ) covering a 14-day period in breast-fed infants aged 4 months of age. Secondly, nonbreast milk water intake (NB-WI, ml/day) was used as an estimation of energy and

  19. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencova Erika

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054 mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084 mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010 and 0.018 (SD 0.008 mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake

  20. Food intake and nutritional status after gastrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisballe, S; Buus, S; Lund, B

    1986-01-01

    Food intake and nutritional status was studied in 67 patients, who had had a gastrectomy 2-30 years earlier, and in a randomly selected, matched group of healthy persons. The gastrectomized patients weighed less than the control persons (women 56.4 +/- 9.5 vs 61.4 +/- 6.9 kg; P less than 0.05; men.......01). The serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase was raised and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol reduced in the gastrectomized group. None of these results could be explained from the nutritional study as both the intake of energy and protein and the intake of calcium...

  1. The nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of MOW clients and the need for further targeted strategies to enhance intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen E; Manning, Fiona; McMahon, Anne T; Galea, Sarah; Evans, Kaitlyn

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of literature about the nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of Meals on Wheels (MOW) clients. The current study aimed to determine the nutritional status and the adequacy of energy and protein intakes of MOW clients. Forty-two clients were recruited from two MOW services in the Illawarra region of Australia for assessment of their nutritional status, using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA(®)). Estimated energy and protein intakes for a MOW day were compared to a non-MOW day and average daily energy and protein intakes were assessed against estimated daily requirements. A single dietitian performed all assessments and home based interviews to explore the client's perception of the service. Mean daily energy intake (7593 (±2012) kJ) was not significantly different to estimated requirements (7720 (±975) kJ) (P = 0.480), while mean daily protein intake was higher (78.7 (±23.4) g) than calculated requirements (68.4 (±10.8) g; P = 0.009). However 16 clients were identified as at risk of malnutrition and 2 were malnourished; consuming 2072 kJ (P = 0.000) less energy and 20.4 g less protein (P = 0.004) per day compared to well-nourished clients. MOW clients are at risk of being poorly nourished and meals delivered by the service provide an important contribution to overall intakes. These findings support the need for regular nutrition screening and dietary monitoring in this high risk group, to identify those for whom additional strategies may be indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Various Databases for Estimation of Dietary Polyphenol Intake in the Population of Polish Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Witkowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to estimate the consumption of polyphenols in a population of 6661 subjects aged between 20 and 74 years representing a cross-section of the Polish society, and the second objective was to compare the intakes of flavonoids calculated on the basis of the two commonly used databases. Daily food consumption data were collected in 2003–2005 using a single 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of total polyphenols was estimated using an online Phenol-Explorer database, and flavonoid intake was determined using following data sources: the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA database combined of flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the Phenol-Explorer database. Total polyphenol intake, which was calculated with the Phenol-Explorer database, was 989 mg/day with the major contributions of phenolic acids 556 mg/day and flavonoids 403.5 mg/day. The flavonoid intake calculated on the basis of the USDA databases was 525 mg/day. This study found that tea is the primary source of polyphenols and flavonoids for the studied population, including mainly flavanols, while coffee is the most important contributor of phenolic acids, mostly hydroxycinnamic acids. Our study also demonstrated that flavonoid intakes estimated according to various databases may substantially differ. Further work should be undertaken to expand polyphenol databases to better reflect their food contents.

  3. INTAKE OF TROPICAL TANNINIFEROUS PLANTS BY GOATS AND SHEEP WHEN OFFERED AS A SOLE FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Alonso-Díaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The intake of tropical tanniniferous plants (TTP (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Piscidia piscipula and Acacia pennatula when offered as a single feed to small ruminants could help to design a supplementation strategy looking for an anthelmintic effect. The objectives of the current study were: i to determine the chemical composition of TTP offered to goats and sheep, ii to determine and compare the total intake of TTP when offered as a single feed to goats and sheep. Adult sheep and goats, with experience in the intake of TTP, were allocated to individual pens. Three consecutive experimental period (15 d separated by seven days were used. Each period consisted of 10 d adaptation and 5 days of experiment. During adaptation animals received 40 g of leaves of each TTP plant, fresh grass and concentrate feed on a daily basis. During the experimental period animals were fed ad libitum only with the fodder of a sole TTP. Between each period, animals were fed with fresh grass (ad libitum and concentrate (200 g-1 day. Crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and lignin (L were determined from each TTP. Total polyphenols (TP, total tannins (TT and condensed tannins (CT were also determined. During each experimental period, refused fodder and intake were measured every 24 h. A multivariate analysis was used in order to determine the effect of factors (animal species, plant species and individual animal within specie on the dry matter intake. Factors with statistical effect (P

  4. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Beaton, Elizabeth; Wright, Janine; Devenish, Gemma; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2018-01-01

    There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2...

  5. Using metabolomics to evaluate food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    Improving dietary assessment is essential for modern nutritional epidemiology. This chapter discusses the potential of metabolomics for the identification of new biomarkers of intake and presents the first candidate biomarkers discovered using this approach. It then describes the challenges...

  6. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...... weaker than in 24h urine samples, indicating that the 24h urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids is a stronger biomarker of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine. In Paper II, the biokinetic profiles of some of the most important dietary......-individual variation in the absorption and urinary recovery of the flavonoids, and this makes it very difficult to separate individuals according to intake by use of the flavonoid biomarker in urine. The intra-individual variation was on the contrary low, and Paper II therefore supports the assumption, that 24h...

  7. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  8. Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Related Links CDC Food Safety Adolescent and School Health BAM! Body and Mind Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake Recommend ...

  9. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  10. Long-term intake of iron fortified wholemeal rye bread appears to benefit iron status of young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Nielsen, Sussi Bæch; Thomsen, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of intake of iron fortified, wholemeal rye bread on iron status of young women with low iron stores was evaluated in a 5 month single-blind intervention study. Two parallel groups of women (20-38 y) were given 144 g of rye bread/d either fortified with 6 mg iron as ferrous fumarate/100...... stores of young women with poor iron status which were otherwise reduced by intake of the unfortified control bread....

  11. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  12. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe th...

  13. Variable Cycle Intake for Reverse Core Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M (Inventor); Staubach, Joseph B (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas generator for a reverse core engine propulsion system has a variable cycle intake for the gas generator, which variable cycle intake includes a duct system. The duct system is configured for being selectively disposed in a first position and a second position, wherein free stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the first position, and fan stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the second position.

  14. Food intake in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaiana Marques Filizola Vaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the intake of energy and nutrients by individuals on hemodialysis, following especific recommendations for this population and according to Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A cross-sectional study, 118 adult patients, considered stable from, ten dialysis centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Dietary intake was estimated by six 24-hour recalls, and classified as adequate or inadequate, according to specific recommendations for individuals undergoing dialysis and that recommended for a healthy diet. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Average dietary intake of 2022.40 ± 283.70 kcal/day; 31.18 kcal/kg/day; 55.03 ± 4.20% carbohydrate; 30.23 ± 3.71% lipid, 1.18 ± 0.23 g protein/kg/day. Important prevalences of inadequacy were observed for the intake of calories (39.0%, protein (39.0% and other nutrients such as retinol (94.9%, saturated fat (87.3%, cholesterol (61,9%, iron (61.0%, potassium (60.2% and zinc (45.0%. Patients had a low intake of fruit food group (1.22 ± 0.89 servings and vegetables (1.76 ± 1.01 servings, dairy products (0.57 ± 0.43 servings and high intake of food group of oils and fats (3.45 ± 0.95 servings, sugars and sweets (1.55 ± 0.77 servings. Conclusion: Observed food consumption imbalance, characterized by excess of oils and fats, especially saturated oils and cholesterol, sugars and sweets, parallel to low intake of fruits and vegetables and dairy products. A considerable percentage of patients did not intake the minimum recommended of calories, protein, retinol, iron, zinc and potassium.

  15. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  16. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, M C; Larrañaga, N; Grioni, S; van den Berg, S W; Ferrari, P; Salvini, S; Benetou, V; Linseisen, J; Wirfält, E; Rinaldi, S; Jenab, M; Halkjaer, J; Jakobsen, M U; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Moutsiou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lauria, C; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Hjartåker, A; Parr, C L; Tormo, M J; Sanchez, M J; Manjer, J; Hellstrom, V; Mulligan, A; Spencer, E A; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate 2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.

  17. Central and peripheral control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, M M I

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  18. Central and peripheral control of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  19. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dwyer, Johanna T; Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2010-12-01

    To assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS conducted in 2002 and 2008. The FITS 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of US children from birth through age 47 months. Usual nutrient intakes derived from foods, beverages, and supplements were ascertained using a telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall. Infants aged birth to 5 months (n=382) and 6 to 11 months (n=505), toddlers aged 12 to 23 months (n=925), and preschoolers aged 24 to 47 months (n=1,461) were surveyed. All primary caregivers completed one 24-hour dietary recall and a random subsample (n=701) completed a second 24-hour dietary recall. The personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation was used to estimate the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, as well as the proportions below and above cutoff values defined by the Dietary Reference Intakes or the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Usual nutrient intakes met or exceeded energy and protein requirements with minimal risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The usual intakes of antioxidants, B vitamins, bone-related nutrients, and other micronutrients were adequate relative to the Adequate Intakes or Estimated Average Requirements, except for iron and zinc in a small subset of older infants, and vitamin E and potassium in toddlers and preschoolers. Intakes of synthetic folate, preformed vitamin A, zinc, and sodium exceeded Tolerable Upper Intake Level in a significant proportion of toddlers and preschoolers. Macronutrient distributions were within acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, except for dietary fat, in some toddlers and preschoolers. Dietary fiber was low in the vast majority of toddlers and preschoolers, and saturated fat intakes exceeded

  20. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-07-22

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006-2015). To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011), and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council. In the Netherlands, the salt content of bread, certain sauces, soups

  1. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. M. Temme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011–2016 and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006–2015. Methods. To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011, and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. Results. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council

  2. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  3. Nutrient Intake among Pregnant Teenage Girls Attending Ante-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A standardised interviewer administered Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to asses the dietary intake. Nutrient calculator was used to determine the nutrient intake of the study participant. Results: The intakes of all selected nutrients were significantly lower than the RDA. Protein intake was significantly associated ...

  4. Evaluation of energy and macronutrient intake of black women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macronutrient intake was determined using a validated Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (QFFQ). Median macronutrient intake was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) as applicable. Median energy, macronutrient and cholesterol intake of younger and older women was compared using ...

  5. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air... type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system...

  6. Global dietary calcium intake among adults: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Low calcium intake may adversely affect bone health in adults. Recognizing the presence of low calcium intake is necessary to develop national strategies to optimize intake. To highlight regions where calcium intake should be improved, we systematically searched for the most representative ...

  7. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  8. Fruit and vegetable intake and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, T; Dallongeville, J; Evans, A; Ducimetierre, P; Amouyel, P; Yarnell, J; Bingham, A; Kee, F; Dauchet, L

    2012-11-01

    In cohort studies, fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is associated with lower cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Former smokers often have a higher F&V intake than current smokers. If a high intake of F&V precedes smoking cessation, the latter may explain the favorable association between F&V intake and CVD among smokers. The objective was to assess whether higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. The study population comprised 1056 male smokers from Lille (France) and Belfast (Northern Ireland) aged 50-59 years on inclusion in 1991. At baseline, participants completed self-administered questionnaires related to smoking habits, demographic, socioeconomic factors and diet. At the 10-year follow-up, smoking habits were assessed by mailed questionnaire. After 10 years, 590 out of 1056 smokers had quit smoking (70.7% of smoker in Lille and 37.8% in Belfast). After adjusting for center, consumption of F&V was associated with quitting (odds ratio (OR) for high versus low F&V intake: 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.22-2.45); P-trend=0.002). After further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and medical diet, the association was still statistically significant (OR: 1.59; 95% CI (1.12-2.27); P-trend = 0.01). In a model fully adjusted for age, smoking intensity, alcohol consumption and physical activity, the association was no longer significant (P = 0.14). Higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. Hence, smoking cessation could affect the causal interpretation of the association between F&V and CVD in smokers.

  9. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  10. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) (ΣOTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of ΣOTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day -1 , which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day -1 set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the ΣOTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  11. Energy intake compensation after 3 weeks of restricted energy intake in young and elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Stoppelenburg, J.A.; Graaf, de C.; Siebelink, E.; Mars, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives - Decreased energy intake in older persons poses these people at risk of progressive weight loss. It may result from a failure to regulate energy intake and expenditure after periods of underfeeding. The objective of this study was to investigate if a period of underfeeding differentially

  12. Development of Calculation Module for Intake Retention Functions based on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Il; Kim, Jang-Lyul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In internal dosimetry, intake retention and excretion functions are essential to estimate intake activity using bioassay sample such as whole body counter, lung counter, and urine sample. Even though ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection)provides the functions in some ICRP publications, it is needed to calculate the functions because the functions from the publications are provided for very limited time. Thus, some computer program are generally used to calculate intake retention and excretion functions and estimate intake activity. OIR (Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides) will be published soon by ICRP, which totally replaces existing internal dosimetry models and relevant data including intake retention and excretion functions. Thus, the calculation tool for the functions is needed based on OIR. In this study, we developed calculation module for intake retention and excretion functions based on OIR using C++ programming language with Intel Math Kernel Library. In this study, we developed the intake retention and excretion function calculation module based on OIR using C++ programing language.

  13. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M; Nielsen, MA; Blitz, B

    2006-01-01

    Background : Low food intake is a frequent problem in undernourished hospital patients. Objective: To study whether a reorganization of a hospital catering system enabling patients to choose their evening meal individually, in combination with an increase in the energy density of the food....... Conclusions: Reorganization of a hospital catering system can increase energy and protein intake and reduce waste substantially....

  14. Development of Calculation Module for Intake Retention Functions based on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki; Lee, Jong-Il; Kim, Jang-Lyul

    2014-01-01

    In internal dosimetry, intake retention and excretion functions are essential to estimate intake activity using bioassay sample such as whole body counter, lung counter, and urine sample. Even though ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection)provides the functions in some ICRP publications, it is needed to calculate the functions because the functions from the publications are provided for very limited time. Thus, some computer program are generally used to calculate intake retention and excretion functions and estimate intake activity. OIR (Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides) will be published soon by ICRP, which totally replaces existing internal dosimetry models and relevant data including intake retention and excretion functions. Thus, the calculation tool for the functions is needed based on OIR. In this study, we developed calculation module for intake retention and excretion functions based on OIR using C++ programming language with Intel Math Kernel Library. In this study, we developed the intake retention and excretion function calculation module based on OIR using C++ programing language

  15. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435

  17. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  18. [Food intake regulation - 2nd part].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunerová, Ludmila; Anděl, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The review article summarizes the principles of hedonic regulation of food intake which represents the food intake independent on the maintenance of homeostasis. The theory describing hedonic regulation, so called Incentive Salience Theory, comprises three major processes: liking (positive attribution to food stimulus), wanting (motivation to gain it) and learning (identification of these stimuli and distinguishing them from those connected with aversive reaction). Neuronal reward circuits are the anatomical and functional substrates of hedonic regulation. They react to gustatory and olfactory (or visual) stimuli associated with food intake. A food item is preferred in case its consumption is connected with a pleasant feeling thus promoting the behavioural reaction. The probability of this reaction after repetitive exposure to such a stimulus is increased (learned preference). On the contrary, learned aversion after repetitive exposure is connected with avoidance of a food item associated with a negative feeling. Main mediators of hedonic regulation are endocannabinoids, opioids and monoamines (dopamine, serotonin). Dopamine in dorsal striatum via D2 receptors generates food motivation as a key means of survival, however in ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) is responsible for motivation to food bringing pleasure. Serotonin via its receptors 5-HT1A a T-HT2C decreases intake of palatable food. It plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, particularly mental anorexia. There, a food restriction represents a kind of automedication to constitutionally pathologically increased serotonin levels. Detailed understanding of processes regulating food intake is a key to new pharmacological interventions in eating disorders.

  19. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  20. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New evidence indicates that increased dietary protein ingestion promotes health and recovery from illness, and also maintains functionality in older adults. The present study aimed to investigate whether a novel food service concept with protein-supplementation would increase protein...... and energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. METHODS: A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted. Eighty-four participants at nutritional risk, recruited from the departments of Oncology, Orthopaedics and Urology, were included. The intervention group (IG) received...... of hospital stay did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk....

  1. Overestimation of infant and toddler energy intake by 24-h recall compared with weighed food records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jennifer O; Butte, Nancy F; Mendoza, Patricia M; Wilson, Theresa A; Hodges, Eric A; Reidy, Kathleen C; Deming, Denise

    2008-08-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls have been used in large surveys of infant and toddler energy intake, but the accuracy of the method for young children is not well documented. We aimed to determine the accuracy of infant and toddler energy intakes by a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-h recall as compared with 3-d weighed food records. A within-subjects design was used in which a 24-h recall and 3-d weighed food records were completed within 2 wk by 157 mothers (56 non-Hispanic white, 51 non-Hispanic black, and 50 Hispanic) of 7-11-mo-old infants or 12-24-mo-old toddlers. Child and caregiver anthropometrics, child eating patterns, and caregiver demographics and social desirability were evaluated as correlates of reporting bias. Intakes based on 3-d weighed food records were within 5% of estimated energy requirements. Compared with the 3-d weighed food records, the 24-h recall overestimated energy intake by 13% among infants (740 +/- 154 and 833 +/- 255 kcal, respectively) and by 29% among toddlers (885 +/- 197 and 1140 +/- 299 kcal, respectively). Eating patterns (ie, frequency and location) did not differ appreciably between methods. Macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were higher by 24-h recall than by 3-d weighed food record. Dairy and grains contributed the most energy to the diet and accounted for 74% and 54% of the overestimation seen in infants and toddlers, respectively. Greater overestimation was associated with a greater number of food items reported by the caregiver and lower child weight-for-length z scores. The use of a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-h recall may significantly overestimate infant or toddler energy and nutrient intakes because of portion size estimation errors.

  2. Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and allcause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been associated with modestly lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in meta-analyses; however, it is unclear whether these are causal associations. We tested first whether coffee intake is associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality...... observationally; second, whether genetic variations previously associated with caffeine intake are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variations are associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: First, we used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard......- and age adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine genetic associations with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 112 509 Danes. Finally, we used sex and age-adjusted logistic regression models to examine genetic associations with ischaemic heart disease including...

  3. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    calculation of the bivariate correlation coefficients is the common approach when using only one reference method. Back in 2002, a strictly controlled dietary intervention study indicated that the sum of 7 different flavonoid aglycones excreted in 24h urine samples potentially could be used as a biomarker...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...

  4. Measuring food intake with digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

    2014-01-01

    The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. APPETITE PREDICTS INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN PATIENTS RECEIVING PERITONEAL DIALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Valerie; Balaam, Sarah; Orazio, Linda; Bates, Annerley; Badve, Sunil V; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Katrina L

    2016-06-01

    Sub-optimal nutrition status is common amongst patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) and leads to poor clinical outcome. This population experiences multi-factorial challenges to achieving optimal nutritional status, particularly driven by inadequate intake. The aim of this investigation was to identify factors associated with inadequate protein intake and sub-optimal nutritional status in patients undergoing PD. This was a cross-sectional study of 67 adult patients receiving PD (mean age 59 ± 14 years; 57% male) within a single centre. Participants were consecutively recruited and interviewed by renal dietitians, collecting: Subjective Global Assessment (SGA); quality of life (using EQ-5D); dietary intake (via dietary interview); and appetite (using Appetite and Diet Assessment Tool). Participant demographics were obtained via survey or medical charts. Main outcome measures were inadequate dietary protein intake (anorexia) was reported in 62% (18/29) of participants with inadequate protein malnourished patients reported anorexia versus 12 (23%) of the well-nourished patients (p = 0.0001). Anorexia was a key risk factor for inadequate protein intake and malnutrition in patients undergoing PD. These findings highlight a need to closely monitor patients with appetite disturbances. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  6. [Survey on diet and nutrition intake for customers from out-home eating in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Xiang, Xuesong; Li, Xiaoqin; He, Yuna; Yang, Yuexin

    2015-03-01

    To assess dietary intake of customers from out-home eating, and evaluate their energy and main nutrition closely related with chronic disease consumption in one dinner. On dinner time (lunch or supper), 2204 customers randomly selected in six middle-level table-service restaurants in Beijing, were investigated their food consumption by single-blind recording their ordered dishes weight before and after eating. According to the dish recipes, cooking way, and food composition database or measured data, food consumption and energy, protein, fat and sodium intake were evaluated. The mean intake of foods for a standardized man per dinner included 76 g cereals, 162 g vegetables, 11 g fruits, 128g meat, 50g fishery products, 10g eggs, 12 g legumes, 15 g pure energy food, 28 g oil, 7 g salt, 68. 1 g juice, and 7. 3 g alcohol, with 4648 kJ energy, 54. 6 g protein, 62. 3 g fat, 88. 0 g carbohydrate, 10. 7 g cholesterol and 2920 mg sodium. The percentage for energy suppliers were respectively protein 20. 7%, fat 52. 7%, carbohydrate 29. 4%. Contrast to 4180 kJ/1000 kcal energy intake, the food density for oil and salt was 2 times, and meat 3 times over that suggested by Chinese Dietary Pagoda. Out-home eating per dinner supplies nearly daily-need fat and sodium, that partially contributes to high intake of animal foods.

  7. A Novel Wearable Device for Food Intake and Physical Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Presence of speech and motion artifacts has been shown to impact the performance of wearable sensor systems used for automatic detection of food intake. This work presents a novel wearable device which can detect food intake even when the user is physically active and/or talking. The device consists of a piezoelectric strain sensor placed on the temporalis muscle, an accelerometer, and a data acquisition module connected to the temple of eyeglasses. Data from 10 participants was collected while they performed activities including quiet sitting, talking, eating while sitting, eating while walking, and walking. Piezoelectric strain sensor and accelerometer signals were divided into non-overlapping epochs of 3 s; four features were computed for each signal. To differentiate between eating and not eating, as well as between sedentary postures and physical activity, two multiclass classification approaches are presented. The first approach used a single classifier with sensor fusion and the second approach used two-stage classification. The best results were achieved when two separate linear support vector machine (SVM classifiers were trained for food intake and activity detection, and their results were combined using a decision tree (two-stage classification to determine the final class. This approach resulted in an average F1-score of 99.85% and area under the curve (AUC of 0.99 for multiclass classification. With its ability to differentiate between food intake and activity level, this device may potentially be used for tracking both energy intake and energy expenditure.

  8. Dietary Antioxidant and Flavonoid Intakes Are Reduced in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine sources and patterns of antioxidant and flavonoid intakes in the elderly (61–74 yrs in comparison with young (20–40 yrs and middle age (41–60 yrs groups in a cross-sectional study. More than 6000 subjects of both genders, aged 20–74 years, participants of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ took part in this study. Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and flavonoid content (FC were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents in foods. Food consumption, dietary TAC, and FC were significantly lower in the elderly, especially elderly women in comparison to the young and middle age groups. The consumption of tea, coffee, and apples was associated with the largest contribution to dietary TAC and FC in all participants. Despite high nutrient density of the energy-adjusted diet of ageing people, the elderly consumed the lowest amounts of antioxidants and flavonoids due to the lowest food intake.

  9. Usual Vitamin Intakes by Mexican Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; López-Olmedo, Nancy; García-Guerra, Armando; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Villalpando, Salvador; Carriquiry, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy. The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES). ENSANUT 2012 is a cross-sectional probabilistic survey representative of the Mexican population. Dietary information was collected by using the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method (n = 10,096) with a repeated measurement on a subsample (n = 889) to permit adjustment for intraindividual variability with the use of the Iowa State University method. Mean usual intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12 were calculated for children aged 1-4 y (CH1-4y), children aged 5-11 y (CH5-11y), adolescents aged 12-19 y, and adults aged ≥20 y. In all of the age groups, prevalences of inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E were the highest (77-99% of adults and adolescents and 53-95% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y) and those of folate and vitamin A were intermediate (47-70% of adults and adolescents, 15-23% of CH5-11y and 8-13% of CH1-4y), whereas those of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, and C were the lowest (0-37% of adults, 1-27% of adolescents, and 0-2.4% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y). With few exceptions, the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for vitamins were observed in the poorest populations (rural South region and the lowest tertile of SES). The intake of vitamins among Mexicans is inadequate overall. Information collected by ENSANUT can help target food assistance programs and develop strategies to prevent vitamin deficiencies. © 2016 American Society

  10. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    ratings of prospective food consumption between lunch and dinner, and after dinner than the participants who received artificial sweetener supplements. Both groups had a high energy intake during the test day, but the sucrose supplements induced a higher energy intake, compared with the artificial...... chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, salty, fatty, and savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. The results suggest that it could be beneficial to use dark chocolate as a substitute for milk chocolate. In summary, these results suggest...

  11. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514

  12. Food intake regulation in children. Fat and sugar substitutes and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Fisher, J O

    1997-05-23

    A series of experiments exploring children's responsiveness to manipulations of energy density and macronutrient content of foods have been reviewed to assess the nutritional impact of macronutrient substitutes on children's intake. In these experiments, the focus is on the extent to which the energy content of foods was a salient factor influencing children's food intake, and macronutrient substitutes were used as tools to investigate this issue. Therefore, although several different macronutrient substitutes have been used in this research, we do not have a parametric set of experiments systematically assessing the impact of a variety of macronutrient substitutes. Given this, what can we conclude from the existing data? When the energy density and macronutrient content of foods is altered through the use of macronutrient substitutes that reduce the energy content of foods, children tend to adjust for the missing energy, although this adjustment may be partial and incomplete. This suggests the possibility that when macronutrient substitutes are used to reduce the energy content of foods, children's energy intake may be reduced. This adjustment, however, will most likely be less than a "calorie for calorie" reduction. In addition, even among young children, there are individual differences in the extent to which children adjust their intake in response to macronutrient and energy manipulations. The data are more extensive and particularly clear for cases in which CHO manipulations are used to alter energy density, but there is evidence for adjustments in energy intake in response to alterations of the fat content of the diet. The compensation for energy is not macronutrient specific; that is, when the fat content of food is reduced to reduce energy density of foods, children do not selectively consume fat in subsequent meals. This means that manipulations of macronutrient content of foods that reduce foods' energy content may not result in alterations of energy

  13. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. With this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer...

  14. Selection of methodology to assess food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, G.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Ovesen, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the EFCOSUM project was to develop a method to estimate both acute and usual consumption levels in European countries and for the sake of comparison, a common basic method for dietary assessment was needed. The method should allow a reliable comparison of the intake of relevant

  15. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations.

  16. Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation patterns in sheep given cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and fine-stem stylo legume hays as ... utilisation, the negative nitrogen retentions might indicate the inadequacy of the specific legume hays used as nitrogen supplementary feeds to sheep fed a basal diet

  17. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  18. Monitoring the intake of pasture and concentrates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administrator

    was conducted to evaluate the potential of "excretal NIRS", a methodology that associates excretal spectral information in .... lucerne, respectively, and pasture intake was evaluated during the last two days of each grazing period ... excreta collection devices were coated with disposable diapers and were emptied every 6 h.

  19. Exercise and the regulation of energy intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, AJW; Ammar, AA; Benthem, B; van Dijk, G; Sodersten, PAT; Södersten, Per A.T.

    Energy balance is the resultant of ingested calories and energy expenditure and is generally maintained within narrow limits over prolonged periods. Exercise leads to an increase in energy expenditure which is, in the long-term, counteracted by increased energy intake. Evidence for this comes from a

  20. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poda, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry

  1. Assessment of intake from the diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, R.; Müller, D.; Lambe, J.; Löwik, M.R.H.; Klaveren, J. van; Kleiner, J.; Massey, R.; Mayer, S.; Urieta, I.; Verger, P.; Visconti, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure assessment is one of the key parts of the risk assessment process. Only intake of toxicologically significant amounts can lead to adverse health effects even for a relatively toxic substance. In the case of chemicals in foods this is based on three major aspects: (i) how to determine

  2. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mensink, G. B. M.; Fletcher, R.; Gurinovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative diet...

  3. Dietary intake, FTO genetic variants and adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Qibin; Downer, Mary K; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    The FTO gene harbors variation with the strongest effect on adiposity and obesity risk. Previous data support a role for FTO variation in influencing food intake. We conducted a combined analysis of 16,094 boys and girls aged 1–18 years from 14 studies to examine the following: 1) the association...

  4. Dietary protein intake and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortorici, Amanda R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the 'Modification of Diet in Renal Disease' (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their ketoanalogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially on nondialysis days. The LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counseling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake, and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting.

  5. Estimating salt intake in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A simple and valid alternative for 24-hour urine collection to estimate populational 24-hour urinary sodium excretion would be desirable for monitoring sodium intake in populations. AIM: To assess the validity of the predicted 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine and two ...

  6. Singled out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Frank

    2004-03-01

    The increasing use of single use medical devices is being driven by a growing awareness of iatrogenic (from the Greek; caused by the doctor) and nosocomial infections. Public health perceptions relating to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, specifically variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B are high on the political agenda and a matter of concern to healthcare professionals.

  7. Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gagné

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe traditional food (TF consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design. A cross-sectional study. Methods. Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217. TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results. A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months. Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively. In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05 higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion. Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits.

  8. Intake condition requirements for biodiesel modulated kinetic combustion concept to achieve a simultaneous NOx and soot removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keunsoo; Oh, Seungmook; Lee, Yonggyu; Lee, Sunyoup; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MK LTC combustion was investigated under various intake conditions. • BD20 MK combustion achieved NO x and soot removal at achievable intake conditions. • The BD20 best point showed lower ISFC and COV IMEP than the diesel best point. • Higher intake pressure showed higher efficiency at all intake oxygen concentrations. • Simultaneous NO x and soot removal required 200 kPa intake pressure at a medium load. - Abstract: The fuel oxygen contained in oxygenated fuels can help reduce harmful engine-out emissions and improve the combustion process in compression-ignition engines. The use of soybean methylene ether biodiesel in the low-temperature combustion (LTC) regime has the potential to suppress soot formation and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions even further, which eventually alleviates the burden of the after-treatment system. In the present study, the effects of the intake pressure and injection timing on the combustion and emissions of the modulated kinetic (MK) combustion concept with ultra-low sulfur diesel and 20% biodiesel blended fuel (BD20) were investigated in a single-cylinder CI engine. The intake pressure was varied from 100 kPa to 250 kPa for the intake oxygen concentration range of 11–17%. The engine test results indicate that simultaneous reductions in both the NO x and soot emissions were realized under the MK LTC combustion regime. At the best operating point, BD20 achieved the simultaneous NO x and soot removal at a lower intake pressure and lower EGR level than diesel, which led to better fuel economy. In addition, BD20 achieved acceptable levels of combustion stability and noise level

  9. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiaocun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT, 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy ( 3 servings/d diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain compared to diets low

  10. Flavonoid intake and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Kerry L; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richard L

    2015-05-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, chocolate, red wine, fruit, and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoids in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. The objective was to explore the association between flavonoid intake and risk of 5-y mortality from all causes by using 2 comprehensive food composition databases to assess flavonoid intake. The study population included 1063 randomly selected women aged >75 y. All-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortalities were assessed over 5 y of follow-up through the Western Australia Data Linkage System. Two estimates of flavonoid intake (total flavonoidUSDA and total flavonoidPE) were determined by using food composition data from the USDA and the Phenol-Explorer (PE) databases, respectively. During the 5-y follow-up period, 129 (12%) deaths were documented. Participants with high total flavonoid intake were at lower risk [multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI)] of 5-y all-cause mortality than those with low total flavonoid consumption [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.37 (0.22, 0.58); total flavonoidPE: 0.36 (0.22, 0.60)]. Similar beneficial relations were observed for both cardiovascular disease mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.34 (0.17, 0.69); flavonoidPE: 0.32 (0.16, 0.61)] and cancer mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.25 (0.10, 0.62); flavonoidPE: 0.26 (0.11, 0.62)]. Using the most comprehensive flavonoid databases, we provide evidence that high consumption of flavonoids is associated with reduced risk of mortality in older women. The benefits of flavonoids may extend to the etiology of cancer and cardiovascular disease. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M.; Nielsen, M. A.; Biltz, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Low food intake is a frequent problem in undernourished hospital patients. Objective: To study whether a reorganization of a hospital catering system enabling patients to choose their evening meal individually, in combination with an increase in the energy density of the food, increases......: Reorganization of a hospital catering system can increase energy and protein intake and reduce waste substantially. Keywords: hospital food; nutritional risk; undernutrition...

  12. Hidden vegetables: an effective strategy to reduce energy intake and increase vegetable intake in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-04-01

    The overconsumption of energy-dense foods leads to excessive energy intakes. The substitution of low-energy-dense vegetables for foods higher in energy density can help decrease energy intakes but may be difficult to implement if individuals dislike the taste of vegetables. We investigated whether incorporating puréed vegetables to decrease the energy density of entrées at multiple meals reduced daily energy intakes and increased daily vegetable intakes. In this crossover study, 20 men and 21 women ate ad libitum breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 3 wk. Across conditions, entrées at meals varied in energy density from standard versions (100% condition) to reduced versions (85% and 75% conditions) by the covert incorporation of 3 or 4.5 times the amount of puréed vegetables. Entrées were accompanied by unmanipulated side dishes. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals. Subjects consumed a consistent weight of foods across conditions of energy density; thus, the daily energy intake significantly decreased by 202 ± 60 kcal in the 85% condition (P kcal in the 75% condition (P Daily vegetable consumption significantly increased from 270 ± 17 g of vegetables in the 100% condition to 487 ± 25 g of vegetables in the 75% condition (P < 0.0001). Despite the decreased energy intake, ratings of hunger and fullness did not significantly differ across conditions. Entrées were rated as similar in palatability across conditions. Large amounts of puréed vegetables can be incorporated into various foods to decrease the energy density. This strategy can lead to substantial reductions in energy intakes and increases in vegetable intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01165086.

  13. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.

  14. Strategies to reduce sodium intake in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henney, Jane E; Taylor, Christine Lewis; Boon, Caitlin S

    2010-01-01

    "Reducing the intake of sodium is an important public health goal for Americans. Since the 1970s, an array of public health interventions and national dietary guidelines has sought to reduce sodium intake. However, the U.S...

  15. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feed intake levels on digestibility, feed intake, growth, feed efficiency and .... phosphorus and crude protein (N X 6.25) according to the methods of the .... supported by a parallel relationship between the ME content of .... dilution by saliva.

  16. An investigation of maternal food intake and maternal food talk as predictors of child food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Gelman, Susan A; Viechnicki, Gail B; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2018-08-01

    Though parental modeling is thought to play a critical role in promoting children's healthy eating, little research has examined maternal food intake and maternal food talk as independent predictors of children's food intake. The present study examines maternal food talk during a structured eating protocol, in which mothers and their children had the opportunity to eat a series of familiar and unfamiliar vegetables and desserts. Several aspects of maternal talk during the protocol were coded, including overall food talk, directives, pronoun use, and questions. This study analyzed the predictors of maternal food talk and whether maternal food talk and maternal food intake predicted children's food intake during the protocol. Higher maternal body mass index (BMI) predicted lower amounts of food talk, pronoun use, and questions. Higher child BMI z-scores predicted more first person pronouns and more wh-questions within maternal food talk. Mothers of older children used fewer directives, fewer second person pronouns, and fewer yes/no questions. However, maternal food talk (overall and specific types of food talk) did not predict children's food intake. Instead, the most robust predictor of children's food intake during this protocol was the amount of food that mothers ate while sitting with their children. These findings emphasize the importance of modeling healthy eating through action and have implications for designing interventions to provide parents with more effective tools to promote their children's healthy eating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Kibblewhite; Alice Nettleton; Rachael McLean; Jillian Haszard; Elizabeth Fleming; Devonia Kruimer; Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition...

  18. A variant in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and variants near the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) do not influence dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Angquist, Lars; Christiansen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the role of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) and variants near the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) in modulating habitual intake of total energy and macronutrients, glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary energy density, and energy from 20 food groups in adults...... with intake of energy from whole grains (P >or= 0.04). These associations did not remain significant after controlling for multiple testing. The outcome of this study indicates that polymorphisms in the FTO gene and near the MC4R gene do not have a role in regulating food intake and preference for specific....... In a population-based sample of 756 healthy adult twin pairs, we studied associations between FTO rs9939609, near-MC4R rs12970134, rs17700633, and rs17782313 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and habitual dietary intake. Habitual dietary intake was assessed by a 247-question FFQ. Nontransformed variables...

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Response of appetite and potential appetite regulators following intake of high energy nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sadia; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Wright, Charlotte; Tsiountsioura, Melina; Arvanitidou, Eirini-Iro; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-12-01

    The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P appetite measures were not significantly different between HENSD and PLACEBO trials. Correlations for the within participant relations between the responses of plasma hormones and appetite scores were significant (P < 0.05) for PYY and insulin but not CCK. The energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENDS trial but relative increase in energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of Caffeine Intake on Erectile Dysfunction in US Men: Results from NHANES 2001-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Lopez

    Full Text Available Caffeine is consumed by more than 85% of adults and little is known about its role on erectile dysfunction (ED in population-based studies. We investigated the association of caffeine intake and caffeinated beverages with ED, and whether these associations vary among comorbidities for ED.Data were analyzed for 3724 men (≥20 years old who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. ED was assessed by a single question during a self-paced, computer-assisted self-interview. We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data to estimate caffeine intake (mg/day. Multivariable logistic regression analyses using appropriate sampling weights were conducted.We found that men in the 3rd (85-170 mg/day and 4th (171-303 mg/day quintiles of caffeine intake were less likely to report ED compared to men in the lowest 1st quintile (0-7 mg/day [OR: 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.89; and OR: 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.97, respectively], but no evidence for a trend. Similarly, among overweight/obese and hypertensive men, there was an inverse association between higher quintiles of caffeine intake and ED compared to men in the lowest 1st quintile, P≤0.05 for each quintile. However, only among men without diabetes we found a similar inverse association (Ptrend = 0.01.Caffeine intake reduced the odds of prevalent ED, especially an intake equivalent to approximately 2-3 daily cups of coffee (170-375 mg/day. This reduction was also observed among overweight/obese and hypertensive, but not among diabetic men. Yet, these associations are warranted to be investigated in prospective studies.

  2. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped with...

  3. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are continuously...

  4. Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo Local Government Area, Osun State Nigeria. ... A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was used to assess the food intake of the respondents, which was converted into nutrient intake using adapted Total Dietary Assessment (TDA) software. Dietary ...

  5. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measurement. 91.309 Section 91.309 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 100 cm of the air-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in...

  6. 40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the...

  7. 40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the engine...

  8. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air...

  9. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity...

  10. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake and cooling air measurements....108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow measurement. Measurement of the flow rate..., the measurement technique shall conform to the following: (1) The air flow measurement method used...

  11. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; H Hansen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was ...

  12. Elemental constituent of food and the daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazumasa

    1976-01-01

    Constituent of element in foods and it's daily intake was discussed. In tables were shown instances of analysed values of major elements in Japanese foods, daily dietary intake of 8 elements in Japan (analysed value of total diet and estimated amounts of daily dietary intake of 32 elements. (J.P.N.)

  13. Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status Profile of HIV-Positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of sufficient nutrients is important for maintaining the functional compounds of the immune system. The main aim of this study was to assess the nutrient intake and nutritional status profile of HIV positive individuals. Home dietary recall and six days\\' food intake from the nutrition center was used to estimate the ...

  14. Dietary intake and the dynamics of stress, hypertension and obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension increased with mean age whiles stress decreased with mean age. Hypertensive subjects recorded a significantly higher BMI and sodium intake whiles high stress individuals recorded a lower animal protein but a higher cereal protein intake (p<.05). Chronic stress was associated with intake of low animal ...

  15. Technical note: Validation of an automated system for monitoring and restricting water intake in group-housed beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwardt, K; Ahlberg, C; Broocks, A; Bruno, K; Taylor, A; Place, S; Richards, C; Krehbiel, C; Calvo-Lorenzo, M; DeSilva, U; VanOverbeke, D; Mateescu, R; Goad, C; Rolf, M M

    2017-09-01

    The Insentec Roughage Intake Control (RIC) system has been validated for the collection of water intake; however, this system has not been validated for water restriction. The objective of this validation was to evaluate the agreement between direct observations and automated intakes collected by the RIC system under both ad libitum and restricted water conditions. A total of 239 crossbred steers were used in a 3-d validation trial, which assessed intake values generated by the RIC electronic intake monitoring system for both ad libitum water intake ( = 122; BASE) and restricted water intake ( = 117; RES). Direct human observations were collected on 4 Insentec water bins for three 24-h periods and three 12-h periods for BASE and RES, respectively. An intake event was noted by the observer when the electronic identification of the animal was read by the transponder and the gate lowered, and starting and ending bin weights were recorded for each intake event. Data from direct observations across each validation period were compared to automated observations generated from the RIC system. Missing beginning or ending weight values for visual observations occasionally occurred due to the observer being unable to capture the value before the monitor changed when bin activity was high. To estimate the impact of these missing values, analyses denoted as OBS were completed with the incomplete record coded as missing data. These analyses were contrasted with analyses where observations with a single missing beginning or end weight (but not both) were assumed to be identical to that which was recorded by the Insentec system (OBS). Difference in mean total intake across BASE steers was 0.60 ± 2.06 kg OBS (0.54 ± 1.99 kg OBS) greater for system observations than visual observations. The comparison of mean total intake across the 3 RES validation days was 0.53 ± 2.30 kg OBS (0.13 ± 1.83 kg OBS) greater for system observations than direct observations. Day was not a

  16. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Kor...

  17. Caffeine intake among adolescents in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Gera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age 15 year, 174 boys, 291 (97% were consuming caffeine [mean (SD: 121.0 (98.2 mg/day]. Nineteen (6% students were consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Tea/coffee contributed to more than 50% of the caffeine intake. The rest was derived from cola beverages, chocolates, and energy drinks. Conclusion: Average caffeine consumption among school-going adolescents from Delhi is high. The findings of this preliminary survey need to be confirmed in larger data sets.

  18. Effects of milk intake on forage intake and performance of suckling range calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansotegui, R P; Havstad, K M; Wallace, J D; Hallford, D M

    1991-03-01

    A study to examine the relationships between milk intake, forage intake, and performance of Hereford-Angus suckling range calves was conducted during July, August, and September of 1984 and 1985. Twenty calves were used each year. The study was conducted at the Red Bluff Research Ranch located 56 km west of Bozeman, Montana. Average daily gain, milk intake (MI), forage digestibility, and fecal output (FO) were measured at 28-d intervals, beginning when the average calf age was 66 +/- 4 d. Milk intake was estimated using weigh-suckle-weigh techniques. Total fecal collections were used to measure FO. Forage digestibility and rates of passage were determined using nylon bag in situ techniques and external markers in ruminally cannulated calves of the same age. Fecal output by calves increased as body weight and age increased. Milk intake was higher (P less than .05) in 1985 than in 1984, but FO was higher (P less than .01) in 1984 than in 1985. Fecal output by calves was negatively correlated to MI in July (r = -.62; P less than .05) and August (r = -.56; P less than .05). No significant correlations were detected between MI and ADG (P greater than .10). Forage intake estimates were derived from FO, rate of passage, and in situ digestibility values. During July, calves consumed .3 kg more forage for each kilogram of reduction in fluid MI (P less than .05). In both August and September, calves consumed .6 kg more forage for each kilogram of reduction in fluid MI (P less than .10). Calves maintained similar digestible energy (DE) intake both years, although the source of DE varied.

  19. Effects of Recording Food Intake Using Cell Phone Camera Pictures on Energy Intake and Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Rita; Long, JoAnn; Kazandjian, Chant; Gharibeh, Nathalie; Karam, Lina; Song, Huaxin; Boswell, Carol; Zeeni, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented increases in obesity and unhealthy dietary practices substantiate the need for evidence-based tools that can help people improve their dietary habits. The current spread of mobile phone-embedded cameras offers new opportunities for recording food intake. Moreover, the act of taking pictures of food consumed may enhance visual consciousness of food choice and quantity. The present study aimed to assess the effect of using cell phone pictures to record food intake on energy intake and food choice in college students. The effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording also was assessed. A repeated measures crossover design was used. One group of participants entered their food intake online during 3 days based on their memory, although a second group recorded their food intake using cell phone pictures as their reference. Participants then crossed over to complete 3 more days of diet recording using the alternate method. Focus groups were conducted to obtain feedback on the effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording. Intake of meat and vegetable servings were significantly higher in the memory period compared with the cell phone period, regardless of the order. Results from the focus group indicated a positive attitude toward the use of cell phone pictures in recording food intake and an increased awareness of food choice and portion size. Cell phone pictures may be an easy, relevant, and accessible method of diet self-monitoring when aiming at dietary changes. Future trials should combine this technique with healthy eating education. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. Dietary Protein Intake and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortoricci, Amanda R.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review High protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low protein diet (LPD) of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD the CKD management. Recent findings Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remain substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses including secondary analyses of the MDRD data appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their keto-analogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially in non-dialysis days. An LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. Summary A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counselling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting. PMID:27801685

  1. VITAMIN INTAKE: REAL NECESSARY OR DANGEROUS EXCESS?

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. Torshkhoeva; L.S. Namazova; I.A. Gromov; E.A. Vishneva; V.A. Barannik; A.A. Alekseeva

    2007-01-01

    Vitamins are biologically active substances, which regulate many biochemical processes within the human body. in modern conditions, peculiarities of the household and children's nourishment do not allow for complete satisfaction of the need in all the vitamins only thanks to the food. In relation to this, it's quite desirable to provide the additional inflow of the vitamins into the child's body, which may be performed through the individual intake of the children's multivitamin medications.K...

  2. Autophagy in the control of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rajat

    2012-01-01

    The cellular nutrient sensing apparatus detects nutritional depletion and transmits this information to downstream effectors that generate energy from alternate sources. Autophagy is a crucial catabolic pathway that turns over redundant cytoplasmic components in lysosomes to provide energy to the starved cell. Recent studies have described a role for hypothalamic autophagy in the control of food intake and energy balance. Activated autophagy in hypothalamic neurons during starvation mobilized...

  3. CFD simulations for engine intake manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witry, A.; Zhao, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain a procedure for using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for product development of engine intake manifolds. The paper uses the development of an intake manifold as an example of such a process. Using the commercial FLUENT solver, its standard wall functions and k-ε model, a four runner intake manifold with an average mesh size of 300, 000 hexa elements created in ICEM-CFD with a maximum skewness of 0.85 produces rapid results for quick product turn-around times. The setup used allows for compressibility and viscous heating effects to be modeled whilst ignoring wall heat transfer due to the high speeds of the air/foil mixture and low residence times. Eight consecutive models were modeled here whilst carrying out continuous enhancements. For every iteration, four different so called 'static' runs with only one runner open at any one time using a steady state assumption were calculated further assuming that only one intake valve is open at any one time. Even flow distributions between the runner are deemed to be 'dynamically' obtained once the pressure drops between the manifold's inlet and runner outlets are equalized. Furthermore, different modifications were attempted to ensure that the fluid's particle tracks show very little particle return tendencies along with excellent nonuniformity indexes at the runners outlets. Confirmation of these results were obtained from test data showing CFD pressure drop predictions to be within 4% error with 67% of any runner's pressure losses being caused in the runner itself due to the small cross sectional area(s). (author)

  4. Fenofibrate reduces food intake via cholecystokinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yu Vorotnikova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: Park MK, Han Y, Kim MS, Seo E, Kang S, Park SY, Koh H, Kim DK, Lee HJ. Reduction of Food Intake by Fenofibrate is Associated with Cholecystokinin Release in Long-Evans Tokushima Rats. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012 Jun;16(3:181-6.

  5. Socioeconomic status and intake of energy and sodium are associated with calcium intake among pregnant women in Rafsanjan city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Mun, Chan Yoke; Tajik, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Calcium intake in developing countries is lower than that in developed countries. In Iran, inadequate calcium intake in the general population, especially among women, is a public health concern. This cross-sectional study examined the correlation between sociodemographic, obstetrical and lifestyle factors with calcium intake among pregnant women in Rafsanjan city, southeast Iran. A sample of 308 healthy pregnant women aged 18-35 years from seven urban health-care centers participated in the study. All women were measured for height and weight and interviewed for demographic and socioeconomic, obstetrical, lifestyle and dietary intake information while pre-pregnancy weight was obtained from prenatal record. Stepwise multiple regression was used to assess factors associated with calcium intake. The mean daily calcium intake of women was 968.51±363.05mg/day and only 46.4% of the pregnant women met the dietary reference intakes of 1000 mg for calcium. Milk and milk products showed the greatest contribution to calcium intake (75.11%). Energy-adjusted calcium intake was positively associated with years of schooling (Psodium (P<0.01) intakes. This information would be useful in planning and developing appropriate strategies to improve calcium intake in pregnant women. Efforts to increase calcium intake in pregnant women should focus on promoting nutrient-dense food and making these foods available and accessible, particularly to socioeconomically deprived women. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Examining the relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake: does family cohesion play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M; French, Simone A; Wall, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    To confirm previously reported associations between family meal frequency and dietary intake, and to examine family cohesion as a potential mediator of this relationship. Cross-sectional observational study. Data collected at baseline via questionnaire. Randomized, controlled household weight gain prevention trial. Participants were 152 adults and 75 adolescents from 90 community households. Family meal frequency assessed with a single question. Perceived family cohesion measured by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III. Usual intake of targeted food items assessed with modified food frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical linear regression with mediation analysis. Statistical significance set at α-level .05. Family meal frequency was associated with intake of fruits and vegetables in adults, and sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages in adolescents. Family meal frequency was positively correlated with perceived family cohesion (r = 0.41, P family cohesion was observed for family meal frequency and sweets intake in adolescents. Results suggest that family cohesion is not a consistent mediator of relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake. Future studies should assess additional plausible mediators of this relationship in order to better understand the effect of family meals on dietary intake. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children’s Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany J. Johnson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2–18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars.

  8. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiya Ivanovitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs. The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females’ median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand’s rapidly growing sedentary workforce.

  9. Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children's Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brittany J; Bell, Lucinda K; Zarnowiecki, Dorota; Rangan, Anna M; Golley, Rebecca K

    2017-12-01

    Interventions are required to reduce children's consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2-18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars.

  10. Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children’s Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowiecki, Dorota; Golley, Rebecca K.

    2017-01-01

    Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2–18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars. PMID:29194425

  11. Twenty-four-hour urinary water-soluble vitamin levels correlate with their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tomiko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shibata, Katsumi

    2011-02-01

    To examine the association between 24 h urinary water-soluble vitamin levels and their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren. All foods consumed for four consecutive days were recorded accurately by a weighed food record. A single 24 h urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins were measured. An elementary school in Inazawa City, Japan. A total of 114 healthy, free-living, Japanese elementary-school children aged 10-12 years. The urinary level of each water-soluble vitamin was correlated positively to its mean intake in the past 2-4 d (vitamin B1: r = 0·42, P vitamin B2: r = 0·43, P vitamin B6: r = 0·49, P vitamin C: r = 0·39, P vitamin B12 (r = 0·10, P = NS). Estimated mean intakes of water-soluble vitamins calculated using urinary levels and recovery rates were 97-102 % of their 3 d mean intake, except for vitamin B12 (79 %). The results show that urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins, except for vitamin B12, reflected their recent intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren and could be used as a potential biomarker to estimate mean vitamin intake.

  12. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R

    2001-06-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  13. Water intaking facility of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuhito; Iwata, Nobukatsu; Ochiai, Kanehiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a water intaking facility of a nuclear power plant, a dam is disposed at a position near a sea shore for preventing sea water introduced in open conduit from flowing to the outer sea upon ebbing of tsunamis. The upper end of the dam is set lower than the lower end of a water-intake pipe of a sea water pump of an ordinary system. A water-intake pipe is disposed to such a length that a sea water pump of an emergency system continues to suck the sea water when the water level of the introduced sea water is lowered than the upper end of the dam during the ebb tide. In addition, a means for stopping the operation of the sea water pump of the ordinary system upon starting of the ebb is disposed. Upon reactor scram for occurrence of earthquakes and the like, either the sea water pump in the ordinary system or the seawater pump in the emergency system operates to ensure required amount of sea water for cooling the reactor. In addition, even if the level of the sea water is lowered than the upper end of the dam, since the sea water pump in the emergency system continues to suck sea water, unnecessary suction for sea water by the ordinary sea water pumps can be eliminated. (N.H.)

  14. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  15. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  16. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  17. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  18. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Beaton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR. A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers (n = 699 at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE project. Relative validity of one day of dietary data (24HR in assessing intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars was tested against three days of dietary data (24HR + 2DFR using paired t-tests, Bland–Altman analysis, cross-classification, and weighted Kappa statistic. Classification analysis found good agreement between the 24HR and 24HR + 2DFR for all nutrients with the percentage classified in the same tertile at 57.9% and above. The weighted Kappa statistic found acceptable agreement for all nutrients. This study suggests that a 24HR is a valid assessment tool for estimating the relative intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars among Australian toddlers at the individual level.

  19. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Elizabeth; Wright, Janine; Devenish, Gemma; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2018-01-12

    There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR). A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers ( n = 699) at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE) project. Relative validity of one day of dietary data (24HR) in assessing intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars was tested against three days of dietary data (24HR + 2DFR) using paired t -tests, Bland-Altman analysis, cross-classification, and weighted Kappa statistic. Classification analysis found good agreement between the 24HR and 24HR + 2DFR for all nutrients with the percentage classified in the same tertile at 57.9% and above. The weighted Kappa statistic found acceptable agreement for all nutrients. This study suggests that a 24HR is a valid assessment tool for estimating the relative intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars among Australian toddlers at the individual level.

  20. Dietary intake of cadmium from Bangladeshi foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, S W; Jenkins, R O; Haris, P I

    2012-01-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) is associated with various diseases and high levels of Cd have been detected in Bangladeshi population warranting further research to identify the source of this exposure. In this study, Cd levels in 327 and 94 samples of Bangladeshi food and non-food samples, respectively, were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This is the largest number of Bangladeshi food and nonfood samples investigated for their Cd content. High Cd levels were detected in leafy vegetables (mean 31 [SD 29]μg/kg). Of these vegetables, lal shak (Amaranthus tricolor) contained the highest Cd level (303 μg/kg [wet weight]; mean 100.5 [SD 95]μg/kg). Bangladeshi rice also showed significant concentration of Cd (mean 37.2 [SD 30]μg/kg). Of particular concern is the very high level of Cd detected in some puffed rice, which we attribute to the illegal practice of using urea for whitening the puffed rice. Tobacco leaves, which are commonly consumed during betel quid chewing by Bangladeshis, contain significant levels of Cd (mean 95 [SD 87]μg/kg). The total daily intake (TDI) of Cd from foods for Bangladeshis was estimated to be 34.55 μg/d. This is rather high when compared to the TDI of Cd for other populations. Our analysis reveals that this is mainly due to the very high intake of rice and vegetables, and lower consumption of animal products (which are low in Cd), by the Bangladeshis. We also determined the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake and target hazard quotients values for Cd. Clearly a more balanced diet is necessary to reduce the Cd intake in the Bangladeshi population, especially by reducing the very high intake of rice and certain leafy vegetables. Food manufacturing and agricultural practices needs to be altered to reduce the entry of Cd into the food chain. Exposure to high levels of Cd can be harmful to human health and this study provides a comprehensive analysis of Cd levels in a variety of food items from

  1. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  2. Protein and energy intake improved by breakfast intervention in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, T; Mortensen, M N; Skadhauge, L B; Høgsted, R H; Rasmussen, H H; Holst, Mette

    2016-06-01

    Undernutrition affects about 40% of patients in hospitals. Ordinary food is recommended as the first choice to prevent and correct undernutrition. Meanwhile, sufficient intake, especially regarding protein, is difficult to reach, in patients at nutritional risk. The aim of this study was to improve protein intake at breakfast to at least 20% of total daily requirement or at least 20 g. A protein rich breakfast including 20 g of protein was served in the departments of heart and lung surgery and vascular surgery for three months. Nutrition intake was registered before and after intervention. Food intake records were collected from 32 and 30 patients respectively, mean age 69 (SD 8) years. At breakfast, protein intake was improved from 14% of individual requirements to 22% (penergy intake was improved from 18% to 25% (p=0.01). Total amount of protein intake for breakfast was increased from 14 g to 20 g (pprotein intake increased from 64% to 77% (p=0.05) and total energy intake from 76% to 99% (pProtein and energy intake for surgical patients at breakfast as well as total daily intake was significantly increased to meet recommended average level for minimum individually measured requirements. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP) risk in Koreans. Methods This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR) of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over) according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000kcal) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014). Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP. Conclusions The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women. PMID:26075385

  4. Effect of Fluid Intake on Hydration Status and Skin Barrier Characteristics in Geriatric Patients: An Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Merve; Boeing, Heiner; Müller-Werdan, Ursula; Aykac, Volkan; Steffen, Annika; Schell, Mareike; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2018-04-03

    Inadequate fluid intake is assumed to be a trigger of water-loss dehydration, which is a major health risk in aged and geriatric populations. Thus, there is a need to search for easy to use diagnostic tests to identify dehydration. Our overall aim was to investigate whether skin barrier parameters could be used for predicting fluid intake and/or hydration status in geriatric patients. An explorative observational comparative study was conducted in a geriatric hospital including patients aged 65 years and older. We measured 3-day fluid intake, skin barrier parameters, Overall Dry Skin Score, serum osmolality, cognitive and functional health, and medications. Forty patients were included (mean age 78.45 years and 65% women) with a mean fluid intake of 1,747 mL/day. 20% of the patients were dehydrated and 22.5% had an impending dehydration according to serum osmolality. Multivariate analysis suggested that skin surface pH and epidermal hydration at the face were associated with fluid intake. Serum osmolality was associated with epidermal hydration at the leg and skin surface pH at the face. Fluid intake was not correlated with serum osmolality. Diuretics were associated with high serum osmolality. Approximately half of the patients were diagnosed as being dehydrated according to osmolality, which is the current reference standard. However, there was no association with fluid intake, questioning the clinical relevance of this measure. Results indicate that single skin barrier parameters are poor markers for fluid intake or osmolality. Epidermal hydration might play a role but most probably in combination with other tests. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Assessment of dietary food and nutrient intake and bone density in children with eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T F; Wang, S S; Kwok, F Yy; Leung, L Ws; Chow, C M; Hon, K L

    2017-10-01

    Dietary restrictions are common among patients with eczema, and such practice may lead to diminished bone mineral density. This study investigated dietary intake and bone mineral density in Hong Kong Chinese children with eczema. This cross-sectional and observational study was conducted in a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Chinese children aged below 18 years with physician-diagnosed eczema were recruited from our paediatric allergy and dermatology clinics over a 6-month period in 2012. Subjects with stable asthma and/or allergic rhinitis who were free of eczema and food allergy as well as non-allergic children were recruited from attendants at our out-patient clinics as a reference group. Intake of various foods and nutrients was recorded using a food frequency questionnaire that was analysed using Foodworks Professional software. Bone mineral density at the radius and the tibia was measured by quantitative ultrasound bone sonometry, and urinary cross-linked telopeptides were quantified by immunoassay and corrected for creatinine level. Overall, 114 children with eczema and 60 other children as reference group were recruited. Eczema severity of the patients was classified according to the objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis score. Males had a higher daily energy intake than females (median, 7570 vs 6736 kJ; P=0.035), but intake of any single food item or nutrient did not differ between them. Compared with the reference group, children with eczema had a higher intake of soybeans and miscellaneous dairy products and lower intake of eggs, beef, and shellfish. Children with eczema also consumed less vitamin D, calcium, and iron. The mean (standard deviation) bone mineral density Z-score of children with eczema and those in the reference group were 0.52 (0.90) and 0.55 (1.12) over the radius (P=0.889), and 0.02 (1.03) and -0.01 (1.13) over the tibia (P=0.886), respectively. Urine telopeptide levels were similar between the groups. Calcium intake

  6. Discrete strategies to reduce intake of discretionary food choices: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Jessica A; Wycherley, Thomas P; Johnson, Brittany J; Golley, Rebecca K

    2016-05-06

    On a population level, dietary improvement strategies have had limited success in preventing the surge in overweight and obesity or reducing risk factors for chronic disease. While numerous multi-component studies have examined whole-of-diet strategies, and single component (i.e. discrete) dietary intervention strategies have targeted an increase in core foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, dairy), there is a paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of dietary intervention strategies targeting a decrease in discretionary choices. The aim of this review was to identify dietary intervention strategies that are potentially relevant to reducing intake of discretionary choices in 2-65 year olds. A scoping review was carried out to map the literature on key discrete dietary intervention strategies that are potentially applicable to reducing discretionary choices, and to identify the targeted health/nutrition effects (e.g. improve nutrient intake, decrease sugar intake, and reduce body weight) of these strategies. Studies conducted in participants aged 2-65 years and published in English by July 20, 2015, were located through electronic searches including the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Scopus. Three thousand two hundred and eighty three studies were identified from the search, of which 44 met the selection criteria. The dietary intervention strategies included reformulation (n = 13), substitution (n = 5), restriction/elimination (n = 9), supplementation (n = 13), and nutrition education/messages (n = 4). The key findings of the review were: restricting portion size was consistently beneficial for reducing energy intake in the acute setting; reformulating foods from higher fat to lower fat could be useful to reduce saturated fat intake; substituting discretionary choices for high fibre snacks, fruit, or low/no-calorie beverages may be an effective strategy for reducing energy intake; supplementing nutrient dense foods such as nuts and

  7. Does children's energy intake at one meal influence their intake at subsequent meals? Or do we just think it does?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, James A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A

    2010-05-01

    It is widely believed that young children are able to adjust their energy intake across successive meals to compensate for higher or lower intakes at a given meal. This conclusion is based on past observations that although children's intake at individual meals is highly variable, total daily intakes are relatively constant. We investigated how much of this reduction in variability could be explained by the statistical phenomenon of the variability of individual components (each meal) always being relatively larger than the variability of their sum (total daily intake), independent of any physiological compensatory mechanism. We calculated, theoretically and by simulation, how variable a child's daily intake would be if there was no correlation between intakes at individual meals. We simulated groups of children with meal/snack intakes and variability in meal/snack intakes based on previously published values. Most importantly, we assumed that there was no correlation between intakes on successive meals. In both approaches, the coefficient of variation of the daily intakes was roughly 15%, considerably less than the 34% for individual meals. Thus, most of the reduction in variability found in past studies was explained without positing strong 'compensation'. Although children's daily energy intakes are indeed considerably less variable than their individual components, this phenomenon was observed even when intakes at each meal were simulated to be totally independent. We conclude that the commonly held belief that young children have a strong physiological compensatory mechanism to adjust intake at one meal based on intake at prior meals is likely to be based on flawed statistical reasoning.

  8. Video game playing increases food intake in adolescents: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Visby, Trine; Nyby, Signe; Klingenberg, Lars; Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Tremblay, Angelo; Astrup, Arne; Sjödin, Anders

    2011-06-01

    Video game playing has been linked to obesity in many observational studies. However, the influence of this sedentary activity on food intake is unknown. The objective was to examine the acute effects of sedentary video game play on various components of energy balance. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 22 healthy, normal-weight, male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 16.7 ± 1.1 y) completed two 1-h experimental conditions, namely video game play and rest in a sitting position, followed by an ad libitum lunch. The endpoints were spontaneous food intake, energy expenditure, stress markers, appetite sensations, and profiles of appetite-related hormones. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, sympathetic tone, and mental workload were significantly higher during the video game play condition than during the resting condition (P video game play than during rest (mean increase over resting: 89 kJ; P video game play exceeded that measured after rest by 335 kJ (P video game play condition. The increase in food intake associated with video game play was observed without increased sensations of hunger and was not compensated for during the rest of the day. Finally, the profiles of glucose, insulin, cortisol, and ghrelin did not suggest an up-regulation of appetite during the video game play condition. A single session of video game play in healthy male adolescents is associated with an increased food intake, regardless of appetite sensations. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01013246.

  9. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk for Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingli; Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Jian; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2017-09-02

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber intake and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. To conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. All eligible studies were identified by electronic searches in PubMed and Embase through February 2015. Dose-response, subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses were performed. A total of 15 studies involving 16,885 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber intake was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.43-0.64). Stratified analyses for tumor subtype, study design, geographic location, fiber type, publication year, total sample size, and quality score yielded consistent results. Dose-response analysis indicated that a 10-g/d increment in dietary fiber intake was associated with a 31% reduction in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors produced similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the overall risk estimate. Our findings indicate that dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer. Further large prospective studies are warranted.

  10. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess nutrient intake in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, C A; Curran, S; McAuliffe, F M

    2014-04-01

    To date, there are no food frequency questionnaires that have been validated to assess nutrient intakes in pregnant women in Ireland. The present study aimed to assess the relative validity of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire during pregnancy. The food frequency questionnaire was administered once during pregnancy between 12 and 34 weeks. Participants also completed a 3-day food diary during each trimester of pregnancy (reference method) and intakes from both the food frequency questionnaire and the mean of the 3-day food diaries were compared in a sample of 130 participants from the control arm of an intervention study. Energy-adjusted Pearson's correlation coefficients ranged from 0.24 (riboflavin) to 0.59 (magnesium) and were all statistically significant (P food frequency questionnaire tended to report higher energy and nutrient intakes compared to the food diaries. On average, 74% of participants were classified into the same ± 1 quartile and 7% into opposing quartiles by the two methods. Overall, our food frequency questionnaire showed good relative validity. We conclude that a single administration of a food frequency questionnaire is a valid tool for ranking women in accordance with their nutrient intakes during pregnancy. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Mediterranean shrub diversity and its effect on food intake in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šarić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean ecosystem offers a variety of shrubs that were over long periods of time involved in the evolution of complex plant-animal interactions. Biochemical components of these plants enter different metabolic pathways after digestion and absorption, resulting in development of dietary preferences in browsing animals. Herbivores in general were found to perform better when grazing in a mixed plant community composed of diverse species, and show preferential feeding behaviours for mixed vs single species diet. Our findings demonstrate an asymptotic relationship among Mediterranean shrubs species diversity and their voluntary intake by goats. Shrub biomass intake showed linear increase when number of different shrubs in diet increased from one to three. However, goats did not further increase intake when the number of shrub species increased from four to eight. As the number of shrub species offered increased, goats exhibited more preferential feeding behaviour for Quercus pubescens, Fraxinus ornus, Rubus heteromorphus and Arbutus unedo and decreased the intake of Hedera helix, Juniperus oxycedrus and Helichrysum italicum. This asymptotic relationship indicates that the maintenance of plant species richness in Mediterranean shrublands can overall benefit domestic goat farming, goat’s productive performance, and the conservation of plant biodiversity.

  12. Flaxseed dietary fiber supplements for suppression of appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Kristensen, Mette; Mikkelsen, Mette Skau; Astrup, Arne

    2012-04-01

    We conducted two single-blinded randomized crossover acute studies with 24 and 20 subjects, respectively, to compare (I) CONTROL vs. Flax drink; and (II) Flax drink vs. Flax tablets. The subjects were exposed to one of the treatments after an overnight fast, and rated appetite sensation for 120 min using visual analog scales (VAS). Hereafter they consumed an ad libitum early lunch to assess energy intake. The treatments were iso-caloric and iso-volumeric: 300 mL drink; Flax drink: CONTROL drink with addition flax fiber extract (2.5 g of soluble fibers); and Flax tablet: CONTROL drink with flax fiber tablets (2.5 g of soluble fibers). Flax drink increased sensation of satiety and fullness compared to CONTROL and a significant decrease in subsequent energy intake was observed after the Flax drink compared to CONTROL (2937 vs. 3214 kJ). Appetite ratings were similar for Flax tablets and Flax drink as they did not differ by more than 1-4%. Subsequent energy intake was similar after the two treatments (3370 vs. 3379 kJ). A small dose of flaxseed fiber significantly suppresses appetite and energy intake. Furthermore, flaxseed fibers administered as drinks or tablets produce similar responses. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  14. Salt intake and eating habits of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwayama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Sakata, Satoko; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Takata, Akira; Kawano, Yuhei

    2016-11-01

    Salt restriction is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension; however, salt consumption is still high in Japan. Improvements in dietary habits, including salt reduction in childhood, may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salt intake of school-aged children and the relationship between their diet diary and actual salt intake. The subjects comprised 580 schoolchildren (471 elementary school pupils and 109 junior high school pupils) who wanted to evaluate their salt intake in Kuji, a northeast coastal area in Japan. We estimated salt intake using spot urine samples and a formula. Lifestyle was assessed using a questionnaire. We also evaluated the salt intake and the lifestyles of 440 parents. The estimated salt intakes of elementary school pupils, junior high school pupils and their parents were 7.1±1.5, 7.6±1.5 and 8.0±1.7 g per day, respectively. The proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. In the multivariate analysis, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children correlated with their age, estimated salt intake of their parents and the menu priorities of the household. The estimated salt intake of the parents was associated with female gender, obesity, age and the habitual consumption of bread and noodles. In conclusion, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children positively correlated with the estimated salt intake of their parents, and the proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. Guidance on salt restriction for children and their parents may reduce the salt intake of school-aged children.

  15. Identification of Urinary Polyphenol Metabolite Patterns Associated with Polyphenol-Rich Food Intake in Adults from Four European Countries

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    Hwayoung Noh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We identified urinary polyphenol metabolite patterns by a novel algorithm that combines dimension reduction and variable selection methods to explain polyphenol-rich food intake, and compared their respective performance with that of single biomarkers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. The study included 475 adults from four European countries (Germany, France, Italy, and Greece. Dietary intakes were assessed with 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR and dietary questionnaires (DQ. Thirty-four polyphenols were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS-MS in 24-h urine. Reduced rank regression-based variable importance in projection (RRR-VIP and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO methods were used to select polyphenol metabolites. Reduced rank regression (RRR was then used to identify patterns in these metabolites, maximizing the explained variability in intake of pre-selected polyphenol-rich foods. The performance of RRR models was evaluated using internal cross-validation to control for over-optimistic findings from over-fitting. High performance was observed for explaining recent intake (24-HDR of red wine (r = 0.65; AUC = 89.1%, coffee (r = 0.51; AUC = 89.1%, and olives (r = 0.35; AUC = 82.2%. These metabolite patterns performed better or equally well compared to single polyphenol biomarkers. Neither metabolite patterns nor single biomarkers performed well in explaining habitual intake (as reported in the DQ of polyphenol-rich foods. This proposed strategy of biomarker pattern identification has the potential of expanding the currently still limited list of available dietary intake biomarkers.

  16. Higher magnesium intake is associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin, with no evidence of interaction with select genetic loci, in a meta-analysis of 15 charge consortium studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorable associations between magnesium intake and glycemic traits, such as fasting glucose and insulin, are observed in observational and clinical studies, but whether genetic variation affects these associations is largely unknown. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assoc...

  17. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

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    Won O. Song

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  18. Sweetener Intake by Rats Selectively Bred for Differential Saccharin Intake: Sucralose, Stevia, and Acesulfame Potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dess, Nancy K; Dobson, Kiana; Roberts, Brandon T; Chapman, Clinton D

    2017-06-01

    Behavioral responses to sweeteners have been used to study the evolution, mechanisms, and functions of taste. Occidental low and high saccharin consuming rats (respectively, LoS and HiS) have been selectively outbred on the basis of saccharin intake and are a valuable tool for studying variation among individuals in sweetener intake and its correlates. Relative to HiS rats, LoS rats consume smaller amounts of all nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners tested to date, except aspartame. The lines also differ in intake of the commercial product Splenda; the roles of sucralose and saccharides in the difference are unclear. The present study extends prior work by examining intake of custom mixtures of sucralose, maltodextrin, and sugars and Splenda by LoS and HiS rats (Experiment 1A-1D), stevia and a constituent compound (rebaudioside A; Experiment 2A-2E), and acesulfame potassium tested at several concentrations or with 4 other sweeteners at one concentration each (Experiment 3A-3B). Results indicate that aversive side tastes limit intake of Splenda, stevia, and acesulfame potassium, more so among LoS rats than among HiS rats. In addition, regression analyses involving 5 sweeteners support the idea that both sweetness and bitterness are needed to account for intake of nonnutritive sweeteners, more so among LoS rats. These findings contribute to well developed and emerging literatures on sweetness and domain-general processes related to gustation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Energy intake compensation after 3 weeks of restricted energy intake in young and elderly men.

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    Winkels, Renate M; Jolink-Stoppelenburg, Angelique; de Graaf, Kees; Siebelink, Els; Mars, Monica; de Groot, Lisette

    2011-05-01

    Decreased energy intake in older persons poses these people at risk of progressive weight loss. It may result from a failure to regulate energy intake and expenditure after periods of underfeeding. The objective of this study was to investigate if a period of underfeeding differentially influences energy intake of older compared with young men and, additionally, to study potential underlying mechanisms, namely changes in gastric emptying rate and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels in blood. Dietary intervention of 3 phases. After a phase of energy balance, we fed participants in phase 2 by a mean of 70% of their needs for 21 days. During phase 3, we assessed ad libitum energy intake of the participants during 9 days. At the end of phases 1 and 2, we assessed appetite, gastric emptying, and CCK levels in blood in response to a test meal. Fifteen young (age 24 years [range 20-34], body mass index 23.0 kg/m(2) ± 2.3) and 17 older (age 68 years [64-85], body mass index 24.5 kg/m(2) ± 1.9) men participated in this study. During energy balance, mean energy intake of young men (14.3 ± 2.3 MJ/day) was significantly higher than that of older men (11.3 ± 1.8 MJ/day, P men and to 14.4 ± 3.2 MJ/day in older men. Ad lib energy intake after underfeeding did not differ between young and older men (analysis of covariance, with energy intake during phase 1 as covariate, P = .99). There were no differential changes in body weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure, gastric emptying rate, CCK-8 levels, and appetite between young and older men during the study. Our results do not indicate that older men have an impaired ability to control energy intake after a period of underfeeding compared with younger men. NCT00561145. Copyright © 2011 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Investigation on nutritional intakes for hospitalized children with blood disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi-Liang; Wu, Yun-Tang; Sun, Zhong; Zhu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Rui; Li, Hong-Qiang; Qi, Yu-Mei; Song, Ji-Chang; Han, Zhong-Chao

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the diet and nutritional status of hospitalized children with blood disease in order to provide nutritional guidelines. The patients' daily dietary intakes, including breakfast, lunch, dinner and additional meals, were recorded in detail for seven consecutive days. The intake amount of various nutrients was calculated using the dietary database. The majority of children with blood disease showed inadequate intakes of calories [mean 1825.81 kCal/d, 73.62% of the recommended intake (RNI)] and protein (mean 67.68 g/d, 81.34% of RNI). Intakes of vitamin E and riboflavin were adequate, but intakes of vitamin A, thiamine and vitamin C (66.67%, 77.78% and 69.89% of RNI, respectively) were inadequate. Iron and selenium intakes were adequate, but calcium and zinc intakes (41.11% and 56.21% of RNI, respectively) were grossly inadequate. Hospitalized children with blood disease had decreased dietary intakes of calories, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, calcium and zinc. The dietary pattern and nutritional intake need to be improved.

  1. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-02-06

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  2. Association between food insecurity and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Melissa Luciana de; Mendonça, Raquel de Deus; Lopes Filho, José Divino; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2018-03-28

    We aim to identify the prevalence of food insecurity and to ascertain the association between food insecurity and food intake. A cross-sectional survey. The study included users of a primary healthcare service in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 2013 to 2014. Socioeconomic, health, and food intake data were gathered using a questionnaire and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Individuals 20 years old or older (n = 2817). The prevalence of food insecurity among families with individuals under 18 years was 41.0%, and 26.4% in other households. After adjusting for potential confounders, the households in food insecurity with members under 18 years old, the consumption of fruits and vegetables (RP = 0.70, 95%IC: 0.58-0.84), and fruits (RP = 0.74, 95%IC: 0.59-0.93) was lower; and consumption of beans was higher (RP = 1.49, 95%IC: 1.06-2.09) compared to those with food security. In households without members under 18 years old, the consumption of fruits and vegetables (RP = 0.68, 95%IC: 0.58-0.79), fruits (RP = 0.61, 95%IC: 0.50-0.74), and beans (RP = 0.78, 95%IC: 0.63-0.97) was lower; and the consumption of tubers (RP = 1.36, 95%IC: 1.03-1.79) was higher. However, the state of food insecurity did not affect the consumption of ultra-processed foods, independently of age, sex, marital status, educational level, and employed status. Food insecurity negatively affected the fruit and vegetable consumption in both types of families tested. The consumption of beans was higher in households with children and adolescents, and the consumption of tubers was higher in households without children and adolescents. However, food insecurity did not change the intake of ultraprocessed foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein intake in renal and hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, Patrice M

    2011-03-01

    The kidney and the liver play a central role in protein metabolism. Synthesis of albumin and other proteins occurs mainly in the liver, whereas protein breakdown and excretion are handled through an intricate interaction between these two organ systems. Thus, disease states of either the liver and/or the kidney invariably result in clinically relevant disturbances of protein metabolism. Conversely, metabolic processes regulated by these two organs are directly affected by dietary protein intake. Of particular importance in this respect is the maintenance of acid/base homeostasis. Finally, both the amount and composition of ingested proteins have a direct impact on renal function, especially in a state of diseased kidneys. Consequently, dietary protein intake is of paramount importance in patients with chronic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. Limitation of ingested protein, particularly from animal sources, is crucial in order to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease and impaired renal function. In contrast, patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, have an increased protein demand. The syndrome of "protein-energy malnutrition" is a relevant factor for morbidity and mortality in this population and requires early detection and vigorous treatment. Protein intake in patients with cirrhosis of the liver should not be diminished as has been earlier suggested but rather increased to 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day, in order to prevent protein malnutrition. Moderate restriction depending on protein tolerance (0.5 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day), with the possible addition of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), has been recommended only in patients with advanced hepatic encephalopathy. Proteins of plant origin are theoretically superior to animal proteins.

  4. VITAMIN INTAKE: REAL NECESSARY OR DANGEROUS EXCESS?

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    R.M. Torshkhoeva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are biologically active substances, which regulate many biochemical processes within the human body. in modern conditions, peculiarities of the household and children's nourishment do not allow for complete satisfaction of the need in all the vitamins only thanks to the food. In relation to this, it's quite desirable to provide the additional inflow of the vitamins into the child's body, which may be performed through the individual intake of the children's multivitamin medications.Key words: vitamins, children, hypovitaminosis, vitamin and mineral complex.

  5. Dietary patterns and trace elements intake evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    1998-01-01

    The dietary patterns and trace element contents of the integrated diets of middle income population in Gujranwala and of Islamabad have been studied and dietary intake of winter and summer are given. An overview of the elemental concentration in the two sets of integrated diets reveals similar zinc and manganese concentrations; comparatively higher nickel, selenium and potassium concentrations in Gujranwala and higher chromium, cesium, scandium, sodium and chlorine concentrations in Islamabad. These results undoubtedly reflect the difference in food selection and habits of the two populations, the influence of soil content and industrial pollution

  6. Effect of resistant wheat starch on subjective appetite and food intake in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, Christine H; Hsu, Walter H; Hollis, James H

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of replacing standard wheat flour (SWF) with resistant wheat starch (RWS) on markers of appetite and food intake in healthy adults. A randomized, single-blind, crossover study was conducted with 27 healthy adults (ages 23 ± 2 y with a body mass index of 23.0 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 ). After an overnight fast, muffins that contained only SWF or muffins in which 40% of the SWF was replaced with RWS were consumed as part of the breakfast meal. Appetite questionnaires and plasma samples were collected before the test meal and at 10 time points after meal consumption. An ad libitum meal was provided 240 min after breakfast, and the amount eaten was recorded. Food intake was recorded over the remainder of the day using a diet diary, and appetite was measured hourly using appetite questionnaires. Plasma was assayed to measure biomarkers of satiety and glycemia. Replacing SWF with RWS had no effect on subjective appetite or energy intake at the lunch meal (P > 0.05). Total daily energy intake (including the breakfast meal) was reduced by 179 kcal when participants consumed the RWS muffins (P = 0.05). Replacing SWF with RWS reduced plasma insulin (P  0.05). These results indicate that replacing SWF with RWS decreases plasma insulin concentration and reduces energy intake over a 24-h period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Activation of temperature-sensitive TRPV1-like receptors in ARC POMC neurons reduces food intake.

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    Jae Hoon Jeong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC respond to numerous hormonal and neural signals, resulting in changes in food intake. Here, we demonstrate that ARC POMC neurons express capsaicin-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1-like receptors. To show expression of TRPV1-like receptors in ARC POMC neurons, we use single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, TRPV1 knock-out (KO, and TRPV1-Cre knock-in mice. A small elevation of temperature in the physiological range is enough to depolarize ARC POMC neurons. This depolarization is blocked by the TRPV1 receptor antagonist and by Trpv1 gene knockdown. Capsaicin-induced activation reduces food intake that is abolished by a melanocortin receptor antagonist. To selectively stimulate TRPV1-like receptor-expressing ARC POMC neurons in the ARC, we generate an adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5 carrying a Cre-dependent channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP expression cassette under the control of the two neuronal POMC enhancers (nPEs. Optogenetic stimulation of TRPV1-like receptor-expressing POMC neurons decreases food intake. Hypothalamic temperature is rapidly elevated and reaches to approximately 39 °C during treadmill running. This elevation is associated with a reduction in food intake. Knockdown of the Trpv1 gene exclusively in ARC POMC neurons blocks the feeding inhibition produced by increased hypothalamic temperature. Taken together, our findings identify a melanocortinergic circuit that links acute elevations in hypothalamic temperature with acute reductions in food intake.

  9. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Langeveld

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. Methods We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold or 24°C (thermoneutrality for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. Results We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Conclusions It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure.

  10. Slimming starters. Intake of a diet-congruent food reduces meal intake in active dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Nicola J; Finlayson, Graham; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-12-01

    Dietary restraint is known to break down in the face of tempting foods. Previous research suggests exposure to cues associated with slimming such as images or odours act as prompts to restrict intake of a tempting snack in dieters. The effects of consuming diet-congruent foods on subsequent intake of a meal have not yet been investigated. Thus, using a repeated measures design 26 female participants (dieters or non-dieters) consumed a diet-congruent (100 kcal salad), hedonic (100 kcal garlic bread) or neutral (0 kcal water) preload. A lexical decision task measured the salience of diet and hedonic thoughts and participants were then offered pizza as a main meal. Appetite sensations were measured throughout the study. Compared to the hedonic and neutral preload, a diet-congruent preload reduced dieters' entire meal intake by 21%. In contrast, non-dieters consumed 9% more in the hedonic preload condition compared to the neutral preload, yet showed no differences between the diet-congruent and other conditions. Salad lowered participants desire to eat and increased fullness compared to garlic bread and water preloads. Dieters were also less hungry after the salad compared to the garlic bread and water preloads. Consuming a diet-congruent first course may prompt lower intake at a meal, in part due to facilitating resolve to refrain from overeating a tempting second course. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocke, M. C.; Larranaga, N.; Grioni, S.; van den Berg, S. W.; Ferrari, P.; Salvini, S.; Benetou, V.; Linseisen, J.; Wirfalt, E.; Rinaldi, S.; Jenab, M.; Halkjaer, J.; Jakobsen, M. U.; Niravong, M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Kaaks, R.; Bergmann, M.; Moutsiou, E.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lauria, C.; Sacerdote, C.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Hjartaker, A.; Parr, C. L.; Tormo, M. J.; Sanchez, M. J.; Manjer, J.; Hellstrom, V.; Mulligan, A.; Spencer, E. A.; Riboli, E.; Bingham, S.; Slimani, N.

    Objectives: To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a

  12. LCD OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS PHASE 2: FORD F250 AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life cycle design methodology was applied to the design analysis of three alternatives for the lower plehum of the air intake manifold for us with a 5.4L F-250 truck engine: a sand cast aluminum, a lost core molded nylon composite, and a vibration welded nylon composite. The ...

  13. Building better bones in childhood: a randomized controlled study to test the efficacy of a dietary intervention program to increase calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D R; Stark, L J; Ittenbach, R F; Stallings, V A; Zemel, B S

    2017-06-01

    Many children do not consume the recommended daily allowance of calcium. Inadequate calcium intake in childhood may limit bone accrual. The objective of this study was to determine if a behavioral modification and nutritional education (BM-NE) intervention improved dietary calcium intake and bone accrual in children. 139 (86 female) healthy children, 7-10 years of age, were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial conducted over 36 months. Participants randomized to the BM-NE intervention attended five sessions over a 6-week period designed to increase calcium intake to 1500 mg/day. Participants randomized to the usual care (UC) group received a single nutritional counseling session. The Calcium Counts Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess calcium intake; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). Longitudinal mixed effects models were used to assess for an effect of the intervention on calcium intake, BMC and aBMD. BM-NE participants had greater increases in calcium intake that persisted for 12 months following the intervention compared with UC. The intervention had no effect on BMC or aBMD accrual. Secondary analyses found a negative association between calcium intake and adiposity such that greater calcium intake was associated with lesser gains in body mass index and fat mass index. A family-centered BM-NE intervention program in healthy children was successful in increasing calcium intake for up to 12 months but had no effect on bone accrual. A beneficial relationship between calcium intake and adiposity was observed and warrants future study.

  14. A genome-wide linkage scan for dietary energy and nutrient intakes: the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaku, Agron; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva; Leon, Arthur S; Rao, D C; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Bouchard, Claude

    2004-05-01

    A poor diet is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some cancers. Twin and family studies suggest that genetic factors potentially influence energy and nutrient intakes. We sought to identify genomic regions harboring genes affecting total energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intakes. We performed a genomic scan in 347 white sibling pairs and 99 black sibling pairs. Dietary energy and nutrient intakes were assessed by using Willett's food-frequency questionnaire. Single-point and multipoint Haseman-Elston regression techniques were used to test for linkage. These subjects were part of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, a multicenter project undertaken by 5 laboratories. In the whites, the strongest evidence of linkage appeared for dietary energy and nutrient intakes on chromosomes 1p21.2 (P = 0.0002) and 20q13.13 (P = 0.00007), and that for fat intake appeared on chromosome 12q14.1 (P = 0.0013). The linkage evidence on chromosomes 1 and 20 related to total energy intake rather than to the intake of specific macronutrients. In the blacks, promising linkages for macronutrient intakes occurred on chromosomes 12q23-q24.21, 1q32.1, and 7q11.1. Several potential candidate genes are encoded in and around the linkage regions on chromosomes 1p21.2, 12q14.1, and 20q13.13. These are the first reported human quantitative trait loci for dietary energy and macronutrient intakes. Further study may refine these quantitative trait loci to identify potential candidate genes for energy and specific macronutrient intakes that would be amenable to more detailed molecular studies.

  15. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  16. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI). Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI. Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  17. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail.

  18. [Consumption pattern and recommended intakes of sugar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles i Izquierdo, Joan

    2013-07-01

    Sugars are sweet-flavored carbohydrates that provide energy to the body. The adult brain uses about 140 g of glucose per day, amount which can represent up to 50 of the total number of carbohydrates consumed. In our country the sugar in food consumption pattern remains constant, while the consumption of soft drinks has increased in the past four years. The national survey of dietary intake of Spain (ENIDE, 2010-11) estimated that 20% of calories intake comes from carbohydrates called sugars. Sugar consumption has been associated with various pathologies (diabetes, obesity, tooth decay, cardiovascular disease) but these relationships are not consistent enough. Food information through nutritional labeling, including sugars present in food, pretend to protect the consumer health and to guarantee their right to information so they can make their own decisions with criterion. In view of different appraisals and existing studies, and above all, in the absence of a solid scientific evidence that concrete data on which make recommendations, the best nutritional advice for the general population could be a diet varied and balanced with food and nutrients from different sources, combining such a diet with exercise and physical activity. More specifically in terms of moderate consumption of sugar in the previous context of varied and balanced diet is perfectly compatible. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Lin

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI. Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI.Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P < 0.01.The ratio of plasma campesterol to the coordinately regulated endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol is a biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  20. Reliable Quantification of the Potential for Equations Based on Spot Urine Samples to Estimate Population Salt Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason Hy

    2016-01-01

    to a standard format. Individual participant records will be compiled and a series of analyses will be completed to: (1) compare existing equations for estimating 24-hour salt intake from spot urine samples with 24-hour urine samples, and assess the degree of bias according to key demographic and clinical......BACKGROUND: Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean...... population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derived from 24-hour urine samples. The effects of factors such as ethnicity, sex, age, body mass index, antihypertensive drug use, health status...

  1. Plan of intakes for establish more Shimane-3 in Shimane Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Tsuyoshi; Nakamoto, Kenji; Fukumoto, Tadashi; Kanda, Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    Shimane-3 reactor (ABWR) has been constructed to aim at operating in December, 2011. Outline of intakes works are stated. The environmental loads and cost were reduced by changing intake works from the embedded steel pipe method to the undersea tunnel method. Plan of intakes, development of Pneumatic Caisson intake, and investigation of bedrock of submarine in the surrounding of intake are reported. The construction planning of Pneumatic Caisson intake consists of the foundation work, installation of intake unit, connection of intake tunnels and flow of water. The uniformity intake structure was investigated by the hydraulic model tests and the numerical analysis. Dredging of rocks in the foundation spot of intake and construction of intakes on land are under construction. A construction work plan, design for intakes, the embedded steel pipe method, the undersea tunnel method, Pneumatic Caisson intake, topographic features and intake tanks are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  2. Nutritient intake of young children with Prader–Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Lindmark

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS is a rare genetic disorder resulting in obesity. The diets for young children with PWS must balance the importance of preventing development of obesity with the need to supply sufficient energy and essential nutrients. Objective: To investigate the nutritional intake for children with PWS 2, 3, and 4 years of age and compare it with Nordic Nutritional Recommendations (NNR and intake of healthy controls. Design: Assessments of food intake for six children 2–4 years of age were performed twice a year. At the age of 2 and 3 years data was obtained by using food recall interviews and at 4 year of age a pre-coded food-diary was used. Results: The energy intake for the 2-year-old children was 3.25 MJ/day (SD 0.85 and for the 3- and 4-year olds 3.62 MJ/day (SD 0.73 and 4.07 MJ/day (SD 0.39 MJ, respectively. These intakes are 61%, 68%, and 77% of the estimated energy requirements in NNR for healthy 2-, 3- and 4-year-old children, respectively, and 60% and 66% of the energy intakes of 2- and 4-year-old children in reference populations. The children's BMI-for-age score and length growth was within the normal range during the study period. The intake of fat was about 25 E% in all age groups and reduced when compared with reference populations. In 25% of the assessments the fat intake was 20 E% or below. The intake of iron was below recommendations in all age groups both with and without supplementation. The mean intake of vitamin D and tocopherol was below recommendations when intakes were determined excluding dietary supplementations. Conclusions: More large-scale investigations on nutritional intake are needed to further investigate dietary challenges for this patient group.

  3. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for c...

  4. Calorie Intake and Gambling: Is Fat and Sugar Consumption 'Impulsive'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; A Redden, Sarah; Grant, Jon E

    2017-09-01

    Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Dietary intake over the preceding year was quantified using the Dietary Fat and Free Sugar Short questionnaire (DFS). Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between dietary fat/sugar intake and gambling behaviors, as well as other measures of psychopathology and cognition germane to addiction, were evaluated using correlational analyses controlling for multiple comparisons. Greater dietary fat and sugar intake were associated with lower educational levels and with male gender. Controlling for these variables, higher dietary fat and sugar intake were correlated significantly with worse gambling pathology and anxiety scores. Dietary sugar intake was also significantly associated with higher depressive scores, more alcohol intake, lower self-esteem, and with greater risk of having one or more mental disorders in general. Dietary intake did not correlate significantly with ADHD symptoms, presence of one or more impulse control disorders, Barratt impulsiveness, or cognitive functioning. These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between fat/sugar intake and symptoms of gambling pathology, but not most other forms of impulsivity and behavioral addiction (excepting alcohol intake). Providing education about healthy diet may be especially valuable in gamblers and in community settings where gambling advertisements feature prominently. Future work should explore

  5. [Dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Jianhong; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Yan, Liuxia; Chu, Jie; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    To describe dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province. A total of 2184 subjects were selected by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method from 18-69 years old people in Shandong province in June, 2011. A total of 2140 subjects completed the study, the completion rate was 98.0%. Three-day (24-hour per day) dietary recalls and weighting methods were conducted to collect information about all the foods and condiments consumed by the subjects. Individual dietary sodium intake was calculated, the differences of dietary sodium intake among subjects with different characteristics were analyzed, and the proportions of different dietary sodium resources were also analyzed. The amount of individual dietary sodium intake was 5745.0 (95%CI:5427.6-6062.5) mg/d in Shandong; 6147.4 (95%CI: 5823.8-6471.0) mg/d for male residents, 5339.3 (95%CI:5005.8-5672.8) mg/d for female residents. There was a significant difference between males and females (F = 75.22, P sodium intake was 5910.1 (95%CI:5449.3-6370.8) mg/d, 5341.6 (95%CI:5007.0-5676.1) mg/d for rural residents and urban residents respectively, and there was also a significant difference (F = 5.53, P sodium intake was 4640.3 (95%CI:4360.2-4920.4) mg/d, which was the largest contributor to sodium intake, accounting for 80.8% (95%CI:79.9%-81.6%) of total intake. Sodium intake from cereals was 650.7 (95%CI: 590.5-711.0) mg/d, accounting for 11.3% (95%CI:10.3%-12.3%) of total intake. Sodium intake from eggs was 118.9 (95%CI:95.2-142.6) mg/d, accounting for 2.1% (95%CI:1.6%-2.6%) of total intake. The amount of manufactured food sodium intake was 582.1(95%CI: 497.8-666.4) mg/d, accounting for 10.1% (95%CI:8.9%-11.4%) of total intake. Sodium intakes remain high among residents of Shandong province, and sodium from condiments was the largest source of dietary sodium intake, sodium of manufactured food only accounting for small part.

  6. Is yogurt intake associated with periodontitis due to calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Sung; Kim, Young-Youn; Oh, Jeong-Kyu; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the lower intakes of yogurt, milk, and calcium are associated with periodontitis in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. This study comprised 6,150 adults 19 or more years old who took both periodontal examination and nutrition survey. The frequency of yogurt and milk intake was examined with a food frequency questionnaire. The amount of calcium intake was calculated with dietary intakes data gained from complete one-day 24-hour recall interviews. Periodontitis was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the whole sample and subgroups with the strata of age, gender, or smoking, in a complex sampling design. Less intake of yogurt was significantly associated with periodontitis (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidential interval [CI] 0.70-0.97), but neither less intake of milk (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.20) nor lower intake of calcium (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.21) was significantly associated with periodontitis. In the subgroup analysis, no difference in the association of yogurt intake with periodontitis was found according to the strata of age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, periodonitis was significantly associated with the less intake of yogurt among the Korean adults, but the calcium contained in yogurt is not likely to cause it.

  7. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Raatz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  8. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-15

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  9. Experimental studies on intake headloss of a blasted lake tap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, James; Billstein, Mats; Engström, Fredrik; Strand, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    In existing reservoirs, construction of an intake is sometimes achieved by so-called lake tapping, a submerged tunnel piercing by blasting out the rock plug at the intake. The blasting process involves phases of rock, water, air and gas released from the explosive charge; the resulting entrance profile often differs from design assumptions. The intake headloss is a factor of concern for power generation. For a vertical intake formed by lake tapping, experiments have been carried out in a 1:30 physical model to examine the effect of entrance shapes on intake headlosses. The purpose is that, if there is potential to reduce the headlosses, the originally blasted intake shape would be modified. In the model, five alternative shapes are evaluated. The test results show that to enlarge the vertical shaft area is the most effective way to reduce the intake headloss; to further blast out a narrow channel upstream does not give much effect. Bearing in mind the risk of free-surface vortex at the intake, the influence of the intake modifications on vortex is also checked

  10. Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population and asymptomatic people infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: The transition health and urbanisation in South Africa (Thusa) study.

  11. Association of Total Fluid Intake and Output with Duration of Hospital Stay in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andree H. Koop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of fluid balance with outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis (AP. Methods. This was a retrospective study of patients hospitalized between May 2008 and June 2016 with AP and a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Data collected included various types of fluid intake and output at 24 and 48 hours after admission. The primary outcome was length of stay (LOS. Analysis was performed using single-variable and multivariable negative binomial regression models. Results. Of 1256 patients hospitalized for AP during the study period, only 71 patients (5.6% had a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Increased urine output was associated with a decreased LOS at 24 and 48 hours in univariable analysis. An increasingly positive fluid balance (total intake minus urine output at 24 hours was associated with a longer LOS in multivariable analysis. Conclusions. Few patients hospitalized for AP had a documented order for strict monitoring of fluid intake and output, despite the importance of monitoring fluid balance in these patients. Our study suggests an association between urine output and fluid balance with LOS in AP.

  12. Daily Dietary Intake Patterns Improve after Visiting a Food Pantry among Food-Insecure Rural Midwestern Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanne N. Wright

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Emergency food pantries provide food at no cost to low-resource populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-day dietary intake patterns before and after visiting a food pantry among food-secure and food-insecure pantry clients. This observational cohort study comprised a paired, before-and-after design with a pantry visit as the intervention. Participants (n = 455 completed a demographic and food security assessment, and two 24-h dietary recalls. Adult food security was measured using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake patterns were assessed using Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall data and classified by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores, dietary variety, number of eating occasions, and energy intake. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared outcomes before and after a pantry visit. Mean dietary variety increased after the pantry visit among both food-secure (p = 0.02 and food-insecure (p < 0.0001 pantry clients. Mean energy intake (p = 0.0003, number of eating occasions (p = 0.004, and HEI-2010 component scores for total fruit (p < 0.001 and whole fruit (p < 0.0003 increased among food-insecure pantry clients only. A pantry visit may improve dietary intake patterns, especially among food-insecure pantry clients.

  13. Determining attitudinal and behavioral factors concerning milk and dairy intake and their association with calcium intake in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Rengers, Brooke; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2018-04-01

    Average intake of calcium among college students is below the recommended intake, and knowledge surrounding the attitudinal and behavioral factors that influence milk and dairy intake, a primary food source of calcium, is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate college students' attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy consumption and their association with calcium intake. Participants were 1,730 undergraduate students who completed an online survey (SurveyMonkey) as part of baseline data collection for a social marketing dairy campaign. The online survey assessed attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy intake, and calcium intake. Questions about milk- and dairy-related attitudes and behaviors were grouped into 14 factors using factor analysis. Predictors of calcium intake were then evaluated. Median calcium intake across all participants was 928.6 mg/day, with males consuming higher calcium intakes than females ( P negative-parent rules concerning milk ( P = 0.031) and viewing milk in dining halls negatively ( P = 0.05). Calcium intakes among college students enrolled in the current study was below the recommended dietary allowance of 1,000 mg/day, reinforcing the need for dietary interventions in this target population, especially females. Practitioners and researchers should consider the factors found here to impact calcium intake, particularly associating milk with specific eating occasions (e.g., milk with breakfast) and having calcium-rich foods available in the dorm room or apartment, as intervention strategies in future efforts aimed at promoting milk and dairy foods and beverages for improved calcium intake in college students.

  14. Identification of food intake patterns and associated factors in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Márcia Oliveira Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify schoolchildren"s dietary patterns and investigate the demographic, social, and economic determinants of the differences found between patterns. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1,330 students aged 11 to 17 years attending the public schools of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The subjects' food intake data were collected by a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire comprising 97 food items. All information was collected during a single interview. The exposure variables were gender, age, and socioeconomic class, and the outcome variables were categorized food consumption pattern in "mixed pattern", "traditional pattern", and "healthy pattern". The data were treated by simple and multiple linear regression analyses and the dietary patterns determined by factor analysis. RESULTS: Most participants were female (56.9% and over 13 years old (79.2%. The "mixed pattern" was positively associated with females (β=0.181, p0.0001 and classes D, C, and B (β=-0.125, p<0.023. CONCLUSION: Three dietary patterns were identified among the adolescents, namely mixed, traditional, and healthy. Gender and socioeconomic class were associated with dietary patterns. Male teenagers and those in the lower socioeconomic classes had a healthier dietary pattern than their peers of higher socioeconomic classes and females.

  15. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  16. Stimulate feed intake before weaning and control intake after weaning to optimise health and growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehya Read

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-weaning feed restriction is a common practice in rabbit farming to reduce mortality, but results in lower growth performance and slaughter weights. This study aimed to assess the influence of 2 diets both rich in fibre and low in starch, with high or low digestible energy (DE and digestible protein (DP contents for a constant DP/DE ratio offered from 18 to 70 d of age, on the growth performance and health parameters of rabbits. Eight hundred rabbit kits were divided in 2 experimental groups differing in the feed offered from 18 to 70 d: a high concentrate diet (HC group; 10.37 MJ DE/kg DM and 102 g DP/kg DM or low concentrate diet (LC group; 9.63 MJ DE/kg DM and 95 g DP/kg DM. Feed was offered ad libitum before weaning (35 d and from 63 to 70 d, while feed offered from 35 to 63 d was controlled to obtain similar DE intake in both groups. Feed intake, animal weights and health status were recorded weekly. Mortality was recorded daily. Feed intake was similar in both groups before weaning (P=0.204, and consequently the DE intake was higher in the HC group compared to the LC group before weaning (3.91 vs. 3.39 MJ, respectively; P=0.017. Feed intake from 63 to 70 d was lower in the HC than in the LC group (229 vs. 239 g/d/kit, respectively; P<0.001.Total DE ingested after weaning was similar in both groups (45.44 MJ; P=0.143. Kits were heavier in the HC group throughout the study (P<0.05. A higher average daily gain during the periods of 18-28, 35-42 and 56-63 d was seen in the HC group (+8.1%, +16.8% and +4.5%, respectively; P<0.05. Mortality and morbidity rates were similar between groups throughout the study (P=1.0 and P=0.104, respectively. Our results suggest that when the feed intake after weaning is controlled, i the feeding strategy before weaning determines the weight at weaning and at slaughter age; and ii rabbits fed a diet more highly concentrated but rich in fibre increase their growth performance without negative

  17. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jacqueline; Fisher, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is an entirely new diagnosis in the DSM-5. ARFID replaces "feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood," which was a diagnosis in the DSM-IV restricted to children 6 years of age or younger; ARFID has no such age limitations and it is distinct from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in that there is no body image disturbance. ARFID involves a complex and heterogenous etiology, which is reviewed herein. What is known to date regarding the characteristics and medical and psychiatric comorbidities of this patient population are described and compared to other eating disorders. Evaluation and management strategies are also discussed. No data yet exist regarding ARFID׳s prognosis and prevention; however, recommendations to guide parents in establishing appropriate infant and child feeding practices are provided. Copyright © 2017 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  19. Dose calculations for intakes of ore dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.S.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes a methodology for calculating the committed effective dose for mixtures of radionuclides, such as those which occur in natural radioactive ores and dusts. The formulae are derived from first principles, with the use of reasonable assumptions concerning the nature and behaviour of the radionuclide mixtures. The calculations are complicated because these 'ores' contain a range of particle sizes, have different degrees of solubility in blood and other body fluids, and also have different biokinetic clearance characteristics from the organs and tissues in the body. The naturally occurring radionuclides also tend to occur in series, i.e. one is produced by the radioactive decay of another 'parent' radionuclide. The formulae derived here can be used, in conjunction with a model such as LUDEP, for calculating total dose resulting from inhalation and/or ingestion of a mixture of radionuclides, and also for deriving annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations for these mixtures

  20. Not Simply a Matter of Fish Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Carlos; Figueiredo, Valeria N; Moura, Filipe A; Sposito, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have highlighted enhanced fish consumption as a potential measure to increase intake of healthy fatty acids, particularly omega-3. The generalizability of this recommendation, however, may fall short of differences in fish species and cooking techniques. Hence, we investigated how these 2 variables affect the lipid content in fish flesh. Nine species of freshwater, deep sea or shore fish were grilled, steamed or fried with or without the addition of soybean oil, olive oil or butter. The lipid composition was analysed and a significant difference was observed in cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids contents between species (pfish species and cooking techniques.

  1. The Macronutrients, Appetite, and Energy Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Alicia L; Dhillon, Jaapna; Gordon, Susannah; Higgins, Kelly A; Jacobs, Ashley G; McArthur, Breanna M; Redan, Benjamin W; Rivera, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Leigh R; Mattes, Richard D

    2016-07-17

    Each of the macronutrients-carbohydrate, protein, and fat-has a unique set of properties that influences health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, thinking has progressed regarding the mechanisms by which each macronutrient may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this period, metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency) were emphasized. This was followed by an orientation to gut endocrine signals that purportedly modulate the size of eating events (i.e., determined portion size). Most recently, research attention has been directed to the brain, where the reward signals elicited by the macronutrients are viewed as potentially problematic (e.g., contribute to disordered eating). At this point, the predictive power of the macronutrients for energy intake remains limited.

  2. Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorster, Hester H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Allen, Lindsay H; King, Janet C

    2007-03-01

    The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promotion of optimal nutrition and preventing and treating malnutrition (both over- and undernutrition). Other applications include nutrition education, food and nutrient legislation, marketing and labeling, research, product development, food procurement and trade (import and export), food aid, and therapeutic (clinical) nutrition. Specific examples of how NIVs are used to develop food labels, fortification policies, and food-based dietary guidelines are described. Applications in both developed and developing countries are also described. In summary, NIVs are the scientific backbone of all aspects of nutrition policy in countries and regions worldwide.

  3. Total energy intake according to the level of skeletal muscle mass in Korean adults aged 30 years and older: an analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo Young; Bu, So Young

    2018-06-01

    Since gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass is a gradual event and occurs due to a combination of lifestyle factors, assessment of dietary factors related to skeletal muscle is complicated. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in total energy intake according to the level of skeletal muscle mass. A total of 8,165 subjects ≥ 30 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008-2011 were included in the analysis, and multivariate-adjusted regression analyses were performed to analyze the association of the quartiles of sarcopenia index (SI) with energy intake of the study population after adjusting for age and metabolic parameters. The increase in SI quartile was in proportion to the gradual decrease in systemic lipids and the anthropometric measurement of fat accumulation ( P energy and energy-producing nutrients than those in lower quartiles ( P energy intake gradually increased according to the increase in SI quartile, and the association between total energy intake and SI was more pronounced in men. However, the risk (odd ratio) of having a low SI was not affected by any single macronutrient intake. In this study, total energy intake was positively associated with SI and relative skeletal mass in both men and women. However, no significant association or a weak association was observed between any single macronutrient intake and skeletal muscle mass. The data indicated that acquiring more energy intake within the normal range of energy consumption may help to maintain skeletal muscle mass.

  4. Associations Between Swedish Mothers' and 3- and 5-Year-Old Children's Food Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L. M.; Heitmann, B. L.; Larsson, Christel

    2016-01-01

    ' and children's intake of savoury snacks, as did place of residence for pizza intake. Conclusions and Implications There were substantial correlations between children's and mothers' intake of various foods. Modeling of mothers' intake might be more effective in influencing young children's intake of certain...

  5. COMPUTER MODELING OF HYDRODYNAMIC PARAMETERS AT BOUNDARIES OF WATER INTAKE AREA WITH FILTERING INTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boronina Lyudmila Vladimirovna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of water intake technologies are of great importance. These technologies are required to provide high quality water intake and treatment; they must be sufficiently simple and reliable, and they must be easily adjustable to particular local conditions. A mathematical model of a water supply area near the filtering water intake is proposed. On its basis, a software package designated for the calculation of parameters of the supply area along with its graphical representation is developed. To improve the efficiency of water treatment plants, the authors propose a new method of their integration into the landscape by taking account of velocity distributions in the water supply area within the water reservoir where the plant installation is planned. In the proposed relationship, the filtration rate and the scattering rate at the outlet of the supply area are taken into account, and they assure more precise projections of the inlet velocity. In the present study, assessment of accuracy of the mathematical model involving the scattering of a turbulent flow has been done. The assessment procedure is based on verification of the mean values equality hypothesis and on comparison with the experimental data. The results and conclusions obtained by means of the method developed by the authors have been verified through comparison of deviations of specific values calculated through the employment of similar algorithms in MathCAD, Maple and PLUMBING. The method of the water supply area analysis, with the turbulent scattering area having been taken into account, and the software package enable to numerically estimate the efficiency of the pre-purification process by tailoring a number of parameters of the filtering component of the water intake to the river hydrodynamic properties. Therefore, the method and the software package provide a new tool for better design, installation and operation of water treatment plants with respect to filtration and

  6. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Sodium intake measured as 24-hour urinary sodium is increased in subjects with hypertension attesting to sodium intake as a risk factor for the development of high blood pressure. Subjects with high salt taste threshold also have increased urinary sodium excretion which may predispose them to deveploment ...

  7. Intake of household salt in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2009-01-01

    from the mean urinary excretion of sodium in four 24-h collections. Household salt, added to the food by the volunteers, was assessed using a lithium-marker technique. Results: Total salt intake was 10.6 +/- 3.3 g day(-1) (mean +/- s.d.) in men and 7.1 +/- 2.3 g day(-1) in women. Median intake...

  8. Guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praticò, Giulia; Gao, Qian; Scalbert, Augustin; Vergères, Guy; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Pedapati, Sri Harsha; Afman, Lydia A.; Wishart, David S.; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Lacueva, Cristina Andres; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Verhagen, Hans; Feskens, Edith J.M.; Dragsted, Lars O.

    2018-01-01

    Identification of new biomarkers of food and nutrient intake has developed fast over the past two decades and could potentially provide important new tools for compliance monitoring and dietary intake assessment in nutrition and health science. In recent years, metabolomics has played an important

  9. FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Qibin; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Downer, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small...

  10. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S

    2015-01-01

    in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were...

  11. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2017-11-27

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  12. Amino acids intake and physical fitness among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Polito, Angela; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Hagströmer, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; de Henauw, Stefaan; Gutierrez, Ángel; Castillo, Manuel J; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity was objectively measured. Socioeconomic status was obtained via questionnaires. Lower limbs muscular fitness seems to be positively associated with tryptophan, histidine and methionine intake in boys, regardless of centre, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and total energy intake (model 1). However, these associations disappeared once carbohydrates intake was controlled for (model 2). In girls, only proline intake seems to be positively associated with lower limbs muscular fitness (model 2) while cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be positively associated with leucine (model 1) and proline intake (models 1 and 2). None of the observed significant associations remained significant once multiple testing was controlled for. In conclusion, we failed to detect any associations between any of the evaluated AAs and physical fitness after taking into account the effect of multiple testing.

  13. Dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.; Cadier, E.; Beulens, J. W J; van der A, D. L.; Spijkerman, A. M W; van der Schouw, Y. T.

    Background and aims: Carotenoids may reduce diabetes risk, due to their antioxidant properties. However, the association between dietary carotenoids intake and type 2 diabetes risk is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether higher dietary carotenoid intakes

  14. Setting a social norm regarding food intake in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    People use other's food intake as a social norm indicating how much they are 'allowed' to eat. Ample experimental research showed the impact of peer modeling on food intake in adolescents and adults, whereas few studies focused on young children. This study used an innovative design in a

  15. High Salt Intake Attenuates Breast Cancer Metastasis to Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yijuan; Wang, Wenzhe; Wang, Minmin; Liu, Xuejiao; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Wang, Mingfu; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haitao; Chen, Wei

    2018-04-04

    Diet-related factors are thought to modify the risk of cancers, while the influence of high salt intake remains largely uncharacterized. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In the present study, we examined the effect of salt intake on breast cancer by using a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model. Unexpectedly, both the fitness and the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice were improved by high salt intake. Similarly, high salt intake suppressed the primary tumor growth as well as metastasis to lung in mice. Mechanistically, high salt intake greatly reduced food intake and thus might exert antitumor effect through mimicking calorie restriction. Immunoblotting showed the lower proliferation marker Ki-67 and the higher expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53 in tumors of high salt intake mice. Importantly, high salt intake might induce hyperosmotic stress, which sensitized breast cancer cells to p53-dependent anoikis. Collectively, our findings raise the possibility that endogenous salt deposition might act as the first-line defense system against breast cancer progression as well as metastasis.

  16. Food concentrations and dietary intakes of elements for Chinese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda; Wang Jixian; Chen Rusong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To obtain concentrations of elements in Chinese current foods and their dietary intakes by adult man in order to provide a basis on intake parameters of Chinese Reference Man and make related hygienic evaluation. Methods: With mixed food sample method of total diet study, determination of element concentrations in constituent foods of diets for 4 areas with different diet types was carried out by using NAA, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, AAS and necessary QA measures, and estimation of their daily intakes and hygienic evaluation were also made. Results: The concentrations of 42 elements in 12 categories of foods, their intakes and hygienic evaluation for adult man were obtained. Conclusion: The data on element concentrations in Chinese foods and their dietary intakes were updated and widened. These data provided a new basis for developing the parameters of Chinese Reference Man and revealed some current hygienic problems. For example, from viewpoint of nutrition hygiene the Ca, Zn, and Cu intakes for Chinese Reference Man are insufficient, and from consideration of food hygiene the intakes of Pb,Cd and Na are excessive.. Especially, and Cd average daily intakes of Pb, Cd and Hg have been increased during recent years, those of Pb exceed their ADIs, which should be paid attention to

  17. Hap1 and GABA: thinking about food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2006-06-01

    GABA stimulation of hypothalamic GABAA receptors increases food intake and body weight. Huntingtin-associated protein-1 (Hap1), is highly expressed in the hypothalamus and increases activity at GABAA receptors; mice lacking Hap1 are hypophagic. A recent paper (Sheng et al.,2006) further explores the role of Hap1 in the control of food intake.

  18. Determination and estimation of Cadmium intake from Tarom rice 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    entrance to food chain causes the serious damage in humans. One of the major .... Malaysia. 27.74. Spain. 0.85. Philippines. 20.14. USA. 7.43. Dietary intake of Cadmium: The intake of Cd was ... and contaminants of the joint FAO/WHO Food.

  19. Intake of dietary folate vitamers and risk of colorectal carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Several studies have reported inverse associations between folate intake and colorectal carcinoma risk. Few were prospective studies and none evaluated the association between the intake of individual folate vitamers and colorectal carcinoma risk. METHODS. The aim of the current study

  20. Intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Hughes, M.C.; Ibiebele, T.I.; Marks, G.C.; Green, A.C.; Pols, van der J.C.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the associations between intake of antioxidant nutrients and risk of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the skin, we carried out a prospective study among 1001 randomly selected adults living in an Australian community. Intake of antioxidants was estimated in 1996.

  1. Association of usual intake of added sugars with nutrient adequacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations for intakes of added sugars have varied considerably and the scientific basis supporting these recommendations has been inconsistent. The goal of this study was to examine the association of usual intake (UI) of added sugars and nutrient adequacy in those participating in NHANES 2009...

  2. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Kibblewhite

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ food composition database (FOODfiles 2010 by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  3. Dietary fat intake and nutritional status indicators of primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as dietary fat intakes usually associated with cardiovascular ... higher than the national prevalence rate of 10%. ... Serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were within the normal ... The total dietary fat intakes showed significant relationships with

  4. International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike; Pryce, Jennie E

    2013-01-01

    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data...

  5. Anaemia prevalence and nutrient intake among women in peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study assessed the nutrient intake, sickling and haemoglobin levels of 134 women aged 15-49 years enrolled in a peanut-based field trial at baseline. A pretested semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess energy and nutrient intake using the Food Processor (ESHA) software.

  6. Internal flow characteristics of a rectangular ramjet air intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerel, J.-L.; Veraar, R.G.; Halswijk, W.H.C.; Pimentel, R.; Corriveau, D.; Hamel, N.; Lesage, F.; Vos, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Two research institutes TNO Defence, Security and Safety and DRDC-Valcartier have worked together on the improvement of modeling and simulation tools for the functioning of supersonic air intakes for realistic ramjet engines of tactical missiles. The emphasis laid on complex rectangular intake

  7. Added sugar and dietary sodium intake from purchased fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, males and females consumed on average three times the recommended daily intake of added sugar, and more than half of the recommended daily salt intake from these purchased foods alone. These dietary patterns during adolescence may exacerbate the risk of obesity and hypertension in later adult life.

  8. Food Intake and Success or Failure of Dietary Restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Determination of success and failure of dietary restraint in relation to food intake in 510 females. Methods: Food intake as measured with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was assessed in low vs. high restrained eaters and overeaters, as measured with the DEBQ (Dutch Eating

  9. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; Hansen, Tue H; Allin, Kristine H; Hoppe, Camilla; Fagt, Sisse; Lausten, Mia S; Gøbel, Rikke J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2015-10-30

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1,257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p vegans the intake of macro- and micronutrients (including supplements) did not reach the NNR for protein, vitamin D, iodine and selenium. Among vegan women vitamin A intake also failed to reach the recommendations. With reference to the NNR, the dietary content of added sugar, sodium and fatty acids, including the ratio of PUFA to SFA, was more favorable among vegans. At the macronutrient level, the diet of Danish vegans is in better accordance with the NNR than the diet of the general Danish population. At the micronutrient level, considering both diet and supplements, the vegan diet falls short in certain nutrients, suggesting a need for greater attention toward ensuring recommended daily intake of specific vitamins and minerals.

  10. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as described in § 1065.650, as follows: (1) Use the actual value of calculated raw exhaust in the..., you may use an intake-air flow meter signal that does not give the actual value of raw exhaust, as... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air...

  11. Association between macronutrient intake and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boeun; Jin, Youri; Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Yongsoon

    2018-04-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and the nutritional state of ALS patients is associated with survival. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether macronutrient intake at early stage of the disease was positively associated with survival and duration from symptom onset to death, tracheostomy, or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in ALS. ALS patients diagnosed according to EI Escorial criteria were recruited from 2011 to 2016 and followed up until 2017, when they reached the endpoint of death, tracheostomy, or NIV use. Dietary intake was estimated based on a 24-hour recall conducted less than 2 years from symptom onset, and the survival time was defined as the duration from symptom onset to the endpoint. ALS patients were categorized as short-term group (n=79) and long-term group (n=69) according to the mean survival time (33.03±14.01 months). Short-term survival was negatively associated with fat, protein, and meat intake, and positively associated with carbohydrate intake after adjustment for confounders. In addition, the survival time was positively associated with fat, protein, and meat intake but was not associated with carbohydrate intake. The present study suggested that higher intake of fat and protein, particularly from meat at early stage of the disease, could prolong the survival of ALS patients. However, further clinical trials are necessary to confirm the beneficial effects of higher fat and protein intake on mortality in ALS patients.

  12. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  13. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hilger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps.

  14. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90.309 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...

  15. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air...

  16. Comparing four methods to estimate usual intake distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, O.W.; Dekkers, A.L.; Geelen, A.; Haubrock, J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Ocke, M.C.; Harttig, U.; Boeing, H.; Veer, van 't P.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this paper was to compare methods to estimate usual intake distributions of nutrients and foods. As ‘true’ usual intake distributions are not known in practice, the comparison was carried out through a simulation study, as well as empirically, by application to data

  17. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate regression relationships were used to measure the effect of dietary protein level on the patterns of DE intake, daily gain and the deposition rates of protein (PDR) and fat (FDR) over the growth period 30-90 kg live mass. Dietary CP content had no significant effect on mean voluntary DE intakes and daily gains.

  18. Performance and nutrient intake of Zebu Heifers fed guinea grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen zebu heifors were ted 0. 20. 40 and 60% autoclaved broiler litter in total mixed rations. The effect of treatment was evaluated on feed intake. mean growth rate. digestibility coetlicient and digestible nutrient intake. Autoclaved broiler litter appeared to be well accepted by heiters even when included in ration at 60% of ...

  19. Computational analysis of turbulent flow in hydroelectric plant intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhadji, L.; Lemon, D.D.; Billenness, D.; Fissel, D. [ASL Environmental Sciences Inc., Sidney, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: lbouhadji@aslenv.com; Djilali, N. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: ndjilali@uvic.ca

    2003-07-01

    Turbulent flows in the Lower Monumental powerhouse intake are investigated using computational fluid dynamics. Simulations are carried out to gain an understanding into the impact of a grid-like trash rack on the downstream turbulent flow characteristics within the intake. (author)

  20. Knowledge And Intake of Fruit And Vegetables Consumption Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption is an essential source of vital nutrients for the body's micronutrient requirements. However, the knowledge and intake of this essential aspect of nutrition is globally poor. This study therefore aimed at assessing the knowledge and intake of vegetables and fruits among adults in ...

  1. Voluntary feed intake, body composition and efficiency of two Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individually on a diet with a metabolizable energy content of 10,26 MJ/kg. Measurements were made continuously of livemass, voluntary intake and body composition wsing tritium dilution. The growth results were analysed and interpreted relative to percentage of mature mass to account for differences in size. The intake of ...

  2. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. PMID:29186927

  3. Low vitamin K1 intake in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Noale, Marianna; Tripepi, Giovanni; Plebani, Mario; Veronese, Nicola; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Rossini, Maurizio; Tarroni, Giovanni; Lucatello, Sandro; Vianello, Alberto; Santinello, Irene; Bonfante, Luciana; Fabris, Fabrizio; Sella, Stefania; Piccoli, Antonio; Naso, Agostino; Ciurlino, Daniele; Aghi, Andrea; Gallieni, Maurizio; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin K acts as a coenzyme in the γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including coagulation factors, osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and the growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) protein. Osteocalcin is a key factor for bone matrix formation. MGP is a local inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. GAS6 activity prevents the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Few data on vitamin K intake in chronic kidney disease patients and no data in patients on a Mediterranean diet are available. In the present study, we evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin K1 in a cohort of patients undergoing haemodialysis. In this multi-centre controlled observational study, data were collected from 91 patients aged >18 years on dialysis treatment for at least 12 months and from 85 age-matched control subjects with normal renal function. Participants completed a food journal of seven consecutive days for the estimation of dietary intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients (minerals and vitamins). Compared to controls, dialysis patients had a significant lower total energy intake, along with a lower dietary intake of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fibres, and of all the examined minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Na, K, Zn, Cu, and Mg). With the exception of vitamin B12, vitamins intake followed a similar pattern, with a lower intake in vitamin A, B1, B2, C, D, E, folates, K1 and PP. These finding were confirmed also when normalized for total energy intake or for body weight. In respect to the adequate intakes recommended in the literature, the prevalence of a deficient vitamin K intake was very high (70-90%) and roughly double than in controls. Multivariate logistic model identified vitamin A and iron intake as predictors of vitamin K deficiency. Haemodialysis patients had a significantly low intake in vitamin K1, which could contribute to increase the risk of bone fractures and vascular calcifications. Since the deficiency of vitamin K intake seems to be remarkable, dietary

  4. Dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rate in industrialized nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ecological association of dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rates across industrialized nations. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the rate-limiting precursor of serotonin biosynthesis. The serotonergic system has been strongly implicated in the neurobiology of suicide. Contemporary male and female suicide rates for the general population (42 countries) and the elderly (38 countries) were correlated with national estimates of dietary tryptophan intake. Measures of tryptophan intake were significantly negatively associated to national suicide rates. Controlling for national affluence, total alcohol consumption and happiness levels slightly attenuated these associations, but left all of them negative. The effect is an ecological (group-level) finding. Estimated per capita tryptophan supply is only a proxy for actual consumption. Developed nations ranking high in dietary tryptophan intake rank low in suicide rates, independent of national wealth, alcohol intake and happiness.

  5. Adequacy of nutrient intake in women with restrictive anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiurazzi, Chiara; Cioffi, Iolanda; De Caprio, Carmela; De Filippo, Emilia; Marra, Maurizio; Sammarco, Rosa; Di Guglielmo, Maria Luisa; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess energy and nutrient intake in a group of women with restrictive AN (r-AN) compared with a control group. Thirteen r-AN patients and 13 healthy female controls completed 7-d food records. Intake of macro- and micronutrients was compared between the two groups as well as to the Dietary Reference Intake for the Italian Population (LARN) for specific ages. Additionally, the r-AN patients underwent indirect calorimetry for measuring resting energy expenditure (REE). Total energy intake was significantly lower in the r-AN group than in controls (906 ± 224 vs 1660 ± 139, respectively; P nutritional gaps in these patients. According to these preliminary observations, nutritional counseling, mainly focused on calcium and vitamin D intake, should be suggested for healthy women, as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Daily intake estimation of phenolic compounds in the Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Navarro González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds are a large group of molecules present in plants with a diversity of chemical structures and biological activity. The objective of this study was to quantify the intake of phenolic compounds of the Spanish population. Material and Methods: The most consumed foods from vegetal origin in Spain were selected. These were picked up in the National Survey of Spanish Dietary Intake (ENIDE of 2011, edited by AESAN (Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition as a basis for quantifying the intake of phenolic compounds of Spaniards using the Phenol-Explorer database. Results: This database has allowed to estimate the average intake of polyphenols per day of Spaniards, which is 1365.1mg. Conclusions: The average intake of total polyphenols of Spaniards could have a protective effect against the mortality rate and exercise a preventive function on some chronic diseases along with other healthy lifestyle habits.

  7. Intake of paracetamol and risk of asthma in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skadhauge, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Intake of paracetamol has been associated with development of asthma. The aim of this study was to address a possible association between intake of paracetamol and risk of adult-onset asthma. Using a multidisciplinary postal questionnaire survey concerning health and lifestyle we prospectively...... studied 19,349 adult twins enrolled in the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. There was a higher prevalence of new-onset asthma in subjects who reported frequent intake of paracetamol at baseline compared with subjects without this determinant (12.0% vs. 4.3%), OR = 3.03 (1.51-6.11), p = 0.005. The result...... remained significant after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, BMI, hay fever, eczema, and intake of medications other than paracetamol, OR = 2.16 (1.03-4.53), p = 0.041. Frequent intake of paracetamol is an independent risk factor for adult-onset asthma....

  8. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J

    1997-03-01

    To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population.

  9. Pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizel, Raquel; da Mata Godois, Allan; Coqueiro, Audrey Yule; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Tirapegui, Julio; de Paula Ravagnani, Fabricio Cesar; de Faria Coelho-Ravagnani, Christianne

    2017-12-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of nutrition in optimizing performance and health, the dietary intake of soccer players has attracted little attention. We aimed to assess the pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players and its adequacy in macro and micronutrients. The pre-season dietary intake of 19 male athletes was assessed using a semi-structured 3-day food record. To determine dietary adequacy and excess, energy and macronutrient intake were compared with the Brazilian dietary reference values for athletes, and micronutrients were compared with the Estimated Average Requirement - EAR (minimum recommendation) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level - UL (maximum recommendation). Mean daily energy intake (40.74±12.81 kcal/kg) was adequate. However, there was a low carbohydrate intake (5.44±1.86 g/kg/day) and a high amount of protein and fat (1.91±0.75 and 1.27±0.50 g/kg/day, respectively). Sodium intake (3141.77±939.76 mg/day) was higher than UL (2300 mg/day), while the majority of players showed daily intake of vitamin A (74%), vitamin D (100%), folate (58%), calcium and magnesium (68%) below the EAR (625, 10 and 320 µg/day, 800 and 330 mg/day, respectively). The dietary intake of professional soccer players was adequate in energy, but inadequate in macro and micronutrients, which suggests the need to improve nutritional practices to sustain the physical demands of soccer during pre-season.

  10. Intake of energy and nutrients. Euronut SENECA investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreiras, O; van Staveren, W A; Cruz, J A; Nes, M; Lund-Larsen, K

    1991-12-01

    As part of the Euronut SENECA study, food consumption has been assessed in 1217 men and 1241 women, born between 1913 and 1918 and living in 18 towns in 12 European countries. The method used was a standardized modified dietary history, including a 3-day estimated record and a food frequency list based on local food patterns. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fatty acids, cholesterol and alcohol are described in this paper. As expected, a difference between men and women in energy and nutrient intake was observed in all towns. There was a great variation between towns in mean dietary intakes of all dietary components. Mean energy intake of men ranged from 12.7 MJ in Marki (Poland) to 8.2 MJ in Yverdon (Switzerland) and Chateau Renault-Amboise (France). For women the range was from 10.9 MJ in Marki (Poland) to 6.3 MJ in Yverdon (Switzerland) and Vila Franca de Xira (Portugal). A geographical pattern can be detected for the intake of fatty acids. Intakes of saturated fat were lower in southern than in northern European towns. The calculated ratio for intakes of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids plus monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids) for all participants was higher in the southern European centres than in the northern centres and ranged from 2.7 in Markopoulo (Greece) to 1.2 in Elverum (Norway) and Marki (Poland). Alcohol consumption was considerable higher in men than in women. In men a north-south gradient in alcohol intake can be detected, with the highest intake in the two centres in Italy, where, on average 11% of energy intake was derived from alcohol.

  11. Energy and nutrient intake from pizza in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Nguyen, Binh T; Dietz, William H

    2015-02-01

    Pizza consumption is a top contributor to children's and adolescents' caloric intake. The objective of this study was to examine children's and adolescents' pizza consumption patterns and its impact on their energy and nutrient intake. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data for children aged 2 to 11 and adolescents aged 12 to 19 were drawn from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We tested changes in consumption patterns, including by race/ethnicity, income, meal occasion, and source. Individual-level fixed effects regression models estimated the impact of pizza consumption on total energy intake (TEI) and intakes of sugar, saturated fat, and sodium. From 2003-2004 to 2009-2010, overall energy intake from pizza declined 25% among children (110 to 83 kcal, P ≤ .05). Among adolescents, although caloric intake from pizza among those who consumed pizza fell (801 to 624 kcal, P ≤ .05), overall pizza intake remained unchanged due to slightly higher pizza consumption prevalence. For children and adolescents, pizza intake fell (P ≤ .05) at dinner time and from fast food. For children and adolescents, respectively, pizza consumption was significantly associated with higher net daily TEI (84 kcal and 230 kcal) and higher intakes of saturated fat (3 g and 5 g) and sodium (134 mg and 484 mg) but not sugar intake, and such affects generally did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Pizza consumption as a snack or from fast-food restaurants had the greatest adverse impact on TEI. The adverse dietary effects of pizza consumption found in this study suggest that its consumption should be curbed and its nutrient content improved. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Eating behavior in humans, characterized by cumulative food intake curves--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2000-03-01

    Cumulative food intake curves have been obtained by monitoring eating from a plate, placed on a scale built into a table, and connected to a digital computer. They describe and integrate parameters of consumption of an ad lib single course meal, i.e. meal size, meal duration, eating rate, change in eating rate, bite size and bite frequency. It is concluded that they are an adequate tool for analyzing dietary and clinical interventions on meal size, because the cumulative food intake curve parameters: are stable and consistent within subjects; show a clear relationship with the subject characteristics dietary restraint and obesity; show a clear relationship with the physiological parameters satiation, diet-induced thermogenesis and body-temperature near the liver, and with the cognitive parameter: estimating forthcoming ingestion; are sensitive to instructions, clinical and dietary interventions (preloads, palatability, energy density, macronutrient composition), and to a state of negative energy balance. Because of possible compensatory post-prandial effects, it is suggested that assessment of meal size should be part of a 24 h appetite profile and food intake observation.

  13. Serving a variety of vegetables and fruit as a snack increased intake in preschool children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meengs, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although serving a greater variety of food increases intake, this effect has not been well studied as a strategy to encourage consumption of vegetables and fruit in preschool children. Objective: This study examined whether providing a variety of familiar vegetables or fruit to preschool children as a snack would lead to increased selection and intake. Design: In a crossover design, 61 children (aged 3–5 y) ate a snack in their childcare facility on 8 afternoons. At 4 snack times, the children were offered vegetables: either a single type (cucumber, sweet pepper, or tomato) or a variety of all 3 types. At 4 other snack times, the children were offered fruit (apple, peach, pineapple, or all 3 types). Uniform-sized pieces were served family style, and children selected and ate as much as they desired. Results: Offering a variety of vegetables or fruit increased the likelihood of selection (P snacks with variety and in 70% of snacks without variety. Serving a variety also increased consumption of both vegetables and fruit (P snack led to increased consumption of both food types in a childcare facility. Serving a variety of vegetables or fruit as a snack could help preschool children meet recommended intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01557218. PMID:23902783

  14. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children's Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-05-27

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children's diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: "high covert control and rewarding", "low covert control and non-rewarding", "high involvement and supportive" and "low involvement and indulgent". The "high involvement and supportive" cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children's intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children's diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  15. Association between habitual dietary intake and lipoprotein subclass profile in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Rissanen, A; Kangas, A J; Soininen, P; Rose, R J; Ala-Korpela, M; Kaprio, J

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional epidemiology is increasingly shifting its focus from studying single nutrients to the exploration of the whole diet utilizing dietary pattern analysis. We analyzed associations between habitual diet (including macronutrients, dietary patterns, biomarker of fish intake) and lipoprotein particle subclass profile in young adults. Complete dietary data (food-frequency questionnaire) and lipoprotein subclass profile (via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were available for 663 subjects from the population-based FinnTwin12 study (57% women, age: 21-25 y). The serum docosahexaenoic to total fatty acid ratio was used as a biomarker of habitual fish consumption. Factor analysis identified 5 dietary patterns: "Fruit and vegetables", "Meat", "Sweets and desserts", "Junk food" and "Fish". After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status and alcohol intake, the "Junk food" pattern was positively related to serum triglycerides (r = 0.12, P = 0.002), a shift in the subclass distribution of VLDL toward larger particles (r = 0.12 for VLDL size, P consumption is related to favorable subclass distributions of VLDL and HDL, while junk food intake is associated with unfavorable alterations in the distribution of all lipoprotein subclasses independent of adiposity and other lifestyle factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Serving a variety of vegetables and fruit as a snack increased intake in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Liane S; Meengs, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-09-01

    Although serving a greater variety of food increases intake, this effect has not been well studied as a strategy to encourage consumption of vegetables and fruit in preschool children. This study examined whether providing a variety of familiar vegetables or fruit to preschool children as a snack would lead to increased selection and intake. In a crossover design, 61 children (aged 3-5 y) ate a snack in their childcare facility on 8 afternoons. At 4 snack times, the children were offered vegetables: either a single type (cucumber, sweet pepper, or tomato) or a variety of all 3 types. At 4 other snack times, the children were offered fruit (apple, peach, pineapple, or all 3 types). Uniform-sized pieces were served family style, and children selected and ate as much as they desired. Offering a variety of vegetables or fruit increased the likelihood of selection (P snacks with variety and in 70% of snacks without variety. Serving a variety also increased consumption of both vegetables and fruit (P snack led to increased consumption of both food types in a childcare facility. Serving a variety of vegetables or fruit as a snack could help preschool children meet recommended intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01557218.

  17. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change. The case of folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Birger B; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G; Brown, Kerry A; Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Shepherd, Richard; Raats, Monique M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from "rational model of man", behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes in behaviour and the possible alternatives that require no or only minor changes in behaviour. Dissecting the theories provides new approaches to food-related behaviour that will aid the development of batteries of policy options when targeting nutritional problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM, especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1 assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2 characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1 the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2 excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3 excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  20. Periconceptional bread intakes indicate New Zealand's proposed mandatory folic acid fortification program may be outdated: results from a postpartum survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In September 2009, a folic acid fortification mandate (135 μg/100 g bread) was to be implemented in New Zealand. However, due to political and manufacturer objection, fortification was deferred until May 2012. Based on estimates of bread consumption derived from a 1997 nationally representative survey, this program was intended to deliver a mean additional intake of 140 μg folic acid/d to women of childbearing age. Little is known about current bread consumption patterns in this target group. The aim of this study was to assess bread consumption among women prior to and during pregnancy with the intent to estimate periconceptional folic acid intakes that would be derived from bread if mandatory fortification were implemented as currently proposed. Methods A retrospective survey of 723 postpartum women in hospitals and birthing centres across New Zealand was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire on bread intake prior to and during pregnancy and maternal socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics. Results Median bread intake before conception (2 slices/d) was below that of previous data upon which the current fortification proposal was modeled (3-4 slices/d). If mandatory fortification is implemented as proposed, only 31% (95% CI = 24%-37%) of childbearing-age women would attain an additional folic acid intake of ≥ 140 μg/d, with a mean of 119 μg/d (95% CI = 107 μg/d-130 μg/d). Based on these data, a fortification level of 160 μg/100 g bread is required to achieve the targeted mean of 140 μg folic acid/d. Nonetheless, under the current proposal additional folic acid intakes would be greatest among the least advantaged segments of the target population: Pacific and indigenous Māori ethnic groups; those with increased parity, lower income and education; younger and single mothers; and women with unplanned pregnancies. Subgroups predicted to derive less than adequate folic acid intakes from the proposed policy were women of Asian

  1. Periconceptional bread intakes indicate New Zealand's proposed mandatory folic acid fortification program may be outdated: results from a postpartum survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Simonette R; Gray, Andrew R; Houghton, Lisa A

    2012-02-14

    In September 2009, a folic acid fortification mandate (135 μg/100 g bread) was to be implemented in New Zealand. However, due to political and manufacturer objection, fortification was deferred until May 2012. Based on estimates of bread consumption derived from a 1997 nationally representative survey, this program was intended to deliver a mean additional intake of 140 μg folic acid/d to women of childbearing age. Little is known about current bread consumption patterns in this target group. The aim of this study was to assess bread consumption among women prior to and during pregnancy with the intent to estimate periconceptional folic acid intakes that would be derived from bread if mandatory fortification were implemented as currently proposed. A retrospective survey of 723 postpartum women in hospitals and birthing centres across New Zealand was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire on bread intake prior to and during pregnancy and maternal socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics. Median bread intake before conception (2 slices/d) was below that of previous data upon which the current fortification proposal was modeled (3-4 slices/d). If mandatory fortification is implemented as proposed, only 31% (95% CI = 24%-37%) of childbearing-age women would attain an additional folic acid intake of ≥ 140 μg/d, with a mean of 119 μg/d (95% CI = 107 μg/d-130 μg/d). Based on these data, a fortification level of 160 μg/100 g bread is required to achieve the targeted mean of 140 μg folic acid/d. Nonetheless, under the current proposal additional folic acid intakes would be greatest among the least advantaged segments of the target population: Pacific and indigenous Māori ethnic groups; those with increased parity, lower income and education; younger and single mothers; and women with unplanned pregnancies. Subgroups predicted to derive less than adequate folic acid intakes from the proposed policy were women of Asian descent and those with a

  2. Development of equations, based on milk intake, to predict starter feed intake of preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; DeVries, T J; Tedeschi, L O; Marcondes, M I

    2018-04-16

    There is a lack of studies that provide models or equations capable of predicting starter feed intake (SFI) for milk-fed dairy calves. Therefore, a multi-study analysis was conducted to identify variables that influence SFI, and to develop equations to predict SFI in milk-fed dairy calves up to 64 days of age. The database was composed of individual data of 176 calves from eight experiments, totaling 6426 daily observations of intake. The information collected from the studies were: birth BW (kg), SFI (kg/day), fluid milk or milk replacer intake (MI; l/day), sex (male or female), breed (Holstein or Holstein×Gyr crossbred) and age (days). Correlations between SFI and the quantitative variables MI, birth BW, metabolic birth BW, fat intake, CP intake, metabolizable energy intake, and age were calculated. Subsequently, data were graphed, and based on a visual appraisal of the pattern of the data, an exponential function was chosen. Data were evaluated using a meta-analysis approach to estimate fixed and random effects of the experiments using nonlinear mixed coefficient statistical models. A negative correlation between SFI and MI was observed (r=-0.39), but age was positively correlated with SFI (r=0.66). No effect of liquid feed source (milk or milk replacer) was observed in developing the equation. Two equations, significantly different for all parameters, were fit to predict SFI for calves that consume less than 5 (SFI5) l/day of milk or milk replacer: ${\\rm SFI}_{{\\,\\lt\\,5}} {\\equals}0.1839_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0581}} {\\times}{\\rm MI}{\\times}{\\rm exp}^{{\\left( {\\left( {0.0333_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0021 }} {\\minus}0.0040_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0011}} {\\times}{\\rm MI}} \\right){\\times}\\left( {{\\rm A}{\\minus}{\\rm }\\left( {0.8302_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.5092}} {\\plus}6.0332_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.3583}} {\\times}{\\rm MI}} \\right)} \\right)} \\right)}} {\\minus}\\left( {0.12{\\times}{\\rm MI}} \\right)$ ; ${\\rm SFI}_{{\\,\\gt\\,5}} {\\equals}0.1225_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0005 }} {\\times

  3. Fat intake and energy-balance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2004-12-30

    This paper focuses on the effects of dietary fats or fatty acids on key targets of metabolic intermediates for body-weight control, i.e. satiety, thermogenesis, fat oxidation and body composition. With respect to sensory satiety, it appeared, e.g. that linoleic acid tasters showed a different mechanism for meal termination than non-tasters did. They stopped eating linoleic acid containing food based upon satiety, whereas the non-tasters stopped eating based upon the change in pleasantness of taste. Moreover, in the normal range of body mass index, an inverse relationship was shown between % 'tasters' and BMI. In a high fat diet vs. a low fat high protein high carbohydrate diet, metabolic satiety appeared to be continuously lower and correlated positively to diet-induced energy expenditure. However, with respect to the intermeal interval, satiety appeared to be more sustained following a high fat vs. a high CHO preload, resulting in a lower meal frequency. Covert fat replacement during breakfast by sucrose polyester was successful in combination with dietary restraint, yet overt fat replacement in snacks was successful in the dietary-unrestrained subjects, i.e. those who habitually ate snacks. With respect to fat oxidation, from a respiration-chamber experiment on the effects of diacylglycerol compared (DG) to triacylglycerol (TG) intake, it was concluded that consumption of DG increased fat oxidation and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels, but did not affect energy metabolism or triacylglycerol level. Parameters of appetite were all lowered by DG compared to TG. With respect to body composition, the effects of 13 weeks CLA supplementation in overweight subjects during weight regain were assessed. Although CLA did not affect %body-weight regain, the regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA, independently of %body-weight regain and physical activity, and as a consequence resting metabolic rate was increased. At the same time, appetite was reduced and satiety and

  4. Texture and savoury taste influences on food intake in a realistic hot lunch time meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, C G; van Kuijk, N; Thaler, T; de Graaf, C; Martin, N

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies with model foods have shown that softer textures lead to higher eating rates and higher ad libitum food intake and higher intensity of salt taste has been shown to result in a lower ad libitum food intake. These observations have yet to be replicated in the context of realistic solid hot meal components. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of texture and taste on the ad libitum intake of a realistic hot lunchtime meal. The meals consisted of potatoes, carrots, steak and gravy varied according to a 2 (texture: mashed vs. whole) × 2 (taste: standard taste vs. strong taste) design. The texture dimension referred to mashed potatoes, mashed carrots and pieces of steak vs. whole boiled potatoes, whole boiled carrots and whole steak. The taste was varied by manipulating the taste intensity of the gravy to be either standard or high intensity savoury taste. The current study used a between groups, single course ad libitum design whereby subjects were recruited for a one off meal study, during which their food intake was measured. The four groups consisted of about 40 subjects (mashed, standard, n=37; mashed, savoury n=39; whole, standard n=40; and whole, savoury n=41) matched for age (average age=44.8 ± 5.3), gender (on average 19 males and 20 females), normal BMI (average 22.6 ± 1.7) and dietary restraint score (DEBQ score=1.74 ± 0.6). The results showed that the estimated means of the intake of the two mashed conditions was 563.2 ± 20.3g and intake of whole meal was 527.5 ± 20.0 g (p=0.23). The texture effect was significant in the higher savoury condition with an average of 91 g less food consumed in the solid-savoury meal than in the mashed-savoury meal. This effect was not replicated in the standard gravy condition, with no significant difference between solid and mashed textures. This was reflected in an interaction effect that was approaching significance (p=0.051). The estimated mean eating rate in the two mashed

  5. Child care choices, food intake, and children's obesity status in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    This article studies two pathways in which selection into different types of child care settings may affect likelihood of childhood obesity. Frequency of intake of high energy-dense and low energy-dense food items may vary across care settings, affecting weight outcomes. We find that increased use of paid and regulated care settings, such as center care and Head Start, is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Among children from single-mother households, the probability of obesity increases by 15 percentage point with an increase in intake of soft drinks from four to six times a week to daily consumption and by 25 percentage point with an increase in intake of fast food from one to three times a week to four to six times a week. Among children from two-parent households, eating vegetables one additional time a day is associated with 10 percentage point decreased probability of obesity, while one additional drink of juice a day is associated with 10 percentage point increased probability of obesity. Second, variation across care types could be manifested through differences in the structure of the physical environment not captured by differences in food intake alone. This type of effect is found to be marginal and is statistically significant among children from two-parent households only. Data are used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort surveys (N=10,700; years=2001-2008). Children's age ranged from four to six years in the sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bumble bees regulate their intake of essential protein and lipid pollen macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudo, A D; Stabler, D; Patch, H M; Tooker, J F; Grozinger, C M; Wright, G A

    2016-12-15

    Bee population declines are linked to the reduction of nutritional resources due to land-use intensification, yet we know little about the specific nutritional needs of many bee species. Pollen provides bees with their primary source of protein and lipids, but nutritional quality varies widely among host-plant species. Therefore, bees might have adapted to assess resource quality and adjust their foraging behavior to balance nutrition from multiple food sources. We tested the ability of two bumble bee species, Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, to regulate protein and lipid intake. We restricted B. terrestris adults to single synthetic diets varying in protein:lipid ratios (P:L). The bees over-ate protein on low-fat diets and over-ate lipid on high-fat diets to reach their targets of lipid and protein, respectively. The bees survived best on a 10:1 P:L diet; the risk of dying increased as a function of dietary lipid when bees ate diets with lipid contents greater than 5:1 P:L. Hypothesizing that the P:L intake target of adult worker bumble bees was between 25:1 and 5:1, we presented workers from both species with unbalanced but complementary paired diets to determine whether they self-select their diet to reach a specific intake target. Bees consumed similar amounts of proteins and lipids in each treatment and averaged a 14:1 P:L for B. terrestris and 12:1 P:L for B. impatiens These results demonstrate that adult worker bumble bees likely select foods that provide them with a specific ratio of P:L. These P:L intake targets could affect pollen foraging in the field and help explain patterns of host-plant species choice by bumble bees. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Dietary choice for a balanced nutrient intake increases the mean and reduces the variance in the reproductive performance of male and female cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Harriet; Bassett, Lee; Clowser, Christina; Rapkin, James; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Archer, Catharine R; Hunt, John

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection may cause dietary requirements for reproduction to diverge across the sexes and promote the evolution of different foraging strategies in males and females. However, our understanding of how the sexes regulate their nutrition and the effects that this has on sex-specific fitness is limited. We quantified how protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intakes affect reproductive traits in male (pheromone expression) and female (clutch size and gestation time) cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea). We then determined how the sexes regulate their intake of nutrients when restricted to a single diet and when given dietary choice and how this affected expression of these important reproductive traits. Pheromone levels that improve male attractiveness, female clutch size and gestation time all peaked at a high daily intake of P:C in a 1:8 ratio. This is surprising because female insects typically require more P than males to maximize reproduction. The relatively low P requirement of females may reflect the action of cockroach endosymbionts that help recycle stored nitrogen for protein synthesis. When constrained to a single diet, both sexes prioritized regulating their daily intake of P over C, although this prioritization was stronger in females than males. When given the choice between diets, both sexes actively regulated their intake of nutrients at a 1:4.8 P:C ratio. The P:C ratio did not overlap exactly with the intake of nutrients that optimized reproductive trait expression. Despite this, cockroaches of both sexes that were given dietary choice generally improved the mean and reduced the variance in all reproductive traits we measured relative to animals fed a single diet from the diet choice pair. This pattern was not as strong when compared to the single best diet in our geometric array, suggesting that the relationship between nutrient balancing and reproduction is complex in this species.

  8. Effects of different concentrations of sugarcane alcohol on food intake and nutritional status of male and female periadolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves de Orange, Luciana; Bion, Francisca Martins; Rolim de Lima, Cybelle

    2009-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of food and alcohol intake on the nutritional and metabolic status of male and female periadolescent rats submitted to single (15%) and multiple (10%, 20%, 30%) concentrations of hydroalcoholic solutions of sugar-based alcohol associated with a feed mixture. Thirty-six periadolescent Wistar rats were used and randomly arranged into three groups: Group A (control; 0% ethanol; six males and six females), Group B (15% ethanol; six males and six females), and Group C (10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol; six males and six females). Food consumption, body weight, water intake (mL), ethanol intake (g/kg/day), ethanol preference in relation to water and different concentrations, and serum biochemical dosages (glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein fraction, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL [CT/HDL], albumin) were analyzed. Males from Group C ingested more feed than females, which consumed reducing amounts throughout the weeks studied. Males also had heavier body weight, which increased throughout the experimental period. The animals ingested more water (females ingested more than males) in the first experimental week. Group C had a higher ethanol intake and greater preference for ethanol over water in both genders than Group B, which decreased over the subsequent weeks. Serum glucose was lower in Group A, whereas the CT/HDL ratio was lower in Group C. These findings allow the conclusion that nutritional and metabolic impact resulting from alcohol intake is different between genders and between the different forms in which the drug is offered. It is important to warn the population about the concentrations of alcohol intake, which may influence the growth and development of adolescents, thereby compromising their quality of life.

  9. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P.

    2012-01-01

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake

  10. Intake of Selected Minerals and Risk of Premenstrual Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocano-Bedoya, Patricia O.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Johnson, Susan R.; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Ronnenberg, Alayne G.; Bigelow, Carol; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Iron, potassium, zinc, and other minerals might impact the development of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) through multiple mechanisms, but few studies have evaluated these relations. We conducted a case-control study nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (1991–2001). Participants were free from PMS at baseline. After 10 years, 1,057 women were confirmed as PMS cases and 1,968 as controls. Mineral intake was assessed using food frequency questionnaires completed in 1991, 1995, and 1999. After adjustment for calcium intake and other factors, women in the highest quintile of nonheme iron intake had a relative risk of PMS of 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44, 0.92; P for trend = 0.04) compared with women in the lowest quintile. Women in the highest quintile of potassium intake had a relative risk of 1.46 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.15; P for trend = 0.04) compared with women in the lowest quintile. High intake of zinc from supplements was marginally associated with PMS (for intake of ≥25 mg/day vs. none, relative risk = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.02; P for trend = 0.05). Intakes of sodium, magnesium, and manganese were unrelated to PMS risk. These findings suggest that dietary minerals may be useful in preventing PMS. Additional studies are needed to confirm these relations. PMID:23444100

  11. Drinking water intake by infants living in rural Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallois, Patrick; Gingras, Suzanne; Caron, Madeleine; Phaneuf, Denise

    2008-07-01

    Drinking water is a potential source of toxic contaminant and it is well known that water intake on a body weight basis decreases rapidly with increasing age. Nevertheless, few studies have been conducted on water intake of very young infants who might be particularly sensitive to some toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to describe the mean and distribution of total water intake of 2-month old infants living in agricultural areas. Mothers (n=642) of 8 to 9 week old infants were interviewed by phone to evaluate their feeding practice, including juice and cereal intake. There were 393 infants (61%) who drank some quantity of water and 278 (43%) consumed formula reconstituted with water. For formula-fed infants, the 10, 50 and 90th percentiles of daily water intake were 79, 112, and 179 ml/kg respectively. These values are much higher than the intake recommended by US EPA for infants under one year (US EPA, 1997). This study demonstrates the importance of considering water distribution intake in very young infants who may be particularly susceptible to water contaminants.

  12. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, R. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)]. E-mail: rmt@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Suseela, B. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Bhalke, Sunil [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-03-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 {mu}g/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  13. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, R.; Tripathi, R.M.; Suseela, B.; Bhalke, Sunil; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2006-01-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 μg/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  14. Dietary intakes in people with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corfe Bernard M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder characterised by episodes of abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits. Many IBS sufferers believe that diet may play a role in triggering these episodes and may avoid certain foods. However relatively few studies have undertaken a dietary assessment in IBS sufferers to examine the wider impact of the condition upon diet. Methods 104 individuals with IBS were recruited and asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The data were analysed against Dietary Reference Values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom and observed intakes for the general population and for differences between IBS subtypes and the UK population. Results The data show that the dietary intakes of this population of IBS sufferers met the UK Dietary Reference Values. The average energy intake of the population exceeded the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK population and the balance of macronutrients was favourable. Intakes of selected micronutrients significantly exceeded the reference nutrient intakes. There were no differences between IBS subtypes. Conclusions The IBS subpopulation appear to have an adequate and balanced macronutrient intake with no evidence of inadequate micronutrient intake.

  15. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P. [Disciplina de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-20

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake.

  17. Intake of probiotic food and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Ronny; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Sengpiel, Verena; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Preterm delivery represents a substantial problem in perinatal medicine worldwide. Current knowledge on potential influences of probiotics in food on pregnancy complications caused by microbes is limited. We hypothesized that intake of food with probiotics might reduce pregnancy complications caused by pathogenic microorganisms and, through this, reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. This study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort on the basis of answers to a food-frequency questionnaire. We studied intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli and spontaneous preterm delivery by using a prospective cohort study design (n = 950 cases and 17,938 controls) for the pregnancy outcome of spontaneous preterm delivery (delivery were associated with any intake of milk-based probiotic products in an adjusted model [odds ratio (OR): 0.857; 95% CI: 0.741, 0.992]. By categorizing intake into none, low, and high intakes of the milk-based probiotic products, a significant association was observed for high intake (OR: 0.820; 95% CI: 0.681, 0.986). Women who reported habitual intake of probiotic dairy products had a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  18. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Loring Bradlee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years. Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.

  19. Solution of human respiratory tract model for chronic inhalation intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadar, Minal Y.; Singh, I.S.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    For the radiation workers of fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants, inhalation is one of the major routes of intake of internal contamination. In case of routine monitoring which would result in lung activity above detection limit, it is assumed that intake has occurred at the midpoint of monitoring interval so that underestimation introduced by the unknown time of intake is less than a factor of three. In the plants, chronic intakes of 239 Pu are possible if low levels of 239 Pu activities remain undetected. In ICRP-78, the retention values are given as a function of time for continuous chronic inhalation of 239 Pu at 1.71 Bq/day that would result in Committed Effective Dose (CED) of 20 mSv. Retention values (R) are not given for inhalation intake at any other rate. Therefore, Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) is solved for continuous chronic inhalation at 1 Bq/day rate for type M compounds of 239 Pu to estimate R as a function of time. These values will be useful in estimating intake from lung activity measurements in case of chronic intakes

  20. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  1. Critical evaluation of lowering the recommended dietary intake of folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Koletzko, Berthold; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the recommendation of the Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition of lowering dietary folate intake from 400 to 300 μg dietary folate equivalents/d. A dose-response relation exists between folate intake or plasma level and disease risk within the normal range. Improving folate status can prevent between 30% and 75% of neural tube defects. A prepregnancy plasma folate of >18.0 nmol/L (mean 26.1 nmol/L) is associated with low total homocysteine (tHcy) (folate intake cannot achieve maximal risk reduction. The Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition recommend that young women should additionally supplement with 400 μg folic acid at least 4 weeks before conception. This short time window is not sufficient to achieve optimal plasma folate and tHcy levels in the majority of women. Factors affecting the relation between folate intake and blood biomarkers are total folate intake, baseline plasma folate, time available for supplement use, dose and form (folic acid or methyl folate), genetic polymorphisms, physiological and lifestyle factors. Lowering the recommended dietary folate intake may have important public health consequences. Elderly people and young women are at risk for diseases related to folate shortage. Reducing birth defects through supplementation of folic acid remains a poor option, as folate intake is crucial for reaching the target protective plasma folate levels in the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolizable energy and oil intake in brown commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadeu Benedito Piozzi da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to establish the best metabolizable energy (ME intake for layers, and the best dietary vegetable oil addition level to optimize egg production, an experiment was carried out with 432 30-week-old Hisex Brown layers. Birds were distributed into nine treatments with six replicates of eight birds each according to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of three daily metabolizable energy intake (280, 300 or 320 kcal/bird/day and three oil levels (0.00; 0.75 and 1.50 g/bird/day. Daily feed intake was limited to 115, 110 and 105 g/bird in order to obtain the desired energy and oil intake in each treatment. The following parameters were evaluated: initial weight, final weight, body weight change, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and per egg mass and energy conversion. There was no influence of the treatments on egg production (% or egg mass (g/bird/day. Final weight and body weight change were significantly affected by increasing energy intake. Feed conversion ratio per egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and energy conversion significantly worsened as a function of the increase in daily energy intake. An energy intake of 280 kcal/bird/day with no addition of dietary oil does not affect layer performance.

  3. Milk intake in kits: not only the total amount matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arnau Bonachera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify milk intake variation patterns in kits throughout lactation, to evaluate their permanent maternal component and their relationships with the performance of kits before and after weaning. To achieve this goal, we used 73 rabbit does, controlled between the 1st and the 4th lactation, which kindled 229 litters with a total of 2225 kits. The daily milk intake records per young rabbit were analysed using a principal component analysis (PCA. We found that 72.3% of the variability was explained by the first 3 principal components (PCs. PC1 explained 46.4% of the total variability, was associated with the total amount of milk intake during lactation and presented a repeatability of 0.27 (P0.05. This component was little related to performance traits. Therefore, it seems that milk plays 2 different roles at the beginning of feed intake; the most important would affect development of the kits and thus is related with high intake. The second one, for a given total amount of milk intake during lactation, would create a kind of competition between milk and feed intake at the end of lactation. The effects of both components still persist during the growing period and seem to be moderately affected by the mother.

  4. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lynn L.; Singer, Martha R.; Qureshi, M. Mustafa; Bradlee, M. Loring; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA) recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy) from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy. PMID:23201841

  5. Metabolic Phenotyping of Diet and Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, J; Holmes, E; Garcia-Perez, I

    Nutrition provides the building blocks for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body and is key to maintaining health. Exposure to fast foods, mass production of dietary components, and wider importation of goods have challenged the balance between diet and health in recent decades, and both scientists and clinicians struggle to characterize the relationship between this changing dietary landscape and human metabolism with its consequent impact on health. Metabolic phenotyping of foods, using high-density data-generating technologies to profile the biochemical composition of foods, meals, and human samples (pre- and postfood intake), can be used to map the complex interaction between the diet and human metabolism and also to assess food quality and safety. Here, we outline some of the techniques currently used for metabolic phenotyping and describe key applications in the food sciences, ending with a broad outlook at some of the newer technologies in the field with a view to exploring their potential to address some of the critical challenges in nutritional science. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  7. Pemphigus erythematosus relapse associated with atorvastatin intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Schiavo A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ada Lo Schiavo,1 Rosa Valentina Puca,1 Francesca Romano,1 Roberto Cozzi2 1Department of Dermatology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Dermatology, AORN "A Cardarelli", Naples, Italy Abstract: Statins, also known as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaril-CoA reductase inhibitors, are well-tolerated drugs used for prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Although they are generally considered safe, some serious adverse effects, such as myositis, myopathy, and rhabdomyolysis can rarely occur. Furthermore, recent data from long-term follow-up on patients who have been taking statins for a long period of time suggest that prolonged exposure to statins may trigger autoimmune reactions. The exact mechanism of statin-induced autoimmune reactions is unclear. Statins, as proapoptotic agents, release nuclear antigen into the circulation and may induce the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Herein we report the case of a 70 year-old man who developed a relapse of pemphigus erythematosus, a syndrome with features of both lupus erythematosus and pemphigus, after atorvastatin intake. Keywords: pemphigus erythematosus, autoimmune disease, treatment, pathogenesis, statins

  8. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Gulati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers, should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  9. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  10. Sodium intake of elementary school children in Bandung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endah Damastuti; Muhayatun Santoso; Natalia Adventini; Katherina Oginawati

    2010-01-01

    Sodium is essential micro nutrient which is needed by human body such as in regulating body fluids balance, maintaining the normal pH of blood, transmitting nerve signal, and helping cells in metabolism of other essential nutrients. The changes of modern life style at the moment, had lead people tend to consume fast foods and processed foods which have high sodium content that apprehensively increasing prevalence of hypertension. In this research, the determination of sodium intake of elementary school children in Bandung and the contribution of street foods to sodium intake was conducted. Food sampling was done by duplicate diet method of 19 elementary school children and 24 kinds of street foods often consumed by children in Bandung. The samples were analysed using neutron activation analysis technique. The results showed that sodium intake of elementary school children was ranging from 228 to 7019 mg/day with approximately 47 % of children have sodium intake above the upper intake level, 2200 mg/day. While the estimation of sodium intake from street foods, assuming that 1 portion of street food consumed in 1 day, was ranging from 53 to 3750 mg/day with average sodium intake contribution was about 65 % of adequate intake value. It could be generally concluded that present dietary pattern of children tends to over consumed of sodium and this matter could apprehensively impact to the increasing of future prevalence of hypertension as well as hypertension probability at age < 20 years old. From this research, it was expected to encourage all societies in giving more attention at dietary pattern and nutrient intake of their children for better quality human resources in the future. (author)

  11. Fruit intake and incident diabetic retinopathy with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shiro; Yoshimura, Yukio; Kawasaki, Ryo; Kamada, Chiemi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Horikawa, Chika; Ohashi, Yasuo; Araki, Atsushi; Ito, Hideki; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Sone, Hirohito

    2013-03-01

    Antioxidants and dietary fiber are postulated to have preventive effects on diabetic retinopathy, but evidence is lacking. We investigated this association in a cohort with type 2 diabetes 40-70 years of age with hemoglobin (Hb)A1C ≥6.5%, originally part of the Japan Diabetes Complications Study. After excluding people who did not respond to a dietary survey and patients with diabetic retinopathy or a major ocular disease at baseline, we analyzed 978 patients. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire based on food groups and 24-hour dietary records. Primary outcome was incident diabetic retinopathy determined using international severity scales. Mean fruit intake in quartiles ranged from 23 to 253 g/day, with increasing trends across quartiles of fruit intake for vitamin C, vitamin E, carotene, retinol equivalent, dietary fiber, potassium, and sodium. Mean energy intake ranged from 1644 to 1863 kcal/day, and fat intake was approximately 25%. HbA1C, body mass index, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure were well controlled. During the 8-year follow-up, the numbers of incident cases of diabetic retinopathy from the first through the fourth quartiles of fruit intake were 83, 74, 69, and 59. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of fruit intake compared with the first quartile were 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.92), 0.59 (0.41-0.85), and 0.48 (0.32-0.71) (test for trend, P diabetes duration, overweight, smoking, and hypertension. Risk for diabetic retinopathy declined with increased intake of fruits and vegetables, vitamin C, and carotene. Increased fruit intake in ranges commonly consumed was associated with reduced incident diabetic retinopathy among patients adhering to a low-fat energy-restricted diet.

  12. Nutrient intake among elderly in southern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriah, A R; Zainorni, M; Shafawi, S; Mimie Suraya, S; Zarina, N; Wan Zainuddin, W; Zalifah, M

    1996-03-01

    Studies were conducted in selected areas in three states namely Johor (n=117, male=55, female=62), Negeri Sembilan (n=130, male=52, female=78) and Malacca (n=97, male=33, female=64) involving free living elderly (age range from 60 to 93 years old). Respondents were divided into three age cohort groups that is 60 to 69 years, 70 to 79 years and above 80 years old. Assessment of macro and micronutrients were obtained from 24-hour diet recall for three consecutive days. Household measurements were used to estimate the amount of food consumed. Mean energy intake for both sexes were lower than the Malaysian RDA. Mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment. The percentage of carbohydrate from total calories is higher compared to fat and protein. No respondents were found to consume less than 1/3 RDA for protein. Although no significant difference in nutrient intake was noted among age cohort groups, there was a decline in the intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Significantly (p population studied consumed less than 2/3 RDA for vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and calcium. Very low intake of nutrient may lead to many health problems. Overall mean energy intake indicate the respondents consume less than the Malaysian RDA for all three age cohort groups. Total mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment for both sexes. Due to the low energy intake, higher percentage of elderly were found consuming less than 2/3 RDA for thiamine (65%), riboflavin (63%) and niacin (90%). Other nutrients which were also being consumed less than 2/3 RDA by the respondents are vitamin A (67%) and calcium (65%). The intake of calcium which was found to be extremely low (ranged from 277 to 303 mg) could lead to problems like osteoporosis.

  13. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianmmanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  14. Committed effective doses at various times after intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed effective doses at nine times after intake from intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu 1 AMAD particles by adults. Data are given for various chemical forms of 359 nuclides. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on committed equivalent doses to organs is given in NRPB-M288. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  15. Effect of food intake on left ventricular wall stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2014-01-28

    Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects. Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 ± 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESS) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) were measured before, 30 minutes after, and 110 minutes after a standardised meal. Both ESS and cESS decreased significantly (P stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects.

  16. Evaluation of safety of excessive intake and efficacy of long-term intake of beverages containing apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazome, Yoko; Kametani, Norihiro; Kanda, Tomomasa; Shimasaki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Shuhei

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate the safety of an excessive intake and the efficacy of a long-term intake of polyphenols derived from apples for moderately underweight to moderately obese subjects (long-term intake: 94 subjects; excessive intake: 30 subjects). For each trial, the subjects were divided into the following two groups: a group that drank beverages with apple polyphenols (600 mg) (hereinafter referred to as the apple group) and a group that drank beverages without apple polyphenols (hereinafter referred to as the placebo group). For the long-term intake trial, the subjects were given a regular amount of the beverage (340 g) each day for 12 weeks. For the excessive intake trial, the subjects were given three times the regular amount of the beverage each day for 4 weeks. It is noteworthy that the visceral fat area (VFA) of subjects in the apple group for the long-term intake trial had decreased significantly by the 8- and 12-week marks (week 8: p or = 100 cm(2)) had decreased significantly by the 8- and 12-week marks compared to the baseline (week 8: p safety of the beverage with apple polyphenols.

  17. REAL INTAKE AND PROVISION WITH VITAMINS AND CALCIUM IN OSTEOPOROSIS: ASSESSMENT BY MEASURING INTAKE AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Khodyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim:  To assess the providing an organism with vitamins (А, В2, С, Е, β-carotene, and calcium in osteoporosis patients by measuring their intake and plasma concentrations. Materials and methods: 108 pairs “osteoporosis patient – healthy volunteer” aged 64.29±9.73 years were formed using a “case-control” method. Real intake of vitamins and calcium was studied defining the frequency of food taking for a month using questionnaire method. Daily intake of vitamins А, В2, С, Е, β-carotene, and calcium was calculated based on the analysis of the frequency of food taking. Among the basic group, using randomized method, 60% of osteoporosis patients were selected who underwent definition of plasma levels of vitamins А, В2, С, and Е. The same study was performed in 60 control volunteers. Results: Correlation of the intake of vitamins A, C, and β-carotene with their plasma levels wasn’t noted. It may reveal an increased need in these nutrients in osteoporosis. According to the calcium intake, every osteoporosis patient can be attributed to a population category with deep insufficiency of calcium intake (less than 500 mg a day. Conclusion: The data obtained need further investigation and, first of all, in clinical and biochemical fields (enzymatic non-provision for calcium uptake, clinical manifestations of insufficient provision with nutrients. Solution of these problems would enable regulation of food intake concerning calcium uptake in osteoporosis.

  18. Common SNP rs6564851 in the BCO1 Gene Affects the Circulating Levels of β-Carotene and the Daily Intake of Carotenoids in Healthy Japanese Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suemi Yabuta

    Full Text Available The circulating levels of β-carotene are modulated not only by sex, but also by autosomal gene variations and fruit intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between β-carotene metabolism-related gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; genetic factors and nutrient intake (environmental factors relating to their effects on circulating β-carotene. The serum concentrations of β-carotene and the habitual food intake of 92 healthy Japanese adults were examined. All subjects were genotyped for three common SNPs: rs6564851 in the β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase 1 (BCO1 gene, rs2278986 in the scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1 gene and rs362090 in the intestine-specific homeobox (ISX gene. Univariate analysis revealed that the circulating β-carotene levels were significantly higher in rs6564851 GG homozygotes (p = 0.003. Additionally, the daily intake of β-cryptoxanthin was positively associated with the circulating β-carotene levels in female GG homozygotes of rs6564851 (p = 0.023, and the daily intake of α- and β-carotenes, and β-cryptoxanthin was significantly lower in female rs6564851 T allele carries than in female GG homozygotes (p = 0.009, 0.008, 0.009, respectively. The present study apparently indicates that higher circulating β-carotene levels in female rs6564851 GG homozygotes depend on carotenoid intake.

  19. Purine derivative excretion and recovery of 14C-uric acid in urine of Ongole cattle given different levels of feed intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejono, M.; Yusiati, L.M.; Budhi, S.P.S.; Widyobroto, B.P.; Bachrudin, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The microbial protein supply to ruminants can be estimated based on the amount of purine derivatives (PD) excreted in the urine. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the purine derivatives method for Ongole cattle. In the first experiment, 4 four-year old male Ongole cattle (Bos indicus) were used to calibrate the PD technique using the most common locally available feed at four levels of intake (95, 80, 60 and 40% of voluntary intake). The diet consisted of king grass and rice bran (70:30 on DM basis). The cattle at the level of 95% intake were injected with [ 14 C]-uric acid in a single dose to define the renal:non-renal partitioning ratio of plasma PD excreted in the urine. The results showed that PD excretion responded positively to the level of feed intake. The relative proportion of urinary allantoin and uric acid to PD excretion was 0.87 and 0.13 respectively. The proportion of urea N to total N ranged from 83 to 93%. The glomerular filtration rate and tubular load of PD increased due to the increasing level of feed intake. Nitrogen balance became negative when the level of feed intake decreased to 60%. The proportion of plasma PD excreted in the urine was 0.67. (author)

  20. Food acceptability in field studies with US army men and women: relationship with food intake and food choice after repeated exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Cees; Kramer, F Matthew; Meiselman, Herbert L; Lesher, Larry L; Baker-Fulco, Carol; Hirsch, Edward S; Warber, John

    2005-02-01

    Laboratory data with single exposures showed that palatability has a positive relationship with food intake. The question addressed in this study is whether this relationship also holds over repeated exposures in non-laboratory contexts in more natural environments. The data were collected in four field studies, lasting 4-11 days with 307 US Army men and 119 Army women, and comprised 5791 main meals and 8831 snacks in total. Acceptability was rated on the nine point hedonic scale, and intake was registered in units of 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, or 1 or more times of the provided portion size. Correlation coefficients between individual acceptability ratings and intakes varied from 0.22 to 0.62 for the main meals (n=193-2267), and between 0.13 and 0.56 for the snacks (n=304-2967). The likelihood of choosing a meal for the second time was positively related to the acceptability rating of the meal when it was consumed for the first time. The results reinforce the importance of liking in food choice and food intake/choice behavior. However, the magnitude of the correlation coefficients between acceptability ratings and food intake suggest that environmental factors also have an important role in determining intake and choice.

  1. Distribution of macro- and micronutrient intakes in relation to the meal pattern of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in the city of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossenaar, Marieke; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Kuijper, Lothar D J; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2009-09-01

    Our objective was to assess the distribution of energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes by meal (breakfast, lunch, dinner and combined snacks) in a cross-sectional sample of schoolchildren. Cross-sectional dietary survey in schoolchildren. Twelve private and public schools in the urban setting of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. A total of 449 schoolchildren (from higher and lower socio-economic strata) were enrolled in the study. Each child completed a single, pictorial 24 h prospective diary and a face-to-face interview to check completeness and estimate portion sizes. Estimated daily intakes were examined by mealtime as: (i) absolute intakes; (ii) relative nutrient distribution; and (iii) critical micronutrient density (i.e. nutrient density in relation to the WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes/median age-specific Guatemalan energy requirements). The daily distribution of energy intake was 24% at breakfast, 30% at lunch, 23% at dinner and 23% among snacks. Lunch was also the leading meal for macronutrients, providing 35% of proteins, 27% of fat and 30% of carbohydrate. The distribution of selected micronutrients did not follow the pattern of energy, insofar as lunch provided relatively more vitamin C and Zn, whereas breakfast led in terms of vitamins A and D, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, Ca and Fe. Meal-specific distribution of energy, macro- and micronutrients provides a unique and little used perspective for evaluation of children's habitual intake, and may provide guidance to strategies to improve dietary balance in an era of coexisting energy overnutrition and micronutrient inadequacy.

  2. Application of multiphase modelling for vortex occurrence in vertical pump intake - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, M. L.; Munisamy, K. M.; Thangaraju, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    Vortex formation within pump intake is one of common problems faced for power plant cooling water system. This phenomenon, categorised as surface and sub-surface vortices, can lead to several operational problems and increased maintenance costs. Physical model study was recommended from published guidelines but proved to be time and resource consuming. Hence, the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an attractive alternative in managing the problem. At the early stage, flow analysis was conducted using single phase simulation and found to find good agreement with the observation from physical model study. With the development of computers, multiphase simulation found further enhancement in obtaining accurate results for representing air entrainment and sub-surface vortices which were earlier not well predicted from the single phase simulation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of multiphase modelling with CFD analysis for investigating vortex formation for a vertically inverted pump intake. In applying multiphase modelling, there ought to be a balance between the acceptable usage for computational time and resources and the degree of accuracy and realism in the results as expected from the analysis.

  3. Application of multiphase modelling for vortex occurrence in vertical pump intake - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsudin, M L; Munisamy, K M; Thangaraju, S K

    2015-01-01

    Vortex formation within pump intake is one of common problems faced for power plant cooling water system. This phenomenon, categorised as surface and sub-surface vortices, can lead to several operational problems and increased maintenance costs. Physical model study was recommended from published guidelines but proved to be time and resource consuming. Hence, the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an attractive alternative in managing the problem. At the early stage, flow analysis was conducted using single phase simulation and found to find good agreement with the observation from physical model study. With the development of computers, multiphase simulation found further enhancement in obtaining accurate results for representing air entrainment and sub-surface vortices which were earlier not well predicted from the single phase simulation.The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of multiphase modelling with CFD analysis for investigating vortex formation for a vertically inverted pump intake. In applying multiphase modelling, there ought to be a balance between the acceptable usage for computational time and resources and the degree of accuracy and realism in the results as expected from the analysis. (paper)

  4. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  5. New recommendations for vitamin D intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgen Benedik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in bone metabolism and immune system. Low vitamin D levels (< 50 nmol/l have been widely reported in all age groups in recent years. Lack of vitamin D is associated with increased overall and cardiovascular mortality, cancer incidence and mortality, and autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is rising, mainly due to modern lifestyle and malabsorption disorders. As an adequate intake of vitamin D is hard to achieve through the diet alone, the dietary supplements of vitamin D are recommended. Sun exposure (ultraviolet B radiation, UVB represents the main source of vitamin D, which is synthesised in the skin. UVB intensity varies through the year and the time of day. The peak UVB period is between 10 am to 4 pm from April till October (above 40° latitude. There is no universal consent on the amount and frequency of vitamin D supplementation. A sufficient supplementation of vitamin D is necessary through the whole life cycle, especially during lactation. With sufficient supplementation of vitamin D during lactation (4,000 IU/day mother covers her own and through her breast milk also the child`s nutritional needs (400 IU/day for vitamin D. However, further research in this field is needed before recommending such a high supplementation for nursing mothers. New German Reference values from 2012 advises 400 IU / day for infants during the first year of life, and afterwards 800 IU/day for the entire population.

  6. Policy Options for Reducing Dietary Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay McLaren

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with soaring health-care costs, Canadian governments should consider creative ways to enable the population to stay healthy — and making it possible for Canadians to reduce their sodium intake is an extremely cost-effective way to do so. Excess sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and heart disease. On average, Canadians consume 3,400 mg of sodium a day (1,100 mg over recommended levels, at least three-quarters of which comes from processed foods. Any attempt at sodium reduction must therefore involve the food industry. This paper surveys sodium reduction efforts in jurisdictions around the globe, as well as past Canadian attempts, to provide provincial and federal policymakers with a comprehensive suite of lessons learned and a host of far-sighted policy recommendations ranging from food procurement to legislation and private sector engagement. Provincial governments, individually or together, must launch multi-pronged efforts involving food service companies, manufacturers, post-secondary institutes and the media to ensure that low-sodium alternatives are readily available, and that consumers are aware of them. They must also support federal action on changing dietary guidelines and introducing restrictions on food advertising to children. The benefits to be had are very real. In light of evidence showing that population-level intervention is superior to clinical intervention in terms of cost-effectiveness, returning up to $11.10 for every dollar spent and generating tens of billions in direct health-care savings, there is a very strong case for investing in population-level sodium reduction interventions that will work. The time for governments to act is now.

  7. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    .... This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium...

  8. Habitual micronutrient intake during and after pregnancy in Caucasian Londoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, E; Davies, G J; Costarelli, V; Dettmar, P W

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient status is of fundamental importance both upon conception and throughout pregnancy. There is an abundance of literature investigating nutrient intakes during individual trimesters of pregnancy but few studies have investigated baseline intakes of nutrients throughout gestation as a continuum. The current investigation set out to measure habitual micronutrient intakes at weeks 13, 25, 35 of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum using a prospective background information questionnaire, 4-7-day weighed food diary and postnatal questionnaire. Seventy-two primiparous, Caucasian Londoners were recruited at the study start with 42 completing the first, second, third trimester and postpartum study stages respectively. Study findings indicated that sodium intakes were significantly higher than UK guidelines throughout and after pregnancy (P pregnancy, but to varying levels of statistical significance (P health interventions may be required to help expectant mothers achieve an optimal diet, particularly after birth when dietary recommendations increase for some micronutrients.

  9. dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a south african population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alan Jackson

    1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame ... The pattern of diet is an important determinant of overall pattern of nutrient intake, ..... fibre. For the staple-based, dietary score showed significant positive linear ...

  10. Lignan intake in the Netherlands and its relation with mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milder, I.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    KEYWORDS:lignans, phytoestrogens, secoisolariciresinol, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, food composition, intake, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, mortalityPlant lignans are diphenolic compounds that are present in many plant foods. The plant lignans

  11. Dietary Intake of Vitamin D in the Moroccan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Houcine Sebbar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly. The aim of our work is to evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin D in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: This study included 159 subjects aged over 60 years who performed a vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ, covering the consumption of four foods with high vitamin D content (fish, milk, margarine and yoghurt. Results: The average dietary vitamin D intake was 2.7 μg/day. This observational study in Moroccan elderly indicates a high prevalence of insufficient vitamin D intake, and below the recommended consumption values, particularly in those aged over 70 years. Conclusion: Inadequate vitamin D intake is common among the Moroccan elderly. To fight against this situation, initiatives must be implemented, including improved population education, lifestyle, and vitamin D supplementation, in order to avoid serious adverse health consequences of bone.

  12. Calcium intake and knowledge among white adolescent girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Calcium intake and knowledge using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 7-day weighed records ... Selection of schools ... was made with each of the teachers, during which time .... and high blood pressure resulted in 42% stating that it.

  13. Knowledge and Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Consumption among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    This study therefore aimed at assessing the knowledge and intake of vegetables .... made of the list of the 17 LGA in Plateau State, by simple random sampling by ... Quantitative data were presented using, mean and standard deviation while ...

  14. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were......: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate-high-protein (LCHP) diets; but inconclusive for a relationship...... between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship...

  15. Low Vision Rehabilitation Plans Comparing Two Intake Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijning, J.E.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; Knol, D.L.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This qualitative study investigates possible differences in identified rehabilitation needs indicated by the usual intake procedures at a Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Center (MRC) for visually impaired persons compared with those indicated by the use of a structured Dutch version [based

  16. dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a south african population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alan Jackson

    information on the patterns of habitual food consumption and nutrient intakes for ... the benefits of antiretroviral treatment and reducing side effects of the drugs, whilst ...... Scrimshaw NS, Taylor CE and JE Gordon Interactions of nutrition and.

  17. Optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons. ... in understanding the performance characteristics optioned between flat head and dome head pistons in engine design. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  18. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-22

    Sep 22, 2014 ... feed intake and milk yield parameters was determined for dairy cows. Three feeding ... therefore fat yield, was lower in the treatment containing only wheat as an energy source. .... paddocks for heat detection and grooming.

  19. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Contamination of food and food products by heavy metals has made dietary intake as one of the ... metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from protein-foods (beans, meat, fish, milk) and green ..... on food additives Technical report series. No.

  20. Healthy-eater self-schema and dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Samar; Stein, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The types and amounts of foods consumed have been shown to influence the health risks of individuals. Empirical evidence has documented a link between high dietary fat and low fiber intake and the risks for cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer, and obesity. Dietary surveys of Americans show higher fat and lower fiber intake than stipulated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, despite the noted increase in public awareness regarding the importance of adopting healthy eating habits. The lack of congruence between the availability of dietary knowledge and behavioral adherence to dietary recommendations suggests a need to further understand the predictors of dietary intake. In this study, the authors used the schema model of the self-concept to explore the role of self-beliefs in predicting dietary intake in community-dwelling, working-class, middle-aged adults.

  1. Dental caries and childhood obesity: analysis of food intakes, lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costacurta, M; DiRenzo, L; Sicuro, L; Gratteri, S; De Lorenzo, A; Docimo, R

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional statistical study were to evaluate the association between obesity and dental caries and to assess the impact of food intake, oral hygiene and lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries in obese paediatric patients, analysed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 96 healthy patients, aged between 6 and 11 years (mean age 8.58±1.43) was classified in relation to body composition assessment and McCarthy growth charts and cut- offs. Body composition analysis, to obtain body fat mass (FM) and body fat free mass (FFM) measurements, was determined by means of a DXA fan beam scanner. The subjects underwent dental examination to assess the dmft/DMFT, and completed a questionnaire on food intake, oral hygiene habits and lifestyle. The sample was subsequently subdivided into four groups: Group A (normal weight - caries-free), Group B (normal weight with caries), Group C (pre-obese/obese - caries-free), Group D (pre-obese/obese with caries). The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16; SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Spearman's correlation was performed to evaluate the correlation between dmft/DMFT and FM%. The chi-square test was performed to assess the categorical variables, while the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test were employed for the quantitive variables. Statististical significance was set at a P-value of 0.05. The preobese-obese children had higher indexes of dental caries than normal weight subjects, both for deciduous teeth (dmft 2.5 ± 0.54 vs 1.4 ± 0.38; p=0.030) and permanent teeth (DMFT 2.8 ± 0.24 vs 1.93 ± 1.79; p=0.039). The correlations between dmft/DMFT indexes and body composition parameters were analysed and a significant correlation between dmft/DMFT indexes and FM% was observed (p=0.031 for dmft, p=0.022 for DMFT). According to the data recorded, there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A, B, C and D in terms of food intake between

  2. Thermodynamic and numerical analysis of intake air humidification ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bin Chen

    2018-05-14

    May 14, 2018 ... ciency while reducing emissions to meet the market requirements. For gasoline ... and the effects of intake air humidification on knock. In this case, this ..... efficient strategy of suppressing knock occurrence of gasoline engines.

  3. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake.

  4. Ramadan fasting influences on food intake consumption, sleep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Key words: Ramadan fasting, food intake consumption, sleep schedule, body weight, plasma parameters, ... month of intermittent fasting (Nomani et al. ..... ponses to exercise, fluid, and energy balances during Ramadan in.

  5. optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The piston models were meshed using tetrahedral mesh of base size 0.001m. ... applied to simulate the actual intake stroke process for normal operating conditions and initial conditions. ... simulation of optimization characteristics has followed.

  6. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (water intake&g weight gain) than the Dorper and Mutton Merino, respectively. By means of ... To avoid obesity they were exercised ... Body weights, weight gain, means for cumulative feed and ..... water loss, may provide a logical explanation.

  7. Dietary intake of aluminum in a Spanish population (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Weller, Dailos; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Rubio, Carmen; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2010-10-13

    The aim of this study was to analyze the aluminum content in foods and beverages most commonly consumed by the Canary Island population to determine the dietary intake of this metal throughout the Canary Islands as a whole and in each of the seven islands (Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera, and El Hierro). Four hundred and forty samples were analyzed by ICP-OES. Estimated total intake of aluminum for the Canary population was 10.171 mg/day, slightly higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI; 10 mg/day for a person weighing 70 kg). Aluminum intake by age and sex of the Canary Island population was also determined and compared values from other populations, both national and international.

  8. Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics, chewing ... 75, and 100% DM of SSM partially or entirely replacing SBM and part of barley grain. ... Digestibility of DM and EE, passage rate, and total mean retention time ...

  9. Tender coconut water as alternative food to increase potassium intake among prehypertension adult female?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farapti Farapti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hampir seluruh populasi di dunia mengonsumsi kalium lebih rendah dari rekomendasi yangdianjurkan. Air kelapa muda merupakan minuman khas yang tinggi kalium. Tujuan penelitian ini adalahuntuk menganalisis asupan kalium pada perempuan prahipertensi dan menentukan peningkatan asupankalium dengan pemberian air kelapa muda untuk menurunkan tekanan darah di antara subyek prahipertensi.Metode: Pada uji klinis paralel single blind dengan subyek sebanyak 32 guru perempuan dan karyawatiprahipertensi berusia 25-44 tahun di Surabaya bulan April – Juni 2013. Pemilihan subyek penelitian denganrandomisasi blok, 16 subyek tiap kelompok. Kelompok perlakuan (P mendapat air kelapa muda disertaipenyuluhan gizi, sedangkan kelompok kontrol (K mendapat air putih disertai penyuluhan gizi. Penilaianasupan kalium dengan food record 2x24 jam selama fase run in, minggu pertama, dan minggu kedua periodepenelitian. Food record dianalisis menggunakan nutrisurvey, dan kandungan kalium dalam air kelapa mudasegar dan air putih dianalisis dengan metode atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS.Hasil: Pada awal penelitian, rerata asupan kalium subyek 1420,28±405,54 mg/hari atau sekitar 30,22%± 8,63% dari angka kecukupan gizi (AKG. Selama perlakuan, didapatkan peningkatan asupan kaliumsebesar 2 kali lipat dan meningkat signifikan pada kelompok perlakuan, tetapi masih lebih rendah darirekomendasi AKG dan WHO.Kesimpulan: Pada perempuan prahipertensi, asupan kalium dikategorikan rendah, dan air kelapa mudasegar 300 ml dua kali sehari selama 14 hari berturut-turut dapat meningkatkan asupan kalium. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:12-16Kata kunci: asupan kalium, air kelapa muda segar AbstractBackground: Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended intake of potassium.Tender coconut water (TCW is a typical drinks high in potassium. The study aimed to analyze potassiumintake in prehypertension subjects and to identify the

  10. Food sources of free sugars in children's diet and identification of lifestyle patterns associated with free sugars intake: the GRECO (Greek Childhood Obesity) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajian, Paul; Risvas, Grigoris; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis

    2016-09-01

    Excessive free sugars consumption has a possible role in health issues, diet quality and obesity development. The present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the major food sources of free sugars in Greek children's diet and investigate possible associations of dietary patterns with free sugars intake. Anthropometric measurements and information on dietary and physical activity habits were obtained. Energy and free sugars intake coming from foods were estimated and principal components analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns. The GRECO (Greek Childhood Obesity) study. Nationwide sample of 3089 children (aged 10-12 years). Adopting WHO criteria, 44·2 % of participants were categorized as having free sugars intake above 10 % of total energy intake. Mean contribution of free sugars to energy intake was 11·2 %, and the major food sources of free sugars differed from those of other childhood populations. Free sugars intake was not associated with overweight/obesity. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that two lifestyle and dietary patterns, characterized by higher consumption of sweets, fast foods, fries, sugared drinks, frequently ordering/eating outside home and having meals in front of a screen (pattern 1) and higher consumption of whole fruits, 100 % fruit juices, vegetables, legumes and honey/jam (pattern 2), were positively associated with free sugars intake. A large proportion of children exceeded the recommended cut-off and free sugars intake was associated with lifestyle patterns rather than single foods. Public health programmes aiming to reduce free sugars consumption should be tailored on promoting the correct dietary habits of specific childhood populations.

  11. Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalilah, M S; Khor, G L; Mirnalini, K; Norimah, A K; Ang, M

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years. This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated. The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively. The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To

  12. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    significantly higher during the competition phase than during the preparation phase (p phases (p phase, both body mass and fat-free mass were significantly higher compared to other seasonal training phases (p training phases and thus low explanatory power of single parameters. Additionally, the classification of the different seasonal training phases has to be discussed. Male and female endurance athletes show important training seasonal fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and body composition. Therefore, dietary intake recommendations should take into consideration other factors including the actual training load, TEE, and body composition goals of the athlete.

  13. Variation in the Sweet Taste Receptor Gene and Dietary Intake in a Swedish Middle-Aged Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Habberstad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe preference for sweet taste is partially genetically determined. The major allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs12033832 in the sweet taste receptor (TAS1R2 has previously been associated with lower sugar sensitivity and higher sugar intake among overweight individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dietary intake and the TAS1R2 genotype in lean and overweight individuals in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC cohort using dietary intake data with a high validity.MethodsIn total, 3,602 participants (46–68 years old from the MDC cohort who underwent baseline examinations between 1991 and 1994, who were non-smokers without diabetes, and for whom information regarding TAS1R2 rs7534618 (a proxy for rs12033832 was available were included in this study. After excluding individuals with potentially misreported and unstable food habits, 2,204 individuals were retained. A modified dietary history method, including a 7-day food diary of prepared meals, which was specifically designed for the MDC study was used.ResultsOnly modest associations were observed between dietary intake and the TAS1R2 genotype. We observed slightly stronger associations after excluding individuals with potentially misreported and unstable food habits. Among the participants with a BMI ≥25, the major (T allele carriers consumed more carbohydrates [TT = 45.2 percentage of energy intake (E%; TG = 45.2E%; GG = 43.7E%; p = 0.01] and less fat (p = 0.03, but these participants did not consume more sucrose than the G-allele carriers. No association was observed between the genotype and dietary intake among the participants with a BMI <25.ConclusionAlthough the higher carbohydrate intake among the major allele carriers was consistent with that reported in a previous study, the magnitudes of the associations were substantially smaller. Because we observed no association with sucrose, this

  14. The Development of a Web-Based Program to Reduce Dietary Salt Intake in Schoolchildren: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley Ann; Booth, Alison; Khokhar, Durreajam; West, Madeline; Margerison, Claire; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2017-05-31

    Salt intake of schoolchildren in the Australian state of Victoria is high. To protect future cardiovascular health, interventions that seek to reduce the amount of salt in children's diets are required. We sought to develop and pilot test a Web-based program (Digital Education to Limit Salt Intake in the Home [DELISH]) that aims to reduce dietary salt intake among schoolchildren and to improve child and parent knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. This paper presents the DELISH study protocol, along with pilot findings used to inform the development of the program. The DELISH program is a 5-week Web-based intervention that targets schoolchildren aged 7-10 years and their parents. This is a single-arm study with a pretest and posttest design. We will assess change in salt intake through analysis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Children and parents will complete online surveys assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. We will assess feasibility of the program via process measures, which include metrics to describe intervention uptake (eg, number of children who complete Web-based sessions and of parents who view online newsletters) and evaluation surveys and interviews conducted with children, parents, and schoolteachers. The first 2 Web sessions developed for children were pilot tested in 19 children aged 8-12 years. Findings from pilot testing indicated that most children (session 1: 18/19, 95%; and session 2: 19/19, 100%) enjoyed completing each session and liked the inclusion of comic strips and interactive games. Commonly reported areas of improvement related to sessions being text and content heavy. Based on these findings, we simplified sessions and developed 3 additional sessions for use in the DELISH program. The DELISH program was implemented during June-December 2016. We expect to have results from this study at the end of 2017. To our knowledge, this is the first Australian study to examine the

  15. Association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure with the risk of colorectal polyps by histologic type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Smalley, Walter E.; Wu, Huiyun; Chen, Zhi; Shyr, Yu; Ness, Reid M.; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagens with colorectal tumor risk remains unclear. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Methods Included in the study were 2,543 polyp patients [(1,881 with adenomas, and 622 with hyperplastic polyp (HPP)] and 3,764 polyp-free controls. Surveys obtained information about meat intake by cooking methods and doneness levels plus other suspected or known risk factors for colorectal tumors. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Results High intake of red meat and processed meat (P-trend meat cooked using high-temperature cooking methods (P-trend ≤ 0.01), was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal polyps. A significant positive association between exposures to meat-derived heterocyclic amines and risk of polyps was found for both adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. Furthermore, the positive association with red-meat intake and heterocyclic amine exposure was stronger for multiple adenomas than single adenoma and serrated than non-serrated adenomas. Conclusion This study supports a role for red meat and meat-derived mutagen exposure in the development of colorectal tumor. PMID:21803984

  16. Milk Intake at Midlife and Cognitive Decline over 20 Years. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Palta, Priya; Couper, David; Meyer, Katie; Graff, Misa; Haring, Bernhard; Sharrett, Richey; Heiss, Gerardo

    2017-10-17

    Background : Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human diet, and its effects on cognitive decline have not been fully evaluated. Objective : Assess the association of milk intake with change in cognitive function over 20 years. Methods : A total of 13,751 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire and three neurocognitive evaluations from 1990 through 2013. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to determine lactase persistence (LCT-13910 C/T for Whites and LCT-14010 G/C for Blacks). Mixed-effects models were used to study the association of milk intake with cognitive change. Multiple imputations by chained equations were used to account for attrition. Results : Milk intake greater than 1 glass/day was associated with greater decline in the global z-score over a 20-year period. The difference in decline was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.03) z-scores, or an additional 10% decline, relative to the group reporting "almost never" consuming milk. Conclusions : Replication of these results is warranted in diverse populations with greater milk intake and higher variability of lactase persistence genotype.

  17. Milk Intake at Midlife and Cognitive Decline over 20 Years. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Petruski-Ivleva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human diet, and its effects on cognitive decline have not been fully evaluated. Objective: Assess the association of milk intake with change in cognitive function over 20 years. Methods: A total of 13,751 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire and three neurocognitive evaluations from 1990 through 2013. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were used to determine lactase persistence (LCT-13910 C/T for Whites and LCT-14010 G/C for Blacks. Mixed-effects models were used to study the association of milk intake with cognitive change. Multiple imputations by chained equations were used to account for attrition. Results: Milk intake greater than 1 glass/day was associated with greater decline in the global z-score over a 20-year period. The difference in decline was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.03 z-scores, or an additional 10% decline, relative to the group reporting “almost never” consuming milk. Conclusions: Replication of these results is warranted in diverse populations with greater milk intake and higher variability of lactase persistence genotype.

  18. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  19. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  20. Dietary iron intake in adolescent women in educational institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Vila, Mabel; Quintana, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia is a public health problem. The low dietary intake of iron is one of its causes. Objective: To determine the dietary iron intake in adolescent women. Design: Descriptive, cross type study. Setting: Educational Institutions in the district of Ancon, Lima. Participants: Three hundred and fifty-five adolescent high school female students in Ancon chosen at random. Interventions: Previous informed consent, a semi-quantitative food and beverage frequency questi...

  1. Mortality associated with moderate intakes of wine, beer, or spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic drinks and mortality. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol intake, smoking habit, income, education, and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--6051 men and 7234 women aged 30-70 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of cause-specific deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--The risk of dying steadily decreased with an increasing intake of wine--from a relative risk of 1.00 for the subjects who never drank wine to 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.81) for those who drank three to five glasses a day. Intake of neither beer nor spirits, however, was associated with reduced risk. For spirits intake the relative risk of dying increased from 1.00 for those who never drank to 1.34 (1.05 to 1.71) for those with an intake of three to five drinks a day. The effects of the three types of alcoholic drinks seemed to be independent of each other, and no significant interactions existed with sex, age, education, income, smoking, or body mass index. Wine drinking showed the same relation to risk of death from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease as to risk of death from all causes. CONCLUSION--Low to moderate intake of wine is associated with lower mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and other causes. Similar intake of spirits implied an increased risk, while beer drinking did not affect mortality. PMID:7767150

  2. Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Bolland, Mark J; Leung, William; Tai, Vicky; Bastin, Sonja; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the evidence underpinning recommendations to increase calcium intake through dietary sources or calcium supplements to prevent fractures. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies of calcium intake with fracture as an endpoint. Results from trials were pooled with random effects meta-analyses. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches undertaken in July 2013 and upd...

  3. Starch and fibre intake and glucose postprandial response of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Monti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fibre has been studied to reduce the postprandial glucose response of dogs, but the results are inconsistent. Starch intake, however, was not properly considered in the published studies. The effects of starch and fibre intake on the postprandial glucose response were studied in non-obese adult dogs. Cellulose (CEL, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, pea fibre (PE and sugarcane fibre (SCF were combined to form six diets with starch contents ranging from 33% to 42%: SCF+CEL and PE+CEL diets, both with high insoluble fibre (IF=22% and low soluble fibre (SF=2.5% content; SCF+CMC and PE+CMC diets with high SF (SF=4.5%; IF=19% content; and CMC and CEL diets with low dietary fibre (14% content. The diets were fed in two amounts, providing an intake of 9.5g or 12.5g of starch (kg0.75-1 day-1, totaling 12 treatments. Each diet was fed to six dogs conditioned to consume all of the daily food in 10min. Their plasma glucose levels were measured before and during 480min after food intake. Results of fibre and starch intake and their interactions were compared by repeated measures ANOVA and the Tukey test (P0.05. High-dose starch intake, however, induced a higher glycaemia at 180 and 240min after the meal and a greater maximal glycaemia and greater area under the glucose curve (P<0.05. A range in insoluble and soluble fibre intake does not change postprandial glucose response, and the amount of starch intake is a main factor for the postprandial glucose response of healthy non-obese dogs.

  4. Increasing the volumetric efficiency of Diesel engines by intake pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Hans

    1933-01-01

    Development of a method for calculating the volumetric efficiency of piston engines with intake pipes. Application of this method to the scavenging pumps of two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging and to four-stroke-cycle engines. The utility of the method is demonstrated by volumetric-efficiency tests of the two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging. Its practical application to the calculation of intake pipes is illustrated by example.

  5. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Xue, Jianping; Brown, G Gordon; McCombs, Michelle; Nishioka, Marcia; Michael, Larry C

    2014-01-15

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from which intake assessments of organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides were made. From these nine participants, sixty-seven individual samples were collected and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Measured concentrations were used to estimate dietary intakes for individuals and for the community. Individual intakes of total OP and pyrethroid pesticides ranged from 6.7 to 996 ng and 1.2 to 16,000 ng, respectively. The community intake was 256 ng for OPs and 3430 ng for pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticide was permethrin, but the highest overall intake was of bifenthrin followed by esfenvalerate. These data indicate that the community in Apopka, FL, as represented by the nine individuals, was potentially exposed to both OP and pyrethroid pesticides at levels consistent with a dietary model and other field studies in which standard duplicate diet samples were collected. Higher levels of pyrethroid pesticides were measured than OPs, which is consistent with decreased usage of OPs. The diversity of pyrethroid pesticides detected in food samples was greater than expected. Continually changing pesticide usage patterns need to be considered when determining analytes of interest for large scale epidemiology studies. The Community Duplicate Diet Methodology is a tool for researchers to meet emerging exposure measurement needs that will lead to more accurate assessments of intake which may enhance decisions for chemical regulation. Successfully determining the intake of pesticides through the dietary route will allow for accurate assessments of pesticide exposures to a community of individuals, thereby significantly enhancing the research benefit

  6. Effect of oral diclofenac intake on faecal calprotectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendek, Zlatica; Falk, Magnus; Grodzinsky, Ewa; Wahlin, Karl; Kechagias, Stergios; Svernlöv, Rikard; Hjortswang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    NSAIDs are a known source of increased faecal calprotectin (FC) levels. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge about how long it takes for an increased FC level to return to normal after NSAID intake. The aim was to investigate how oral diclofenac intake affects FC levels and assess how long it takes for an increased FC level to return to normal after oral diclofenac intake. Thirty healthy volunteers received diclofenac 50 mg three times daily for 14 days. Participants provided a stool sample on Days 0, 2, 4, 7, 14 during intake and Days 17, 21, 28 after discontinuation. FC levels were then followed at 7-day intervals until normalization. During diclofenac intake, eight participants (27%) had FC levels exceeding the upper limit of normal (median, 76 μg/g; range, 60-958 μg/g), corresponding to 8.3% of measurements. FC was not constantly increased and became normal in most participants during diclofenac intake. FC levels were on average significantly higher during intake (M = 9.5, interquartile range (IQR) = 13.4) than on baseline (M = 7.5, IQR = 0.0), p = 0.003. After discontinuation, two participants had increased FC on Days 17 and 21, respectively. No significant differences in FC levels were found between baseline and measurements after discontinuation. Two weeks after discontinuation, all participants had normal FC levels. Short-term oral diclofenac intake is associated with increased FC levels. However, the likelihood of an increased test result is low. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of diclofenac withdrawal is sufficient to get an uninfluenced FC test result.

  7. Habitual fat intake predicts memory function in younger women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Leigh eGibson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old, recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23 and controls (n=15. Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd., i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test. Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA, were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA intake predicted poorer performance on the word recall and recognition measures. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with poorer word recognition only, whereas higher blood total cholesterol was associated only with visuo-spatial learning errors. None of these variables predicted performance on a delayed pattern matching test. The significant nutrient-cognition relationships were tested for mediation by total energy intake: saturated and trans fat intakes, and Sat:UFA, remained significant predictors specifically of visuo-spatial learning errors, whereas total fat and UFA intakes now predicted only poorer word recall. Examination of associations separately for mono- (MUFA and polyunsaturated fats suggested that only MUFA intake was predictive of poorer word recall. Saturated and trans fats, and fasting insulin, may already be associated with cognitive deficits in younger women. The findings need extending but may have important implications for public

  8. Nutritional intake and status in persons with alcohol dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens Knudsen, Anne; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition increases the risk of developing alcohol-related complications. The aim of this study was to describe nutrient intake, nutritional status and nutrition-related complications in a Danish population of outpatients with alcohol dependency.......Malnutrition increases the risk of developing alcohol-related complications. The aim of this study was to describe nutrient intake, nutritional status and nutrition-related complications in a Danish population of outpatients with alcohol dependency....

  9. Intelligence in relation to later beverage preference and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbaek, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake.......The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake....

  10. Food prices and poverty negatively affect micronutrient intakes in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Robles, Miguel; Pachón, Helena; Chiarella, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Limited empirical evidence exists for how economic conditions affect micronutrient nutrition. We hypothesized that increasing poverty and rising food prices would reduce consumption of high-quality "luxury" foods, leading to an increased probability of inadequacy for several nutrients. The 2006 Guatemala National Living Conditions Survey was analyzed. First, energy and nutrient intakes and adequacy levels were calculated. Second, the income-nutrient relationships were investigated by assessing disparities in intakes, determining income-nutrient elasticities, and modeling nutrient intakes by reductions in income. Third, the food price-nutrient relationships were explored through determination of price-nutrient elasticities and modeling 2 price scenarios: an increase in food prices similar in magnitude to the food price crisis of 2007-2008 and a standardized 10% increase across all food groups. Disparities in nutrient intakes were greatest for vitamin B-12 (0.38 concentration index) and vitamin A (0.30 concentration index); these nutrients were highly and positively correlated with income (r = 0.22-0.54; P < 0.05). Although the baseline probability of inadequacy was highest for vitamin B-12 (83%), zinc showed the greatest increase in probability of inadequacy as income was reduced, followed by folate and vitamin A. With rising food prices, zinc intake was most acutely affected under both scenarios (P < 0.05) and folate intake in the poorest quintile (+7 percentage points) under the 10% scenario. Price-nutrient elasticities were highest for vitamin B-12 and the meat, poultry, and fish group (-0.503) and for folate and the legumes group (-0.343). The economic factors of food prices and income differentially influenced micronutrient intakes in Guatemala, notably zinc and folate intakes.

  11. Engineering evaluation of porous-dike intake screening systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    As one of many concepts currently under investigation for use in screening fish and larvae from power plant intakes, the porous-dike system presents unique challenges to the designer and constructor. A complete understanding of the hydraulic losses through such a structure is necessary to properly size and locate the intake and to ensure proper pump selection and performance. In the study described in this report, an analogy with frictional losses in conduits was employed, and empirical data on losses were determined for three sizes of filter stone typical of the types used in the construction of a porous-dike intake system. These empirical data were compared with additional information from the literature. The dependence of hydraulic losses through large-diameter media on stone shape and porosity were demonstrated although no empirical expression of this dependence was developed. A hypothetical porous-dike intake installation was developed, demonstrating the fundamental design considerations which must be made for such a structure. Finally, a cursory economic comparison of various intake screening systems demonstrated that the porous-dike intake concept was economically competitive with all others

  12. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R

    2013-07-02

    The objective was to examine the effect of consuming breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Participants who habitually ate breakfast and those who skipped breakfast were recruited for two studies. Using a randomized crossover design, the first study examined the effect of having participants consume either (a) no breakfast, (b) a high carbohydrate breakfast (335 kcals), or (c) a high fiber breakfast (360 kcals) on three occasions and measured ad libitum intake at lunch. The second study again used a randomized crossover design but with a larger, normal carbohydrate breakfast consumed ad libtum. Intake averaged 624 kcals and subsequent food intake was measured throughout the day. Participants ate only foods served from the Cornell Human Metabolic Research Unit where all foods were weighed before and after consumption. In the first study, neither eating breakfast nor the kind of breakfast consumed had an effect on the amount consumed at lunch despite a reduction in hunger ratings. In the second study, intake at lunch as well as hunger ratings were significantly increased after skipping breakfast (by 144 kcal), leaving a net caloric deficit of 408 kcal by the end of the day. These data are consistent with published literature demonstrating that skipping a meal does not result in accurate energy compensation at subsequent meals and suggests that skipping breakfast may be an effective means to reduce daily energy intake in some adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-/No-Calorie Sweeteners: A Review of Global Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika Martyn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners—aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides—globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design. Overall, the studies conducted since 2008 raised no concerns with respect to exceedance of individual sweetener acceptable daily intake (ADIs among the general population globally. The data identified do not suggest a shift in exposure over time, with several studies indicating a reduction in intake. However, some data suggest there may have been an increase in the numbers of consumers of low-/no-calorie-sweetened products. Future research should consider a more standardized approach to allow the monitoring of potential changes in exposure based upon events such as sugar reduction recommendations, to ensure there is no shift in intake, particularly for high-risk individuals, including diabetics and children with specific dietary requirements, and to ensure risk management decisions are based on quality intake analyses.

  14. Dietary intake of organic pollutants in children from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocio, A.; Falco, G.; Llobet, J.M.; Domingo, J.L. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Mueller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Potential human toxicity of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is well known. Moreover, it is also well established that dietary intake is the major route of human exposure for most POPs. In recent years, concern on dietary intake of POPs and other organic environmental contaminants has notably increased. Dietary intake of these pollutants is of special interest in children populations, who in relation to their body weights consume greater quantities of food than adults. Consequently, they are more exposed to potentially toxic pollutants. In 2000, a wide survey on dietary intake of a number of organic contaminants by the general population of Catalonia Spain was carried out. The levels of the following pollutants were determined in an important number of food samples belonging to various food groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The present study was undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of the above pollutants by children between 4 and 9 years old, as well as to assess the potential health risks derived from this intake.

  15. Nutritional intake of gut failure patients on home parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCecco, S.; Nelson, J.; Burnes, J.; Fleming, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Nutrient intake patterns were analyzed in 23 patients with gut failure who were receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). All patients had stable weights without changes in intravenous calories or protein for 3 consecutive months. Our objectives were to assess oral intake of calories, carbohydrates, fat, and protein, to examine relationships between oral nutrient intakes and disease categories, and to compare oral and intravenous intakes to calculated resting energy expenditure (REE). Two patterns of oral nutrient intake were identified among the patients. Patients with short bowel syndrome, regardless of the underlying disease, consumed calories by mouth that clearly exceeded calculated resting energy expenditure (short bowel, non-Crohn's, 170% of REE; short bowel, Crohn's, 200 of REE); however, calories approximating the REE had to be given via HPN, suggesting that efficiency of absorption was at a very low level. Patients with diffuse gut diseases (radiation enteritis or pseudo-obstruction syndromes) had very low intakes of oral nutrients. The distribution of oral calories among carbohydrate, protein, and fat did not differ among the disease categories

  16. Nutritional status and dietary intake in tribal children of Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R J; Singh, P

    1999-01-01

    To assess the dietary intake and nutritional status in children of the tribal areas of Bihar. Cross sectional survey with two stage probability proportional to size sampling. Study covered 396 villages from 17 tribal districts of Bihar. 1847 preschool children (0-6 Years) were studied. 24 hours recall method was used to assess the nutrition intake and anthropometric measurements included height and weight. Nutritional intake was compared with Indian Council of Medical Research recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and nutritional status assessed by SD classification. The intake of protein was broadly in line with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in all age groups among children. However, the average intake of energy and other nutrients was lower in allage groups as compared to RDA. Calorie deficiency was 38% whereas protein deficiency was about 19%. More than half of the children were caloric deficient in Katihar, Bokaro, Godda and Singhbhum (east and west). The overall prevalence of stunting was about 60% and underweight about 55% and was comparable in boys and girls. However, wasting was more frequent in girls (urban - 34.5% vs. 16.3% and rural - 34.9% vs 18%). The level of malnutrition was not very different in rural and urban areas. The nutritional status and dietary intakes of tribal children in Bihar is very poor. Urgent remedial measures are required in this context, particularly on a war footing in especially vulnerable districts identified by this survey.

  17. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential exposure to hazardous substances that are present in the environment. For this reason, a thorough analysis of the dietary habits of the American public would aid in the identification of potential exposure pathways. To that end, the EPA developed per capita food intake rates for various food items and food categories using databases developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These intake rates were incorporated into EPA's 1997 Exposure Factors Handbook. Since that time, EPA has recommended that the food intake study be updated and expanded to include a more comprehensive analysis of food intake. That analysis is presented in this document. The purpose of this study is to characterize the consumption of food by the people of the United States.

  18. Breast milk intake and infant growth: an isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, R.; Roohi, S.

    2000-01-01

    The milk intake of the exclusively breast fed infants was measured with the help of Deuterium dilution method, previously established in our laboratory. The growth of excessively breast fed infants was monitored for size months and correlated with the milk intake. For the measurement of milk intake, saliva of mothers and urine of the infants was collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13 and 14 days after giving an appropriate oral dose of deuterium oxide. For determining the Hydrogen Isotope ratio (D/H(, the samples wee prepared utilizing Zn shot method and subsequently analyzed on Isotope ratio Mass Spectrometer. The results showed that mean breast milk intake of infants measured with Deuterium dilution method was 801 +- 262 gms/day at 31.15+- 7.7 days of age (n=17). at the age of 3 months, the milk intake increased to 998+- 397 gms/day. The growth data collected over six month period for 21 infants showed that they fall below the 50 percentile of National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for weight and length. The data suggests that although majority of infants were exclusively breast fed and the intake values were well above normal range yet their growth was far from optimum. (author)

  19. Automotive engine air intake system with variable noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenssen, David J.; Hellie, Mark D.; Koston, John D.; Shaw, Christopher E.

    2005-09-01

    Engine air intake systems are routinely tasked with delivering a specific target sound which involves meeting an overall noise level and, in many cases, desired frequency content over the entire engine speed range. In order to meet these targets, it is generally necessary to incorporate one or more reactive tuning devices, such as Helmholtz resonators, into the intake system. Traditional devices provide deep attenuation at their designed frequency, but they also introduce undesirable sideband resonances at a higher and a lower frequency. Even after the addition of several devices, it may still not be possible to match the desired intake noise targets due to their deep attenuation and sideband amplification. The subject of this work is to introduce an electronically controlled variable noise control (VNC) device for engine air intake systems which is capable of adjusting the air intake system's frequency response as commanded by the engine operating conditions. The VNC device permits the desired amount of attenuation of peaks in the air intake noise without introducing undesirable sideband resonances. In addition, because the tuning is controlled electronically, the VNC device can deliver a target-specific response using the same hardware across multiple vehicle programs.

  20. The measurement of milk intake in the neonatal guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, L.T.; Roberts, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Study of the effects of enteral nutrition on neonatal growth and development has been hindered by lack of a suitable model. An isotope dilution method for the measurement of milk intake in suckling rodents was evaluated in 13 hand-fed neonatal guinea pigs, by comparing milk intakes determined using 3H20 with intakes determined by difference in weight before and after feeding. The effects of two experimental durations (1 or 2-3 days) on the accuracy and precision of the method was assessed. Weighted milk intakes were 18 -26 g/day, and body weight changes were -7% - +12% of initial weight. There was no significant difference between milk intakes determined using the two methods for both 1 and 2-3 day comparisons. However, the coefficients of variation for 1 and 2-3 day measurements were 24.4% and 5.5%, respectively. These values are equivalent to precisions of approximately 10% and 2% for estimates of total milk output in a rodent suckling 8 pups. It is concluded that the 3H20 method is no less accurate or precise than the weighing method for 2-3 day measurements of milk intake in individual pups and milk production of dams. These findings strengthen the use of the precocial guinea pig as a model for the study of the effects of early feeding on growth, development and aging

  1. Carotenoids intake and asthma prevalence in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several antioxidant nutrients have been described to inversely correlate with asthma. In order to quantify the intake of these substances, it is possible to measure skin levels by Raman spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive technique that can also be used in children. This cross-sectional school-based study involved 423 children from a rural area of Thailand. Asthmatic children were diagnosed according to a Health Interview for Asthma Control questionnaire. Skin carotenoid levels were measured with Raman spectroscopy. Demographic data were obtained by directly interviewing children and their parents, whereas anthropometric parameters were measured by trained staff. Intake of carotenoids, vitamin A and C were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Overall incidence of asthma in Thai schoolchildren (aged 3.5-17.8 years was 17.3%. There was no significant difference in dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamin A and C, and skin carotenoid level between asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. Skin carotenoid level significantly correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake (P<0.05. Carotenoids and vitamin A and C intakes, and skin carotenoid levels were not associated with the risk of asthma in Thai children. Skin carotenoids correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake in mild to moderate degrees. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to be a useful tool to determine antioxidant skin levels.

  2. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Janice E; Newby, P K; Bakun, Peter J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 +/- 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research.

  3. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholt, Kathrin M; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more-aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sessions. A standard volume (1250 ml) of each snack was served once in a bowl and once in an opaque bag. Results showed significant differences in intake of the two snacks by energy (p=0.0003) and volume (psnack than the less-aerated snack, although they consumed a 73% greater volume of the more-aerated snack (239+/-24 ml). These findings suggest that subjects responded to both the weight and volume of the snack. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across conditions. The serving method did not significantly affect intake. Results from this study indicate that incorporating air into food provides a strategy to reduce energy intake from energy-dense snacks.

  4. Low glycemic index breakfasts and reduced food intake in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Janet M; Henry, C Jeya K; Simonite, Vanessa

    2003-11-01

    Recent reports have suggested that a low glycemic index (GI) diet may have a role in the management of obesity through its ability to increase the satiety value of food and modulate appetite. To date, no long-term clinical trials have examined the effect of dietary GI on body weight regulation. The majority of evidence comes from single-day studies, most of which have been conducted in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 test breakfasts-low-GI, low-GI with 10% added sucrose, and high-GI-on ad libitum lunch intake, appetite, and satiety and to compare these with baseline values when habitual breakfast was consumed. A 3-way crossover study using block randomization of breakfast type was conducted in a school that already ran a breakfast club. A total of 37 children aged 9 to 12 years (15 boys and 22 girls) completed the study. The proportion of nonoverweight to overweight/obese children was 70:30. Children were divided into 5 groups, and a rolling program was devised whereby, week by week, each group would randomly receive 1 of 3 test breakfasts for 3 consecutive days, with a minimum of 5 weeks between the test breakfasts. Participants acted as their own control. The 3 test breakfasts were devised to match the energy and nutritional content of an individual's habitual breakfast as far as possible. All test breakfasts were composed of fruit juice, cereal, and milk with/without bread and margarine; foods with an appropriate GI value were selected. After each test breakfast, children were instructed not to eat or drink anything until lunchtime, except water and a small serving of fruit supplying approximately 10 g of carbohydrate, which was provided. Breakfast palatability, satiation after breakfast, and satiety before lunch were measured using rating scales based on previously used tools. Lunch was a buffet-style meal, and children were allowed free access to a range of foods. Lunch was served in the school hall where the rest of the

  5. Coffee intake and the risk of colorectal adenoma: The colorectal adenoma study in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-07-15

    Coffee is a commonly consumed beverage which contains several potential anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive compounds, and has been hypothesized to have protective effects in colorectal neoplasia. However, the limited available data on coffee consumption in relation to colorectal adenoma (CRA), a precursor lesion to most colorectal cancers, remain largely inconsistent. In this study, we evaluated the association of coffee intake with the risk of CRA in a middle-aged Japanese population. Study subjects were selected from examinees who underwent total colonoscopy as part of a cancer screening program and responded to self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. A total of 738 patients with adenoma and 697 controls were included in the study. Coffee intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire, and divided into quartiles based on the distribution among controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of CRA, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. High coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of CRA, with a multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest versus lowest quartile of coffee intake of 0.67 (95% CI = 0.48-0.93; ptrend  = 0.02). The inverse association of coffee intake was limited to proximal (OR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.44-0.95; ptrend  = 0.04) and distal colon adenoma (OR = 0.62; 95%CI = 0.39-0.99; ptrend  = 0.06), and appeared to be more evident with small (OR = 0.68; 95%CI = 0.49-0.96; ptrend  = 0.04) and single adenomas (OR = 0.65; 95%CI = 0.44-0.95; ptrend  = 0.02). Green tea intake was not found to be associated with CRA risk. This study provides support for the protective effect of coffee drinking on colon adenomas, a precursor of colon cancer. © 2014 UICC.

  6. Dietary protein and fat intake in relation to risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Eun; Seol, Jueun; Song, Ji Hyun; Chung, Goh Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Lim, Sun Hee; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of red meat and alcohol are known risk factors for colorectal cancer, but associations for dietary fat remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary fat, protein, and energy intake with prevalence of colorectal adenoma.We performed a prospective cross-sectional study on asymptomatic persons who underwent a screening colonoscopy at a single center during a routine health check-up from May to December 2011. Dietary data were obtained via a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), assisted by a registered dietician. We also obtained information on alcohol consumption and smoking status, and measured metabolic syndrome markers including abdominal circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the associations using the polytomous logistic regression models. As a secondary analysis, we also conducted a matched analysis, matched by age and sex (557 cases and 557 non-cases).The study sample included 557 cases (406 males and 151 females) with histopathologically confirmed colorectal adenoma, and 1157 controls (650 males and 507 females). The proportion of advanced adenoma was 28.1% of men and 18.5% of female, respectively. Although vegetable protein intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma, further adjustment for potential confounding factors attenuated the association, resulting in no significant associations. There were no significant associations between dietary fat intake and colorectal adenoma in energy-adjusted models. For vegetable protein in women, the OR for the comparison of those in the highest tertile with those in the lowest tertile was 0.47 (95% CI 0.25-0.91, P for trend = 0.07) after adjustment for total energy intake. However, after controlling for metabolic syndrome markers, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and family history of

  7. Effects of blood glucose on delay discounting, food intake and counterregulation in lean and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Johanna; Kubera, Britta; Eggeling, Jonas; Rädel, Christin; Wagner, Christin; Park, Soyoung Q; Peters, Achim

    2018-03-01

    Delay discounting as a measure of impulsivity has been shown to be higher in obesity with an association of increased food intake. Moreover, obese humans showed a higher wanting for high-calorie food than lean men when blood glucose concentrations were low. First studies linking blood glucose levels to delay discounting yielded mixed results. We hypothesized that obese people - in comparison to lean men - have a relative lack of energy, especially when blood glucose levels are low, that results in higher levels of delay discounting, food intake and hormonal counterregulation. We investigated 20 lean and 20 obese healthy young men in a single-blind balanced cross-over design. With a standardized glucose clamp technique, subjects underwent a hypoglycemic state in one condition and a euglycemic state in the control condition. Regularly, blood was sampled for assessment of hormonal status, and questionnaires were filled out to assess delay discounting and symptom awareness. After normalizing blood glucose concentrations, subjects were free to eat from a standardized test buffet, followed by a snack test. Delay discounting was higher in obese than in lean men throughout experiments (p  0.1). Furthermore, the discounting performance did not correlate with food intake from the test buffet or snack test (p > 0.3). As a response to hypoglycemia, hormonal counterregulation was pronounced in both weight groups (p  0.5). Our data suggest that augmented delay discounting is a robust feature in obesity that is not linked to glucose levels or actual food intake. With our systematically controlled approach, combining performance in delay discounting with regard to distinct blood glucose levels, different weight groups, counterregulatory behavior and food intake, our results imply that delay discounting is not susceptible to fluctuations of blood glucose and do not support the assumption that a low body's energy content leads to increased impulsivity. Further

  8. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS; PHASE I: 2.0 L FORD CONTOUR AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project team applied the life cycle design methodology to the design analysis of three alternative air intake manifolds: a sand cast aluminum, brazed aluminum tubular, and nylon composite. The design analysis included a life cycle inventory analysis, environmental regulatory...

  9. Dietary calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and fracture in a population with low calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Sung Hye; Kim, Jung Hee; Hong, A Ram; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Chan Soo

    2017-07-01

    Background: The role of dietary calcium intake in cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and fracture is controversial. Most previous reports have evaluated populations with high calcium intake. Objective: We aimed to evaluate whether high dietary calcium intake was associated with the risk of CVD, stroke, and fracture in a population with low calcium intake. Design: In a prospective cohort study beginning in 2001 in Ansung-Ansan, Korea, 2158 men and 2153 women aged >50 y were evaluated for all-cause mortality, CVD, stroke, and fractures over a median 9-y follow-up. Results: During follow-up, 242 and 100 deaths, 149 and 150 CVD events, 58 and 82 stroke events, and 211 and 292 incident fractures occurred in men and women, respectively. The first quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake were 249 mg/d (IQR: 169 mg/d) in men and 209 mg/d (IQR: 161 mg/d) in women. Both men and women with higher dietary calcium intake tended to have higher fat, protein, sodium, phosphorus, fruit, and vegetable intakes. In men, outcomes were not significantly associated with dietary calcium intake with or without adjustments, and CVD risk tended to increase with increasing energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake, but this was not statistically significant ( P = 0.078 and P = 0.093 with and without adjustment, respectively). In women, CVD risk and dietary calcium intake showed a U-shaped association; the HRs (95% CIs) without adjustment relative to the first quartile were 0.71 (0.47, 1.07), 0.57 (0.36, 0.88), and 0.52 (0.33, 0.83) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the values after adjustment were 0.70 (0.45, 1.07), 0.51 (0.31, 0.81), and 0.49 (0.29, 0.83) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Conclusion: In Korean women, increased dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased CVD risk, but it did not influence the risk of stroke or fracture. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Smokers report lower intake of key nutrients than nonsmokers, yet both fall short of meeting recommended intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela; Carriquiry, Alicia; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be due to a poorer diet and the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers with that of nonsmokers among participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. We hypothesized (1) that overall energy and nutrient intake would be reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers and (2) that smokers would have increased noncompliance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Men and women (smokers n=138, nonsmokers n=46) completed a 3-day diet record at baseline. Mean energy and nutrient intakes were stratified by smoking status and compared with DRI levels. The mean body mass index was 28.3±0.5kg/m 2 for smokers and 27.2±1.0kg/m 2 for nonsmokers. Compared with nonsmokers, the smokers reported lower intakes of energy, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total sugars, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E. Smokers reported reduced compliance with the DRIs for iron, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, and folate compared with nonsmokers. Unlike other evaluations of smokers vs nonsmokers, we observed no difference in body weight between groups. Smokers and nonsmokers alike reported dietary intakes lower than the DRIs for many nutrients. However, the reported nutrient intake of the smokers was substantially lower than nonsmokers for key nutrients, and they were more likely to not comply with the DRIs for essential nutrients, placing them at increased risk of chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Cristina; Henriquez, Patricia; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; del Burgo, Cristina López; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2011-11-02

    Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was assessed through a 136-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey after 4 years of follow-up. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess the regression coefficients (b) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the 8 domains of the SF-36 according to successive quintiles of each kind of fatty acids intake. The multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant inverse association for SFA intake (in quintiles) and two of the physical domains (physical functioning and general health). E.g. for general health domain: (highest quintile of intake (Q5) vs. lowest quintile (Q1), b = -1.6; 95% CI = -3.1, -0.1. General health also showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend < 0.05). For TFA intake (in quintiles), a significant inverse association was found for most of the mental domains (vitality, social functioning and role emotional). E.g. for vitality domain (Q5) vs. (Q1), b = -2.0, 95% CI = -3.4 to -0.6. We also found an inverse association between TFA intake and the bodily pain domain: (Q5 vs. Q1), b = -2.6; 95% CI = -4.4 to -0.8, with a statistically significant dose-response relationship (p for trend < 0.05). Except for TFA intake and the mental domains, the rest of the associations were attenuated when we repeated the analysis adjusting for adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A detrimental relationship between TFA intake at baseline and most of the SF-36 mental domains measured 4 years later were found, whereas weak inverse

  12. Hiding vegetables to reduce energy density: an effective strategy to increase children's vegetable intake and reduce energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Maureen K; Birch, Leann L; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-09-01

    Strategies are needed to increase children's intake of a variety of vegetables, including vegetables that are not well liked. We investigated whether incorporating puréed vegetables into entrées to reduce the energy density (ED; in kcal/g) affected vegetable and energy intake over 1 d in preschool children. In this crossover study, 3- to 5-y-old children (n = 40) were served all meals and snacks 1 d/wk for 3 wk. Across conditions, entrées at breakfast, lunch, dinner, and evening snack were reduced in ED by increasing the proportion of puréed vegetables. The conditions were 100% ED (standard), 85% ED (tripled vegetable content), and 75% ED (quadrupled vegetable content). Entrées were served with unmanipulated side dishes and snacks, and children were instructed to eat as much as they liked. The daily vegetable intake increased significantly by 52 g (50%) in the 85% ED condition and by 73 g (73%) in the 75% ED condition compared with that in the standard condition (both P daily energy intake decreased by 142 kcal (12%) from the 100% to 75% ED conditions (P daily vegetable intake and decrease the energy intake in young children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01252433.

  13. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people : a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J.; Van Loon, Luc J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. OBJECTIVES: to assess the

  14. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity and... NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you may correct NOX emissions for the effects of intake-air humidity or temperature. Use the NOX intake...

  15. Physiological and psychosocial age-related changes associated with reduced food intake in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Antina; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    Dietary intake changes during the course of aging. Normally an increase in food intake is observed around 55 years of age, which is followed by a reduction in food intake in individuals over 65 years of age. This reduction in dietary intake results in lowered levels of body fat and body weight, a

  16. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people: a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the

  17. Molecular cloning, expression analysis, and potential food intake attenuation effect of peptide YY in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Shen, Yubang; Pandit, Narayan Prasad; Fu, Jianjun; Li, Da; Li, Jiale

    2013-06-15

    The peptide YY (PYY) is a 36 amino acid peptide involved in the food intake control in vertebrates. We have cloned and characterized a PYY gene from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus. The full-length cDNA encodes a precursor protein of grass carp PYY (gcPYY) that consists of a putative 28-amino acid signal peptide, a 36-amino acid mature peptide, an amidation-proteolytic site, and a 30-amino acid carboxy-terminal extension. The gcPYY gene is comprised of 4 exons interspaced by 3 introns as seen in PYYs from other species. Amino acid alignment and gene structure comparison indicate that the structure of PYY is well preserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny. The tissue distribution and postprandial changes in gcPYY mRNA expression were evaluated by real-time PCR, which showed that the gcPYY is expressed abundantly in the central nervous system, with significantly increased expression following a single meal. During embryogenesis, the presence of gcPYY mRNA was detected in early developing embryos, and high expression levels were observed when most larvae completed their switch from endogenous nourishment to exogenous feeding. Reduced food intake by juveniles during a single meal after giving perpheral injection of gcPYY1-36 suggests a potentially important role of PYY in the food intake attenuation in grass carp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary sodium intake: scientific basis for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    National and international agencies recommend a reduction in dietary sodium intake. However, some have questioned the wisdom of these policies. The goal of this report was to assess the findings and quality of studies that have examined the relationship between dietary sodium and both blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Literature review of the available observational studies and randomized controlled trials, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A large body of evidence from observational studies and clinical trials documents a direct relationship between dietary sodium intake and the level of blood pressure, especially in persons with a higher level of blood pressure, African-Americans, and those who are older or have comorbidity, including chronic kidney disease. A majority of the available observational reports support the presence of a direct relationship between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular disease but the quality of the evidence according to most studies is poor. The limited information available from clinical trials is consistent with a beneficial effect of reduced sodium intake on incidence of cardiovascular disease. The scientific underpinning for policies to reduce the usual intake of dietary sodium is strong. In the United States and many other countries, addition of sodium during food processing has led to a very high average intake of dietary sodium, with almost everyone exceeding the recommended goals. National programs utilizing voluntary and mandatory approaches have resulted in a successful reduction in sodium intake. Even a small reduction in sodium consumption is likely to yield sizable improvement in population health. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Watching TV and food intake: the role of content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Chapman

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a 'Boring' TV condition (art lecture, an 'Engaging' TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series, and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden. Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms and low-calorie (grapes snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+52% g, P = 0.009. Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control 'Text' condition (-35% g, P = 0.05. This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P = 0.07. Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta = 0.317, P = 0.02. Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text with concurrent intake.

  20. Watching TV and food intake: the role of content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Nilsson, Victor C; Thune, Hanna Å; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Le Grevès, Madeleine; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV) represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a 'Boring' TV condition (art lecture), an 'Engaging' TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series), and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden). Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms) and low-calorie (grapes) snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+52% g, P = 0.009). Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control 'Text' condition (-35% g, P = 0.05). This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P = 0.07). Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta = 0.317, P = 0.02). Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring) is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging) may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text) with concurrent intake.

  1. Nutrient intake amongst rural adolescent girls of Wardha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliye C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of rural adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried in four adopted villages of the Department of Community Medicine, M.G.I.M.S., Sewagram. A household survey was carried out in the villages. A list of all the adolescent girls in the age group of 10-19 years was prepared by enumeration through house-to-house visit. All adolescent girls were included in the study. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and anthropometric variables. A 24 h recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. Data generated was entered and analyzed using epi_info 2000. Nutrient intake was compared with ICMR Recommended Dietary Allowances. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI for age. Results: The mean height of the adolescent girls was 142.9 cm. Overall, 57% of the adolescents were thin (BMI for age <5 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference and 43% of the adolescents were normal (BMI for age between 5 th - 85 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference. The average energy intake, which was 1239.6±176.4 kcal/day, was deficient of RDA by 39%. The average protein intake was 39.5±7 gm/day. It was deficient by 36% and the average iron intake, which was 13.2±2.5 mg/day, was deficient by 48%. Conclusion: The findings reiterate the dietary deficiency among adolescent girls which adversely affects the nutritional status. If the poor nutritional status is not corrected promptly before they become pregnant, it adversely affects the reproductive outcome. If we have to meet out the goals of Reproductive and Child Health Program, intervention strategies to improve the dietary intake of adolescent girls are needed so that their requirements of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals are met.

  2. Relationship between protein intake and dynapenia in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, M E; Barbat-Artigas, S; Dupontgand, S; Fex, A; Karelis, A D; Aubertin-Leheudre, M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between protein intake and dynapenia. A cross-sectional/observational study. Department of Kinanthropology at the University of Quebec at Montreal. Seventy-two non-frail postmenopausal women aged between 50 to 75 years were recruited. Body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM; %) and skeletal muscle mass (bio-electrical impedancemetry analysis), maximum voluntary handgrip strength (using hand dynamometer), aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and dietary intake were measured. Women were divided according to dynapenia criteria. The strongest correlation between muscle strength and protein intake was observed when we express the amount of protein in g/d/BW. No differences for age, BMI, status of menopause, fat mass and VO2peak were observed between non-dynapenic, type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic women, independently of the criteria used. We observed significant differences in protein intake (g/d/BW) between non-dynapenic and type II dynapenic (p<0.01) as well as between type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic (p<0.01) when dynapenia was expressed in kg/BW and in kg/LBM, respectively. It should be noted that no differences in LBM between the three groups were observed when dynapenia was expressed in kg/BW and kg/LBM. Protein intake for all groups respected the RDA of 0.8 to 1.2 g/d/BW (non-dynapenic: 1.44/1.38; type I dynapenic: 1.30/1.33; type II dynapenic: 1.05/1.08 g/d/BW). Protein intake seems to play a role in the development of dynapenia particularly at the level of type II dynapenia. Therefore, an increase in the recommended daily allowance for protein intake may be warranted.

  3. Individual responses of growing pigs to threonine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Di Giovanni Isola

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A nitrogen balance test was performed to evaluate the individual responses of growing pigs to threonine intake. Eight commercial barrows were used (body weight ranging from 15 to 20 kg. A dose-response study was performed, in which the threonine supply increased in seven equidistant steps (the seven dietary threonine levels ranged from 50 to 120% of the requirements every three days for each pig. The levels of all other amino acids were 20% higher than the tested amino acid. Nitrogen retention as a function of threonine intake was calculated per individual and per group (NLIN and NLMixed, respectively using a linear plateau model. The highest break point value was 42.42 g of threonine intake (the most demanding individual, whereas the lowest value was 34.16 g (the least demanding individual, corresponding to a difference of 19%. In terms of N retention, the highest plateau value was 66.71 g and the lowest was 49.48 g, with a difference of 25%. There was no significant correlation between slope and plateau values or between slope and break point values. When using the model in which all parameters were random effects, the variations in threonine intake and nitrogen retention were 1.68±1.30 and 0.01±0.10 g, respectively, and no variance in the slope of the curve was detected. The average daily threonine intake values for the maximum response obtained in the group, as calculated by the NLIN and NLMixed procedures, were 13.96 and 14.02 g/day, respectively. The threonine intake for the maximum N retention between individuals ranged from 34.16 to 42.42 g, corresponding to a difference of 19%. The current recommended intake to optimize N retention is 14.02 g/day. The group responses obtained by the NLMixed procedures are very similar to those estimated by the NLIN procedure (all individuals.

  4. Total dietary intake of mercury in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Gutiérrez, A; Burgos, A; Hardisson, A

    2008-08-01

    Estimating the risk associated with dietary intake of heavy metals by consumers is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The assessment of exposure to mercury shown in this paper has been performed by means of a study on the whole diet. Total mercury (Hg) levels were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 420 samples of regularly consumed food and drink. The total Hg concentrations measured in the different groups of food ranged from non-detectable to 119 microg kg(-1) w/w. The fish group had the highest concentrations of total Hg. All groups of food with regulated Hg content showed levels that were lower than the legally set values. The food consumption data used in the analysis were taken from the latest nutritional survey made in the Canary Islands, Spain. The estimated total Hg intake of local population (5.7 microg/person day(-1)) did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) limit of 0.3 mg week(-1) of total mercury (43 microg/person day(-1)) fixed by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. Fishery products contributed 96% of the total Hg intake. The mean Hg intake for each island in this archipelago, formed by seven, has also been calculated. Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and El Hierro are the islands with the highest level of Hg intake (7.0, 7,0 and 6.1 microg/person day(-1), respectively). La Palma Island, due to its low fish consumption, had the lowest level of Hg intake (4.5 microg/person day(-1)), followed by La Gomera (5.4 microg/person day(-1)), Tenerife (5.5 microg/person day(-1)) and Gran Canaria (5.6 microg/person day(-1)). A comparison has been made of the results obtained in this study with those found for other national and international communities.

  5. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  6. Ozone exposure, vitamin C intake, and genetic susceptibility of asthmatic children in Mexico City: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Macías Hortensia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that asthmatic children with GSTM1 null genotype may be more susceptible to the acute effect of ozone on the small airways and might benefit from antioxidant supplementation. This study aims to assess the acute effect of ozone on lung function (FEF25-75 in asthmatic children according to dietary intake of vitamin C and the number of putative risk alleles in three antioxidant genes: GSTM1, GSTP1 (rs1695, and NQO1 (rs1800566. Methods 257 asthmatic children from two cohort studies conducted in Mexico City were included. Stratified linear mixed models with random intercepts and random slopes on ozone were used. Potential confounding by ethnicity was assessed. Analyses were conducted under single gene and genotype score approaches. Results The change in FEF25-75 per interquartile range (60 ppb of ozone in persistent asthmatic children with low vitamin C intake and GSTM1 null was −91.2 ml/s (p = 0.06. Persistent asthmatic children with 4 to 6 risk alleles and low vitamin C intake showed an average decrement in FEF25-75 of 97.2 ml/s per 60 ppb of ozone (p = 0.03. In contrast in children with 1 to 3 risk alleles, acute effects of ozone on FEF25-75 did not differ by vitamin C intake. Conclusions Our results provide further evidence that asthmatic children predicted to have compromised antioxidant defense by virtue of genetic susceptibility combined with deficient antioxidant intake may be at increased risk of adverse effects of ozone on pulmonary function.

  7. Consumption of dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake compared with milk and white chocolate in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Channa E; Green, Daniel J; Naylor, Louise H; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-09-01

    Chocolate has a reputation for contributing to weight gain due to its high fat, sugar and calorie content. However, the effect of varying concentrations of cocoa in chocolate on energy intake and appetite is not clear. To compare the acute effect of consuming an isocaloric dose of dark, milk and white chocolate on subsequent energy intake, appetite and mood in postmenopausal women. Fourteen healthy postmenopausal women (57.6 ± 4.8yr) attended an introductory session followed by three experimental trials performed in a counterbalanced order at a standardised time of day, each separated by one week. Ad libitum energy intake, perceived appetite, mood and appetite-related peptides were assessed in response to consumption of 80% cocoa [dark chocolate], 35% cocoa [milk chocolate] and cocoa butter [white chocolate] (2099 kJ), prepared from a single-origin cacao bean. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly lower following dark (1355 ± 750 kJ) compared with both milk (1693 ± 969 kJ; P = 0.008) and white (1842 ± 756 kJ; P = 0.001) chocolate consumption. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were transiently elevated in response to white and milk chocolate consumption compared with the dark chocolate (P cocoa content chocolate (dark and milk) compared with white chocolate (P  0.05). Dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake in postmenopausal women, compared to the impact of milk and white chocolate consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Sumio; Suzuki, Asahi; Kurokawa, Mihoko; Hasumi, Keiji

    2016-11-01

    Kale ( Brassica oleracea var. acephala ), a vegetable in the family Brassicaceae, has beneficial effects on health, including hypoglycemic effects. In our previous study with a limited number of subjects, intake of kale-containing food at a dose of 14 g decreased postprandial plasma glucose levels. In the present study, the effective dose of kale-containing food was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. The trial was conducted on 42 Japanese subjects aged 21-64 years with fasting plasma glucose levels of ≤125 mg/dl and 30-min postprandial plasma glucose levels of 140-187 mg/dl. The subjects consumed placebo or kale-containing food [7 or 14 g; low-dose (active-L) or high-dose (active-H) kale, respectively] together with a high-carbohydrate meal. At 30-120 min after the test meal intake, the plasma levels of glucose and insulin were determined. The postprandial plasma glucose levels in subjects with intake of active-L or active-H were significantly lower than those in subjects with intake of placebo, with the maximum plasma concentration (C max ; 163±24 mg/dl for active-L and 162±23 mg/dl for active-H compared with 176±26 mg/dl for placebo [values presented as means ± standard deviation (SD); Pkale were observed. Our findings suggest that intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose levels at a single dose of 7 g, and that a dose as high as 14 g is safe.

  9. Long-term antagonism of κ opioid receptors prevents escalation of and increased motivation for heroin intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosburg, Joel E; Whitfield, Timothy W; Park, Paula E; Crawford, Elena F; George, Olivier; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Koob, George F

    2013-12-04

    The abuse of opioid drugs, both illicit and prescription, is a persistent problem in the United States, accounting for >1.2 million users who require treatment each year. Current treatments rely on suppressing immediate withdrawal symptoms and replacing illicit drug use with long-acting opiate drugs. However, the mechanisms that lead to preventing opiate dependence are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that κ opioid receptor (KOR) activation during chronic opioid intake contributes to negative affective states associated with withdrawal and the motivation to take increasing amounts of heroin. Using a 12 h long-access model of heroin self-administration, rats showed escalation of heroin intake over several weeks. This was prevented by a single high dose (30 mg/kg) of the long-acting KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI), paralleled by reduced motivation to respond for heroin on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement, a measure of compulsive-like responding. Systemic nor-BNI also significantly decreased heroin withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior. Immunohistochemical analysis showed prodynorphin content increased in the nucleus accumbens core in all heroin-exposed rats, but selectively increased in the nucleus accumbens shell in long-access rats. Local infusion of nor-BNI (4 μg/side) into accumbens core altered the initial intake of heroin but not the rate of escalation, while local injection into accumbens shell selectively suppressed increases in heroin intake over time without altering initial intake. These data suggest that dynorphin activity in the nucleus accumbens mediates the increasing motivation for heroin taking and compulsive-like responding for heroin, suggesting that KOR antagonists may be promising targets for the treatment of opioid addiction.

  10. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M; Rosenbom, E; Rasmussen, H H; Nielsen, M A; Thomsen, T

    2014-04-01

    New evidence indicates that increased dietary protein ingestion promotes health and recovery from illness, and also maintains functionality in older adults. The present study aimed to investigate whether a novel food service concept with protein-supplementation would increase protein and energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted. Eighty-four participants at nutritional risk, recruited from the departments of Oncology, Orthopaedics and Urology, were included. The intervention group (IG) received the protein-supplemented food service concept. The control group (CG) received the standard hospital menu. Primary outcome comprised the number of patients achieving ≥75% of energy and protein requirements. Secondary outcomes comprised mean energy and protein intake, body weight, handgrip strength and length of hospital stay. In IG, 76% versus 70% CG patients reached ≥75% of their energy requirements (P = 0.57); 66% IG versus 30% CG patients reached ≥75% of their protein requirements (P = 0.001). The risk ratio for achieving ≥75% of protein requirements: 2.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.3-3.7); number needed to treat = 3 (95% confidence interval = 2-6). IG had a higher mean intake of energy and protein when adjusted for body weight (CG: 82 kJ kg(-1) versus IG: 103 kJ kg(-1) , P = 0.013; CG: 0.7 g protein kg(-1) versus 0.9 g protein kg(-1) , P = 0.003). Body weight, handgrip strength and length of hospital stay did not differ between groups. The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Validation of beverage intake methods vs. hydration biomarker: a short review

    OpenAIRE

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Ruano, Cristina; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fluid intake is difficult to monitor. Biomarkers of beverage intake are able to assess dietary intake / hydration status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also the intra-individual variability. Various markers have been proposed to assess hydration, however, to date; there is a lack of universally accepted biomarker that reflects changes of hydration status in response to changes in beverage intake. Aim: We conduct a review to find out the questionnaire...

  12. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M J Anacker

    Full Text Available Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP or by a single mother (SM. BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10% and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  13. Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Leung, William; Tai, Vicky; Bastin, Sonja; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2015-09-29

    To examine the evidence underpinning recommendations to increase calcium intake through dietary sources or calcium supplements to prevent fractures. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies of calcium intake with fracture as an endpoint. Results from trials were pooled with random effects meta-analyses. Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Randomised controlled trials or cohort studies of dietary calcium, milk or dairy intake, or calcium supplements (with or without vitamin D) with fracture as an outcome and participants aged >50. There were only two eligible randomised controlled trials of dietary sources of calcium (n=262), but 50 reports from 44 cohort studies of relations between dietary calcium (n=37), milk (n=14), or dairy intake (n=8) and fracture outcomes. For dietary calcium, most studies reported no association between calcium intake and fracture (14/22 for total, 17/21 for hip, 7/8 for vertebral, and 5/7 for forearm fracture). For milk (25/28) and dairy intake (11/13), most studies also reported no associations. In 26 randomised controlled trials, calcium supplements reduced the risk of total fracture (20 studies, n=58,573; relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96) and vertebral fracture (12 studies, n=48,967. 0.86, 0.74 to 1.00) but not hip (13 studies, n=56,648; 0.95, 0.76 to 1.18) or forearm fracture (eight studies, n=51,775; 0.96, 0.85 to 1.09). Funnel plot inspection and Egger's regression suggested bias toward calcium supplements in the published data. In randomised controlled trials at lowest risk of bias (four studies, n=44,505), there was no effect on risk of fracture at any site. Results were similar for trials of calcium monotherapy and co-administered calcium and vitamin D. Only one trial in frail elderly women in residential care with low dietary calcium intake and vitamin D

  14. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of skin photoaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Latreille

    Full Text Available Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids.A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat.These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging.

  15. Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retondario, Anabelle; Fernandes, Ricardo; Rockenbach, Gabriele; Alves, Mariane de Almeida; Bricarello, Liliana Paula; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2018-03-02

    Metabolic syndrome is a multi-causal disease. Its treatment includes lifestyle changes with a focus on weight loss. This systematic review assessed the association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected mainly from four databases: PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane), Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Keywords related to metabolic syndrome, selenium, as well as metabolic syndrome features were searched. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. A systematic review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (n. 42016046321). Two reviewers independently screened 2957 abstracts. Six studies were included to perform data extraction with standardized spreadsheets. The risk of bias was assessed by using specific tools according to the design of the relevant studies. An assessment was carried out based on the appropriateness of the study reports accordingly to STROBE and the CONSORT-based checklist for each study design. Three studies found no association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome; two of them found an inverse association; and one study found a direct association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. One study also showed an inverse association between Selenium intake and the prevalence of high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure, and hyperglycaemia in women. Overall, based on the argumentation and results of this study, it is possible to conclude that Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome are not clearly associated in adults and elderly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporal patterns of caffeine intake in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Richardson, Philip; Roberts, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether caffeine intake among adolescents and adults in the U.S. varies across the week or throughout the day, data from a 7-day online beverage consumption survey (2010-2011) were analyzed. Mean (206.8-213.0 mg/day) and 90th percentile (437.4-452.6 mg/day) daily caffeine intakes among consumers 13 years and older were relatively constant across the week with no marked difference among weekdays versus weekend days. Percent consumers of caffeinated beverages likewise remained stable across the week. Mean daily caffeine intake for coffee and energy drink consumers 13 years and older was higher than contributions for tea and carbonated soft drink consumers. Caffeinated beverage consumers (13 + yrs) consumed most of their caffeine in the morning (61% versus 21% and 18% in the afternoon and evening) which was driven by coffee. Caffeinated beverage consumption patterns among adolescents (13-17 yrs) - who typically consume less daily caffeine - were more evenly distributed throughout the day. These findings provide insight into U.S. temporal caffeine consumption patterns among specific caffeinated beverage consumers and different age brackets. These data suggest that while caffeine intakes do not vary from day-to-day, mornings generally drive the daily caffeine intake of adults and is predominantly attributed to coffee. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal dietary fat intake in association with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Munger, Kassandra L; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Santangelo, Susan L; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-07-15

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether maternal fat intake before or during pregnancy was associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. Our primary analysis included 317 mothers who reported a child with ASD and 17,728 comparison mothers from the Nurses' Health Study II (index births in 1991-2007). Dietary information was collected prospectively through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Binomial regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted risk ratios. Maternal intake of linoleic acid was significantly inversely associated with ASD risk in offspring, corresponding to a 34% reduction in risk in the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake. Mothers in the lowest 5% of ω-3 fatty acid intake had a significant increase in offspring ASD risk as compared with the remaining distribution (risk ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.32); this association was also seen in the subgroup of women (86 cases and 5,798 noncases) for whom dietary information during pregnancy was available (risk ratio = 2.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 4.91). Thus, variations in intake of polyunsaturated fats within the range commonly observed among US women could affect fetal brain development and ASD risk. Because the number of women with diet assessed during pregnancy was small, however, these results should be interpreted cautiously.

  18. Computational studies of an intake manifold for restricted engine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Bagus Dwi; Ubaidillah, Maharani, Elliza Tri; Setyohandoko, Gabriel; Idris, Muhammad Idzdihar

    2018-02-01

    The Formula Society of Automotive Engineer (FSAE) student competition is an international contest for a vehicle that entirely designed and built by students from various universities. The engine design in the Formula SAE competition has to comply a tight regulation. Concerning the engine intake line, an air restrictor of circular cross-section less than 20 mm must be fitted between the throttle valve and the engine inlet. The throat is aimed to limit the engine air flow rate as it strongly influences the volumetric efficiency and then the maximum power. This article focuses on the design of the engine intake system of the Bengawan FSAE team vehicle to optimize the engine power output and its stability. The performance of engine intake system is studied through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The objective of CFD is to know the pressure, velocity, and airflow of the air intake manifold for the best performance of the engine. The three-dimensional drawing of the intake manifold was made, and CFD simulation was conducted using ANSYS FLUENT. Two models were studied. The result shows that the different design produces a different value of the velocity of airflow and the kind of flow type.

  19. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2009-04-16

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  20. Meat, fish and egg intake and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michelle D; Colditz, Graham A; Hunter, David J; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard; Speizer, Frank E; Willett, Walter C

    2003-03-20

    Intakes of animal protein, meat, and eggs have been associated with breast cancer incidence and mortality in ecological studies, but data from long-term prospective studies are limited. We therefore examined these relationships in the Nurses' Health Study. We followed 88,647 women for 18 years, with 5 assessments of diet by food frequency questionnaire, cumulatively averaged and updated over time. We calculated the relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for risk of developing invasive breast cancer, over categories of nutrient and food intake. During follow-up, 4,107 women developed invasive breast cancer. Compared to the lowest quintile of intake, the RR and 95% CI for the highest quintile of intake were 1.02 (0.92-1.14) for animal protein, 0.93 (0.83-1.05) for red meat and 0.89 (0.79-1.00) for all meat. Results did not differ by menopausal status or family history of breast cancer. We found no evidence that intake of meat or fish during mid-life and later was associated with risk of breast cancer. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.